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Sample records for hybrid spleen cells

  1. Human spleen and red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George; Buffet, Pierre; Dao, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Spleen plays multiple roles in the human body. Among them is removal of old and altered red blood cells (RBCs), which is done by filtering cells through the endothelial slits, small micron-sized openings. There is currently no experimental technique available that allows us to observe RBC passage through the slits. It was previously noticed that people without a spleen have less deformable red blood cells, indicating that the spleen may play a role in defining the size and shape of red blood cells. We used detailed RBC model implemented within the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation framework to study the filter function of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that spleen indeed plays major role in defining the size and shape of the healthy human red blood cells.

  2. Circular Herpesvirus sylvilagus DNA in spleen cells of experimentally infected cottontail rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medveczky, P; Kramp, W J; Sullivan, J L

    1984-01-01

    Cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were infected with Herpesvirus sylvilagus, and spleen cells were analyzed for the presence of virus-specific, covalently closed circular, and linear DNA molecules by a simple electrophoretic technique, followed by transfer to nitrocellulose filters and hybridization with cloned viral DNA (Gardella et al., J. Virol. 50:248-254, 1984). Approximately 0.2 copies per cell of circular DNA and 0.2 copies per cell of linear DNA were detected by hybridization with a cloned viral DNA fragment. The size of the viral DNA was estimated at ca. 158 kilobase pairs. Restriction endonuclease patterns suggested structural similarities to cottontail herpesvirus DNA. Images PMID:6092696

  3. Littoral-cell angioma of the spleen: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Littoral-cell angioma (LCA) is a primary splenic vascular tumor that arises from the normal littoral cells lining the sinus channels of the splenic red pulp. We report a case of LCA of the spleen, which has been infrequently communicated in the literature. A 76-year-old man with a 2-wk history of weight loss, abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits was admitted to our hospital.Imaging studies (CT and MRI) showed multiple lesions in the spleen. Splenectomy was performed. Lining cells were positive for CD31/CD68 markers. Our case was associated with a serrated colonic adenoma. LCA is a benign vascular tumor of the spleen that needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of multiple splenic nodules.

  4. Dynamics of Red Cells in Spleen: How Does Vesiculation Happen?

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    Zhu, Qiang; Salehyar, Sara; Cabrales, Pedro; Asaro, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Vesiculation of red blood cells as a result of local separation between lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton is known to happen in vivo, most likely inside spleen where they sustain large mechanical loads during the passage through venus slits. There is, however, little knowledge about the detailed scenario and condition. We address this question via a fluid-cell interaction model by coupling a multiscale model of the cell membrane (including molecular details) with a fluid dynamics model based on boundary-integral equations. A numerical flow channel is created where the cell is driven through a narrow slit by pressure (imitating the transit through venus slits in spleen). The concentration is the occurrence of large dissociation (negative) pressure between the skeleton/membrane connection that promotes separation, a precursor of vesicle formation. Critical levels for the negative pressure are estimated using published data. By following the maximum range of pressure, we conclude that for vesiculation to happen there must be biochemical influences (e.g. binding of degraded haemoglobin) that significantly reduce effective attachment density. This is consistent with reported trends in vesiculation that are believed to occur in cases of various hereditary anemias and during blood storage. Our findings also suggest the criticality of understanding the biochemical phenomena involved with cytoskeleton/membrane attachment.

  5. Insulin-producing cells from embryonic stem cells rescues hyperglycemia via intra-spleen migration.

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    Ren, Meng; Shang, Changzhen; Zhong, Xiaomei; Guo, Ruomi; Lao, Guojuan; Wang, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Hua; Min, Jun; Yan, Li; Shen, Jun

    2014-12-23

    Implantation of embryonic stem cells (ESC)-derived insulin-producing cells has been extensively investigated for treatment of diabetes in animal models. However, the in vivo behavior and migration of transplanted cells in diabetic models remains unclear. Here we investigated the location and migration of insulin-producing cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) using a dynamic MRI tracking method. SPIO labeled cells showed hypointense signal under the kidney subcapsules of diabetic mice on MRI, and faded gradually over the visiting time. However, new hypointense signal appeared in the spleen 1 week after transplantation, and became obvious with the time prolongation. Further histological examination proved the immigrated cells were insulin and C-peptide positive cells which were evenly distributed throughout the spleen. These intra-spleen insulin-producing cells maintained their protective effects against hyperglycemia in vivo, and these effects were reversed upon spleen removal. Transplantation of insulin-producing cells through spleen acquired an earlier blood glucose control as compared with that through kidney subcapsules. In summary, our data demonstrate that insulin-producing cells transplanted through kidney subcapsules were not located in situ but migrated into spleen, and rescues hyperglycemia in diabetic models. MRI may provide a novel tracking method for preclinical cell transplantation therapy of diabetes continuously and non-invasively.

  6. Immune signatures of protective spleen memory CD8 T cells.

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    Brinza, Lilia; Djebali, Sophia; Tomkowiak, Martine; Mafille, Julien; Loiseau, Céline; Jouve, Pierre-Emmanuel; de Bernard, Simon; Buffat, Laurent; Lina, Bruno; Ottmann, Michèle; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel; Schicklin, Stéphane; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Lauvau, Grégoire; Grau, Morgan; Wencker, Mélanie; Arpin, Christophe; Walzer, Thierry; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline

    2016-11-24

    Memory CD8 T lymphocyte populations are remarkably heterogeneous and differ in their ability to protect the host. In order to identify the whole range of qualities uniquely associated with protective memory cells we compared the gene expression signatures of two qualities of memory CD8 T cells sharing the same antigenic-specificity: protective (Influenza-induced, Flu-TM) and non-protective (peptide-induced, TIM) spleen memory CD8 T cells. Although Flu-TM and TIM express classical phenotypic memory markers and are polyfunctional, only Flu-TM protects against a lethal viral challenge. Protective memory CD8 T cells express a unique set of genes involved in migration and survival that correlate with their unique capacity to rapidly migrate within the infected lung parenchyma in response to influenza infection. We also enlighten a new set of poised genes expressed by protective cells that is strongly enriched in cytokines and chemokines such as Ccl1, Ccl9 and Gm-csf. CCL1 and GM-CSF genes are also poised in human memory CD8 T cells. These immune signatures are also induced by two other pathogens (vaccinia virus and Listeria monocytogenes). The immune signatures associated with immune protection were identified on circulating cells, i.e. those that are easily accessible for immuno-monitoring and could help predict vaccines efficacy.

  7. Immune signatures of protective spleen memory CD8 T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinza, Lilia; Djebali, Sophia; Tomkowiak, Martine; Mafille, Julien; Loiseau, Céline; Jouve, Pierre-Emmanuel; de Bernard, Simon; Buffat, Laurent; Lina, Bruno; Ottmann, Michèle; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel; Schicklin, Stéphane; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Lauvau, Grégoire; Grau, Morgan; Wencker, Mélanie; Arpin, Christophe; Walzer, Thierry; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Memory CD8 T lymphocyte populations are remarkably heterogeneous and differ in their ability to protect the host. In order to identify the whole range of qualities uniquely associated with protective memory cells we compared the gene expression signatures of two qualities of memory CD8 T cells sharing the same antigenic-specificity: protective (Influenza-induced, Flu-TM) and non-protective (peptide-induced, TIM) spleen memory CD8 T cells. Although Flu-TM and TIM express classical phenotypic memory markers and are polyfunctional, only Flu-TM protects against a lethal viral challenge. Protective memory CD8 T cells express a unique set of genes involved in migration and survival that correlate with their unique capacity to rapidly migrate within the infected lung parenchyma in response to influenza infection. We also enlighten a new set of poised genes expressed by protective cells that is strongly enriched in cytokines and chemokines such as Ccl1, Ccl9 and Gm-csf. CCL1 and GM-CSF genes are also poised in human memory CD8 T cells. These immune signatures are also induced by two other pathogens (vaccinia virus and Listeria monocytogenes). The immune signatures associated with immune protection were identified on circulating cells, i.e. those that are easily accessible for immuno-monitoring and could help predict vaccines efficacy. PMID:27883012

  8. Infusion of donor spleen cells and rejection in liver transplant recipients.

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    Scornik, J C; Lauwers, G Y; Reed, A I; Howard, R J; Dickson, R C; Rosen, C B

    2000-02-01

    Intact or inactivated donor lymphoid cells have been found to downregulate the alloimmune response in a number of experimental models. We conducted a randomized, prospective, double blind, and placebo-controlled trial to determine whether heat-treated donor spleen cells would affect early rejection after liver transplantation. Donor spleen was obtained during organ procurement for 40 patients undergoing liver transplantation. All patients were treated with cyclosporine, azathioprine and steroids. The patients were randomized after surgery to receive either heat-treated (45 degrees C for 1 h) spleen cells or placebo. Patients underwent protocol biopsies at 1 wk, 4 and 12 months, or as needed. Biopsies were reviewed in a blind fashion and scored according to the Banff consensus criteria. Randomization resulted in 19 patients in the spleen cell group and 21 in the placebo group. One-yr graft survival was 94 and 100%, respectively. Early rejection was more frequent in the spleen cell group (61 vs. 35%, p, not significant). The histopathological rejection activity index at 7 d was also higher for the patients in the spleen cell group: 39% of spleen cell treated patients had a score of 4 or higher as opposed to 5% in the placebo group (p spleen cell group versus 1.3 + 1.7 for the placebo group (p = 0.034). It is concluded that heat-treated donor spleen cells given within 24 h after liver transplantation were not clinically beneficial and increased the intensity of rejection in 7-d protocol liver biopsies.

  9. The origin of biliary ductular cells that appear in the spleen after transplantation of hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kenji; Sugihara, Ayako; Nakasho, Keiji; Tsujimura, Tohru; Yamada, Naoko; Okaya, Atsuhito; Sakagami, Masafumi; Terada, Nobuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Transplantation of rat hepatocytes into the syngeneic rat spleen results in the appearance of cytokeration (CK)-19-positive biliary cells that form ductules. The exact origin of CK-19-positive cells is not known and the possibility that they are derived from biliary cells or precursors of oval cells in transplanted hepatocyte preparations has been raised. In the present study, we found that the number of CK-19-positive biliary cells increased rapidly after transplantation of hepatocytes, reached the maximum at 4 weeks, and then gradually decreased. However, a Ki-67 labeling index of CK-19-positive biliary cells was low and showed no significant changes throughout the experimental period. In addition, no or few CK-19-positive cells appeared in the spleen after transplantation of nonparenchymal liver cells enriched with biliary cells. These results showed that biliary cells were not the source of CK-19-positive cells in the spleen. Impairment of precursors of oval cells in the liver by administration of 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane 24 h before transplantation of hepatocytes did not prevent the appearance of CK-19-positive biliary cells in the spleen. Moreover, transplantation of nonparenchymal cells carrying an increased number of oval cells by means of treatment with 2-acetylaminofluorene and partial hepatectomy resulted in no appearance of CK-19-positive biliary cells in the spleen. These results ruled out oval cells as the origin of CK-19-positive biliary cells in the spleen. Because CK-19-positive biliary cells appeared in the spleen only when hepatocyte fractions were transplanted, we suggest transdifferentiation of heptocytes may be the mechanism by which CK-19-positive biliary cells are generated.

  10. Spleen histology in children with sickle cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis: hints on the disease pathophysiology.

