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Sample records for hybrid spleen cells

  1. Hybridization change of DNA and nuclear RNA synthesized immediately after ionizing irradiation in spleen cells isolated from 615 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Ziqiang

    1986-01-01

    DNA hybridization with nuclear RNA(nRNA) synthesized immediately after 60 Co Gamma-irradiation in the spleen cells freshly isolated from inbred line 615 mice was investigated, using the technique of Gillespie and Spiegelman. In RNA/DNA hybridization percentage experiment, it was showed that the hybridization of normal DNA with labelled nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells reached the saturation point at a much faster rate than with labelled normal nRNA. The hybridization percentage of nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells was higher than that of normal nRNA during the different reaction time before the saturation point of DNA with nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells, but it was lower than that of normal nRNA after the zone of high repetitive DNA sequences was stimulated, however, the transcription of some base sequences in the zone of low repetitive DNA sequences was seriously inhibited. Measurements of the exhaustion rates of pulse-labelled nRNA were carried out as described by Greene and Flickinger Biochim. In these studies, pulse-labelled nRNA synthesized in unirradiated and irradiated cells were compared by exhausion with DNA at hybridization time of 4 or 24 hours, When the hybridization time was 4 hours, the nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells displayed a faster exhaustion rate than the control nRNA. But if the hybridization time was 24 hours, the exhaustion rate of nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells reduced. These results demostrated that Gamma-irradiation changed the proportion of transcription of some nRNA species and implayed that the sensitivities of the transcription activeties of the different repetitive DNA sequences to Gamma-irradiation were different, and so were the transcription activeties of the different base sequences in the same repetitive DNA sequences

  2. Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, C.A.; McCartney, W.H.; Mauro, M.A.; Vincent, L.M.; Peterson, N.P.; Staab, E.V.

    1984-01-01

    Imaging modalities currently available for the evaluation of splenic disorders include /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (TcSC) radionuclide splenic scintigraphy, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT). These techniques produce images of the spleen on the basis of reticuloendothelial function, echogenic properties, and x-ray attenuation, respectively. No one technique is clearly superior to another for all clinical situations or disease processes. Each modality has its strengths and limitations that relate to the properties being measured (function, echogenicity, attenuation) and the disease processes involving the spleen. This chapter offers a combined approach to splenic imaging in the evaluation of focal disease, diffuse disease, traumatic disorders, normal variations, congenital anomalies, and perisplenic disorders

  3. Competitive proliferation in the hematopoietic tissues of irradiated hybrid mice engrafted with parental bone marrow and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, S.; Monnot, P.; Duplan, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    e kinetics of growth and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells differ markedly according to their origin. A study of the ability of CFU from bone marrow (BM) or spleen to repopulate hemopoietic organs has been carried out in lethally irradiated mice restored with BM cells admixed with spleen cells bearing different chromosomal markers. Hemopoietic cells originating from AKR (40 acbrocentrics) and AKR/T1ALD (36 acrocentrics + 2 metacentrics) mice were engrafted into lethally irradiated (AKR x AKR/T1ALD)F1 or (C3H x AKR/T1ALD)F1 hybrid recipients. Within 10 days, the BM-derived elements outnumbered the spleen-derived population in BM and spleen. This held even when the number of injected spleen-CFU was twice that of BM-CFU. This difference of growth rate subsided within 20 days. The first cells to reappear in the thymus bore the recipient karyotype (endoregeneration); they were later replaced by BM-derived elements but spleen-derived cecells were never present in thymus in the case of competitive engraftment. In contrast, the lymph node cells bore the BM karyotype as well as the spleen karyotype. Injecting the spleen cells 3 days prior to the BM cells partially counterbalanced the overgrowth of the BM-derived elements in the BM and spleen but did not affect the thymic repopulation which remained strictly derived from BM-CFU. When mice were injected only with BM-CFU, or only with spleen-CFU, BM-derived cells were found in the thymus as early as 10-12 days after engraftment, whereas the spleen-derived cells did not appear in the thymus until days 18-20. (author)

  4. Increased DNA-repair in spleen cells of M. Hodgkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, H.; Neumann, E.; Howanietz, L.; Dolejs, I.; Tuschl, H.; Altmann, H.

    1974-11-01

    In spleen cells of control patients and cells of Morbus Hodgkin, DNA-repair after gamma- and UV-irradiation was determined measuring the incorporated 3H-thymidine activity in the DNA. Additionally, the ratio of labeled cells compared to non-labeled cells and the grains per cell were evaluated by autoradiographic investigations. DNA-content per cell was measured using pulsecytophotometry. A significant increase of DNA-repair capacity after gamma-irradiation was found by density gradient centrifugation in alkaline sucrose. The same trend could be shown by investigations of unscheduled DNA-synthesis using autoradiographic method. (author)

  5. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spleen. Sickle cell anemia . Splenic artery aneurysm (rare). Trauma to the spleen. Risks Risks for anesthesia and surgery in general ... removal - series References Brandow AM, Camitta BM. Hyposplenism, splenic trauma, and splenectomy. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  6. GM-CSF augments the immunosuppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, P.J.; Ireland, R.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to cultures of adult murine spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) results in an augmented plaque forming cell (PFC) response. The influence of GM-CSF on the ability of neonatal spleen cells to suppress the anti-SRBC plaque forming response of adult spleen cells was tested by adding GM-CSF to cultures of neonatal and adult spleen cells. The suppressive capacity of the neonatal spleen cells was augmented by exogenous GM-CSF. The augmented suppression of the neonatal spleen cells was dependent on a G-10 adherent population since the addition of GM-CSF to cultures containing G-10 passed neonatal spleen cells resulted in an augmented PFC response and not suppression. Neonatal splenic glass adherent cells were also capable of suppressing the response. Neonatal spleen cells or purified neonatal glass adherent spleen cells cultured in the presence of GM-CSF had markedly increased levels of PGE2 in the culture supernatant. Neonatal spleen cells cultured with GM-CSF had increased numbers of morphologically identifiable macrophages after 48 hr of culture. Both irradiation and G-10 passage of the neonatal spleen diminished the numbers of macrophages formed in response to GM-CSF, and both of these manipulations resulted in reversal of suppression in response to GM-CSF. Thus, the augmented suppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in response to GM-CSF is probably mediated by its ability to drive monocyte to macrophage differentiation as well as increase the suppressive capacity of the existing neonatal splenic macrophages by increasing their production of PGE2

  7. Transplantation of homologous bone marrow cells to lethally irradiated mice: changes in the spleen

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    Viktora, L; Hach, P; Zoubkova, M

    1975-01-01

    Bone marrow cell suspensions were administered intravenously to lethally irradiated mice. The number of colonies in the spleen and the regeneration of hematopoietic tissue in the spleen were studied on the 9th day after irradiation and transplantation. From a comparison of the histological picture and weight of the spleens, the authors conclude that the degree of regeneration of hematopoiesis in the spleen after irradiation and transplantation is reflected in the weight of the spleen as well as in the number of hematopoietic colonies.

  8. Active suppression of in vitro reactivity of spleen cells after BCG treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach-Arbouys, S.; Poupon, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    It was found that spleen cells from mice injected i.v. with large doses of BCG responded to PHA stimulation less intensely than did normal spleen cells. It was shown that nylon wool column purified BCG treated T cells also had a low PHA reactivity. Unfractionated spleen cells, adherent cells or T-enriched populations from BCG treated mice, when added to normal T cells lowered their PHA reactivity. When the same BCG treated cell populations were added to tumor cells in vitro, they inhibited their growth. (author)

  9. The effect of lysate of spleen cells after low dose radiation (LDR) on NK activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Duicai; Su Liaoyuan

    2003-01-01

    To find effect of lysate of spleen cells after LDR on NK activity of CD 57 cells or non-CD 57 cells, lysate of spleen cells after LDR were extracted. McAb (anti CD 57 cells) was used to separate CD 57 cells from human peripheral blood by Panning direct method. The CD 57 cells and non-CD 57 cells were used as effective cells. K 562 cells labelled by 3 H-TdR were used as target cells. The ratio of effect cells to target cells was 10:1. NK activity of CD 57 cells or non-CD 5 -7 cells with the lysate of spleen cells after LDR was reflected by the efficiency of anti tumor cells. The 3 H-TdR incorporation in K 562 cells cultured with non-CD 57 cells was significantly lower than that with CD 57 cells. After use of the lysate of spleen cells after LDR, NK activities of CD 57 cells and non-CD 57 cells were 1.24 and 1.58 respectively. They were both increased obviously compared with control groups. The effect of anti K 562 cells of non-CD 57 cells is even greater than that of CD 57 cells. The lysate of spleen cells after LDR can enhance the effect of both non-CD 57 cells and CD 57 cells

  10. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  11. Computed tomography of the spleen and liver in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The spleen was assessed in 10 patients with sickle cell disease studied with computed tomography (CT) for abdominal pain and/or unexplained fever. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were found to have small, densely calcified spleens with occasional low-density infarcts. Five of six had hepatomegaly, and there was one case each of hepatic abscess, infarcts, and hemochromatosis. All patients with heterozygous sickle cell disease were found to have splenomegaly, with a variety of findings including acute hemorrhage, acute and chronic infarcts, rupture, and possible sequestration. It was concluded that CT is useful for evaluating the status of the spleen and liver in symptomatic patients with sickle cell disease

  12. Regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells in spleen organ cultures from irradiated mice: influence of genotype of cells injected and of the spleen microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Melchner, H.; Lieschke, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells (colony-forming cells, CFC) was monitored in spleen organ cultures from lethally irradiated mice injected with 10(7) normal syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow cells. The important role of the microenvironment in supporting hemopoiesis was confirmed by the failure of mutant S1/S1d spleens to support CFC regeneration in organ cultures. However, the extent and quality of the CFC regeneration was clearly dependent on the genetic properties of the injected cells. Evidence for this was obtained from the regeneration patterns of various CFC types in organ cultured spleens derived from different mouse donor-recipient strain combinations (CBA/CBA, CBA/C57BL, CBA/BALB/c, C57BL/C57BL, C57BL/CBA, C57BL/BALB/c) that maintained the differences in the bone marrow frequency of various CFC types characteristic of the donor strain

  13. Phosphoprotein phosphatase of bovine spleen cell nuclei: physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezyapkin, V.I.; Leonova, L.E.; Komkova, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of phosphoprotein phosphatase (EC 1.3.1.16) from bovine spleen cell nuclei were studied. The enzyme possesses broad substrate specificity and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphocasein, ATP, ADP, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). K/sub m/ for ATP, ADP, and pNPP are equal to 0.44, 0.43, and 1.25 mM, respectively. M/sub r/ of the enzyme, according to the data of gel filtraction of Sephadex G-75 and electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel of various concentrations is ∼ 33,000. In electrophoresis in the presence of SDS, two protein bands with M/sub r/ 12,000 and 18,000 are detected. In the enzyme molecule, acid amino acid residues predominate; two free SH groups and two disulfide bridges are detected. Phosphoprotein phosphatase is a glycoprotein, containing ∼ 22% carbonhydrates. The protein possesses a supplementary absorption maximum at 560 nm. Ammonium molybdate is a competitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 0.37 μM, while sodium fluoride is a noncompetitive inhibitor with K/sub i/ 1.3 mM. Incubation in the presence of 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride for 25 h leads to a loss of ∼ 46% of the enzymatic activity. Ammonium molybdate, sodium fluoride, and PMSF are reversible inhibitors. Modifications of the SH groups, NH 2 groups, and histidine leads to a decrease in the enzymatic activity. Incubation of phosphoprotein phosphatase with [γ- 32 P]ATP leads to the incorporation of 0.33 mole 33 P per mole of the enzyme. The mechanism of hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond, catalyzed by the enzyme, is discussed

  14. Regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells in spleen organ cultures from irradiated mice: influence of genotype of cells injected and of the spleen microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Melchner, H.; Lieschke, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells was monitored in spleen organ cultures from lethally irradiated mice injected with 10(7) normal syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow cells. The important role of the microenvironment in supporting hemopoiesis was confirmed by the failure of mutant Sl/Sld spleens to support CFC regeneration in organ cultures. However, the extent and quality of the CFC regeneration was clearly dependent on the genetic properties of the injected cells. Evidence for this was obtained from the regeneration patterns of various CFC types in organ cultured spleens derived from different mouse donor-recipient strain combinations that maintained the differences in the bone marrow frequency of various CFC types characteristic of the donor strain

  15. Effects of cortisol on the primary response of mouse spleen cell cultures to heterologous erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracott, B.N.

    1974-01-01

    Cell viability and the production of direct PFC were studied in mouse spleen cell cultures after cortisol treatment in vivo or in vitro at various times relative to primary stimulation with SRBC in vitro. Cortisol treatment in vivo reduced spleen cell numbers by 88 percent after 48 hr, but cultures of the remaining cells produced as many PFC in vitro as did cultures of equal numbers of normal spleen cells. In normal spleen cell cultures incubated with cortisol for 4 hr prior to the addition of antigen, peak responses of PFC/culture and PFC/10 6 cells occurred 24 hr later than in controls and averaged, respectively, 27 and 141 percent of control values. Minimum viable cell numbers were observed in cortisol-treated cultures after 3 days; thereafter cell numbers gradually increased. These results were not significantly altered when cultures were treated simultaneously with cortisol and antigen. The response was not suppressed if the addition of antigen preceded that of cortisol by more than 4 hr. Suppression was also considerably reduced if fetal calf serum was used when preparing cells for culture

  16. Bulk enrichment of transplantable hemopoietic stem cell subsets from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploemacher, R.E.; Brons, R.H.; Leenen, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) in combination with density flotation centrifugation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting on wheat-germ agglutinin-FITC(WGA)-binding cells within the light-scatter ''blast window'' were used consecutively to enrich pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) in bulk from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse spleen. The medium-to-strong WGA + ve fraction contained 3.10(6) cells isolated from 3-4 X 10(9) spleen cells, with an average of 126% day-12 CFU-S and 65% day-8 CFU-S as calculated on the basis of their seeding fraction, suggesting that virtually all cells represented in vivo macroscopic colony formers. In view of the large differences reported elsewhere between stem cell subsets differing in reconstitutive capacity and secondary stem cell generation ability, we also studied various isolated cell fractions with respect to spleen colony formation, radioprotective ability, and spleen- and marrow- repopulating ability. Day-8 and day-12 CFU-S copurified when isolated by CCE. Cells from a fraction with high affinity for WGA were most highly enriched for their radioprotective ability (RPA) and their ability to repopulate the cellularity of the spleen and femur of irradiated recipients. This fraction contained virtually pure day-12 CFU-S. However, the ability to generate secondary day-12 CFU-S and CFU-GM in irradiated organs was enriched most in the medium WGA + ve cell fraction. MRA and SRA, according to the latter criteria, could therefore be partly separated from day-12 CFU-S and RPA on the basis of affinity for WGA. The data strongly suggest that at least part of all day-12 CFU-S have a high potential to proliferate and differentiate into mature progeny, but a relatively low self-renewal ability, and may therefore not be representative of the genuine stem cell

  17. Enhanced gamma interferon responses of mouse spleen cells following immunotherapy for tuberculosis relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Olga; Vilaplana, Cristina; Guirado, Evelyn; Díaz, Jorge; Cáceres, Neus; Singh, Mahavir; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2008-11-01

    Gamma interferon responses of spleen cells in mice were examined during postchemotherapy relapse of intraperitoneally induced latent tuberculous infection. The mycobacterial extract RUTI, which prevented the relapse, significantly enhanced the immune responses to secreted and structural recombinant mycobacterial antigens, suggesting that RUTI-mediated protection was mediated by activated T cells.

  18. The Spleen as an Optimal Site for Islet Transplantation and a Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoaki Sakata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review demonstrates the unique potential of the spleen as an optimal site for islet transplantation and as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy used to treat severe diabetes mellitus; however, its clinical outcome is currently unsatisfactory. Selection of the most appropriate transplantation site is a major factor affecting the clinical success of this therapy. The spleen has long been studied as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity, and it has recently also been shown to contribute to the regeneration of transplanted islets. However, the efficacy of transplantation in the spleen is lower than that of intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established to allow the spleen to be used for clinical transplantation. The spleen is also of interest as a mesenchymal stem cell reservoir. Splenic mesenchymal stem cells contribute to the repair of damaged tissue, and their infusion may thus be a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and Sjogren’s syndrome.

  19. The Spleen as an Optimal Site for Islet Transplantation and a Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Naoaki; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Kodama, Shohta

    2018-05-07

    This review demonstrates the unique potential of the spleen as an optimal site for islet transplantation and as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy used to treat severe diabetes mellitus; however, its clinical outcome is currently unsatisfactory. Selection of the most appropriate transplantation site is a major factor affecting the clinical success of this therapy. The spleen has long been studied as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity, and it has recently also been shown to contribute to the regeneration of transplanted islets. However, the efficacy of transplantation in the spleen is lower than that of intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established to allow the spleen to be used for clinical transplantation. The spleen is also of interest as a mesenchymal stem cell reservoir. Splenic mesenchymal stem cells contribute to the repair of damaged tissue, and their infusion may thus be a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and Sjogren’s syndrome.

  20. Reactive Hypertrophy of an Accessory Spleen Mimicking Tumour Recurrence of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Tjaden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available De novo occurrence of an accessory spleen after splenectomy is worth noting for two reasons. First, it is known that splenectomy can cause reactive hypertrophy of initially inactive and macroscopically invisible splenic tissue. Second, it can mimic tumour recurrence in situations in which splenectomy has been performed for oncological reasons. This might cause difficulties in differential diagnosis and the clinical decision for reoperation. We report the case of a patient with suspected recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after total pancreatectomy and splenectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which finally revealed an accessory spleen as the morphological correlate of the newly diagnosed mass in the left retroperitoneum.

  1. Premalignant lesions skew spleen cell responses to immune modulation by adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Silvana A; Klein, Richard L; Levingston, Corinne A; Young, M Rita I

    2013-05-01

    Obesity can promote a chronic inflammatory state and is associated with an increased risk for cancer. Since adipocytes can produce mediators that can regulate conventional immune cells, this study sought to determine if the presence of premalignant oral lesions would skew how immune cells respond to adipocyte-derived mediators to create an environment that may be more favorable for their progression toward cancer. While media conditioned by adipocytes stimulated normal spleen cell production of the T helper (Th) type-1 cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-12 and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM CSF), media from premalignant lesion cells either blocked or had no added affect on the adipocyte-stimulated Th1 cytokine production. In contrast, media conditioned by premalignant lesion cells exacerbated adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of the Th2 cytokines IL-10 and IL-13, although it did not further enhance the adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of IL-4 and TGF-β. The premalignant lesion environment also heightened the adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of the inflammatory mediators IL 1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-9, although it did not further increase the adipocyte-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). IL 17 production was unaffected by the adipocyte-derived mediators, but was synergistically triggered by adding media from premalignant lesion cells. These stimulatory effects on spleen cell production of Th2 and inflammatory mediators were not induced in the absence of media conditioned by adipocytes. In contrast, media conditioned by adipocytes did not stimulate production of predominantly monocyte-derived chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL)9, chemokine C-C motif ligand (CCL)3 or CCL4, although it stimulated production of CCL2 and the predominantly T cell-derived chemokine CCL5, which was the only chemokine whose production was further increased by media from premalignant lesions

  2. Activation of spleen cells by ArtinM may account for its immunomodulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thiago Aparecido da; Souza, Maria Aparecida de; Cecílio, Nerry Tatiana; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2014-09-01

    ArtinM is a D-mannose-binding lectin extracted from Artocarpus heterophyllus that promotes interleukin-12 production by macrophages and dendritic cells. This property is considered responsible for T helper 1 immunity induced in vivo after ArtinM administration. In this study, we investigated the effect of native (jArtinM) and recombinant (rArtinM) forms of lectin on murine spleen cells and isolated T lymphocytes. We found that ArtinM binds to the surface of spleen cells. This interaction, which was blocked by D-mannose, induced cell activation, as manifested by increased mitochondrial activity, interleukin-2 production, and cell proliferation. We verified that a 30-times higher concentration of rArtinM was required to trigger optimal activation of spleen cells compared with that needed with jArtinM, although these proteins have identical sugar recognition properties and use the same signaling molecules to trigger cell activation. Because the distinction between native and recombinant is restricted to their tertiary structure (tetrameric and monomeric, respectively), we postulated that the multi-valence of jArtinM accounts for its superiority in promoting clustering of cell surface glycoreceptors and activation. The jArtinM and rArtinM activation effect exerted on spleen cells was reproduced on purified CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that ArtinM interaction with T cells leads to responses that may act in concert with the interleukin-12 produced by antigen-presenting cells to modulate immunity toward the T helper 1 axis. Further studies are necessary to dissect ArtinM/T-cell interactions to more fully understand the immunomodulation induced by carbohydrate recognition.

  3. Amplification of the spleen macrophage population in malaria: possible role of a factor chemotactic for blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyler, D.J.; Gallin, J.I.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism of amplification of the splenic macrophages' population was investigated using mice infected with malaria as a model of an obligate intravascular infection. It was observed that these macrophages derived from blood monocytes rather than by local proliferation in the spleen. A factor, chemotactic for blood mononuclear cells, was present in spleen cells shortly after infection and preceded detectable increases in spleen macrophage number by 48 hours. This factor, in concert with spleen derived macrophage migration inhibition factor, may be important in the amplification of splenic macrophage population in intravascular infections

  4. Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in vitro by thymus and spleen cells of the rat after hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Spath, A.

    1988-03-01

    The inhibition of the semiconservative and restorative DNA synthesis caused by hyperthermia (30 to 60 min, 43/sup 0/C) was significantly higher in spleen cells than in thymus cells. The DNA repair synthesis of thymus cells measured at 37/sup 0/C was increased by about two times the initial value after a pre-incubation of 30 to 90 min and 30 to 60 min, respectively, with 37 and 43/sup 0/C, respectively. Under the same conditions, the /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of spleen cells diminished proportionally to the pre-incubation time after a pre-incubation of 30 and 45 min, respectively, with 43 and 37/sup 0/C, respectively. When hyperthermia and inhibitors of DNA synthesis or DNA repair (hydroxyurea, 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, 3', 5'-didesoxythymidine, and 3-aminobenzamide) were combined, overadditive effects - without cellspecific particularities - were seen only in the case of 3-aminobenzamide. Only in thymus cells, the inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II novobiocin caused an overadditive reinforcement of the inhibition induced by hyperthermia of the semiconservative DNA synthesis. The stimulation of DNA repair synthesis in thymus cells caused by novobiocin with the aid of DNA polymerase ..beta.. could be compensated by hyperthermia. The sedimentation of thymus and spleen cell nucleoids was increased after hyperthermia. The results suggest a special importance of DNA topology and of the DNA polymerase ..beta.. activity for the cellular effect of hyperthermia.

  5. Heterogeneity within the spleen colony-forming cell population in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.C.; van Bekkum, D.W.; Hagenbeek, A.

    1986-01-01

    The pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) of the rat can be enumerated in a spleen colony assay (SCA) in rats as well as mice. After injection of rat bone marrow into lethally irradiated mice, macroscopically visible spleen colonies (CFU-S) are found from day 6 through 14, but the number varies on consecutive days. In normal bone marrow a constant ratio of day-8 to day-12 colony numbers is observed. However, this ratio is changed after in vivo treatment of rats with cyclophosphamide, as well as after in vitro treatment of rat bone marrow with cyclophosphamide derivatives. This indicates that the CFU-S that form colonies on day 8 react differently to this treatment than the CFU-S that form colonies on day 12, and suggests heterogeneity among the CFU-S population. Posttreatment regrowth of day-8 and day-12 CFU-S is characterized by differences in population-doubling times (Td = 0.85 days vs 1.65 days). Another argument in support of the postulate of heterogeneity within the rat CFU-S population is derived from the fact that (in contrast to normal rat spleen) the spleen of leukemic rats contains high numbers of CFU-S that show a ratio of day-8 to day-12 CFU-S of 4.5, which is different than that observed for a CFU-S population in normal bone marrow (a ratio of 2.4). It is concluded that, in rat hemopoiesis, two populations of spleen colony-forming cells can be distinguished using the rat-to-mouse SCA. This indicates that mouse and rat hemopoiesis are comparable in this respect and that heterogeneity in the stem cell compartment is a general phenomenon

  6. CD4+FOXP3+ cells produce IL-10 in the spleens of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira; de Andrade, Mariana M C; Melo, Larissa M; Perosso, Juliana; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri O; Munari, Danisio P; Lima, Valéria M F

    2014-05-28

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by intracellular parasites of the genus Leishmania that affect humans and several animal species. Dogs are one of the main urban reservoirs of the parasite and play a central role in the transmission cycle to humans via sandflies. Studies concerning the immune response in dogs with VL have demonstrated that protective immunity is associated with cellular immune response, while disease progression is associated with humoral response and IL-10 and TGF-β production. The study aimed to evaluate IL-10 and TGF-β production by regulatory T (Treg) cells in the blood and spleen of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. and correlate this with parasite load. Five healthy dogs and 29 dogs with proven infection were selected for the study group. Real-time PCR was used to quantify parasite load and confirm infection by Leishmania spp. Treg cells producing IL-10 and TGF-β were quantified using flow cytometry. An increase in IL-10 production by Treg cells was verified in the spleen of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. Concurrently, a decrease in the total number of T cells in these dogs was verified compared with healthy dogs. No association was determined between parasite load and the percentage of spleen Treg cells producing IL-10 and TGF-β. These findings suggest that Treg cells are an important source of IL-10 in the spleen, participating in immune response modulation, while the reduced percentage of these cells in infected dogs could be attributed to persistent immune activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CT and MR findings of langerhans cell histiocytois involving the spleen: a case report

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    Pyun, Hae Wook; Kim, Mee Eun; Kim, Jang Ho [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is systemic disease resulting from the proliferation and dissemination of abnormal histiocytic cells of the Langerhans cell system. Common sites of involvement include the skin, bone, bone marrow, lung, lymph nodes and central nervous system, and the condition manifests in variety of ways. We present the CT and MR findings of a case of LCH involving the spleen, an organ invloved relatively rarely. Post-contrast CT revealed multiple hypodense nodules. T1-weighted MR images of the spleen depicted no definitive lesion, but T2-weighted images showed abnormal low signals scattered throughout this organ. In addition, post-contrast, fat-saturated T1-weighted MR images lesions showed multiple, low-signal-intensity lesions.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus-associated peripheral T-Cell lymphoma involving spleen in a renal transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Kyung; Kim, Hee Jung; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Suk Young; Park, Tae In; Kang, Chang Suk; Yang, Woo Ick

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) has increased in recent years. Although rare, various types of T-cell lymphoma have been reported and their association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been compared with B-cell PTLDs. We report a case of splenic peripheral T-cell lymphoma occurring in a 47-yr-old male patient 7 yr after renal allograft transplantation. The spleen showed sinusoidal proliferation of focal CD30 positive, large, atypical lymphoid cells. Positivity for CD3 and cytolytic granule-associated proteins was also demonstrated in the tumor cells, while anaplastic large cell lymphoma kinase (ALK) and CD8 were not expressed. Strong nuclear signals for EBV mRNA were noted by EBER1 in situ hybridization. A molecular genetic study demonstrated a rearrangement of the gamma T-cell receptor gene. To our knowledge, this case is unique in terms of a posttransplant T-cell lymphoma that shows focal CD30, cytolytic granule-associated proteins, and EBV positivity. PMID:12692428

  9. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in spleen cells of mice exposed to low doses of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Hruby, E.

    1983-07-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced by UV irradiation of spleen cells obtained from C 57 Bl mice after repeated total body irradiation of 0.05 Gy 60 Co (0.00125 Gy/mice) and determined autoradiographically. An enhancement in the ability for repair of UV induced DNA lesions was observed in cells of gamma irradiated animals. While the amount of 3 H-thymidine incorporated per cell was increased, the percentage of labeled cells remained unchanged. The present results are compared with previous data on low dose radiation exposure in men. (Author) [de

  10. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: CT and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G.; Uder, M.; Altmeyer, K.; Gruber, M.; Kramann, B. [Univ. Hospital Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Bonkhoff, H. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Saarland University, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    We report a case of littoral cell angioma (LCA) of the spleen, a recently described splenic pathology, which imaging characteristics and pathologic morphology have been discussed only by a few authors. The imaging findings in unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI and CT as well as histologic specimen are presented. Diagnosis was made after elective splenectomy. Differential diagnosis of splenic tumors as well as the imaging findings in this particular case are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Copper-induced immunotoxicity involves cell cycle arrest and cell death in the spleen and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Soham; Keswani, Tarun; Dey, Manali; Bhattacharya, Shaswati; Sarkar, Samrat; Goswami, Suranjana; Ghosh, Nabanita; Dutta, Anuradha; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2012-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for human physiological processes. To evaluate the potential adverse health impact/immunotoxicological effects of this metal in situ due to over exposure, Swiss albino mice were treated (via intraperitoneal injections) with copper (II) chloride (copper chloride) at doses of 0, 5, or 7.5 mg copper chloride/kg body weight (b.w.) twice a week for 4 wk; these values were derived from LD 50 studies using copper chloride doses that ranged from 0 to 40 mg/kg BW (2×/wk, for 4 wk). Copper treated mice evidenced immunotoxicity as indicated by dose-related decreases and increases, respectively, in thymic and splenic weights. Histomorphological changes evidenced in these organs were thymic atrophy, white pulp shrinkage in the spleen, and apoptosis of splenocytes and thymocytes; these observations were confirmed by microscopic analyses. Cell count analyses indicated that the proliferative functions of the splenocytes and thymocytes were also altered because of the copper exposures. Among both cell types from the copper treated hosts, flow cytometric analyses revealed a dose related increase in the percentages of cells in the Sub-G 0 /G 1 state, indicative of apoptosis which was further confirmed by Annexin V binding assay. In addition, the copper treatments altered the expression of selected cell death related genes such as EndoG and Bax in a dose related manner. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that there was also increased ubiquitin expression in both the cell types. In conclusion, these studies show that sublethal exposure to copper (as copper chloride) induces toxicity in the thymus and spleen, and increased Sub G 0 /G 1 population among splenocytes and thymocytes that is mediated, in part, by the EndoG–Bax–ubiquitin pathway. This latter damage to these cells that reside in critical immune system organs are likely to be important contributing factors underlying the immunosuppression that has been documented by other

  12. The effect of iron-deficiency anemia on cytolytic activity of mice spleen and peritoneal cells against allogenic tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvibidila, S.R.; Baliga, B.S.; Suskind, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The capacity of spleen and peritoneal cells from iron deficient mice, ad libitum fed control mice, and pair-fed mice to kill allogenic tumor cells (mastocytoma tumor P815) has been investigated. In the first study, mice were sensitized in vivo with 10(7) viable tumor cells 51 and 56 days after weaning. The capacity of splenic cells and peritoneal cells from sensitized and nonsensitized mice to kill tumor cells was evaluated 5 days after the second dose of tumor cells. At ratios of 2.5:1 to 100:1 of attacker to target cells, the percentage 51 Cr release after 4 h of incubation was significantly less in iron-deficient mice than control and/or pair-fed mice (p less than 0.05). Protein-energy undernutrition in pair-fed mice had no significant effect. In the second study, spleen cells and enriched T cell fractions were incubated in vitro for 5 days with uv irradiated Balb/C spleen cells in a 2:1 ratio. The cytotoxic capacity against the same allogenic tumor cells was again evaluated. The percentage chromium release at different attacker to target cells was less than 30% in the iron-deficient group compared to either control or pair-fed supporting the results of in vivo sensitized cells. The possible mode of impairment of the cytotoxic capacity is discussed

  13. Spleen scanning with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.R.; Bird, C.; Prothero, D.L.; Brown, T.R.; Mackenzie, F.A.F.; Phillips, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to correlate the haematological changes which occur after splenectomy, with the presence or absence of residual splenic tissue, spleen scans using 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells were performed in 36 patients who had had a splenectomy. Positive spleen scans were found in 44 per cent (8 out of 18) of patients who had undergone splenectomy for trauma and in 17 per cent (3 out of 18) of patients who had undergone elective splenectomy. No relationship was found between the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies, platelet counts, the levels of IgG, IgM and IgA and the scan result. It is concluded that these findings are due to the presence of splenunculi, whose incidence is more common than the 12 per cent usually quoted. (author)

  14. Exogenous cytokines released by spleen and Peyer's patch cells removed from mice infected with Giardia muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamiatun, K; Faubert, G M

    1998-01-01

    The role that T and B lymphocytes play in the clearance of Giardia muris in the mouse model is well known, but the cytokines produced by CD4+ T cells in response to Giardia antigenic stimulation are unknown. In this study, we have determined how Giardia trophozoite antigenic crude extract and T cell mitogens can trigger the production of cytokines by Peyer's patch and spleen cells removed from infected animals. When Giardia trophozoite proteins were used to challenge the cells in vitro, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma were not detected in the culture supernatant. When the cells were challenged with Con-A, all three cytokines were released in vitro. However, the level of each cytokine released by the spleen or Peyer's patch cells varied with the latent, acute and elimination phases of the infection. The high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 released by Peyer's patch cells confirm the importance of IgA in the control of the infection. However, we propose that the relative success of G. muris in completing its life cycle in a primary infection might be due, in part, to the stimulation of a Th2-type response (IL-4, IL-5). A stronger Th1 response (IFN-gamma) may lead to a better control of the primary infection.

  15. The spleen as an extramedullary source of inflammatory cells responding to acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Mili; Gardner, Carol R.; Sun, Richard; Choi, Hyejeong; Lad, Sonali; Mishin, Vladimir; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages have been shown to play a role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. In these studies, we analyzed the role of the spleen as an extramedullary source of hepatic macrophages. APAP administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.) to control mice resulted in an increase in CD11b + infiltrating Ly6G + granulocytic and Ly6G − monocytic cells in the spleen and the liver. The majority of the Ly6G + cells were also positive for the monocyte/macrophage activation marker, Ly6C, suggesting a myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype. By comparison, Ly6G − cells consisted of 3 subpopulations expressing high, intermediate, and low levels of Ly6C. Splenectomy was associated with increases in mature (F4/80 + ) and immature (F4/80 − ) pro-inflammatory Ly6C hi macrophages and mature anti-inflammatory (Ly6C lo ) macrophages in the liver after APAP; increases in MDSCs were also noted in the livers of splenectomized (SPX) mice after APAP. This was associated with increases in APAP-induced expression of chemokine receptors regulating pro-inflammatory (CCR2) and anti-inflammatory (CX3CR1) macrophage trafficking. In contrast, APAP-induced increases in pro-inflammatory galectin-3 + macrophages were blunted in livers of SPX mice relative to control mice, along with hepatic expression of TNF-α, as well as the anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, FIZZ-1 and YM-1. These data demonstrate that multiple subpopulations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cells respond to APAP-induced injury, and that these cells originate from distinct hematopoietic reservoirs. - Highlights: • Multiple inflammatory cell subpopulations accumulate in the spleen and liver following acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. • Splenectomy alters liver inflammatory cell populations responding to APAP. • Inflammatory cells accumulating in the liver in response to APAP originate from the spleen and the bone marrow. • Hepatotoxicity is reduced in

  16. The spleen as an extramedullary source of inflammatory cells responding to acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Mili, E-mail: milimandal@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gardner, Carol R., E-mail: cgardner@pharmacy.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sun, Richard, E-mail: fishpower52@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Choi, Hyejeong, E-mail: choi@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Lad, Sonali, E-mail: sonurose92@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Mishin, Vladimir, E-mail: mishinv@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Macrophages have been shown to play a role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. In these studies, we analyzed the role of the spleen as an extramedullary source of hepatic macrophages. APAP administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.) to control mice resulted in an increase in CD11b{sup +} infiltrating Ly6G{sup +} granulocytic and Ly6G{sup −} monocytic cells in the spleen and the liver. The majority of the Ly6G{sup +} cells were also positive for the monocyte/macrophage activation marker, Ly6C, suggesting a myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype. By comparison, Ly6G{sup −} cells consisted of 3 subpopulations expressing high, intermediate, and low levels of Ly6C. Splenectomy was associated with increases in mature (F4/80{sup +}) and immature (F4/80{sup −}) pro-inflammatory Ly6C{sup hi} macrophages and mature anti-inflammatory (Ly6C{sup lo}) macrophages in the liver after APAP; increases in MDSCs were also noted in the livers of splenectomized (SPX) mice after APAP. This was associated with increases in APAP-induced expression of chemokine receptors regulating pro-inflammatory (CCR2) and anti-inflammatory (CX3CR1) macrophage trafficking. In contrast, APAP-induced increases in pro-inflammatory galectin-3{sup +} macrophages were blunted in livers of SPX mice relative to control mice, along with hepatic expression of TNF-α, as well as the anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, FIZZ-1 and YM-1. These data demonstrate that multiple subpopulations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cells respond to APAP-induced injury, and that these cells originate from distinct hematopoietic reservoirs. - Highlights: • Multiple inflammatory cell subpopulations accumulate in the spleen and liver following acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. • Splenectomy alters liver inflammatory cell populations responding to APAP. • Inflammatory cells accumulating in the liver in response to APAP originate from the spleen and the

  17. Ultrasound-guided cytology of spleen and liver: a prognostic tool in canine cutaneous mast cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, D; Valenti, P; Faverzani, S; Bronzo, V; Fiorbianco, V; Pinto da Cunha, N; Romussi, S; Cantatore, M; Caniatti, M

    2009-01-01

    In the clinical staging of cutaneous mast cell tumors (cMCT), the diagnosis of metastasis is controversial based on cytological examination of lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and blood. To define the prognostic role of ultrasound-guided cytology of spleen and liver in cMCT. The results of cytological evaluation were compared in relation with survival time. Fifty-two client-owned dogs with a diagnosis of cMCT. Selection of cases was based on cytological evaluation of liver and spleen to detect infiltration at distant sites. The Kaplan Meier method was used to compare survival in dogs with and without infiltration of spleen and liver (log-rank test P dogs with cMCT had mast cell infiltration of spleen, liver, or both and 4 of these dogs had involvement of the regional lymph nodes. The majority of dogs had 2 or more ultrasonographically abnormal findings simultaneously in spleen and liver. Nine dogs had grade II cMCT, and 1 had grade III cMCT. Dogs with positive evidence of mast cell infiltration to spleen, liver, or both had shorter survival times (34 versus 733 days) compared with dogs negative for mast cell infiltration at distant sites. Dogs with evidence of mast cell infiltration at distant sites have a shorter survival times than dogs without evidence of infiltration at distant sites. This study suggests that cytology of spleen and liver is indicated either for ultrasonographically normal or for ultrasonographically abnormal spleen and liver in dogs with cMCT.

  18. Ability of spleen cells from tumor bearing mice to transfer immunologic memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plavsic, B.; Jurin, M. (Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia)); Ugarkovic, B. (Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

    1983-01-01

    The ability of splenocytes from tumorous mice to transfer immunologic memory was tested. Three syngeneic experimental tumors from highly inbred strains were used; fibrosarcoma, lymphoma and Lewis lung carcinoma. Splenocytes from tumorous mice were collected after rejection of allogeneic skin which had been grafted at different stages of the tumor disease, and injected into lethally irradiated syngeneic recipients. These secondary hosts were grafted with the same allogeneic skin graft as their donors and the ability of cells transplanted from tumorous donors to transfer memory to allograft was tested. Tumorous mice seemed to have more memory cells (T lymphocytes) in their spleens than the controls.

  19. The spleen can influence the metastasis of AH130 hepatoma cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, M; Hiraoka, T; Tanaka, H; Miyauchi, Y

    1993-06-01

    The effect of pathophysiological conditions due to disturbance of the spleen is still unclear. We studied the effects of splenectomy in normal and methylcellulose-induced hypersplenic rats on the development of pulmonary metastases created by intravenous injection of ascites containing AH130 hepatoma cells from male Hos-Donryu rats. Growth of metastatic lesions in the lung was not affected by splenectomy in normal rats, but was increased by splenectomy in hypersplenic rats. Overall, there were fewer pulmonary metastases in rats with hypersplenism, but after splenectomy rats with hypersplenism had a significantly greater number of metastases than did normal rats. The metastases rate correlated somewhat with changes in the blood coagulation and T lymphocyte profile. There is a relationship between the spleen and formation of metastases in cancer. Formation of metastases in the lung was affected most by splenectomy in hypersplenism. To elucidate the mechanism by which metastases are formed in the lung under these pathologic conditions, further studies on the exact role of the spleen are required.

  20. Histological Lesions, Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and T Cell Subsets Changes of Spleen in Chicken Fed Aflatoxin-contaminated Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Peng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 on pathological lesions, apoptosis, cell cycle phases and T lymphocyte subsets of spleen, and to provide an experimental basis for understanding the mechanism of aflatoxin-induced immunosuppression. A total of 900 COBB500 male broilers were randomly allocated into five groups with six replicates per group and 30 birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks and the five dietary treatments consisted of control, 25% contaminated corn, 50% contaminated corn, 75% contaminated corn and 100% contaminated corn groups. The histopathological spleen lesions from the contaminated corn groups was characterized as congestion of red pulp, increased necrotic cells and vacuoles in the splenic corpuscle and periarterial lymphatic sheath. The contaminated corn intake significantly increased relative weight of spleen, percentages of apoptotic splenocytes, induced cell cycle arrest of splenocytes, increased the percentages of CD3+CD8+ T cells and decreased the ratios of CD3+CD4+ to CD3+CD8+. The results suggest that AFB-induced immunosuppression maybe closely related to the lesions of spleen.

  1. Changes of red blood cell aggregation parameters in a long-term follow-up of splenectomy, spleen-autotransplantation and partial or subtotal spleen resections in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert; Peto, Katalin; Furka, Andrea; Toth, Laszlo; Furka, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Decrease or loss in splenic filtration function may influence the hemorheological state. To follow-up the long-term effects of splenectomy, spleen autotransplantation and spleen resections on red blood cell aggregation in a canine model. Beagle dogs were subjected to control (n = 6), splenectomy (SE, n = 4), spleen autotransplantation (AU, Furka's spleen-chip method, n = 8) or partial and subtotal spleen resection (n = 4/each) groups, and followed-up for 18 postoperative (p.o.) months. Erythrocyte aggregation was determined in parallel by light-transmittance aggregometry (Myrenne MA-1 aggregometer) and syllectometry (LoRRca). Erythrocyte aggregation decreased three months after splenectomy, with lower aggregation index and elongated aggregation time. It was more or less associated with relatively lower hematocrit and fibrinogen concentration. However, in autotransplantated animals a relatively higher fibrinogen did not increase the aggregation markedly. Spleen resection resulted in the most controversial red blood cell aggregation findings, and it seems, that the degree of the resection is an influencing factor. Splenectomy alters erythrocyte aggregation, spleen autotransplantation can be useful to preserve filtration function. However, the degree of restoration shows individual differences with a kind of 'functional periodicity'. Spleen resection controversially influences erythrocyte aggregation parameters. The subtotal resection is supposed to be worse than spleen autotransplantation.

  2. Hypersensitive responses of cells in the thymus, spleen, and intestinal crypt of mice to interphase death after treatment with x rays and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuta, Masakatsu

    1986-01-01

    Upon whole-body exposure of mice to X rays or administration of chemical mutagens, cells in thymus, spleen and intestinal crypt undergo sensitive response to interphase death. We developed an effective method for detecting dead cells in the interphase by scoring stained cells in situ in exposed tissues after staining frozen section with erythrosin B. Cell killing was detected at doses as low as 1 % of lethal doses after treatment with X rays and chemicals. Strain N4 was highly sensitive to interphase-cell-death and hybrids of N4 and resistant strain HT or C3H were also sensitive to cell-death, indicating a dominant trait of the sensitive cell-death response. (author)

  3. Wandering spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Tai; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Wandering spleen is a rare entity, which is defined as the presence of the spleen in other than the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. The etiology of wandering spleen is unknown. Congenital factors such as incomplete fusion or laxity of the supporting structures of the spleen and acquired factors such as splenomegaly, trauma, abdominal laxity and hormonal effects of pregnancy may play a role. The clinical presentation is variable from asymptomatic to catastrophic if torsion of the splenic pedicle occurs. We present two cases of wandering spleen with a brief review of the literature.

  4. Wandering spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Tai; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1987-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare entity, which is defined as the presence of the spleen in other than the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. The etiology of wandering spleen is unknown. Congenital factors such as incomplete fusion or laxity of the supporting structures of the spleen and acquired factors such as splenomegaly, trauma, abdominal laxity and hormonal effects of pregnancy may play a role. The clinical presentation is variable from asymptomatic to catastrophic if torsion of the splenic pedicle occurs. We present two cases of wandering spleen with a brief review of the literature

  5. Sickle Cell Beta-Plus Thalassemia with Subcapsular Hematoma of the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyash Dahal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While splenic complications like hypersplenism, sequestration crisis, and infarction are commonly reported in sickle cell variants like sickle cell beta-plus thalassemia, splenic rupture with hematoma is rare. We present a case of a 32-year-old young male who presented with dull left upper quadrant pain who was found to have multiple subcapsular splenic lacerations and hematoma on abdominal imaging. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed sickle cell beta-plus thalassemia in the patient. There was no history of trauma, and rest of the workup for possible cause of spontaneous rupture of spleen was negative. With the patient refusing splenectomy, he was managed conservatively. Clinicians need to be aware of this rare complication of sickle cell variants.

  6. Disorder of G2-M Checkpoint Control in Aniline-Induced Cell Proliferation in Rat Spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Wang

    Full Text Available Aniline, a toxic aromatic amine, is known to cause hemopoietic toxicity both in humans and animals. Aniline exposure also leads to toxic response in spleen which is characterized by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, fibrosis and the eventual formation of tumors on chronic in vivo exposure. Previously, we have shown that aniline exposure leads to iron overload, oxidative DNA damage, and increased cell proliferation, which could eventually contribute to a tumorigenic response in the spleen. Despite our demonstration that cell proliferation was associated with deregulation of G1 phase cyclins and increased expression of G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs, molecular mechanisms, especially the regulation of G2 phase and contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in aniline-induced splenic cellular proliferation remain largely unclear. This study therefore, mainly focused on the regulation of G2 phase in an animal model preceding a tumorigenic response. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given aniline (0.5 mmol/kg/day in drinking water or drinking water only (controls for 30 days, and expression of G2 phase cyclins, CDK1, CDK inhibitors and miRNAs were measured in the spleen. Aniline treatment resulted in significant increases in cell cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclins A, B and CDK1, particularly phosphor-CDK1, and decreases in CDK inhibitors p21 and p27, which could promote the splenocytes to go through G2/M transition. Our data also showed upregulation of tumor markers Trx-1 and Ref-1 in rats treated with aniline. More importantly, we observed lower expression of miRNAs including Let-7a, miR-15b, miR24, miR-100 and miR-125, and greater expression of CDK inhibitor regulatory miRNAs such as miR-181a, miR-221 and miR-222 in the spleens of aniline-treated animals. Our findings suggest that significant increases in the expression of cyclins, CDK1 and aberrant regulation of miRNAs could lead to an accelerated G2/M transition of the splenocytes, and

  7. Splenectomy associated changes in IgM memory B cells in an adult spleen registry cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul U Cameron

    Full Text Available Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited to a spleen registry (n = 591. A subset of 209 adult asplenic or hyposplenic subjects, and normal controls (n = 140 were tested for IgM memory B cells. We also determined a changes in IgM memory B cells with time after splenectomy using the cross-sectional data from patients on the registry and b the kinetics of changes in haematological markers associated with splenectomy(n = 45. Total B cells in splenectomy patients did not differ from controls, but memory B cells, IgM memory B cells and switched B cells were significantly (p<0.001 reduced. The reduction was similar for different indications for splenectomy. Changes of asplenia in routine blood films including presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB, occurred early (median 25 days and splenectomy associated thrombocytosis and lymphocytosis peaked by 50 days. There was a more gradual decrease in IgM memory B cells reaching a stable level within 6 months after splenectomy. IgM memory B cells as proportion of B cells was the best discriminator between splenectomized patients and normal controls and at the optimal cut-off of 4.53, showed a true positive rate of 95% and false positive rate of 20%. In a survey of 152 registry patients stratified by IgM memory B cells around this cut-off there was no association with minor infections and no registry patients experienced OPSI during the study. Despite significant changes after splenectomy, conventional measures of IgM memory cells have limited clinical utility in this population.

  8. Splenectomy Associated Changes in IgM Memory B Cells in an Adult Spleen Registry Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Paul U.; Jones, Penelope; Gorniak, Malgorzata; Dunster, Kate; Paul, Eldho; Lewin, Sharon; Woolley, Ian; Spelman, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited to a spleen registry (n = 591). A subset of 209 adult asplenic or hyposplenic subjects, and normal controls (n = 140) were tested for IgM memory B cells. We also determined a) changes in IgM memory B cells with time after splenectomy using the cross-sectional data from patients on the registry and b) the kinetics of changes in haematological markers associated with splenectomy(n = 45). Total B cells in splenectomy patients did not differ from controls, but memory B cells, IgM memory B cells and switched B cells were significantly (psplenectomy. Changes of asplenia in routine blood films including presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB), occurred early (median 25 days) and splenectomy associated thrombocytosis and lymphocytosis peaked by 50 days. There was a more gradual decrease in IgM memory B cells reaching a stable level within 6 months after splenectomy. IgM memory B cells as proportion of B cells was the best discriminator between splenectomized patients and normal controls and at the optimal cut-off of 4.53, showed a true positive rate of 95% and false positive rate of 20%. In a survey of 152 registry patients stratified by IgM memory B cells around this cut-off there was no association with minor infections and no registry patients experienced OPSI during the study. Despite significant changes after splenectomy, conventional measures of IgM memory cells have limited clinical utility in this population. PMID:21829713

  9. Serum ferritin in patients with cancer: determination with antibodies to HeLa cell and spleen ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.M.; Worwood, M.; Jacobs, A.

    1980-01-01

    Some malignant tissues and cell lines contain acidic isoferritins and it has been suggested that the assay of such isoferritins in serum may be of value in the diagnosis of malignancy. This paper describes a radioimmunoassay for acidic ferritin purified from HeLa cells. Examination of purified heart, kidney, liver and spleen ferritin showed that the assay was highly specific for acidic isoferritins. Ferritin concentrations have been measured with antibodies to HeLa cell and spleen ferritin in extracts of normal and tumour tissue. Although the tumours contained more HeLa type ferritin than the corresponding normal tissue the HeLa/spleen type ferritin ratio was low. HeLa-type ferritin concentrations have been compared with values obtained with anti-spleen ferritin in over 1000 sera from normal subjects and patients with cancer and leukaemia. HeLa-type ferritin was not detected (<2 μg/l) in most normal sera. Concentrations of up to 53 μg/l were found in sera from patients with malignant disease but the HeLa/spleen type ferritin ratio was always very low. There appears to be little application for antibodies to HeLa cell or heart ferritin in the diagnosis or monitoring of cancer. (Auth.)

  10. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  11. Prion protein-deficient mice exhibit decreased CD4 T and LTi cell numbers and impaired spleen structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soochan; Han, Sinsuk; Lee, Ye Eun; Jung, Woong-Jae; Lee, Hyung Soo; Kim, Yong-Sun; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The cellular prion protein is expressed in almost all tissues, including the central nervous system and lymphoid tissues. To investigate the effects of the prion protein in lymphoid cells and spleen structure formation, we used prion protein-deficient (Prnp(0/0)) Zürich I mice generated by inactivation of the Prnp gene. Prnp(0/0) mice had decreased lymphocytes, in particular, CD4 T cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Decreased CD4 T cells resulted from impaired expression of CCL19 and CCL21 in the spleen rather than altered chemokine receptor CCR7 expression. Importantly, some of the white pulp regions in spleens from Prnp(0/0) mice displayed impaired T zone structure as a result of decreased LTi cell numbers and altered expression of the lymphoid tissue-organizing genes lymphotoxin-α and CXCR5, although expression of the lymphatic marker podoplanin and CXCL13 by stromal cells was not affected. In addition, CD3(-)CD4(+)IL-7Rα(+) LTi cells were rarely detected in impaired white pulp in spleens of these mice. These data suggest that the prion protein is required to form the splenic white pulp structure and for development of normal levels of CD4 T and LTi cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. MORPHOMETRY OF SPLEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Spleen is organ of lymphatic system located on left side of abdominal cavity under diaphragm. It is a secondary lymphatic organ that plays an important role in cell mediated immunity. Foetal spleen is erythropoietic in nature. MATERIAL & METHODS Present study was done in 50 adult spleens and 50 foetal spleens. RESULTS Morphometric features like length, breadth, thickness & weight are measured. Length varied from 6.3 to 12.5 cm, breadth varied from 2.6 to 8.6 cm, thickness ranged from 2 cm to 4.6 cm, weight ranged from 65 g to 225 g. Average total length of spleen is 2.52 cm x 1.76 x 2 cm, weight 6.5 g. Shapes of spleens observed wedge shape spleen–48%, tetrahedral spleen–24%, triangular spleen-28%. Splenic notches on superior border & inferior border are observed. Incident of accessory spleen in 1% of cases. CONCLUSIONS Present knowledge of study may be helpful for surgeons in surgical procedures like splenectomy, resection of tumours and extirpation of cysts

  13. Ruptured Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be caused by various underlying problems, such as mononucleosis and other infections, liver disease, and blood cancers. ... cause a ruptured spleen. For instance, people with mononucleosis — a viral infection that can cause an enlarged ...