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    Pizzi, Marco; Fuligni, Fabio; Santoro, Luisa; Sabattini, Elena; Ichino, Martina; De Vito, Rita; Zucchetta, Pietro; Colombatti, Raffaella; Sainati, Laura; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Alaggio, Rita

    2017-02-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with splenomegaly and spleen dysfunction in pediatric patients. Scant data exist on possible correlations between spleen morphology and function in HS and SCD. This study aimed to assess the histologic and morphometric features of HS and SCD spleens, to get possible correlations with disease pathophysiology. In a large series of spleens from SCD, HS, and control patients, the following parameters were considered: (i) macroscopic features, (ii) lymphoid follicle (LF) density, (iii) presence of perifollicular marginal zones, (iv) presence of Gamna-Gandy bodies, (v) density of CD8-positive sinusoids, (vi) density of CD34-positive microvessels, (vii) presence/distribution of fibrosis and smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myoid cells, and (viii) density of CD68-positive macrophages. SCD and HS spleens had similar macroscopic features. SCD spleens had lower LF density and fewer marginal zones than did HS spleens and controls. SCD also showed lower CD8-positive sinusoid density, increased CD34-positive microvessel density and SMA-positive myoid cells, and higher prevalence of fibrosis and Gamna-Gandy bodies. HS had lower LF and CD8-positive sinusoid density than did controls. No significant differences were noted in red pulp macrophages. By multivariate analysis, most HS spleens clustered with controls, whereas SCD grouped separately. A multiparametric score could predict the degree of spleen changes irrespective of the underlying disease. In conclusion, SCD spleens display greater histologic effacement than HS, and SCD-related changes suggest impaired function due to vascular damage. These observations may contribute to guide the clinical management of patients.

  11. Immunoenhancing activity of protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside-F3 in murine spleen cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-li YU; De-qiang DOU; Xiao-hong CHEN; Hong-zhen YANG; Na GUO; Gui-fang CHENG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the immunoenhancing activity of ginsenoside-F3 in murine spleen cells and explore its mechanism.METHODS: The enhancing effect of ginsenoside-F3 on murine spleen cell proliferation was studied using [3H]thymidine incorporation assay. Effects of ginsenoside-F3 on the production of type 1 cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, and type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 from murine spleen cells were detected by ELISA method. Effects of ginsenosideF3 on mRNA level of cytokines IL-4, IFN-γ, and transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 were evaluated by RTPCR analysis. Effect of ginsenoside-F3 on NF-κB DNA binding activity in murine spleen cells was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). RESULTS: Ginsenoside-F3 at 0.1-100μmol/L not only promoted the murine spleen cell proliferation, but also increased the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ, while decreased the production of IL-4 and IL-10 from murine spleen cells with the maximal effect at 10μmol/L. RT-PCR analysis displayed that ginsenoside-F3 enhanced the IFN-γ and T-bet gene expression and decreased IL-4 and GATA-3 gene expression. EMSA experiment showed that ginsenoside-F3 10μmol/L enhanced the NF-κB DNA binding activity induced by ConA in murine spleen cells. CONCLUSION: Ginsenoside-F3 has immunoenhancing activity by regulating production and gene expression of type 1 cytokines and type 2 cytokines in murine spleen cells.

  12. Lack of cardiac differentiation in c-kit-enriched porcine bone marrow and spleen hematopoietic cell cultures using 5-azacytidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Ramirez (Mario); T. McMorrow (Tara); T.M. Sanderson (Thomas M.); C.J. Lancos (C.); Y.-L. Tseng (Y.); D.K.C. Cooper (David); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe adult spleen is a source of early hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We therefore studied whether culturing spleen or bone marrow (BM) HSC in medium containing 5-azacytidine could induce a cardiac phenotype. c-kit enrichment and depletion of adult pig spleen and BM mononuclear cells wer

  13. Diffuse Hepatic and Spleen Uptake of Tc-99m MDP on Bone Scintigraphy Resembling Liver-Spleen Scintigraphy in a Patient of Plasma Cell Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanbod, Mohammad Reza; Nemati, Reza; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The present case demonstrates a diffuse intense hepatic and, to a lesser degree, spleen, Tc-99m MDP uptake on a routine bone scintigraphy resembling liver-spleen imaging. A 49-year-old female with a history of anaplastic plasma cell tumor and suffering from bone pain was referred for bone scintigraphy to evaluate possible bone metastases. The bone scintigraphy showed diffuse hepatic and spleen uptake of Tc-99m MDP resembling liver-spleen imaging. Furthermore, bone uptake of Tc-99m MDP was significantly diminished and there were no abnormal foci throughout the skeleton. The bone scintigraphy of the present case of an anaplastic plasma cell tumor suggests the possible presence of amyloidosis.

  14. Heparin inhibits burn-induced spleen cell apoptosis by suppressing interleukin-1 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Songfeng; Zhang Xiao; Zhang Xiaojian; Shi Xiuqin; Yu Zujiang; Kan Quancheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidermal burn injury may trigger significant apoptosis of the spleen cells,which might be caused by a burninduced systemic inflammatory reaction.Heparin has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties.Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is centrally important among pro-inflammatory cytokines.We hypothesized that heparin might inhibit burn-induced apoptosis in the spleen via suppression of the IL-1 pathway.Methods Burn injury was performed on IL-1 R+/+ (IL-1 receptor wild-type mouse) and IL-1 R-/-(IL-1 receptor knockout mouse) mice,and they were then treated with heparin,saline or IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-Ra.Apoptosis,IL-1α and IL-1β expression were assessed in the spleens and serum.Survival curve analysis was further applied to elucidate the mechanism of heparin's protective properties.Results Burn induced significant apoptosis (sham:3.6%±2.1% vs.burn:28.8%±5.9%; P <0.001)and remarkable expression o IL-1α and IL-1β in the mouse spleens and serum.Heparin reduced the burn-induced apoptosis in the spleens (heparin treated:8.6%±3.4%,P <0.005),which could be blocked by IL-1Ra.Heparin markedly decreased both IL-1α and IL-1β expression in the spleens and serum of burned mica.IL-1 R-/-mice demonstrated considerably less apoptosis in the spleens and had a higher survival rate after burns.Heparin did not significantly decrease apoptosis in the spleen and the mortality rate in IL-1 R-/-mice after burns.Conclusion Heparin inhibits burn-induced apoptosis of the spleen cells by suppressing IL-1 expression in mice.

  15. Dendritic cells derived exosomes migration to spleen and induction of inflammation are regulated by CCR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gao; Jie, Yuan; Haibo, Liu; Chaoneng, Wu; Dong, Huang; Jianbing, Zhu; Junjie, Guo; Leilei, Ma; Hongtao, Shi; Yunzeng, Zou; Junbo, Ge

    2017-01-01

    Mature dendritic cells (DCs) home to secondary lymphoid organs through CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). Exosomes derived from DCs (DC-exos) are reported to migrate to spleen and induce inflammation in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that mature bone marrow DC-exos can activate immature DC and T cells in vitro. Then we intravenously injected DC-exos into C57BL/6 mice, observing that mature DC-exos accumulated more in spleen than immature DC-exos. These DC-exos in spleen could be uptaken by splenetic DCs and T cells and induce an inflammatory response. We further showed that the increased accumulation of mature DC-exos in spleen was regulated by CCR7, whose reduction led to a decrease of accumulation in spleen and attenuated inflammatory response in serum. These data provide us a new perspective to comprehensively understand exosomes, which might inherit some special functions from their parent cells and exert these functions in vivo. PMID:28223684

  16. Essential role of TNF-alpha in development of spleen fibroblastic reticular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lintao; Chen, Junying; Liu, Lina; Gao, Jianbao; Guo, Bo; Zhu, Bo

    2015-02-01

    TNF-alpha plays an important role in the development of secondary lymphoid tissues. Earlier studies showed that fibroblastic reticular cells express TNF-alpha receptor, suggesting that TNF-alpha may affect the development of FRCs. To test this, we analyzed the development and function of FRCs in wild-type or TNF-alpha knockout mice. We found that GP38 expression was down-regulated in the spleen of TNF-alpha knockout mice. Chemokines, mainly secreted by GP38(+) FRCs, were also down-regulated. Additionally, we found that absence of TNF-alpha decreased the homing ability to direct T cells to the spleen. However, absence of TNF-alpha did not affect the development of lymph nodes FRCs. These data reveal that TNF-alpha plays an important role in the development of spleen FRCs. Absence of TNF-alpha could cause abnormality of spleen FRCs, thereby weakening the homing ability of T cells to localize to the spleen T cell zone.

  17. HIV-Infected Spleens Present Altered Follicular Helper T Cell (Tfh Subsets and Skewed B Cell Maturation.

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    Lucie Colineau

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T (Tfh cells within secondary lymphoid organs control multiple steps of B cell maturation and antibody (Ab production. HIV-1 infection is associated with an altered B cell differentiation and Tfh isolated from lymph nodes of HIV-infected (HIV+ individuals provide inadequate B cell help in vitro. However, the mechanisms underlying this impairment of Tfh function are not fully defined. Using a unique collection of splenocytes, we compared the frequency, phenotype and transcriptome of Tfh subsets in spleens from HIV negative (HIV- and HIV+ subjects. We observed an increase of CXCR5+PD-1highCD57-Tfh and germinal center (GC CD57+ Tfh in HIV+ spleens. Both subsets showed a reduced mRNA expression of the transcription factor STAT-3, co-stimulatory, regulatory and signal transduction molecules as compared to HIV- spleens. Similarly, Foxp3 expressing follicular regulatory T (Tfr cells were increased, suggesting sustained GC reactions in chronically HIV+ spleens. As a consequence, GC B cell populations were expanded, however, complete maturation into memory B cells was reduced in HIV+ spleens where we evidenced a compromised production of B cell-activating cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-10. Collectively our data indicate that, although Tfh proliferation and GC reactions seem to be ongoing in HIV-infected spleens, Tfh "differentiation" and expression of costimulatory molecules is skewed with a profound effect on B cell maturation.

  18. Ratio of spleen diameter to red blood cell distribution width: a novel indicator for celiac disease.

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    Balaban, Daniel Vasile; Popp, Alina; Lungu, Andrei Marian; Costache, Raluca Simona; Anca, Ioana Alina; Jinga, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is currently considerably underdiagnosed, setting the need for developing tools to select patients with probability of CD, who warrant further testing. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been shown in previous studies to be a sensitive predictor for CD, but it lacks specificity. Splenic hypotrophy is also noted frequently in celiac patients. Our aim was to evaluate if spleen diameter to RDW ratio can be used as an indicator for CD. We evaluated 15 newly diagnosed CD patients, 52 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, and 35 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We evaluated the differences in spleen diameter, RDW, and their ratio among the four groups. Two-thirds of the CD patients had elevated RDW, compared to 9% in the IBS group. A small spleen was seen in 80% of the celiacs, compared to 21.9% in the ulcerative colitis group, 10% in the Crohn disease group, and 9% in the IBS group. A spleen diameter to RDW ratio under 6 had a sensitivity of 73.3% and specificity of 88.5% in predicting CD, with an AUROC of 0.737. Spleen diameter to RDW ratio is a simple, widely available score, which can be used to select adult patients with probability of CD.