  14. Wandering Spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mashat, Faisal M.; Sibiany, Abdulrehman M.; Maimani, Abdulraouf A.; Alem, Fayad K.

    2004-01-01

    Cogenital malformations of the spleen are rare. We report 3 cases of wandering spleen presented as abominal or pelvi-abdominal mass. Two patients were suffering from chronic lower abdominal pain with thrombosed splenic pedicle and the third patient had an acute abdomen. All patients underwent splenectomies. Abdominal ultrasound, computerized tomography, Doppler's ultrasound, and radioisotpes studies were used to cpnfirm the diagnosis. The clinical, diagnostic and treatment modalities are discussed. (author)

  15. Increased cell proliferation in spleen and lymph nodes peripheral to contact allergen application site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipinda, Itai; Anderson, Stacey E.; Butterworth, Leon F.; Beezhold, Donald; Siegel, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that are contact sensitizers. The assay involves dosing mice with the chemical on both ears and pooling the superficial parotid lymph nodes for assessment of lymphocyte proliferation as a marker of sensitization. The present study explored potential reduction in animal usage by dosing one ear with the allergen and the other with vehicle-only. The respective draining lymph nodes were processed separately for tritiated thymidine ( 3 H-TdR) incorporation. Cell proliferation in proper axillary and renal nodes, as well as in the spleen was also assessed. Cross-contamination of the chemicals from the dosed ears to other parts of the body via preening was prevented by dosing restrained animals and washing off the residual chemical with saline after 4 h. Dosing the left ear with 0.02% oxazolone (OX) on unrestrained animals resulted in marked cell proliferation in its draining lymph node (stimulation index, SI = 12.8) and in the lymph node draining the contra-lateral vehicle-dosed ear (SI = 6), as well as the proper axillary lymph nodes (SI = 3.3). Increased 3 H-TdR incorporation was not observed in the renal lymph nodes (SI = 1.1). Similar stimulation of cells was observed in the lymph node draining the ear contra-lateral to the 30% hexylcinnamaldehyde (HCA)-dosed ear. Increased proliferative activity was observed in contra-lateral draining lymph nodes of restrained mice demonstrating that these results cannot be attributed to cross-contamination of adjacent skin. A significant increase in proliferation of splenocytes was also observed. It is concluded that dermal application of a contact allergen, as exemplified by OX and HCA, may induce cell proliferation in the neighboring lymph nodes and spleen indicative of hapten and/or haptenated proteins diffusing through the skin to peripheral nodes and the blood to produce systemic sensitization. It is also possible that lymphatic capillaries may communicate

  16. Study of the kinetics and morphology of immune reaction spleen cells by immunocytoadherence method. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, J.

    1976-01-01

    The course of immunocytoadherence was followed in the mouse spleen during primary immune response to intraperitoneal administration of sheep erythrocytes at 24 hours, 72 hours and 6 days following whole-body irradiation with a dose of 450 R after antigen administration. The number of RFC becomes reduced immediately after irradiation. The reduction thereof always correlates with a relative increase of macrophages. Small and medium-sized lymphocytes rapidly disappear from the population of rosette-forming cells. If the irradiation had been carried out before the radiation-uninfluenced reaction reached its maximum, the large lymphocytes relatively increase in number. In other cases their immunocytoadherent activity also shows a steadily decreasing tendency. During the primary reaction, irradiation always increases the total relative plasma cell count as related to the other RFC. In such cases the proportion of mature forms is larger than of blastic forms. The values observed at the end of the studied postirradiation period in the course of the primary reaction are always characterized by a higher proportion of the plasma cell line after about 20 to 25 days. (author)

  17. Characterization of nonlymphoid cells in rat spleen, with special reference to strongly Ia-positive branched cells in T-cell areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkstra, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    By use of a monoclonal antibody against Ia antigen in an immunoperoxidase method, strongly Ia-positive branched cells are found in the T-cell areas of the splenic white pulp of the rat. In order to further characterize these cells, enzyme histochemical characteristics, phagocytic capacity, and irradiation sensitivity have been studied. Evidence is presented that these strongly Ia-positive branched cells represent interdigitating cells. The influence of whole-body irradiation on interdigitating cells is discussed. Comparison with data from the literature on the in vitro dendritic cell isolated from spleen cell suspensions reveals many similarities between the described interdigitating cell in vivo and the dendritic cell in vitro

  18. Differential antibody production by adherent and nonadherent spleen cells transferred to irradiated and cyclophosphamide-treated recipient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, J.F.; Deitchman, J.W.; Hassell, S.A.; Ozato, K.

    1975-01-01

    Mouse spleen cells were separated into adherent (Ad) and nonadherent (Nad) populations by incubation in plastic petri dishes. Adherent, Nad and unfractionated cell preparations (UCP) were transferred into syngeneic recipient mice that had been either irradiated or cyclophosphamide (CY) treated and the adoptive humoral Ab responses were studied by assessment of hemolytic Ab-forming cells (PFC) or humoral serum Ab production. Adherent cells failed to produce PFC in irradiated recipients, but functioned vigorously in CY-treated recipients. Nonadherent cells generated PFC in either type of host, as did UCP. Studies of comparative responses in CY-treated recipients revealed that: (a) Ad-cells generated 2 / 3 the number of PFC given by equivalent numbers of transferred Nad cells and UCP; (b) per equivalent numbers of transferred cells the Ad fraction generated 5 times more and 16 times more Ab than did the Nad cells and UCP, respectively. Spleen cells taken from mice 6 hr after CY treatment failed to respond to the mitogens phytohemagglutinin and bacterial lipopolysaccharide, showing that all cells were temporarily incapable of proliferation. Transfer of spleen cells from donor mice 16 hr after CY treatment, into thymectomized, irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted recipients revealed substantial T-helper cell activity. We conclude that: (a) Ad preparations lacked T cells that were supplied by CY-treated recipients although T cell proliferation was temporarily inhibited in the latter; (b) B cells present in the Ad fraction were removed from some type of inhibitor of Ab synthesis and/or secretion, the production of which may be associated with T cells present in Nad preparations and UCP; (c) T-helper cells were only transiently affected by CY

  19. Sonographic assessment of spleen size in Saudi patients with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salem, Ahmed H.; Al-Aithan, S.; Al-Jama, A.; Al-Dabbous, I.; Bhamidipati, P.

    1998-01-01

    In patients with SCD, the spleen commonly enlarges during the first two decades of life but then undergoes autosplenectomy due to repeated attacks of vaso-occlusion and infarction. This, however, is not the case in Saudi patients with SCD (340 SCD and 23-sickle beta-thalassemia). A total of 363 patients were evaluated. There ages ranged from 1-60 years (mean 60 years). Only 24 (6.6%) of our patients had autosplenectomy. The splenic index increased with age until about 40 years of age and then gradually decreased indicating persistence of splenomegaly in our patients into an older age group. Forty-three patients (11.8%) had marked-massive splenomegaly (splenic index >120cm) and these had higher HbF levels (mean HbF=22.2%) when compared with those who had autosplenectomy (mean HbF=14.6). This is significant (P-value=0.0169) and confirms the effect of HbF on persistence of splenomegaly in SCD patients. Ultrasonography is a simple, safe and accurate method of assessing splenic size in patients with sickle cell disease. Patients with persistent splenomegaly should be followed closely for development of complications which may necessitate splenectomy. (author)

  20. Kinetics of rebounding of lymphoid and myeloid cells in mouse peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow after treatment with cyclophosphamide

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Mohamed L.; Al-Khami, Amir A.; El-Nagaar, Sabry A.; Zidan, Abdel-Aziz A.; Al-Sharkawi, Ismail M.; Díaz-Montero, C. Marcela; Cole, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we showed that post cyclophosphamide (CTX) microenvironment benefits the function of transferred T cells. Analysis of the kinetics of cellular recovery after CTX treatment showed that a single 4 mg/mouse CTX treatment decreased the absolute number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood (PBL) at days 3-15, and in the spleen and bone marrow (BM) at days 3-6. The absolute numbers of CD11c+CD11b− and CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells (DCs), CD11b+ and Ly6G+ myeloid cells, T and B cells, CD4+C...

  1. Organic and hybrid solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a comprehensive evaluation of organic and hybrid solar cells and identifies their fundamental principles and numerous applications. Great attention is given to the charge transport mechanism, donor and acceptor materials, interfacial materials, alternative electrodes, device engineering and physics, and device stability. The authors provide an industrial perspective on the future of photovoltaic technologies.

  2. Migration inhibition of immune mouse spleen cells by serum from x-irradiated tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroson, H.

    1978-01-01

    Tumor-specific antigens of the chemically induced MC 429 mouse fibrosarcoma were detected in a 3 M KCl extract of tumor by the inhibition of migration of specifically immune spleen cells. Using this assay with serum from tumor-bearing mice no tumor antigen was detected in serum of mice bearing small tumors, unless the tumor was exposed to local x irradiation (3000 R) 1 day prior to collection of serum. It was concluded that local x irradiation of tumor caused increased concentration of tumor antigen in the serum. When the tumor was allowed to grow extremely large, with necrosis, then host serum did cause migration inhibition of both nonimmune and immune spleen cells. This migration-inhibition effect was not associated with tumor antigen, but with a nonspecific serum factor

  3. Expression of Immunoglobulin Receptors with Distinctive Features Indicating Antigen Selection by Marginal Zone B Cells from Human Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Reverberi, Daniele; Bruno, Silvia; Ghiotto, Fabio; Tenca, Claudya; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia; Ceccarelli, Jenny; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Calevo, Maria Grazia; De Santanna, Amleto; Truini, Mauro; Fais, Franco; Ferrarini, Manlio

    2013-01-01

    Marginal zone (MZ) B cells, identified as surface (s)IgMhighsIgDlowCD23low/−CD21+CD38− B cells, were purified from human spleens, and the features of their V(D)J gene rearrangements were investigated and compared with those of germinal center (GC), follicular mantle (FM) and switched memory (SM) B cells. Most MZ B cells were CD27+ and exhibited somatic hypermutations (SHM), although to a lower extent than SM B cells. Moreover, among MZ B-cell rearrangements, recurrent sequences were observed, some of which displayed intraclonal diversification. The same diversifying sequences were detected in very low numbers in GC and FM B cells and only when a highly sensitive, gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was used. This result indicates that MZ B cells could expand and diversify in situ and also suggested the presence of a number of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-expressing B cells in the MZ. The notion of antigen-driven expansion/selection in situ is further supported by the VH CDR3 features of MZ B cells with highly conserved amino acids at specific positions and by the finding of shared (“stereotyped”) sequences in two different spleens. Collectively, the data are consistent with the notion that MZ B cells are a special subset selected by in situ antigenic stimuli. PMID:23877718

  4. Interleukin production by neonatal spleen cells during and as a result of antigen presentation: The effect of ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.; Gershon, H.

    1989-01-01

    Antigen presentation by neonatal murine spleen cells and the production of lymphokines and interleukins involved in the stimulation of a T-helper-2 (TH2) cell line (D10-G4.1) were studied as were the effects of ultra violet (UV)-irradiation on this system. Neonatal spleen cells are less capable than adult cells of performing the initial steps of the immune response required for antigen dependent activation of TH2 cells. These steps include soluble antigen processing and presentation and as a result reduced production of IL-4 and IL-1-Inducer Factor (IL-1-IF) by the T-helper cells and reduced production of IL-1 and IL-2 by the antigen presenting cell population. Spontaneous membrane IL-1 activity is low in the neonate, however, when exposed to IL-1-IF they can express adult levels. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the antigen presenting population has a damaging effect on all the above mentioned processes. Antigen processing and presentation, induction of D10 IL-4 production and proliferation, and IL-2 production demonstrate two different age related patterns of UV-irradiation induced damage: a dose dependent inhibition when adult cells are irradiated and an inverse effect in which low doses of irradiation were more inhibitory than higher doses when neonatal cells are irradiated. However, the secretion and membrane expression of IL-1 by both age groups are directly and totally inhibited by the range of UV-irradiation doses used and cannot be reinduced with a supplement of a crude IL-1-IF. While the capacity to produced IL-1 is totally destroyed by UV-irradiation, the ability to produce IL-2 remains intact and remains responsive to an IL-2-Inducer activity during proper antigen presentation. The low responses of neonatal antigen presenting spleen cell populations and the damaging effect of UV on both neonatal and adult responses are not due to the induction of suppressor factors

  5. Intermittent feeding as a factor enhancing hemopoietic stem cell proliferation and spleen colony formation in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubik, A.; Pospisil, M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of metabolic stimulation induced by a 3 weeks' adaption of the animals to intermittent food intake on hemopoietic stem cells was investigated in mice. The methods used included transplantation of bone marrow to lethally irradiated recipients, assay of CFUs number, seeding efficiency, and incorporation of 125 iodode oxyuridine into the DNA of spleen cells. A stimulatory effect of the metabolically influenced hemopoietic environment on the proliferative activity in stem cell compartments and on the recovery of hemopoietic organs was demonstrated. These stimulatory effects were most marked when the bone marrow of metabolically influenced donors was transplanted to similarly influenced recipients. (orig.)

  6. The bovine spleen: Interactions among splenic cell populations in the innate immunologic control of hemoparasitic infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past several years, innate immunity has been recognized as having an important role as a front-line defense mechanism and as an integral part of the adaptive immune response. Innate immunity in cattle exposed to hemoparasites is spleen-dependent and age-related. In this review, we discuss g...

  7. Concanavalin A-induced and spontaneous suppressor cell activities in peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen cells from gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toge, T; Hamamoto, S; Itagaki, E; Yajima, K; Tanada, M; Nakane, H; Kohno, H; Nakanishi, K; Hattori, T

    1983-11-01

    In 173 gastric cancer patients, activities of Concanavalin-A-induced suppressor cells (Con-AS) and spontaneous suppressor cells (SpS) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), splenic vein lymphocytes (SVL), and spleen cells (SCs) were investigated. Suppressions by Con-AS in PBL were significantly effective in patients of Stages III and IV, while suppressions by SpS were effective in patients with recurrent tumors. Thus, in PBLs of cancer patients, suppressor precursors, which are considered to be activated in vitro by Concanavalin-A, seemed to appear with the advances of the disease, and SpS activities, which could be already activated in vivo, seemed to increase in the terminal stage. In SCs, increased activities of Con-AS, but normal activities of SpS, were observed, and these suppressor-cell populations consisted of glass nonadherent cells. Suppressor activities of SCs would be due to suppressor T-cells, not to other types of cells. Furthermore, Con-AS existed in the medium-sized lymphocytes, which were fractionated on the basis of cell size, while SpS in the large-sized lymphocytes. A higher proportion of T-cells, bearing Fc receptors for IgG, was observed in the larger-sized lymphocyte fractions. Cell numbers in the large-sized lymphocyte fraction tended to increase with the advances of tumors. From these results, it is suggested that higher presence of suppressor precursors and the increase of SpS activities may occur in cancer patients, depending on the tumor advancing.

  8. Dendritic Cells from Peyer's Patches and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes Differ from Spleen Dendritic Cells in their Response to Commensal Gut Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    . Expression of CCR7 and CD103 on the surface of MLN DC, necessary for the induction of gut-homing regulatory T cells, increased with stimulation by Gram-positive commensals. Bacteria-dependent cytokine production (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha) was similar in spleen and MLN DC, and contaminant cells in these DC...

  9. Activation of specific cellular immunity toward murine leukemia in mice rejecting syngeneic somatic hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, W.; Cohen, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    ASL-1 x LM(TK) - somatic hybrid cells form both H-2/sup a/ and H-2/sup k/ antigen complexes. After forming a localized tumor in syngeneic (A/J x C 3 H/HeJ)F 1 mice, they are rejected. Such mice are resistant to otherwise invariably lethal injections of ASL-1 cells, surviving for prolonged and, in some instances, indefinite periods. To examine the basis of immunity, the capacity of spleen cells from mice rejecting hybrid cells to stimulate the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells was investigated. Cells from the spleens of mice rejecting ASL-1 x LM(TK) - cells stimulated the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells, but not from Ehrlich ascites or P815 cells. Cells from mice injected with mitomycin-C-treated ASL-1 cells led to the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells as well, but the extent of 51 Cr release was approximately one-third as occurred in the presence of cells from hybrid cell-injected mice. Cells from noninjected mice or from mice injected with LM(TK) - cells failed to lead to the specific release of 51 Cr from ASL-1 cells. The presence of unlabeled ASL-1 cells, but not Ehrlich ascites cells, competitively inhibited the spleen cell-stimulated release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells. Sera from A/J mice injected with mitomycin-C-treated ASL-1 cells contained antibodies specific for the tumor-associated antigen of ASL-1 cells

  10. The effect of whole body or total-head x irradiation of the metallophilic cells in the mice spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Osamu; Matsueda, Yasutoshi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Kenzo; Ogata, Kunitoshi; Sugie, Tsuneto

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify morphological changes of the reticuloendothelial cells in the spleen following X-irradiation by Katsura's silver impregnation method. The animals used in this experiment were ddN female mice weighing 20 to 25g. The mice were given X-irradiation to the total-head (1,500R) or whole body (300R). The metallophilic cells in the spleen of control mice were of the small foamy type in the follicle, the large stellate type in the marginal metallophils, the small branching type in the marginal zone and the small foamy or round type in the red pulp, respectively. The metallophilic cells decreased immediately after whole body irradiation and the number of cells returned to normal in from 10 to 14 days. On the other hand, the number of the metallophilic cells in the follicle and the perifollicular region increased immediately after total-head X-irradiation. This state continued for several days. In the marginal zone and red pulp, the number of amoebian type cells appeared from 24 hours after irradiation and the number of cells in total-head irradiation group were more clearly distinguishable than in the whole body irradiated group. (author)

  11. Murine neonatal spleen contains natural T and non-T suppressor cells capable of inhibiting adult alloreactive and newborn autoreactive T-cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, D C; Hoskin, D W; Gronvik, K O; Murgita, R A

    1986-05-01

    The spleen of neonatal mice is known to be a rich source of cells capable of suppressing a variety of immune functions of adult lymphocytes in vitro. From such observations has emerged the concept that the gradual development in ability to express immune functions after birth is due in part to the parallel normal physiological decay of naturally occurring regulatory suppressor cells. There is, however, some confusion in the literature as to the exact nature of the newborn of the newborn inhibitory cell type(s). In contrast to most previous reports which detect only a single type of neonatal suppressor cell, usually a T cell, we show here that newborn spleen harbors both T and non-T inhibitory cells. Both types of suppressor cells could be shown to suppress the proliferative response of adult spleen to alloantigens as well as newborn T cells reacting against self-Ia antigen in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). Newborn suppressor T cells were characterized as being non-adherent to Ig-anti-Ig affinity columns, soybean agglutinin receptor negative (SBA-), and susceptible to lysis by anti-T-cell specific antiserum plus complement. Non-T suppressor cells were identified as non-phagocytic, SBA receptor positive (SBA+), and resistant to cytotoxic treatment with anti-T-cell antibodies and complement. The apparent controversy surrounding previous reports as to the T versus non-T nature of newborn suppressor cells can be reconciled by the present observation that both types of inhibitory cells coexist in the spleen. Furthermore, the demonstration that newborn suppressor cells can effectively regulate T-cell proliferative activity mediated by other newborn cells provides more direct support for the contention that such inhibitory cells play a physiological role in controlling immune responsiveness during early ontogeny.

  12. A stimulator of proliferation of spleen colony-forming cells (CFU-S) in the bone marrow of irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanovic, Z.; Milenkovic, P.; Stojanovic, N.; Lukic, M.; Kataranovski, M.

    1993-07-01

    The presence and activity of a spleen colony - forming cell (CFU-S) proliferation stimulator was investigated in rat bone marrow after irradiation. The dose dependent increase in cytosine arabinoside induced cell dealth of normal mouse bone marrow. The results demonstrate the existence of a CFU-S proliferation stimulator in rat bone marrow similar to that originally found as a macrophage product in regenarating mouse bone marrow. The CFU-S proliferation stimulator activity was not associated with the presence of interleukin - 1,2, or 6 like activities in the material tested.

  13. Bulk protein biosynthesis of the spleen and some splenic cell populations after induction of splenomegaly by application of Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammenschneider, D.

    1980-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies and liquid scintillation counting were carried out in female NMRI mice just reaching maturity. All animals had received a single injection, either of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or of pertussis organism (PO) or BSA + PO. The animals were sacrificed 4 d and 10 d after this pretreatment. 2 h before decapitation, a single dose of 3 H-l phenyl alamine was applied intraperitoneally. The following results were obtained: The splenic index (splenic weight in mg/mouse weight in g) increased as a result of splenomegaly caused by PO. Morphometric data suggested an enlarged cell and nuclear area with enhanced cellular amino acid turnover and migration of RNP-containing matter into the nucleus, especially in the megakaryocytes and in lymphocytoid blastic cells. Incorporation of 3 H-l-phenylalanine per unit of dry weight of the spleen is slowed down during the experiment while amiro acid incorporation by the total spleen increases with PO-induced splenomegaly. Incorporation of amino acid per unit of dry weight is constant in all experimental and control animals. The increased amino acid incorporation in lymphocytoid blastic cells is probably caused by the immunological situations during the experiment. An explanation of total cell increase and cell increase of megakaryocytic splenic cells is attempted. (orig./MG) [de

  14. X-ray-induced production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by mouse spleen cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, M.; Shinoda, M.; Tsuneoka, K.; Shikita, M.

    1980-01-01

    Spleen cells were collected from normal mice and cultured in a medium containing 20% calf serum. Addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the culture significantly increased the production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and a maximum induction was attained in 5 days. Irradiation of the spleen cells with 300 to 3000 R x rays also enhanced the production of GM-CSF, but there was a latent period of about 5 days before the factor appeared in the culture medium. The observed difference between LPS and x rays in the timing of inducing GM-CSF production in the spleen cell culture was consistent with the difference observed in animals. These results suggest that different mechanisms of GM-CSF production operate in the spleen in response to either LPS or x rays

  15. Alkaline phosphatase role in bone marrow and spleen hemopoietic cells recovery after mouse whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mouhamad, K.; Al Sheikh, F.

    2013-04-01

    Hematopoietic tissue is consisted of two distinctly different tissues, the first part is the hematopoietic stem cells and the second tissue is a mixture of many supportive cells which the most important one of them is alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-secreted-fibroblastic cells (FBCs). It was thought that FBCs play an important role in the hematopoiesis through ALP secretion. Our previous studies indicated that the ALP secretion in bone marrow (BM) increased after a whole mouse body irradiation when the BM cellular component is completely destroyed and, then it was decreased when the BM regain its cellular component. We performed some experiences to verify if there is any role to the ALP in the hematopoiesis. We irradiated three groups of mice to non-lethal dose, the first one was injected by Tetramizole (anti-ALP) 24 hours before irradiation, and the second was injected by Lisinopril (anti-hematopoiesis) 24 hours before irradiation and the third left without any injection. The fourth left as control. Many histological sections were taken from BM and spleen on 1, 3, 7 and 30 days after irradiation to perform ALP-histological detection. These experiences were repeated to count BM cells. ALP secretion level in the BM was reached the maximum 3 days after irradiation without any injection when the cell number was in minimum then, the level of ALP start to decrease and the cell number start to increase. ALP secretion delayed when the mice were injected by Tetramizole and BM cell population also delayed to return to its normal position. But, the ALP secretion increased directly after irradiation when the mice were injected by Lisinopril which, the ALP secretion, normally reached the maximum by the third day. These results may indicate a role to the ALP in BM and spleen hematopoietic cell recovery (author).

  16. Correlation of ultrasound findings, liver and spleen cytology, and prognosis in the clinical staging of high metastatic risk canine mast cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Alison P; Fidel, Janean; Wills, Tamara; Bryan, Jeffrey; Sellon, Rance; Mattoon, John

    2011-01-01

    Cytologic sampling of the ultrasonographically normal spleen and liver is not implemented routinely in the clinical staging of canine cutaneous mast cell tumors and normal ultrasound findings are often accepted as sufficient evidence for ruling out splenic or liver metastasis. Our objective was to define the specificity and sensitivity of ultrasound findings for diagnosis of mast cell infiltration when verified with cytologic evaluation, and to define the prognostic role of cytologic evaluation of liver and splenic aspirates. Dogs with a diagnosis of clinically aggressive grade II, or grade III mast cell tumor treated with a combination vinblastine/CCNU chemotherapy protocol, were selected retrospectively based on availability of cytologic evaluation of spleen plus or minus liver for staging. Out of 19 dogs, 10 dogs had a grade II tumor and nine a grade III tumor. Seven dogs had mast cell infiltration of the spleen, liver, or both. The sensitivity of ultrasound for detecting mast cell infiltration was 43% for the spleen and 0% for the liver. Dogs with positive cytologic evidence of mast cell infiltration to spleen, liver, or both had significantly shorter survival (100 vs. 291 days) than dogs without evidence of mast cell infiltration (Pdogs with a clinically aggressive mast cell tumor. © 2011 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  17. Killing of targets by effector CD8 T cells in the mouse spleen follows the law of mass action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with antibody-based vaccines, it has been difficult to measure the efficacy of T cell-based vaccines and to correlate the efficacy of CD8 T cell responses with protection again viral infections. In part, this difficulty is due to poor understanding of the in vivo efficacy of CD8 T cells produced by vaccination. Using a: recently developed experimental method of in vivo cytotoxicity we have investigated quantitative aspects of killing of peptide-pulsed targets by effector and memory CD8 T cells, specific to three epitopes of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), in the mouse spleen. By analyzing data on killing of targets with varying number of epitope-specific effector and memory CD8 T cells, we find that killing of targets by effectors follows the law of mass-action, that is the death rate of peptide-pulsed targets is proportional to the frequency of CTLs in the spleen. In contrast, killing of targets by memory CD8 T cells does not follow the mass action law because the death rate of targets saturates at high frequencies of memory CD8 T cells. For both effector and memory cells, we also find little support for the killing term that includes the decrease of the death rate of targets with target cell density. Interestingly, our analysis suggests that at low CD8 T cell frequencies, memory CD8 T cells on the per capita basis are more efficient at killing peptide-pulsed targets than effectors, but at high frequencies, effectors are more efficient killers than memory T cells. Comparison of the estimated killing efficacy of effector T cells with the value that is predicted from theoretical physics and based on motility of T cells in lymphoid tissues, suggests that limiting step in the killing of peptide-pulsed targets is delivering the lethal hit and not finding the target. Our results thus form a basis for quantitative understanding of the process of killing of virus-infected cells by T cell responses in tissues and can be used to correlate the

  18. Intravenous delivery of HIV-based lentiviral vectors preferentially transduces F4/80+ and Ly-6C+ cells in spleen, important target cells in autoimmune arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben T van den Brand

    Full Text Available Antigen presenting cells (APCs play an important role in arthritis and APC specific gene therapeutic targeting will enable intracellular modulation of cell activity. Viral mediated overexpression is a potent approach to achieve adequate transgene expression levels and lentivirus (LV is useful for sustained expression in target cells. Therefore, we studied the feasibility of lentiviral mediated targeting of APCs in experimental arthritis. Third generation VSV-G pseudotyped self-inactivating (SIN-LV were injected intravenously and spleen cells were analyzed with flow cytometry for green fluorescent protein (GFP transgene expression and cell surface markers. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA was induced by immunization with bovine collagen type II in complete Freund's adjuvant. Effect on inflammation was monitored macroscopically and T-cell subsets in spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. Synovium from arthritic knee joints were analyzed for proinflammatory cytokine expression. Lentiviruses injected via the tail vein preferentially infected the spleen and transduction peaks at day 10. A dose escalating study showed that 8% of all spleen cells were targeted and further analysis showed that predominantly Ly6C+ and F4/80+ cells in spleen were targeted by the LV. To study the feasibility of blocking TAK1-dependent pathways by this approach, a catalytically inactive mutant of TAK1 (TAK1-K63W was overexpressed during CIA. LV-TAK1-K63W significantly reduced incidence and arthritis severity macroscopically. Further histological analysis showed a significant decrease in bone erosion in LV-TAK1-K63W treated animals. Moreover, systemic Th17 levels were decreased by LV-TAK1-K63W treatment in addition to diminished IL-6 and KC production in inflamed synovium. In conclusion, systemically delivered LV efficiently targets monocytes and macrophages in spleen that are involved in autoimmune arthritis. Moreover, this study confirms efficacy of TAK1 targeting in

  19. Intrathymic T cell differentiation in radiation bone marrow chimeras and its role in T cell emigration to the spleen. An immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.; Kubo, S.; Kamisaku, H.; Hitomi, K.; Utsuyama, M.

    1985-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies were made on the regeneration of T cells of host- and donor-type in the thymus and spleen of radiation bone marrow chimeras by using B10- and B10.BR-Thy-1 congenic mice. In Thy-1 congenic chimeras, thymocytes of donor bone marrow origin, were first recognized at day 7, when the thymus involuted to the smallest size after the irradiation. The thymocytes of donor-type then proliferated exponentially, showing a slightly faster rate when higher doses of bone marrow cells were used for reconstitution, reaching a level of 100 million by day 17 and completely replacing the cortical thymocytes of host origin by day 21. The replacement of medullary thymocytes from host- to donor-type occurred gradually between days 21 and 35, after the replacement in the cortex was completed. In the spleen, about 1 million survived cells were recovered at day 3 after the irradiation, and approximately 60% of them were shown to be host-type T cells that were observed in the white pulp areas. The host-type T cells in the spleen increased gradually after day 10, due to the influx of host-type T cells from the regenerating thymus. Thus a pronounced increase of T cells of host-type was immunohistochemically observed in the splenic white pulp between days 21 and 28, when thymocytes of host-type were present mainly in the thymic medulla. These host-type T cells were shown to persist in the spleen for a long time, as long as 420 days after the treatment. Phenotypically, they were predominantly Lyt-1+2+ when examined at day 28, but 5 mo later, they were about 50% Lyt-1+2+ and 50% Lyt-1+2-

  20. Distinct CCR2(+) Gr1(+) cells control growth of the Yersinia pestis ΔyopM mutant in liver and spleen during systemic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhan; Uittenbogaard, Annette M; Cohen, Donald A; Kaplan, Alan M; Ambati, Jayakrishna; Straley, Susan C

    2011-02-01

    We are using a systemic plague model to identify the cells and pathways that are undermined by the virulence protein YopM of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. In this study, we pursued previous findings that Gr1(+) cells are required to selectively limit growth of ΔyopM Y. pestis and that CD11b(+) cells other than polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are selectively lost in spleens infected with parent Y. pestis. When PMNs were ablated from mice, ΔyopM Y. pestis grew as well as the parent strain in liver but not in spleen, showing that these cells are critical for controlling growth of the mutant in liver but not spleen. In mice lacking expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2, wild-type growth was restored to ΔyopM Y. pestis in both organs. In spleen, the Gr1(+) cells differentially recruited by parent and ΔyopM Y. pestis infections were CCR2(+) Gr1(+) CD11b(+) CD11c(Lo-Int) MAC3(+) iNOS(+) (inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive) inflammatory dendritic cells (iDCs), and their recruitment to spleen from blood was blocked when YopM was present in the infecting strain. Consistent with influx of iDCs being affected by YopM in spleen, the growth defect of the ΔyopM mutant was relieved by the parent Y. pestis strain in a coinfection assay in which the parent strain could affect the fate of the mutant in trans. In a mouse model of bubonic plague, CCR2 also was shown to be required for ΔyopM Y. pestis to show wild-type growth in skin. The data imply that YopM's pathogenic effect indirectly undermines signaling through CCR2. We propose a model for how YopM exerts its different effects in liver and spleen.

  1. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen in a patient with previous pulmonary sarcoidosis: a TNF-α related pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titze Ulf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Littoral cell angioma (LCA is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen. Generally thought to be benign, additional cases of LCA with malignant features have been described. Thus, its malignant potential seems to vary and must be considered uncertain. The etiology remains unclear, but an immune dysregulation for the apparent association with malignancies of visceral organs or immune-mediated diseases has been proposed. Case Presentation We report a case of LCA in a 43-year old male patient who presented with a loss of appetite and intermittent upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed multiple hypoattenuating splenic lesions which were hyperechogenic on abdominal ultrasound. Lymphoma was presumed and splenectomy was performed. Pathological evaluation revealed LCA. Conclusions LCA is a rare, primary vascular neoplasm of the spleen that might etiologically be associated with immune dysregulation. In addition, it shows a striking association with synchronous or prior malignancies. With about one-third of the reported cases to date being co-existent with malignancies of visceral organs or immune-mediated diseases, this advocates for close follow-ups in all patients diagnosed with LCA. To our knowledge, this report is the first one of LCA associated with previous pulmonary sarcoidosis and hypothesizes a TNF-α related pathogenesis of this splenic tumor.

  2. Leukemic transformation of donor spleen cells following their transplantation into supralethally irradiated mice with pre-existing viral leukemia. [X Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhnert, P M; OKunewick, J P; Erhard, P

    1974-01-01

    Fialkow et al. previously reported leukemia induction in donor-type cells after treating patients for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with total-body irradiation and hematopoietic cell transplantation. Utilizing a murine model and paralleling their treatment protocol, we have documented that induction of leukemia can occur in normal donor cells transplanted into Rauscher viral leukemic mice at 0, 1 and 2 days after irradiation. The induction of leukemia in the grafted cells was verified by: the occurrence of splenomegaly; and secondary spleen cell transplants, whereby the secondary donors were transplanted mice still alive at 30 days and the secondary recipients were normal unirradiated mice. The spleen weights of the grafted leukemic mice were found to be significantly greater than those of the controls and all secondary recipients that received spleen cells from the primary grafted leukemic mice also died of leukemia. Verification that the regenerating hematopoietic tissue was from donor (males) and not host source (females) was accomplished by spleen chromosome preparations taken from randomly selected mice at 14 and at 30 days after cell transplantation. In these preparations, the Y chromosome was clearly distinguishable on the basis of size, shape, and differential staining. The data indicate that induction of leukemia after whole-body irradiation and hematopoietic cell transplantation can occur in immunologically matched donor cells when a viral agent is present and that the incidence of this induction is not affected by a time delay between irradiation and transplant.

  3. Comparison of the suppressor cells found in the spleens of 89Sr-treated mice and in normal murine bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, E.M.; Corvese, J.S.; Bennett, M.

    1981-01-01

    Normal murine bone marrow cells and spleen cells of mice treated with 89 Sr both have suppressive activity. These nonspecific suppressor cells inhibit the ability of normal spleen cells to undergo antibody responses in vitro. After being precultured for 24 hr, these cells will also suppress antibody responses in vivo and the responses of normal spleen cells to T and B cell mitogens in vitro. These cells have previously been shown not to be mature T or B lymphocytes or macrophages. Velocity sedimentation and cell-size analysis indicated that both suppressor cells are large (approx. =206 μ 3 ). Mitomycin C treatment eliminated the ability of both suppressor cells to inhibit an in vitro antibody response. In contrast, this treatment did not reduce the ability of the cells to inhibit an in vitro antibody response. In contrast, this treatment did not reduce the ability of the cells to suppress a mitogenic response. Irradiation (1000 R) was also ineffective in eliminating the ability of either cell to suppress a mitogenic response. We conclude that the 2 suppressor cells are closely related if not identical, and we speculate that these cells may function in vivo to suppress immune reactivity in areas of intense hematopoiesis

  4. Influence of some radioprotective and radiosensitizing compounds on the replicative and repair induced DNA synthesis of rats spleen cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goette, A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cysteine, dithiothreitol, N-ethylmaleimide, cytosinearabinoside, ethidiumbromide, bleomycine and diethyldithiocarbamate on the replicative and repair induced DNA synthesis in vitro was tested by using rats spleen cells. Besides the incorporation of a labeled DNA precursor (TdR- 3 H) the sedimentation of DNA in sucrose gradients was inquired. With respect to the DNA synthesis an uniform mechanism of action for the radioprotective substances can't be seen. Thymocytes and spleen cells seem to possess different systems of repair; this may be an explanation for their different sensibility against ionizing radiation. (orig./MG) [de

  5. 99 mTc-sulphur-colloid and heat-denatured 99mTc-labelled red cell scans demonstrating a giant intrapelvic spleen in a girl after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, P.F.; Tzen, K.Y.; Tsai, M.F.; Lin, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    A 17 x 12 x 5-cm giant intrapelvic mass in a 14-year-old girl is reported. This mass developed 6 years after a splenectomy for splenic torsion. The heat-denatured 99 m Tc-labelled red cell scan and 99 m Tc- sulphur-colloid scan confirmed the specific red cell sequestration function and reticuloendothelial activity in the giant intrapelvic spleen. The size and development of the giant intrapelvic spleen are unusual. The usefulness of functional images to diagnosis the nature of the intrapelvic mass is well demonstrated. (orig.)

  6. Contrasting feature in the repopulation of host-type T cells in the spleens of F1----P and P----F1 radiation bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.; Kubo, S.; Kamisaku, H.; Utsuyama, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regeneration and persistence of host- and donor-derived T cells were examined in the thymus as well as the spleen of mouse radiation bone marrow chimeras of two semiallogeneic combinations (F1----P, P----F1) with different Thy-1 markers on T cells of donor and host origins. An unexpectedly large number of host-type T cells were recovered from the spleens of F1----P chimeras, amounting to as high as 45 and 25% of total T cells at 6 and 14 weeks after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), respectively. To the contrary, the residual host-type T cells in the spleens of P----F1 chimeras disappeared quickly, resulting in less than 0.1% of total T cells at 6 weeks after BMT. It was also revealed that the number of host-type T cells in the spleens of F1----P chimeras decreased in proportion to increase of radiation dose given to the recipients

  7. Comparative investigations about the DNA synthesis by thymus and spleen cells of rats in vitro under the influence of X-rays, UV radiation and radiomimetic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Schmerold, I.; Pfahler, W.; Goette, A.

    1984-06-01

    In order to further characterize the different repairing behavior of thymus and spleen cells of rats in vitro under the influence of X-rays, UV radiation and methylmethanesulfonate (MMS), the effect of bleomycine (BM), L-cysteine (CY-E), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), I-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC), dideoxythymidine (ddT), and novobiocine (NB) on the semiconservative and restorative DNA synthesis as well as on the behavior of DNA under the alkaline elution was studied. The semiconservative DNA synthesis was inhibited by all examined agents except ddT, the restorative DNA synthesis only by NEM, araC, and NB. The stimulation of the restorative DNA synthesis was increased by UV radiation and MMS in spleen cells and by X-rays, BM and CY-E in thymus cells. Under the conditions of alkaline elution, there was a more sensitive reaction of spleen cells than of thymus cells to X-rays, BM and CY-E. The results show that thymus cells are especially qualified for the repair of short chains and spleen cells for the repair of long chains.

  8. The Spleen: A forgotten organ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillon German; Montoya Maria del Pilar; Echeverri Santiago

    2010-01-01

    The spleen has traditionally been regarded as an orphan organ. Its embryological development is described together with the digestive system, although it is not part of the gastrointestinal tract. Its main function is during the early fetal development when it produces both red and white blood cells, losing this function during the late fetal life. Nevertheless, the spleen continues to work as a filter for blood cells and also has important immune functions. As it is not necessary for the preservation of vital life functions, the spleen receives limited attention by both radiologists and clinicians. It is, however, an organ with multiple pathological conditions that have representation in the different diagnostic imaging modalities; radiologists, therefore, must be aware of these conditions and their radiological characteristics. This article provides a diagnostic approach to the most common diseases affecting the spleen using tomography and magnetic resonance.

  9. CD4/CD8/Dendritic cell complexes in the spleen: CD8+ T cells can directly bind CD4+ T cells and modulate their response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinov, Aleksandr; Galgano, Alessia; Krenn, Gerald; Tanchot, Corinne; Vasseur, Florence

    2017-01-01

    CD4+ T cell help to CD8+ T cell responses requires that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells interact with the same antigen presenting dendritic cell (Ag+DC), but it remains controversial whether helper signals are delivered indirectly through a licensed DC and/or involve direct CD4+/CD8+ T cell contacts and/or the formation of ternary complexes. We here describe the first in vivo imaging of the intact spleen, aiming to evaluate the first interactions between antigen-specific CD4+, CD8+ T cells and Ag+DCs. We show that in contrast to CD4+ T cells which form transient contacts with Ag+DC, CD8+ T cells form immediate stable contacts and activate the Ag+DC, acquire fragments of the DC membranes by trogocytosis, leading to their acquisition of some of the DC properties. They express MHC class II, and become able to present the specific Marilyn peptide to naïve Marilyn CD4+ T cells, inducing their extensive division. In vivo, these CD8+ T cells form direct stable contacts with motile naïve CD4+ T cells, recruiting them to Ag+DC binding and to the formation of ternary complexes, where CD4+ and CD8+ T cells interact with the DC and with one another. The presence of CD8+ T cells during in vivo immune responses leads to the early activation and up-regulation of multiple functions by CD4+ T lymphocytes. Thus, while CD4+ T cell help is important to CD8+ T cell responses, CD8+ T cells can interact directly with naïve CD4+ T cells impacting their recruitment and differentiation. PMID:28686740

  10. Life span, testis damage and immune cell populations of spleen in C57BL mice with neutron irradiation by lying flat pose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; kim, Myung Sup; Kyung, Yoo Bo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea)

    2003-10-01

    This study deals with the biological effects of black mouse (C57BL) irradiated with neutron irradiation by using Boron Neutron Capture Therapy facility in HANARO reactor. These include mortality, body wt., hair color, testis volume, sperm count and immune cell populations in mouse spleen after 80 days later by thermal neutron irradiation. Six week old C57BL male mice were irradiated with neutron irradiation for 1 hr or 2 hrs (flux : 1.036739E +09). These irradiat ion doses estimated 15Gy and 30Gy, respectively. Survival days and hair color in mice was checked. On day 80 after irradiation, testis were taken for volume and sperm count. Also spleen was taken for FACS and spleen cells were isolatd and discarded RBC by treating with lysising solution. These cells were placed on ice and immunofluorescence staining was performed. Phycoerythrin (PE )-anti-CD3e, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-anti-CD4, and FITC-anti-CD8 were added, then the immunostaining cells were incubated on ice for 40 min. The resulting cells were washed with a PBS buffer 3 times and analyzed using a Flow cytometer. All experimental animals survived over 90 days but in case of 30 Gy neutron irradiation, black mice hair were changed white color on the center of the back. Neutron irradiation of black mice show similar in damage of spleen immune cells by subpopulation of T helper and T cytotoxic cells compared to the control non - irradiated group. These results show that treatment of neutron irradiation without boron compounds for 2 hrs in mice can survive over 90 days with hair color change from black to white. Damaged spleen cells recover after long time by irradiation but testis volume and no. of sperm are not recover compared to the normal group in response to neutron irradiation.

  11. Life span, testis damage and immune cell populations of spleen in C57BL mice with neutron irradiation by lying flat pose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ki Jung; kim, Myung Sup; Kyung, Yoo Bo

    2003-01-01

    This study deals with the biological effects of black mouse (C57BL) irradiated with neutron irradiation by using Boron Neutron Capture Therapy facility in HANARO reactor. These include mortality, body wt., hair color, testis volume, sperm count and immune cell populations in mouse spleen after 80 days later by thermal neutron irradiation. Six week old C57BL male mice were irradiated with neutron irradiation for 1 hr or 2 hrs (flux : 1.036739E +09). These irradiat ion doses estimated 15Gy and 30Gy, respectively. Survival days and hair color in mice was checked. On day 80 after irradiation, testis were taken for volume and sperm count. Also spleen was taken for FACS and spleen cells were isolatd and discarded RBC by treating with lysising solution. These cells were placed on ice and immunofluorescence staining was performed. Phycoerythrin (PE )-anti-CD3e, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-anti-CD4, and FITC-anti-CD8 were added, then the immunostaining cells were incubated on ice for 40 min. The resulting cells were washed with a PBS buffer 3 times and analyzed using a Flow cytometer. All experimental animals survived over 90 days but in case of 30 Gy neutron irradiation, black mice hair were changed white color on the center of the back. Neutron irradiation of black mice show similar in damage of spleen immune cells by subpopulation of T helper and T cytotoxic cells compared to the control non - irradiated group. These results show that treatment of neutron irradiation without boron compounds for 2 hrs in mice can survive over 90 days with hair color change from black to white. Damaged spleen cells recover after long time by irradiation but testis volume and no. of sperm are not recover compared to the normal group in response to neutron irradiation

  12. Comparative Ultrastructure of Langerhans-Like Cells in Spleens of Ray-Finned Fishes (Actinopterygii)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lovy, J.; Wright, G. M.; Speare, D. J.; Tyml, Tomáš; Dyková, Iva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 271, č. 10 (2010), s. 1229-1239 ISSN 0362-2525 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : fish * cyprinidae * halibut * dendritic cells * Langerhans cell * Birbeck granules * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.773, year: 2010

  13. Hybrid polymer-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Merhari, L.

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials made from organic conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductors such as metal oxides attract considerable interest for photovoltaic applications. Hybrid polymer-inorganic solar cells offer the opportunity to combine the beneficial properties of the two materials in charge

  14. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Crossland, Edward J. W.; Kamperman, Marleen; Nedelcu, Mihaela; Ducati, Caterina; Wiesner, Ulrich; Smilgies, Detlef -M.; Toombes, Gilman E. S.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; Ludwigs, Sabine; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided

  15. Radiosensitivity of hemopoietic stem cells on cloning in bone marrow and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, V.N.; Shafirkin, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    It was shown that population of stem cells from bone marrow of mice is heterogenous by radiosensitivity. A 55%-survival of CFU is exponential function of radiation dose (D 0 -9 rad). A dose-effect curve for radioresistant part of the population (D 0 =180 rad) is sygmoid (Dsub(q)=130 rad). Radiosensitive CFU are suggested to represent a primarily committed fraction of half-semi cells, and radioresistant CFU are referable to a pool of pluripotent stem cells. Heterogenous nature of CFU population is proved with different modifications of radiation effect and interactions of CFU with T-lymphocytes

  16. Immunity to Babesia in mice I. Adoptive transfer of immunity to Babesia rodhaini with immune spleen cells and the effect of irradiation on the protection of immune mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuil, H.; Zivkovic, D.; Seinen, W.; Albers-van Bemmel, C.M.G.; Speksnijder, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Immunisation of Balb/c mice against Babesia rodhaini by an amicarbalide- controlled infection resulted in a solid immunity which lasted for 216 days. With spleen cells of immune mice protection could be transferred both to naive mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide. Treatment of naive mice with

  17. Electrophoretic separation of cells and particles from rat pituitary and rat spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.

    1993-01-01

    There are 3 parts to the IML-2 TX-101 experiment. Part 1 is a pituitary cell culture experiment. Part 2 is a pituitary cell separation experiment using the Japanese free flow electrophoresis unit (FFEU). Part 3 is a pituitary secretory granule separation experiment using the FFEU. The objectives of this three part experiment are: (1) to determine the kinetics of production of biologically active growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) in rat pituitary GH and PRL cells in microgravity (micro-g); (2) to investigate three mechanisms by which a micro-g-induced lesion in hormone production may occur; and (3) to determine the quality of separations of pituitary cells and organelles by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE) in micro-g under conditions where buoyancy-induced convection is eliminated.

  18. Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mitchell, Sally [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore (United States); Keefer, Jeffrey [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Department of Pediatrics, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Mitchell, Sally; Keefer, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. The influence of some prostaglandins on DNA synthesis and DNA excision repair in mouse spleen cells ''in vitro''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, W.; Altmann, H.; Kocsis, F.; Egg, D.; Guenther, R.

    1978-03-01

    ''In vitro'' experiments were performed on mouse spleen cells to establish possible influences of some naturally occurring prostaglandins on DNA synthesis and DNA excision repair. The prostaglandins A 1 , B 1 , E 1 , E 2 and Fsub(2α) were tested in concentrations of 10 pg, 5 ng and 2,5μg per ml cell suspension. DNA synthesis was significantly increased by PgFsub(2α) in all the three concentrations tested, while the other tested prostaglandins were essentially ineffective. DNA excision repair was significantly inhibited by PgE 1 and PgE 2 at 5 ng/ml and at 2,5 μg/ml but increased by PgFsub(2α) in the two lower concentrations. The rejoining of DNA-strand breaks after gamma-irradiation was slightly reduced by PgE 1 , PgE 2 and PgF 2 at 2,5 μg/ml. (author)

  1. Sedimentation of nucleoids from thymus and spleen cells of rats after X-irradiation in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    The reaction to irradiation of thymocytes was tested immediately and 6 hours after whole body X-irradiation of rats with doses from 190 cGy up to 1520 cGy by nucleoid sedimentation. For comparison, examinations of thymus and spleen cells after X-irradiation in vitro were done. Preliminary analyses should find a possible coergism between X-rays on one side and hyperthermia and inhibitors of DNA-synthesis or DNA-repair (cytosinearabinoside, dideoxythymidine, 3-amino-benzamide, ethidiumbromide, and novobiocine) on the other side. From the results the following conclusions may be drawn: 1) With respect to the detection of in vivo effects of X-irradiation, the nucleoid sedimentation is less sensitive than biochemical methods. 2) Some hours after sublethal X-irradiation in vivo, free DNA and/or polydesoxyribonucleotides appear. At the same time cross-links can be detected in the chromatin fraction. 3) The reduction of the nucleoid sedimentation immediately after high doses of whole-body irradiation is the result of primary DNA lesions. The changes detectable some hours after are due to the secondary enzymatic changes, that are connected with the interphase death of thymocytes, and coincide with the present opinions about the irradiation induced apoptosis of cells. (orig./ECB) [de

  2. Reliable cloning of functional antibody variable domains from hybridomas and spleen cell repertoires employing a reengineered phage display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebber, A; Bornhauser, S; Burmester, J; Honegger, A; Willuda, J; Bosshard, H R; Plückthun, A

    1997-02-14

    A prerequisite for the use of recombinant antibody technologies starting from hybridomas or immune repertoires is the reliable cloning of functional immunoglobulin genes. For this purpose, a standard phage display system was optimized for robustness, vector stability, tight control of scFv-delta geneIII expression, primer usage for PCR amplification of variable region genes, scFv assembly strategy and subsequent directional cloning using a single rare cutting restriction enzyme. This integrated cloning, screening and selection system allowed us to rapidly obtain antigen binding scFvs derived from spleen-cell repertoires of mice immunized with ampicillin as well as from all hybridoma cell lines tested to date. As representative examples, cloning of monoclonal antibodies against a his tag, leucine zippers, the tumor marker EGP-2 and the insecticide DDT is presented. Several hybridomas whose genes could not be cloned in previous experimental setups, but were successfully obtained with the present system, expressed high amounts of aberrant heavy and light chain mRNAs, which were amplified by PCR and greatly exceeded the amount of binding antibody sequences. These contaminating variable region genes were successfully eliminated by employing the optimized phage display system, thus avoiding time consuming sequencing of non-binding scFv genes. To maximize soluble expression of functional scFvs subsequent to cloning, a compatible vector series to simplify modification, detection, multimerization and rapid purification of recombinant antibody fragments was constructed.

  3. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Inmaculada; San Martin, Jose Javier; Aperribay, Victor; Eguia, Pablo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda. de Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations to form hybrid systems, including hydrogen, renewable energies, gas cycles, vapour cycles or both. Nowadays, these technologies are mainly used for energy production in electrical microgrids. Some examples of these technologies are: hybridization processes of fuel cells with wind turbines and photovoltaic plants, cogeneration and trigeneration processes that can be configured with fuel cell technologies, etc. This paper reviews and analyses the main characteristics of electrical microgrids and the systems based on fuel cells for polygeneration and hybridization processes. (author)

  4. A hybrid mammalian cell cycle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Noël

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid modeling provides an effective solution to cope with multiple time scales dynamics in systems biology. Among the applications of this method, one of the most important is the cell cycle regulation. The machinery of the cell cycle, leading to cell division and proliferation, combines slow growth, spatio-temporal re-organisation of the cell, and rapid changes of regulatory proteins concentrations induced by post-translational modifications. The advancement through the cell cycle comprises a well defined sequence of stages, separated by checkpoint transitions. The combination of continuous and discrete changes justifies hybrid modelling approaches to cell cycle dynamics. We present a piecewise-smooth version of a mammalian cell cycle model, obtained by hybridization from a smooth biochemical model. The approximate hybridization scheme, leading to simplified reaction rates and binary event location functions, is based on learning from a training set of trajectories of the smooth model. We discuss several learning strategies for the parameters of the hybrid model.

  5. CD11c-positive cells from brain, spleen, lung, and liver exhibit site-specific immune phenotypes and plastically adapt to new environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immig, Kerstin; Gericke, Martin; Menzel, Franziska; Merz, Felicitas; Krueger, Martin; Schiefenhövel, Fridtjof; Lösche, Andreas; Jäger, Kathrin; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Biber, Knut; Bechmann, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The brain's immune privilege has been also attributed to the lack of dendritic cells (DC) within its parenchyma and the adjacent meninges, an assumption, which implies maintenance of antigens rather than their presentation in lymphoid organs. Using mice transcribing the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the DC marker CD11c (itgax), we identified a juxtavascular population of cells expressing this DC marker and demonstrated their origin from bone marrow and local microglia. We now phenotypically compared this population with CD11c/CD45 double-positive cells from lung, liver, and spleen in healthy mice using seven-color flow cytometry. We identified unique, site-specific expression patterns of F4/80, CD80, CD86, CX3CR1, CCR2, FLT3, CD103, and MHC-II. Furthermore, we observed the two known CD45-positive populations (CD45(high) and CD45(int) ) in the brain, whereas liver, lung, and spleen exhibited a homogeneous CD45(high) population. CD11c-positive microglia lacked MHC-II expression and CD45(high) /CD11c-positive cells from the brain have a lower percentage of MHC-II-positive cells. To test whether phenotypical differences are fixed by origin or specifically develop due to environmental factors, we transplanted brain and spleen mononuclear cells on organotypic slice cultures from brain (OHSC) and spleen (OSSC). We demonstrate that adaption and ramification of MHC-II-positive splenocytes is paralleled by down-regulation of MHC-II, whereas brain-derived mononuclear cells neither ramified nor up-regulated MHC-II in OSSCs. Thus, brain-derived mononuclear cells maintain their MHC-II-negative phenotype within the environment of an immune organ. Intraparenchymal CD11c-positive cells share immunophenotypical characteristics of DCs from other organs but remain unique for their low MHC-II expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dynamic changes of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in spleen and brain of canine distemper virus-infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qeska, V; Barthel, Y; Iseringhausen, M; Tipold, A; Stein, V M; Khan, M A; Baumgärtner, W; Beineke, A

    2013-12-15

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection causes immunosuppression and demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs. In viral diseases, an ambiguous function of regulatory T cells (Treg), with both beneficial effects by reducing immunopathology and detrimental effects by inhibiting antiviral immunity, has been described. However, the role of Treg in the pathogenesis of canine distemper remains unknown. In order to determine the effect of CDV upon immune homeostasis, the amount of Foxp3(+) Treg in spleen and brain of naturally infected dogs has been determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, splenic cytokine expression has been quantified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Splenic depletion of Foxp3(+) Treg was associated with an increased mRNA-expression of tumor necrosis factor and decreased transcription of interleukin-2 in the acute disease phase, indicative of disturbed immunological counter regulation in peripheral lymphoid organs. In the brain, a lack of Foxp3(+) Treg in predemyelinating and early demyelinating lesions and significantly increased infiltrations of Foxp3(+) Treg in chronic demyelinating lesions were observed. In conclusion, disturbed peripheral and CNS immune regulation associated with a reduction of Treg represents a potential prerequisite for excessive neuroinflammation and early lesion development in canine distemper leukoencephalitis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strain differences in the expression of an H-2K/sup k/ gene product by epidermal and spleen cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, G.A.; Steinmuller, D.

    1986-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) directed against Epa-1, a non-H-2 alloantigen expressed by epidermal cells (EC) but no lymphoid cells, lyse EC of different H-2/sup k/, Epa-1 + strains at different levels. For example, the mean percent lysis values for EC of strains CBA, AKR, C58, and RF are 60, 46, 41, and 35 respectively. Since the CTL used to obtain these values recognize Epa-1 only in the context of H-2K/sup k/, the different levels of lysis could reflect differences in either Epa-1 or K/sup k/ antigens. The goal of this investigation was to test the second alternative. For this purpose, the authors obtained hybridoma 16-1-11N that secretes a K/sup k/-specific MoAb. They first demonstrated the capacity of MoAb 16-1-11N to block the lysis of CBA EC by Epa-1-specific CTL. They then utilized it as the probe in a cellar RIA, with 125 I-protein A as the second reagent, to quantitate the expression of K/sup k/ antigens on EC of strains CBA, AKR, C58, and RF. They found that C58 and RF EC bound significantly less of the K/sup k/ MoAb than CBA EC. Although AKR EC also bound less of the MoAb than CBA EC, the difference was not significant. Nonetheless, these data support the hypothesis that the differential susceptibility of the strains to lysis by Epa-1-specific CTL is due to differences in the expression of the H-2 restricting element. The authors also tested spleen cells (SC) of the four strains in the RIA described above and found that SC of RF, but not of C58 or AKR, express reduced levels of K/sup k/ antigens compared to CBA SC

  8. [Morpho-functional reaction of spleen natural killer cells and macrophages to melatonin administration to the animals kept on different illumination regimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatskikh, O A; Luzikova, E M

    2012-01-01

    The aim this investigation was to study the changes in the numbers of spleen CD57+ and CD68+ cells (natural killer cells and macrophages respectively) after melatonin administration to the animals kept on different illumination regimens. The experimental animals were given melatonin in dose of 0.03 mg per day for 2 and 4 weeks under conditions of natural illumination or artificial darkening. Spleen paraffin sections were stained using immunohistochemical methods for detection of CD57+ and CD68+ cells. It was shown that long-term administration of melatonin under conditions of natural illumination had an immunosuppressive effect, that was manifested by the depopulation of the marginal zones, white pulp and all the zones of the red pulp, parenchyma loosening and denudation of the reticular stroma of the organ. However, long-term hormone administration under conditions of artificial darkening had an immunostimulatory effect as evidenced by the increased inflow of immunocompetent cells into the spleen, their migration from the white pulp into the marginal zones and emigration into peripheral blood flow, concomitant with the increase in the number of lymphoid nodules. The number of CD57+ and CD68+ cells was increased in splenic periarterial lymphoid sheaths and decreased in B-dependent zones of the organ.

  9. Neonatal microbial colonization in mice promotes prolonged dominance of CD11b+Gr-1+cells and accelerated establishment of the CD4+T cell population in the spleen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Bergström, Anders

    2015-01-01

    To assess the microbial influence on postnatal hematopoiesis, we examined the role of early life microbial colonization on the composition of leukocyte subsets in the neonatal spleen. A high number of CD11b+Gr-1+ splenocytes present perinatally was sustained for a longer period in conventionally...... event, which we suggest impacts the subsequent development of the T cell population in the murine spleen....

  10. Thymosin alpha 1 (Ta-1) induction of spleen cell proliferation and production of interleukin 2 (IL2) after irradiation-induced depression of systematic cellular immunity (SCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.C.; Revie, D.R.; Oliver, J.H.; Hasslinger, B.J.; Suter, C.M.; Blanchard, C.L.; Goldstein, A.L.; Chretien, P.B.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the effects of Ta-1 on recovery from irradiation induced depression of SCI, C3H mice were given 400 rads (240kV) on each of 3 alternate days via head, chest and pelvic portals and assays performed 2 days after the last exposure. Compared with shams, total spleen cell counts and production of IL2, total peripheral blood lymphocyte and T-cell levels, and delayed type hypersensitivity to oxazolone (DTH-O) were all similarly depressed in the three portal groups (p < .0001). Following optimum doses of Ta-1, administered daily starting with the first day of irradiation, DTH-O in the head and chest groups was restored, but in the pelvic group was only partially corrected. Changes in total spleen cell counts and IL2 production paralleled and covaried with DTH-O (p < .0001). The results offer IL2 induced lymphocyte proliferation as a reparative mechanism after radiation-induced depression of SCI. The incomplete restoration of SCI in the pelvic group suggests that generation of IL2-producing spleen cells by Ta-1 requires pelvic and other bone marrow lymphocyte precursors

  11. Detection of immunoglobulins containing plasma cells in the thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen of vaccinated broiler chickens with Newcastle disease virus vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Masum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobilization of immunoglobulins (Igs-containing plasma cells (IgA, IgG and IgM in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus was investigated in broiler chickens that were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV vaccine. In the thymus, the Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed in the cortex and medulla. Their frequency and distribution were higher at D14 and at D28. The number of IgG- and IgM-positive cells was greater than IgA-positive cells in thymus. In the bursa of Fabricius, Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed beneath the capsules; within and around the bursal follicles. Their frequency of occurrence significantly peaked at D14 and at D28 in comparison to day-old chickens, and IgG-positive cells were significantly greater than the IgA- and IgM-positive cells in the bursa of vaccinated chickens. In the spleen, Igs-containing plasma cells were distributed in the white pulp, around the trabeculae, and in the periarterial lymphatic sheath. In this secondary lymphatic tissue, IgG- and IgM-positive cell numbers significantly greater than IgA-positive cells. In conclusion, mobilization of more Igs-positive cells in lymphoid tissues of broiler chickens is due to the effect of NDV vaccine as well as the advancement of age.

  12. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  13. The retrorenal spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, K.D.; Chantelois, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    An uncommon but potentially disastrous situation for invasive percutaneous renal procedures is the placement of the spleen behind the upper left renal pole. The authors termed this unique anatomic variant ''retrorenal spleen.'' Recently the authors reviewed the CT studies of 85 patients 16-85 years of age scanned in both the supine and prone positions. The relationship of the left kidney and spleen was evaluated. The overall frequency of retrorenal spleen was 12.7% for the supine and 17.9% for the prone studies. Careful correlation was made between the supine and prone studies with respect to the changing anatomic relationship of the kidney and spleen. In addition, the position of the suprarenal spleen was also evaluated in an effort to determine the safety of the subcostal approach

  14. Hybrid solar cells : Perovskites under the Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, Maria Antonietta; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-halide organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites are reported to display electron–hole diffusion lengths over 1 μm. This observation provides important insight into the charge-carrier dynamics of this class of semiconductors and increases the expectations for highly efficient and cheap solar cells.

  15. BAFF induces spleen CD4+ T cell proliferation by down-regulating phosphorylation of FOXO3A and activates cyclin D2 and D3 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Fang; Chen, Rongjing; Liu, Baojun; Zhang, Xiaoping; Han, Junli; Wang, Haining; Shen, Gang; Tao, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Firstly analyze the mechanism of BAFF and anti-CD3 co-stimulation on purified mouse splenic CD4 + T cells. ► Carrying out siRNA technology to study FOXO3A protein function. ► Helpful to understand the T cell especially CD4 + T cell‘s role in immunological reaction. -- Abstract: The TNF ligand family member “B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family” (BAFF, also called BLyS, TALL-1, zTNF-4, and THANK) is an important survival factor for B and T cells. In this study, we show that BAFF is able to induce CD4 + spleen T cell proliferation when co-stimulated with anti-CD3. Expression of phosphorylated FOXO3A was notably down-regulated and cyclins D2 and D3 were up-regulated and higher in the CD4 + T cells when treated with BAFF and anti-CD3, as assessed by Western blotting. Furthermore, after FOXO3A was knocked down, expression of cyclin D1 was unchanged, compared with control group levels, but the expression of cyclins D2 and D3 increased, compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that BAFF induced CD4 + spleen T cell proliferation by down-regulating the phosphorylation of FOXO3A and then activating cyclin D2 and D3 expression, leading to CD4 + T cell proliferation.

  16. Rapid activation of spleen dendritic cell subsets following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection of mice: analysis of the involvement of type 1 IFN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Maria; Edwards, Matthew J; Reid, Delyth M; Borrow, Persephone

    2005-02-15

    In this study, we report the dynamic changes in activation and functions that occur in spleen dendritic cell (sDC) subsets following infection of mice with a natural murine pathogen, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Within 24 h postinfection (pi), sDCs acquired the ability to stimulate naive LCMV-specific CD8+ T cells ex vivo. Conventional (CD11chigh CD8+ and CD4+) sDC subsets rapidly up-regulated expression of costimulatory molecules and began to produce proinflammatory cytokines. Their tendency to undergo apoptosis ex vivo simultaneously increased, and in vivo the number of conventional DCs in the spleen decreased markedly, dropping approximately 2-fold by day 3 pi. Conversely, the number of plasmacytoid (CD11clowB220+) DCs in the spleen increased, so that they constituted almost 40% of sDCs by day 3 pi. Type 1 IFN production was up-regulated in plasmacytoid DCs by 24 h pi. Analysis of DC activation and maturation in mice unable to respond to type 1 IFNs implicated these cytokines in driving infection-associated phenotypic activation of conventional DCs and their enhanced tendency to undergo apoptosis, but also indicated the existence of type 1 IFN-independent pathways for the functional maturation of DCs during LCMV infection.

  17. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  18. Influence of x-rays and UV-light on the presence of oncogene proteins in spleen cells of leukemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic Hadzija, M.; Poljak Blazi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Proto-oncogenes are involved in growth, defferentiation and proliferation of normal cells, and in process of neoplastic transformation. In genome of normal cells, exist also tumor-suppressor genes, which contribute to cancer when they are inactivated. Those genes are target for carcinogenesis provoked by radiation. However, species specific genetic factors are important in determing which, if any, gene will be transformed by radiation. It is possible to presume that oncogenes are involved in the development of radioresistant phenotype of ML. Because of that, we examined the presence of c-myc protein in ML cells during the growth of ML and after the irradiation of these cells. Also, we examined the presence of tumor-suppressor protein p53, because inactivation or loss of p53 gene is in connection with transformation of cells. ML is strain specific for RFM mice. Spleen cells were tested 9 (nonterminal phase NTP) or 12 days (terminal phase TP) after inoculation of ML. Cells from NTP were also irradiate with x-rays or UV-light. C-myc protein expresse 74.98% spleen cells of healthy RFM mice. Wild type of p53 protein was detected in 60% of these cells, but mp53 was found in only 5.3% of cells. These results could be explained by the role of c-myc and p53 proteins in regulation of biologic processes. A few spleen cells of NTP expressed c-myc (15%) and mp53 (9.6%) proteins. But, in the same phase higher expressions of wp53 protein (30.5%) was found. On the other hand, the number of c-myc positive cells in TP of leukemia explanation lies in connection of c-myc protein and process of programmed cell death (apoptosis). During growth of ML the number of mp53 positive cells increased (to 47.8%), but wp53 positive cells decreased (to13.4%9). Both types of irradiation provoked strong activation of cellular c-myc gene in ML cells of NTP. We found about 95% c-myc positive cells after x-rays and 93% after UV-light

  19. Splenocyte proliferation, NK cell activation and cytokines production by extract of Scrophularia variegata; an in vitro study on mice spleen cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Azadmehr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Scrophularia variegata M. Beib. (Scrophulariaceae is a medicinal plant, used for various inflammatory diseases in Iranian Traditional Medicine. In the present study, we evaluated the immune modulation and antioxidant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of S.  variegata. Methods: The splenocytes were harvested from the spleen of Balb/c mice and were cultured. The splenocyte proliferation, NK cell activity, cytokines production and antioxidant effects were evaluated by MTT assay, enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and DPPH assay, respectively. Results: The S. variegata extract significantly increased splenocyte proliferation. The results indicated that the extract increased NK cell cytotoxicity of Yac-1 tumor cells and at the concentration of 50-200 µg/mL significantly increased IFN-γ and IL-2 cytokines, although the level of IL-4 cytokine was significantly reduced. The antioxidant activity was observed in the extract with IC50 302.34±0.11 μg/mL.Conclusion: The increasing in the splenocyte proliferation, anti-tumor NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion were indicated as potent immunomodulatory effects. These results suggest that S. variegata could be considered in the treatment of immunopathological disorders such as allergy and cancer; however, future studies are necessary.

  20. Low-dose synergistic immunosuppression of T-dependent antibody responses by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and arsenic in C57BL/6J murine spleen cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qian; Lauer, Fredine T.; Liu Kejian; Hudson, Laurie G.; Burchiel, Scott W.

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and arsenic are both environmental agents that are known to have significant immunotoxicity. Previous studies have shown that PAH exposure of spleen cells in vitro produces significant immune suppression of humoral immunity, especially when P450 activation products are examined. Exposure to arsenic, particularly sodium arsenite, has also been found to be suppressive to antibody responses in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of the present studies was to examine the immunotoxicity of PAHs and arsenite following coexposures with the theory being that the agents may exert synergistic actions, which might be based on their different mechanisms of action. Spleen cells were isolated from male C57BL/6J wild-type mice and treated with PAHs and/or arsenic (arsenite or arsenate). Immunotoxicity assays were used to assess the T-dependent antibody response (TDAR) to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), measured by a direct plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay. Cell viability was measured by trypan blue staining. Spleen cell viability was not altered following 4 days of PAH and/or arsenic treatment. However, the TDAR demonstrated suppression by both PAHs and arsenic in a concentration-dependent manner. p53 was also induced by NaAsO 2 (As 3+ ) and PAHs alone or in combination. The PAHs and their metabolites investigated included benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), BaP-7,8-diol, BaP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), DMBA-3,4-diol, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). PAH metabolites were found to be more potent than parent compounds in producing immunosuppression and inducing p53 expression. Interestingly, DB[a,l]P, a potent carcinogenic PAH not previously characterized for immunotoxicity, was also found to be strongly immunosuppressive. Arsenite (NaAsO 2 , As 3+ ) was found to produce immunosuppression at concentrations as low as 0.5 μM and was immunosuppressive at a 10-fold lower concentration than sodium arsenate (Na 2 HAsO 4 , As 5

  1. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo

    2012-06-13

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo; Garnett, Erik C.; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui; Brongersma, Mark L.; McGehee, Michael D.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. The nature of tolerance in adult recipient mice made tolerant of alloantigens with supralethal irradiation followed by syngeneic bone marrow cell transplantation plus injection of F1 spleen cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y.; Himeno, K.; Mayumi, H.; Tokuda, N.; Nomoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    The length of time after syngeneic bone marrow reconstitution when tolerance to alloantigens can be induced in adult mice during T cell differentiation from bone marrow cells was studied by exposing those T cells to (recipient x donor)F1 spleen cells. Supralethally irradiated C3H/He Slc(C3H; H-2k) mice were reconstituted with 1 x 10(7) syngeneic T cell-depleted bone marrow cells and then injected intravenously with 5 x 10(7) (C3H x C57BL/6[B6])F1 (B6C3F1; H-2bxk) or (C3H x AKR/J[AKR])F1 (AKC3F1; H-2kxk) spleen cells at various intervals. In the fully allogeneic combination of B6C3F1----C3H, EL-4 tumor originating from B6 was accepted, and survival of grafted B6 skin was significantly prolonged in the tolerant C3H mice treated with irradiation on day -1 followed by injection of syngeneic bone marrow cells on day 0 plus B6C3F1 spleen cells on days 0, 5, or 10, in a tolerogen-specific manner. In the multiminor histocompatibility antigen-disparate combination of AKC3F1----C3H, AKR skin grafts were permanently accepted in the tolerant C3H mice treated with AKC3F1 spleen cells on days 0, 5, 10, or 15. Immunological parameters, including cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and delayed foot-pad reaction (DFR), were almost completely suppressed in C3H mice made tolerant of B6 or AKR antigens. A chimeric assay using a direct immunofluorescence method revealed that the tolerant C3H mice given B6C3F1 spleen cells on day 0 were mixed-chimeric for at least 8 weeks after syngeneic bone marrow reconstitution, but not definitely chimeric thereafter. The C3H mice given AKC3F1 spleen cells on day 0 were chimeric even 43 weeks after syngeneic bone marrow reconstitution, but the C3H mice given AKC3F1 spleen cells on day 15 showed temporal chimerism that disappeared within 43 weeks. The untolerant mice were never detectably chimeric

  4. Arsenic interferes with the signaling transduction pathway of T cell receptor activation by increasing basal and induced phosphorylation of Lck and Fyn in spleen cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Pena, Gerson A.; Vega, Libia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is known to produce inhibition as well as induction of immune cells proliferative responses depending on the doses as one of its mechanisms of immunotoxicity. Here we evaluate the effect of arsenic exposure on the activation of splenic mononuclear cells (SMC) in male CD57BL6N mice. Intra-gastric exposure to arsenic (as sodium arsenite) for 30 days (1, 0.1, or 0.01 mg/kg/day), reduced the proportion of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the spleen, increasing the proportion of CD11b+ cells. Arsenic exposure did not modify the proportion of B cells. SMC showed an increased level of phosphorylation of lck and fyn kinases (first kinases associated to TCR complex when activated). Although normal levels of apoptosis were observed on freshly isolated SMC, an increase in apoptotic cells related with the increase in phosphorylation of lck and fyn was observed when SMC were activated with Concanavalin-A (Con-A). Arsenic exposure reduced the proliferative response of SMC to Con-A, and also reduced secretion of IL-2, IL-6, IL-12 and IFNγ. No effect was observed on IL-4, and IL-10 secretion. The same effects were observed when SMC of exposed animals were activated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies for 24 h, but these effects were transitory since a recovery, up to control levels or even higher, were observed after 72 h of stimulation. This study demonstrates that repeated and prolonged exposure to arsenic alters cell populations and produces functional changes depending on the specific activation pathway, and could be related with the phosphorylation status of lck and fyn kinases

  5. Analysis of fuel cell hybrid locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Arnold R. [Vehicle Projects LLC, 621, 17th Street, Suite 2131, Denver, CO 80293 (United States); Peters, John; Smith, Brian E. [Transportation Technology Center Inc., 55500 DOT Road, Pueblo, CO 81007 (United States); Velev, Omourtag A. [AeroVironment Inc., 232 West Maple Avenue, Monrovia, CA 91016 (United States)

    2006-07-03

    Led by Vehicle Projects LLC, an international industry-government consortium is developing a 109t, 1.2MW road-switcher locomotive for commercial and military railway applications. As part of the feasibility and conceptual-design analysis, a study has been made of the potential benefits of a hybrid power plant in which fuel cells comprise the prime mover and a battery or flywheel provides auxiliary power. The potential benefits of a hybrid power plant are: (i) enhancement of transient power and hence tractive effort; (ii) regenerative braking; (iii) reduction of capital cost. Generally, the tractive effort of a locomotive at low speed is limited by wheel adhesion and not by available power. Enhanced transient power is therefore unlikely to benefit a switcher locomotive, but could assist applications that require high acceleration, e.g. subway trains with all axles powered. In most cases, the value of regeneration in locomotives is minimal. For low-speed applications such as switchers, the available kinetic energy and the effectiveness of traction motors as generators are both minimal. For high-speed heavy applications such as freight, the ability of the auxiliary power device to absorb a significant portion of the available kinetic energy is low. Moreover, the hybrid power plant suffers a double efficiency penalty, namely, losses occur in both absorbing and then releasing energy from the auxiliary device, which result in a net storage efficiency of no more than 50% for present battery technology. Capital cost in some applications may be reduced. Based on an observed locomotive duty cycle, a cost model shows that a hybrid power plant for a switcher may indeed reduce capital cost. Offsetting this potential benefit are the increased complexity, weight and volume of the power plant, as well as 20-40% increased fuel consumption that results from lower efficiency. Based on this analysis, the consortium has decided to develop a pure fuel cell road-switcher locomotive, that

  6. Spleen-dependent immune protection elicited by CpG adjuvanted reticulocyte-derived exosomes from malaria infection is associated with T cells population changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Martin-Jaular

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (rex are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Combination of CpG-ODN with rex obtained from BALB/c mice infected with the reticulocyte-prone non-lethal P. yoelii 17X malaria strain (rexPy, had been shown to induce survival and long lasting protection. Here, we show that splenectomized mice are not protected upon rexPy+CpG inmunizations and that protection is restored upon passive transfer of splenocytes obtained from animals immunized with rexPy+CpG. Notably, rexPy immunization of mice induced PD1- memory T cell expansion with effector phenotype. Proteomics analysis of rexPy confirmed their reticulocyte origin and demonstrated the presence of parasite antigens. Our studies thus prove, for what we believe is the first time, that rex from reticulocyte-prone malarial infections are able to induce splenic long-lasting memory responses. To try extrapolating these data to human infections, in vitro experiments with spleen cells of human transplantation donors were performed. Plasma-derived exosomes from vivax malaria patients (exPv were actively uptaken by human splenocytes and stimulated spleen cells leading to expansion of T-cells.

  7. Computerized spleen volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, T.; Mohring, R.; Schertel, L.

    1981-01-01

    We examined in experimental studies and clinical investigations on 34 patients in how far volumetry of the spleen can be carried out with a commonly available program, a whole-body computerized tomograph (SOMATOM) and an analytic equipment (EVALUSKOP). In this connection the authors tried to find also other ways of spleen volumetry by means of this unit combination. Our final result was that the given program for the usage of labelled areas presents itself as the best-suited technique for spleen volumetry which is also applicable in practice. (orig./MG) [de

  8. BAFF induces spleen CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation by down-regulating phosphorylation of FOXO3A and activates cyclin D2 and D3 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Fang; Chen, Rongjing [Department of Orthodontics, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Liu, Baojun [Laboratory of Lung, Inflammation and Cancers, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Xiaoping [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Han, Junli; Wang, Haining [Department of General Dentistry, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Shen, Gang [Department of Orthodontics, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Tao, Jiang, E-mail: taojiang2012@yahoo.cn [Department of General Dentistry, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Firstly analyze the mechanism of BAFF and anti-CD3 co-stimulation on purified mouse splenic CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carrying out siRNA technology to study FOXO3A protein function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Helpful to understand the T cell especially CD4{sup +} T cell's role in immunological reaction. -- Abstract: The TNF ligand family member 'B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family' (BAFF, also called BLyS, TALL-1, zTNF-4, and THANK) is an important survival factor for B and T cells. In this study, we show that BAFF is able to induce CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation when co-stimulated with anti-CD3. Expression of phosphorylated FOXO3A was notably down-regulated and cyclins D2 and D3 were up-regulated and higher in the CD4{sup +} T cells when treated with BAFF and anti-CD3, as assessed by Western blotting. Furthermore, after FOXO3A was knocked down, expression of cyclin D1 was unchanged, compared with control group levels, but the expression of cyclins D2 and D3 increased, compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that BAFF induced CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation by down-regulating the phosphorylation of FOXO3A and then activating cyclin D2 and D3 expression, leading to CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation.

  9. Overview of the Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neisseria meningitidis , and Haemophilus influenzae . Because of this risk, people receive vaccinations to help protect them from infection with these organisms. People should also be sure they receive the influenza vaccine every year, as is now ... the Spleen ...

  10. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a ... are suspected. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Splenectomy? Individual results may vary depending on your overall ...

  11. The study of hemopoietic cells. Effect of prolonged irradiation by low dose rate radiation on the hemopoiesis in the spleen of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirata, Katsutoshi; Yanai, Takanori; Yamada, Yutaka; Saitou, Mikio; Izumi, Jun; Tanaka, Satoshi; Otsu, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Dept. of Radiobiology, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    For evaluation of effects of prolonged irradiation by low dose-rate ionizing radiation on the hemopoiesis of mice, SPF C3H/HeN female mice were irradiated with {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays with doses of 5-8 Gy at the dose rate of 20 mGy/22h-day. After irradiation, the number of hemopoietic cells contained in spleen was determined by the methods of CFU-S and CFU-GM assays, and the number of peripheral blood cells was counted. It was shown that the number of hemopoietic cells (CFU-S colonies and CFU-GM colonies) decreased as dose increased. No remarkable changes in the number of peripheral blood cells, however, were observed. (author)

  12. Immunization with PIII, a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation, affects nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Magalhães de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important effector molecule involved in immune regulation and defense. NO produced by cytokine-activated macrophages was reported to be cytotoxic against the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Identification and characterization of S. mansoni antigens that can provide protective immunity is crucial for understanding the complex immunoregulatory events that modulate the immune response in schistosomiasis. It is, then, essential to have available defined, purified parasite antigens. Previous work by our laboratory identified a fraction of S. mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation (SWAP, named PIII, able to elicit significant in vitro cell proliferation and at the same time lower in vitro and in vivo granuloma formation when compared either to SEA (soluble egg antigen or to SWAP. In the present work we report the effect of different in vivo trials with mice on their spleen cells ability to produce NO. We demonstrate that PIII-immunization is able to significantly increase NO production by spleen cells after in vitro stimulation with LPS. These data suggest a possible role for NO on the protective immunity induced by PIII.

  13. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288519361; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416355; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  14. Mechanisms of tolerance in murine radiation bone marrow chimeras. I. Nonspecific suppression of alloreactivity by spleen cells from early, but not late, chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchincloss, H. Jr.; Sachs, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Allogeneic chimeras were prepared using lethally irradiated B6 hosts and untreated marrow from exsanguinated BALB/c donors. For about two months after reconstitution, chimeras had very weak antihost cell-mediated lymphocytotoxicity (CML) reactivity and little third-party alloreactivity. During this time a cell population capable of suppressing CML reactivity against both host and third-party alloantigens (i.e., antigen-nonspecific) was demonstrated in chimera spleens by in vitro mixing experiments. The putative suppressor cells were Thy-1-negative and radiation-sensitive. Subsequently, mature chimeras showed host tolerance and strong third-party alloreactivity. At this point suppressor mechanisms could no longer be demonstrated. These data are consistent with a clonal elimination hypothesis in that they do not provide evidence to indicate that maintenance of specific immune tolerance is mediated by an active suppressor mechanism

  15. Investigations of the radiosensitivity of enzymes of the NAD metabolism localized in the cell nucleus in the spleen of white mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beisel, P.

    1975-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of enzymes of the NAD metabolism localized in the cell nuclei and of NAD glycohydrolase in the total homogenate of the spleen of white mice was investigated. At the same time the DNA and protein contents were determined. After whole-body irradiation with 510 R, the activity of NAD pyrophosphorylase and NAD glycohydrolase located in the cell nuclei is markedly lower as early as 3 hours after irradiation; this decrease is noticeable until the 10th day after irradiation. With regard to the dose dependence of the radiosensitivity at 6 and 24 hours after irradiation, it was found that NAD pyrophosphorylase and the NAD glycohydrolase localized in the cell nuclei were very radiosensitive even at doses [de

  16. Anti-double strand (ds) DNA antibody formation by NZB/W (F1) spleen cells in a microculture system detected by solid phase radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudaira, H; Terada, E; Ogita, T; Aotsuka, S; Yokohari, R

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay method was devised to detect mouse anti-double strand (ds) DNA antibody. This method could easily detect the anti-dsDNA antibody in 1 : 10,000 dilutions (1 unit) of pooled 9-10-month-old female NZB/W F1 sera. The sensitivity was about 10(3)- and 10(2)-fold higher than that of the modified Farr method and of the double antibody technique respectively. NZB/W mice developed high titer anti-dsDNA antibody as they grew older. Spleen cells brought to a microculture system using flat-bottomed polystyrene plates produced anti-dsDNA antibody clearly detectable by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Anti-dsDNA antibody produced in vitro (y units) was in close correlation with the anti-dsDNA antibody titer of the spleen donor (x units) (y = 4.8 X 10(-2) x -65, gamma = 0.94, P less than 0.001). A combination of the microculture system and solid-phase radioimmunoassay was recommended for the characterization of anti-dsDNA antibody-forming cells.

  17. Anti-double strand (ds) DNA antibody formation by NZB/W (F1) spleen cells in a microculture system detected by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okudaira, H.; Terada, E.; Ogita, T.; Aotsuka, S.; Yokohari, R.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay method was devised to detect mouse anti-double strand (ds) DNA antibody. This method could easily detect the anti-ds DNA antibody in 1 : 10,000 dilutions (1 unit) of pooled 9-10 month-old female NZB/W F1 sera. The sensitivity was about 10 3 and 10 2 -fold higher than that of the modified Farr method and of the double antibody technique respectively. NZB/W mice developed high titer anti-dsDNA antibody as they grew older. Spleen cells brought to a microculture system using flat-bottomed polystyrene plates produced anti-dsDNA antibody clearly detectable by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Anti-dsDNA antibody produced in vitro (y units) was in close correlation with the anti-dsDNA antibody titer of the spleen donor (x units) (y = 4.8 X 10 -2 x-65, γ = 0.94, P < 0.001). A combination of the microculture system and solid-phase radioimmunoassay was recommended for the characterization of anti-dsDNA antibody-forming cells. (Auth.)

  18. Hybrid Perovskites: Prospects for Concentrator Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Wang, Zhiping; Snaith, Henry J; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2018-04-01

    Perovskite solar cells have shown a meteoric rise of power conversion efficiency and a steady pace of improvements in their stability of operation. Such rapid progress has triggered research into approaches that can boost efficiencies beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit stipulated for a single-junction cell under normal solar illumination conditions. The tandem solar cell architecture is one concept here that has recently been successfully implemented. However, the approach of solar concentration has not been sufficiently explored so far for perovskite photovoltaics, despite its frequent use in the area of inorganic semiconductor solar cells. Here, the prospects of hybrid perovskites are assessed for use in concentrator solar cells. Solar cell performance parameters are theoretically predicted as a function of solar concentration levels, based on representative assumptions of charge-carrier recombination and extraction rates in the device. It is demonstrated that perovskite solar cells can fundamentally exhibit appreciably higher energy-conversion efficiencies under solar concentration, where they are able to exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit and exhibit strongly elevated open-circuit voltages. It is therefore concluded that sufficient material and device stability under increased illumination levels will be the only significant challenge to perovskite concentrator solar cell applications.

  19. Changes in protein metabolism after irradiation. Pt. 1. Protease activity, protease pattern, protein and free amino acids in cytoplasm and cell organelles of the rat spleen after 600 R whole body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valet, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie, Muenchen (F.R. Germany). Abt. fuer Experimentelle Medizin

    1975-12-01

    The protease activity of cytoplasm and cell organelles of the rat spleen against spleen protein and hemoglobin as a substrate increases during a initial reaction phase of the organism on the first day after 600 R whole body X-irradiation. The alkaline protease in the cytoplasm and the acid protease in the cell organelles increase, whereas the protease activity against externally added hemoglobin as substrate decreases below the initial values. The protein, the protease activity and the free amino acids of the cytoplasm and the cell organelles decrease during the disease phase on day 3 and 4 after irradiation. The protein loss of the spleen is therefore not explained by an increased protease activity. Acid proteases appear in the cytoplasm which derive probably from the cell organelles. The protease activity and the free amino acids are increased in the cytoplasm and the cell organelles during the regeneration phase of the organism between day 15 and 18 after irradiation.

  20. Hybrid Solar Cells: Materials, Interfaces, and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Wang, Yue; Kaner, Richard B.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    Photovoltaic technologies could play a pivotal role in tackling future fossil fuel energy shortages, while significantly reducing our carbon dioxide footprint. Crystalline silicon is pervasively used in single junction solar cells, taking up 80 % of the photovoltaic market. Semiconductor-based inorganic solar cells deliver relatively high conversion efficiencies at the price of high material and manufacturing costs. A great amount of research has been conducted to develop low-cost photovoltaic solutions by incorporating organic materials. Organic semiconductors are conjugated hydrocarbon-based materials that are advantageous because of their low material and processing costs and a nearly unlimited supply. Their mechanical flexibility and tunable electronic properties are among other attractions that their inorganic counterparts lack. Recently, collaborations in nanotechnology research have combined inorganic with organic semiconductors in a "hybrid" effort to provide high conversion efficiencies at low cost. Successful integration of these two classes of materials requires a profound understanding of the material properties and an exquisite control of the morphology, surface properties, ligands, and passivation techniques to ensure an optimal charge carrier generation across the hybrid device. In this chapter, we provide background information of this novel, emerging field, detailing the various approaches for obtaining inorganic nanostructures and organic polymers, introducing a multitude of methods for combining the two components to achieve the desired morphologies, and emphasizing the importance of surface manipulation. We highlight several studies that have fueled new directions for hybrid solar cell research, including approaches for maximizing efficiencies by controlling the morphologies of the inorganic component, and in situ molecular engineering via electrochemical polymerization of a polymer directly onto the inorganic nanowire surfaces. In the end, we

  1. Immortalized porcine mesenchymal cells derived from nasal mucosa, lungs, lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow retain their stemness properties and trigger the expression of siglec-1 in co-cultured blood monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, Abubakar; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Acar, Delphine D; Devriendt, Bert; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells have been isolated from different sources. They are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into many different cell types, including osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. They possess a therapeutic potential in the management of immune disorders and the repair of damaged tissues. Previous work in our laboratory showed an increase of the percentages of CD172a+, CD14+, CD163+, Siglec-1+, CD4+ and CD8+ hematopoietic cells, when co-cultured with immortalized mesenchymal cells derived from bone marrow. The present work aimed to demonstrate the stemness properties of SV40-immortalized mesenchymal cells derived from nasal mucosa, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes and red bone marrow and their immunomodulatory effect on blood monocytes. Mesenchymal cells from nasal mucosa, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes and red bone marrow were isolated and successfully immortalized using simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40LT) and later, co-cultured with blood monocytes, in order to examine their differentiation stage (expression of Siglec-1). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the five mesenchymal cell lines were positive for mesenchymal cell markers CD105, CD44, CD90 and CD29, but lacked the expression of myeloid cell markers CD16 and CD11b. Growth analysis of the cells demonstrated that bone marrow derived-mesenchymal cells proliferated faster compared with those derived from the other tissues. All five mesenchymal cell lines co-cultured with blood monocytes for 1, 2 and 7 days triggered the expression of siglec-1 in the monocytes. In contrast, no siglec-1+ cells were observed in monocyte cultures without mesenchymal cell lines. Mesenchymal cells isolated from nasal mucosa, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow were successfully immortalized and these cell lines retained their stemness properties and displayed immunomodulatory effects on blood monocytes.

  2. Methodological comparison on hybrid nano organic solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, Rajendaran; Hambali, Nor Azura Malini Ahmad; Wahid, Mohamad Halim Abd; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Shahimin, Mukhzeer Mohamad

    2018-02-01

    The development of low cost solar cells has been the main focus in recent years. This has lead to the generation of photovoltaic cells based on hybrid of nanoparticle-organic polymer materials. This type of hybrid photovoltaic cells can overcome the problem of polymeric devices having low optical absorption and carrier mobilities. The hybrid cell has the potential of bridging the efficiency gap, which in present in organic and inorganic semiconductor materials. This project focuses on obtaining an hybrid active layer consisting of nanoparticles and organic polymer, to understand the parameter involved in obtaining this active layer and finally to investigate if the addition of nano particles in to the active layer could enhance the output of the hybrid solar cell. The hybrid active layer have will be deposited using the spin coating technique by using CdTe, CdS nano particles mixed with poly (2-methoxy,5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylvinylene)MEH-PPV.

  3. Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, induces human hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, performs immunomodulatory activity on cancer patients suffering from radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The present study aims to investigate the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects of CSEI in cells and tumor-xenografted mouse models. In HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, CSEI reduced cell viability, enhanced apoptosis rate, caused reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, inhibited migration ability, and induced caspases cascade and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. CSEI significantly inhibited HepG2-xenografted tumor growth in nude mice. In cell and animal experiments, CSEI increased the activations of pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase 8, caspase 9 and caspase 3; meanwhile, it suppressed the expressions of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and anti-oxidation proteins, such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 and catalase (CAT. The enhanced phosphorylation of P38 and c-JunN-terminalkinase (JNK, and decreased phosphorylation of extra cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERKs were observed in CSEI-treated cells and tumor tissues. CSEI-induced cell viability reduction was significantly attenuated by N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (a ROS inhibitor pretreatment. All data demonstrated that the upregulated oxidative stress status and the altered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs phosphorylation contributed to CSEI-driven mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, CSEI exactly induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  4. Follicular dendritic cell-specific prion protein (PrP expression alone is sufficient to sustain prion infection in the spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McCulloch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are characterised by the accumulation of PrP(Sc, an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C, in affected tissues. Following peripheral exposure high levels of prion-specific PrP(Sc accumulate first upon follicular dendritic cells (FDC in lymphoid tissues before spreading to the CNS. Expression of PrP(C is mandatory for cells to sustain prion infection and FDC appear to express high levels. However, whether FDC actively replicate prions or simply acquire them from other infected cells is uncertain. In the attempts to-date to establish the role of FDC in prion pathogenesis it was not possible to dissociate the Prnp expression of FDC from that of the nervous system and all other non-haematopoietic lineages. This is important as FDC may simply acquire prions after synthesis by other infected cells. To establish the role of FDC in prion pathogenesis transgenic mice were created in which PrP(C expression was specifically "switched on" or "off" only on FDC. We show that PrP(C-expression only on FDC is sufficient to sustain prion replication in the spleen. Furthermore, prion replication is blocked in the spleen when PrP(C-expression is specifically ablated only on FDC. These data definitively demonstrate that FDC are the essential sites of prion replication in lymphoid tissues. The demonstration that Prnp-ablation only on FDC blocked splenic prion accumulation without apparent consequences for FDC status represents a novel opportunity to prevent neuroinvasion by modulation of PrP(C expression on FDC.

  5. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  6. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Crossland, Edward J. W.

    2009-08-12

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided channels of a self-assembled, selectively degradable block copolymer film. The highly ordered pore structure is ideal for uniform infiltration of an organic hole transporting material, and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells only 400 nm thick exhibit up to 1.7% power conversion efficiency. This patterning technique can be readily extended to other promising heterojunction systems and is a major step toward realizing the full potential of self-assembly in the next generation of device technologies. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Cell-in-Shell Hybrids: Chemical Nanoencapsulation of Individual Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hun; Hong, Daewha; Lee, Juno; Choi, Insung S

    2016-05-17

    Nature has developed a fascinating strategy of cryptobiosis ("secret life") for counteracting the stressful, and often lethal, environmental conditions that fluctuate sporadically over time. For example, certain bacteria sporulate to transform from a metabolically active, vegetative state to an ametabolic endospore state. The bacterial endospores, encased within tough biomolecular shells, withstand the extremes of harmful stressors, such as radiation, desiccation, and malnutrition, for extended periods of time and return to a vegetative state by breaking their protective shells apart when their environment becomes hospitable for living. Certain ciliates and even higher organisms, for example, tardigrades, and others are also found to adopt a cryptobiotic strategy for survival. A common feature of cryptobiosis is the structural presence of tough sheaths on cellular structures. However, most cells and cellular assemblies are not "spore-forming" and are vulnerable to the outside threats. In particular, mammalian cells, enclosed with labile lipid bilayers, are highly susceptible to in vitro conditions in the laboratory and daily life settings, making manipulation and preservation difficult outside of specialized conditions. The instability of living cells has been a main bottleneck to the advanced development of cell-based applications, such as cell therapy and cell-based sensors. A judicious question arises: can cellular tolerance against harmful stresses be enhanced by simply forming cell-in-shell hybrid structures? Experimental results suggest that the answer is yes. A micrometer-sized "Iron Man" can be generated by chemically forming an ultrathin (cell. Since the report on silica nanoencapsulation of yeast cells, in which cytoprotective yeast-in-silica hybrids were formed, several synthetic strategies have been developed to encapsulate individual cells in a cytocompatible fashion, mimicking the cryptobiotic cell-in-shell structures found in nature, for example

  8. The development of primary and secondary lymphoid tissues in the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum: B-cell zones precede dendritic cell immigration and T-cell zone formation during ontogeny of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumfelt, L L; McKinney, E C; Taylor, E; Flajnik, M F

    2002-08-01

    Secondary lymphoid tissue and immunoglobulin (Ig) production in mammals is not fully developed at birth, requiring time postnatally to attain all features required for adaptive immune responses. The immune system of newborn sharks - the oldest vertebrate group having adaptive immunity - also displays immature characteristics such as low serum IgM concentration and high levels of IgM1gj, an innate-like Ig. Primary and secondary lymphoid tissues in sharks and other cartilaginous fish were identified previously, but their cellular organization was not examined in detail. In this study of nurse shark lymphoid tissue, we demonstrate that the adult spleen contains well-defined, highly vascularized white pulp (WP) areas, composed of a central T-cell zone containing a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ dendritic cell (DC) network and a small number of Ig+ secretory cells, surrounded by smaller zones of surface Ig+ (sIg+) B cells. In neonates, splenic WPs are exclusively B-cell zones containing sIgM+-MHC class IIlow B cells; thus compartmentalized areas with T cells and DCs, as well as surface Ig novel antigen receptor (sIgNAR)-expressing B cells are absent at birth. Not until the pups are 5 months old do these WP areas become adult-like; concomitantly, sIgNAR+ B cells are readily detectable, indicating that this Ig class requires a 'mature immune-responsive environment'. The epigonal organ is the major site of neonatal B lymphopoiesis, based on the presence of developing B cells and recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1)/terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) expression, indicative of antigen receptor rearrangement; such expression persists into adult life, whereas the spleen has negligible lymphopoietic activity. In adults but not neonates, many secretory B cells reside in the epigonal organ, suggesting, like in mammals, that B cells home to this primary lymphoid tissue after activation in other areas of the body.

  9. Radiology of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, F.; Leander, P.; Ekberg, O.

    2001-01-01

    The spleen is generally not considered a challenge to the radiologist. Most often it poses a problem by anomalies or an irregular but normal contrast enhancement; however, a variety of inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic diseases may involve the spleen. CT and ultrasonography are screening modalities for the spleen. For problem solving, MR imaging can be helpful, especially due to its free choice of the imaging plane and because of the high resolution in contrast MR imaging. Splenic angiography as a diagnostic tool has generally been replaced by CT, ultrasound, or MR and is now used as an interventional method, e.g., in non-surgical management of patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia or in patients with splenic trauma. This article reviews the radiology of the spleen, including anatomy, embryology, splenomegaly, splenic injury, infarction, cysts, tumors, abscesses, sarcoidosis, and AIDS. Knowledge about the use of different imaging modalities and underlying gross and microscopic pathologic features leads to a better understanding of the radiologic findings. (orig.)

  10. {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-sulphur-colloid and heat-denatured {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-labelled red cell scans demonstrating a giant intrapelvic spleen in a girl after splenectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, P.F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Tauyuan, Taiwan (Taiwan); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (Taiwan); Tzen, K.Y.; Tsai, M.F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Tauyuan, Taiwan (Taiwan); Lin, J.N. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Chang Gung Childrens Hospital and Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Tauyuan, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2001-04-01

    A 17 x 12 x 5-cm giant intrapelvic mass in a 14-year-old girl is reported. This mass developed 6 years after a splenectomy for splenic torsion. The heat-denatured {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-labelled red cell scan and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc- sulphur-colloid scan confirmed the specific red cell sequestration function and reticuloendothelial activity in the giant intrapelvic spleen. The size and development of the giant intrapelvic spleen are unusual. The usefulness of functional images to diagnosis the nature of the intrapelvic mass is well demonstrated. (orig.)

  11. Portable 25W hybrid fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, K.; Slee, R.; Tilley, J.

    2003-01-01

    Increased operating periods for portable electrical equipment are driving the development of battery and fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell systems promise greater endurance than battery based systems, and this paper describes the research into, and design of, a hybrid lithium-ion battery / fuel cell power source. The device is primarily aimed at military applications such as powering army radio sets and the UK MoD's Integrated Soldier Technology (IST) programme, but would be equally suitable as a power source for civilian applications such as camcorders, battery chargers etc. The air-breathing fuel cell comprises low cost, robust components, and a single cell is capable of developing >0.5W cm -2 . This power rating, however, is reduced in a stack where heat rejection becomes a critical issue. The stack design lends itself to facile manufacture, and the stack can be assembled in minutes by simply stacking the components into place. The remainder of the system includes two lithium-ion battery packs which provide start-up and shutdown power, and enable a silent-operating mode, during which the fuel cell is powered down, to be selected. The intelligent, electronic control, based upon an embedded RISC microprocessor, ensures safe operation and the recharge of the batteries. The overall system is capable of delivering 25W continuous power at an operating voltage of 12V dc. Preliminary testing results are reported. Advantages of this system include a relatively high gravimetric power density, load-following operation and the confidence of a high performance battery as an emergency backup. (author)

  12. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. PMID:28788591

  13. Administration of sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate conjugated GP10025–33 peptide-coupled spleen cells effectively mounts antigen-specific immune response against mouse melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xiaoli; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    It remains a top research priority to develop immunotherapeutic approaches to induce potent antigen-specific immune responses against tumors. However, in spite of some promising results, most strategies are ineffective because they generate low numbers of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we designed a strategy to enhance antigen-specific immune response via administering sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC)-conjugated melanoma tumor antigen GP100 25–33 peptide-coupled syngeneic spleen cells in a mouse model of melanoma. We found that infusion of GP100 25–33 peptide-coupled spleen cells significantly attenuated the growth of melanoma in prophylactic and therapeutic immunizations. Consistent with these findings, the adoptive transfer of spleen cells from immunized mice to naïve syngeneic mice was able to transfer anti-tumor effect, suggesting that GP100 25–33 peptide-specific immune response was induced. Further studies showed that, CD8+ T cell proliferation and the frequency of interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD8+ T cells upon ex vivo stimulation by GP100 25–33 were significantly increased compared to control groups. Tumor antigen, GP100 25–23 specific immune response was also confirmed by ELISpot and GP100-tetramer assays. This approach is simple, easy-handled, and efficiently delivering antigens to lymphoid tissues. Our study offers an opportunity for clinically translating this approach into tumor immunotherapy. - Highlights: • Infusion of GP100 25–33 -coupled spleen cells leads to potent anti-melanoma immunity. • GP100 25–33 -coupled spleen cell treatment induces antigen-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells. • This approach takes advantage of homing nature of immune cells.

  14. Administration of sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate conjugated GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled spleen cells effectively mounts antigen-specific immune response against mouse melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiaoli [Department of Hematology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Xia, Chang-Qing, E-mail: cqx65@yahoo.com [Department of Hematology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL32610 (United States)

    2015-12-04

    It remains a top research priority to develop immunotherapeutic approaches to induce potent antigen-specific immune responses against tumors. However, in spite of some promising results, most strategies are ineffective because they generate low numbers of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we designed a strategy to enhance antigen-specific immune response via administering sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC)-conjugated melanoma tumor antigen GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled syngeneic spleen cells in a mouse model of melanoma. We found that infusion of GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled spleen cells significantly attenuated the growth of melanoma in prophylactic and therapeutic immunizations. Consistent with these findings, the adoptive transfer of spleen cells from immunized mice to naïve syngeneic mice was able to transfer anti-tumor effect, suggesting that GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-specific immune response was induced. Further studies showed that, CD8+ T cell proliferation and the frequency of interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD8+ T cells upon ex vivo stimulation by GP100{sub 25–33} were significantly increased compared to control groups. Tumor antigen, GP100{sub 25–23} specific immune response was also confirmed by ELISpot and GP100-tetramer assays. This approach is simple, easy-handled, and efficiently delivering antigens to lymphoid tissues. Our study offers an opportunity for clinically translating this approach into tumor immunotherapy. - Highlights: • Infusion of GP100{sub 25–33}-coupled spleen cells leads to potent anti-melanoma immunity. • GP100{sub 25–33}-coupled spleen cell treatment induces antigen-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells. • This approach takes advantage of homing nature of immune cells.

  15. Dectin-1-mediated signaling leads to characteristic gene expressions and cytokine secretion via spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in rat mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Honjoh, Chisato; Takeuchi, Kenji; Yamauchi, Shota; Yoshiki, Hatsumi; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Sada, Kiyonao

    2014-11-07

    Dectin-1 recognizes β-glucan and plays important roles for the antifungal immunity through the activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in dendritic cells or macrophages. Recently, expression of Dectin-1 was also identified in human and mouse mast cells, although its physiological roles were largely unknown. In this report, rat mast cell line RBL-2H3 was analyzed to investigate the molecular mechanism of Dectin-1-mediated activation and responses of mast cells. Treatment of cells with Dectin-1-specific agonist curdlan induced tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins and the interaction of Dectin-1 with the Src homology 2 domain of Syk. These responses depended on tyrosine phosphorylation of the hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in the cytoplasmic tail of Dectin-1, whereas they were independent of the γ-subunit of high-affinity IgE receptor. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses showed that Dectin-1-mediated signaling stimulated gene expression of transcription factor Nfkbiz and inflammatory cytokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The response was abrogated by pretreatment with Syk inhibitor R406. These results suggest that Syk is critical for Dectin-1-mediated activation of mast cells, although the signaling differs from that triggered by FcϵRI activation. In addition, these gene expressions induced by curdlan stimulation were specifically observed in mast cells, suggesting that Dectin-1-mediated signaling of mast cells offers new insight into the antifungal immunity. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. DX5+NKT cells display phenotypical and functional differences between spleen and liver as well as NK1.1-Balb/c and NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jens M; Busl, Elisabeth; Farkas, Stefan A; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Hornung, Matthias

    2011-04-29

    Natural killer T cells represent a linkage between innate and adaptive immunity. They are a heterogeneous population of specialized T lymphocytes composed of different subsets. DX5+NKT cells are characterized by expression of the NK cell marker DX5 in the context of CD3. However, little is known about the phenotype and functional capacity of this unique cell population. Therefore, we investigated the expression of several T cell and NK cell markers, as well as functional parameters in spleen and liver subsets of DX5+NKT cells in NK1.1- Balb/c mice and compared our findings to NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice. In the spleen 34% of DX5+NKT cells expressed CD62L and they up-regulated the functional receptors CD154 as well as CD178 upon activation. In contrast, only a few liver DX5+NKT cells expressed CD62L, and they did not up-regulate CD154 upon activation. A further difference between spleen and liver subsets was observed in cytokine production. Spleen DX5+NKT cells produced more Th1 cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α, while liver DX5+NKT cells secreted more Th2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4) and even the Th17 cytokine, IL-17a. Furthermore, we found inter-strain differences. In NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice DX5+NKT cells represented a distinct T cell population expressing less CD4 and more CD8. Accordingly, these cells showed a CD178 and Th2-type functional capacity upon activation. These results show that DX5+NKT cells are a heterogeneous population, depending on the dedicated organ and mouse strain, that has diverse functional capacity.