  19. Neural Crest Cells Contribute an Astrocyte-like Glial Population to the Spleen

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    Barlow-Anacker, Amanda J.; Fu, Ming; Erickson, Christopher S.; Bertocchini, Federica; Gosain, Ankush

    2017-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCC) are multi-potent cells of ectodermal origin that colonize diverse organs, including the gastrointestinal tract to form the enteric nervous system (ENS) and hematopoietic organs (bone marrow, thymus) where they participate in lymphocyte trafficking. Recent studies have implicated the spleen as an anatomic site for integration of inflammatory signals from the intestine with efferent neural inputs. We have previously observed alterations in splenic lymphocyte subsets in animals with defective migration of NCC that model Hirschsprung’s disease, leading us to hypothesize that there may be a direct cellular contribution of NCC to the spleen. Here, we demonstrate that NCC colonize the spleen during embryogenesis and persist into adulthood. Splenic NCC display markers indicating a glial lineage and are arranged anatomically adjacent to blood vessels, pericytes and nerves, suggesting an astrocyte-like phenotype. Finally, we identify similar neural-crest derived cells in both the avian and non-human primate spleen, showing evolutionary conservation of these cells. PMID:28349968

  20. Imaging findings in Langerhans` cell histiocytosis of the liver and the spleen in an adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mampaey, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium)]|[Dept. of Radiology, University of Antwerp (Belgium); Warson, F. [Dept. of Anatomopathology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium); Hedent, E. van [Dept. of Radiology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium); Schepper, A.M. de [Dept. of Radiology, University of Antwerp (Belgium)

    1999-02-01

    We present a case of Langerhans` cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the liver and spleen in an adult. The imaging features are different from those in the few previously reported cases of individual organ involvement by LCH. (orig.) (orig.) With 2 figs., 5 refs.

  1. Appearance of Human Plasma Cells Following Differentiation of Human B Cells in NOD/SCID Mouse Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kikuchi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known for the differentiation and maturation process of human B cells to plasma cells. This is particularly important in reconstitution work involving transfer of autoantibodies. To address this issue, we transplanted human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC directly into the spleen of irradiated NOD/SCID mice depleted of natural killer cell activity. Within 6 weeks, naïve B cells differentiated into memory B cells and, importantly, the numbers of human CD138+ plasma cells in spleen increased by 100 fold after transplantation. Plasma cell numbers correlated with the detection of human IgM and IgG in serum, indicating that human B cells had differentiated into mature plasma cells in the murine spleen. In addition to CD19+ plasma cells, a distinct CD19- plasma cell population was detected, suggesting that downregulation of CD19 associated with maturation of plasma cells occurred. When purified human B cells were transplanted, those findings were not observed. Our results indicate that differentiation and maturation of human B cells and plasma cells can be investigated by transplantation of human PBMC into the spleen of NOD/SCID mice. The model will be useful for studying the differentiation of human B cells and generation of plasma cells.

  2. ACCESSORY SPLEEN

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    Radhika

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleen is a small nodule of splenic tissue found apart from main body of spleen. Other name for accessory spleen is supernumerary spleen, splenule or splenunculus. It is usually congenital failure of fusion of splenunculus found close to hilum of spleen, greater omentum, tail of pancreas. Accessory spleen is found approximately in 10% population. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study 100 cadaveric spleens obtained from routine dissection, specimens present in Department of Anatomy, Andhra Medical College, Vishakhapatnam in 3 years span, out of which 25 are foetal spleens, 75 are adult spleens. RESULTS We got 4 accessory spleens in adult and 1 in foetal spleen. CONCLUSION The knowledge of accessory spleen is medically significant. That they may result in interpretation errors in diagnostic imaging and symptoms may be continued after splenectomy.

  3. In vivo nitrogen dioxide exposure depresses spleen cell in vitro mitogenic responses: effects of sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay-Dupuis, E.; Gougerot-Pocidalo, M.A.; Kraus, L.; Moreau, J.

    1987-02-01

    The in vivo mitogenic responses to lipopolysaccharide or concanavalin A by spleen cells of mice exposed to 20 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) for 96 hr, were evaluated. (/sup 3/H)Thymidine incorporation after addition of either mitogen, was significantly lower in spleen cells from acutely NO/sub 2/-exposed mice (NO/sub 2/SC) than from control mice, although cell viability was not affected. T- and B-cell mitogenic responses were inhibited to the same extent by NO/sub 2/ exposure. NO/sub 2/SC responses were protected by the thiol compounds 2-mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine, and selenomethionine. No restoration of mitogenic response was observed after treatment with reduced glutathione. Mechanisms accounting for this in vivo NO/sub 2/ immune toxicity, are discussed in terms of oxidative injury.

  4. Biomechanics of red blood cells in human spleen and consequences for physiology and disease

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    Pivkin, Igor V.; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George E.; Buffet, Pierre A.; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) can be cleared from circulation when alterations in their size, shape, and deformability are detected. This function is modulated by the spleen-specific structure of the interendothelial slit (IES). Here, we present a unique physiological framework for development of prognostic markers in RBC diseases by quantifying biophysical limits for RBCs to pass through the IES, using computational simulations based on dissipative particle dynamics. The results show that the spleen selects RBCs for continued circulation based on their geometry, consistent with prior in vivo observations. A companion analysis provides critical bounds relating surface area and volume for healthy RBCs beyond which the RBCs fail the “physical fitness test” to pass through the IES, supporting independent experiments. Our results suggest that the spleen plays an important role in determining distributions of size and shape of healthy RBCs. Because mechanical retention of infected RBC impacts malaria pathogenesis, we studied key biophysical parameters for RBCs infected with Plasmodium falciparum as they cross the IES. In agreement with experimental results, surface area loss of an infected RBC is found to be a more important determinant of splenic retention than its membrane stiffness. The simulations provide insights into the effects of pressure gradient across the IES on RBC retention. By providing quantitative biophysical limits for RBCs to pass through the IES, the narrowest circulatory bottleneck in the spleen, our results offer a broad approach for developing quantitative markers for diseases such as hereditary spherocytosis, thalassemia, and malaria. PMID:27354532

  5. Appearance of Human Plasma Cells Following Differentiation of Human B Cells in NOD/SCID Mouse Spleen

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Relatively little is known for the differentiation and maturation process of human B cells to plasma cells. This is particularly important in reconstitution work involving transfer of autoantibodies. To address this issue, we transplanted human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) directly into the spleen of irradiated NOD/SCID mice depleted of natural killer cell activity. Within 6 weeks, naïve B cells differentiated into memory B cells and, importantly, the numbers of human CD138+ plas...

  6. Conditioned medium from activated spleen cells supports the survival of rat retinal cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sholl-Franco

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are a heterogeneous group of molecules that have been associated with several functions in the nervous system, such as survival and differentiation of neuronal and glial cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that conditioned medium from spleen cells activated with concanavalin A increased neuritogenesis and survival of retinal cells, as measured by biochemical and morphological criteria. Our data showed that conditioned medium induced a five-fold increase in the amount of protein after 120 h in vitro. This effect was not inhibited by the blockade of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels with 5.0 µM nifedipine. However, the use of an intracellular calcium chelator (15.0 µM BAPTA-AM inhibited this effect. Our results support the idea that factors secreted by activated lymphocytes, such as cytokines, can modulate the maintenance and the differentiation of rat retinal cells in vitro, indicating a possible role of these molecules in the development of retinal cells, as well as in its protection against pathological conditions

  7. Macrophages retain hematopoietic stem cells in the spleen via VCAM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Friedrich Felix; Grigoryeva, Lubov S.; Sager, Hendrik B.; Leuschner, Florian; Courties, Gabriel; Borodovsky, Anna; Novobrantseva, Tatiana; Ruda, Vera M.; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Sun, Yuan; Da Silva, Nicolas; Libby, Peter; Anderson, Daniel G.; Swirski, Filip K.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Splenic myelopoiesis provides a steady flow of leukocytes to inflamed tissues, and leukocytosis correlates with cardiovascular mortality. Yet regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activity in the spleen is incompletely understood. Here, we show that red pulp vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1)+ macrophages are essential to extramedullary myelopoiesis because these macrophages use the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 to retain HSCs in the spleen. Nanoparticle-enabled in vivo RNAi silencing of the receptor for macrophage colony stimulation factor (M-CSFR) blocked splenic macrophage maturation, reduced splenic VCAM-1 expression and compromised splenic HSC retention. Both, depleting macrophages in CD169 iDTR mice or silencing VCAM-1 in macrophages released HSCs from the spleen. When we silenced either VCAM-1 or M-CSFR in mice with myocardial infarction or in ApoE−/− mice with atherosclerosis, nanoparticle-enabled in vivo RNAi mitigated blood leukocytosis, limited inflammation in the ischemic heart, and reduced myeloid cell numbers in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:25800955

  8. Copper-induced immunotoxicity involves cell cycle arrest and cell death in the spleen and thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Soham; Keswani, Tarun; Dey, Manali; Bhattacharya, Shaswati; Sarkar, Samrat; Goswami, Suranjana; Ghosh, Nabanita; Dutta, Anuradha; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2012-03-11

    Copper is an essential trace element for human physiological processes. To evaluate the potential adverse health impact/immunotoxicological effects of this metal in situ due to over exposure, Swiss albino mice were treated (via intraperitoneal injections) with copper (II) chloride (copper chloride) at doses of 0, 5, or 7.5 mg copper chloride/kg body weight (b.w.) twice a week for 4 wk; these values were derived from LD₅₀ studies using copper chloride doses that ranged from 0 to 40 mg/kg BW (2×/wk, for 4 wk). Copper treated mice evidenced immunotoxicity as indicated by dose-related decreases and increases, respectively, in thymic and splenic weights. Histomorphological changes evidenced in these organs were thymic atrophy, white pulp shrinkage in the spleen, and apoptosis of splenocytes and thymocytes; these observations were confirmed by microscopic analyses. Cell count analyses indicated that the proliferative functions of the splenocytes and thymocytes were also altered because of the copper exposures. Among both cell types from the copper treated hosts, flow cytometric analyses revealed a dose related increase in the percentages of cells in the Sub-G₀/G₁ state, indicative of apoptosis which was further confirmed by Annexin V binding assay. In addition, the copper treatments altered the expression of selected cell death related genes such as EndoG and Bax in a dose related manner. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that there was also increased ubiquitin expression in both the cell types. In conclusion, these studies show that sublethal exposure to copper (as copper chloride) induces toxicity in the thymus and spleen, and increased Sub G₀/G₁ population among splenocytes and thymocytes that is mediated, in part, by the EndoG-Bax-ubiquitin pathway. This latter damage to these cells that reside in critical immune system organs are likely to be important contributing factors underlying the immunosuppression that has been documented by other

  9. SH-2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 is required for IL-4-induced IL-4R expression in spleen cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xin; HUANG Zan; FAN Jingyi

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the role of SH-2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1, SHP-1, in IL-4-induced IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) expression, we examined IL-4 receptor α-chain (IL-4Rα) mRNA expression in Na3VO4-treated wild type (WT) spleen cells and measured IL-4R mRNA in IL-4-stimulated spleen cells of viable motheaten mice (mev/mev). It is found that IL-4-induced IL-4R mRNA expression was impaired in Na3VO4-treated WT spleen cells and IL-4-stimulated mev/mev spleen cells. Here we show that the impaired IL-4-induced IL-4RαmRNA expression was due to reduced expression of IL-4R that led to impaired STAT6 signaling. We further demonstrate that reduction of IL-4Rαprotein expression in mev/mev spleen cells was due to alteration in cell compositions. In mev/mev spleen, the percentages of CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ cells expressing relatively high levels of IL-4R were reduced dramatically while the percentages of Mac-1+ and Gr-1+ cells with relative low levels of IL-4R increased greatly. Despite the profound effect of reduced expression of IL-4R protein, the IL-4RαmRNA expression was comparable in spleen cells of littermate control mice (+/() and mev/mev mice and no differences were found in B cells, T cells, and macrophages, suggesting cell type-specific downregulation of IL-4R expression in macrophages through a posttranscriptional mechanism. Our study suggests that SHP-1 is required for IL-4-meidated function and indirectly regulates IL-4-meidated function in spleen cells by affecting hematopoiesis.