  17. Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calio, Francesco; Pacilè, Maria A; Carboni, Fabio; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen is a very rare tumor, with 14 isolated reports. It was our aim to review our experience and compare it with all the reported cases in an attempt to standardize surgical treatment, adjuvant treatment and follow-up protocol of this infrequent condition. A consecutive case series study, with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Five patients (mean age, 49 years) underwent simple splenectomy for hemangiopericytoma limited to the spleen followed by adriamycin-based chemotherapy in one patient. All the patients are alive and free from disease. For tumors confined to the spleen, simple splenectomy can be considered curative, without any need for further adjuvant treatment. On review of the medical literature, cure can still be achieved with complete resection of recurrences, when feasible, with adjuvant chemotherapy being also indicated. The slow-growing pattern of the tumor suggests a 10-year follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel technique to measure total IgM and IgG in vitro haemolysin production by mouse spleen cells, using /sup 51/Cr-labelled sheep red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liske, R [Hoffmann-La Roche (F.) and Co., Basel (Switzerland)

    1980-06-12

    A quantitative method for measuring in vitro production of IgM and IgG haemolysis is described. Immune mouse spleen cells, /sup 51/Cr-labelled sheep red blood cells, guinea pig complement and -where applicable- rabbit anti-mouse gammaglobulin serum are incubated in the fluid phase at 37/sup 0/C, and the degree of chromium release measured in the supernatent. The assay gives reproducible results which compare well with the numbers of plaque-forming cells obtained in the conventional plaque-forming assay.

  19. Paediatric Wandering Spleens in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by a double layer of peritoneum. The wandering spleen is the rare description of an abnormally positioned spleen, which is thought to occur due to laxity, abnormality or absence of the aforementioned ligaments. The wandering spleen is noted to have a longer than normal pedicle, and because of its intraperitoneal location, ...

  20. Severe T-cell depletion from the PALS leads to altered spleen composition in common marmosets with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, Alex F; van Riel, Debby A J; van Meurs, Marjan; Brok, Herbert P M; Boon, Louis; Hintzen, Rogier Q; Claassen, Eric H J H M; 't Hart, Bert A; Laman, Jon D

    Recent data suggest that the spleen is a crucial component of the immune system in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in marmoset monkeys. Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated changes in the distribution of leukocytes in the spleen associated with clinical

  1. Hybrid Perovskite/Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinghong; Schlipf, Johannes; Wussler, Michael; Petrus, Michiel L; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Bein, Thomas; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Docampo, Pablo

    2016-06-28

    Recently developed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells combine low-cost fabrication and high power conversion efficiency. Advances in perovskite film optimization have led to an outstanding power conversion efficiency of more than 20%. Looking forward, shifting the focus toward new device architectures holds great potential to induce the next leap in device performance. Here, we demonstrate a perovskite/perovskite heterojunction solar cell. We developed a facile solution-based cation infiltration process to deposit layered perovskite (LPK) structures onto methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments were performed to gain insights into the crystallite orientation and the formation process of the perovskite bilayer. Our results show that the self-assembly of the LPK layer on top of an intact MAPI layer is accompanied by a reorganization of the perovskite interface. This leads to an enhancement of the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency due to reduced recombination losses, as well as improved moisture stability in the resulting photovoltaic devices.

  2. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl 2 (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4 − CD8 − CD44 + CD25 − (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4 − CD8 − CD44 − CD25 + (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and CD45R/B220 + B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1 + ). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4 + T cells and CD45R/B220 + B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8 + T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed. ► Males and females had changed percentages of numerous splenic cell

  3. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup +}CD25{sup −} (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup −}CD25{sup +} (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells, CD8{sup +} T cells, and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1{sup +}). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8{sup +} T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed

  4. The 57Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Alenkina, I. V.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the 57 Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient’s tissues were detected and related to small variations in the 57 Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients’ spleen and liver tissues

  5. The 57Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Alenkina, I. V.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient's tissues were detected and related to small variations in the 57Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients' spleen and liver tissues.

  6. The {sup 57}Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@gmail.com; Alenkina, I. V. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S. [Ural State Medical University (Russian Federation); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient’s tissues were detected and related to small variations in the {sup 57}Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients’ spleen and liver tissues.

  7. Characteristics of cells producing stimulator for the proliferation of colony forming unit-spleen (CFU-S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Manaf Ali; Wright, E.G.; Riches, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of stimulator for haemopoietic stem cell (CFU-S) proliferation in regenerating bone marrow was assayed by incubating the conditioned medium (CM) prepared from bone marrow with quiescent CFU-S from normal bone marrow. The percentage of CFU-S normal bone marrow in DNA synthesis increased more than 30 percent after incubating with CM of 4.5 Gy regenerating bone marrow. Stimulator was also present in bone marrow of mice at 9.0 Gy whole body X-irradiation. However the conditioned medium prepared from regenerating bone marrow without Fc and Ia-2k cells failed to increase the percentage of CFU-S in DNA synthesis. On the other hand, elimination of Thy 1.2 positive cells with complement cytolysis did not affect the ability of regenerating bone marrow to produce stimulator. These observations suggest that the stimulator producing cells are radio-resistant, Thy 1.2 negative, Fc and Ia-2k positive

  8. X-ray sensitivity of somatic cell hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampetti-Bosseler, F.; Heilporn, V.; Lievens, A.; Limbosch, S.

    1976-01-01

    Different somatic cell hybrids have been studied as a function of their x-ray survival and karyotypic properties. Hybrids between x-ray-sensitive mouse lymphoma cells and mouse fibroblasts, retaining a large proportion of both parental chromosomes, were much more resistant to irradiation than either of the parental cells. On the other hand, hybrids between sensitive mouse lymphoma cells and hamster fibroblasts which also retained a relatively high number of chromosomes from both parents had a sensitivity intermediate between the sensitivities of the parental cell lines. Finally, hybrids between mouse fibroblasts and hamster fibroblasts carrying at least one hamster genome and less than one mouse genome resembled the hamster parent with respect to survival capactity. The significance of these results is discussed

  9. Comparison of altered expression of histocompatibility antigens with altered immune function in murine spleen cells treated with ultraviolet radiation and/or TPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretell, J.O.; Cone, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that several treatments that inhibited the ability of cells to stimulate the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) also blocked the shedding of histocompatibility antigens and Ia antigens from murine spleen cells. In the present studies, one of these treatments, ultraviolet radiation (UV), was shown to cause an initial loss in the density of H-2K, IA, and IE antigens prior to the block in shedding observed after culture of these cells. Further analysis revealed that the UV-induced loss of antigens could be prevented by the presence of colchicine during irradiation. Biosynthetic analyses revealed the IA antigen synthesis was also inhibited in the UV-irradiated cells. Examination of the effects of a second agent, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the turnover of histocompatibility antigens revealed that the biosynthesis and shedding of these antigens were accelerated by this agent. However, addition of TPA to UV-irradiated cells did not result in a reversal of the UV-induced block in biosynthesis of IA antigens. Results of immune function assays correlated with the biochemical studies: UV-irradiation inhibited the generation of the MLR, but TPA enhanced this reaction, and addition of TPA to mixed lymphocyte cultures with UV-irradiated stimulators did not reverse the UV-induced inhibition. These results suggest that, although the turnover of histocompatibility antigens may be affected by TPA and UV in an antagonistic fashion, additional factors other than the expression of histocompatibility antigens are operating in the inhibition of stimulation of an MLR by UV radiation or its enhancement by TPA

  10. Relationship between number of spleen colonies and 125IdUrd incorporation into spleen and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.; Cronkite, E.P.; Hubner, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Graded numbers of bone marrow (BM) cells were injected into fatally irradiated mice. Eight days later the mice were given 3.0 μCi (1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq) of 125 IdUrd to label proliferating cells in the spleen and BM. On day 9 the mice were killed and the spleens and femurs were removed for splenic colony assay and measurement of radioactivity in the spleen and femurs. The number of splenic colonies shows a linear relationship with dose of marrow cells injected from 10 4 to 10 5 cells. The slope of the curve of spleen colonies versus number of cells injected is 5 and below 10 4 there is a striking departure from the simple linearity. Below 2 x 10 3 cells injected, the logarithm of the observed colony yield is linear with logarithm of the number of cells injected. Poisson calculation of the average number of pluripotent stem cells that should be present with numbers of marrow cells injected below 2 x 10 3 followed closely the actual observations. The data show that there is no detectible proliferation in the BM until the dose of marrow cells exceeds 3.5 x 10 4 cells. Induction of cells into cycle increases the seeding into the BM, and thymidine cytocide drastically reduces seeding in the BM, leading us to conclude that the BM is repopulated almost exclusively by stem cells in DNA synthesis

  11. Nanotetrapods: quantum dot hybrid for bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid thin film solar cell based on all-inorganic nanoparticles is a new member in the family of photovoltaic devices. In this work, a novel and performance-efficient inorganic hybrid nanostructure with continuous charge transportation and collection channels is demonstrated by introducing CdTe nanotetropods (NTs) and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Hybrid morphology is characterized, demonstrating an interpenetration and compacted contact of NTs and QDs. Electrical measurements show enhanced charge transfer at the hybrid bulk heterojunction interface of NTs and QDs after ligand exchange which accordingly improves the performance of solar cells. Photovoltaic and light response tests exhibit a combined optic-electric contribution from both CdTe NTs and CdSe QDs through a formation of interpercolation in morphology as well as a type II energy level distribution. The NT and QD hybrid bulk heterojunction is applicable and promising in other highly efficient photovoltaic materials such as PbS QDs. PMID:24139059

  12. Solid solitary hamartoma of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Nikica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hamartoma of the spleen is a rare, sometimes asymptomatic similar to hemangioma benign tumor of the spleen, which, owing to the new diagnostic imaging methods, is discovered with increasing frequency. It appears as solitary or multiple tumorous lesions. Case Outline. We present a 48-year-old woman in whom, during the investigation for Helicobacter pylori gastric infection and rectal bleeding, with ultrasonography, a mass 6.5×6.5 cm in diameter was discovered by chance within the spleen. Splenectomy was performed due to suspected lymphoma of the spleen. On histology, tumor showed to be of mixed cellular structure, with areas without white pulp, at places with marked dilatation of sinusoids and capillaries to the formation of „blood lakes“ between which broad hypercellular Billroth’s zones were present. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was found focally. The cells that covered vascular spaces were CD34+ and CD31+ and CD8- and CD21-. Conclusion. Hamartoma has to be taken into consideration always when well circumscribed hypervascular tumor within the spleen is found, particularly in children. Although the diagnosis of hamartoma may be suspected preoperatively, the exact diagnosis is established based on histological and immunohystochemistry examinations. Treatment is most often splenectomy and rarely a partial splenectomy is possible, which is recommended particularly in children.

  13. Fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells require beta1 integrin function for colonizing fetal liver, spleen, and bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potocnik, A J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    hematolymphoid differentiation potential in vitro and in fetal organ cultures but were unable to seed fetal and adult hematopoietic tissues. Adult beta1 integrin null HSCs isolated from mice carrying loxP-tagged beta1 integrin alleles and ablated for beta1 integrin expression by retroviral cre transduction......Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into hematopoietic organs is a prerequisite for the establishment of hematopoiesis during embryogenesis and after bone marrow transplantation. We show that beta1 integrin-deficient HSCs from the para-aortic splanchnopleura and the fetal blood had...

  14. Dose-rate effects and chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates in spleen cells from mice that are chronically exposed to gamma-ray at low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Kohda, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tsuneya; Oghiso, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    Dose-rate effects have not been examined in the low dose-rate regions of less than 60-600 mGy/h. Mice were chronically exposed to gamma-ray at 20 mGy/day (approximately 1 mGy/h) up to 700 days and at 1 mGy/day (approximately 0.05 mGy/h) for 500 days under SPF conditions. Chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates in spleen cells were observed along with accumulated doses at both low dose-rates. Unstable aberrations increased in a biphasic manner within 0-2 Gy and 4-14 Gy in 20 mGy/day irradiation. They slightly increased up to 0.5 Gy in 1 mGy/day irradiation. Chromosome aberration rates at 20 mGy/day and 1 mGy/day were compared at the same total doses of 0.5 Gy and 0.25 Gy. They were 2.0 vs. 0.53, and 1.0 vs. 0.47 respectively. Thus, dose-rate effects were observed in these low dose-rate regions. (author)

  15. Selective accumulation of 147Pm in organism on induction of PCE's micronucleus and SCE of bone marrow cells as well as the chromosome aberrations on fetal liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Zheng Siying; Wang Liuyi; Lu Zhongyan; Yang Shuqin

    1989-01-01

    Study of accumulation peculiarity of 147 Pm showed that I.V. different doses of 147 Pm were the same selectively localized in skeleton and liver. Retention of 147 Pm in skeleton and liver was elevated when the radioactive doses of 147 Pm were increased. At the same time absorption does of 147 Pm radiation was heightened. The ability of 147 Pm to induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) has been investigated by IdU labelling methods. A statistically significant elevation of SCEs was observed after 147 Pm intake.In mice the number of SCEs per cell in bone marrow cells was always higher when the animals were maintained on the doses of 37 Bq/g. The injurious effects of 147 Pm, using PCE's micronucleus rates in bone marrow cells were observed. 147 Pm was dominantly deposited on maternal liver. Deposition of 147 Pm in maternal spleen was about quandrantal of the maternal liver. Studies indicated that maternal contamination of 147 Pm could induced chromosome aberrations in fetal liver and spleen cells. Among the type of aberrations induced by 147 Pm, chromatid breakage were predominant. The incidence of chromosome aberrations on fetal liver cells induced by 147 Pm was higher on fetal spleen cells

  16. Embryonic hybrid cells: a powerful tool for studying pluripotency and reprogramming of the differentiated cell chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEROV OLEG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of embryonic hybrid cells obtained by fusion of embryonic stem (ES or teratocarcinoma (TC cells with differentiated cells are reviewed. Usually, ES-somatic or TC-somatic hybrids retain pluripotent capacity at high levels quite comparable or nearly identical with those of the pluripotent partner. When cultured in vitro, ES-somatic- and TC-somatic hybrid cell clones, as a rule, lose the chromosomes derived from the somatic partner; however, in some clones the autosomes from the ES cell partner were also eliminated, i.e. the parental chromosomes segregated bilaterally in the ES-somatic cell hybrids. This opens up ways for searching correlation between the pluripotent status of the hybrid cells and chromosome segregation patterns and therefore for identifying the particular chromosomes involved in the maintenance of pluripotency. Use of selective medium allows to isolate in vitro the clones of ES-somatic hybrid cells in which "the pluripotent" chromosome can be replaced by "the somatic" counterpart carrying the selectable gene. Unlike the TC-somatic cell hybrids, the ES-somatic hybrids with a near-diploid complement of chromosomes are able to contribute to various tissues of chimeric animals after injection into the blastocoel cavity. Analysis of the chimeric animals showed that the "somatic" chromosome undergoes reprogramming during development. The prospects for the identification of the chromosomes that are involved in the maintenance of pluripotency and its cis- and trans-regulation in the hybrid cell genome are discussed.

  17. Changes in antigen-presenting cell function in the spleen and lymph nodes of ultraviolet-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurish, M.F.; Lynch, D.H.; Daynes, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    It has been previously reported that mice exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation exhibit a decrease in splenic antigen-presenting cell (APC) function. The results presented here confirm this observation and further demonstrate that animals exposed daily to UV for extended periods of time (5 weeks instead of 6 days) no longer exhibit this depressed capability. In spite of the depression in splenic APC activity found in 6-day UV-irradiated mice, lymph node APC function from these same animals was elevated compared with that found in the lymph nodes from normal animals. Lymph node APC activity in animals that were splenectomized prior to the UV irradiation, however, was not enhanced over controls. Treatment of animals with a chemical irritant (turpentine) also caused a depression in splenic APC function without modifying lymph node activity. Collectively, our findings suggest that the observed decrease in splenic APC activity, found after the first week of UV exposures, may be attributable to the migration of splenic APC to peripheral lymphoid tissue which drain the site of epidermal inflammation

  18. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: cell and humoral immunity in spleen and gut of isogenic mice immunized with 60Co irradiated tachyzoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using ionizing radiation as a tool. Here we analyzed the production of systemic and intestinal immunity, with protection studies, in several strains of inbred mice, by oral or parenteral route, using 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain, with challenge with cysts of ME- 49 strain. C57Bl/6j, BALB/c and C57Bl/6j IFN-γ -/- mice were immunized with 10 7 irradiated tachyzoites, be parenteral or oral route. Those preparations, both by parenteral or oral routes, induced the production of specific IgG, mainly of the lgG2b subclass, and IgA immunoglobulins in serum, , as determined by ELISA. IgM production was negligible. Parenteral immunized mice showed higher IgG avidity maturation, as compared to oral immunized mice. Fecal excretion of IgG, IgA and IgM was detected in stools of immunized animals, more intense in oral immunized mice. In cellular immunity studies, induced by antigen, with detection of cytokine production by quantitative real-time PCR, there are a great production of IFN-y by spleen cells, with lower levels in Peyer patches cells, where there are a greater IL-2 production. Challenge studies in immunized mice demonstrated protection to infection in all used schedules, greater in BALB/c mice. C57Bl/6j IFN-γ - /- mice, when immunized, showed no signs of disease and produced similar or greater levels of antibodies than wild type mice. They also excreted S-lgA and S-IgM in stools, but with low numbers of brain cysts in parenteral immunized mice, despite similar mortality. Our data points to a fair possibility of use of those irradiated parasites as an oral vaccine, devised to use for veterinary or wild felines vaccination, reducing the production of oocysts by those hosts and interrupting the chain transmission of human toxoplasmosis. (author)

  20. Hierarchical control of vehicular fuel cell / battery hybrid powertrain

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Hua, Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    In a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, a fuel cell system fulfills the stationary power demand, and a traction battery provides the accelerating power and recycles braking energy. The entire system is coordinated by a distributed control system, incorporating three key strategies: 1) vehicle control, 2) fuel cell control and 3) battery management. They make up a hierarchical control system. This paper introduces a hierarchical control strategy for a fuel cell / ...

  1. Nanogel-quantum dot hybrid nanoparticles for live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Urara; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.; Kaul, Sunil C.; Hirano, Takashi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2005-01-01

    We report here a novel carrier of quantum dots (QDs) for intracellular labeling. Monodisperse hybrid nanoparticles (38 nm in diameter) of QDs were prepared by simple mixing with nanogels of cholesterol-bearing pullulan (CHP) modified with amino groups (CHPNH 2 ). The CHPNH 2 -QD nanoparticles were effectively internalized into the various human cells examined. The efficiency of cellular uptake was much higher than that of a conventional carrier, cationic liposome. These hybrid nanoparticles could be a promising fluorescent probe for bioimaging

  2. Isolated Amoebic Abscess of Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. Extrahepatic amoebic abscesses have occasionally been described in the lung, brain, and skin and presumably result from hematogenous spread. Isolated amoebic abscess of spleen has been reported scarcely in literature. We report here a case of isolated amoebic abscess of spleen.

  3. Tumorigenic hybrids between mesenchymal stem cells and gastric cancer cells enhanced cancer proliferation, migration and stemness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jianguo; Zhu, Yuan; Sun, Zixuan; Ji, Runbi; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Wenrong; Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yongmin; Yin, Lei; Xu, Huijuan; Zhang, Leilei; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate cell-cell fusion might contribute to cancer progression. Similarly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can also fuse with other cells spontaneously and capable of adopting the phenotype of other cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of MSCs participated cell fusion in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. We fused human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) with gastric cancer cells in vitro by polyethylene glycol (PEG), the hybrid cells were sorted by flow cytometer. The growth and migration of hybrids were assessed by cell counting, cell colony formation and transwell assays. The proteins and genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness were tested by western blot, immunocytochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. The expression of CD44 and CD133 was examined by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. The xenograft assay was used to evaluation the tumorigenesis of the hybrids. The obtained hybrids exhibited epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) change with down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of Vimentin, N-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibroblast activation protein (FAP). The hybrids also increased expression of stemness factors Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Lin28. The expression of CD44 and CD133 on hybrid cells was stronger than parental gastric cancer cells. Moreover, the migration and proliferation of heterotypic hybrids were enhanced. In addition, the heterotypic hybrids promoted the growth abilities of gastric xenograft tumor in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that cell fusion between hucMSCs and gastric cancer cells could contribute to tumorigenic hybrids with EMT and stem cell-like properties, which may provide a flexible tool for investigating the roles of MSCs in gastric cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1780-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  4. Hybrid cell adhesive material for instant dielectrophoretic cell trapping and long-term cell function assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Darwin R; Hong, Jennifer S; Elliott, John T; Gaitan, Michael

    2011-08-16

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) for cell manipulation has focused, for the most part, on approaches for separation/enrichment of cells of interest. Advancements in cell positioning and immobilization onto substrates for cell culture, either as single cells or as cell aggregates, has benefited from the intensified research efforts in DEP (electrokinetic) manipulation. However, there has yet to be a DEP approach that provides the conditions for cell manipulation while promoting cell function processes such as cell differentiation. Here we present the first demonstration of a system that combines DEP with a hybrid cell adhesive material (hCAM) to allow for cell entrapment and cell function, as demonstrated by cell differentiation into neuronlike cells (NLCs). The hCAM, comprised of polyelectrolytes and fibronectin, was engineered to function as an instantaneous cell adhesive surface after DEP manipulation and to support long-term cell function (cell proliferation, induction, and differentiation). Pluripotent P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells flowing within a microchannel were attracted to the DEP electrode surface and remained adhered onto the hCAM coating under a fluid flow field after the DEP forces were removed. Cells remained viable after DEP manipulation for up to 8 d, during which time the P19 cells were induced to differentiate into NLCs. This approach could have further applications in areas such as cell-cell communication, three-dimensional cell aggregates to create cell microenvironments, and cell cocultures.

  5. Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Leen Ong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the emerging class of hybrid solar cells based on organic-semiconductor (Group IV, III-V, nanocomposites, which states separately from dye synthesized, polymer-metal oxides and organic-inorganic (Group II-VI nanocomposite photovoltaics. The structure of such hybrid cell comprises of an organic active material (p-type deposited by coating, printing or spraying technique on the surface of bulk or nanostructured semiconductor (n-type forming a heterojunction between the two materials. Organic components include various photosensitive monomers (e.g., phtalocyanines or porphyrines, conjugated polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Mechanisms of the charge separation at the interface and their transport are discussed. Also, perspectives on the future development of such hybrid cells and comparative analysis with other classes of photovoltaics of third generation are presented.

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  7. Thermoeconomic analysis of a fuel cell hybrid power system from the fuel cell experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Tomas [Endesa Generacion, Ribera del Loira, 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: talvarez@endesa.es; Valero, Antonio [Fundacion CIRCE, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Montes, Jose M. [ETSIMM-Universidad Politecnica de.Madrid, Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    An innovative configuration of fuel cell technology is proposed based on a hybrid fuel cell system that integrates a turbogenerator to overcome the intrinsic limitations of fuel cells in conventional operation. An analysis is done of the application of molten carbonate fuel cell technology at the Guadalix Fuel Cell Test Facility, for the assessment of the performance of the fuel cell prototype to be integrated in the Hybrid Fuel Cell System. This is completed with a thermoeconomic analysis of the 100 kW cogeneration fuel cell power plant which was subsequently built. The operational results and design limitations are evaluated, together with the operational limits and thermodynamic inefficiencies (exergy destruction and losses) of the 100 kW fuel cell. This leads to the design of a hybrid system in order to demonstrate the possibilities and benefits of the new hybrid configuration. The results are quantified through a thermoeconomic analysis in order to get the most cost-effective plant configuration. One promising configuration is the MCFC topper where the fuel cell in the power plant behaves as a combustor for the turbogenerator. The latter behaves as the balance of plant for the fuel cell. The combined efficiency increased to 57% and NOx emissions are essentially eliminated. The synergy of the fuel cell/turbine hybrids lies mainly in the use of the rejected thermal energy and residual fuel from the fuel cell to drive the turbogenerator in a 500 kW hybrid system.

  8. PrP protein is associated with follicular dendritic cells of spleens and lymph nodes in uninfected and scrapie-infected mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBride, P. A.; Eikelenboom, P.; Kraal, G.; Fraser, H.; Bruce, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Abnormal forms of a host protein, PrP, accumulate in the central nervous system in scrapie-affected animals. Here, PrP protein was detected immunocytochemically in tissue sections of spleen, lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus, and pancreas from uninfected mice and from mice infected with a range of

  9. Distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypersplenism is a common complication of portal hypertension. Cytopenia in hypersplenism is predominantly caused by splenomegaly. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection is an original surgical technique that regulates cytopenia by reduction of the enlarged spleen. Objective. The aim of our study was to present the advantages of distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection comparing morbidity and mortality in a group of patients treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection with a group of patients treated only by a distal splenorenal shunt. Method. From 1995 to 2003, 41 patients with portal hypertension were surgically treated due to hypersplenism and oesophageal varices. The first group consisted of 20 patients (11 male, mean age 42.3 years who were treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection. The second group consisted of 21 patients (13 male, mean age 49.4 years that were treated by distal splenorenal shunt only. All patients underwent endoscopy and assessment of oesophageal varices. The size of the spleen was evaluated by ultrasound, CT or by scintigraphy. Angiography was performed in all patients. The platelet and white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were registered. Postoperatively, we noted blood transfusion, complications and total hospital stay. Follow-up period was 12 months, with first checkup after one month. Results In the first group, only one patient had splenomegaly postoperatively (5%, while in the second group there were 13 patients with splenomegaly (68%. Before surgery, the mean platelet count in the first group was 51.6±18.3x109/l, to 118.6±25.4x109/l postoperatively. The mean platelet count in the second group was 67.6±22.8x109/l, to 87.8±32.1x109/l postoperatively. Concerning postoperative splenomegaly, statistically significant difference was noted between the first and the second group (p<0.05. Comparing the

  10. Cathode-supported hybrid direct carbon fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Gurauskis, Jonas; Deleebeeck, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The direct conversion of coal to heat and electricity by a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC) is a highly efficient and cleaner technology than the conventional combustion power plants. HDCFC is defined as a combination of solid oxide fuel cell and molten carbonate fuel cell. This work...... investigates cathode-supported cells as an alternative configuration for HDCFC, with better catalytic activity and performance. This study aims to define the best processing route to manufacture highly efficient cathode-supported cells based on La0.75Sr0.25MnO3/yttria-stabilized zirconia infiltrated backbones...

  11. Regulation of immune responses in SJL and F1 hybrid mice by gamma-irradiated syngeneic lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, I.R.; Nagase, F.; Bell, M.K.; Ponzio, N.M.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Syngeneic mixed lymphocyte-stimulating la+ lymphomas of SJL mice [reticulum cell sarcoma(s) (RCS)] were found to modulate immune responses in vivo. Simultaneous injection of 2 X 10(7) gamma-irradiated or glutaraldehyde-fixed RCS cells with the antigen sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP)-Ficoll markedly suppressed the subsequent plaque-forming cell response in the spleen. The suppression of the anti-SRBC response was prevented by pretreatment of the mice with cyclophosphamide, whereas the suppression of the anti-TNP-Ficoll response was not affected. RCS injection induced high interferon serum titers within 24 hours after injection, which were not prevented by pretreatment with cyclophosphamide. Injection of gamma-irradiated RCS cells (gamma-RCS) or RCS cell extract 2 days prior to antigen enhanced the anti-SRBC but markedly suppressed the anti- TNP-Ficoll response. Injection of RCS both on day -2 and day 0 enhanced the anti-SRBC response. SJL mice 8-9 months of age showed much less or no suppression when gamma-RCS cells were injected on day 0. Certain F1 hybrids of SJL also showed the gamma-RCS-induced suppression of the anti-SRBC response. Suppression was seen in SJL X BALB.B but not in SJL X BALB/c mice and in SJL X A.TH but not in SJL X A.TL mice, suggesting an I-region effect. F1 hybrids of SJL by B10 background mice showed no significant suppression. Enhancement of the anti-SRBC response by prior injection of gamma-RCS was seen in all F1 hybrid mice examined

  12. Dose response relationship for unstable-type chromosome aberration rate of spleen cells from mice continuously exposed to low-dose-rate gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Khoda, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Oghiso, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that people who are chronically exposed to radiation such as nuclear facility workers and medical radiologists have slightly higher incidences of chromosome aberrations than non-exposed people. However, chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates related to accumulated doses and dose-rates for low dose-rate radiation exposures have not been well studied. Precise analyses of human populations are quite limited because confounding factors influence the results. For this reason, animal experiments are important for analyses. Mice were continuously exposed to gamma-rays at 400 mGy/22 hr/day for 10 days, 20 mGy/22 hr/day for about 400 days, and 1 mGy/22 hr/day for about 615 days under SPF conditions. Chronological changes of unstable-type chromosome aberration rates of spleen cells were observed along with accumulated doses at the middle dose rate and the two low-dose rates by conventional Giemsa-staining method. Aberrations such as dicentric chromosome, ring chromosome and fragment increased in a two-phase manner within 0-1.2 Gy and 2-8 Gy at 20 mGy/22 hr/day. They slightly increased up to 0.5 Gy at 1 mGy/22 hr/day. Aberration rates for 1, 2, 8 Gy at the 20 mGy/22 hr/day and for 0.5 Gy at 1 mGy/22 hr/day were 5.1, 9.6, 13.9 and 2.2 times higher than those of age-matched, non-irradiated control mice, respectively. Chromosome aberration rates at 400 mGy/22 hr/day were 2.7 times higher than that of 20 mGy/22 hr/day for the same total dose of 1.2 Gy. The results that unstable-type chromosome aberrations increased with accumulated dose of the low-dose rate radiation will be important to establish biological dosimetry for people who are chronically exposed to radiation. (author)

  13. Iron oxides in human spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopáni, Martin; Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Dekan, Július; Čaplovicová, Mária; Jakubovský, Ján; Boča, Roman; Mrazova, Hedviga

    2015-10-01

    Iron is an essential element for fundamental cell functions and a catalyst for chemical reactions. Three samples extracted from the human spleen were investigated by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectrometry (MS), and SQUID magnetometry. The sample with diagnosis of hemosiderosis (H) differs from that referring to hereditary spherocytosis and the reference sample. SEM reveals iron-rich micrometer-sized aggregate of various structures-tiny fibrils in hereditary spherocytosis sample and no fibrils in hemochromatosis. Hematite and magnetite particles from 2 to 6 μm in TEM with diffraction in all samples were shown. The SQUID magnetometry shows different amount of diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic structures in the tissues. The MS results indicate contribution of ferromagnetically split sextets for all investigated samples. Their occurrence indicates that at least part of the sample is magnetically ordered below the critical temperature. The iron accumulation process is different in hereditary spherocytosis and hemosiderosis. This fact may be the reason of different iron crystallization.

  14. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell : Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossland, E.J.W.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Nedelcu, M.; Ducati, C.; Wiesner, U.; Smilgies, D.M.; Toombes, G.E.S.; Hillmyer, M.A.; Ludwigs, S.; Steiner, U.; Snaith, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided channels of a self-assembled, selectively degradable

  15. Effect of serum from rats with destructed nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus on the formation of hemopoietic colonies in the spleen of lethally irradiated mice after bone marrow cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, N.A.; Likhovetskaya, Z.M.; Kurbanova, G.N.; Prigozhina, T.A.; L'vovich, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Colony formation capability of serum from animals with destructed nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus was studied in lethally irradiated mice. Male-rats of Wistar line and hybrid mice (CBA x C57 BL) were used in the experiments. The serum from rats with destructed nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus was injected simultaneously with bone marrow transplantation into lethally irradiated mice. The number of macrocolonies in the spleen was counted on the 9th day. It was ascertained that the serum from rats with destructed nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus caused an increase of the number of macroscopically visible colonies in the spleen of lethally irradiated mice. The determination of hemopoetic types of colonies showed that the effect of the serum from those animals caused an increase of the number of granulocytic-type colonies. The initiation of colony stimulating and leukopoetic activity in the blood of animals after the destruction of mammillary body nuclei and posterior hypothalamic nucleus attested, according to the authors point of view, that humoral mediators (humoral mediator) could participated in the mechanism of hypothalamus effect on leulopoiesis

  16. A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for trucks: Analysis of direct and indirect hybrid configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Baltzer, Sidney; Gnörich, Bruno; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for heavy duty vehicles is reported. • Comparison of direct and indirect hybrids using representative load profiles. • Evaluation based on validated fuel cell system and battery models. • Indirect hybrid with constant fuel cell load yields 29.3% hybrid system efficiency. • Fuel cell should be pre-heated using waste heat from the diesel engine during drive. - Abstract: The idling operation of engines in heavy duty vehicles to cover electricity demand during layovers entails significant fuel consumption and corresponding emissions. Indeed, this mode of operation is highly inefficient and a noteworthy contributor to the transportation sector’s aggregate carbon dioxide emissions. Here, a potential solution to this wasteful practice is outlined in the form of a hybrid battery-fuel cell system for application as an auxiliary power unit for trucks. Drawing on experimentally-validated fuel cell and battery models, several possible hybrid concepts are evaluated and direct and indirect hybrid configurations analyzed using a representative load profile. The results indicate that a direct hybrid configuration is only applicable if the load demand profile does not deviate strongly from the assumed profile. Operation of an indirect hybrid with a constant fuel cell load yields the greatest hybrid system efficiency, at 29.3%, while battery size could be reduced by 87% if the fuel cell is operated at the highest dynamics. Maximum efficiency in truck applications can be achieved by pre-heating the system prior to operation using exhaust heat from the motor, which increased system efficiency from 25.3% to 28.1%, including start-up. These findings confirm that hybrid systems could offer enormous fuel savings and constitute a sizeable step on the path toward energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly heavy duty vehicles that does not necessitate a fuel switch.

  17. File list: Oth.ALL.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.ALL.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.ALL.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.ALL.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  1. Energy control of supercapacitor/fuel cell hybrid power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payman, Alireza; Pierfederici, Serge; Meibody-Tabar, Farid

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a flatness based control principle in a hybrid system utilizing a fuel cell as a main power source and a supercapacitor as an auxiliary power source. The control strategy is based on regulation of the dc bus capacitor energy and, consequently, voltage regulation. The proposed control algorithm does not use a commutation algorithm when the operating mode changes with the load power variation and, thus, avoids chattering effects. Using the flatness based control method, the fuel cell dynamic and its delivered power is perfectly controlled, and the fuel cell can operate in a safe condition. In the hybrid system, the supercapacitor functions during transient energy delivery or during energy recovery situations. To validate the proposed method, the control algorithms are executed in dSPACE hardware, while analogical current loops regulators are employed in the experimental environment. The experimental results prove the validity of the proposed approach

  2. Graphene-based transparent electrodes for hybrid solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The graphene-based transparent and conductive films were demonstrated to be cost-effective electrodes working in organic-inorganic hybrid Schottky solar cells. Large area graphene films were produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD on copper foils and transferred onto glass as transparent electrodes. The hybrid solar cell devices consist of solution processed poly (3, 4-ethlenedioxythiophene: poly (styrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS which is sandwiched between silicon wafer and graphene electrode. The solar cells based on graphene electrodes, especially those doped with HNO3, has comparable performance to the reference devices using commercial indium tin oxide (ITO. Our work suggests that graphene-based transparent electrode is a promising candidate to replace ITO.

  3. Intravenous delivery of HIV-based lentiviral vectors preferentially transduces F4/80+ and Ly-6C+ cells in spleen, important target cells in autoimmune arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, B.T. van den; Vermeij, E.A.; Waterborg, C.E.J.; Arntz, O.J.; Kracht, M.; Bennink, M.B.; Berg, W.B. van den; Loo, F.A. van de

    2013-01-01

    Antigen presenting cells (APCs) play an important role in arthritis and APC specific gene therapeutic targeting will enable intracellular modulation of cell activity. Viral mediated overexpression is a potent approach to achieve adequate transgene expression levels and lentivirus (LV) is useful for

  4. Spleen: development and functional evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Conway, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the fact that the spleen has multiple functions, only one has been widely used for evaluation of the organ by imaging techniques (phagocytosis of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid). The usual splenic uptake of this radiocolloid can by used to determine the size, location, and integrity of the organ. A major use of splenic radiocolloid imaging has been in the study of congenital defects. Thus, eventration of the diaphragm, accessory spleens, splenogonadal fusion, the asplenia and polysplenia syndromes, and the wandering spleen are amenable to study by means of intravenously administered radiocolloid. Interference with the splenic uptake of radiocolloid can be either focal or generalized (as in functional asplenia). Imaging of the spleen has a major role in evaluating suspected trauma of the organ and in following its clinical course. The return of splenic function after splenectomy (splenosis or accessory spleens) can be documented by radionuclide imaging, and likely by hematologic techniques when the volume of tissue is sufficiently large. The detection of intrasplenic lesions is important in tumor staging and as an alerting sign to an ongoing process. 96 references

  5. Paradoxical effects of Auger electron-emitting 111In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 radioimmunoconjugates on hCD45+ cells in the bone marrow and spleen of leukemia-engrafted NOD/SCID or NRG mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, Dane; Leyton, Jeffrey V.; Zereshkian, Arman; Chan, Conrad; Cai, Zhongli; Reilly, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: 111 In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 radioimmunoconjugates (RIC) recognize the overexpression of the interleukin-3 receptor α-subchain (CD123) relative to the β-subchain (CD131) on leukemia stem cells (LSC). Our aim was to study Auger electron radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with 111 In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 in non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice or NOD-Rag1 null IL2rγ null (NRG) mice engrafted with CD123 + human AML-5 cells. Methods: The toxicity of three doses of 111 In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 (3.3–4.8 MBq; 11–15 μg each) injected i.v. every two weeks was studied in non-engrafted NOD/SCID or NRG mice pre-treated with 200 cGy of γ-radiation required for AML engraftment. Engraftment efficiency of (1–5) × 10 6 cells AML-5 cells inoculated i.v. into NOD/SCID or NRG mice was assessed by flow cytometric analysis for human CD45 + (hCD45 + ) cells in the bone marrow (BM) and spleen. AML-5 engrafted mice were treated with two or three doses (3.7 MBq; 10 μg each) every two weeks of 111 In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360, non-specific 111 In-DTPA-NLS-hIgG, unlabeled CSL360 (10 μg) or normal saline. The percentage of hCD45 + cells in the BM and spleen were measured at one week after completion of treatment. Results: 111 In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 in combination with 200 cGy of γ-radiation caused an initial transient decrease in body weight in NOD/SCID but not in NRG mice. There were no hematological, liver or kidney toxicities. The spleen exhibited 13-fold lower engraftment efficiency than the BM in NOD/SCID mice inoculated with 1 × 10 6 cells but both organs were highly (>85%) engrafted in NRG mice. Unexpectedly, 111 In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 or non-specific 111 In-DTPA-NLS-hIgG caused a paradoxical 1.5-fold increase (P < 0.0001) in the proportion of hCD45 + cells in the BM of NOD/SCID mice compared to normal saline treated mice. 111 In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 reduced hCD45 + cells in the spleen by 3.0-fold compared to 111 In-DTPA-NLS-hIgG (P = 0

  6. Morphophysiological changes in the splenic extracellular matrix of Leishmania infantum-naturally infected dogs is associated with alterations in lymphoid niches and the CD4+ T cell frequency in spleens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Virginia Andrade da Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The spleen is one of the main affected organs in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL. Disorganization of the splenic white pulp (SWP has been associated with immunosuppression and disease progression. This study aims to assess structural and cellular changes in the splenic extracellular matrix of dogs with CVL, correlating these changes with the parasite load and clinical signs. Splenic fragments were collected from 41 naturally infected animals for parasite load quantification by quantitative PCR, histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry for CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells; CD21+ B cells; Ki-67+, IFN-γ+, and IL-10+ cells; and the MMP-9 and ADAM-10 enzymes. Laminin, collagen and fibronectin deposition were also evaluated. The animals were grouped according to the level of SWP organization. SWP disorganization was accompanied by a reduction in the quantity of lymphoid follicles/mm2 (p > 0.0001. Animals with moderate to intense SWP disorganization showed more clinical signs (p = 0.021, higher laminin (p = 0.045 and collagen deposition (p = 0.036, higher MMP-9 expression (p = 0.035 and lower numbers of CD4+ T cells (p = 0.027 in the spleen than the animals with organized SWP. These data suggest that splenic structure and function are drastically altered and compromised during CVL.

  7. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  8. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  9. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-07-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the January 2003 to June 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. This report summarizes the results obtained to date on: System performance analysis and model optimization; Reliability and cost model development; System control including dynamic model development; Heat exchanger material tests and life analysis; Pressurized SOFC evaluation; and Pre-baseline system definition for coal gasification fuel cell system concept.

  10. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  11. A hybrid ferroelectric-flash memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Byun, Chang Woo; Seok, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Chae, Hee Jae; Lee, Sol Kyu; Son, Se Wan; Ahn, Donghwan; Joo, Seung Ki

    2014-09-01

    A ferroelectric-flash (F-flash) memory cells having a metal-ferroelectric-nitride-oxynitride-silicon structure are demonstrated, and the ferroelectric materials were perovskite-dominated Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) crystallized by Pt gate electrode. The PZT thin-film as a blocking layer improves electrical and memorial performance where programming and erasing mechanism are different from the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor device or the conventional silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon device. F-flash cells exhibit not only the excellent electrical transistor performance, having 442.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 of field-effect mobility, 190 mV dec-1 of substhreshold slope, and 8 × 105 on/off drain current ratio, but also a high reliable memory characteristics, having a large memory window (6.5 V), low-operating voltage (0 to -5 V), faster P/E switching speed (50/500 μs), long retention time (>10 years), and excellent fatigue P/E cycle (>105) due to the boosting effect, amplification effect, and energy band distortion of nitride from the large polarization. All these characteristics correspond to the best performances among conventional flash cells reported so far.

  12. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  13. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Patricia; Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla; Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO 2 emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: → A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. → The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO 2 emissions results. → A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  14. Anti tumor vaccination with hybrid dendritic-tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuto, Jose Alexandre M.; Neves, Andreia R.; Ensina, Luis Felipe C.; Anselmo, Luciene B.

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells are the most potent antigen-presenting cells, and the possibility of their use for cancer vaccination has renewed the interest in this therapeutic modality. Nevertheless, the ideal immunization protocol with these cells has not been described yet. In this paper we describe the preliminary results of a protocol using autologous tumor and allogeneic dendritic hybrid cell vaccination every 6 weeks, for metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. Thirty-five patients were enrolled between March 2001 and March 2003. Though all patients included presented with large tumor burdens and progressive diseases, 71% of them experienced stability after vaccination, with durations up to 19 months. Among RCC patients 3/22 (14%) presented objective responses. The median time to progression was 4 months for melanoma and 5.7 months for RCC patients; no significant untoward effects were noted. Furthermore, immune function, as evaluated by cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to recall antigens and by peripheral blood proliferative responses to tumor-specific and nonspecific stimuli, presented a clear tendency to recover in vaccinated patients. These data indicate that dendritic cell-tumor cell hybrid vaccination affects the natural history of advanced cancer and provide support for its study in less advanced patients, who should, more likely, benefit even more from this approach. (author)

  15. Nanocomposite-Based Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich Phuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices based on nanocomposites composed of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanocrystals show promise for the fabrication of low-cost third-generation thin film photovoltaics. In theory, hybrid solar cells can combine the advantages of the two classes of materials to potentially provide high power conversion efficiencies of up to 10%; however, certain limitations on the current within a hybrid solar cell must be overcome. Current limitations arise from incompatibilities among the various intradevice interfaces and the uncontrolled aggregation of nanocrystals during the step in which the nanocrystals are mixed into the polymer matrix. Both effects can lead to charge transfer and transport inefficiencies. This paper highlights potential strategies for resolving these obstacles and presents an outlook on the future directions of this field.

  16. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  17. File list: Oth.Unc.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Unc.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Unclassif...ied http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.Unc.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Unc.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Unc.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Unclassif...ied http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.Unc.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.YSt.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Yeast str...ain http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Unc.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Unc.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Unclassif...ied http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.Unc.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.YSt.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Yeast str...ain http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Unc.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Unc.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Unclassif...ied http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.Unc.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.YSt.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Yeast str...ain http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.YSt.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Yeast str...ain http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  5. Whole-cell hybridization of Methanosarcina cells with two new oligonucleotide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A.H.; Torsvik, V.L.; Torsvik, T.

    1997-01-01

    Two new oligonucleotide probes targeting the 16S rRNA of the methanogenic genus Methanosarcina were developed. The probes have the following sequences (Escherichia coli numbering): probe SARCI551, 5'-GAC CCAATAATCACGATCAC-3', and probe SARCI645, 5'-TCCCGGTTCCAAGTCTGGC-3'. In situ hybridization...... with the fluorescently labelled probes required several modifications of standard procedures. Cells of Methanosarcina mazeii S-6 were found to lyse during the hybridization step if fixed in 3% formaldehyde and stored in 50% ethanol. Lysis was, however, not observed with cells fixed and stored in 1.6% formaldehyde-0.......85% NaCl. Extensive autofluorescence of the cells was found upon hybridization in the presence of 5 mM EDTA, but successful hybridization could be obtained without addition of this compound. The mounting agent Citifluor AF1, often used in conjugation with the fluorochrome fluorescein, was found to wash...

  6. Hydatid disease of the spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, W.N. von; Stridbeck, H.

    1992-01-01

    Seven patients with hydatid disease of the spleen were examined by radiography, ultrasound, CT, and in one case MR imaging. The observations were confirmed by patho-anatomic findings except in 2 patients where high indirect hemagglutination tests confirmed the diagnosis. (orig./MG)

  7. Torsion of a wandering spleen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No improvement was noted on detorsion of the vascular pedicle, and a splenectomy was performed. The spleen measured 120×90×55 mm and weighed 250 g. Histological examination of the organ identified significant haemorrhagic congestion associated with diffuse haemorrhagic necrosis, with no neoplasm or infiltrate.

  8. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hajizadeh; F. Hassanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid ...

  9. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. R.; Hess, K. S.; Barnes, D. L.; Erickson, T. L.

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads.

  10. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  11. Tumor and Endothelial Cell Hybrids Participate in Glioblastoma Vasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufiane El Hallani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab has shown a high but transient efficacy in glioblastoma (GBM. Indeed, GBM is one of the most angiogenic human tumors and endothelial proliferation is a hallmark of the disease. We therefore hypothesized that tumor cells may participate in endothelial proliferation of GBM. Materials and Methods. We used EGFR FISH Probe to detect EGFR amplification and anti-CD31, CD105, VE-cadherin, and vWF to identify endothelial cells. Endothelial and GBM cells were grown separately, labeled with GFP and DsRed lentiviruses, and then cocultured with or without contact. Results. In a subset of GBM tissues, we found that several tumor endothelial cells carry EGFR amplification, characteristic of GBM tumor cells. This observation was reproduced in vitro: when tumor stem cells derived from GBM were grown in the presence of human endothelial cells, a fraction of them acquired endothelial markers (CD31, CD105, VE-cadherin, and vWF. By transduction with GFP and DsRed expressing lentiviral vectors, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to cell fusion and not transdifferentiation. Conclusion. A fraction of GBM stem cells thus has the capacity to fuse with endothelial cells and the resulting hybrids may participate in tumor microvascular proliferation and in treatment resistance.

  12. Immunoprotective capability of somatic hybrid cells in comparison with parental tumor cells maintained in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushima, Yutaka; Cohen, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The immunogenicity of X-irradiated hybrid cells derived from fusion of ASL-1 leukemia (A origin) and LM (TK - ) fibroblasts (C3H origin) was compared to X-irradiated parental ASL-1 leukemia cells maintained in vivo (V-ASL-1) and to X-irradiated ASL-1 leukemia cells maintained in vitro (C-ASL-1). Immunization with hybrid cells induced transplantation resistance against tumor rechallenge with V-ASL-1 more effectively than did immunization with V-ASL-1 tumor cells. Immunization with X-irradiated C-ASL-1 cells produced the same, or slightly stronger level of transplantation resistance than that with X-irradiated hybrid cells. These findings were observed both in A/J and in (C3H/HeJxA/J) F 1 mice. These results raise a question about whether the apparent increased immunogenicity of hybrid cells is due to a result of cell fusion or a result of their growth in vitro. (author)

  13. Simulation and Test of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Golf Cart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the simulation model of fuel cell hybrid golf cart (FCHGC, which applies the non-GUI mode of the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR and the genetic algorithm (GA to optimize it. Simulation of the objective function is composed of fuel consumption and vehicle dynamic performance; the variables are the fuel cell stack power sizes and the battery numbers. By means of simulation, the optimal parameters of vehicle power unit, fuel cell stack, and battery pack are worked out. On this basis, GUI mode of ADVISOR is used to select the rated power of vehicle motor. In line with simulation parameters, an electrical golf cart is refitted by adding a 2 kW hydrogen air proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack system and test the FCHGC. The result shows that the simulation data is effective but it needs improving compared with that of the real cart test.

  14. Functional assessment of hepatocytes after transplantation into rat spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.J.; Fuller, B.J.; Attenburrow, V.D.; Nutt, L.H.; Hobbs, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    The retention of structural integrity and metabolic function by isolated hepatocytes after ectopic transplantation has been investigated in autografted rats. Rats were partially hepatectomized and isolated hepatocytes prepared from the excised liver lobes were implanted into their spleens. Histological examination of the spleens 7 or more weeks after implantation revealed aggregates of hepatocytes in the red pulp. Two tests of biochemical function were applied to the hepatocytes after transplantation. In the first the hepatobiliary imaging agent technetium-99m N-[N'-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl]iminodiacetic acid (99mTc HIDA), which was shown to be avidly taken up by isolated hepatocytes in vitro, was infused into the tail veins of autograft and control rats. Radioactivity accumulating in the spleens of autografted rats was markedly greater than that in controls implanted with lethally damaged cells or in nontransplanted rats. In the second the presence of bilirubin metabolites was sought in autograft spleens after intravenous infusion of bilirubin. Both mono- and diglucuronides of bilirubin were recovered from the spleens of autograft rats but no conjugates were recovered from the spleens of unoperated controls. We conclude that after autotransplantation isolated hepatocytes retain their morphology and at least some of their functional activities

  15. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  16. In vivo immunotoxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate in BALB/c mice: Identification of T-cell receptor and calcium-mediated signaling pathway disruption through gene expression profiling of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qi-Yan; Wan, Bin; Guo, Liang-Hong; Yang, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Hui

    2015-10-05

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant that is used worldwide and is continuously being detected in biota and the environment, thus presenting potential threats to the ecosystem and human health. Although PFOS is highly immunotoxic, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study examined PFOS-induced immunotoxicity in the mouse spleen and explored its underlying mechanisms by gene expression profiling. Oral exposure of male BALB/c mice for three weeks followed by one-week recovery showed that a 10 mg/kg/day PFOS exposure damaged the splenic architecture, inhibited T-cell proliferation in response to mitogen, and increased the percentages of T helper (CD3(+)CD4(+)) and cytotoxic T (CD3(+)CD8(+)) cells, despite the decrease in the absolute number of these cells. A delayed type of PFOS immunotoxicity was observed, which mainly occurred during the recovery period. Global gene expression profiling of mouse spleens and QRT-PCR analyses suggest that PFOS inhibited the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, and upregulated those in TCR signaling, calcium signaling, and p38/MAPK signaling pathways. Western blot analysis confirmed that the expressions of CAMK4, THEMIS, and CD3G, which were involved in the upregulated pathways, were induced upon PFOS exposure. Acute PFOS exposure modulated calcium homoeostasis in splenocytes. These results indicate that PFOS exposure can activate TCR signaling and calcium ion influx, which provides a clue for the potential mechanism of PFOS immunotoxicity. The altered signaling pathways by PFOS treatment as revealed in the present study might facilitate in better understanding PFOS immunotoxicity and explain the association between immune disease and PFOS exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dendritic cell-tumor cell hybrids and immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cathelin, Dominique; Nicolas, Alexandra; Bouchot, André

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells currently being used as a cellular adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy strategies. Unfortunately, DC-based vaccines have not demonstrated spectacular clinical results. DC loading with tumor antigens and DC differentiation and activation...