  10. Dexamethasone Regulates Macrophage and Cd4+Cd25+ Cell Numbers in the Chicken Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Calefi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dexamethasone (DEX is a corticoid hormone that is experimentally used to mimic the effects of increased levels of endogenous corticosterone observed during the stress response. Currently, stress is considered one of the major predisposing factors for diseases in the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of DEX and/or of a 20-fold coccidial vaccine dose on leukocyte phenotypes in the spleen and cecal tonsils of chickens. Twenty specific-pathogen-free (SPF Leghorn chickens were divided into four groups: a non-treated group (NT, a DEX-treated group (Dex, a vaccinated group (V and a DEX-treated+vaccinated group (Dex+V. On experimental day (ED 42, each bird in the vaccinated groups received a anti-coccidial vaccine. DEX was injected in the birds of the Dex and Dex+V groups (0.9 mg/kg onED42 and ED45. The immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry analysis of splenocytes and cecal tonsils cells onED48. DEX treatment per se was unable to change CD4+CD8+, CD4+CD8+ and CD4-CD8+ populations with TCRgd or CD28 in the spleen, or macrophages and T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils. V group birds presented higher numbers of splenic macrophages compared with those measured in the Dex+V group. The number of CD4+CD25+ cells in the spleen of birds of the V group was higher than those measured in the other experimental groups. Our data suggest that CD4+CD25+ cells and macrophages might be influenced by DEX treatment in spleen, but not in the cecal tonsils of chickens inoculated with Eimeria.

  11. De novo purine biosynthesis by two pathways in Burkitt lymphoma cells and in human spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reem, G H

    1972-05-01

    This study was designed to answer the question whether human lymphocytes and spleen cells were capable of de novo purine biosynthesis. Experiments were carried out in cell-free extracts prepared from human spleen, and from a cell line established from Burkitt lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma cells and human spleen cells could synthesize the first and second intermediates of the purine biosynthetic pathway. Cell-free extracts of all cell lines studied contained the enzyme systems which catalyze the synthesis of phosphoribosyl-1-amine, the first intermediate unique to the purine biosynthetic pathway and of phosphoribosyl glycinamide, the second intermediate of this pathway. Phosphoribosyl-1-amine could be synthesized in cell-free extracts from alpha-5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and glutamine, from PRPP and ammonia, and by an alternative pathway, directly from ribose-5-phosphate and ammonia. These findings suggest that extrahepatic tissues may be an important source for the de novo synthesis of purine ribonucleotide in man. They also indicate that ammonia may play an important role in purine biosynthesis. The alternative pathway for the synthesis of phosphoribosyl-1-amine from ribose-5-phosphate and ammonia was found to be subject to inhibition by the end products of the purine synthetic pathway, particularly by adenylic acid and to a lesser degree by guanylic acid. The alternative pathway for phosphoribosyl-1-amine synthesis from ribose-5-phosphate and ammonia may contribute significantly towards the regulation of the rate of de novo purine biosynthesis in the normal state, in metabolic disorders in which purines are excessively produced and in myeloproliferative diseases.

  12. 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-Heptamethoxyflavone reduces interleukin-4 production in the spleen cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mitsunari; Ogawa, Minetaro; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies, we reported anti-inflammatory functions of 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), which is a polymethoxyflavone rich in various citrus fruits. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory function of HMF in mice. HMF administration (50 mg/kg, i.p., 2 times/week) tended to reduce the production of antigen-specific IgE induced by ovalbumin in combination with aluminum hydroxide gel. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed the reduction of interleukin-4(+)CD4(+) spleen cells and sustained presence of interferon-γ(+)CD4(+) spleen cells in mice administered HMF, whereas the ratio of CD4(+)CD8(-) versus CD4(-)CD8(+) spleen cells was not affected. Interleukin-4 release from CD3/CD28-stimulated spleen cells of mice administered HMF was reduced, whereas interferon-γ release was not affected. These results suggest that HMF has an immunomodulatory function via reduced interleukin-4 expression.

  13. The effect of iron-deficiency anemia on cytolytic activity of mice spleen and peritoneal cells against allogenic tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvibidila, S.R.; Baliga, B.S.; Suskind, R.M.

    1983-08-01

    The capacity of spleen and peritoneal cells from iron deficient mice, ad libitum fed control mice, and pair-fed mice to kill allogenic tumor cells (mastocytoma tumor P815) has been investigated. In the first study, mice were sensitized in vivo with 10(7) viable tumor cells 51 and 56 days after weaning. The capacity of splenic cells and peritoneal cells from sensitized and nonsensitized mice to kill tumor cells was evaluated 5 days after the second dose of tumor cells. At ratios of 2.5:1 to 100:1 of attacker to target cells, the percentage /sup 51/Cr release after 4 h of incubation was significantly less in iron-deficient mice than control and/or pair-fed mice (p less than 0.05). Protein-energy undernutrition in pair-fed mice had no significant effect. In the second study, spleen cells and enriched T cell fractions were incubated in vitro for 5 days with uv irradiated Balb/C spleen cells in a 2:1 ratio. The cytotoxic capacity against the same allogenic tumor cells was again evaluated. The percentage chromium release at different attacker to target cells was less than 30% in the iron-deficient group compared to either control or pair-fed supporting the results of in vivo sensitized cells. The possible mode of impairment of the cytotoxic capacity is discussed.

  14. Clonogenic colony-forming ability of hepatic stem cells in the spleens of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To confirm the existence of hepatic stem cells (HSCs), fetal liver cells isolated from mice on embryonic day 13 (ED13) were long-term cultured in vitro. Growth of the cells was observed intensively and characteristics were identified by immunocytochemistry. The results showed that some of the cells grew as colonies, in which some cells expressed AFP, CD34 and Albumin. Then the cells were transplanted intravenously into irradiated syngeneic mice. At day 12 a number of small hyperplasia nodules were seen in the apparently enlarged spleens of recipient mice. Moreover, some nodules were positive for AFP and CD34 and consisted of various types of cells, suggesting the very existence of hepatic stem cells in the mouse fetal liver.

  15. Histological lesions, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and T cell subsets changes of spleen in chicken fed aflatoxin-contaminated corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Keying; Bai, Shiping; Ding, Xuemei; Zeng, Qiufeng; Yang, Jun; Fang, Jing; Chen, Kejie

    2014-08-20

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 on pathological lesions, apoptosis, cell cycle phases and T lymphocyte subsets of spleen, and to provide an experimental basis for understanding the mechanism of aflatoxin-induced immunosuppression. A total of 900 COBB500 male broilers were randomly allocated into five groups with six replicates per group and 30 birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks and the five dietary treatments consisted of control, 25% contaminated corn, 50% contaminated corn, 75% contaminated corn and 100% contaminated corn groups. The histopathological spleen lesions from the contaminated corn groups was characterized as congestion of red pulp, increased necrotic cells and vacuoles in the splenic corpuscle and periarterial lymphatic sheath. The contaminated corn intake significantly increased relative weight of spleen, percentages of apoptotic splenocytes, induced cell cycle arrest of splenocytes, increased the percentages of CD3+CD8+ T cells and decreased the ratios of CD3+CD4+ to CD3+CD8+. The results suggest that AFB-induced immunosuppression maybe closely related to the lesions of spleen.

  16. Intravenous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Grafts Preferentially Migrate to Spleen and Abrogate Chronic Inflammation in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Sandra A; Tajiri, Naoki; Hoover, Jaclyn; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2015-09-01

    Adult stem cell therapy is an experimental stroke treatment. Here, we assessed homing and anti-inflammatory effects of bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in chronic stroke. At 60 days post stroke, adult Sprague-Dawley rats received intravenous hBMSCs (4×10(6) labeled or nonlabeled cells) or vehicle (saline). A sham surgery group served as additional control. In vivo imaging was conducted between 1 hour and 11 days post transplantation, followed by histological examination. Labeled hBMSCs migrated to spleen which emitted significantly higher fluorescent signal across all time points, especially during the first hour, and were modestly detected in the head region at the 12 hours and 11 days, compared with nonlabeled hBMSCs and vehicle-infused stroke animals, or sham (Pcells in gray and white matter, and a 43% diminution in tumor necrosis factor-α cell density in the spleen of transplanted stroke animals compared with vehicle-infused stroke animals (Pstroke possibly by abrogating the inflammation-plagued secondary cell death. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. Effects of several salt marsh plants on mouse spleen and thymus cell proliferation using mtt assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngwan; Lee, Hee-Jung; Kim, You Ah; Youn, Hyun Joo; Lee, Burm-Jong

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, we have tested the effects of 21 salt marsh plants on cell proliferation of mouse immune cells (spleen and thymus) using MTT assay in culture. The methanolic extracts of six salt marsh plants ( Rosa rugosa, Ixeris tamagawaensis, Artemisia capillaris, Tetragonia tetragonoides, Erigeron annus, and Glehnia littoralis) showed very powerful suppressive effects of mouse immune cell death and significant activities of cell proliferation in vitro. Especially, the methanolic extract of Rosa rugosa was found to have fifteen times compared to the control treatment, demonstrating that Rosa rugosa may have a potent stimulation effect on immune cell proliferation. These results suggest that several salt marsh plants including Rosa rugosa could be useful for further study as an immunomodulating agent.

  18. Cell apoptosis of caprine spleen induced by toxicity of cadmium with different levels of molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaolong; Chen, Rongrong; Hu, Guoliang; Zhuang, Yu; Luo, Junrong; Zhang, Caiying; Guo, Xiaoquan; Huang, Aiming; Cao, Huabin

    2015-07-01

    In order to clarify the effects of the combination of Mo and Cd on goat and relationship between the two elements, combined chronic toxicity of cadmium with different levels of molybdenum in vivo on apoptosis gene and ultrastructure of spleen was evaluated with the methods of RT-qPCR and transmission electron microscopy. A total of thirty-six goats were randomly distributed in equal number into four groups. These groups were randomly assigned with one of three oral treatments of CdCl2 (0.5 mgCd kg(-1)) and [(NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O] (15 mg Mo kg(-1), group I; 30 mg Mo kg(-1), group II; 45 mg Mo kg(-1), group III), while the control group received deionized water. Spleen tissues were taken from individual goat at different time intervals to measure the levels of apoptosis genes including Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt c, Caspase-3, Smac and ceruloplasmin (Cp). The results revealed that a significant suppression in Bcl-2 expression and increase in Cyt c, Caspase-3 and Cp expression in splenic cells. The Bax expression in group I and II was up-regulated, however, it displayed reduction in group III, whereas no statistical significance was observed on Smac expression. In addition, histopathologic injury revealed remarkable morphplogical changes on the splenocytes in the means of apoptosis including fragmentized nucleus, apoptotic body and vesiculation of cytoplasma and mitochondria. Taken together, combined chronic toxicity of cadmium with different levels of molybdenum induce goat spleen cell apoptosis associated with mitochondrial intrinsic pathway, and the two elements showed possible antergic relationship.

  19. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  20. Splenic sequestration of Tc-99m labeled heat treated red blood cells. [Feasibility of use for spleen imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, H L; Goldman, A G; Fairchild, R G; Oster, Z H; Som, P; Richards, P; Meinken, G E; Srivastava, S C

    1979-01-01

    The rate of blood clearance and spleen uptake as well as the total spleen uptake of heat damaged red blood cells labeled with Tc-99m was determined in eight patients, six of whom had chronic lymphatic leukemia, one had polycythemia vera and one had eosinophilia of unknown origin. Spleen uptake at 2 hrs was 72.0 +- 18.5%. Approximately 82.6% of the initial radioactivity was cleared from the blood by 2 hrs with a rapid T 1/2 component of 6.3 +- 4.7 min. The T 1/2 of splenic uptake was 8.3 +- 4.6 min with a plateauing of splenic radioactivity by 30 min. The preliminary results indicate that the method of preparation is reliable but the usefulness of the method for evaluating spleen function remains to be determined.

  1. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in mouse spleen cells: a potential mechanism for cannabinoid-mediated immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, A R; Kessler, F K; Kaminski, N E

    1992-01-01

    The ability of delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) to modulate adenylate cyclase activity in mouse spleen cells was investigated. These studies were prompted by the recent identification and cloning of a G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptor localized in certain regions of the brain and the potential for a common mechanism between cannabinoid-mediated CNS effects and immunosuppression. Temporal addition studies were initially performed to identify the period of time when spleen cells in culture were most susceptible to the inhibitory effects of delta 9-THC, as measured by the day 5 IgM antibody forming cell response. delta 9-THC was only inhibitory when added to spleen cell cultures during the first 2 hr following antigen sensitization. In light of this time course, adenylate cyclase activity was measured in spleen cells incubated in the presence of 22 microM delta 9-THC for 5 min and subsequently stimulated with forskolin. delta 9-THC treated spleen cells demonstrated a 33% inhibition and a 66% inhibition in intracellular cAMP after a 5 or 15 min stimulation with forskolin, respectively. These studies suggest that inhibition of immune function by delta 9-THC may be mediated through the inhibition of intracellular cAMP early after antigen stimulation.

  2. Differential control of immune cell homeostasis by Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in murine peripheral lymph nodes and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanez-Almeida, Pedro; Klawonn, Frank; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Huehn, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) hamper efficient immune responses to tumors and chronic infections. Therefore, depletion of Foxp3(+) Tregs has been proposed as therapeutic option to boost immune responses and to improve vaccinations. Although Treg-mediated control of T cell homeostasis is well established, Foxp3(+) Treg interaction with other immune cell subsets is only incompletely understood. Thus, the present study aimed at examining dynamic effects of experimental Foxp3(+) Treg depletion on a broad range of immune cell subsets, including B cells, natural killer cells, and myeloid cells. Striking differences were observed when peripheral lymph nodes (LN) and spleen were compared. B cells, for example, showed a massive and long-lasting accumulation only in LN but not in spleen of transiently Treg-depleted mice. In contrast, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, which are potent inducers of T cell responses, also accumulated selectively, but only transiently in LN, suggesting that this cell population is under very strict control of Foxp3(+) Tregs. In summary, the observations described here provide insights into the dynamics of immune cells after selective depletion of Foxp3(+) Tregs. This will allow a better prediction of the impact of Treg ablation in translational studies that aim at boosting immune responses and vaccinations.

  3. Splenectomy associated changes in IgM memory B cells in an adult spleen registry cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul U Cameron

    Full Text Available Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited to a spleen registry (n = 591. A subset of 209 adult asplenic or hyposplenic subjects, and normal controls (n = 140 were tested for IgM memory B cells. We also determined a changes in IgM memory B cells with time after splenectomy using the cross-sectional data from patients on the registry and b the kinetics of changes in haematological markers associated with splenectomy(n = 45. Total B cells in splenectomy patients did not differ from controls, but memory B cells, IgM memory B cells and switched B cells were significantly (p<0.001 reduced. The reduction was similar for different indications for splenectomy. Changes of asplenia in routine blood films including presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB, occurred early (median 25 days and splenectomy associated thrombocytosis and lymphocytosis peaked by 50 days. There was a more gradual decrease in IgM memory B cells reaching a stable level within 6 months after splenectomy. IgM memory B cells as proportion of B cells was the best discriminator between splenectomized patients and normal controls and at the optimal cut-off of 4.53, showed a true positive rate of 95% and false positive rate of 20%. In a survey of 152 registry patients stratified by IgM memory B cells around this cut-off there was no association with minor infections and no registry patients experienced OPSI during the study. Despite significant changes after splenectomy, conventional measures of IgM memory cells have limited clinical utility in this population.

  4. Blood cleansing cells in head kidney and spleen in Buenos Aires tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Eigenmann), (Characidae: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, I L

    2012-06-01

    The general structure and cell types in kidney and spleen in Buenos Aires tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi, family Characidae, are described. The capability and capacity of these organs to clean foreign ferritin from the blood stream are analysed and compared. Head kidney was mainly composed of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and other white blood cells, whereas unmatured and matured red blood cells were few in number. Spleen often contained much red pulp, that is mainly matured red blood cells between splenic cords, often with some macrophages and neutrophils in the latter. Occasionally, this pulp contained large volumes of unmatured red blood cells, particularly in the periphery of the spleen. The splenic white pulp consisted of ellipsoids composed of an inner endothelial layer covered by a thick sheet of white blood cells, which in the periphery consisted mainly of macrophages. Erythrocytes occupied nearly the entire splenic volume in some specimens, whereas up to half of this volume was filled by ellipsoid macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and other white blood cells in other specimens. The macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells in kidney and spleen from ferritin-injected specimens were tightly packed by yellow-brown granules or Prussian blue precipitations, in tissue treated with Mallory stain or acid ferrocyanide, respectively, suggesting a large uptake of foreign ferritin. In the present tetra large amounts of white blood cells are developed in head kidney, where macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells play important roles in the cleansing of scavenger and foreign molecules and particles from the blood stream. The spleen seems primarily to be a site for iron recycling and production and storage of red blood cells. Sometimes, however, it was rich in macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and other white blood cells, suggesting functions like blood cleansing and non-specific and specific defence in such specimens. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing

  5. [Spontaneous rupture of the spleen in a patient treated with chemotherapy and growth factors for stem cell mobilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossitto, M; Versaci, A; Barbera, A; Broccio, M; Lepore, V; Ciccolo, A

    1998-05-01

    The Authors report a case of spontaneous spleen rupture in a woman with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy and growth factors for stem cell mobilization. After a wide review of the literature, they suppose this therapy, causing a considerable increase of immature cells, that promote the stasis of the splenic microcirculation, can sometime elicit a spontaneous rupture of the organ.

  6. Pathologic Rupture of the Spleen in Mantle-Cell-Type Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL accounts for less than 10 percent of all non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL. Pathologic or spontaneous rupture of the spleen has been reported in patients with lymphoma; however only 5 cases have been reported in patients with MCL. Although splenomegaly occurs frequently in patients with MCL, spontaneous splenic rupture is rare. We present a case of a 51-year-old female with MCL, who presented to the medical emergency room with splenic rupture. This case illustrates that clinicians should be aware of the incidence and presentation of patients with MCL and spontaneous splenic rupture, as early detection and heightened suspicion may prevent potentially fatal outcomes.

  7. Different Characters of Spleen OX-62 Positive Dendritic Cells between Fischer and Lewis Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linsong Yang; Yayi Hou

    2006-01-01

    The phenotype, DNA-binding activities of NF-κB, cytokine production, endocytosis and stimulatory capacity of spleen OX-62-positive dendritc cells (SDCs) from Fischer rats were compared with those from Lewis rats. Results showed that the expressions of CD11b, MHC-Ⅱ, CD8, CD45RA, CD54 and CD86 on SDCs were significantly higher in Fischer than those in Lewis rats. The levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ in SDCs from Fischer rats were distinctly higher than those from Lewis. Both stimulatory capacity and DNA-binding activities of NF-κB in SDCs were all lower in Fischer than those in Lewis rats. These differences may partly contribute to rat strainspecificity in susceptibility to chronic inflammatory stimuli.

  8. Abrogation of the immunosuppressive effect of donor spleen cells on renal allografts in the rat by irradiation or heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranston, D.; Wood, K.J.; Morris, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    In the donor-recipient strain combination Lewis (RT1l) to Dark Agouti (RT1a), indefinite renal allograft survival (MST greater than 100 days) was induced by pretreating recipient animals i.v. with 10(6) to 10(8) viable spleen lymphocytes, seven days before transplantation. Pretreatment with 10(4) or 10(5) cells was ineffective (MST 10 days). However when 10(7) live, but heat-treated (55 degrees C for 10 min) or irradiated (1000 rads) cells were used, all the animals rejected the allograft in a normal fashion (MST 10 and 11 days, respectively). Median survival time of third-party controls was 10 days. The relative amount of cell surface major histocompatibility antigens (class I and class II) expressed by the three spleen cell preparations was investigated using monoclonal antibodies and fluorescence activated cell sorter analysis and found to be similar. After 24 hr in culture, only 1% of heat-treated and 10% of irradiated cells were viable, in contrast to 75% of untreated splenocytes. Trafficking of these lymphocytes in recipient animals was investigated by 51chromium labeling of the cells: 30% of lymphocytes had localized in the liver within 3 hr with little difference in localization among the different cell preparations. But, although 20% of normal and irradiated cells localized in the spleen within 3 hr, at no stage were more than 5% of the heat-treated cells found in the spleen. It is suggested that the length of time viable donor lymphocytes remain in the recipient circulation is important in the induction of specific immunosuppression by spleen lymphocytes.

  9. Influence of spaceflight on the production of interleukin-3 and interleukin-6 by rat spleen and thymus cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edwin S.; Koebel, D. Anne; Sonnefeld, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were flown on the 7-day US space shuttle mission STS-54. After flight, the spleen and thymus from each animal were assayed for the capacity to secrete the cytokines interleukin-3 (IL-3) and IL-6. Spleen and thymus cells were incubated for 48 h in the presence of 5 microgram/ml of concanavalin A or 2 microgram/ml of bacterial lipopolysaccharide to stimulate the production of IL-3 and IL-6. IL-3 activity was measured using the IL-3/colony-stimulating-factor-dependent cell line 32D. IL-6 activity was measured using the IL-6-dependent cell line 7TD1. Spleen and thymus cells harvested from flown rats secreted significantly higher titers of biologically active IL-3 compared with ground control rats. Spaceflight significantly enhanced IL-6 production by thymus, but not spleen, cells. The results of this study demonstrate that spaceflight can enhance the production of certain cytokines by cells of the immune system.