  18. Hybrid clone cells derived from human breast epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells exhibit properties of cancer stem/initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauck, Daria; Keil, Silvia; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2017-08-02

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been associated with cancer progression since it was determined that normal cell × tumor cell fusion-derived hybrid cells could exhibit novel properties, such as enhanced metastatogenic capacity or increased drug resistance, and even as a mechanism that could give rise to cancer stem/initiating cells (CS/ICs). CS/ICs have been proposed as cancer cells that exhibit stem cell properties, including the ability to (re)initiate tumor growth. Five M13HS hybrid clone cells, which originated from spontaneous cell fusion events between M13SV1-EGFP-Neo human breast epithelial cells and HS578T-Hyg human breast cancer cells, and their parental cells were analyzed for expression of stemness and EMT-related marker proteins by Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The frequency of ALDH1-positive cells was determined by flow cytometry using AldeRed fluorescent dye. Concurrently, the cells' colony forming capabilities as well as the cells' abilities to form mammospheres were investigated. The migratory activity of the cells was analyzed using a 3D collagen matrix migration assay. M13HS hybrid clone cells co-expressed SOX9, SLUG, CK8 and CK14, which were differently expressed in parental cells. A variation in the ALDH1-positive putative stem cell population was observed among the five hybrids ranging from 1.44% (M13HS-7) to 13.68% (M13HS-2). In comparison to the parental cells, all five hybrid clone cells possessed increased but also unique colony formation and mammosphere formation capabilities. M13HS-4 hybrid clone cells exhibited the highest colony formation capacity and second highest mammosphere formation capacity of all hybrids, whereby the mean diameter of the mammospheres was comparable to the parental cells. In contrast, the largest mammospheres originated from the M13HS-2 hybrid clone cells, whereas these cells' mammosphere formation capacity was comparable to the parental breast cancer cells. All M13HS

  19. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  20. Torsion of wandering spleen and distal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheflin, J.R.; Lee, C.M.; Kretchmar, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Wandering spleen is the term applied to the condition in which a long pedicle allows the spleen to lie in an abnormal location. Torsion of a wandering spleen is an unusual cause of an acute abdomen and is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Associated torsion of the distal pancreas is even more uncommon. The authors describe a patient with torsion of a wandering spleen and distal pancreas, who was correctly diagnosed, and define the merits of the imaging methods used. The initial examination should be 99 /sup m/Tc-sulfur colloid liner-spleen scanning

  1. Control of hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed generation system against voltage sag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajizadeh, Amin; Golkar, Masoud Aliakbar [Electrical Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyedkhandan, Dr. Shariati Ave, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-06-15

    Fuel cell (FC) and energy storage (ES) based hybrid distributed power generation systems appear to be very promising for satisfying high energy and high power requirements of power quality problems in distributed generation (DG) systems. In this study, design of control strategy for hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed power generation system during voltage sag has been presented. The proposed control strategy allows hybrid distributed generation system works properly when a voltage disturbance occurs in distribution system and hybrid system stays connected to the main grid. Hence, modeling, controller design, and simulation study of a hybrid distributed generation system are investigated. The physical model of the fuel cell stack, energy storage and the models of power conditioning units are described. Then the control design methodology for each component of the hybrid system is proposed. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance including active power control and voltage sag ride-through capability of the hybrid distributed generation system. (author)

  2. Organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots for cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Hongwen; Li, Jiayu; Tang, Yuying; Cao, Yu; Jiang, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (CDs) had been synthesized directly by one-step ultrasonic treatment under mild conditions. During the functionalization process, Octa-aminopropyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane hydrochloride salt (OA-POSS) was used as stabilizing and passivation agent, which lead to self-assembling of CDs in aqueous medium solution. OA-POSS was obtained via hydrolytic condensation of γ-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES). The average size of CDs prepared was approximately 3.3 nm with distribution between 2.5 nm and 4.5 nm. The prepared organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots have several characteristics such as photoluminescence emission wavelength, efficient cellular uptake, and good biocompatibility. The results indicate that OA-POSS can maintain the fluorescence properties of the carbon dots effectively, and reduced cytotoxicity provides the possibility for biomedical applications. More than 89% of the Hela cells were viable when incubated with 2 mg ml‑1 or lesser organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots. Thus, it provides a potential for multicolor imaging with HeLa cells.

  3. Longevity-conscious dimensioning and power management of the hybrid energy storage system in a fuel cell hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaosong; Johannesson, Lars; Murgovski, Nikolce; Egardt, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid energy storage system is optimally sized and controlled for a hybrid bus. • Dynamic battery health model is incorporated in the optimization. • Convex programming is efficient for optimizing hybrid propulsion systems. • Optimal battery replacement strategy is explored. • Comparison to the battery-only option is made in the health-aware optimization. - Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESSs) play an important role in the performance and economy of electrified vehicles. Hybrid energy storage system (HESS) combining both lithium-ion cells and supercapacitors is one of the most promising solutions. This paper discusses the optimal HESS dimensioning and energy management of a fuel cell hybrid electric bus. Three novel contributions are added to the relevant literature. First, efficient convex programming is used to simultaneously optimize the HESS dimension (including sizes of both the lithium-ion battery pack and the supercapacitor stack) and the power allocation between the HESS and the fuel cell system (FCS) of the hybrid bus. In the combined plant/controller optimization problem, a dynamic battery State-of-Health (SOH) model is integrated to quantitatively examine the impact of the battery replacement strategy on both the HESS size and the bus economy. Second, the HESS and the battery-only ESS options are systematically compared in the proposed optimization framework. Finally, the battery-health-perceptive HESS optimization outcome is contrasted to the ideal one neglecting the battery degradation (assuming that the battery is durable over the bus service period without deliberate power regulation)

  4. [Ultrasound of spleen and retroperitoneum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura-Grau, A; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound provides data of extremely great value when studying spleen pathology, being diagnostic in splenomegaly and splenic trauma, as well as offering a good approach to the diagnosis of both benign and malignant focal pathology, particularly lymphoma. However, for the evaluation of adrenal and retroperitoneal diseases, other techniques such as CT or MRI are more suitable, even though ultrasound is still an excellent screening and monitoring method, as well as being useful in non-invasive therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. CD95 (FAS) and CD178 (FASL) induce the apoptosis of CD4+ and CD8+ cells isolated from the peripheral blood and spleen of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira; Melo, Larissa Martins; Perosso, Juliana; Oliveira, Bruna Brito; Santos, Paulo Sérgio Patto Dos; Eugênio, Flávia de Rezende; Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix de

    2013-11-08

    Infected dogs are urban reservoirs of Leishmania chagasi, which is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Dogs exhibit immune suppression during the course of this disease, and lymphocyte apoptosis is involved in this process. To investigate apoptosis and the expression levels of FAS-FAS-associated death domain protein (CD95 or APO-1), FASL-FAS ligand protein (CD178), and TRAIL-TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (CD253) receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and spleen leukocytes from 38 symptomatic dogs with moderate VL and 25 healthy dogs were evaluated by flow cytometry. The apoptosis rate of blood and splenic CD4+ and CD8+ cells was higher in infected dogs than in healthy dogs. The expression levels of FAS and FASL in blood and splenic CD4+ cells were lower in infected dogs than in healthy dogs. FAS expression in CD8+ cells was higher in infected dogs than in healthy dogs; in contrast, FASL expression was lower in infected dogs. The expression of the TRAIL receptor increased only in splenic CD8+ cells from infected dogs. The FAS and FAS-L blocking antibodies confirmed the importance of these receptors in apoptosis. Our results enhance the current understanding of the immune response in dogs infected with L. chagasi, facilitating the future development of therapeutic interventions to reduce lymphocyte depletion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of interleukin-2 on cell proliferation, sister-chromatid exchange induction, and nuclear stress protein phosphorylation in PHA-stimulated Fischer 344 rat spleen lymphocytes: Modulation by 2-mercaptoethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.M.; Aidoo, A.; Domon, O.E.; McGarrity, L.J.; Kodell, R.L.; Schol, H.M.; Hinson, W.G.; Pipkin, J.L.; Casciano, D.A. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on cell proliferation, sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency, and the phosphorylation of nuclear stress proteins was evaluated in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated spleen lymphocytes isolated from Fischer 344 rats. In addition, the ability of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) to modulate the induction of these biological responses was characterized. Cell proliferation, as measured by the mitotic index, increased significantly. The average generation time (AGT) did not respond to IL-2 in a concentration-dependent manner and decreased significantly. The number of SCE increased significantly from control frequencies, to frequencies of 18.5 to 21.5 SCE per cell as the concentration of IL-2 in the culture medium increased to 50 half-maximal units per ml. A reduction in SCE frequency was observed when cells were cultured with 20 {mu}M 2-ME and IL-2 compared to IL-2 alone. Three nuclear proteins, with relative molecular masses of approximately 13,000-18,000, 20,000, and 80,000, were phosphorylated in IL-2-exposed G{sub 1}-phase nuclei. Elicitation of these nuclear proteins in IL-2-exposed cells was not affected by exposure to 2-ME.

  7. Hybrid solar cells composed of perovskite and polymer photovoltaic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaometvarithorn, Apatsanan; Chuangchote, Surawut; Kumnorkaew, Pisist; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn

    2018-06-01

    Organic/inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted much attention in photovoltaic research, due to the devices show promising ways to achieve high efficiencies. The perovskite devices with high efficiencies, however, are typically fabricated in tandem solar cell which is complicated. In this research work, we introduce a solar cell device with the combination of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite and bulk heterojunction PCDTBT:PC70BM polymer without any tandem structure. The new integrated perovskite/polymer hybrid structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/PCDTBT:PC70BM/PC70BM/TiOx/Al provides higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices compared with conventional perovskite cell structure. With the optimized PCDTBT:PC70BM thickness of ∼70 nm, the highest PCE of 11.67% is achieved. Variation of conducting donor polymers in this new structure is also preliminary demonstrated. This study provides an attractively innovative structure and a promising design for further development of the new-generation solar cells.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells generate distinct functional hybrids in vitro via cell fusion or entosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottile, Francesco; Aulicino, Francesco; Theka, Ilda; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2016-11-09

    Homotypic and heterotypic cell-to-cell fusion are key processes during development and tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, aberrant cell fusion can contribute to tumour initiation and metastasis. Additionally, a form of cell-in-cell structure called entosis has been observed in several human tumours. Here we investigate cell-to-cell interaction between mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). MSCs represent an important source of adult stem cells since they have great potential for regenerative medicine, even though they are also involved in cancer progression. We report that MSCs can either fuse forming heterokaryons, or be invaded by ESCs through entosis. While entosis-derived hybrids never share their genomes and induce degradation of the target cell, fusion-derived hybrids can convert into synkaryons. Importantly we show that hetero-to-synkaryon transition occurs through cell division and not by nuclear membrane fusion. Additionally, we also observe that the ROCK-actin/myosin pathway is required for both fusion and entosis in ESCs but only for entosis in MSCs. Overall, we show that MSCs can undergo fusion or entosis in culture by generating distinct functional cellular entities. These two processes are profoundly different and their outcomes should be considered given the beneficial or possible detrimental effects of MSC-based therapeutic applications.

  9. Role of the spleen in the maturation of B-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.

    1976-01-01

    Spleen cells from unimmunized Lewis rats were fractionated by 1 x g velocity sedimentation and assayed for their ability to restore the adoptive primary antibody response to horse spleen ferritin in irradiated syngeneic recipients given T cell supplementation. Large, medium and small cell fractions all showed virgin B cell activity. Similar studies with thoractic duct cells show that virgin B cell activity is restricted to the small and medium cells. Large spleen cells produced a 2-ME sensitive adoptive antibody response which persisted for 21 days. All antibody produced by small cells at 21 days was 2-ME resistant. Examination of spleen cells during recovery from sublethal irradiation showed that virgin B cell activity was first detected at 14 days, and is confined to the large cell fraction. Experiments with congenic rats which differ at the immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain allotype showed that small cells from the bone marrow injected intravenously can transform into large Ig-bearing cells in the spleen. The relationship of the subclasses of virgin B cells in the spleen to B cell maturation is discussed

  10. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; Y. Shen; P.P.J. van den Bosch; Edwin Tazelaar; T. Hofman

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell hybrid vehicles are believed to provide a solution to cut down emissions in the long term. They provide local zero-emission propulsion and when the hydrogen as fuel is derived from renewable energy sources, fuel cell hybrids enable well-to-wheel zero-emission transportation,

  11. Giant Accessory Right-Sided Suprarenal Spleen in Thalassaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory spleen is defined as ectopic splenic tissue that develops due to failure of fusion of cells during embryonic development as they migrate from the midline to the left upper quadrant. While benign, complications may arise which include trauma, torsion, or infarction of the ectopic tissue. Additionally, patients who have had a splenectomy secondary to treatment for previous pathology such as a haematological malignancy or idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura may experience persistent symptoms due to the accessory splenic tissue. The presence of an accessory spleen is therefore of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the second and largest reported case of a giant right suprarenal accessory spleen and highlights the difficulty in differentiation of these masses from malignant adrenal tumours.

  12. The effect of Echinococcus granulosus on spleen cells and TGF-β expression in the peripheral blood of BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S; Chen, X; Zhang, J; Xu, F; Fang, H; Hou, J; Zhang, X; Wu, X; Chen, X

    2017-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is a zoonotic parasitic disease. The effective immune evasion mechanisms of E. granulosus allow it to parasitize its hosts. However, the status of the innate and adaptive immune cells and their contributions to E. granulosus progression remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to determine the impact of E. granulosus infection on T cells, NK cell responses and TGF-β expression during the early infection phase in BALB/c mice. In E. granulosus infections, there was an increasing tendency in the percentage of CD4 + CD25 + T cells and CD4 + Foxp3 + T cells and peripheral blood TGF-β levels and relative expression of the Foxp3 gene. Moreover, there were a decreasing tendency in the percentage of NK cells and NK cell cytotoxicity and the expression of NKG2D on NK cells. The TGF-β1/Smad pathway was activated by E. granulosus in mice. Above results can be reversed by the inhibitor SB-525334 (potent activin receptor-like kinase 5 inhibitor). These results suggest that the TGF-β/Smad pathway plays an important role in changes of T-cell or NK cell responses. These results may contribute to revealing the preliminary molecular mechanisms in establishing hydatid infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Role of the spleen in cyclophosphamide-induced hematosuppression and extramedullary hematopoiesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Meng, Qinggang; Qiao, Haiquan; Jiang, Hongchi; Sun, Xueying

    2009-05-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is induced in spleens due to various diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of spleen in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hematosuppression and EMH in mice. Balb/c mice were IP injected with 300 mg/kg CTX 2 weeks after splenectomy or sham operation and randomly sacrificed 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after injection. Blood samples were collected, and spleens were weighed, histologically analyzed, and then used for flow cytometry. There were significant differences in white blood count, red blood count, platelet numbers and hemoglobin concentration between the splenectomized and sham-operated mice after CTX injection. The cellularity of the spleen was reduced 3 days following CTX treatment but then rose 7 days after CTX treatment. The numbers of colony-forming units in the spleen reached a peak 7 days after CTX injection, then declined. Flow cytometry demonstrated the percentage of CD34(+) and CD117(+) cells in the spleen increased 7 days after CTX injection, indicating the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the spleen. The study indicates that EMH occurs as a compensatory reaction to CTX-induced hematosuppression in the murine spleen, implying that conservation of the spleen may promote the recovery of cancer patients from chemotherapy-induced hematosuppression.

  14. Vapor-fed bio-hybrid fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamin, Marcus S; Jahnke, Justin P; Mackie, David M

    2017-01-01

    Concentration and purification of ethanol and other biofuels from fermentations are energy-intensive processes, with amplified costs at smaller scales. To circumvent the need for these processes, and to potentially reduce transportation costs as well, we have previously investigated bio-hybrid fuel cells (FCs), in which a fermentation and FC are closely coupled. However, long-term operation requires strictly preventing the fermentation and FC from harming each other. We introduce here the concept of the vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC as a means of continuously extracting power from ongoing fermentations at ambient conditions. By bubbling a carrier gas (N 2 ) through a yeast fermentation and then through a direct ethanol FC, we protect the FC anode from the catalyst poisons in the fermentation (which are non-volatile), and also protect the yeast from harmful FC products (notably acetic acid) and from build-up of ethanol. Since vapor-fed direct ethanol FCs at ambient conditions have never been systematically characterized (in contrast to vapor-fed direct methanol FCs), we first assess the effects on output power and conversion efficiency of ethanol concentration, vapor flow rate, and FC voltage. The results fit a continuous stirred-tank reactor model. Over a wide range of ethanol partial pressures (2-8 mmHg), power densities are comparable to those for liquid-fed direct ethanol FCs at the same temperature, with power densities >2 mW/cm 2 obtained. We then demonstrate the continuous operation of a vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC with fermentation for 5 months, with no indication of performance degradation due to poisoning (of either the FC or the fermentation). It is further shown that the system is stable, recovering quickly from disturbances or from interruptions in maintenance. The vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC enables extraction of power from dilute bio-ethanol streams without costly concentration and purification steps. The concept should be scalable to both large and small

  15. A hybrid of cells and pancreatic islets toward a new bioartificial pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Teramura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface engineering using single-stranded DNA–poly(ethylene glycol-conjugated phospholipid (ssDNA–PEG-lipid is useful for inducing cell–cell attachment two and three dimensionally. In this review, we summarize our recent techniques for cell surface engineering and their applications to islet transplantation. Because any DNA sequence can be immobilized onto the cell surface by hydrophobic interactions between ssDNA–PEG-lipid and the cellular membrane without impairing cell function, a cell–cell hybrid can be formed through the DNA hybridization. With this technique, it would be possible to create three-dimensional hybrid structures of pancreatic islets coated with various accessory cells, such as patients’ own cells, mesenchymal and adipose-derived stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, neural crest stem cells or regulatory T cells, which might significantly improve the outcome of islet transplantation in diabetic patients.

  16. Performance evaluation and parametric optimum design of a molten carbonate fuel cell-thermophotovoltaic cell hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhimin; Liao, Tianjun; Zhou, Yinghui; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A molten carbonate fuel cell-thermophotovoltaic cell hybrid system is established. • The performance characteristics of the hybrid system are systematically evaluated. • The optimal regions of the power output density and efficiency are determined. • The values of key parameters at the maximum power output density are calculated. • The proposed system is proved to have advantages over other hybrid systems. - Abstract: A new model of the hybrid system composed of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a thermophotovoltaic cell (TPVC) is proposed to recovery the waste heat produced by the MCFC. Expressions for the power output and the efficiency of the hybrid system are analytically derived. The performance characteristics of the hybrid system are evaluated. It is found that when the current density of the MCFC, voltage output of the TPVC, electrode area ratio of the MCFC to the TPVC, and energy gap of the material in the photovoltaic cell are optimally chosen, the maximum power output density of the hybrid system is obviously larger than that of the single MCFC. Moreover, the improved percentages of the maximum power output density of the proposed model relative to that of the single MCFC are calculated for differently operating temperatures of the MCFC and are compared with those of some MCFC-based hybrid systems reported in the literature, and consequently, the advantages of the MCFC-TPVC hybrid system are revealed.

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF SPLEEN: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Chidambaram

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spleen is a large lymphoid organ situated in the left hypochondrial region having an important role in immunological and hematological functions of the human body. The aim of this study was to find the morphological variations of the spleen with respect to it’s a Shape, b Number of notches on its borders and c Presence of anomalous fissure on its surface. The Study was done on 60 formalin fixed cadaveric spleen from the Department of Anatomy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Out of 60 spleens we examined, the various shapes of the spleen were noted suc h as wedge shape (73.33%, triangular (13.33%, tetrahedral (6.67% and oval shape(6.67%.The number of spleen showing notches on its superior border was 38(63.33% and in inferior border it was 6(10%. Absence of splenic notch was observed in 10(16.67% s pleens and the remaining 6 spleens (10% shows notches on its both the borders. The anomalous splenic fissure was found in 4(6.67% spleens on its diaphragmatic surface. The knowledge of variations in the morphology of spleen are essential for physician, s urgeon, radiologist and forensic surgeon to differentiate it from the splenic pathology and splenic injury. In addition to this, it is also important for anatomist during routine classroom dissection and discussion.

  18. Response of immunocompetent cells of bone marrow and spleen of mouse males of several strains to stress and to pyrazine containing chemosignals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene V Daev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of antibody producing cells and mitotic disturbances in dividing bone marrow cells of mice were studied after exposure of animals to a physical stressor or various pyrazinecontaining chemosignals. Several different strains of mice were used. We demonstrate that immune suppression and destabilization of the chromosome apparatus in dividing cells depend on: а mouse genotype and b side chains position  in the pyrazine ring. Importance of this effects in the light of wide usage of pyrazine containing substances in perfume industry, food production and pharmacology is discussed.

  19. Optical fiber-based core-shell coaxially structured hybrid cells for self-powered nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guo, Wenxi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dong, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); School of Materials Science and Enginnering, Zhenzhou University, Zhenghou 450001 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-03

    An optical fiber-based 3D hybrid cell consisting of a coaxially structured dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a nanogenerator (NG) for simultaneously or independently harvesting solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The current output of the hybrid cell is dominated by the DSSC, and the voltage output is dominated by the NG; these can be utilized complementarily for different applications. The output of the hybrid cell is about 7.65 {mu}A current and 3.3 V voltage, which is strong enough to power nanodevices and even commercial electronic components. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Pluripotent hybrid cells contribute to extraembryonic as well as embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jeong Tae; Choi, Hyun Woo; Choi, Youngsok; Schöler, Hans R

    2011-06-01

    The restricted gene expression of a differentiated cell can be reversed by forming hybrid with embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The resulting hybrid cells showed not only an ESC-specific marker expression but also a differentiation potential similar to the pluripotent fusion partner. Here, we evaluated whether the tetraploid fusion hybrid cells have a unique differentiation potential compared with diploid pluripotent cells. The first Oct4-GFP-positive cells were observed at day 2 following fusion between ESCs and neurosphere cells (OG2(+/-)/ROSA26(+/-)). Reprogramming efficiency was as high as 94.5% at passage 5 and 96.4% at passage 13. We have found that the tetraploid hybrid cells could form chimera with contribution to placenta after blastocyst injection. This result indicates that the tetraploid pluripotent fusion hybrid cells have wide range of differentiation potential. Therefore, we suggest that once the somatic cells are reprogrammed by fusion with ESCs, the tetraploid hybrid cells contributed to the extraembryonic as well as embryonic tissues.

  1. Increased efficiency of mammalian somatic cell hybrid production under microgravity conditions during ballistic rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, R.; Gessner, P.; Zimmermann, U.; Neil, G. A.; Urnovitz, H. B.

    1989-01-01

    The electrofusion of hybridoma cell lines under short-duration microgravity during a flight of the TEXUS 18 Black Brand ballistic sounding rocket at Kiruna, Sweden is reported. The fusion partners, growth medium, cell fusion medium, cell fusion, cell viability in the fusion medium, and postfusion cell culture are described, and the rocket, cell fusion chamber, apparatus, and module are examined. The experimental timeline, the effects of fusion medium and incubation time on cell viability and hybrid yields, and the effect of microgravity on hybrid yields are considered.

  2. Recent progress in stabilizing hybrid perovskites for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqing; Cai, Xin; Yang, Donghui; Song, Dan; Wang, Jiajia; Jiang, Jinghua; Ma, Aibin; Lv, Shiquan; Hu, Michael Z.; Ni, Chaoying

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites have quickly evolved as a promising group of materials for solar cells and optoelectronic applications mainly owing to the inexpensive materials, relatively simple and versatile fabrication and high power conversion efficiency (PCE). The certified energy conversion efficiency for perovskite solar cell (PSC) has reached above 20%, which is compatible to the current best for commercial applications. However, long-term stabilities of the materials and devices remain to be the biggest challenging issue for realistic implementation of the PSCs. This article discusses the key issues related to the stability of perovskite absorbing layer including crystal structural stability, chemical stability under moisture, oxygen, illumination and interface reaction, effects of electron-transporting materials (ETM), hole-transporting materials (HTM), contact electrodes, ion migration and preparation conditions. Towards the end, prospective strategies for improving the stability of PSCs are also briefly discussed and summarized. We focus on recent understanding of the stability of materials and devices and our perspectives about the strategies for the stability improvement.

  3. In-vivo effects of lipopolysaccharide on lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells in the mouse spleen. Migration of marginal metallophils towards the follicle centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, P. H.; van Rooijen, N.; Eikelenboom, P.

    1983-01-01

    In mice marginal metallophils are located at the periphery of the white pulp along the inner border of the marginal sinus. These cells have a weak phagocytic capacity but their function is still unclear. In the present study evidence is given that marginal metallophils migrate from the periphery of

  4. Perspective: Hybrid solar cells: How to get the polymer to cooperate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Weickert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lately, a lot of attention has been paid to metal oxide-organic hybrid solar cells. In these devices, conjugated polymers replace the typically transparent hole transporter as usually used in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells in order to maximize the photon absorption efficiency. However, to unleash the full potential of hybrid solar cells it is imperative to push the photocurrent contribution of the absorbing polymer.

  5. Lifecycle cost assessment and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel, natural gas, hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid and electric transit buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajunen, Antti; Lipman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the lifecycle costs and carbon dioxide emissions of different types of city buses. The simulation models of the different powertrains were developed in the Autonomie vehicle simulation software. The carbon dioxide emissions were calculated both for the bus operation and for the fuel and energy pathways from well to tank. Two different operating environment case scenarios were used for the primary energy sources, which were Finland and California (USA). The fuel and energy pathways were selected appropriately in relation to the operating environment. The lifecycle costs take into account the purchase, operating, maintenance, and possible carbon emission costs. Based on the simulation results, the energy efficiency of city buses can be significantly improved by the alternative powertrain technologies. Hybrid buses have moderately lower carbon dioxide emissions during the service life than diesel buses whereas fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, by up to 75%. The lifecycle cost analysis indicates that diesel hybrid buses are already competitive with diesel and natural gas buses. The high costs of fuel cell and battery systems are the major challenges for the fuel cell hybrid buses in order to reduce lifecycle costs to more competitive levels. - Highlights: • Alternative powertrains can significantly improve energy efficiency of transit buses. • Operating environment has an important impact on the lifecycle costs of buses. • Diesel hybrid buses are already cost effective solution for public transportation. • The cost of fuel cell technology is the major challenge for fuel cell hybrid buses. • Fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  6. What Is Moving in Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    and fuel cell applications. We expound on the implications of these effects for the photovoltaic action. The temporal behavior displayed by hybrid perovskites introduces a sensitivity in materials characterization to the time and length scale of the measurement, as well as the history of each sample. It also poses significant challenges for accurate materials modeling and device simulations. There are large differences between the average and local crystal structures, and the nature of charge transport is too complex to be described by common one-dimensional drift-diffusion models. Herein, we critically discuss the atomistic origin of the dynamic processes and the associated chemical disorder intrinsic to crystalline hybrid perovskite semiconductors. PMID:26859250

  7. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Campanelli

    Full Text Available Primary myelofibrosis (PMF is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph- myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2 have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs, and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62-CCR2- (TEMs and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008 in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ.

  8. Comparative genomic and in situ hybridization of germ cell tumors of the infantile testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, M; Rosenberg, C; Stoop, H; Schuyer, M; Timmer, A; Oosterhuis, W; Looijenga, L

    Chromosomal information on germ cell tumors of the infantile testis, ie, teratomas and yolk sac tumors, is limited and controversial. We studied two teratomas and four yolk sac tumors using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and in situ hybridization. No chromosomal anomalies were found in the

  9. A review and design of power electronics converters for fuel cell hybrid system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of most promising power electronics topologies for a fuel cell hybrid power conversion system which can be utilized in many applications such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), distributed generations (DG) and uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems. Then...

  10. Change of the NADPH depending superoxide producing and ferri hemoglobin reducing activities of cytochrome b558 from spleen cells and erythrocytes membranes induced by the radiation of different character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkonyan, L.G.; Simonyan, R.M.; Simonyan, M.A.; Sekoyan, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    After the X radiation, UVA radiation and ultrasound radiation of new isoforms of cytochrome cyt b 5 58 from rats erythrocyte membranes - EM (cyt b 5 58III) and from spleen cell membranes (SCM) in vitro, as well as after the radiation of EM ex vivo, the suppression of both NADPH depending O 2 - producing and ferrihemoglobin (ferriHb)-reducing activities of cyt b 5 58 from EM and SCM in homogeneous (in solution) and heterogeneous phases (in EM and SCM) at various scopes takes place. These changes are associated with the destabilization of EM and SCM, conditioned by the change of the aggregation degree of these hemoproteins in EM and SCM, hemoproteins as a result of the influence of the hydrogen peroxide formed during radiolysis and photolysis of the water medium. After He-Ne laser radiation of the cyt b 5 58 from EM and SCM in vitro an increase of the NADPH depending O 2 - producing and ferriHb-reducing activities of the cyt b 5 58 from EM and SCM in homogenous and heterogeneous phases (in membranes) takes place. It is supposed that the suppression (by X-, UVA- and US-radiation) and the stimulation (by He-Ne laser radiation) of the immune system activity and the oxygen homeostasis are associated with the corresponding decrease and increase of the NADPH depending O 2 - producing and ferriHb-reducings activity of the new isoforms of cyt b 5 58 from EM and SCM in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases

  11. Indolent B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancy in the Spleen of a Man Who Handled Benzene: Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 45-year-old man with a history of benzene exposure who developed splenic marginal zone lymphoma. For 6 years, he had worked in an enclosed space cleaning instruments with benzene. He was diagnosed with splenic marginal zone lymphoma 19 years after retirement. During his time of working in the laboratory in the 1980s, working environments were not monitored for hazardous materials. We indirectly estimated the cumulative level of past benzene exposure using job-exposure matrices and technical assumptions. Care must be taken in investigating the relevance of occupational benzene exposure in the occurrence of indolent B-cell lymphoma. Because of the long latency period and because occupational measurement data do not exist for the period during the patient's exposure, the epidemiological impact of benzene exposure may be underestimated.

  12. Alterations in the extracellular matrix organization associated with the reexpression of tumorigenicity in human cell hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der, C J; Stanbridge, E J

    1980-10-15

    The expression of fibronectin on the cell surface was evaluated on a series of intraspecific human cell hybrids formed between HeLa and normal fibroblast strains. Although these hybrids continued to express many of the in vitro transformation properties of their corresponding tumorigenic HeLa parent, they were now unable to form tumors when inoculated into athymic nude mice. From these suppressed hybrid populations, rare tumorigenic segregant subpopulations arose which had regained their tumorigenic capacity. A comparison of the expression of fibronectin on the cell surface was made between these tumorigenic segregant cell lines and their corresponding non-tumorigenic HeLa/fibroblast hybrid. Following specific immunofluorescent staining for fibronectin, a striking alteration in the cell surface organization was observed to correspond with the reexpression of tumorigenicity in these hybrids. Tumorigenic HeLa/fibroblast hybrids were also significantly altered in both their cellular and colonial morphology. Double immunofluorescent staining to simultaneously visualize both surface fibronectin and collagen revealed that these two extracellular matrix proteins displayed an extensive degree of codistribution and expressed a coordinate shift in organization which correlated with the appearance of tumorigenic segregant hybrid populations. These observations are in agreement with the apparently close structural association between fibronectin and collagen and suggest that the organization of these two components in the extracellular matrix may be an important determinant for in vivo growth potential.

  13. File list: Oth.NoD.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.NoD.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.NoD.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.NoD.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  17. Hybrid tandem quantum dot/organic photovoltaic cells with complementary near infrared absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo; Palmiano, Elenita; Liang, Ru-Ze; Hu, Hanlin; Banavoth, Murali; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Firdaus, Yuliar; Gao, Yangqin; Sheikh, Arif D.; Yuan, Mingjian; Mohammed, Omar F.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Beaujuge, Pierre; Sargent, Edward H.; Amassian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    Monolithically integrated hybrid tandem solar cells that effectively combine solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and organic bulk heterojunction subcells to achieve tandem performance that surpasses the individual subcell efficiencies

  18. Hybrid confocal Raman fluorescence microscopy on single cells using semiconductor quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, H.J.; Otto, Cornelis

    2007-01-01

    We have overcome the traditional incompatibility of Raman microscopy with fluorescence microscopy by exploiting the optical properties of semiconductor fluorescent quantum dots (QDs). Here we present a hybrid Raman fluorescence spectral imaging approach for single-cell microscopy applications. We

  19. On the effect of small radiation doses: Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis and DNA repair of thymus, spleen, and bone marrow cells in the rat after fractionated total body X-ray irradiation. Zur Wirkung kleiner Strahlendosen: Desoxyribonukleinsaeure-(DNA-)Synthese und DNA-Reparatur von Thymus-, Milz- und Knochenmarkszellen der Ratte nach fraktionierter Ganzkoerperroentgenbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Ehling, G. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie, Toxikologie und Pharmazie)

    1989-09-01

    After three to seven days following to fractionated total body X-ray irradiation (TBI) (four expositions with doses of 0.3 to 5.0 cGy per fraction at intervals of 24 hours), a maximum 50 percent stimulation of the semiconservative DNA synthesis (SDS) of spleen cells was measured in vitro. This was not dependent of the fact if an acute high-dose (400 and/or 800 cGy) unique irradiation was applied after the fractionated TBI at the moment of stimulation. A significant increase of {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of bone marrow and thymus cells was only found when doses of 1.25 cGy per fraction had been used. After fractionated TBI with doses of {ge}5 cGy per fraction, an increase of DNA synthesis resistant to hydroxyurea ('unprogrammed' DNA synthesis, UDS) was demonstrated in spleen cells. The UV-simulated UDS decreased proportionately. The sedimentation of thymus, spleen, and bone marrow nucleoids in a neutral saccharose gradient gave no evidence of an increased DNA repair capacity after fractionated TBI. Whereas the SDS stimulation by fractionated TBI with small doses can be explained by a modified proliferation behavior of exposed cells, the UDS behavior of spleen cells after considerably higher radiation doses suggests regenerative processes correlated with an increased number of cells resistant to hydroxyurea and cells presenting an UV repair deficiency. These findings can be considered to be a further proof of the assumed immune-stimulating effect of small radiation doses. (orig.).

  20. Optimal design of a hybridization scheme with a fuel cell using genetic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A.

    Fuel cell is one of the most dependable "green power" technologies, readily available for immediate application. It enables direct conversion of hydrogen and other gases into electric energy without any pollution of the environment. However, the efficient power generation is strictly stationary process that cannot operate under dynamic environment. Consequently, fuel cell becomes practical only within a specially designed hybridization scheme, capable of power storage and power management functions. The resultant technology could be utilized to its full potential only when both the fuel cell element and the entire hybridization scheme are optimally designed. The design optimization in engineering is among the most complex computational tasks due to its multidimensionality, nonlinearity, discontinuity and presence of constraints in the underlying optimization problem. this research aims at the optimal utilization of the fuel cell technology through the use of genetic optimization, and advance computing. This study implements genetic optimization in the definition of optimum hybridization rules for a PEM fuel cell/supercapacitor power system. PEM fuel cells exhibit high energy density but they are not intended for pulsating power draw applications. They work better in steady state operation and thus, are often hybridized. In a hybrid system, the fuel cell provides power during steady state operation while capacitors or batteries augment the power of the fuel cell during power surges. Capacitors and batteries can also be recharged when the motor is acting as a generator. Making analogies to driving cycles, three hybrid system operating modes are investigated: 'Flat' mode, 'Uphill' mode, and 'Downhill' mode. In the process of discovering the switching rules for these three modes, we also generate a model of a 30W PEM fuel cell. This study also proposes the optimum design of a 30W PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model and hybridization's switching rules are postulated

  1. Spleen-lung interface as diagnostic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, S.A.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Left anterior, lateral, and posterior views on 50 consecutive /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid lung scans were examined. Normal patients had continuity of activity between the left lung and the spleen on all three views. Patients with subphrenic abscess or large left pleural effusions showed no continuity between lung and spleen activity on any view, while other abnormalities, most commonly cardiomegaly, accounted for lack of lung-spleen continuity on the anterior view only. It is suggested that in all combined /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid lung studies, the left side be examined as well as the right for abnormalities adjacent to the left diaphragm. (auth)

  2. Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwi Seong; Oh, Byeong Soo

    The most promising vehicle engine that can overcome the problem of present internal combustion is the hydrogen fuel cell. Fuel cells are devices that change chemical energy directly into electrical energy without combustion. Pure fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles (i.e. a combination of fuel cell and battery) as energy sources are studied. Considerations of efficiency, fuel economy, and the characteristics of power output in hybridization of fuel cell vehicle are necessary. In the case of Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle simulation, hybridization is more efficient than a pure fuel cell vehicle. The reason is that it is possible to capture regenerative braking energy and to operate the fuel cell system within a more efficient range by using battery. Life-cycle cost is largely affected by the fuel cell size, fuel cell cost, and hydrogen cost. When the cost of fuel cell is high, hybridization is profitable, but when the cost of fuel cell is less than 400 US$/kW, a pure fuel cell vehicle is more profitable.

  3. Expression of members of immunoglobulin gene family in somatic cell hybrids between human B and T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozbor, D.; Burioni, R.; Ar-Rushdi, A.; Zmijewski, C.; Croce, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Somatic cell hybrids were obtained between human T and B cells and tested for the expression of differentiated traits of both cell lineages. The T-cell parent SUP-T1 is CD3 - , CD4 + , CD1 + , CD8 + , is weakly positive for HLA class I determinants, and has an inversion of chromosome 14 due to a site-specific recombination event between an immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene and the joining segment of the T-cell receptor α chain. The B-cell parent, the 6-thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant mutant GM1500, is a lymphoblastoid cell line that secretes IgG2, K chains, and expresses B1, B532, and HLA class I and II antigens. All hybrids expressed characteristics of B cells (Ig + , B1 + , B532 + , EBNA + , HLA antigens), whereas only CD4 among the T-cell markers was expressed. The level of T-cell receptor β-chain transcript was greatly reduced and no RNA of the chimeric T-cell receptor α-chain joining segment-immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region was detected. Southern blot analysis indicated that absence of T-cell differentiation markers in the hybrids was not due to chromosomal loss. Rather, some B-cell-specific factor present in the hybrids may account for the suppression

  4. Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens maintains clearing and processing functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Pierre A; Milon, Geneviève; Brousse, Valentine; Correas, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Bertrand; Couvelard, Anne; Kianmanesh, Reza; Farges, Olivier; Sauvanet, Alain; Paye, François; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noëlle; Ottone, Catherine; Khun, Huot; Fiette, Laurence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Huerre, Michel; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H

    2006-05-01

    The spleen plays a central role in the pathophysiology of several potentially severe diseases such as inherited red cell membrane disorders, hemolytic anemias, and malaria. Research on these diseases is hampered by ethical constraints that limit human spleen tissue explorations. We identified a surgical situation--left splenopancreatectomy for benign pancreas tumors--allowing spleen retrieval at no risk for patients. Ex vivo perfusion of retrieved intact spleens for 4 to 6 hours maintained a preserved parenchymal structure, vascular flow, and metabolic activity. Function preservation was assessed by testing the ability of isolated-perfused spleens to retain Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes preexposed to the antimalarial drug artesunate (Art-iRBCs). More than 95% of Art-iRBCs were cleared from the perfusate in 2 hours. At each transit through isolated-perfused spleens, parasite remnants were removed from 0.2% to 0.23% of Art-iRBCs, a proportion consistent with the 0.02% to 1% pitting rate previously established in artesunate-treated patients. Histologic analysis showed that more than 90% of Art-iRBCs were retained and processed in the red pulp, providing the first direct evidence of a zone-dependent parasite clearance by the human spleen. Human-specific physiologic or pathophysiologic mechanisms involving clearing or processing functions of the spleen can now be experimentally explored in a human tissue context.

  5. Thermal ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ya-Qi; Liang, Ping

    2013-05-01

    Many studies have been conducted on splenic thermal ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism. In this article, we review the evolution and current status of radiofrequency and microwave ablation in the treatment of spleen diseases. All publications from 1990 to 2011 on radiofrequency and microwave ablation for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism were retrieved by searching PubMed. Thermal ablation in the spleen for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism can preserve part of the spleen and maintain splenic immunologic function. Thermal ablation for assisting hemostasis in partial splenectomy minimizes blood loss during operation. Thermal ablation for spleen trauma reduces the number of splenectomy and the amount of blood transfusion. Thermal ablation for splenic metastasis is minimally invasive and can be done under the guidance of an ultrasound, which helps shorten the recovery time. Thermal ablation for hypersplenism increases platelet (PLT) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and improves liver function. It also helps to maintain splenic immunologic function and even improves splenic immunologic function in the short-term. In conclusion, thermal ablative approaches are promising for partial splenectomy hemostasis, spleen trauma, splenic metastasis and hypersplenism. In order to improve therapeutic effects, directions for future studies may include standardized therapeutic indications, prolonged observation periods and enlarged sample sizes.

  6. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Paul

    2012-05-31

    This is the final report of the UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence which spanned from 2005-2012. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program, to provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills to create advanced automotive technologies. The UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence established in 2005 is focused on research, education, industrial collaboration and outreach within automotive technology. UC Davis has had two independent GATE centers with separate well-defined objectives and research programs from 1998. The Fuel Cell Center, administered by ITS-Davis, has focused on fuel cell technology. The Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (HEV Center), administered by the Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, has focused on the development of plug-in hybrid technology using internal combustion engines. The merger of these two centers in 2005 has broadened the scope of research and lead to higher visibility of the activity. UC Davis's existing GATE centers have become the campus's research focal points on fuel cells and hybrid-electric vehicles, and the home for graduate students who are studying advanced automotive technologies. The centers have been highly successful in attracting, training, and placing top-notch students into fuel cell and hybrid programs in both industry and government.

  7. Influence of apoptosis on liver and spleen resistance in dogs with visceral leishmaniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Franciscato, Douglas Augusto; Rossit, Sabrina Micelli; Munari, Danísio Prado; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis and parasite load in the liver and spleen of dogs with visceral leishmaniosis (VL), using immunohistochemistry. Liver and spleen samples from 71 dogs with VL were used. The parasite load in the spleen and liver showed significant difference between organs in infected group (P=0.0219). The density of the parasite load in the spleen (median=2.4) was higher than liver (median=0.8). Immunodetection of apoptotic cells was predominant in lymphocytes and differ between the infected and control group in spleen (P=0.0307) and liver (P=0.0346). There was a significant correlation between apoptosis and parasite load (P = 0.0084; r=0.3104) only in the spleen of the infected group, where it was observed that, when increasing the number of apoptotic cells increases the parasitic load. It was concluded that the liver and spleen of infected dogs presented greater numbers of cells undergoing apoptosis (lymphocytes) than the control group, thus suggesting that this process may be contributing towards the survival of Leishmania in these organs, because lymphocyte in apoptosis did not have the ability to present and recognize the antigen, allowing the survival of the parasite.

  8. Controlled initiation and quantitative visualization of cell interaction dynamics - a novel hybrid microscopy method -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder-van As, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the development, validation, and application of a hybrid microscopy technique to study cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions in a controlled and quantitative manner. We studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the selected membrane molecules CD6 and the activated

  9. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  10. Changing spleen size after blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, L.R.; Aprahamian, C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied the incidence and significance of splenic enlargement on serial CT after abdominal trauma. Spleen size and density in 44 trauma patients were studied with serial, contrast-enhanced Ct. In 58% of the patients, ≥ 10% enlargement of the spleen was seen on follow-up scans. Ten patients had >50% enlargement. In several, the initial density of the spleen was less than that of the liver. Spleen density returned to normal on subsequent scans. Correlations between splenic changes and clinical parameters (such as blood replacement, hypotension, and various trauma indexes) were weak. The author's study indicated that serial splenic enlargement was a physiologic return to normal after major trauma, not a pathologic condition requiring splenectomy

  11. A dynamic simulation tool for the battery-hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.M. [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii, Manoa (United States); Ramaswamy, S.; Cunningham, J.M. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Hauer, K.H. [xcellvision, Major-Hirst-Strasse 11, 38422 Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    This paper describes a dynamic fuel cell vehicle simulation tool for the battery-hybrid direct-hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. The emphasis is on simulation of the hybridized hydrogen fuel cell system within an existing fuel cell vehicle simulation tool. The discussion is focused on the simulation of the sub-systems that are unique to the hybridized direct-hydrogen vehicle, and builds on a previous paper that described a simulation tool for the load-following direct-hydrogen vehicle. The configuration of the general fuel cell vehicle simulation tool has been previously presented in detail, and is only briefly reviewed in the introduction to this paper. Strictly speaking, the results provided in this paper only serve as an example that is valid for the specific fuel cell vehicle design configuration analyzed. Different design choices may lead to different results, depending strongly on the parameters used and choices taken during the detailed design process required for this highly non-linear and n-dimensional system. The primary purpose of this paper is not to provide a dynamic simulation tool that is the ''final word'' for the ''optimal'' hybrid fuel cell vehicle design. The primary purpose is to provide an explanation of a simulation method for analyzing the energetic aspects of a hybrid fuel cell vehicle. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Performance evaluation of hybrid modified micro-channel solar cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... of hybrid PVT solar air heater had been proposed in the past. ...... president of Bag Energy Research Society (BERS:www.bers.in) which is responsible for energy education in ...

  13. Reconfiguration of photovoltaic panels for reducing the hydrogen consumption in fuel cells of hybrid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Montoya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid generation combines advantages from fuel cell systems with non-predictable generation approaches, such as photovoltaic and wind generators. In such hybrid systems, it is desirable to minimize as much as possible the fuel consumption, for the sake of reducing costs and increasing the system autonomy. This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, referred to as population-based incremental learning, in order to maximize the produced power of a photovoltaic generator. This maximization reduces the fuel consumption in the hybrid aggregation. Moreover, the algorithm's speed enables the real-time computation of the best configuration for the photovoltaic system, which also optimizes the fuel consumption in the complementary fuel cell system. Finally, a system experimental validation is presented considering 6 photovoltaic modules and a NEXA 1.2KW fuel cell. Such a validation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to reduce the hydrogen consumption in these hybrid systems.

  14. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  15. ZnO-based nanocrystalline powders with applications in hybrid photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damonte, L.C. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Donderis, V. [Dto. De Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Ferrari, S.; Meyer, M. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Orozco, J. [Dto. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Materiales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Hernandez-Fenollosa, M.A. [Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the development of hybrid photovoltaic cells consisting of new materials, such as devices based on the combination of a wide gap semiconductor and an organic dye (dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSC). In this paper we obtain nano-zinc oxide particles whose optical and electrical properties have been modified by the presence of small amounts of Al or In acting as dopants. The aim of this study is to improve the compatibility of each of the compounds present in the photovoltaic solar cell. The knowledge gained will provide input to guide the processes in the manufacture of hybrid solar cells. (author)

  16. Modeling and control of a small solar fuel cell hybrid energy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; ZHU Xin-jian; CAO Guang-yi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a solar photovoltaic fuel cell (PVEC) hybrid generation system consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) generator, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), an electrolyser, a supercapacitor, a storage gas tank and power conditioning unit (PCU). The load is supplied from the PV generator with a fuel cell working in parallel. Excess PV energy when available is converted to hydrogen using an electrolyser for later use in the fuel cell. The individual mathematical model for each component is presented. Control strategy for the system is described. MATLAB/Simulink is used for the simulation of this highly nonlinear hybrid energy system. The simulation results are shown in the paper.

  17. Generation of a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing unselected fragments of human chromosome 10 by X-ray irradiation and cell fusion: Application to isolating the MEN2A region in hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, P.J.; Povey, S.; Nevanlinna, H.A.; Goodfellow, P.N.

    1990-01-01

    We have used X-ray irradiation and cell fusion to generate somatic cell hybrids containing fragments of human chromosome 10. Our experiments were directed towards isolating the region of the MEN2A gene in hybrids and to use those as the source of DNA for cloning and mapping new markers from near the MEN2A locus. A number of hybrid clones containing human sequences that are tightly linked to the MEN2A gene were identified. Some 25% of our hybrids, however, proved to contain more than one human chromosome 10-derived fragment or showed evidence of deletions and/or rearrangements. A detailed analysis of the human content of X-ray irradiation hybrids is required to assess the integrity and number of human fragments retained. Despite retention of multiple human-derived fragments, these hybrids will prove useful as cloning and mapping resources

  18. On practicality of a hybrid car with solar cells; Taiyo denchi wo tosaishita hybrid car no jitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K; Nagayoshi, H; Kamisako, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The paper stated a development of a hybrid car which is a parallel type with gasoline engine and electric motor as driving source (connecting each according to the situation) and is also equipped with solar cells. Specifications are gasoline engine of 1200cc, induction motor of 5.5kW, lead battery of 288V and 7.2kWh, monocrystal silicon solar cells of 180W maximum output, and body weight of 1100kg. The rear wheel is driven by electric motor, and the front wheel by gasoline engine. The car is loaded with battery charge use solar cells on hood and roof. To enhance cleaning degree, 1.6kW solar cells are installed as an installed power system and used for battery charge. Even by an electric motor with output less than that of the usual electric car, harmful exhaust gas emitted in start-up can be controlled. This is because the electric motor can be used in accelerating. It was confirmed that the power required for it could be supplied by solar cells installed on the car. The hybrid car is practically useful for prevention of local air pollution. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  20. Small copper fixed-point cells of the hybrid type to be used in place of normal larger cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battuello, M.; Girard, F.; Florio, M.

    2012-10-01

    Two small cells for the realization of the fixed point of copper were constructed and investigated at INRIM. They are of the same hybrid design generally adopted for the eutectic high-temperature fixed-point cells, namely a structure with a sacrificial graphite sleeve and a layer of flexible carbon-carbon composite sheet (C/C sheet). Because of the largely different design with respect to the cells normally adopted for the construction of pure metal fixed points, they were compared and characterized with respect to the normal cells used at INRIM for the ITS-90 realization. Two different furnaces were used to compare hybrid and normal cells. One of the hybrid cells was also used in different configurations, i.e. without the C/C sheet and with two layers of sheet. The cells were compared with different operative conditions, i.e. temperature settings of the furnaces for inducing the freeze, and repeatability and reproducibility were investigated. Freezing temperature and shape of the plateaux obtained under the different conditions were analysed. As expected the duration of the plateaux obtained with the hybrid cells is considerably shorter than with the normal cell, but this does not affect the results in terms of freezing temperature. Measurements with the modified cell showed that the use of a double C/C sheet may improve both repeatability and reproducibility of the plateaux.

  1. Small copper fixed-point cells of the hybrid type to be used in place of normal larger cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battuello, M; Girard, F; Florio, M

    2012-01-01

    Two small cells for the realization of the fixed point of copper were constructed and investigated at INRIM. They are of the same hybrid design generally adopted for the eutectic high-temperature fixed-point cells, namely a structure with a sacrificial graphite sleeve and a layer of flexible carbon–carbon composite sheet (C/C sheet). Because of the largely different design with respect to the cells normally adopted for the construction of pure metal fixed points, they were compared and characterized with respect to the normal cells used at INRIM for the ITS-90 realization. Two different furnaces were used to compare hybrid and normal cells. One of the hybrid cells was also used in different configurations, i.e. without the C/C sheet and with two layers of sheet. The cells were compared with different operative conditions, i.e. temperature settings of the furnaces for inducing the freeze, and repeatability and reproducibility were investigated. Freezing temperature and shape of the plateaux obtained under the different conditions were analysed. As expected the duration of the plateaux obtained with the hybrid cells is considerably shorter than with the normal cell, but this does not affect the results in terms of freezing temperature. Measurements with the modified cell showed that the use of a double C/C sheet may improve both repeatability and reproducibility of the plateaux. (paper)

  2. Assignment of electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) to human chromosome 4q33 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, E B; Seltzer, W K; Goodman, S I

    1999-08-01

    Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a nuclear-encoded protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Inherited defects of ETF-QO cause glutaric acidemia type II. We here describe the localization of the ETF-QO gene to human chromosome 4q33 by somatic cell hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Beta-cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing a hybrid insulin gene-oncogene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efrat, S; Linde, S; Kofod, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Three pancreatic beta-cell lines have been established from insulinomas derived from transgenic mice carrying a hybrid insulin-promoted simian virus 40 tumor antigen gene. The beta tumor cell (beta TC) lines maintain the features of differentiated beta cells for about 50 passages in culture. The ...... both to immortalize a rare cell type and to provide a selection for the maintenance of its differentiated phenotype....

  4. Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro. VII. Suppressive effect of irradiated MLC cells on CTL response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, F.W.; Engers, H.D.; Cerottini, J.C.; Bruner, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiated cells obtained from MLC at the peak of the CTL response caused profound suppression of generation of CTL when added in small numbers at the initiation of primary MLC prepared with normal spleen cells. The inhibitory activity of the MLC cells was not affected by irradiation (1000 rads) but was abolished by treatment with anti-theta serum and complement. The suppression was immunologically specific. The response of A (H-2/sup a/) spleen cells toward C3H (H-2/sup k/) alloantigens was suppressed by irradiated MLC cells obtained from MLC prepared with A spleen cells and irradiated C3H-stimulating cells, whereas the response of A spleen cells toward DBA/2 (H-2/sup d/) alloantigens was affected relatively little. However, if irradiated C3H x DBA/2F1 hybrid spleen cells were used to stimulate A spleen cells in MLC, addition of irradiated MLC cells having cytotoxic activity toward C3H antigens abolished the response to both C3H and DBA/2 antigens. The response to DBA/2 antigens was much less affected when a mixture of irradiated C3H and DBA/2 spleen cells was used as stimulating cells. Thus, the presence of MLC cells having cytotoxic activity toward one alloantigen abolished the response to another non-cross-reacting antigen only when both antigens were present on the same F1 hybrid-stimulating cells. This suppression of generation of CTL by irradiated MLC cells apparently involves inactivation of alloantigen-bearing stimulating cells as a result of residual cytotoxic activity of the irradiated MLC cells. This mechanism may be active during the decline in CTL activity noted in the normal immune response in vivo and in vitro

  5. Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2015-10-01

    We investigate hybrid tandem solar cells that rely on the combination of solution-processed depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and bulk heterojunction polymer:fullerene subcells. The hybrid tandem solar cell is monolithically integrated and electrically connected in series with a suitable p-n recombination layer that includes metal oxides and a conjugated polyelectrolyte. We discuss the monolithic integration of the subcells, taking into account solvent interactions with underlayers and associated constraints on the tandem architecture, and show that an adequate device configuration consists of a low bandgap CQD bottom cell and a high bandgap polymer:fullerene top cell. Once we optimize the recombination layer and individual subcells, the hybrid tandem device reaches a VOC of 1.3V, approaching the sum of the individual subcell voltages. An impressive fill factor of 70% is achieved, further confirming that the subcells are efficiently connected via an appropriate recombination layer. © 2015.

  6. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  7. Compact hybrid cell based on a convoluted nanowire structure for harvesting solar and mechanical energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    A fully integrated, solid-state, compact hybrid cell (CHC) that comprises ''convoluted'' ZnO nanowire structures for concurrent harvesting of both solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The compact hybrid cell is based on a conjunction design of an organic solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and piezoelectric nanogenerator in one compact structure. The CHC shows a significant increase in output power, clearly demonstrating its potential for simultaneously harvesting multiple types of energy for powering small electronic devices for independent, sustainable, and mobile operation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell/battery systems for more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcau, Jenica-Ileana; Dinca, Liviu; Grigorie, Teodor Lucian; Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    In this paper is presented the simulation and analysis of a Fuzzy Energy Management for Hybrid Fuel cell/Battery Systems used for More Electric Aircraft. The fuel cell hybrid system contains of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries along with associated dc to dc boost converters. In this configuration the battery has a dc to dc converter, because it is an active in the system. The energy management scheme includes the rule based fuzzy logic strategy. This scheme has a faster response to load change and is more robust to measurement imprecisions. Simulation will be provided using Matlab/Simulink based models. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance.

  9. Derivation of hybrid ES cell lines from two different strains of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Tak Lau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental origin-dependent expression of the imprinted genes is essential for mammalian development. Zfp57 maintains genomic imprinting in mouse embryos and ES cells. To examine the allelic expression patterns of the imprinted genes in ES cells, we obtained multiple hybrid ES clones that were directly derived from the blastocysts generated from the cross between mice on two different genetic backgrounds. The blastocyst-derived ES clones displayed largely intact DNA methylation imprint at the tested imprinted regions. These hybrid ES clones will be useful for future studies to examine the allelic expression of the imprinted genes in ES cells and their differentiated progeny.

  10. Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Weintraub, Benjamin

    2009-11-09

    Wired up: The energy conversion efficiency of three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in a hybrid structure that integrates optical fibers and nanowire arrays is greater than that of a two-dimensional device. Internal axial illumination enhances the energy conversion efficiency of a rectangular fiber-based hybrid structure (see picture) by a factor of up to six compared to light illumination normal to the fiber axis from outside the device.

  11. Biomimetic hybrid nanofibrous substrates for mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into osteogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhimathi, Chinnasamy [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Tham, Allister Yingwei [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh, E-mail: dineshkumar@ntu.edu.sg [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2015-04-01

    Mimicking native extracellular matrix with electrospun porous bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds has huge potential in bone tissue regeneration. The aim of this study is to fabricate porous poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin/ascorbic acid/tetracycline hydrochloride (PLACL/SF/AA/TC) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) was deposited by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering (BTE). Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized for fiber morphology, hydrophilicity, porosity, mechanical test and chemical properties by FT-IR and EDX analysis. The results showed that the fiber diameter and pore size of scaffolds observed around 228 ± 62–320 ± 22 nm and 1.5–6.9 μm respectively. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds are highly porous (87–94%) with ultimate tensile strength observed in the range of 1.51–4.86 MPa and also showed better hydrophilic properties after addition of AA, TC and n-HA. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on these bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds and stimulated to osteogenic differentiation in the presence of AA/TC/n-HA for BTE. The cell proliferation and biomaterial interactions were studied using MTS assay, SEM and CMFDA dye exclusion methods. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was proven by using alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and double immunofluorescence staining of both CD90 and osteocalcin. The observed results suggested that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA biocomposite hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for the differentiation of MSCs into osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated and characterized hybrid porous nanofibrous scaffolds. • PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA scaffolds promote cell differentiation and mineralization. • Porous nanofibrous scaffolds initiate MSC differentiation into osteogenic cells. • Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for bone tissue engineering.

  12. Acute cadmium administration to rats exerts both immunosuppressive and proinflammatory effects in spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demenesku, Jelena; Mirkov, Ivana; Ninkov, Marina; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of cadmium on splenic T and innate immune cells in rats is explored. • Differential effects of 1 mg/kg on T cell and innate immune activities were shown. • Lower Cd dose (0.5 mg/kg) cause less pronounced immunosuppressive effects. • Proinflammatory effects on innate immune activities were seen at that dose. • Presented data depict complexity of immunomodulatory potential of this metal. - Abstract: Conflicting data (both suppression and augmentation as well as lack of the effect) exist in respect to cadmium (Cd) and splenic T cell-based immune cell activity. Spleen is also the site of innate immune responses but impact of Cd on this type of immunity has been less explored. In the present study the effects of acute Cd administration on basic aspects of both T cell-based and innate immune spleen cell activity were examined in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg of Cd/kg resulted in decrease in concanavalin A (ConA) induced proliferation which seems to be more related to altered spleen cells responsiveness to IL-2 than to apoptosis. Differential effects on proinflammatory T cell derived cytokines were observed (decreases of IFN-γ gene expression and ConA-stimulated production, but increases in IL-17 mRNA levels with no effect on concentrations of protein product). Reduction of IFN-γ production seemed not to rely on IL-4 and IL-10, but at least partly on nitric oxide (NO). Increased activity relevant for innate immunity (granulocyte and CD11b + cell accumulation in the spleen, inducible nitric oxide synthase/iNOS expression and NO production by spleen cells) was observed, but there was a decrease in respiratory burst (dihydrorhodamine/DHR oxidation and nitroblue tetrazolium/NBT reduction). Increases of TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression and IL-1β protein product were noted as well. Administration of 0.5 mg Cd/kg resulted in less pronounced (ConA-induced proliferation) or lack of the effect (IFN-γ production) on spleen T cell

  13. Perylenes as sensitizers in hybrid solar cells : how molecular size influences performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Chen; Liu, Zhihong; Schoneboom, Jan; Eickemeyer, Felix; Pschirer, Neil G.; Erk, Peter; Herrmann, Andreas; Mullen, Klaus; Schöneboom, Jan; Grätzel, Michael; Janssen, René

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), one kind of hybrid solar cells, are being intensively developed due to their high efficiency and low cost. One of the main factors to improve the efficiency is the minimization of the recombination of holes and electrons at the TiO(2)/dye/electrolyte interface. To

  14. Hybrid TiO2: polymer photovoltaic cells made from a titanium oxide precursor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff, L.H.; Wienk, M.M.; Kroon, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid TiO2:polymer photovoltaic cells were made from mixtures of titanium(IV) isopropoxide and poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyl)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) or poly(3-octyl thiophene) (P3OT) via hydrolysis in air. Cells were made with varying titanium(IV) isopropoxide:polymer ratios.

  15. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Morgan; Inaba, Kenji; Cheng, Vincent; Bardes, James M; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal pancreas are infrequent. Universally accepted recommendations about the need for routine splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy do not exist. The aims of this study were to compare outcomes after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, and to define the appropriate patient population for splenic preservation. All patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy (January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014) were identified from the National Trauma Data Bank. Patients with concomitant splenic injury and those who underwent partial splenectomy were excluded. Demographics, clinical data, procedures, and outcomes were collected. Study groups were defined by surgical procedure: distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. Baseline characteristics between groups were compared with univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed with logistic and linear regression to examine differences in outcomes. Over the 8-year study period, 2,223 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy. After excluding 1,381 patients with concomitant splenic injury (62%) and 8 (pancreatectomy and splenectomy, those who underwent spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy were younger (p pancreatectomy (p = 0.017). Complications, mortality, and intensive care unit LOS were not significantly different. In young patients after blunt trauma who are not severely injured, a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered to allow for conservation of splenic function and a shorter hospital LOS. In all other patients, the surgeon should not hesitate to remove the spleen with the distal pancreas. Therapy, level IV.

  16. Novel contrast agent for liver and spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, S.E.; Blau, M.; Adams, D.F.; Janoff, A.; Minchey, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper determines whether the biodistribution and imaging characteristics of a liposome-encapsulated contrast agent, iotrolan-carrying interdigitation fusion (IF) vesicles, were acceptable for a liver-spleen CT contrast agent. IF vesicles with iotrolan in their aqueous phase were prepared by fusing small unilamellar liposomes into larger vesicles. The iodine-to-lipid ratio was 4.7. Biodistribution was measured with I-125 iotrolan-labeled IF vesicles in rats. CT imaging (Somatom Plus, Siemens Medical Systems) was performed in dogs. At the lowest dose (10 mg of iodine and 2.1 mg of lipid per kilogram) 72% of the ID was in the liver, 5% in spleen, and 1% in lungs at 1 hour. At the highest dose, (1,000 mg of iodine and 212 mg of lipid per kilogram), liver values were 68% ID, while spleen rose to 18%, lung 5%. Liver and spleen values stayed at peak for 24 hours then fell; the half-life was 6 days. In dogs, liver and spleen enhancement at 1 hour averaged 652 and 256 HU above baseline per gram of iodine per kilogram, respectively

  17. Correlation between ultraviolet survival and DNA repair efficiency in mouse cell hybrids and their parent lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbosch, S.

    1982-01-01

    Three hybrid cell lines formed between mouse lymphoma (LS) and mouse fibroblasts (A9) have been tested for their capacity to perform unscheduled DNA synthesis; their recovery characteristics after uv irradiation have also been studied to determine if DNA repair is implicated in the high survival observed in one hybrid (clone 3). The results of these investigations indicate that hybrid clone 3 was distinguishable from the more uv sensitive parental and other hybrid cell lines by its higher uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis, its greater clonogenic survival in plateau phase, and its faster recovery when maintained in conditioned medium after irradiation. The simultaneous increase of these three properties in hybrid clone 3 suggest that, by three different approaches, we have evidenced the same molecular process, a process involved in the elimination of potentially lethal damage, most probably the excision repair pathway. This report also shows that the low efficiency in excision repair in the parent line A9 is probably not due to deletion but rather to repression of the relevant gene(s) and that somatic cell hybridization can result in a stimulation of a previously poorly expressed repair process

  18. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  19. Spleen size changes in children with homozygous β-thalassaemia in relation to blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpathios, Th.; Antypas, A.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Fretzayas, A.; Thomaidis, Th.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1982-01-01

    18 thalassaemic children, aged 3.5 to 13 years comprise our clinical material. In 14 of them, clinically elicited spleen markings, haematocrit, blood platelet count and red cell morphology were studied daily for a whole period between 2 transfusions. In 10 patients considerable changes in spleen size were noticed. According to our clinical observations the spleen size starts decreasing 1 to 3 d after blood transfusion up to the 10th posttransfusion day fluctuating thereafter to reach its maximum size again prior to the next blood transfusion. The decrease of spleen size was followed by an increase of haematocrit and blood platelet count and vice versa. 4 additional children were studied clinically only twice: prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. A definite decrease of the spleen size following blood transfusion was observed. Spleen and liver sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid uptake was studied in 10 of the above children prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. Statistically significant post-transfusion increase of the spleen uptake was demonstrated. Our findings suggest that (a) splenic size is relevant to blood volume sequestrated int this organ, (b) splenic radioactive uptake increases with its post-transfusion reductin in size. (author)

  20. Comparison of closed-cell and hybrid-cell stent designs in carotid artery stenting: clinical and procedural outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan TatlI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carotid artery stenting (CAS is a promising alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. However, the impact of stent cell design on outcomes in CAS is a matter of continued debate. Aim : To compare the periprocedural and clinical outcomes of different stent designs for CAS with distal protection devices. Material and methods : All CAS procedures with both closed- and hybrid-cell stents performed at our institution between February 2010 and December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Adverse events were defined as death, major stroke, minor stroke, transient ischemic attack and myocardial infarction. Periprocedural and 30-day adverse events and internal carotid artery (ICA vasospasm rates were compared between the closed-cell and hybrid-cell stent groups. Results : The study included 234 patients comprising 146 patients with a closed-cell stent (Xact stent, Abbott Vascular (mean age: 68.5 ±8.6; 67.1% male and 88 patients with a hybrid-cell stent (Cristallo Ideale, Medtronic (mean age: 67.2 ±12.8; 68.2% male. There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to periprocedural or 30-day adverse event rates. While there was no difference in terms of tortuosity index between the groups, there was a higher procedural ICA vasospasm rate in the closed-cell stent group (35 patients, 23% compared with the hybrid-cell stent group (10 patients, 11% (p = 0.017. Conclusions : The results of this study showed no significant difference in the clinical adverse event rates after CAS between the closed-cell stent group and the hybrid-cell stent group. However, procedural ICA vasospasm was more common in the closed-cell stent group.

  1. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. 125 I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal

  2. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  3. Blunt trauma to the spleen: ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doody, O. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Lyburn, D. [Department of Radiology, Cheltenham General Hospital (United Kingdom); Geoghegan, T. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Govender, P. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Monk, P.M. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital (Canada); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)]. E-mail: william.torreggiani@amnch.ie

    2005-09-01

    The spleen is the most frequently injured organ in adults who sustain blunt abdominal trauma. Splenic trauma accounts for approximately 25% to 30% of all intra-abdominal injuries. The management of splenic injury has undergone rapid change over the last decade, with increasing emphasis on splenic salvage and non-operative management. Identifying the presence and degree of splenic injury is critical in triaging the management of patients. Imaging is integral in the identification of splenic injuries, both at the time of injury and during follow-up. Although CT remains the gold standard in blunt abdominal trauma, US continues to play an important role in assessing the traumatized spleen. This pictorial review illustrates the various ultrasonographic appearances of the traumatized spleen. Correlation with other imaging is presented and complications that occur during follow-up are described.

  4. Postnatal development of the spleen in Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J H; Krause, W J

    1982-01-01

    The postnatal development of the spleen has been examined in 85 opossums ranging in age from newborn to adult. At birth the spleen consists of a well vascularized mass of mesenchymal tissue and lacks lymphatic tissue or any evidence of haemopoietic activity. Haemopoiesis is evident at seven days, increases to a maximum at about two to three weeks and thereafter gradually declines. Although production of granulocytes has disappeared by 60 days postnatum, a small degree of erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte formation continues throughout life. Lymphatic tissue appears by the third week, but germinal centres do not appear until after weaning. A feature of the spleen during the first three to four days is the presence of a population of primitive 'blast' cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:7153176

  5. Laparoscopic Splenectomy in Patients With Spleen Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolov, Aleksander S; Tlibekova, Margarita A; Yartsev, Peter A; Guliaev, Andrey A; Rogal, Mikhail M; Samsonov, Vladimir T; Levitsky, Vladislav D; Chernysh, Oleg A

    2015-12-01

    Spleen injury appears in 10% to 30% of abdominal trauma patients. Mortality among the patients in the last 20 years remains high (6% to 7%) and shows no tendency to decline. Nowadays nonoperative management is widely accepted management of patients with low-grade spleen injury, whereas management of patients with high-grade spleen injury (III and higher) is not so obvious. There are 3 methods exist in treatment of such patients: conservative (with or without angioembolization), spleen-preserving operations, and splenectomy. Today laparoscopic splenectomy is not a widely used operation and only few studies reported about successful use of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with spleen injury.The aim of the study was to determine indications and contraindications for laparoscopic splenectomy in abdominal trauma patients and to analyze results of the operations. The study involved 42 patients with spleen injury grade III who were admitted in our institute in the years of 2010 to 2014. The patients were divided in 2 groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed in 23 patients (group I) and "traditional" splenectomy was carried out in 19 patients (group II). There was no difference in the demographic data and trauma severity between the 2 groups. Noninvasive investigations, such as laboratory investigations, serial abdominal ultrasound examinations, x-ray in multiple views, and computed tomography had been performed before the decision about necessity of an operation was made. Patients after laparoscopic operations had better recovering conditions compared with patients with the same injury after "traditional" splenectomy. Neither surgery-related complications nor mortalities were registered in both groups. Laparoscopic splenectomy was more time-consuming operation than "traditional" splenectomy. We suggest that as experience of laparoscopic splenectomy is gained the operation time will be reduced. Laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe feasible operation in patients

  6. Photoelectrochemical Cell of Hybrid Regioregular POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE-2,5-DIYL) and Molybdenum Disulfide Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmola, Fatmaelzahraa M.; Ram, Manoj K.; Takshi, Arash; Stafanakos, Elias; Kumar, Ashok; Goswami, D. Yogi

    The photoelectrochemical cell attracts attention worldwide due to conversion of optical energy into electricity, production of hydrogen through water splitting and use in photodetector and photo-sensor applications. We have been working on the photochemical cell based on regioregular polyhexylthiophenes hybrid-structured films for photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic applications. This paper discusses the hybrid film studies on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) with 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) for photoelectrochemical cell. The hybrid P3HT/MoS2 films deposited over indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate or n-type silicon substrates were characterized using FTIR, UV/vis, electrochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The optical measurements showed a higher absorption magnitude with low reflection properties of P3HT/MoS2 hybrid films revealing a superior photocurrent compared to both P3HT and MoS2 films. The P3HT/MoS2 hybrid-based photoelectrochemical cell yielded a short-circuit current (Isc) of 183.16μAṡcm-2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.92V, fill factor (FF) of 25% and power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.18% under the light intensity of 242Wṡm-2. The estimated power conversion efficiency and fill factor are comparable to organic-based photovoltaic devices.

  7. Nuclear reprogramming of somatic nucleus hybridized with embryonic stem cells by electrofusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Masako; Tada, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Cell fusion is a powerful tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming. In hybrid cells of somatic cells and pluripotential stem cells, including embryonic stem (ES) and embryonic germ cells, somatic nuclei acquire pluripotential competence. ES and embryonic germ cells retain intrinsic trans activity to induce epigenetic reprogramming. For generating hybrid cells, we have used the technique of electrofusion. Electrofusion is a highly effective, reproducible, and biomedically safe in vitro system. For successful cell fusion, two sequential steps of electric pulse stimulation are required for the alignment (pearl chain formation) of two different types of cells between electrodes in response to alternating current stimulation and for the fusion of cytoplasmic membranes by direct current stimulation. Optimal conditions for electrofusion with a pulse generator are introduced for ES and somatic cell fusion. Topics in the field of stem cell research include the successful production of cloned animals via the epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cells and contribution of spontaneous cell fusion to generating intrinsic plasticity of tissue stem cells. Cell fusion technology may make important contributions to the fields of epigenetic reprogramming and regenerative medicine.

  8. Radiobiological properties of radiosensitive XR-1 Chinese hamster cells and hybrids from these and human A-T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahari, I.B.

    1989-01-01

    Results indicate that XR-1 cells were very radiosensitive to gamma-irradiation compared to its parental type, and that this radiosensitivity is cell cycle dependent. Irradiating the cells the G 1 or plateau phase did not induce any delay entering S-phase but mitotic delays were observed in both XR-1 and the wild-type cells. The delays per unit dose were much longer for XR-1. A delay in subculture from plateau phase reduced the mitotic delay in both cell lines. Unlike the wild-type cells which expressed virtually all chromosome-type aberrations after irradiation of G 1 cells, the XR-1 cells expressed both chromatid- as well as chromosome-type aberrations. There was a one-to-one correlation between total aberrations induced and lethality for both cells. Many of these radiobiological properties of XR-1 cells relative to the wild-type cells, mimic the response of A-T cells relative to the normal human cells. However, the restoration of radioresistance and cytogenetic response in the XR1/AT5BI(4) hybrid cells suggest that the XR-1 and A-T cells have different defects because of the complementation in the hybrids. It also appears that this genetic defect is recessive in nature

  9. Fast Response, Load-Matching Hybrid Fuel Cell: Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. S.; Sitzlar, H. E.; Geist, T. D.

    2003-06-01

    Hybrid DER technologies interconnected with the grid can provide improved performance capabilities compared to a single power source, and, add value, when matched to appropriate applications. For example, in a typical residence, the interconnected hybrid system could provide power during a utility outage, and also could compensate for voltage sags in the utility service. Such a hybrid system would then function as a premium power provider and eliminate the potential need for an uninterruptible power supply. In this research project, a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is combined with an asymmetrical ultracapacitor to provide robust power response to changes in system loading. This project also considers the potential of hybrid DER technologies to improve overall power system compatibility and performance. This report includes base year accomplishments of a proposed 3-year-option project.

  10. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Sethakul, Panarit [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Chunkag, Viboon [Department of Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sikkabut, Suwat [Thai-French Innovation Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Pierfederici, Serge; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM, 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an original control algorithm for a hybrid energy system with a renewable energy source, namely, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a photovoltaic (PV) array. A single storage device, i.e., a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) module, is in the proposed structure. The main weak point of fuel cells (FCs) is slow dynamics because the power slope is limited to prevent fuel starvation problems, improve performance and increase lifetime. The very fast power response and high specific power of a supercapacitor complements the slower power output of the main source to produce the compatibility and performance characteristics needed in a load. The energy in the system is balanced by d.c.-bus energy regulation (or indirect voltage regulation). A supercapacitor module functions by supplying energy to regulate the d.c.-bus energy. The fuel cell, as a slow dynamic source in this system, supplies energy to the supercapacitor module in order to keep it charged. The photovoltaic array assists the fuel cell during daytime. To verify the proposed principle, a hardware system is realized with analog circuits for the fuel cell, solar cell and supercapacitor current control loops, and with numerical calculation (dSPACE) for the energy control loops. Experimental results with small-scale devices, namely, a PEMFC (1200 W, 46 A) manufactured by the Ballard Power System Company, a photovoltaic array (800 W, 31 A) manufactured by the Ekarat Solar Company and a supercapacitor module (100 F, 32 V) manufactured by the Maxwell Technologies Company, illustrate the excellent energy-management scheme during load cycles. (author)

  11. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for transportation applications due to its inherently high efficiency and high power density. However, the fuel cell system efficiency can suffer because of the need for forced air supply and water-cooling systems. Hence the operating strategy of the fuel cell system can have a significant impact on the fuel cell system efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The key issues are how the fuel cell b...

  12. Scintigraphic diagnosis and computed tomographic localization of an accessory spleen following relapse of chronic immune thrombocytopaenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardaci, G.T.; Blake, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopaenia is an immunologically mediated disorder resulting in disordered platelet kinetics and potentially life-threatening disease. Failure of medical therapy is an indication for splenectomy, and responses are seen in 80% of patients following this procedure. An important cause of relapse following splenectomy is the presence of an accessory spleen. A patient with Hodgkin's Disease developed chronic immune thrombocytopaenia despite previous splenectomy. A remission was induced with immunosuppressive therapy, but he later relapsed. An accessory spleen was detected using 99 m Tc denatured red blood cells and localized using computed tomography. Resection of the accessory spleen resulted in clinical remission. As accessory spleens are often small in size, combined modality imaging is recommended in the evaluation of this disorder. 15 refs., 2 figs

  13. Microcontroller based implementation of fuel cell and battery integrated hybrid power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahad, A.; Ali, S.M.; Bhatti, A.A.; Nasir, M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a digitally controlled hybrid power source system, composed of fuel cell and battery. Use of individual fuel cell stacks as a power source, encounters many problems in achieving the desired load characteristics. A battery integrated, digitally controlled hybrid system is proposed for high pulse requirements. The proposed hybrid power source fulfils these peak demands with efficient flow of energy as compared to individual operations of fuel cell or battery system. A dc/dc converter is applied which provides an optimal control of power flow among fuel cell, battery and load. The proposed system efficiently overcomes the electrochemical constraints like over current, battery leakage current, and over and under voltage dips. By formulation of an intelligent algorithm and incorporating a digital technology (AVR Microcontroller), an efficient control is achieved over fuel cell current limit, battery charge, voltage and current. The hybrid power source is tested and analyzed by carrying out simulations using MATLAB simulink. Along with the attainment of desired complex load profiles, the proposed design can also be used for power enhancement and optimization for different capacities. (author)

  14. Hybrid tandem quantum dot/organic photovoltaic cells with complementary near infrared absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2017-06-01

    Monolithically integrated hybrid tandem solar cells that effectively combine solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and organic bulk heterojunction subcells to achieve tandem performance that surpasses the individual subcell efficiencies have not been demonstrated to date. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid tandem cells with a low bandgap PbS CQD subcell harvesting the visible and near-infrared photons and a polymer:fullerene—poly (diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)—top cell absorbing effectively the red and near-infrared photons of the solar spectrum in a complementary fashion. The two subcells are connected in series via an interconnecting layer (ICL) composed of a metal oxide layer, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, and an ultrathin layer of Au. The ultrathin layer of Au forms nano-islands in the ICL, reducing the series resistance, increasing the shunt resistance, and enhancing the device fill-factor. The hybrid tandems reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.9%, significantly higher than the PCE of the corresponding individual single cells, representing one of the highest efficiencies reported to date for hybrid tandem solar cells based on CQD and polymer subcells.

  15. 3-oxo-rhazinilam: a new indole alkaloid from Rauvolfia serpentina x Rhazya stricta hybrid plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, I; Sheludko, Y; Stöckigt, J

    2001-01-01

    A new monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, 3-oxo-rhazinilam (1), was isolated from intergeneric somatic hybrid cell cultures of Rauvolfia serpentina and Rhazya stricta, and the structure was determined by detailed 1D and 2D NMR analysis. It was also proved that 3-oxo-rhazinilam (1) is a natural constituent of the hybrid cells.

  16. A hybrid bio-jetting approach for directly engineering living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, Albert; Irvine, Scott; Arumuganathar, Sumathy; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; McEwan, Jean R

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports developments on a hybrid cell-engineering protocol coupling both bio-electrosprays and aerodynamically assisted bio-jets for process-handling living cells. The current work demonstrates the ability to couple these two cell-jetting protocols for handling a wide range of cells for deposition. The post-treated cells are assessed for their viability by way of flow cytometry, which illustrates a significant population of viable cells post-treatment in comparison to those controls. This work is the first example of coupling these two protocols for the process handling of living cells. The hybrid protocol demonstrates the achievement of stable cone jetting of a cellular suspension in the single-needle configuration which was previously unachieved with single-needle bio-electrosprays. Furthermore the living cells explored in these investigations expressed GFP, thus demonstrating the ability to couple gene therapy with this hybrid protocol. Hence, this approach could one day be explored for building biologically viable tissues incorporating a therapeutic payload for combating a range of cellular/tissue-based pathologies

  17. A New Hybrid Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells-Battery Power System with Efficiencies Considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chung-Hsing; Shieh, Jenn-Jong

    Hybrid systems, based on lead-acid or lithium-ion batteries and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), give the possibility of combining the benefit of both technologies. The merits of high energy density and power density for different applications are discussed in this paper in recognition of the practical realization of such hybrid power systems. Furthermore, experimental data for such a hybrid system is described and the results are shown and discussed. The results show that the combination of lead-acid batteries or lithium-ion batteries and PEMFCs shows advantages in cases of applications with high peak power requirements, such as electric scooters and applications where the fuel cell (FC) is used as an auxiliary power-supply to recharge the battery. The high efficiency of FCs operating with a partial load results in a good fuel economy for the purpose of recharging batteries within a FC system.

  18. Hybrid cellular automaton modeling of nutrient modulated cell growth in tissue engineering constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C A; Lin, Tze-Hung; Chen, Shih-Di; Huang, Hsing-I

    2010-01-21

    Mathematic models help interpret experimental results and accelerate tissue engineering developments. We develop in this paper a hybrid cellular automata model that combines the differential nutrient transport equation to investigate the nutrient limited cell construct development for cartilage tissue engineering. Individual cell behaviors of migration, contact inhibition and cell collision, coupled with the cell proliferation regulated by oxygen concentration were carefully studied. Simplified two-dimensional simulations were performed. Using this model, we investigated the influence of cell migration speed on the overall cell growth within in vitro cell scaffolds. It was found that intense cell motility can enhance initial cell growth rates. However, since cell growth is also significantly modulated by the nutrient contents, intense cell motility with conventional uniform cell seeding method may lead to declined cell growth in the final time because concentrated cell population has been growing around the scaffold periphery to block the nutrient transport from outside culture media. Therefore, homogeneous cell seeding may not be a good way of gaining large and uniform cell densities for the final results. We then compared cell growth in scaffolds with various seeding modes, and proposed a seeding mode with cells initially residing in the middle area of the scaffold that may efficiently reduce the nutrient blockage and result in a better cell amount and uniform cell distribution for tissue engineering construct developments.

  19. Functional stability of endothelial cells on a novel hybrid scaffold for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankajakshan, Divya; Krishnan, Lissy K [Thrombosis Research Unit, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojapura, Trivandrum 695 012 (India); Krishnan V, Kalliyana, E-mail: lissykk@sctimst.ac.i [Division of Polymer Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojapura, Trivandrum 695 012 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Porous and pliable conduits made of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds offer great potential for the development of blood vessel substitutes but they generally lack signals for cell proliferation, survival and maintenance of a normal phenotype. In this study we have prepared and evaluated porous poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) integrated with fibrin composite (FC) to get a biomimetic hybrid scaffold (FC PCL) with the biological properties of fibrin, fibronectin (FN), gelatin, growth factors and glycosaminoglycans. Reduced platelet adhesion on a human umbilical vein endothelial cell-seeded hybrid scaffold as compared to bare PCL or FC PCL was observed, which suggests the non-thrombogenic nature of the tissue-engineered scaffold. Analysis of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after 5 days of endothelial cell (EC) culture on a hybrid scaffold indicated that the prothrombotic von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were quiescent and stable. Meanwhile, dynamic expressions of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase indicated the desired cell phenotype on the scaffold. On the hybrid scaffold, shear stress could induce enhanced nitric oxide release, which implicates vaso-responsiveness of EC grown on the tissue-engineered construct. Significant upregulation of mRNA for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen IV and elastin, in EC was detected by RT-PCR after growing them on the hybrid scaffold and FC-coated tissue culture polystyrene (FC TCPS) but not on FN-coated TCPS. The results indicate that the FC PCL hybrid scaffold can accomplish a remodeled ECM and non-thrombogenic EC phenotype, and can be further investigated as a scaffold for cardiovascular tissue engineering. (communication)

  20. Functional stability of endothelial cells on a novel hybrid scaffold for vascular tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankajakshan, Divya; Krishnan, Lissy K; Krishnan V, Kalliyana

    2010-01-01

    Porous and pliable conduits made of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds offer great potential for the development of blood vessel substitutes but they generally lack signals for cell proliferation, survival and maintenance of a normal phenotype. In this study we have prepared and evaluated porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) integrated with fibrin composite (FC) to get a biomimetic hybrid scaffold (FC PCL) with the biological properties of fibrin, fibronectin (FN), gelatin, growth factors and glycosaminoglycans. Reduced platelet adhesion on a human umbilical vein endothelial cell-seeded hybrid scaffold as compared to bare PCL or FC PCL was observed, which suggests the non-thrombogenic nature of the tissue-engineered scaffold. Analysis of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after 5 days of endothelial cell (EC) culture on a hybrid scaffold indicated that the prothrombotic von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were quiescent and stable. Meanwhile, dynamic expressions of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase indicated the desired cell phenotype on the scaffold. On the hybrid scaffold, shear stress could induce enhanced nitric oxide release, which implicates vaso-responsiveness of EC grown on the tissue-engineered construct. Significant upregulation of mRNA for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen IV and elastin, in EC was detected by RT-PCR after growing them on the hybrid scaffold and FC-coated tissue culture polystyrene (FC TCPS) but not on FN-coated TCPS. The results indicate that the FC PCL hybrid scaffold can accomplish a remodeled ECM and non-thrombogenic EC phenotype, and can be further investigated as a scaffold for cardiovascular tissue engineering. (communication)

  1. Developments in batteries and fuel cells for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to ever increasing threats of climate change, urban air pollution and costly and depleting oil and gas sources a lot of work is being done for the development of electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and all electric vehicles are powered by batteries or by hydrogen and fuel cells are the main types of vehicles being developed. Main types of batteries which can be used for electric vehicles are lead-acid, Ni-Cd, Nickel-Metal-Hybrid ( NiMH) and Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries which are discussed and compared. Lithium ion battery is the mostly used battery. Developments in the lithium ion batteries are discussed and reviewed. Redox flow batteries are also potential candidates for electric vehicles and are described. Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce fuel consumption considerably and is a good midterm solution. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles are discussed. Electric vehicles are necessary to mitigate the effects of pollution and dependence on oil. For all the electric vehicles there are two options: batteries and fuel Cells. Batteries are useful for small vehicles and shorter distances but for vehicle range greater than 150 km fuel cells are superior to batteries in terms of cost, efficiency and durability even using natural gas and other fuels in addition to hydrogen. Ultimate solution for electric vehicles are hydrogen and fuel cells and this opinion is also shared by most of the automobile manufacturers. Developments in fuel cells and their applications for automobiles are described and reviewed. Comparisons have been done in the literature between batteries and fuel cells and are described. (author)

  2. Color-coded Live Imaging of Heterokaryon Formation and Nuclear Fusion of Hybridizing Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Takuro; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Nakamura, Miki; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Fusion of cancer cells has been studied for over half a century. However, the steps involved after initial fusion between cells, such as heterokaryon formation and nuclear fusion, have been difficult to observe in real time. In order to be able to visualize these steps, we have established cancer-cell sublines from the human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma, one expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B in the nucleus and a red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm and the other subline expressing RFP in the nucleus (mCherry) linked to histone H2B and GFP in the cytoplasm. The two reciprocal color-coded sublines of HT-1080 cells were fused using the Sendai virus. The fused cells were cultured on plastic and observed using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Multi-nucleate (heterokaryotic) cancer cells, in addition to hybrid cancer cells with single-or multiple-fused nuclei, including fused mitotic nuclei, were observed among the fused cells. Heterokaryons with red, green, orange and yellow nuclei were observed by confocal imaging, even in single hybrid cells. The orange and yellow nuclei indicate nuclear fusion. Red and green nuclei remained unfused. Cell fusion with heterokaryon formation and subsequent nuclear fusion resulting in hybridization may be an important natural phenomenon between cancer cells that may make them more malignant. The ability to image the complex processes following cell fusion using reciprocal color-coded cancer cells will allow greater understanding of the genetic basis of malignancy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Hybrid solar cells from regioregular polythiophene and ZnO nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Blends of nanocryst. zinc oxide nanoparticles (nc-ZnO) and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) processed from soln. have been used to construct hybrid polymer-metal oxide bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Thermal annealing of the spin-cast films significantly improves the solar-energy

  4. Hybrid ZnO:polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells from a ZnO precursor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Slooff, L.H.; Wienk, M.M.; Kroon, J.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kafafi, Z.H.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a simple and new method to create hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells consisting of ZnO and conjugated polymers. A gel-forming ZnO precursor, blended with conjugated polymers, is converted into crystalline ZnO at temperatures as low as 110 °C. In-situ formation of ZnO in MDMO-PPV

  5. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...

  6. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  7. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; P. van den Bosch; T. Hofman; Edwin Tazelaar; Y. Shen

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define

  8. Analytical solution and experimental validation of the energy management problem for fuel cell hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J. van den Bosch; Edwin Tazelaar; M. Grimminck; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers; Bram Veenhuizen

    2011-01-01

    The objective of an energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems is to minimize the fuel needed to provide the required power demand. This minimization is defined as an optimization problem. Methods such as dynamic programming numerically solve this optimization problem.

  9. Analytical solution of the energy management for fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J. van den Bosch; E. Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of an energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems is to minimize the fuel needed to provide the required power demand. This minimization is defined as an optimization problem. Methods such as dynamic programming numerically solve this optimization problem.

  10. Accelerated Degradation for Hardware in the Loop Simulation of Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abreu-Sepulveda, Maria A.; Harun, Nor Farida; Hackett, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in Morgantown, WV has developed the hybrid performance (HyPer) project in which a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) one-dimensional (1D), real-time operating model is coupled to a gas turbine hardware system by utilizing...

  11. Can Ferroelectric Polarization Explain the High Performance of Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherkar, Tejas; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells based on the use of hybrid halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), now exceeds 20%. Recently, it was suggested that this high performance originates from the presence of ferroelectricity in the perovskite, which is hypothesized to lower

  12. Highly Reproducible Sn-Based Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells with 9% Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Shuyan; Liu, Jian; Portale, Giuseppe; Fang, Hong-Hua; Blake, Graeme R.; ten Brink, Gert H.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2018-01-01

    The low power conversion efficiency (PCE) of tin-based hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs) is mainly attributed to the high background carrier density due to a high density of intrinsic defects such as Sn vacancies and oxidized species (Sn4+) that characterize Sn-based HPSCs. Herein, this study

  13. Hybrid energy fuel cell based system for household applications in a Mediterranean climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nižetić, S.; Tolj, I.; Papadopoulos, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid energy system was proposed, combining a HT-PEM fuel cell system and a standard split heat pump system with heat recovery for household applications. • The hybrid energy system is able to produce both high and low temperature heat, electricity and cooling capacity. • The system showed high overall energy efficiency and a favorable environmental aspect. • The calculated cost of overall produced energy proved to be competitive in comparison with the average cost of electricity for households. - Abstract: In this paper, a specific hybrid energy system was proposed for household applications. The hybrid energy system was assembled from a HT-PEM fuel cell stack supplied by hydrogen via a steam reformer, where finally the majority of produced electricity is used to drive a modified split heat pump system with heat recovery (that is enabled via standard modified accumulation boilers). The system is able to produce both high and low temperature heat output (in the form of hot water), cooling thermal output and electricity. Performance analysis was conducted and the specific hybrid energy system showed high value for overall energy efficiency, for the specific case examined it reached 250%. Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) analysis was also carried out and the proposed hybrid energy system’s cost is expected to be between 0.09 €/kW h and 0.16 €/kW h, which is certainly competitive with the current retail electricity price for households on the EU market. Additionally, the system also has environmental benefits in relation to reduced CO 2 emissions, as estimated CO 2 emissions from the proposed hybrid energy system are expected to be at around 9.0 gCO 2 /kW h or 2.6 times less than the emissions released from the utilization of grid electricity.

  14. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power system for a low power boat. The hybrid system consists of the association of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and battery bank. The mathematical models for the components of the hybrid system are presented. These models are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulations allow analyzing the dynamic performance and power allocation according to a typical driving cycle. In this system, an efficient energy management system (EMS based on operation states is proposed. This EMS strategy determines the operating point of each component of the system in order to maximize the system efficiency. Simulation results validate the adequacy of the hybrid power system and the proposed EMS for real ship driving cycles.

  15. Constructional types of hybrid tower cells. First plume observations on experimental cells in the Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar (GKN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeule, R.

    1977-01-01

    First experience with two experimental hybrid-cell cooling towers at the Gemeinschaftkernkraftwerk Neckar (GKN) concerning techniques and plume influence. In dependence of plume-determining parameters coinciding, noticeable plume reductions as well as situations without visible improvements are observed. These results, which are not quite clear, demonstrate that systematical analytical investigations are needed. (orig.) [de

  16. Flexible hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Zhu, Guang; Lee, Sangmin; Lin, Zong-Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-01-22

    We report the first flexible hybrid energy cell that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies to power some electronic devices. For having both the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based nanogenerator (NG) was used to harvest thermal and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on the flexible polyester (PET) substrate, a ZnO-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) heterojunction solar cell was designed for harvesting solar energy. By integrating the NGs and the solar cells, a hybrid energy cell was fabricated to simultaneously harvest three different types of energies. With the use of a Li-ion battery as the energy storage, the harvested energy can drive four red light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  17. Hybrid systems with lead-acid battery and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossen, Andreas; Garche, Juergen; Doering, Harry; Goetz, Markus; Knaupp, Werner; Joerissen, Ludwig

    Hybrid systems, based on a lead-acid battery and a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) give the possibility to combine the advantages of both technologies. The benefits for different applications are discussed and the practical realisation of such systems is shown. Furthermore a numerical model for such a hybrid system is described and results are shown and discussed. The results show that the combination of lead-acid batteries and PEMFC shows advantages in case of applications with high peak power requirements (i.e. electric scooter) and applications where the fuel cell is used as auxiliary power supply to recharge the battery. The high efficiency of fuel cells at partial load operation results in a good fuel economy for recharging of lead-acid batteries with a fuel cell system.

  18. Hematopoietic differentiative properties of murine spleen implanted in the omenta of irradiated and nonirradiated hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, J E; Tjio, J H; Smith, W W; Brecher, G [California Univ., San Francisco (USA); National Inst. of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases, Bethesda, Md. (USA); National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, Md. (USA). Lab. of Viral Oncology)

    1975-01-01

    Whole body irradiation of the recipients of syngeneic splenic implants into the omentum greatly enhances hematopoiesis and permits survival of and repopulation by stem cells of donor origin. Donor hematopoietic stem cells do not survive in spleen implants of the nonirradiated host.Irradiated hosts were therefore used in the bulk of the experiments. Differentiation in the implants of splenic fragments is predominantly erythrocytic at 10 days and shifts to predominantly granulocytic differentiation at 21 days. Suspensions of spleen cells injected into the omentum are predominantly granulocytopoietic at 10 days. The differentiation in fragments of spleen depleted of stem cells by irradiation, seeded with bone marrow cells and implanted into the omentum results in mixed erythrocytic and granulocytic hematopoiesis, with granulocytic predominance. Lymphocytic cells appeared late in the implants of irradiated recipients even at a time of prolific lymphocytopoiesis in the hosts' own spleens. The cause of the delay in the implants is not clear. The data are consistent with the concept that differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells is influenced by the stromal cells of the parent organ. The erythrocytic inductive capacity of the stromal cells may belost by mechanical disruption or modified by irradiation or a prolonged period of implantation.

  19. Fuel cells for portable, mobile and hybrid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.; Kaufman, A.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of fuel cell systems for a variety of low-power applications (below 1000 watts) means they can be used for applications such as portable power sources and mobile power sources. The energy and power are separate elements in a fuel cell system. The power is provided by the fuel cell stack (output characteristics are dependent on the cell active area, number of cells, and operating conditions), and the energy is defined by the fuel (hydrogen) storage. The authors indicated that proton exchange membrane fuel cells are the most appropriate for small fuel cell systems, since they have a temperature range ambient to 90 Celsius, ambient air (non-humidified), and load following response. In addition, they possess a solid electrolyte, high power density and specific power, and low-pressure operation. Simplicity of operation is the key to the design of a fuel cell system. The parameters to be considered include hydrogen supply, air supply, water management, and thermal management. Some of the options available for fuels are: compressed hydrogen, metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and carbon-based hydrogen storage. Some of the factors that will help in determining market penetration are: rapid cost reduction with volume, fuel infrastructure, proven reliability, and identification of applications where fuel cells provide superior performance. 2 figs

  20. Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik

    Fuel cells achieve more and more attention due to their potential of replacing the traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) used in the area of transportation. In this PhD thesis a fuel cell shaft power pack (FCSPP) is designed and implemented in a small truck. The FCSPP replaces the original...

  1. Innovative architecture design for high performance organic and hybrid multi-junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Spyropoulos, George D.; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-08-01

    The multi-junction concept is especially attractive for the photovoltaic (PV) research community owing to its potential to overcome the Schockley-Queisser limit of single-junction solar cells. Tremendous research interests are now focused on the development of high-performance absorbers and novel device architectures for emerging PV technologies, such as organic and perovskite PVs. It has been predicted that the multi-junction concept is able to boost the organic and perovskite PV technologies approaching the 20% and 30% benchmarks, respectively, showing a bright future of commercialization of the emerging PV technologies. In this contribution, we will demonstrate innovative architecture design for solution-processed, highly functional organic and hybrid multi-junction solar cells. A simple but elegant approach to fabricating organic and hybrid multi-junction solar cells will be introduced. By laminating single organic/hybrid solar cells together through an intermediate layer, the manufacturing cost and complexity of large-scale multi-junction solar cells can be significantly reduced. This smart approach to balancing the photocurrents as well as open circuit voltages in multi-junction solar cells will be demonstrated and discussed in detail.

  2. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus. (author)

  3. Role of donor lymphoid cells in the transfer of allograft tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, G.E.; Watts, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Tolerance to murine skin allografts across a MHC disparity was induced by conditioning primary hosts with sublethal fractionated total-body irradiation (FTBI) and transfusion of allogeneic bone marrow (BM). Tolerance could be adoptively transferred to secondary hosts conditioned by FTBI with infusion of spleen cells from hosts bearing intact skin allografts greater than 60 days. Tolerance could not be transferred by tolerant host spleen (THS) preparations from which cells of the donor genotype had been deleted by cytotoxic alloantisera. Deletion of host genotype cells, however, did not diminish the capability of THS to transfer tolerance. All of the tolerizing activity of THS appeared to reside within cells of the donor genotype. Small numbers of normal donor spleen cells could induce tolerance in FTBI hosts but only at the expense of very high mortality, in contrast to the low mortality observed with tolerizing injections of allogeneic donor cells from THS or injections of normal semiallogeneic F1 hybrid spleen cells. If an active immune response is responsible for tolerance induction/transfer in this model, allogeneic donor lymphoid cells derived from BM, in contrast to donor spleen cells, must be capable of mounting this response without concomitant severe GVHD. In future experiments, cells of donor genotype can be isolated from THS and purified in sufficient numbers to compare their tolerizing efficiency vs. that of normal donor cells, detect possible suppression of normal host cell alloreactivity in vitro and identify the donor cell phenotypes involved

  4. Rat primary embryo fibroblast cells suppress transformation by the E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 in somatic hybrid cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyasaka, M; Takami, Y; Inoue, H; Hakura, A

    1991-01-01

    The E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) transform established lines of rat cells but not rat cells in primary culture irrespective of the expression of the two genes. The reason for this difference between the susceptibilities of cell lines and primary cells was examined by using hybrid cells obtained by somatic cell fusion of rat cell lines transformed by the E6 and E7 genes of HPV-16 and freshly isolated rat embryo fibroblast cells. In these hybrid cells, transformed ph...

  5. Imaging of the spleen: a proposed algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkhoda, A.; McCartney, W.H.; Staab, E.V.; Mittelstaedt, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scan is an effective initial method for evaluating splenic size, position, and focal or diffusely altered radionuclide uptake. Sonography is a useful next step in determining whether focal lesions are solid or cystic and the relation of the spleen to adjacent organs. In our opinion, computed tomography (CT) may be reserved for the few instances in which diagnostic questions remain unanswered after radionuclide scanning and sonography. Angiography is used primarily in splenic trauma. We evaluated 900 patients suspected of having liver-spleen abnormality. This experience, which led to a logically sequenced noninvasive imaging approach for evaluating suspected splenic pathology, is summarized and illustrated by several cases

  6. Imaging of the spleen: a proposed algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirkhoda, A.; McCartney, W.H.; Staab, E.V.; Mittelstaedt, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    The /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid scan is an effective initial method for evaluating splenic size, position, and focal or diffusely altered radionuclide uptake. Sonography is a useful next step in determining whether focal lesions are solid or cystic and the relation of the spleen to adjacent organs. In our opinion, computed tomography (CT) may be reserved for the few instances in which diagnostic questions remain unanswered after radionuclide scanning and sonography. Angiography is used primarily in splenic trauma. We evaluated 900 patients suspected of having liver-spleen abnormality. This experience, which led to a logically sequenced noninvasive imaging approach for evaluating suspected splenic pathology, is summarized and illustrated by several cases.

  7. Laparoscopic splenectomy for a simultaneous wandering spleen along with an ectopic accessory spleen. Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Rizzuto

    Full Text Available Background: Wandering spleen and accessory spleen are uncommon entity occurring during embryonic development. Wandering spleen results in an excessive mobility and migration of the spleen from its normal position in the left hypochondrium while accessory spleen is characterized by ectopic splenic masses or tissue disjointed from the main body of spleen.Due to the nonspecific and multiple symptoms the clinical diagnosis of both conditions is uncertain even with imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI. The coexistence of both diseases (wandering spleen ad accessory spleen is uncommon. Case report: A 17–year old European female with a history of minor beta thalassemia and recurrent attacks of abdominal pain. Pre- operative management consisted of routine laboratory tests, ultrasound, CT scan. An ectopic spleen along with an accessory spleen were diagnosed. After a multidisciplinary board a laparoscopic splenectomy was performed. Post-operative recovery was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the 6th post-operative day with the indication to continue the therapy with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH for 30 days Conclusions: This case represents a simultaneous condition of wandering splenomegaly along with an ectopic wandering spleen. The coexistence of these two rare conditions is peculiar such as the age of the patient, as literature reports such diseases to affect children or more commonly people in the range of 20–40 years of age. Laparoscopic treatment for this particular condition is also unusual. Keywords: Ectopic spleen, Wandering spleen, Laparoscopic splenectomy

  8. The time-course relationship between endogenous spleen colony formation and marrow cellularity after midlethal irradiation of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, I.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of appearance and disappearance of endogenous spleen colonies following 4 and 6 Gy of X-irradiation was compared with the kinetics of changes of cellular contents of femur cavities. Additionally, the effect of postirradiation bleeding and this way of the subsequent increase in the level of endogenous erythropoietin was studied. It was found that the kinetics of endogenous haemopoietic recovery in the marrow follows the same characteristic biphasic pattern as in the spleen although it is slightly delayed in time. First wave of regeneration corresponded in time with the formation of transient endogenous spleen colonies 4-7 days postirradiation, and the 2nd wave corresponded in time witn the formation of classical haemopoietic stem-cell derived endogenous spleen colonies 9-12 days following irradiation. Postirradiation bleeding markedly stimulated particularly the first wave of regeneration both in the marrow and in the spleen. (orig.) [de

  9. Evaluation of fuel cell hybrid electric light commercial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.M.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarised the results of tests both in the laboratory and in operation on the roads in London carried out to determine the performance of the Zetek Fuel Cell Vehicle operated by Westminster County Council. Details are given of the vehicle's data logging system, and measurement of its acceleration and power, driveability, vehicle range, and the energy efficiency of the fuel cell, and its environmental performance. The frequent shutdowns of the fuel cell system and the problems with the DC/DC converter are discussed.

  10. Value of transoperative scintigraphy in the detection of accessory spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezeur, A.; Goujard, F.; Labriolle-Vaylet, C.L. de; Wioland, M.; Douay, L.; Desmarquet, J.

    1990-01-01

    A case of accessory spleen, 1 cm in diameter, responsible for recurrence of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after splenectomy is reported. This case is original in that the accessory spleen could only be detected by transoperative scintigraphy. Transoperative scintigraphy is a simple method to be used when one or several unrecognized accessory spleens are responsible for recurrence of a blood disease after excision of the principal spleen [fr

  11. The Spleen Is an Ideal Site for Inducing Transplanted Islet Graft Expansion in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Itoh

    Full Text Available Alternative islet transplantation sites have the potential to reduce the marginal number of islets required to ameliorate hyperglycemia in recipients with diabetes. Previously, we reported that T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (Tlx1+ stem cells in the spleen effectively regenerated into insulin-producing cells in the pancreas of non-obese diabetic mice with end-stage disease. Thus, we investigated the spleen as a potential alternative islet transplantation site. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice received syngeneic islets into the portal vein (PV, beneath the kidney capsule (KC, or into the spleen (SP. The marginal number of islets by PV, KC, or SP was 200, 100, and 50, respectively. Some plasma inflammatory cytokine levels in the SP group were significantly lower than those of the PV group after receiving a marginal number of islets, indicating reduced inflammation in the SP group. Insulin contents were increased 280 days after islet transplantation compared with those immediately following transplantation (p<0.05. Additionally, Tlx1-related genes, including Rrm2b and Pla2g2d, were up-regulated, which indicates that islet grafts expanded in the spleen. The spleen is an ideal candidate for an alternative islet transplantation site because of the resulting reduced inflammation and expansion of the islet graft.

  12. Targeting of porous hybrid silica nanoparticles to cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenholm, J.M.; Meinander, A.; Peuhu, E.; Niemi, R.; Eriksson, J.E.; Sahlgren, C.; Lindén, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized by surface hyperbranching polymerization of polyethylene imine), PEI, were further modified by introducing both fluorescent and targeting moieties, with the aim of specifically targeting cancer cells. Owing to the high abundance of folate receptors in

  13. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Rabah, Raja

    2009-01-01

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  14. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Carmen and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Rabah, Raja [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-01-15

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  15. Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-alpha secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  16. A wandering spleen presenting as a hypogastric mass: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the spleen. A 26-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a large ovoid hypogastric mass. A CT scan showed a wandering spleen in the hypogastric region. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen. A total splenectomy was performed.

  17. A hybrid approach to solving the problem of design of nuclear fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes T, J. L.; Perusquia del C, R.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo, A.

    2015-09-01

    An approach to solving the problem of fuel cell design for BWR power reactor is presented. For this purpose the hybridization of a method based in heuristic knowledge rules called S15 and the advantages of a meta-heuristic method is proposed. The synergy of potentialities of both techniques allows finding solutions of more quality. The quality of each solution is obtained through a multi-objective function formed from the main cell parameters that are provided or obtained during the simulation with the CASMO-4 code. To evaluate this alternative of solution nuclear fuel cells of reference of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde were used. The results show that in a systematic way the results improve when both methods are coupled. As a result of the hybridization process of the mentioned techniques an improvement is achieved in a range of 2% with regard to the achieved results in an independent way by the S15 method. (Author)

  18. A minimally invasive approach to spleen histopathology in dogs: A new method for follow-up studies of spleen changes in the course of Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Silvana Ornelas; Fontes, Jonathan L M; Laranjeira, Daniela F; Vassallo, José; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Dos-Santos, Washington L C

    2016-10-01

    Severe forms of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) are associated with disruption of the spleen structure. However, the study of spleen histology requires splenectomy or necropsy. In this work, we present a minimally invasive cell-block technique for studying spleen tissue histology in dogs with ZVL. We examined 13 dogs with and seven dogs without Leishmania infantum infection. The dogs with Leishmania infection had a lower frequency of lymphoid follicles (2/13, Fisher's test, Pdogs (5/7 exhibiting lymphoid follicles and a plasma cell score of 1). The dogs with Leishmania infection also presented with granulomas (8/13) and infected macrophages (5/13). These differences in the histological presentations of spleen tissue from infected and uninfected dogs corresponded to changes observed in conventional histology. Hence, the cell-block technique described here may be used in the follow-up care and study of dogs with ZVL and other diseases in both clinical practice and research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electron transport limitation in P3HT:CdSe nanorods hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lek, Jun Yan; Xing, Guichuan; Sum, Tze Chien; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2014-01-22

    Hybrid solar cells have the potential to be efficient solar-energy-harvesting devices that can combine the benefits of solution-processable organic materials and the extended absorption offered by inorganic materials. In this work, an understanding of the factors limiting the performance of hybrid solar cells is explored. Through photovoltaic-device characterization correlated with transient absorption spectroscopy measurements, it was found that the interfacial charge transfer between the organic (P3HT) and inorganic (CdSe nanorods) components is not the factor limiting the performance of these solar cells. The insulating original ligands retard the charge recombination between the charge-transfer states across the CdSe-P3HT interface, and this is actually beneficial for charge collection. These cells are, in fact, limited by the subsequent electron collection via CdSe nanoparticles to the electrodes. Hence, the design of a more continuous electron-transport pathway should greatly improve the performance of hybrid solar cells in the future.