  10. [Development of Eimeria tenella in MDBK cell culture with a note on enhancing effect of preincubation with chicken spleen cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, J Y; Lee, S H; Kim, W H; Yun, C K

    1989-06-01

    Eimeria tenella, an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting the epithelial cells of the ceca of chickens, causes severe diarrhea and bleeding that can lead its host to death. It is of interest that E. tenella first penetrate into the mucosal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) before they parasitize crypt or villous epithelial cells. This in vitro study was undertaken to know whether the penetration of E. tenella into such a lymphoid cell is a beneficial step for the parasite survival and development. Three sequential experiments were performed. First, the in vitro established bovine kidney cell line, MDBK cells, were evaluated for use as host cells for E. tenella, through morphological observation. Second, the degree of parasite development and multiplication in MDBK cells was quantitatively assayed using radioisotope-labelled uracil (3H-uracil). Third, the E. tenella sporozoites viability was assayed after preincubation of them with chicken spleen cells. E. tenella oöcysts obtained from the ceca of the infected chickens were used for the source of the sporozoites. Spleen cells (E) obtained from normal chickens (FP strain) were preincubated with the sporozoites (T) at the E:T ratio of 100:1, 50:1 or 25:1 for 4 or 12 hours, and then the mixture was inoculated into the MDBK cell monolayer. Morphologically the infected MDBK cells revealed active schizogonic cycle of E. tenella in 3-4 days, which was characterized by the appearance of trophozoites, and immature and mature schizonts containing merozoites. The 3H-uracil uptake by E. tenella increased gradually in the MDBK cells, which made a plateau after 48-60 hours, and decreased thereafter. The uptake amount of 3H-uracil depended not only upon the inoculum size of the sporozoites but also on the degree of time delay (preincubation; sporozoites only) from excystation to inoculation into MDBK cells. The 3H-uracil uptake became lower as the preincubation time was prolonged. In comparison, after preincubation of

  11. Heterogeneity of mouse spleen dendritic cells: in vivo phagocytic activity, expression of macrophage markers, and subpopulation turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Leenen (Pieter); K. Radosevic; J.S. Voerman (Jane); B. Salomon; N. van Rooijen (Nico); D. Klatzmann; W. van Ewijk (Willem)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn the normal mouse spleen, two distinct populations of dendritic cells (DC) are present that differ in microanatomical location. The major population of marginal DC is found in the "marginal zone bridging channels" and extends into the red pulp. The interdi

  12. Fibrocyte-like cells recruited to the spleen support innate and adaptive immune responses to acute injury or infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisseleva, Tatiana; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Reichart, Donna; McGillvray, Shauna M; Wingender, Gerhard; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Glass, Christopher K; Nizet, Victor; Brenner, David A

    2011-10-01

    Bone marrow (BM)-derived fibrocytes are a population of CD45(+) and collagen Type I-expressing cells that migrate to the spleen and to target injured organs, such as skin, lungs, kidneys, and liver. While CD45(+)Col(+) fibrocytes contribute to collagen deposition at the site of injury, the role of CD45(+)Col(+) cells in spleen has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that hepatotoxic injury (CCl(4)), TGF-β1, lipopolysaccharide, or infection with Listeria monocytogenes induce rapid recruitment of CD45(+)Col(+) fibrocyte-like cells to the spleen. These cells have a gene expression pattern that includes antimicrobial factors (myleoperoxidase, cathelicidin, and defensins) and MHC II at higher levels than found on quiescent or activated macrophages. The immune functions of these splenic CD45(+)Col(+) fibrocyte-like cells include entrapment of bacteria into extracellular DNA-based structures containing cathelicidin and presentation of antigens to naïve CD8(+) T cells to induce their proliferation. Stimulation of these splenic fibrocyte-like cells with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor or macrophage-colony stimulating factor induces downregulation of collagen expression and terminal differentiation into the dendritic cells or macrophage. Thus, splenic CD45(+)Col(+) cells are a population of rapidly mobilized BM-derived fibrocyte-like cells that respond to inflammation or infection to participate in innate and adaptive immune responses.

  13. Telocytes in the Spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Chang

    Full Text Available Telocytes, a novel type of interstitial cells with very long and thin prolongations, have been identified in many organs in mammals. At present, the ultrastructural, immunocytochemical and electrophysiological properties of telocytes in multiple organs have been understood. However, telocytes in spleen, especially their roles in spleen have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure, distribution and immunophenotypes of splenic telocytes. Rat spleen was harvested for the ultrastructure analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The primary culture of telocytes was performed after combined enzymatic digestion. The characteristic morphology was analyzed by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was shown that telocytes displayed a piriform/spindle/triangular shape with long and slender telopods and extremely long prolongation contracting with surrounding cells in the spleen. Their dynamic profiles of cytoplasmic separation were recorded by the Live Cell Imaging System. The length of telopods was mostly distributing in 20-30 μm, in accordance with normal distribution. Most telocytes had three or two telopods (28.71% and 22.58% respectively. Immunostaining indicated that these cells were positive for vimentin, CD34, nanog and sca-1, but negative for c-kit. These data prove the existence of telocytes in the spleen, which may serve as the experimental base for exploring their roles in the spleen.

  14. Telocytes in the Spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuqiao; Li, Cixia; Gan, Li; Li, He; Guo, Zhikun

    2015-01-01

    Telocytes, a novel type of interstitial cells with very long and thin prolongations, have been identified in many organs in mammals. At present, the ultrastructural, immunocytochemical and electrophysiological properties of telocytes in multiple organs have been understood. However, telocytes in spleen, especially their roles in spleen have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure, distribution and immunophenotypes of splenic telocytes. Rat spleen was harvested for the ultrastructure analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The primary culture of telocytes was performed after combined enzymatic digestion. The characteristic morphology was analyzed by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that telocytes displayed a piriform/spindle/triangular shape with long and slender telopods and extremely long prolongation contracting with surrounding cells in the spleen. Their dynamic profiles of cytoplasmic separation were recorded by the Live Cell Imaging System. The length of telopods was mostly distributing in 20-30 μm, in accordance with normal distribution. Most telocytes had three or two telopods (28.71% and 22.58% respectively). Immunostaining indicated that these cells were positive for vimentin, CD34, nanog and sca-1, but negative for c-kit. These data prove the existence of telocytes in the spleen, which may serve as the experimental base for exploring their roles in the spleen.

  15. Wandering spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Shabir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Wandering spleen is a rare clinical entity, characterized by splenic hypermobility that results from elongation or maldevelopment of its suspensary ligaments. The wandering spleen is in constant danger of torsion and infarction. This condition poses a great diagnostic challenge due to lack of awareness and paucity of symptoms. Among adults, it usually occurs in females of childbearing age, the children below ten years of age are other sufferers. The clinical presentation may be acute or chronic; such as asymptomatic abdominal mass, an acute abdomen, or, most commonly, a mass associated with vague abdominal symptoms. Computed tomography and duplex ultrasonography are best diagnostic modalities. The traditional conservative approach carries high risk of infarction leading to splenectomy and postsplenectomy sepsis. Splenopexy is the treatment of choice for all noninfarcted wandering spleens. Splenectomy should only be performed when there is no evidence of splenic blood flow after detorsion of the spleen. The present study, reviews the presentation, course, diagnostic modalities and management options of wandering spleen

  16. Evaluation of the proliferative activity of methanol extracts from six medicinal plants in murine spleen cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hermes Zandonai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of natural compounds have been used as immunomodulatory agents, enabling the function of the immune system to be modified by stimulating or suppressing it. There has been increasing interest in the study of therapeutic action of plant extracts regarding their immunomodulatory activity. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the action of extracts of the medicinal plants Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Matayba elaeagnoides, Maytenus robusta, Rubus imperialis and Vernonia scorpioides on the development of spleen cells from mice, using the in vitro cellular proliferation assay. The cells, obtained by mechanical rupture of mice spleen (5x10(4 cells/mL, were incubated with methanol extracts (10, 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL and phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 5 µg/mL. The basal control for proliferation consisted of cells alone, while the positive control consisted of cells and PHA. The cell culture was kept at 37 ºC in 5% CO2 for 72 hours, and cell proliferation was revealed by the blue tetrazolium reduction assay (MTT. The results were expressed as percentage of growth and were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The C. brasiliense, I. pes-caprae and M. elaeagnoides extracts showed dose-dependent induction of cell proliferation, with a significant increase in cell proliferation (pVárias substâncias de origem natural têm sido utilizadas como agentes imunomoduladores, permitindo modificar a função do sistema imune e propiciando o estudo de atividades terapêuticas de extratos de plantas. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a atividade imunomodulatória dos extratos de seis plantas medicinais da flora brasileira, Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Matayba elaeagnoides, Maytenus robusta, Rubus imperialis e Vernonia scorpioides, sobre a proliferação de células esplênicas de camundongos. As células esplênicas murinas obtidas por ruptura mecânica do baço (5x14³ células/mL foram

  17. Transformation of human fetal thymus and spleen lymphocytes by human t-cell leukemia virus type Ι

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akagi,Tadaatsu

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available Co-cultivation of human thymus and spleen lymphocytes, which were obtained from 26-week and 27-week fetuses, with a lethally-irradiated human cord T-cell line harboring human T-cell leukemia virus type Ι(HTLV-Ι resultes in the establishment of T-cell lines positive for adult T-cell leukemia-associated antigens and producing HTLV-Ι. These cell lines had the phenotype of a helper/inducer subset of peripheral T-cells as evidenced by the reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to human T-cells.

  18. Chimerism of allogeneic mesenchymal cells in bone marrow, liver, and spleen after mesenchymal stem cells infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleshko, Alexander; Prakharenia, Irina; Kletski, Semen; Isaikina, Yanina

    2013-12-01

    Although an infusion of culture-expanded MSCs is applied in clinic to improve results of HSCs transplantation and for a treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, homing, and engraftment potential of culture-expanded MSC in humans is still obscure. We report two female patients who received allogeneic BM transplantation as a treatment of hematological diseases and a transplantation of MSCs from third-party male donors. Both patients died within one yr of infectious complications. Specimens of paraffin-embedded blocks of tissues from transplanted patients were taken. The aim of the study was to estimate possible homing and engraftment of allogeneic BM-derived MSCs in some tissues/organs of recipient. Sensitive real-time quantitative PCR analysis was applied with SRY gene as a target. MSC chimerism was found in BM, liver, and spleen of both patients. We conclude that sensitive RQ-PCR analysis is acceptable for low-level chimerism evaluation even in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens.

  19. Organic and hybrid solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a comprehensive evaluation of organic and hybrid solar cells and identifies their fundamental principles and numerous applications. Great attention is given to the charge transport mechanism, donor and acceptor materials, interfacial materials, alternative electrodes, device engineering and physics, and device stability. The authors provide an industrial perspective on the future of photovoltaic technologies.

  20. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharide on bone marrow and spleen progenitor cells in mitomycin—induced myelosuppresive mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaX; CuiYJ

    2002-01-01

    Astragalus polysaccharide(APS) is an extract of Astragalus membranaceus Var.mongolicus.The effects of APS on bone marrow and spleen progenitor cells in mitomycin (MMS)-induced myelosuppressive micr was observed.MMC7 mg·kg-1 was injected ip on day 0,APS 100mg·kg-1·d-1 was given ac in 3 reginens (1)on day 0-4,(2)on day 0-11,(3)12 doses in 3 weeks.APS increased the number of bone marrow progeniter cells(CFU-C) of MMC treated micr 3-fold,from 1870±40 per femur to 6240±110 per femur on day3.APS treatment resulted in a higher level of bone marrow CFU-C at all time points from day 3 to day 18,in comparison with the control group.APS also significantly stimulated the proliferation of spleen pregenitor cells on day 14 (3-fold higher) and day 18(4-fold higher) after MMC treatment,although APS had no effect on spleen progenitor cells before day 14.These results demonstrate that APS enhances the proliferation and maturation of the progenitors of peripheral blood cells in MMC treated mice.