  20. Energy Management Strategy for a Fuel Cell/ Ultracapasitor/ Battery Hybrid System for Portable Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Afiqah Abd Hamid; Ros Emilia Rosli; Edy Herianto Majlan; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Ramizi Mohamed; Ramli Sitanggang

    2016-01-01

    A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FCs) with ultracapacitor (UC) and battery (BT) hybrid system has fast transient response compare to stand alone FCs. This hybrid system is promising candidates for environmentally friendly alternative energy sources. An energy management system design and control strategy was introduced in this study. The energy management strategy FC/ UC/ BT hybrid system model has been developed and the control strategy was programmed in the LabVIEWTM environment and implemented using National Instrument (NI) devices. The energy management strategy is able to manage the energy flow between the main power source (FCs) and auxiliary sources (UC and BT). To control the hybrid system and achieved proper performance, a controller circuit was developed with the three energy sources aligned in parallel to deliver the requested power. The developed model demonstrates the proportion power from the FC, UC and BT under various load demand. Experimental results demonstrate that FC/ UC/ BT hybrid system operated automatically with the varying load condition. The experimental results are presented; showing that the proposed strategy utilized the characteristic of both energy storage devices thus satisfies the load requirement. (author)

  1. Incomplete development of the spleen and the deformity in the chimeras between asplenic mutant (Dominant hemimelia) and normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, J; Wakayama, T; Imamura, K; Goto, S; Fukuta, K

    1995-08-01

    The semidominant gene Dh (Dominant hemimelia) induces skeletal and visceral abnormalities of various degrees and failure of the spleen in mice. The homozygous individual (Dh/Dh) seems to be lethal. The present experiment was designed to investigate the ability Dh cells to form a spleen and the genesis of the hind limb malformations by Dh/Dh and Dh/+ cells in chimeric mice. The Dh/Dh and Dh/+ embryos were produced in the F2 progeny of a cross between inbred strains of Dh/+ and DDD mice. They were aggregated with C3H/He or C57BL/6 embryos to make chimeras. Identification of Dh/Dh or Dh/+ embryos was carried out by Pep-3, and chimerism was analyzed by Gpi-1. Of 25 chimeras carrying the Dh gene, four mice formed a small spleen, two mice had a vestigial spleen, and the others no spleen. The tissues of the incompletely developed spleens were normal histologically and Dh cells were involved in the tissues of the spleen. In the chimeric mice, hindlimb malformation by the Dh gene was reduced in severity and the lethality of the homozygote (Dh/Dh) was rescued.

  2. Thermodynamic Modeling and Dispatch of Distributed Energy Technologies including Fuel Cell -- Gas Turbine Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin Fogle

    Distributed energy systems are a promising means by which to reduce both emissions and costs. Continuous generators must be responsive and highly efficiency to support building dynamics and intermittent on-site renewable power. Fuel cell -- gas turbine hybrids (FC/GT) are fuel-flexible generators capable of ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emissions, and rapid power response. This work undertakes a detailed study of the electrochemistry, chemistry and mechanical dynamics governing the complex interaction between the individual systems in such a highly coupled hybrid arrangement. The mechanisms leading to the compressor stall/surge phenomena are studied for the increased risk posed to particular hybrid configurations. A novel fuel cell modeling method introduced captures various spatial resolutions, flow geometries, stack configurations and novel heat transfer pathways. Several promising hybrid configurations are analyzed throughout the work and a sensitivity analysis of seven design parameters is conducted. A simple estimating method is introduced for the combined system efficiency of a fuel cell and a turbine using component performance specifications. Existing solid oxide fuel cell technology is capable of hybrid efficiencies greater than 75% (LHV) operating on natural gas, and existing molten carbonate systems greater than 70% (LHV). A dynamic model is calibrated to accurately capture the physical coupling of a FC/GT demonstrator tested at UC Irvine. The 2900 hour experiment highlighted the sensitivity to small perturbations and a need for additional control development. Further sensitivity studies outlined the responsiveness and limits of different control approaches. The capability for substantial turn-down and load following through speed control and flow bypass with minimal impact on internal fuel cell thermal distribution is particularly promising to meet local demands or provide dispatchable support for renewable power. Advanced control and dispatch

  3. Demonstration of interleukin-1 beta transcripts in acute myeloblastic leukemic cells by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M; Kanakura, Y; Furukawa, Y; Ernst, T J; Griffin, J D

    1990-07-01

    The cells from some patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia will secrete autostimulatory cytokines in tissue culture without the addition of stimulators such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), for example, has been observed in up to 50% of cases. In order to investigate the nature of the cell secreting IL-1 beta in AML, we used an antisense RNA probe to detect specific IL-1 beta transcripts in individual leukemic cells by in situ hybridization. In fresh, uncultured cells, IL-1 beta transcripts were observed in 1-40% of undifferentiated leukemic blast cells in 17 of 19 cases. In situ hybridization was at least as sensitive as Northern blot analysis in detecting IL-1 beta transcripts. No correlation of IL-1 beta transcript expression with FAB classification was observed. Normal blood and bone marrow mononuclear cells did not contain cells expressing IL-1 beta transcripts. These results support the concept that the regulation of cytokine genes in AML cells is aberrant.

  4. Array comparative genomic hybridization of keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Kai; Gao, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a benign keratinocytic neoplasm that spontaneously regresses after 3-6 months and shares features with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Furthermore, there are reports of KAs that have metastasized, invoking the question of whether KA is a variant of SCC (Hodak et al., 1993...

  5. Technoeconomy of different solid oxide fuel cell based hybrid cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine, steam turbine and heat engine (Stirling engine) is used as bottoming cycle for a solid oxide fuel cell plant to compare different plants efficiencies, CO2 emissionsand plants cost in terms of $/kW. Each plant is then integrated with biomass gasification and finally six plants...

  6. Hybrid Modulation Scheme for Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter Cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work proposes a switching technique for cascaded H-Bridge (CHB) cells. Single carrier Sinusoidal PWM (SCSPWM) scheme is employed in the generation of the gating signals. A sequential switching and base PWM circulation schemes are presented for this fundamental cascaded multilevel inverter topology.

  7. Hybrid zinc oxide/graphene electrodes for depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Aashuri, Hossein; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-07

    Recently, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of graphene/nanomaterial heterostructures have emerged as promising candidates for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have employed a facile and in situ solution-based process to prepare zinc oxide/graphene quantum dots (ZnO/G QDs) in a hybrid structure. The prepared hybrid dots are composed of a ZnO core, with an average size of 5 nm, warped with graphene nanosheets. Spectroscopic studies show that the graphene shell quenches the photoluminescence intensity of the ZnO nanocrystals by about 72%, primarily due to charge transfer reactions and static quenching. A red shift in the absorption peak is also observed. Raman spectroscopy determines G-band splitting of the graphene shell into two separated sub-bands (G(+), G(-)) caused by the strain induced symmetry breaking. It is shown that the hybrid ZnO/G QDs can be used as a counter-electrode for heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells for efficient charge-carrier collection, as evidenced by the external quantum efficiency measurement. Under the solar simulated spectrum (AM 1.5G), we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (35%) with higher short current circuit (80%) for lead sulfide-based solar cells as compared to devices prepared by pristine ZnO nanocrystals.

  8. Hybrid Graphene-Polyoxometalates Nanofluids as Liquid Electrodes for Dual Energy Storage in Novel Flow Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Rueda-Garcia, Daniel; Marchante, Carlos; Benages, Raul; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2018-02-22

    Solid Hybrid materials abound. But flowing versions of them are new actors in the materials science landscape and in particular for energy applications. This paper presents a new way to deliver nanostructured hybrid materials for energy storage, namely, in the form of nanofluids. We present here the first example of a hybrid electroactive nanofluid (HENFs) combining capacitive and faradaic energy storage mechanisms in a single fluid material. This liquid electrode is composed of reduced graphene oxide and polyoxometalates (rGO-POMs) forming a stable nanocomposite for electrochemical energy storage in novel Nanofluid Flow Cells. Two graphene based hybrid materials (rGO-phosphomolybdate, rGO-PMo 12 and rGO-phosphotungstate, rGO-PW 12 ) were synthesized and dispersed with the aid of a surfactant in 1 M H 2 SO 4 aqueous electrolyte to yield highly stable hybrid electroactive nanofluids (HENFs) of low viscosity which were tested in a home-made flow cell under static and continuous flowing conditions. Remarkably, even low concentration rGO-POMs HENFs (0.025 wt%) exhibited high specific capacitances of 273 F/g(rGO-PW 12 ) and 305 F/g(rGO-PMo 12 ) with high specific energy and specific power. Moreover, rGO-POM HENFs show excellent cycling stability (∼95 %) as well as Coulombic efficiency (∼77-79 %) after 2000 cycles. Thus, rGO-POM HENFs effectively behave as real liquid electrodes with excellent properties, demonstrating the possible future application of HENFs for dual energy storage in a new generation of Nanofluid Flow Cells. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Performance simulation and analysis of a fuel cell/battery hybrid forklift truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Advani, Suresh G.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a forklift truck powered by a hybrid system consisting of a PEM fuel cell and a lead acid battery is modeled and investigated by conducting a parametric study. Various combinations of fuel cell size and battery capacity are employed in conjunction with two distinct control...... strategies to study their effect on hydrogen consumption and battery state-of-charge for two drive cycles characterized by different operating speeds and forklift loads. The results show that for all case studies, the combination of a 110 cell stack with two strings of 55 Ah batteries is the most economical...

  10. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector......The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...

  11. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  12. Optimal control of a fuel cell/wind/PV/grid hybrid system with thermal heat pump load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic–wind-fuel cell hybrid power supply system. The hybrid system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater supplying thermal...

  13. Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate imbalanced myelopoiesis between bone marrow and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitano, Maegan L; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Cooper, Scott; Srour, Edward F; Bartke, Andrzej; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2015-06-01

    Ames hypopituitary dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. The phenotype of these mice demonstrates irregularities in the immune system with skewing of the normal cytokine milieu towards a more anti-inflammatory environment. However, the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell composition of the bone marrow (BM) and spleen in Ames dwarf mice has not been well characterized. We found that there was a significant decrease in overall cell count when comparing the BM and spleen of 4-5 month old dwarf mice to their littermate controls. Upon adjusting counts to differences in body weight between the dwarf and control mice, the number of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, confirmed by immunophenotyping and colony-formation assay was increased in the BM. In contrast, the numbers of all myeloid progenitor populations in the spleen were greatly reduced, as confirmed by colony-formation assays. This suggests that there is a shift of myelopoiesis from the spleen to the BM of Ames dwarf mice; however, this shift does not appear to involve erythropoiesis. The reasons for this unusual shift in spleen to marrow hematopoiesis in Ames dwarf mice are yet to be determined but may relate to the decreased hormone levels in these mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Transcription factor TLX1 controls retinoic acid signaling to ensure spleen development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti, Elisa; Farinello, Diego; Penkov, Dmitry; Castagnaro, Laura; Lavorgna, Giovanni; Wuputra, Kenly; Tjaden, Naomi E. Butler; Bernassola, Francesca; Caridi, Nicoletta; Wagner, Michael; Kozinc, Katja; Niederreither, Karen; Blasi, Francesco; Pasini, Diego; Trainor, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie spleen development and congenital asplenia, a condition linked to increased risk of overwhelming infections, remain largely unknown. The transcription factor TLX1 controls cell fate specification and organ expansion during spleen development, and Tlx1 deletion causes asplenia in mice. Deregulation of TLX1 expression has recently been proposed in the pathogenesis of congenital asplenia in patients carrying mutations of the gene-encoding transcription factor SF-1. Herein, we have shown that TLX1-dependent regulation of retinoic acid (RA) metabolism is critical for spleen organogenesis. In a murine model, loss of Tlx1 during formation of the splenic anlage increased RA signaling by regulating several genes involved in RA metabolism. Uncontrolled RA activity resulted in premature differentiation of mesenchymal cells and reduced vasculogenesis of the splenic primordium. Pharmacological inhibition of RA signaling in Tlx1-deficient animals partially rescued the spleen defect. Finally, spleen growth was impaired in mice lacking either cytochrome P450 26B1 (Cyp26b1), which results in excess RA, or retinol dehydrogenase 10 (Rdh10), which results in RA deficiency. Together, these findings establish TLX1 as a critical regulator of RA metabolism and provide mechanistic insights into the molecular determinants of human congenital asplenia. PMID:27214556

  15. Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Microwave Heating for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Martínez-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-n are excellent electron acceptor for hybrid solar cell applications. However, the particle size and properties of the CdS-n products depend largely on the synthesis methodologies. In this work, CdS-n were synthetized by microwave heating using thioacetamide (TA or thiourea (TU as sulfur sources. The obtained CdS-n(TA showed a random distribution of hexagonal particles and contained TA residues. The latter could originate the charge carrier recombination process and cause a low photovoltage (Voc, 0.3 V in the hybrid solar cells formed by the inorganic particles and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. Under similar synthesis conditions, in contrast, CdS-n synthesized with TU consisted of spherical particles with similar size and contained carbonyl groups at their surface. CdS-n(TU could be well dispersed in the nonpolar P3HT solution, leading to a Voc of about 0.6–0.8 V in the resulting CdS-n(TU : P3HT solar cells. The results of this work suggest that the reactant sources in microwave methods can affect the physicochemical properties of the obtained inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, which finally influenced the photovoltaic performance of related hybrid solar cells.

  16. Hybrid Solar Cell with TiO2 Film: BBOT Polymer and Copper Phthalocyanine as Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptadip Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell was fabricated using Titanium dioxide (TiO2: 2,5-bis(5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl thiophene (BBOT film and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc as a sensitizer. BBOT was used in photodetector in other reported research works, but as per best of our knowledge, it was not implemented in solar cells till date. The blend of TiO2: BBOT blend was used to fabricate the film on ITO-coated glass and further a thin layer of CuPc was coated on the film. This was acted as photoanode and another ITO coated glass with a platinum coating was used as a counter electrode (cathode. An optimal blend of acetonitrile (solvent (50-100%, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (10-25%, iodine (2.5-10% and lithium iodide, pyridine derivative and thiocyanate was used as electrolytes in the hybrid solar cell. The different structural, optical and electrical characteristics were measured. The Hybrid solar cell showed a maximum conversion efficiency of 6.51%.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Supercapacitor-Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source for HY-IEL Scooter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bujlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of development of a hybrid fuel cell supercapacitor power system for vehicular applications that was developed and investigated at the Energy Sources Research Section of the Wroclaw Division of Electrotechnical Institute (IEL/OW. The hybrid power source consists of a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack and an energy-type supercapacitor that supports the system in time of peak power demands. The developed system was installed in the HY-IEL electric scooter. The vehicle was equipped with auxiliary components (e.g., air compressor, hydrogen tank, and electromagnetic valves needed for proper operation of the fuel cell stack, as well as electronic control circuits and a data storage unit that enabled on-line recording of system and vehicle operation parameters. Attention is focused on the system energy flow monitoring. The experimental part includes field test results of a vehicle powered with the fuel cell-supercapacitor system. Values of currents and voltages recorded for the system, as well as the vehicle’s velocity and hydrogen consumption rate, are presented versus time of the experiment. Operation of the hybrid power system is discussed and analysed based on the results of measurements obtained.

  18. Increasing the operation temperature of polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells: From nanocomposites to hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico

    Among the possible systems investigated for energy production with low environmental impact, polymeric electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are very promising as electrochemical power sources for application in portable technology and electric vehicles. For practical applications, operating FCs at temperatures above 100 °C is desired, both for hydrogen and methanol fuelled cells. When hydrogen is used as fuel, an increase of the cell temperature produces enhanced CO tolerance, faster reaction kinetics, easier water management and reduced heat exchanger requirement. The use of methanol instead of hydrogen as a fuel for vehicles has several practical benefits such as easy transport and storage, but the slow oxidation kinetics of methanol needs operating direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) at intermediate temperatures. For this reason, new membranes are required. Our strategy to achieve the goal of operating at temperatures above 120 °C is to develop organic/inorganic hybrid membranes. The first approach was the use of nanocomposite class I hybrids where nanocrystalline ceramic oxides were added to Nafion. Nanocomposite membranes showed enhanced characteristics, hence allowing their operation up to 130 °C when the cell was fuelled with hydrogen and up to 145 °C in DMFCs, reaching power densities of 350 mW cm -2. The second approach was to prepare Class II hybrids via the formation of covalent bonds between totally aromatic polymers and inorganic clusters. The properties of such covalent hybrids can be modulated by modifying the ratio between organic and inorganic groups and the nature of the chemical components allowing to reach high and stable conductivity values up to 6.4 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 120 °C.

  19. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkesson, Anders

    2008-05-01

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  20. Cloning the Gravity and Shear Stress Related Genes from MG-63 Cells by Subtracting Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Dai, Zhong-quan; Wang, Bing; Cao, Xin-sheng; Li, Ying-hui; Sun, Xi-qing

    2008-06-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to clone the gravity and shear stress related genes from osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by subtractive hybridization. Method MG-63 cells were divided into two groups (1G group and simulated microgravity group). After cultured for 60 h in two different gravitational environments, two groups of MG-63 cells were treated with 1.5Pa fluid shear stress (FSS) for 60 min, respectively. The total RNA in cells was isolated. The gravity and shear stress related genes were cloned by subtractive hybridization. Result 200 clones were gained. 30 positive clones were selected using PCR method based on the primers of vector and sequenced. The obtained sequences were analyzed by blast. changes of 17 sequences were confirmed by RT-PCR and these genes are related to cell proliferation, cell differentiation, protein synthesis, signal transduction and apoptosis. 5 unknown genes related to gravity and shear stress were found. Conclusion In this part of our study, our result indicates that simulated microgravity may change the activities of MG-63 cells by inducing the functional alterations of specific genes.

  1. Tailor-made three-dimensional hybrid scaffolds for cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psycharakis, Stylianos; Melissinaki, Vasileia; Giakoumaki, Anastasia; Ranella, Anthi [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, PO Box 1527, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tosca, Androniki, E-mail: ranthi@iesl.forth.gr [Department of Medicine, University of Crete, 710 03 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-08-15

    The construction of the ideal three-dimensional scaffold for cell culture is one of the most intriguing topics in tissue engineering. It has been shown that cells can be cultured on most organic biomimetic materials, which now are losing popularity in favour of novel, hybrid systems. In this study, a series of photosensitive sol-gel hybrid materials, based on silicon-zirconium and silicon-titanium oxides, have been investigated for their suitability in three-dimensional scaffold fabrication. These materials can be structured by two-photon polymerization, a laser-based technique allowing the fabrication of micrometre-size structures with submicron resolution. The work presented here examined the effect of the organic/inorganic composition of the materials on cell behaviour and the establishment of a 'cell-culture friendly' environment. This is vital for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation, as the organic part of the material provides the soft matrix for cell growth, whereas the inorganic component gives the mechanical stability and rigidity of the three-dimensional structures. In addition, the use of femtosecond laser structuring permits the fabrication of a wide range of mechanically stable scaffolds of different sizes and shapes to be tested in terms of cell viability, proliferation and orientation.

  2. Tailor-made three-dimensional hybrid scaffolds for cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psycharakis, Stylianos; Melissinaki, Vasileia; Giakoumaki, Anastasia; Ranella, Anthi; Tosca, Androniki

    2011-01-01

    The construction of the ideal three-dimensional scaffold for cell culture is one of the most intriguing topics in tissue engineering. It has been shown that cells can be cultured on most organic biomimetic materials, which now are losing popularity in favour of novel, hybrid systems. In this study, a series of photosensitive sol-gel hybrid materials, based on silicon-zirconium and silicon-titanium oxides, have been investigated for their suitability in three-dimensional scaffold fabrication. These materials can be structured by two-photon polymerization, a laser-based technique allowing the fabrication of micrometre-size structures with submicron resolution. The work presented here examined the effect of the organic/inorganic composition of the materials on cell behaviour and the establishment of a 'cell-culture friendly' environment. This is vital for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation, as the organic part of the material provides the soft matrix for cell growth, whereas the inorganic component gives the mechanical stability and rigidity of the three-dimensional structures. In addition, the use of femtosecond laser structuring permits the fabrication of a wide range of mechanically stable scaffolds of different sizes and shapes to be tested in terms of cell viability, proliferation and orientation.

  3. Hybrid Lentivirus-transposon Vectors With a Random Integration Profile in Human Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Moldt, Brian; Mátés, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    Gene delivery by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based lentiviral vectors (LVs) is efficient, but genomic integration of the viral DNA is strongly biased toward transcriptionally active loci resulting in an increased risk of insertional mutagenesis in gene therapy protocols. Nonviral...... Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors have a significantly safer insertion profile, but efficient delivery into relevant cell/tissue types is a limitation. In an attempt to combine the favorable features of the two vector systems we established a novel hybrid vector technology based on SB transposase......-mediated insertion of lentiviral DNA circles generated during transduction of target cells with integrase (IN)-defective LVs (IDLVs). By construction of a lentivirus-transposon hybrid vector allowing transposition exclusively from circular viral DNA substrates, we demonstrate that SB transposase added in trans...

  4. Enhanced photovoltaic properties of perovskite solar cells by TiO2 homogeneous hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pengyu; Fu, Wuyou; Yao, Huizhen; Liu, Li; Ding, Dong; Feng, Fei; Feng, Shuang; Xue, Yebin; Liu, Xizhe; Yang, Haibin

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we fabricated a TiO 2 homogeneous hybrid structure for application in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) under ambient conditions. Under the standard air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G) illumination, PSCs based on homogeneous hybrid structure present a maximum power conversion efficiency of 5.39% which is higher than that of pure TiO 2 nanosheets. The enhanced properties can be explained by the better contact of TiO 2 nanosheets/nanoparticles with CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and fewer pinholes in electron transport materials. The advent of such unique structure opens up new avenues for the future development of high-efficiency photovoltaic cells.

  5. Hybrid resonant organic-inorganic nanostructures for novel light emitting devices and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovich, Vladimir M. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas (United States); Rupasov, Valery I. [ANTEOS, Inc., Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545 (United States); Silvestri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The energy transfer from an inorganic layer to an organic component of resonant hybrid organic/inorganic nanos-tructures can be used for creation of new type of LED. We mentioned the problem of electrical pumping which has to be solved. As was first suggested in 1979 by Dexter the transfer energy in opposite direction from organic part of nanostructure to semiconductor layer can be used for the creation of new type of solar cells. In this note we stress the importance of the idea by Dexter for photovoltaics and solar cells. We argue that the organic part in such hybrid structures can play a role of an effective organic collector of the light energy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Ginsenoside Rg1 improves bone marrow haematopoietic activity via extramedullary haematopoiesis of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Fei-Peng; Liu, Rong-Kai; Lin, Chun-Lin; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-11-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CY) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer and immunological diseases. It induces cytotoxicity of bone marrow and causes myelosuppression and extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in treated patients. EMH is characterized with the emergence of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors most likely in the spleen and liver. Previous studies indicated that a Chinese medicine, ginsenoside Rg1, confers a significant effect to elevate the number of lineage (Lin(-) ) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restore the function of bone marrow in CY-treated myelosuppressed mice. However, whether the amelioration of bone marrow by Rg1 accompanies an alleviation of EMH in the spleen was still unknown. In our study, the cellularity and weight of the spleen were significantly reduced after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. Moreover, the number of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was significantly decreased but not as a result of apoptosis, indicating that Rg1 alleviated EMH of the spleen induced by CY. Unexpectedly, the proliferation activity of c-Kit(+) HSPCs was only up-regulated in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow, after Rg1 treatment in CY-treated mice. We also found that a fraction of c-Kit(+) /CD45(+) HSPCs was simultaneously increased in the circulation after Rg1 treatment. Interestingly, the effects of Rg1 on the elevation of HSPCs in bone marrow and in the peripheral blood were suppressed in CY-treated splenectomized mice. These results demonstrated that Rg1 improves myelosuppression induced by CY through its action on the proliferation of HSPCs in EMH of the spleen and migration of HSPCs from the spleen to the bone marrow. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. A hybrid system using a regenerative electrochemical cycle to harvest waste heat from the proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Rui; Li, Baode; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new hybrid system consisting of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) subsystem and a TREC (thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle) subsystem is proposed to convert the waste heat produced by the PEMFC system into electricity. The performance of the hybrid system and its corresponding subsystems is analyzed. Results reveal that there exists optimal current densities of the PEMFC and TREC systems leading to the maximum power output of the hybrid system. With the maximum power output as the objective function, an optimization of the hybrid system based on genetic algorithm method is conducted under different operating temperatures of the PEMFC subsystem. The power output of the hybrid system is 6.85%–20.59% larger than that of the PEMFC subsystem. And the total electrical efficiency is improved by 2.74%–8.27%. The corresponding electrical efficiency of the TREC is 4.56%–13.81%. The hybrid system proposed in this paper could contribute to utilizing the fuel energy more efficiently and sufficiently. - Highlights: • A hybrid power system consisting of a PEMFC and a TREC subsystems is proposed. • Parameters' impacts on performance of the hybrid system have been analyzed. • The maximum power output of the hybrid system is investigated based on genetic algorithm. • Total power output of the hybrid system is 7.63%–18.84% larger than that of the PEMFC subsystem.

  8. Characterization of a panel of somatic cell hybrids for regional mapping of the mouse X chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avner, P.; Arnaud, D.; Amar, L.; Cambrou, J.; Winking, H.; Russell, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    A panel of five hybrid cell lines containing mouse X chromosomes with various deletions has been obtained by fusing splenocytes from male mice carrying one of a series of reciprocal X-autosome translocations with the azaguanine-resistant Chinese hamster cell line CH3g. These hybrids have been extensively characterized by using the allozymes hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (encoded by the Hprt locus) and α-galactosidase (Ags) and a series of 11 X-chromosome-specific DNA probes whose localization had been previously established by linkage studies. Such studies have established the genetic breakpoints of the T(X;12)13R1 and T(X;2)14R1 X-autosome translocations on the X chromosome and provided additional information as to the X-chromosome genetic breakpoints of the T(X;16)16H, T(X;4)7R1, and T(X;7)6R1 translocations. The data establish clearly that both the T(X;7)5RI and T(X;12)13R1 X-chromosome breakpoints are proximal to Hprt, the breakpoint of the former being more centromeric, lying as it does in the 9-centimorgan interval between the ornithine transcarbamoylase (Otc) and DXPas7 (M2C) loci. These five hybrid cell lines provide, with the previously characterized EBS4 hybrid cell line, a nested series of seven mapping intervals distributed along the length of the mouse X chromosome. Their characterization not only allows further correlation of the genetic and cytological X-chromosome maps but also should permit the rapid identification of DNA probes specific for particular regions of the mouse X chromosome

  9. Advanced control approach for hybrid systems based on solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Mario L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced new control system for SOFC based hybrid plants. • Proportional–Integral approach with feed-forward technology. • Good control of fuel cell temperature. • All critical properties maintained inside safe conditions. - Abstract: This paper shows a new advanced control approach for operations in hybrid systems equipped with solid oxide fuel cell technology. This new tool, which combines feed-forward and standard proportional–integral techniques, controls the system during load changes avoiding failures and stress conditions detrimental to component life. This approach was selected to combine simplicity and good control performance. Moreover, the new approach presented in this paper eliminates the need for mass flow rate meters and other expensive probes, as usually required for a commercial plant. Compared to previous works, better performance is achieved in controlling fuel cell temperature (maximum gradient significantly lower than 3 K/min), reducing the pressure gap between cathode and anode sides (at least a 30% decrease during transient operations), and generating a higher safe margin (at least a 10% increase) for the Steam-to-Carbon Ratio. This new control system was developed and optimized using a hybrid system transient model implemented, validated and tested within previous works. The plant, comprising the coupling of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack with a microturbine, is equipped with a bypass valve able to connect the compressor outlet with the turbine inlet duct for rotational speed control. Following model development and tuning activities, several operative conditions were considered to show the new control system increased performance compared to previous tools (the same hybrid system model was used with the new control approach). Special attention was devoted to electrical load steps and ramps considering significant changes in ambient conditions

  10. Energy storage options for fuel cell hybrid power-trains in road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D; Mortimer, R; Moore, J

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this work was to identify and assess energy storage technologies that may be applicable for use in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in the time frame to 2010. The current and projected status of each technology was evaluated, based on recognised existing goals (such as USDoE and USABC) and performance requirements, so that potential commercial opportunities could be identified. (Author)

  11. Hybrid optical pumping of K and Rb atoms in a paraffin coated vapor cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhao; Peng, Xiang; Budker, Dmitry; Wickenbrock, Arne; Pang, Bo; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic hybrid optical pumping effects with a radio-frequency-field-driven nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (RF NMOR) scheme are studied in a dual-species paraffin coated vapor cell. By pumping K atoms and probing $^{87}$Rb atoms, we achieve an intrinsic magnetic resonance linewidth of 3 Hz and the observed resonance is immune to power broadening and light-shift effects. Such operation scheme shows favorable prospects for atomic magnetometry applications.

  12. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrid Power System for Advanced Aero-propulsion and Power, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/ gas turbine hybrid power systems (HPSs) have been recognized by federal agencies and other entities as having the potential to operate...

  14. Super-capacitors fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle optimization and control strategy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, Vanessa; Donateo, Teresa; De Risi, Arturo; Laforgia, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, due to emissions reduction policies, research focused on alternative powertrains among which hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by fuel cells are becoming an attractive solution. One of the main issues of these vehicles is the energy management in order to improve the overall fuel economy. The present investigation aims at identifying the best hybrid vehicle configuration and control strategy to reduce fuel consumption. The study focuses on a car powered by a fuel cell and equipped with two secondary energy storage devices: batteries and super-capacitors. To model the powertrain behavior an on purpose simulation program called ECoS has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment. The fuel cell model is based on the Amphlett theory. The battery and the super-capacitor models account for charge/discharge efficiency. The analyzed powertrain is also equipped with an energy regeneration system to recover braking energy. The numerical optimization of vehicle configuration and control strategy of the hybrid electric vehicle has been carried out with a multi objective genetic algorithm. The goal of the optimization is the reduction of hydrogen consumption while sustaining the battery state of charge. By applying the algorithm to different driving cycles, several optimized configurations have been identified and discussed

  15. Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Song Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale passive hybrid power system for transportation applications is constructed and tested in this study. The hybrid power system consists of a fuel cell stack connected with a diode, a lithium-ion battery pack connected with a DC/DC power converter and another diode. The power converter is employed to regulate the output voltage of the battery pack. The dynamic responses of current and voltage of the stack to the start-up and acceleration of the load are experimentally investigated at two different selected output voltages of the DC/DC converter in the battery line. The power sharing of each power source and efficiency are also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the battery can compensate for the shortage of supplied power for the load demand during the start-up and acceleration. The lowest operating voltage of the fuel cell stack is limited by the regulated output voltage of the DC/DC converter. The major power loss in the hybrid power system is attributed to the diodes. The power train efficiency can be improved by lowering the ratio of forward voltage drop of the diode to the operating voltage of the fuel cell stack.

  16. Photothermally Activated Pyroelectric Polymer Films for Harvesting of Solar Heat with a Hybrid Energy Cell Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Teahoon; Na, Jongbeom; Kim, Byeonggwan; Kim, Younghoon; Shin, Haijin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2015-12-22

    Photothermal effects in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)s (PEDOTs) were explored for pyroelectric conversion. A poled ferroelectric film was coated on both sides with PEDOT via solution casting polymerization of EDOT, to give highly conductive and effective photothermal thin films of PEDOT. The PEDOT films not only provided heat source upon light exposure but worked as electrodes for the output energy from the pyroelectric layer in an energy harvester hybridized with a thermoelectric layer. Compared to a bare thermoelectric system under NIR irradiation, the photothermal-pyro-thermoelectric device showed more than 6 times higher thermoelectric output with the additional pyroelectric output. The photothermally driven pyroelectric harvesting film provided a very fast electric output with a high voltage output (Vout) of 15 V. The pyroelectric effect was significant due to the transparent and high photothermal PEDOT film, which could also work as an electrode. A hybrid energy harvester was assembled to enhance photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of a solar cell with a thermoelectric device operated by the photothermally generated heat. The PCE was increased more than 20% under sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5G) utilizing the transmitted light through the photovoltaic cell as a heat source that was converted into pyroelectric and thermoelectric output simultaneously from the high photothermal PEDOT electrodes. Overall, this work provides a dynamic and static hybrid energy cell to harvest solar energy in full spectral range and thermal energy, to allow solar powered switching of an electrochromic display.

  17. Analysis of the PEDOT:PSS/Si nanowire hybrid solar cell with a tail state model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kuan-Ying; Li, Chi-Kang; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lai, Yi; Lin, Ching-Fuh; Wu, Yuh-Renn

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the electrical properties of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/silicon nanowire hybrid solar cell have been analyzed and an optimized structure is proposed. In addition, the planar PEDOT:PSS/c-Si hybrid solar cell is also modeled for comparison. We first developed a simulation software which is capable of modeling organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells by including Gaussian shape density of states into Poisson and drift-diffusion solver to present the tail states and trap states in the organic material. Therefore, the model can handle carrier transport, generation, and recombination in both organic and inorganic materials. Our results show that at the applied voltage near open-circuit voltage (Voc), the recombination rate becomes much higher at the PEDOT:PSS/Si interface region, which limits the fill factor and Voc. Hence, a modified structure with a p-type amorphous silicon (a-Si) layer attached on the interface of Si layer and an n+-type Si layer inserted near the bottom contact are proposed. The highest conversion efficiency of 16.10% can be achieved if both structures are applied.

  18. Application of two-phase flow for cooling of hybrid microchannel PV cells: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeh-e-Sheyda, Peyvand; Rahimi, Masoud; Karimi, Ebrahim; Asadi, Masomeh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Showing cooling potential of gas–liquid two-phase flow in microchannels for PV cell. ► Introducing the concept of using slug flow in microchannels for cooling of PV cells. ► In single-phase flow, increasing the liquid flow rate enhances the PV power. ► Showing that in two-phase flow the output power related the fluid flow regime. ► By coupling PV and microchannel an increase up to 38% in output power was observed. - Abstract: This paper reports the experimental data from performance of two-phase flows in a small hybrid microchannel solar cell. Using air and water as two-phase fluid, the experiments were conducted at indoor condition in an array of rectangular microchannels with a hydraulic diameter of 0.667 mm. The gas superficial velocity ranges were between 0 and 3.27 m s −1 while liquid flow rate was 0.04 m s −1 . The performance analysis of the PV cell at slug and transitional slug/annular flow regimes are the focus of this study. The influence of two-phase working fluid on PV cell cooling was compared with single-phase. In addition, the great potential of slug flow for heat removal enhancement in PV/T panel was investigated. The obtained data showed the proposed hybrid system could substantially increases the output power of PV solar cells

  19. Design guideline for Si/organic hybrid solar cell with interdigitated back contact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimo Prakoso, Ari; Rusli; Li, Zeyu; Lu, Chenjin; Jiang, Changyun

    2018-03-01

    We study the design of Si/organic hybrid (SOH) solar cells with interdigitated back contact (IBC) structure. SOH solar cells formed between n-Si and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulphonate (PEDOT:PSS) is a promising concept that combines the excellent electronic properties of Si with the solution-based processing advantage of an organic polymer. The IBC cell structure is employed to minimize parasitic absorption losses in the organic polymer, eliminate grid shadowing losses, and allow excellent passivation of the front Si surface in one step over a large area. The influence of Si thickness, doping concentration and contact geometry are simulated in this study to optimize the performance of the SOH-IBC solar cell. We found that a high power conversion efficiency of >20% can be achieved for optimized SOH-IBC cell based on a thin c-Si substrate of 40 μm thickness.

  20. Fuel cell/electrochemical capacitor hybrid for intermittent high power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, L P; Atwater, T B; Cygan, P J [Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM), Fort Monmouth, NJ (United States). Research and Development Center

    1999-05-01

    A hybrid power source was demonstrated to successfully power a simulated power load encountered in portable military electronics and communications equipment. The hybrid system consisted of a 25 W proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack connected in parallel with a 70 F capacitor bank. The cyclic regime of 18.0 W for 2 min followed by 2.5 W for 18 min was chosen as the baseline for the simulation of power load. The operating potential cut-off voltage for pass/failure was set to 3.0 V. At room temperature (23-25 C), the PEMFC alone could not handle the described baseline regime with the PEMFC operating potential dropping below the cut-off voltage within 10 s. The hybrid, however, continuously powered the same regime for 25 h. Its operating potential never reached the voltage cut-off point, not even during the high load of 18.0 W. The tests with hybrid configuration were aborted after 25 h of operation with no signs of output degradation, suggesting that further extended operation was possible. (orig.)

  1. Fluorescence In situ Hybridization: Cell-Based Genetic Diagnostic and Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chenghua; Shu, Wei; Li, Peining

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a macromolecule recognition technology based on the complementary nature of DNA or DNA/RNA double strands. Selected DNA strands incorporated with fluorophore-coupled nucleotides can be used as probes to hybridize onto the complementary sequences in tested cells and tissues and then visualized through a fluorescence microscope or an imaging system. This technology was initially developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. Its high analytical resolution to a single gene level and high sensitivity and specificity enabled an immediate application for genetic diagnosis of constitutional common aneuploidies, microdeletion/microduplication syndromes, and subtelomeric rearrangements. FISH tests using panels of gene-specific probes for somatic recurrent losses, gains, and translocations have been routinely applied for hematologic and solid tumors and are one of the fastest-growing areas in cancer diagnosis. FISH has also been used to detect infectious microbias and parasites like malaria in human blood cells. Recent advances in FISH technology involve various methods for improving probe labeling efficiency and the use of super resolution imaging systems for direct visualization of intra-nuclear chromosomal organization and profiling of RNA transcription in single cells. Cas9-mediated FISH (CASFISH) allowed in situ labeling of repetitive sequences and single-copy sequences without the disruption of nuclear genomic organization in fixed or living cells. Using oligopaint-FISH and super-resolution imaging enabled in situ visualization of chromosome haplotypes from differentially specified single-nucleotide polymorphism loci. Single molecule RNA FISH (smRNA-FISH) using combinatorial labeling or sequential barcoding by multiple round of hybridization were applied to measure mRNA expression of multiple genes within single cells. Research applications of these single molecule single cells DNA and RNA FISH

  2. Fluorescence In situ Hybridization: Cell-Based Genetic Diagnostic and Research Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghua Cui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is a macromolecule recognition technology based on the complementary nature of DNA or DNA/RNA double strands. Selected DNA strands incorporated with fluorophore-coupled nucleotides can be used as probes to hybridize onto the complementary sequences in tested cells and tissues and then visualized through a fluorescence microscope or an imaging system. This technology was initially developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. Its high analytical resolution to a single gene level and high sensitivity and specificity enabled an immediate application for genetic diagnosis of constitutional common aneuploidies, microdeletion/microduplication syndromes and subtelomeric rearrangements. FISH tests using panels of gene-specific probes for somatic recurrent losses, gains and translocations have been routinely applied for hematologic and solid tumors and are one of the fastest-growing areas in cancer diagnosis. FISH has also been used to detect infectious microbials and parasites like malaria in human blood cells. Recent advances in FISH technology involve various methods for improving probe labeling efficiency and the use of super resolution imaging systems for direct visualization of intra-nuclear chromosomal organization and profiling of RNA transcription in single cells. Cas9-mediated FISH (CASFISH allowed in situ labeling of repetitive sequences and single-copy sequences without the disruption of nuclear genomic organization in fixed or living cells. Using oligopaint-FISH and super-resolution imaging enabled in situ visualization of chromosome haplotypes from differentially specified single-nucleotide polymorphism loci. Single molecule RNA FISH (smRNA-FISH using combinatorial labeling or sequential barcoding by multiple round of hybridization were applied to measure mRNA expression of multiple genes within single cells. Research applications of these single molecule single cells

  3. Electronmicroscopic study of gamma irradiated mouse spleen during primary immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneva, V.G.; Gitsov, L.G.; Boyadzhieva-Mikhajlova, A.; Kyncheva, L.S.; Viklichka, St.

    1978-01-01

    An electronmicroscopic study of the mouse spleen immunocompetent cells during the productive phase of the primary immune response after sublethal gamma ray irradiation is carried out. For this purpose the animals were immunized with sheep red blood cells 24 hours after irradiation and sacrified on the 5th day after immunization. The number of small lymphocytes is reduced in all zones of the spleen. Only in the periarteriolar area the lymphoid sheaths are well outlines and the ultrastructure of the cells preserved. Three types of reticulohistocytic elements, according to their radiosensitivity are observed. The most radioresistant cells are the fixed ''dark'' reticular cells which do not complete phagocytosis. The ultrastructure of their nucleus and cytoplasm is not damaged. The macrophages are also quite resistant. The ''light'' reticular cells are the most radiosensitive. The chromatine of their nuclei is dispersed. The mitochondria are imbibed, with a reduced number of cristae. The cytoplasm contains many electron light vesicles, different in size. The changes in the processes of the dendridic cells in the spleen lymph follicles are of particular interest. Compared with the control animals the processes of dendritic reticular cells are markedly reduced. The postirradiation ultrastructural changes of the spleen cells indicate that parallel with the basic factor (the death of a considerable part of the small lymphocytes, precursors of the antibody-synthetizing cells) the reduced antibody-formation is due also to the limited capacity for ''traping'' the antigen on the processes of the dendritic follicular cells and to the reduced capacity of the reticulo-histocytic cells for antigen phagocytosis. The later is determined both by the damage of a considerable part of the phagocytes (radiosensitive ''light'' reticulo-histocytic cells) and by the blocking of the functionally undamaged phagocytes from ingested debris. (K.M.)

  4. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    OpenAIRE

    Tazelaar, E.; Shen, Y.; Veenhuizen, P.A.; Hofman, T.; Bosch, van den, P.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define the driving requirements for the vehicle. The Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) is used for determining the control setpoint for the fuel cell and battery system. It closely appr...

  5. Design, building and testing of a stand alone fuel cell hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, F.; Duran, E.; Andujar, J.M. [Department of Electronic, Computer Science and Automatic Engineering, University of Huelva (Spain)

    2009-08-01

    This paper designs, sizes, builds and tests a stand alone fuel cell hybrid system made up of a fuel cell stack and a battery bank. This system has been sized to supply a typical telecommunication load profile, but moreover, the system can supply other profiles. For this purpose, a modular low cost electronic load bank has been designed and built. This load bank allows the power demand to be chosen by selecting different solid state relays. Moreover, a virtual instrument based on NI Labview {sup registered} has been designed to select the load power demand from the computer. (author)

  6. Strontium-doped organic-inorganic hybrids towards three-dimensional scaffolds for osteogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Łukasz, E-mail: lukasz.john@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland); Podgórska, Marta [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland); Nedelec, Jean-Marie [Université Clermont Auvergne, SIGMA Clermont, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, F-63178 Aubiere (France); Cwynar-Zając, Łucja [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wrocław Medical University, 6a Chałubińskiego, 50-368 Wrocław (Poland); Dzięgiel, Piotr [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wrocław Medical University, 6a Chałubińskiego, 50-368 Wrocław (Poland); Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy in Conservative and Interventional Medicine, 35 Paderewskiego, 51-612 Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Biomimetic organic–inorganic hybrid bioscaffolds are developed to complement or replace damaged fragments in bone tissue surgery. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and fast method to prepare composite material for bone engineering, avoiding time consuming and complex methodologies. The resulting materials (also called in this work as hybrid composites or hybrid scaffolds) have a three-dimensional macroporous polymer-like network derived from triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS) and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) monomers, with incorporated calcium, strontium, and phosphate ions. The materials were fully characterized using FT-IR, biomineralization studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scratch tests, Young's modulus and compressive strength tests, and gas physisorption. We report a comprehensive study on the in vitro effect of novel strontium doped materials on human bone cells. In vitro investigations were conducted using a normal human osteoblast cell line that mimics the cellular events of the in vivo intramembranous bone formation process. The materials do not have a negative impact on the survival of the normal human osteoblasts; moreover, materials doped with strontium show that not only are cells able to survive, but they also attach to and grow on a bioscaffolds surface. For this reason, they may be used in future in vivo experiments. - Highlights: • New hybrid scaffolds derived from TEVS and HEMA doped with Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions have been developed. • A comprehensive characterization of the scaffolds for regenerative medicine was performed. • The incorporation of Sr{sup 2+} ions into the scaffolds was non-cytotoxic to the osteoblasts.

  7. WholeCellSimDB: a hybrid relational/HDF database for whole-cell model predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Jonathan R; Phillips, Nolan C; Covert, Markus W

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic 'whole-cell' models are needed to develop a complete understanding of cell physiology. However, extracting biological insights from whole-cell models requires running and analyzing large numbers of simulations. We developed WholeCellSimDB, a database for organizing whole-cell simulations. WholeCellSimDB was designed to enable researchers to search simulation metadata to identify simulations for further analysis, and quickly slice and aggregate simulation results data. In addition, WholeCellSimDB enables users to share simulations with the broader research community. The database uses a hybrid relational/hierarchical data format architecture to efficiently store and retrieve both simulation setup metadata and results data. WholeCellSimDB provides a graphical Web-based interface to search, browse, plot and export simulations; a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Web service to retrieve data for Web-based visualizations; a command-line interface to deposit simulations; and a Python API to retrieve data for advanced analysis. Overall, we believe WholeCellSimDB will help researchers use whole-cell models to advance basic biological science and bioengineering. http://www.wholecellsimdb.org SOURCE CODE REPOSITORY: URL: http://github.com/CovertLab/WholeCellSimDB. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. CD1d-unrestricted NKT cells are endowed with a hybrid function far superior than that of iNKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Alexander R; Wu, Weisheng; Choi, Bongkum; Cavalcoli, James D; Laouar, Yasmina

    2014-09-02

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells to date represent the best example of cells known to have a hybrid function, representing both innate and adaptive immunity. Shared phenotypic similarities with NK cells together with a rapid response to a cytokine stimulus and a productive TCR engagement are the features that underline the hybrid nature of iNKT cells. Using these criteria, we provide molecular and functional evidence demonstrating that CD1d-independent (CD1d(ind)) NKT cells, a population of CD1d-unrestricted NKT cells, are endowed with a hybrid function far superior to that of iNKT cells: (i) an extensive shared program with NK cells, (ii) a closer Euclidian distance with NK cells, and (iii) the ability to respond to innate stimuli (Poly:IC) with cytotoxic potential in the same manner as NK cells identify a hybrid feature in CD1d(ind)NKT cells that truly fulfills the dual function of an NK and a T cell. Our finding that CD1d(ind)NKT cells are programmed to act like NK cells in response to innate signals while being capable of adaptive responses is unprecedented, and thus might reemphasize CD1d-unrestricted NKT cells as a subset of lymphocytes that could affect biological processes of antimicrobial and tumor immunity in a unique way.

  9. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  10. A hybrid waveguide cell for the dielectric properties of reservoir rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siggins, A F; Gunning, J; Josh, M

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid waveguide cell is described for broad-band measurements of the dielectric properties of hydrocarbon reservoir rocks. The cell is designed to operate in the radio frequency range of 1 MHz to 1 GHz. The waveguide consists of 50 Ω coaxial lines feeding into a central cylindrical section which contains the sample under test. The central portion of the waveguide acts as a circular waveguide and can accept solid core plugs of 38 mm diameter and lengths from 2 to 150 mm. The central section can also be used as a conventional coaxial waveguide when a central electrode with spring-loaded end collets is installed. In the latter mode the test samples are required to be in the form of hollow cylinders. An additional feature of the cell is that the central section is designed to telescope over a limited range of 1–2 mm with the application of an axial load. Effective pressures up to 35 MPa can be applied to the sample under the condition of uniaxial strain. The theoretical basis of the hybrid waveguide cell is discussed together with calibration results. Two reservoir rocks, a Donnybrook sandstone and a kaolin rich clay, are then tested in the cell, both as hollow cylinders in coaxial mode and in the form of solid core plugs. The complex dielectric properties of the two materials over the bandwidth of 1 MHz to 1 GHz are compared with the results of the two testing methods

  11. The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera intraspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Terrier, Nancy; Doco, Thierry; Ros-García, José María

    2017-09-01

    Monastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia, SE Spain. Its berries seem to be characterized by a rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in this region owing to its high phenolic content with high extractability. This study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy. The total sugar content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than that from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content than that from Monastrell. This study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrid grapes presented major differences in composition compared with their parents. These data could help in the development of new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of SE Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring extractability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Nanowire Structured Hybrid Cell for Concurrently Scavenging Solar and Mechanical Energies

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Chen

    2009-04-29

    Conversion cells for harvesting solar energy and mechanical energy are usually separate and independent entities that are designed and built following different physical principles. Developing a technology that harvests multiple-type energies in forms such as sun light and mechanical around the clock is desperately desired for fully utilizing the energies available in our living environment. We report a hybrid cell that is intended for simultaneously harvesting solar and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on surfaces of a flat substrate, a dye-sensitized solar cell is integrated with a piezoelectric nanogenerator. The former harvests solar energy irradiating on the top, and the latter harvests ultrasonic wave energy from the surrounding. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, and they can be integrated in parallel and serial for raising the output current and voltage, respectively, as well as power. It is found that the voltage output from the solar cell can be used to raise the output voltage of the nanogenerator, providing an effective approach for effectively storing and utilizing the power generated by the nanogenerator. Our study demonstrates a new approach for concurrently harvesting multiple types of energies using an integrated hybrid cell so that the energy resources can be effectively and complementary utilized whenever and wherever one or all of them is available. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. A hybrid waveguide cell for the dielectric properties of reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggins, A. F.; Gunning, J.; Josh, M.

    2011-02-01

    A hybrid waveguide cell is described for broad-band measurements of the dielectric properties of hydrocarbon reservoir rocks. The cell is designed to operate in the radio frequency range of 1 MHz to 1 GHz. The waveguide consists of 50 Ω coaxial lines feeding into a central cylindrical section which contains the sample under test. The central portion of the waveguide acts as a circular waveguide and can accept solid core plugs of 38 mm diameter and lengths from 2 to 150 mm. The central section can also be used as a conventional coaxial waveguide when a central electrode with spring-loaded end collets is installed. In the latter mode the test samples are required to be in the form of hollow cylinders. An additional feature of the cell is that the central section is designed to telescope over a limited range of 1-2 mm with the application of an axial load. Effective pressures up to 35 MPa can be applied to the sample under the condition of uniaxial strain. The theoretical basis of the hybrid waveguide cell is discussed together with calibration results. Two reservoir rocks, a Donnybrook sandstone and a kaolin rich clay, are then tested in the cell, both as hollow cylinders in coaxial mode and in the form of solid core plugs. The complex dielectric properties of the two materials over the bandwidth of 1 MHz to 1 GHz are compared with the results of the two testing methods.

  14. A Novel Cell-Based Hybrid Acoustic Wave Biosensor with Impedimetric Sensing Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Voiculescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells will be presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques on a single device: resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS. The multiparametric sensor system is based on the innovative use of the upper electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM resonator as working electrode for the ECIS technique. The QCM acoustic wave sensor consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate with two gold electrodes on opposite sides. For integration of the QCM with the ECIS technique a semicircular counter electrode was fabricated near the upper electrode on the same side of the quartz crystal. Bovine aortic endothelial live cells (BAECs were successfully cultured on this hybrid biosensor. Finite element modeling of the bulk acoustic wave resonator using COMSOL simulations was performed. Simultaneous gravimetric and impedimetric measurements performed over a period of time on the same cell culture were conducted to validate the device’s sensitivity. The time necessary for the BAEC cells to attach and form a compact monolayer on the biosensor was 35~45 minutes for 1.5 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 60 minutes for 2.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 70 minutes for 3.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; and 100 minutes for 5.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs. It was demonstrated that this time is the same for both gravimetric and impedimetric measurements. This hybrid biosensor will be employed in the future for water toxicity detection.

  15. A Novel Cell-Based Hybrid Acoustic Wave Biosensor with Impedimetric Sensing Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Li, Fang; Nordin, Anis Nurashikin; Voiculescu, Ioana

    2013-01-01

    A novel multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells will be presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques on a single device: resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). The multiparametric sensor system is based on the innovative use of the upper electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator as working electrode for the ECIS technique. The QCM acoustic wave sensor consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate with two gold electrodes on opposite sides. For integration of the QCM with the ECIS technique a semicircular counter electrode was fabricated near the upper electrode on the same side of the quartz crystal. Bovine aortic endothelial live cells (BAECs) were successfully cultured on this hybrid biosensor. Finite element modeling of the bulk acoustic wave resonator using COMSOL simulations was performed. Simultaneous gravimetric and impedimetric measurements performed over a period of time on the same cell culture were conducted to validate the device's sensitivity. The time necessary for the BAEC cells to attach and form a compact monolayer on the biosensor was 35∼45 minutes for 1.5 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 60 minutes for 2.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 70 minutes for 3.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; and 100 minutes for 5.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs. It was demonstrated that this time is the same for both gravimetric and impedimetric measurements. This hybrid biosensor will be employed in the future for water toxicity detection. PMID:23459387

  16. Embedded Metal Electrode for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Han-Don; Choi, Deokjae; Choi, Ahreum; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong

    2017-06-27

    We demonstrate here an embedded metal electrode for highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid nanowire solar cells. The electrode proposed here is an effective alternative to the conventional bus and finger electrode which leads to a localized short circuit at a direct Si/metal contact and has a poor collection efficiency due to a nonoptimized electrode design. In our design, a Ag/SiO 2 electrode is embedded into a Si substrate while being positioned between Si nanowire arrays underneath poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), facilitating suppressed recombination at the Si/Ag interface and notable improvements in the fabrication reproducibility. With an optimized microgrid electrode, our 1 cm 2 hybrid solar cells exhibit a power conversion efficiency of up to 16.1% with an open-circuit voltage of 607 mV and a short circuit current density of 34.0 mA/cm 2 . This power conversion efficiency is more than twice as high as that of solar cells using a conventional electrode (8.0%). The microgrid electrode significantly minimizes the optical and electrical losses. This reproducibly yields a superior quantum efficiency of 99% at the main solar spectrum wavelength of 600 nm. In particular, our solar cells exhibit a significant increase in the fill factor of 78.3% compared to that of a conventional electrode (61.4%); this is because of the drastic reduction in the metal/contact resistance of the 1 μm-thick Ag electrode. Hence, the use of our embedded microgrid electrode in the construction of an ideal carrier collection path presents an opportunity in the development of highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  17. PEG-detachable lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle for delivery of chemotherapy drugs to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiang-bo; Song, Yan-feng; Ye, Wei-liang; Cheng, Ying; Cui, Han; Liu, Dao-zhou; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Bang-le; Zhou, Si-yuan

    2014-08-01

    The experiment aimed to increase the drug-delivery efficiency of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs-1) were prepared using PLGA as a hydrophobic core and FA-PEG-hyd-DSPE as an amphiphilic shell. Uniform and spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 185 nm were obtained using the emulsification solvent evaporation method. The results indicated that LPNs-1 showed higher drug loading compared with naked PLGA nanoparticles (NNPs). Drug release from LPNs-1 was faster in an acidic environment than in a neutral environment. LPNs-1 showed higher cytotoxicity on KB cells, A549 cells, MDA-MB-231 cells, and MDA-MB-231/ADR cells compared with free doxorubicin (DOX) and NNPs. The results also showed that, compared with free DOX and NNPs, LPNs-1 delivered more DOX to the nuclear of KB cells and MDA-MB-231/ADR cells. LPNs-1 induced apoptosis in KB cells and MDA-MB-231/ADR cells in a dose-dependent manner. The above data indicated that DOX-loaded LPNs-1 could kill not only normal tumor cells but also drug-resistant tumor cells. These results indicated that modification of PLGA nanoparticles with FA-PEG-hyd-DSPE could considerably increase the drug-delivery efficiency and LPNs-1 had potential in the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer.

  18. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J. Jr.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K. (Center for Fuel Cell Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 United States)

    2010-06-15

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions. (author)

  19. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions.

  20. A Parallel Energy-Sharing Control Strategy for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Rumzi Nik Idris

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parallel energy-sharing control strategy for the application of fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs. The hybrid source discussed consists of a fuel cells (FCs generator and energy storage units (ESUs which composed by the battery and ultracapacitor (UC modules. A direct current (DC bus is used to interface between the energy sources and the electric vehicles (EV propulsion system (loads. Energy sources are connected to the DC bus using of power electronics converters. A total of six control loops are designed in the supervisory system in order to regulate the DC bus voltage, control of current flow and to monitor the state of charge (SOC of each energy storage device at the same time. Proportional plus integral (PI controllers are employed to regulate the output from each control loop referring to their reference signals. The proposed energy control system is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment. Results indicated that the proposed parallel energy-sharing control system is capable to provide a practical hybrid vehicle in respond to the vehicle traction response and avoids the FC and battery from overstressed at the same time.

  1. A microfluidic microprocessor: controlling biomimetic containers and cells using hybrid integrated circuit/microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2010-11-07

    We present an integrated platform for performing biological and chemical experiments on a chip based on standard CMOS technology. We have developed a hybrid integrated circuit (IC)/microfluidic chip that can simultaneously control thousands of living cells and pL volumes of fluid, enabling a wide variety of chemical and biological tasks. Taking inspiration from cellular biology, phospholipid bilayer vesicles are used as robust picolitre containers for reagents on the chip. The hybrid chip can be programmed to trap, move, and porate individual living cells and vesicles and fuse and deform vesicles using electric fields. The IC spatially patterns electric fields in a microfluidic chamber using 128 × 256 (32,768) 11 × 11 μm(2) metal pixels, each of which can be individually driven with a radio frequency (RF) voltage. The chip's basic functions can be combined in series to perform complex biological and chemical tasks and can be performed in parallel on the chip's many pixels for high-throughput operations. The hybrid chip operates in two distinct modes, defined by the frequency of the RF voltage applied to the pixels: Voltages at MHz frequencies are used to trap, move, and deform objects using dielectrophoresis and voltages at frequencies below 1 kHz are used for electroporation and electrofusion. This work represents an important step towards miniaturizing the complex chemical and biological experiments used for diagnostics and research onto automated and inexpensive chips.

  2. Full-spectrum photon management of solar cell structures for photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuanpei; Xuan, Yimin; Yang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel photon management method is proposed for hybrid photovoltaic–thermoelectric systems. • Composite structured surfaces enable creditable ultra-broadband anti-reflection property. • Incorporation of anti-reflection and light-trapping brings spectral absorption and transmission. • The efficient photon management of the structured surface is also omnidirectional. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel ultra-broadband photon management structure is proposed for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells used in the photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid system. Nanostructures are employed on both front and back side. Optical behavior of the structure in ultra-broadband (300–2500 nm) are investigated through the Finite Difference Time Domain method. By combing moth-eye and inverted-parabolic surface, a new composite surface structure is proposed for anti-reflection in the ultra-broadband wavelengths. Front metallic nanoparticles, plasmonic back reflector and metallic gratings are studied for light-trapping and the effect of plasmonic back reflector is validated by the experimental data of the external quantum efficiency. The effects of incident angle are discussed for metallic gratings. Numerical computation shows that the incorporation of anti-reflection and light-trapping can obtain high absorption in the solar cell and ensure the rest incident light transmits to the thermoelectric generator efficiently. This work shows potential full-spectrum utilization of solar energy for various photovoltaic devices related with hybrid photovoltaic–thermoelectric systems

  3. Parametric analysis of an irreversible proton exchange membrane fuel cell/absorption refrigerator hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Puqing; Zhang, Houcheng

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid system mainly consisting of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) and an absorption refrigerator is proposed, where the PEMFC directly converts the chemical energy contained in the hydrogen into electrical and thermal energies, and the thermal energy is transferred to drive the bottoming absorption refrigerator for cooling purpose. By considering the existing irreversible losses in the hybrid system, the operating current density region of the PEMFC permits the absorption refrigerator to exert its function is determined and the analytical expressions for the equivalent power output and efficiency of the hybrid system under different operating conditions are specified. Numerical calculations show that the equivalent maximum power density and the corresponding efficiency of the hybrid system can be respectively increased by 5.3% and 6.8% compared to that of the stand-alone PEMFC. Comprehensive parametric analyses are conducted to reveal the effects of the internal irreversibility of the absorption refrigerator, operating current density, operating temperature and operating pressure of the PEMFC, and some integrated parameters related to the thermodynamic losses on the performance of the hybrid system. The model presented in the paper is more general than previous study, and the results for some special cases can be directly derived from this paper. - Highlights: • A CHP system composed of a PEMFC and an absorption refrigerator is proposed. • Current density region enables the absorption refrigerator to work is determined. • Multiple irreversible losses in the system are analytically characterized. • Maximum power density and corresponding efficiency can be increased by 5.3% and 6.8%. • Effects of some designing and operating parameters on the performance are discussed

  4. Plasmodium chabaudi in mice. Adoptive transfer of immunity with enriched populations of spleen T and B lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, V.; Phillips, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    Thymectomized NIH and C57BL mice were more susceptible to Plasmodium chabaudi than controls, indicating a role for T cells in acquired immunity to the parasite. Enriched populations of T and B cells were prepared from the spleens of immune mice using nylon-wool columns, and were adoptively transferred to syngeneic non-irradiated mice or mice irradiated with 600 or 800 rad. Some immunity could usually be transferred with immune T, B and glass-wool (g.w.) filtered spleen cell populations. In the heavily irradiated mice g.w. filtered immune spleen cells gave the best protection and the immune T cells the least. Preliminary attempts to show synergistic activity between immune T and B cells in irradiated mice were not successful. (author)

  5. Assay of hybrid ribonuclease using a membrane filter-immobilized synthetic hybrid: application to the human leukemic cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaphilis, A.D.; Kamper, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    A method for assaying hybrid ribonuclease has been devised which utilizes as substrate the synthetic hybrid [ 3 H]polyriboadenylic acid [poly(rA)]:polydeoxythymidylic acid [poly(dT)] immobilized on the solid matrix of nitrocellulose filters. The hybridization on filter of [ 3 H]poly(rA) to poly(dT) has been explored in terms of efficacy of the process and the response of the product to RNase H. A pulse of uv irradiation of poly(dT) while in dry state on the filter increased its firm binding to the filter in a concentration-dependent manner, resulting in a concomitant increase of the yield of hybrid formation. The filter-immobilized hybrid was 95% resistant to RNase A but sensitive to RNase H. When stored in toluene in the cold the hybrid maintained its stability for over 6 months, as judged by its resistance to RNase A. The method offers a number of advantages over assays that use solution hybrids as substrates and was readily applicable in the screening of leukemic patients, in the leukocytes of which it has demonstrated increased RNase H levels

  6. Programmable display of DNA-protein chimeras for controlling cell-hydrogel interactions via reversible intermolecular hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2013-04-08

    Extensive studies have been recently carried out to achieve dynamic control of cell-material interactions primarily through physicochemical stimulation. The purpose of this study was to apply reversible intermolecular hybridization to program cell-hydrogel interactions in physiological conditions based on DNA-antibody chimeras and complementary oligonucleotides. The results showed that DNA oligonucleotides could be captured to and released from the immobilizing DNA-functionalized hydrogels with high specificity via DNA hybridization. Accordingly, DNA-antibody chimeras were captured to the hydrogels, successfully inducing specific cell attachment. The cell attachment to the hydrogels reached the plateau at approximately half an hour after the functionalized hydrogels and the cells were incubated together. The attached cells were rapidly released from the bound hydrogels when triggering complementary oligonucleotides were introduced to the system. However, the capability of the triggering complementary oligonucleotides in releasing cells was affected by the length of intermolecular hybridization. The length needed to be at least more than 20 base pairs in the current experimental setting. Notably, because the procedure of intermolecular hybridization did not involve any harsh condition, the released cells maintained the same viability as that of the cultured cells. The functionalized hydrogels also exhibited the potential to catch and release cells repeatedly. Therefore, this study demonstrates that it is promising to regulate cell-material interactions dynamically through the DNA-programmed display of DNA-protein chimeras.

  7. Enhancing hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode performance using Ag2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid-direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of a molten slurry of solid carbon black and (Li-K)2CO3 added to the anode chamber of a solid oxide fuel cell, was characterized using current-potential-power density curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Two...... types of experimental setups were employed in this study, an anode-supported full cell configuration (two electrodes, two atmospheres setup) and a 3-electrode electrolyte-supported half-cell setup (single atmosphere). Anode processes with and without catalysts were investigated as a function...... of temperature (700-800 °C) and anode sweep gas (N2, 4-100% CO2 in N2-CO2). It was shown that the addition of silver based catalysts (Ag, Ag2O, Ag2CO3) into the carbon-carbonate slurry enhanced the performance of the HDCFC....

  8. Infiltration and Selective Interactions at the Interface in Polymer-Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, R.; Aghion, S.; Moia, F.; Binda, M.; Canesi, E. V.; Lanzani, G.; Petrozza, A.

    2013-06-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to characterize polymer-based hybrid solar cells formed by poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) finely infiltrated in a porous TiO2 skeleton. A step-change improvement in the device performance is enabled by engineering the hybrid interface by the insertion of a proper molecular interlayer namely 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MP). In order to obtain depth-resolved data, positrons were implanted in the sample using a variable-energy positron beam. The characteristics of the partially filled nanoporous structures were evaluated in terms of the depth profile of the positronium yield and the S-parameter. A quantitative evaluation of the pore filling in the deep region is given from the analysis of Coincidence Doppler Broadening taken at fixed implantation energy. We note a remarkable difference in terms of the positronium yield when the 4-MP interlayer is introduced, which means a better covering of P3HT on the porous surface.

  9. Design optimisation of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.J.; Siddle, A.; Pointon, K.

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of the combined ALSTOM Power Technology and Advantica Technologies project are reported as: (a) to design a gas turbine (GT) unit compatible with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in a high efficiency power system and aimed at the Distributed Power application range of 1-20MW, and (b) to identify the main features and components of a 'Proof of Concept' hybrid unit of output around 0.1MW, based on existing or near-market technology. The study showed: (i) while the potential for high efficiency SOFC + GT hybrid cycles is clear, little effort has been put into the design of the gas turbine and some other components and (ii) there is room for commercial exploitation in the areas of both component manufacture and system supply.

  10. Dual Pressure versus Hybrid Recuperation in an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycle – Steam Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    A SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) cycle running on natural gas was integrated with a ST (steam turbine) cycle. The fuel is desulfurized and pre-reformed before entering the SOFC. A burner was used to combust the remaining fuel after the SOFC stacks. The off-gases from the burner were used to produce...... pressure configuration steam cycle combined with SOFC cycle (SOFC-ST) was new and has not been studied previously. In each of the configuration, a hybrid recuperator was used to recovery the remaining energy of the off-gases after the HRSG. Thus, four different plants system setups were compared to each...... other to reveal the most superior concept with respect to plant efficiency and power. It was found that in order to increase the plant efficiency considerably, it was enough to use a single pressure with a hybrid recuperator instead of a dual pressure Rankine cycle....

  11. Fruit extract from a Sechium edule hybrid induce apoptosis in leukaemic cell lines but not in normal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiñiga-Sánchez, Itzen; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Cadena-Iñiguez, Jorge; Ruíz-Posadas, Lucero del Mar; Cadena-Zamudio, Jorge David; González-Ugarte, Ana Karen; Steider, Benny Weiss; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro

    2015-01-01

    The antiproliferative potential of a crude extract from the chayote hybrid H-837-07-GISeM® and its potential for apoptosis induction were assessed in leukaemic cell lines and normal mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs). The extract strongly inhibited the proliferation of the P388, J774, and WEHI-3 cell lines (with an IC50 below 1.3 μg·mL(-1)), reduced cell viability, and induced apoptotic body production, phosphatidylserine translocation, and DNA fragmentation. However, the extract had no effect on BM-MNCs. We postulate that these properties make the extract a good candidate for an anti-tumour agent for clinical use.

  12. [Delayed rupture of the spleen in a multiply injured patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, I; Venter, M D; Mehic, R; Marian, R; Ionescu, G

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of delayed rupture of the spleen in a polytraumatised patient. This entity was defined as a late occurrence of signs and symptoms attributed to splenic injury not detected by diagnostic computed tomographic scanning during the initial examination. The mechanisms in which the delayed rupture of the spleen occurs are discussed and the conclusion is that the delayed rupture of the spleen represent a real clinical entity.

  13. Booster irradiation to the spleen following total body irradiation. A new immunosuppressive approach for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, T.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Terenzi, A.; Schwartz, E.; Reisner, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Graft rejection presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, after conditioning exactly as for leukemia patients, it was shown that over 99% of the residual host clonable T cells are concentrated in the spleen on day 5 after completion of cytoreduction. We have now corroborated these findings in a mouse model. After 9-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), the total number of Thy-1.2+ cells in the spleen reaches a peak between days 3 and 4 after TBI. The T cell population is composed of both L3T4 (helper) and Lyt-2 (suppressor) T cells, the former being the major subpopulation. Specific booster irradiation to the spleen (5 Gy twice) on days 2 and 4 after TBI greatly enhances production of donor-type chimera after transplantation of T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow. Similar enhancement can be achieved by splenectomy on day 3 or 4 after TBI but not if splenectomy is performed 1 day before TBI or 1 day after TBI, strengthening the hypothesis that, after lethal TBI in mice, the remaining host T cells migrate from the periphery to the spleen. These results suggest that a delayed booster irradiation to the spleen may be beneficial as an additional immunosuppressive agent in the conditioning of leukemia patients, in order to reduce the incidence of bone marrow allograft rejection

  14. Wandering spleen: a medical enigma, its natural history and rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowska, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant but is found lower in the abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. Many patients with wandering spleen are asymptomatic, hence the condition can be discovered only by abdominal examination or at a hospital emergency department if a patient is admitted to hospital because of severe abdominal pain, vomiting or obstipation. This article aims to provide a historical overview of wandering spleen diagnostics and surgical treatment supplemented with an analyses of articles on wandering spleen included in the PubMed database. One of the first clinical descriptions of a wandering spleen was written by Józef Dietl in 1854. The next years of vital importance are 1877 when A. Martin conducted the first splenectomy and in 1895 when Ludwik Rydygier carried out the first splenopexy to immobilize a wandering spleen. Since that time various techniques of splenectomy and splenopexy have been developed. Introducing medical technologies was a watershed in the development and treatment of wandering spleen, which is confirmed by the PubMed database. Despite the increased number of publications medical literature shows that a wandering spleen still remains a misdiagnosed condition, especially among children.

  15. An Unusual Reason for Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: Wandering Spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoğlu, Hüseyin; Atalay, Roni; Büyükaşık, Naciye Şemnur; Canyiğit, Murat; Özer, Mehmet; Solakoğlu, Tevfik; Akın, Fatma Ebru; Bolat, Aylin Demirezer; Yürekli, Öykü Tayfur; Ersoy, Osman

    2015-12-01

    Wandering spleen is the displacement of the spleen due to the loss or weakening of the ligaments of the spleen and is seen very rarely with an incidence of less than 0.5 %. It can cause portal hypertension, but gastric variceal hemorrhage is a quite rare condition within the spectrum of this uncommon disease. We report a 22-year-old woman with wandering spleen presenting with life-threatening gastric variceal hemorrhage. Her diagnosis was made by computerized tomography. Endoscopic therapy was not adequate to stop the bleeding, and urgent splenectomy was performed. After surgery she has been well with no symptoms until now.

  16. Modeling and energy management control design for a fuel cell hybrid passenger bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kyle; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and supervisory energy management design of a hybrid fuel cell/battery-powered passenger bus. With growing concerns about petroleum usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, finding alternative methods for vehicle propulsion is necessary. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are viable possibilities for energy converters due to their high efficiencies and zero emissions. It has been shown that the benefits of PEM fuel cell systems can be greatly improved through hybridization. In this work, the challenge of developing an on-board energy management strategy with near-optimal performance is addressed by a two-step process. First, an optimal control based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is implemented to find the global optimal solution which minimizes fuel consumption, for different drive cycles, with and without grade. The optimal solutions are analyzed in order to aid in development of a practical controller suitable for on-board implementation, in the form of an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) regulator. Simulation results show that the ARMA controller is capable of achieving fuel economy within 3% of the PMP controller while being able to limit the transient demand on the fuel cell system.

  17. Sizing for fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid vehicles based on stochastic driving cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroldi, Diego; Carignano, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A sizing procedure based on the fulfilment of real driving conditions is proposed. • A methodology to generate long-term stochastic driving cycles is proposed. • A parametric optimization of the real-time EMS is conducted. • A trade-off design is adopted from a Pareto front. • A comparison with optimal consumption via Dynamic Programming is performed. - Abstract: In this article, a methodology for the sizing and analysis of fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid vehicles is presented. The proposed sizing methodology is based on the fulfilment of power requirements, including sustained speed tests and stochastic driving cycles. The procedure to generate driving cycles is also presented in this paper. The sizing algorithm explicitly accounts for the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The performance is compared with optimal consumption, which is found using an off-line strategy via Dynamic Programming. The sizing methodology provides guidance for sizing the fuel cell and the supercapacitor number. The results also include analysis on oversizing the fuel cell and varying the parameters of the energy management strategy. The simulation results highlight the importance of integrating sizing and energy management into fuel cell hybrid vehicles.

  18. Modeling, simulation, and concept studies of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezbek, Markus

    2010-03-29

    This thesis focuses on the development of a fuel cell-based hybrid electric powertrain for smaller (2 kW) hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). A Hardware-in-the-Loop test rig is designed and built with the possibility to simulate any load profile for HEVs in a realistic environment, whereby the environment is modeled. Detailed simulation models of the test rig are developed and validated to real physical components and control algorithms are designed for the DC/DC-converters and the fuel cell system. A state-feedback controller is developed for the DC/DC-converters where the state-space averaging method is used for the development. For the fuel cells, a gain-scheduling controller based on state feedback is developed and compared to two conventional methods. The design process of an HEV with regard to a given load profile is introduced with comparison between SuperCaps and batteries. The HEV is also evaluated with an introduction to different power management concepts with regard to fuel consumption, dynamics, and fuel cell deterioration rate. The power management methods are implemented in the test rig and compared. (orig.)

  19. Beam coupling in hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric liquid crystal cells: Impact of optical rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetnyak, V. Yu.; Pinkevych, I. P.; Sluckin, T. J.; Cook, G.; Evans, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model to describe two-beam energy exchange in a hybrid photorefractive inorganic-cholesteric cell. A cholesteric layer is placed between two inorganic substrates. One of the substrates is photorefractive (Ce:SBN). Weak and strong light beams are incident on the hybrid cell. The interfering light beams induce a periodic space-charge field in the photorefractive window. This penetrates into the cholesteric liquid crystal (LC), inducing a diffraction grating written on the LC director. In the theory, the flexoelectric mechanism for electric field-director coupling is more important than the LC static dielectric anisotropy coupling. The LC optics is described in the Bragg regime. Each beam induces two circular polarized waves propagating in the cholesteric cell with different velocities. The model thus includes optical rotation in the cholesteric LC. The incident light beam wavelength can fall above, below, or inside the cholesteric gap. The theory calculates the energy gain of the weak beam, as a result of its interaction with the pump beam within the diffraction grating. Theoretical results for exponential gain coefficients are compared with experimental results for hybrid cells filled with cholesteric mixture BL038/CB15 at different concentrations of chiral agent CB15. Reconciliation between theory and experiment requires the inclusion of a phenomenological multiplier in the magnitude of the director grating. This multiplier is cubic in the space-charge field, and we provide a justification of the q-dependence of the multiplier. Within this paradigm, we are able to fit theory to experimental data for cholesteric mixtures with different spectral position of cholesteric gap relative to the wavelength of incident beams, subject to the use of some fitting parameters

  20. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  1. Blot hybridization analysis of TCR genes of T cells for five people exposed in a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui; Liu Benti; Cheng Tianmin; Yang Rujun; Meng Xiangshun; Xiao Jinsong

    1996-01-01

    Human lymphocyte total DNA was prepared in agarose plug by mixing cells with low melting agarose, and two restriction endonucleases were used for digestion of the total DNA with human α and β TCR cDNA probes. The total digested DNA from five people who were whole body exposed to 2.0-2.5 Gy ionizing radiation in an accident 4.5 years ago was hybridized by Southern blot method. The results showed that no obvious difference in hybridization bands was found between controls and the five victims when hybridizations were fulfilled in the total DNA which was digested by Hind III restriction endonuclease with both α and β probes. However, when the total DNA was digested with restriction endonuclease EcoR I and was hybridized with TCR α probe, four of the five exposed people showed a different hybridizing band pattern compared with the controls. The results are also discussed

  2. Graphene-cobaltite-Pd hybrid materials for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Awasthi, Rahul; Singh, Ravindra Nath; Sinha, Akhoury Sudhir Kumar

    2013-12-14

    Hybrid materials comprising of Pd, MCo2O4 (where M = Mn, Co or Ni) and graphene have been prepared for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells. Structural and electrochemical characterizations were carried out using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, chronoamperometry and cyclic, CO stripping, and linear sweep voltammetries. The study revealed that all the three hybrid materials are active for both methanol oxidation (MOR) and oxygen reduction (ORR) reactions in 1 M KOH. However, the Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid electrode exhibited the greatest MOR and ORR activities. This active hybrid electrode has also outstanding stability under both MOR and ORR conditions, while Pt- and other Pd-based catalysts undergo degradation under similar experimental conditions. The Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid catalyst exhibited superior ORR activity and stability compared to even Pt in alkaline solutions.

  3. Hybrid structure of polyaniline/ZnO nanograss and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell with performance improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Shibu; Wei Wei; Chen Xiangnan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Jiang Man, E-mail: jiangman1021@163.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Zhou Zuowan, E-mail: zwzhou@at-c.net [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Polyaniline (PANI) hybridized ZnO photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was primarily prepared via a two-step process which involved hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanograss on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and subsequently chemisorption of PANI on the surfaces of the ZnO nanorods. The PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the results indicated that there were chemical interactions between PANI and ZnO. Both pure ZnO nanograss and PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were applied to DSSC. The results of photoelectrochemical measurement showed that the photocurrent density of PANI (100 mg/L) hybridized ZnO nanograss photoanode was significantly enhanced, and the overall light-conversion efficiency increased by 60%. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) displayed that the electron densities in photoanodes of PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were larger than that in pure ZnO nanograss. This is ascribed to more effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring occurred in the hybrid photoanode. - Graphical abstract: Operational principle of the DSSC: the introduced hybridizing PANI layer performs effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PANI/ZnO nanograss hybrid materials as photoanode in Dye-sensitized solar cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoelectric conversion efficiency after hybridization was enhanced by 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PANI hybridizing ZnO nanograss induced a rapid charge separation.

  4. Hybrid structure of polyaniline/ZnO nanograss and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell with performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shibu; Wei Wei; Chen Xiangnan; Jiang Man; Zhou Zuowan

    2012-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) hybridized ZnO photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was primarily prepared via a two-step process which involved hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanograss on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and subsequently chemisorption of PANI on the surfaces of the ZnO nanorods. The PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the results indicated that there were chemical interactions between PANI and ZnO. Both pure ZnO nanograss and PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were applied to DSSC. The results of photoelectrochemical measurement showed that the photocurrent density of PANI (100 mg/L) hybridized ZnO nanograss photoanode was significantly enhanced, and the overall light-conversion efficiency increased by 60%. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) displayed that the electron densities in photoanodes of PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were larger than that in pure ZnO nanograss. This is ascribed to more effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring occurred in the hybrid photoanode. - Graphical abstract: Operational principle of the DSSC: the introduced hybridizing PANI layer performs effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring. Highlights: ► PANI/ZnO nanograss hybrid materials as photoanode in Dye-sensitized solar cell. ► Photoelectric conversion efficiency after hybridization was enhanced by 60%. ► PANI hybridizing ZnO nanograss induced a rapid charge separation.

  5. Morphogenesis of early stages of hemopoiesis recovery in the spleen in irradiated mice after the bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezdatnii, M M; Zaitseva, K K [Voenno-Morskaya Akademiya, Leningrad (USSR)

    1975-12-01

    The study was made of the early stages of exogenous hemopoietik colonies formation. The cell composition of the spleen red pulp in irradiated recipients was subjected to quantitative morphological analysis, and the number of colony-forming units (CFU) in the spleen was counted. The BALB/C mice were subjected to single irradiation with gamma-rays (dose: 75OR) on a cobalt (/sup 60/Co) installation. The results of the morphological analysis of the cell composition of the spleen red pulp in irradiated recipients, of the bone marrow, and of the CFU kinetics afforded the possibility to establish the following three stages in the spleen during the early processes of hemopoietic regeneration: systemic activation of reticular cells in the spleen red pulp; formation of microcolonies from non-differentiated blastic cells (n.b.c.); and appearance of hematologically differentiated cells (h.d.c.) and CFU proliferation. The rapid growth of the number of n.b.c. on the second, third and fourth days after transplantation of the bone marrow involved weakly pronounced mitotic activity. This is considered to bndirect indication of transformation of activated reticular cells in n.b.c.

  6. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Mahou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-VS. In a one-step microsphere formation process, fast ionotropic gelation yields spherical calcium alginate gel beads, which serve as a matrix for simultaneously but slowly occurring covalent cross-linking of the PEG-VS molecules. The feasibility of cell microencapsulation was studied using primary human foreskin fibroblasts (EDX cells as a model. The use of cell culture media as polymer solvent, gelation bath, and storage medium did not negatively affect the alg-PEG-M properties. Microencapsulated EDX cells maintained their viability and proliferated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of primary cell microencapsulation within the novel microsphere type alg-PEG-M, serves as reference for future therapy development, and confirms the suitability of EDX cells as control model.

  7. The radiosensitivity of spermatogonial stem cells in C3H/101 F1 hybrid mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meer, Yvonne; De Rooij, Dirk G.; Cattanach, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of spermatogonial stem cells of C3H/HeHx101/H F 1 hybrid mice was determined by counting undifferentiated spermatogonia at 10 days after X-irradiation. During the spermatogenic cycle, differences in radiosensitivity were found, which were correlated with the proliferative activity of the spermatogonial stem cells. In stage VIII irr , during quiescence, the spermatogonial stem cells were most radiosensitive with a D 0 of 1.4 Gy. In stages XI irr -V irr , when the cells were proliferatively active, the D 0 was about 2.6 Gy. Based on the D 0 values for sensitive and resistant spermatogonia and on the D 0 for the total population, a ratio of 45:55% of sensitive to resistant spermatogonial stem cells was estimated for cell killing. When the present data were compared with data on translocation induction obtained in mice of the same genotype, a close fit was obtained when the translocation yield (Y; in % abnormal cells) after a radiation dose D was described by Y=e τD , with τ=1 for the sensitive and τ=0.1 for the resistant spermatogonial stem cells, with a maximal e τD of 100

  8. DNA repair characteristics of a hybrid cell clone between xeroderma pigmentosum and Potorous tridactilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Kenji

    1986-01-01

    A hybrid cell clone PX1 was isolated by fusing UV sensitive XP20S(SV)neo, an SV-40-transformed, neomycin-resistant xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cell line, and Pt K2, a rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactilis) cell line. The UV-survival curve of PX1 cells fell midway between those of Pt K2 and XP20S(SV)neo cells, since mean lethal doses(D 0 ) were 2.5, 4.7 and 0.27 J/m 2 for PX1, Pt K2 and XP20S(SV)neo, respectively. Amounts of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) after UV, relative to normal human cells, were 60.4 % for Pt K2, 37.7 % for PX1 and 0.1 % for XP20S(SV)neo. Such relative UDS capacities for excision repair of Pt K2, PX1 and XP20S(SV)neo were also consistent with the respective relative capacities of host cell reactivation (HCR) of UV-irradiated Herpes simplex virus. Apparently, there was no single Pt K2 chromosome in the PX1 cells. One possibility is that a gene which may account for the partial restoration of the UV resistance has been transferred from Pt K2 to PX1. (author)

  9. Prolonging fuel cell stack lifetime based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle in fuel cell hybrid vehicles and its economic influence evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C. H.; Xu, G. Q.; Park, Y. I.; Lim, W. S.; Cha, S. W.

    2014-02-01

    The lifetime of fuel cell stacks is a major issue currently, especially for automotive applications. In order to take into account the lifetime of fuel cell stacks while considering the fuel consumption minimization in fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs), a Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP)-based power management strategy is proposed in this research. This strategy has the effect of prolonging the lifetime of fuel cell stacks. However, there is a tradeoff between the fuel cell stack lifetime and the fuel consumption when this strategy is applied to an FCHV. Verifying the positive economic influence of this strategy is necessary in order to demonstrate its superiority. In this research, the economic influence of the proposed strategy is assessed according to an evaluating cost which is dependent on the fuel cell stack cost, the hydrogen cost, the fuel cell stack lifetime, and the lifetime prolonging impact on the fuel cell stack. Simulation results derived from the proposed power management strategy are also used to evaluate the economic influence. As a result, the positive economic influence of the proposed PMP-based power management strategy is proved for both current and future FCHVs.

  10. Performance analysis of three-dimensional-triple-level cell and two-dimensional-multi-level cell NAND flash hybrid solid-state drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, Yukiya; Yamada, Tomoaki; Matsui, Chihiro; Yamaga, Yusuke; Takeuchi, Ken

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve performance of solid-state drives (SSDs), hybrid SSDs have been proposed. Hybrid SSDs consist of more than two types of NAND flash memories or NAND flash memories and storage-class memories (SCMs). However, the cost of hybrid SSDs adopting SCMs is more expensive than that of NAND flash only SSDs because of the high bit cost of SCMs. This paper proposes unique hybrid SSDs with two-dimensional (2D) horizontal multi-level cell (MLC)/three-dimensional (3D) vertical triple-level cell (TLC) NAND flash memories to achieve higher cost-performance. The 2D-MLC/3D-TLC hybrid SSD achieves up to 31% higher performance than the conventional 2D-MLC/2D-TLC hybrid SSD. The factors of different performance between the proposed hybrid SSD and the conventional hybrid SSD are analyzed by changing its block size, read/write/erase latencies, and write unit of 3D-TLC NAND flash memory, by means of a transaction-level modeling simulator.

  11. No-Disjunction and loss of anafasica Hamster-human hybrid embryos of two cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsa, I.; Tusell, L.; Alvarez, R.; Genesca, A.; Miro, R.; Egozcue, J.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the possible effect anafasica the ionizing radiations in masculine germinal cells a new test it has been developed combining two techniques, the fecundation interspecific gives ovocitos hamster without area pellucid with human sperms and the fluorescent in situ hybridization in cells in interface using probes gives DNA specific centrometricas. Analyzing the segregation gives the chromosomes marked in the embryos two cells, you can detect the reciprocal products easily an anomalous segregation. Give this way the recount the fluorescent signs in the nuclei siblings and in the micronucleus it provides an esteem the due aneuploidy to errors meiotic or premiotic, with this way the resulting aneuploidy the errors in the first division mitotic the embryos, as much no-disjunction as lost anafasica

  12. Nanoscale Analysis of a Hierarchical Hybrid Solar Cell in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divitini, Giorgio; Stenzel, Ole; Ghadirzadeh, Ali; Guarnera, Simone; Russo, Valeria; Casari, Carlo S; Bassi, Andrea Li; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio; Schmidt, Volker; Ducati, Caterina

    2014-05-01

    A quantitative method for the characterization of nanoscale 3D morphology is applied to the investigation of a hybrid solar cell based on a novel hierarchical nanostructured photoanode. A cross section of the solar cell device is prepared by focused ion beam milling in a micropillar geometry, which allows a detailed 3D reconstruction of the titania photoanode by electron tomography. It is found that the hierarchical titania nanostructure facilitates polymer infiltration, thus favoring intermixing of the two semiconducting phases, essential for charge separation. The 3D nanoparticle network is analyzed with tools from stochastic geometry to extract information related to the charge transport in the hierarchical solar cell. In particular, the experimental dataset allows direct visualization of the percolation pathways that contribute to the photocurrent.

  13. A Two-stage DC-DC Converter for the Fuel Cell-Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    A wide input range multi-stage converter is proposed with the fuel cells and supercapacitors as a hybrid system. The front-end two-phase boost converter is used to optimize the output power and to reduce the current ripple of fuel cells. The supercapacitor power module is connected by push...... and designed. A 1kW prototype controlled by TMS320F2808 DSP is built in the lab. Simulation and experimental results confirm the feasibility of the proposed two stage dc-dc converter system.......-pull-forward half bridge (PPFHB) converter with coupled inductors in the second stage to handle the slow transient response of the fuel cells and realize the bidirectional power flow control. Moreover, this cascaded structure simplifies the power management. The control strategy for the whole system is analyzed...

  14. Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-02-23

    An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.

  15. In Vitro Osteogenic and Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Seeded on Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Hydroxyapatite Hybrid Hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella eTeti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells from human dental pulp have been considered as an alternative source of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages.Recently, polysaccharide based hydrogels have become especially attractive as matrices for the repair and regeneration of a wide variety of tissues and organs. The incorporation of inorganic minerals as hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can modulate the performance of the scaffolds with potential applications in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to verify the osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs cultured on a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Human DPSCs were seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel and on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel for 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days. Cell viability assay and ultramorphological analysis were carried out to evaluate biocompatibility and cell adhesion. Real Time PCR was carried out to demonstrate the expression of osteogenic and odontogenic markers. Results showed a good adhesion and viability in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel, while a low adhesion and viability was observed in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel. Real Time PCR data demonstrated a temporal up-regulation of osteogenic and odontogenic markers in dental pulp stem cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. In conclusion, our in vitro data confirms the ability of DPSCs to differentiate toward osteogenic and odontogenic lineages in presence of a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Taken together, our results provide evidence that DPSCs and carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel could be considered promising candidates for dental pulp complex and periodontal tissue engineering.

  16. Improved performance of colloidal CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells by hybrid passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Xu, Bo; Yuan, Chunze; Chen, Hong; Sun, Junliang; Sun, Licheng; Agren, Hans

    2014-11-12

    A hybrid passivation strategy is employed to modify the surface of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), by using mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and iodide anions through a ligand exchange reaction in solution. This is found to be an effective way to improve the performance of QDSCs based on colloidal QDs. The results show that MPA can increase the coverage of the QDs on TiO2 electrodes and facilitate the hole extraction from the photoxidized QDs, and simultaneously, that the iodide anions can remedy the surface defects of the CdSe QDs and thus reduce the recombination loss in the device. This hybrid passivation treatment leads to a significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency of the QDSCs by 41%. Furthermore, an optimal ratio of iodide ions to MPA was determined for favorable hybrid passivation; results show that excessive iodine anions are detrimental to the loading of the QDs. This study demonstrates that the improvement in QDSC performance can be realized by using a combination of different functional ligands to passivate the QDs, and that ligand exchange in solution can be an effective approach to introduce different ligands.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell)–Stirling hybrid plants using alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid power system (∼10 kW) for an average family home is proposed. The system investigated contains a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle are fed to a bottoming Stirling engine, at which additional power is generated. Simulations of the proposed system were conducted using different fuels, which should facilitate the use of a variety of fuels depending on availability. Here, the results for natural gas (NG), ammonia, di-methyl ether (DME), methanol and ethanol are presented and analyzed. The system behavior is further investigated by comparing the effects of key factors, such as the utilization factor and the operating conditions under which these fuels are used. Moreover, the effect of using a methanator on the plant efficiency is also studied. The combined system improves the overall electrical efficiency relative to that of a stand-alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the combined SOFC and Stirling configuration, the overall power production was increased by approximately 10% compared to that of a stand-alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of approximately 60% are achieved, which is remarkable for such small plant sizes. Additionally, heat is also produced to heat the family home when necessary. - Highlights: • Integrating a solid oxide fuel with a Stirling engine • Design of multi-fuel hybrid plants • Plants running on alternative fuels; natural gas, methanol, ethanol, DME and ammonia • Thermodynamic analysis of hybrid SOFC–Stirling engine plants

  18. Nanostructural optimization of silicon/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells for performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanzhou; Shao, Pengfei; Li, Yali; Li, Junshuai; He, Deyan; Chen, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an inverted silicon (Si) nanopyramid (iSiNP) surface structure with low aspect ratio and remarkable antireflection is developed through sequential treatments of NaOH and HF/CH 3 COOH/HNO 3 solutions to Si nanowire (SiNW)-textured Si wafers, which are prepared by traditional electroless chemical etching. The iSiNP/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cell is fabricated through conformally spin-coating poly(3.4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) onto the iSiNPs; it exhibits enhanced device performance owing to the improved junction and contact quality as compared to the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS counterpart. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.6% mainly contributed from an increased fill factor (FF) of 0.61 and improved open circuit voltage ( V oc ) of 0.53 V is delivered by the iSiNP/PEDOT:PSS solar cell. As a comparison, the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS structure delivers a 7.1% PCE with a FF of 0.45 and V oc of 0.46 V. Considering the submicro-scale characteristic dimensions, iSiNPs are expected to be applicable to highly efficient thin film Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. (paper)

  19. An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Fengfeng; Wang, Hao; Xia, Zhouhui; Dai, Xiao; Cong, Shan; Dong, Chao; Sun, Baoquan; Lou, Yanhui; Sun, Yinghui; Zhao, Jie; Zou, Guifu

    2015-01-01

    Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0 # diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement

  20. An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Fengfeng; Wang, Hao [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Xia, Zhouhui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Dai, Xiao; Cong, Shan [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Dong, Chao [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of New Mexico, ABQ 87120 (United States); Sun, Baoquan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lou, Yanhui, E-mail: yhlou@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Yinghui; Zhao, Jie [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zou, Guifu, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0{sup #} diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement.

  1. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Copyright 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  2. Reduced energy offset via substitutional doping for efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Kelian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Haijiao; Xu, Zhongyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport in bulk heterojunction that is central to the device performance of solar cells is sensitively dependent on the energy level alignment of acceptor and donor. However, the effect of energy level regulation induced by nickel ions on the primary photoexcited electron transfer and the performance of P3HT/TiO2 hybrid solar cells remains being poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of the versatile nickel ions into TiO2 nanocrystals can significantly elevate the conduction and valence band energy levels of the acceptor, thus resulting in a remarkable reduction of energy level offset between the conduction band of acceptor and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor. By applying transient photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the electron transfer becomes more competitive after incorporating nickel ions. In particular, the electron transfer life time is shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor, thus leading to a notable increase of power conversion efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. This work underscores the promising virtue of engineering the reduction of 'excess' energy offset to accelerate electron transport and demonstrates the potential of nickel ions in applications of solar energy conversion and photon detectors.

  3. Braking energy regeneration control of a fuel cell hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Junzhi; Lv, Chen; Qiu, Mingzhe; Li, Yutong; Sun, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A braking energy regeneration system has been designed for a fuel cell bus. • Control strategy coordinating energy efficiency and brake safety is proposed. • The system and control strategy proposed are experimentally verified. • Based on test results, energy efficiency of the FCB is improved greatly. - Abstract: This paper presents the braking energy regeneration control of a fuel cell hybrid electric bus. The configuration of the regenerative braking system based on a pneumatic braking system was proposed. To recapture the braking energy and improve the fuel economy, a control strategy coordinating the regenerative brake and the pneumatic brake was designed and applied in the FCHB. Brake safety was also guaranteed by the control strategy when the bus encounters critical driving situations. Fuel economy tests were carried out under China city bus typical driving cycle. And hardware-in-the-loop tests of the brake safety of the FCHB under proposed control strategy were also accomplished. Test results indicate that the present approach provides an improvement in fuel economy of the fuel cell hybrid electric bus and guarantees the brake safety in the meantime

  4. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Odeim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, with its slow dynamics, controls the state-of-charge of the battery. The parameters of the power management strategy are optimized by a genetic algorithm and Pareto front analysis in a framework of multi-objective optimization, taking into account the hydrogen consumption, the battery loading and the acceleration performance. The optimization results are validated on a test bench composed of a fuel cell system (1.2 kW, 26 V, lithium polymer battery (30 Ah, 37 V, and a supercapacitor (167 F, 48 V.

  5. The onset of hemoglobin synthesis in spleens of irradiated mice after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponka, P.; Fuchs, O.; Borova, J.; Necas, E.

    1977-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) for globin was isolated from spleens of irradiated mice in which erythroid differentiation was induced by a bone marrow graft. The globin mRNA was isolated either by means of sucrose gradients of reticulocyte polysomal RNA or by affinity chromatography of total spleen RNA on poly (U)-sepharose. The globin mRNA was tested in a wheat embryo cell-free system. The appearance of mRNA in the spleen erythroid colonies was correlated with other parameters of erythroid differentiation such as globin synthesis, activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and iron uptake. Poly(A) containing mRNA did appear already on the 3rd day after grafting. However, significant translational activity of globin mRNA could be demonstrated only one day later together with increase in globin synthesis and delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and enhanced iron uptake. In the second part of this study mouse spleen cells rich in erythroid elements were incubated with a specific heme synthesis inhibitor (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) and the synthesis of 9 S RNA was estimated. It was found that a 40-minute incubation with INH reduced uridine incorporation into 9 S RNA fraction by about 40%. (author)

  6. Performance study of sugar-yeast-ethanol bio-hybrid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Justin P.; Mackie, David M.; Benyamin, Marcus; Ganguli, Rahul; Sumner, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Renewable alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons for energy generation are of general interest for a variety of political, economic, environmental, and practical reasons. In particular, energy from biomass has many advantages, including safety, sustainability, and the ability to be scavenged from native ecosystems or from waste streams. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can take advantage of microorganism metabolism to efficiently use sugar and other biomolecules as fuel, but are limited by low power densities. In contrast, direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) take advantage of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) to generate electricity from alcohols at much higher power densities. Here, we investigate a novel bio-hybrid fuel cell design prepared using commercial off-the-shelf DAFCs. In the bio-hybrid fuel cells, biomass such as sugar is fermented by yeast to ethanol, which can be used to fuel a DAFC. A separation membrane between the fermentation and the DAFC is used to purify the fermentate while avoiding any parasitic power losses. However, shifting the DAFCs from pure alcohol-water solutions to filtered fermented media introduces complications related to how the starting materials, fermentation byproducts, and DAFC waste products affect both the fermentation and the long-term DAFC performance. This study examines the impact of separation membrane pore size, fermentation/fuel cell byproducts, alcohol and salt concentrations, and load resistance on fuel cell performance. Under optimized conditions, the performance obtained is comparable to that of a similar DAFC run with a pure alcohol-water mixture. Additionally, the modified DAFC can provide useable amounts of power for weeks.

  7. Study on Production of Silicon Nanoparticles from Quartz Sand for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunmetha, S.; Vinoth, M.; Srither, S. R.; Karthik, A.; Sridharpanday, M.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.

    2018-01-01

    Nano silicon (nano Si) particles were directly prepared from natural mineral quartz sand and thereafter used to fabricate the hybrid silicon solar cells. Here, in this preparation technique, two process stages were involved. In the first stage, the alkaline extraction and acid precipitation processes were applied on quartz sand to fetch silica nanoparticles. In the second stage, magnesiothermic and modified magnesiothermic reduction reactions were applied on nano silica particles to prepare nano Si particles. The effect of two distinct reduction methodologies on nano Si particle preparation was compared. The magnesiothermic and modified magnesiothermic reductions in the silica to silicon conversion process were studied with the help of x-ray diffraction (XRD) with intent to study the phase changes during the reduction reaction as well as its crystalline nature in the pure silicon phase. The particles consist of a combination of fine particles with spherical morphology. In addition to this, the optical study indicated an increase in visible light absorption and also increases the performance of the solar cell. The obtained nano Si particles were used as an active layer to fabricate the hybrid solar cells (HSCs). The obtained results confirmed that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the magnesiothermically modified nano Si cells (1.06%) is much higher as compared to the nano Si cells that underwent magnesiothermic reduction (1.02%). Thus, this confirms the increased PCE of the investigated nano Si solar cell up to 1.06%. It also revealed that nano Si behaved as an electron acceptor and transport material. The present study provided valuable insights and direction for the preparation of nano Si particles from quartz sand, including the influence of process methods. The prepared nano Si particles can be utilized for HSCs and an array of portable electronic devices.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) - Stirling hybrid plants using alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid power system (∼10 kW) for an average family home is proposed. The system investigated contains a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle are fed to a bottoming Stirling engine, at which additional power is generated...... to that of a stand-alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the combined SOFC and Stirling configuration, the overall power production was increased by approximately 10% compared to that of a stand-alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of approximately 60% are achieved, which is remarkable for such small plant sizes...

  9. Light propagation and transmission in hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal cells: Geometrical optics calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Carlos I.; Reyes, J. Adrian

    2006-08-01

    The authors present a geometrical approach to calculate the transmission of light in a hybrid-aligned nematic cell under the influence of an applied electric field. Using the framework of geometrical optics they present results for the ray tracing as well as the transmission of light as a function of the applied low frequency voltage. Dispersion effects are included through a wavelength dependent dielectric function. Their results for the transmittance as a function of the applied voltage show oscillations that are in good qualitative agreement with previously obtained experimental measurements.

  10. Enhanced performance of hybrid solar cells using longer arms of quantum cadmium selenide tetrapods

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced device performance of hybrid solar cells based on tetrapod (TP)-shaped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and conjugated polymer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can be obtained by using longer armed tetrapods which aids in better spatial connectivity, thus decreasing charge hopping events which lead to better charge transport. Longer tetrapods with 10 nm arm length lead to improved power conversion efficiency of 1.12% compared to 0.80% of device having 5 nm short-armed tetrapods:P3HT photoactive blends.

  11. Improving Link Robustness in 5G Ultra-Dense Small Cells by Hybrid ARQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Catania, Davide; Frederiksen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A new 5th generation (5G) radio access technology is expected to cope with an estimated factor of x1000 growth in mobile data traffic in the upcoming years. Such system will be optimized for a massive uncoordinated deployment of small cells, where autonomous operation of the individual nodes may...... bring unpredictable and fast varying link quality. In this paper, Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) is studied as a solution to cope with such unpredictability. An operational mode of HARQ for our 5G system definition is proposed, and its performance is evaluated for two different scheduling...

  12. Enhanced performance of hybrid solar cells using longer arms of quantum cadmium selenide tetrapods

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kim, Inho; Gullapalli, Sravani; Wong, Michael S.; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced device performance of hybrid solar cells based on tetrapod (TP)-shaped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and conjugated polymer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can be obtained by using longer armed tetrapods which aids in better spatial connectivity, thus decreasing charge hopping events which lead to better charge transport. Longer tetrapods with 10 nm arm length lead to improved power conversion efficiency of 1.12% compared to 0.80% of device having 5 nm short-armed tetrapods:P3HT photoactive blends.

  13. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribioli, L., E-mail: laura.tribioli@unicusano.it; Cozzolino, R. [Dept. of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Niccolo’ Cusano (Italy); Barbieri, M. [Engineering Dept., University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale-Isola C4, 80143 Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared.

  14. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribioli, L.; Cozzolino, R.; Barbieri, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared

  15. Planar structured perovskite solar cells by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition with optimized perovskite film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangyang; Peng, Yanke; Jing, Gaoshan; Cui, Tianhong

    2018-05-01

    The thickness of perovskite absorber layer is a critical parameter to determine a planar structured perovskite solar cell’s performance. By modifying the spin coating speed and PbI2/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution concentration, the thickness of perovskite absorber layer was optimized to obtain high-performance solar cells. Using a PbI2/DMF solution of 1.3 mol/L, maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a perovskite solar cell is 15.5% with a perovskite film of 413 nm at 5000 rpm, and PCE of 14.3% was also obtained for a solar cell with a perovskite film of 182 nm thick. It is derived that higher concentration of PbI2/DMF will result in better perovskite solar cells. Additionally, these perovskite solar cells are highly uniform. In 14 sets of solar cells, standard deviations of 11 sets of solar cells were less than 0.50% and the smallest standard deviation was 0.25%, which demonstrates the reliability and effectiveness of hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method.

  16. Controlling the morphology and efficiency of hybrid ZnO: Polythiophene solar cells via side chain functionalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhout, S.D.; Koster, L.J.A.; Bavel, van S.S.; Loos, J.; Stenzel, O.; Thiedmann, R.; Schmidt, V.; Campo, B.J.; Cleij, T.J.; Lutzen, L.; Vanderzande, D.J.M.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of polymer – metal oxide hybrid solar cells depends critically on the intimacy of mixing of the two semiconductors. The effect of side chain functionalization on the morphology and performance of conjugated polymer:ZnO solar cells is investigated. Using an ester-functionalized side

  17. Controlling the Morphology and Efficiency of Hybrid ZnO : Polythiophene Solar Cells Via Side Chain Functionalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhout, Stefan D.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; van Bavel, Svetlana S.; Loos, Joachim; Stenzel, Ole; Thiedmann, Ralf; Schmidt, Volker; Campo, Bert; Cleij, Thomas J.; Lutzen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Wienk, Martijn M.; Janssen, Rene A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of polymer - metal oxide hybrid solar cells depends critically on the intimacy of mixing of the two semiconductors. The effect of side chain functionalization on the morphology and performance of conjugated polymer:ZnO solar cells is investigated. Using an ester-functionalized side

  18. A thin-film silicon/silicon hetero-junction hybrid solar cell for photoelectrochemical water-reduction applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasudevan, R.A.; Thanawala, Z; Han, L.; Buijs, Thom; Tan, H.; Deligiannis, D.; Perez Rodriguez, P.; Digdaya, I.A.; Smith, W.A.; Zeman, M.; Smets, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell consisting of a thin-film, nanocrystalline silicon top junction and a siliconheterojunction bottom junction is proposed as a supporting solar cell for photoelectrochemical applications.Tunneling recombination junction engine