  1. Morphological changes of blood spleen barrier in portal hypertensive spleen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zong-fang; ZHANG Shu; HUANG Ying; XIA Xian-ming; LI Ai-min; PAN Dun; ZHANG Wei; WANG Juan

    2008-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of hypersplenism and the immune function of the spleen in patients with portal hypertension(PH)remain obscure.This study aimed to evaluate the morphological changes of blood spleen barrier in spleen with hypersplenism due to PH and provide evidence for an in-depth investigation of the immune function of the spleen with hypersplenism and the mechanism of hypersplenism.Methods Spleen samples from 12 portal hypertensive patients and 4 patients with traumatic ruptures of spleen were examined.The samples of spleen were made into pathological sections,stained with Masson trichrome stain,Gomori stain,and CD68,CD34 immunohistochemistry,and were examined microscopically for the changes in the distribution of collagen fibers,reticular fibers,macrophages,and vascular endothelial cells.The changes in ultrastructure of macrophages and endothelial cells in marginal zone were also evaluated by transmission electron microscopy.Results As compared to the normal spleen,the density of macrophage in the PH spleen was decreased,but the macrophages were mainly located in the marginal zone and distributed around the splenic corpuscle,with many villi and pseudopodium-like protrusion on the cell surface.The accrementition of collagen fibers was obvious around the splenic corpuscle and central artery.The increased reticulate fibers encircled the splenic corpuscle with more connection between the fibers.The vascular endothelial cells were in diffused distribution,without any regionality in PH spleen,but the vessel with enlarged lumina increased in red pulp.Conclusions The morphological changes of the blood spleen barrier can be one of the pathological fundaments for the abnormality of the immune function and the increased destruction of blood cells located in the spleens of patients with PH.However,this still entails clarification.

  2. Evaluation of spleen lymphocyte responsiveness to a T-cell mitogen during early infection with larval Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letonja, T; Hammerberg, C; Schurig, G

    1987-01-01

    The effect of taeniid infection on the in vitro cellular response of the host was investigated. Infections of Taenia taeniaeformis decreased the ability of spleen cells from susceptible C3H/He mice to respond to the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A) as early as 2 days postinfection (pi) reaching a suppression peak at day 12 pi. Similar experiments performed with spleen cells from infected BALB/c mice, resistant to the infection, revealed little or no suppression of Con A stimulation. The results suggested that susceptibility to the parasite may be due to its ability to induce a partial suppression of the host's immune system. The role of adherent splenocytes from infected C3H/He mice in the production of a deficient response to Con A during early infection was studied by coculturing experiments. These experiments demonstrated that adherent populations from infected mice did not play a direct role in the Con A-suppressor mechanisms. Concomitant with the suppressor activity an increased background proliferation was observed with nonstimulated splenocytes from C3H/He mice infected with T. taeniaeformis. Plasma from infected mice was able to suppress the response of normal spleen cells to Con A and to stimulate a proliferative response in cultured splenocytes from noninfected animals. The results suggest the presence of factors in the plasma of infected mice which may be modulating the immune response to the parasite.

  3. Using ovality to predict nonmutagenic, orally efficacious pyridazine amides as cell specific spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew C; Bhagirath, Niala; Chiao, Eric; Goldstein, David M; Hermann, Johannes C; Hsu, Pei-Yuan; Kirchner, Stephan; Kennedy-Smith, Joshua J; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Lukacs, Christine; Menke, John; Niu, Linghao; Padilla, Fernando; Peng, Ying; Polonchuk, Liudmila; Railkar, Aruna; Slade, Michelle; Soth, Michael; Xu, Daigen; Yadava, Preeti; Yee, Calvin; Zhou, Mingyan; Liao, Cheng

    2014-03-27

    Inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase has attracted much attention as a mechanism for the treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematous. We report the structure-guided optimization of pyridazine amide spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Early representatives of this scaffold were highly potent and selective but mutagenic in an Ames assay. An approach that led to the successful identification of nonmutagenic examples, as well as further optimization to compounds with reduced cardiovascular liabilities is described. Select pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy data are presented.

  4. Enhancement of terminal B lymphocyte differentiation in vitro by fibroblast-like stromal cells from human spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibinski, G; Skibinska, A; Stewart, G D; James, K

    1998-12-01

    Stromal elements are major components of lymphoid tissues contributing to both tissue architecture and function. In this study we report on the phenotype and function of fibroblast-like stromal cells obtained from human spleen. These cells express high levels of CD44 and ICAM-1 and moderate levels of VLA-4, VCAM, CD40 and CD21. They fail to express endothelial, epithelial, lymphocyte and monocyte/macrophage markers. We show that these cells interact with B cell blasts induced in vitro by anti-CD40 and anti-mu stimulation. As a result of these interactions both IL-6 and IgG secretion into culture medium is increased. The enhanced secretion of IgG is partly inhibited by abolishing B cell blaststromal cell contact or by anti-IL-6, anti-VCAM or anti-CD49d antibodies. Our studies also suggest that the ability of stromal cells to promote B cell survival is most likely the underlying mechanism of the enhanced immunoglobulin secretion. Comparison of stromal cells from different lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs revealed that bone marrow- and spleen-derived stromal cells are the most effective in promoting B cell blast differentiation.

  5. Expression of Immunoglobulin Receptors with Distinctive Features Indicating Antigen Selection by Marginal Zone B Cells from Human Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Reverberi, Daniele; Bruno, Silvia; Ghiotto, Fabio; Tenca, Claudya; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia; Ceccarelli, Jenny; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Calevo, Maria Grazia; De Santanna, Amleto; Truini, Mauro; Fais, Franco; Ferrarini, Manlio

    2013-01-01

    Marginal zone (MZ) B cells, identified as surface (s)IgMhighsIgDlowCD23low/−CD21+CD38− B cells, were purified from human spleens, and the features of their V(D)J gene rearrangements were investigated and compared with those of germinal center (GC), follicular mantle (FM) and switched memory (SM) B cells. Most MZ B cells were CD27+ and exhibited somatic hypermutations (SHM), although to a lower extent than SM B cells. Moreover, among MZ B-cell rearrangements, recurrent sequences were observed, some of which displayed intraclonal diversification. The same diversifying sequences were detected in very low numbers in GC and FM B cells and only when a highly sensitive, gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was used. This result indicates that MZ B cells could expand and diversify in situ and also suggested the presence of a number of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-expressing B cells in the MZ. The notion of antigen-driven expansion/selection in situ is further supported by the VH CDR3 features of MZ B cells with highly conserved amino acids at specific positions and by the finding of shared (“stereotyped”) sequences in two different spleens. Collectively, the data are consistent with the notion that MZ B cells are a special subset selected by in situ antigenic stimuli. PMID:23877718

  6. A biomimetic microfluidic chip to study the circulation and mechanical retention of red blood cells in the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Julien; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Lefevre, Sophie D; El Nemer, Wassim; Tawfik, Harvey; Galimand, Julie; Da Costa, Lydie; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; de Montalembert, Mariane; Brousse, Valentine; Le Pioufle, Bruno; Buffet, Pierre; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Français, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are deformable and flow through vessels narrower than their own size. Their deformability is most stringently challenged when they cross micrometer-wide slits in the spleen. In several inherited or acquired RBC disorders, blockade of small vessels by stiff RBCs can trigger organ damage, but a functional spleen is expected to clear these abnormal RBCs from the circulation before they induce such complications. We analyzed flow behavior of RBCs in a microfluidic chip that replicates the mechanical constraints imposed on RBCs as they cross the human spleen. Polymer microchannels obtained by soft lithography with a hydraulic diameter of 25 μm drove flow into mechanical filtering units where RBCs flew either slowly through 5- to 2-μm-wide slits or rapidly along 10-μm-wide channels, these parallel paths mimicking the splenic microcirculation. Stiff heated RBCs accumulated in narrow slits seven times more frequently than normal RBCs infused simultaneously. Stage-dependent retention of Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs was also observed in these slits. We also analyzed RBCs from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and observed retention for those having the most altered mechanical properties as determined by ektacytometry. Thus, in keeping with previous observations in vivo and ex vivo, the chip successfully discriminated poorly deformable RBCs based on their distinct mechanical properties and on the intensity of the cell alteration. Applications to the exploration of the pathogenesis of malaria, hereditary spherocytosis, sickle cell disease and other RBC disorders are envisioned. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Studies of allogeneic bone marrow and spleen cell transplantation in a murine model using ultraviolet-B light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamphilon, D.H.; Alnaqdy, A.A.; Godwin, V.; Preece, A.W.; Wallington, T.B. (South Western Regional Transfusion Centre, Bristol (United Kingdom))

    1991-05-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation inhibits alloreactive and mitogen-induced responses and might reduce both graft-versus-host and host-versus-graft reactions after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We have studied proliferative responses to mitogens and reactivity in mixed lymphocyte culture after irradiation with ultraviolet (UV)-B light using splenocytes from Balb/c (H-2d) and CBA (H-2k) mice. Response to mitogens and in MLC was strongly inhibited by 20 J/m{sup 2} and abolished at 50 J/m{sup 2}. Clonogenic cell recovery (CFU-GM; CFU-S) after UV-B irradiation was also reduced. When bone marrow and spleen cells were transplanted from parent (Balb/c) animals into F1 hybrid (Balb/c X CBA) recipients, all animals died with features indicative of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in 34 days. If the grafts were first irradiated with 100 J/m{sup 2} of UV-B at a mean wavelength of 310 nm, then 76% survived to day 80 when they were killed and shown to have normal marrow cellularity. The remainder died in marrow aplasia or of GVHD. H-2 typing in a group of surviving recipients showed either donor hematopoiesis only (8 of 15), mixed allogeneic chimerism (5 of 15), or recipient type hematopoiesis (2 of 15). Higher doses (200 to 300 J/m{sup 2}) were detrimental to survival with 88% of recipients dying in marrow aplasia. Syngeneic BMT in Balb/c mice showed slower hematopoietic reconstitution when the grafts were first irradiated with 100 J/m{sup 2}. After BMT from Balb/c to CBA mice all recipients of unirradiated grafts died within 54 days. By contrast, after graft irradiation with 100 J/m{sup 2} survival of recipient animals to day 80 was 59%. If these grafts were treated with 50 J/m{sup 2} survival was only 26% with an increase in deaths due to GVHD. Hematopoiesis at day 80 in a group of survivors studied by Ig heavy chain allotyping indicated donor type hematopoiesis in 6 of 10 (50 J/m{sup 2}) and 2 of 9 (100 J/m{sup 2}).

  8. Towards stable silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W W; Wu, K J; Wang, K; Shi, T F; Wu, L; Li, S X; Teng, D Y; Ye, C H

    2014-01-16

    Silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells benefit from the ease of fabrication and the cost-effectiveness of the hybrid structure, and represent a new research focus towards the utilization of solar energy. However, hybrid solar cells composed of both inorganic and organic components suffer from the notorious stability issue, which has to be tackled before the hybrid solar cells could become a viable alternative for harvesting solar energy. Here we show that Si nanoarray/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with improved stability can be fabricated via eliminating the water inclusion in the initial formation of the heterojunction between Si nanoarray and PEDOT:PSS. The Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells are stable against rapid degradation in the atmosphere environment for several months without encapsulation. This finding paves the way towards the real-world applications of Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells.

  9. Dynamics of bovine spleen cell populations during the acute response to Babesia bovis infection: an immunohistological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D A; Yan, H; Bastos, R G; Johnson, W C; Gavin, P R; Allen, A J; Barrington, G M; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Knowles, D P; Goff, W L

    2011-01-01

    The spleen is a critical organ in defence against haemoparasitic diseases like babesiosis. Many in vitro and ex vivo studies have identified splenic cells working in concert to activate mechanisms required for successful resolution of infection. The techniques used in those studies, however, remove cells from the anatomical context in which cell interaction and trafficking take place. In this study, an immunohistological approach was used to monitor the splenic distribution of defined cells during the acute response of naïve calves to Babesia bovis infection. Splenomegaly was characterized by disproportionate hyperplasia of large versus small leucocytes and altered distribution of several cell types thought to be important in mounting an effective immune response. In particular, the results suggest that the initial crosstalk between NK cells and immature dendritic cells occurs within the marginal zone and that immature dendritic cells are first redirected to encounter pathogens as they enter the spleen and then mature as they process antigen and migrate to T-cell-rich areas. The results of this study are remarkably similar to those observed in a mouse model of malarial infection, suggesting these dynamic events may be central to the acute response of naïve animals to haemoparasitic infection.

  10. Role of the liver in determining alloimmune response in vitro following donor-specific spleen cell injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Masaki; Nagano, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Shogo; He, Li; Ota, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Junzo; Takeda, Yutaka; Masrubashi, Shigeru; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Tanemuea, Masahiro; Dono, Keizo; Sakon, Masato; Umeshita, Koji; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Monden, Morito

    2010-02-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the allogeneic influence inside and outside the liver in vitro following donor-specific cell injection (DSI). DA rats (RT1a) were used as donors and WS rats (RT1k) as recipients. WS were sensitized with DA spleen cells, followed 24h later by total hepatectomy. The liver was transplanted into another WS (sensitized liver-grafted; SL-Grafted). The hepatectomized WS underwent liver transplantation from a naive WS (sensitized liver-removed; SL-Removed). Alloantigens accumulated in the liver in SL-Grafted and in the extrahepatic tissue/organ(s) in SL-Removed. DA hearts were transplanted 10days after antigen administration. To analyze the immune responses, we measured Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles, and perforin mRNA in various organs, allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), and donor-specific immunoglobulin. Th1 cytokine levels in the liver of SL-Grafted and in spleen of SL-Removed were highly and rapidly upregulated but decreased thereafter. IFN-gamma and perforin mRNAs were significantly higher in SL-Grafted and lower in SL-Removed. MLR was significantly higher in SL-Grafted than SL-Removed and controls. There was no significant difference in the donor-specific immunoglobulin level. Our findings suggest that liver and other organs may behave differently to alloantigen, suggesting the importance of an early Th1 reaction in the liver and spleen.

  11. MURINE HEMATOPOIETIC STEM-CELLS WITH LONG-TERM ENGRAFTMENT AND MARROW REPOPULATING ABILITY ARE MORE RESISTANT TO GAMMA-RADIATION THAN ARE SPLEEN COLONY-FORMING CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PLOEMACHER, RE; VANOS, R; VANBEURDEN, CAJ; DOWN, JD

    1992-01-01

    The radiation sensitivity of various subsets in the haemopoietic stem cell hierarchy was defined using a limiting dilution type long-term bone marrow culture technique that was previously shown to allow quantification of cells with spleen colony-forming potential (day-12 CFU-S) and in vivo marrow re

  12. Experimental infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 in mice induces inflammatory cell infiltration in the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu-Jung; Kwon, Young-Je; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-09-01

    Previously, our study showed that oral inoculation of mice with cytopathic (cp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) led to lymphocyte depletion and increased numbers of megakaryocytes in the spleen as well as thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia. In the present study, to investigate the possible differences in the detection of viral antigen, histopathological lesions, and hematologic changes between non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV1 and cp BVDV1, mice were orally administered low and high doses of ncp BVDV1 and were necropsied at days 0, 2, 5, and 9 postinfection (pi). None of the ncp BVDV1-infected mice exhibited clinical signs of illness, unlike those infected with cp BVDV1. Statistically significant thrombocytopenia was observed during ncp BVDV1 infection, and lymphopenia was found only in mice infected with a high dose at day 9 pi. Interestingly, ncp BVDV1 infection increased the numbers of basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, and monocytes in some infected mice. Viral antigen was detected in the lymphocytes of the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and bone marrow by immunohistochemistry. Lymphoid depletion was evident in the mesenteric lymph nodes of mice infected with a high dose and also found in the Peyer's patches of some infected mice. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and monocytes, and an increased number of megakaryocytes were seen in the spleen. These results suggest that the distribution of viral antigens is not associated with the presence of histopathological lesions. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the spleens as a result of viral replication and may be attributable to the host reaction to ncp BVDV1 infection. Together, these findings support the possibility that mice can be used as an animal model for BVDV infection.

  13. PD-L1 blockade improves immune dysfunction of spleen dendritic cells and T-cells in zymosan-induced multiple organs dysfunction syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Lv, Yi; Zhao, Min; Jin, Yiduo; Lu, Jiangyang

    2015-01-01

    This research is to investigate the role of tolerant spleen dendritic cells (DC) in multiple organs dysfunction syndromes (MODS) at late stage. Tolerant DC and MODS were induced by intraperotineal injection of zymosan. The immunity of DC was determined by examining interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, IL-2, major histocompatibility complex (MHC), CD86, programmed death (PD-1), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PIR-B) or T-cell proliferation in serum, spleen homogenate, DC culture or DC/T-cell co-culture. The PD-L1/PD-1 pathway was blocked using PD-L1 antibody. The IL-12p70 in serum, spleen homogenate and DC culture supernatant were decreased at 5 d and 12 d after zymosan injection while the IL-12p40 and IL-10 were increased. The expression of MHC, cluster of differentiation 86 (CD86), PD-1 and PD-L1 in spleen DCs were increased at early stage after zymosan injection. At 5 d and 12 d, the expression of MHC and CD86 was reduced while the expression of PD-1, PD-L1 and PIR-B was increased, accompanied with decreased proliferation of T-cell and decrease of IL-2 in spleen and serum. Application of PD-L1 antibody improved the above changes. At late stage of MODS mice induced by zymosan, the expression of co-stimulators and inhibitors in spleen DCs was imbalanced to form tolerant DCs which reduced the activation of T-cells. PD-L1 antibody improved the immune tolerance of DCs through intervening PD-1/PD-L1 pathway, and attenuated the inhibition of T-cell activities by tolerant DCs and the immune inhibition.

  14. Development of a walleye spleen stromal cell line sensitive to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV IVb) and to protection by synthetic dsRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Nguyen T K; Bender, Aaron W; Ammendolia, Dustin A; Lumsden, John S; Dixon, Brian; Bols, Niels C

    2015-07-01

    A cell line, WE-spleen6, has been developed from the stromal layer of primary spleen cell cultures. On conventional plastic, WE-spleen6 cells had a spindle-shaped morphology at low cell density but grew to become epithelial-like at confluency. On the commercial extracellular matrix (ECM), Matrigel, the cells remained spindle-shaped and formed lumen-like structures. WE-spleen6 cells had intermediate filament protein, vimentin and the ECM protein, collagen I, but not smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) and lacked alkaline phosphatase and phagocytic activities. WE-spleen6 was more susceptible to infection with VHSV IVb than a fibroblast and epithelial cell lines from the walleye caudal fin, WE-cfin11f and WE-cfin11e, respectively. Viral transcripts and proteins appeared earlier in WE-spleen6 cultures as did cytopathic effect (CPE) and significant virus production. The synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (pIC), induced the antiviral protein Mx in both cell lines. Treating WE-spleen6 cultures with pIC prior to infection with VHSV IVb inhibited the early accumulation of viral transcripts and proteins and delayed the appearance of CPE and significant viral production. Of particular note, pIC caused the disappearance of viral P protein 2 days post infection. WE-spleen6 should be useful for investigating the impact of VHSV IVb on hematopoietic organs and the actions of pIC on the rhabdovirus life cycle.

  15. Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weickert, Jonas; Dunbar, Ricky B.; Hesse, Holger C.; Wiedemann, Wolfgang; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas [Department of Physics and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians University (LMU) Munich, Amalienstr. 54, 80799 Munich (Germany)

    2011-04-26

    This progress report highlights recent developments in nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells. The authors discuss novel approaches to control the film morphology in fully organic solar cells and the design of nanostructured hybrid solar cells. The motivation and recent results concerning fabrication and effects on device physics are emphasized. The aim of this review is not to give a summary of all recent results in organic and hybrid solar cells, but rather to focus on the fabrication, device physics, and light trapping properties of nanostructured organic and hybrid devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Dendritic Cells from Peyer's Patches and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes Differ from Spleen Dendritic Cells in their Response to Commensal Gut Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    in in vitro-generated DC by L. acidophilus. Similar inhibition was observed in splenic DC, but not in MLN DC. MLN cells responded to bacterial stimulation with higher IFN-gamma production than spleen cells, possibly due to the presence of more responsive natural killer cells. Commensal bacteria therefore play......Commensal gut bacteria have potent effects on the immune system, which are partially mediated by intestinal dendritic cells (DC). Distinct commensals confer different properties to in vitro-generated DC. The aim of the present study was to reveal strain-dependent maturation patterns in primary DC....... Expression of CCR7 and CD103 on the surface of MLN DC, necessary for the induction of gut-homing regulatory T cells, increased with stimulation by Gram-positive commensals. Bacteria-dependent cytokine production (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha) was similar in spleen and MLN DC, and contaminant cells in these DC...

  17. A Taenia crassiceps factor induces apoptosis of spleen CD4+T cells and TFG-β and Foxp3 gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, N; Tirado, R; Copitin, N; Solano, S; Fernández, A M; Tato, P; Molinari, J L

    2016-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether a parasite substance produces structural pathology in the mouse spleen. A low-molecular-weight Taenia crassiceps metacestode factor (MF) isolated from the peritoneal fluid of female mice infected with T. crassiceps metacestodes induced pathological and immunological changes in mouse spleen cells in vivo. Electron microscopy and confocal microscopy revealed severe changes in the spleen histoarchitecture of T. crassiceps-infected and MF-treated mice. Apoptotic degenerated spleen cells were observed in the white and red pulps and were more conspicuous in the white pulp of the spleen from the T. crassiceps-infected mice than in that of the MF-treated mice. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the numbers of spleen CD4+T cells were significantly lower in both experimental groups than in control mice. The ex vivo expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and factor Foxp3 were significantly higher in splenocytes of the experimental mice than the basal expression observed in the control cells. These findings may have potential applications for a better understanding of the host-parasite relationship in human neurocysticercosis.

  18. Killing of targets by effector CD8 T cells in the mouse spleen follows the law of mass action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with antibody-based vaccines, it has been difficult to measure the efficacy of T cell-based vaccines and to correlate the efficacy of CD8 T cell responses with protection again viral infections. In part, this difficulty is due to poor understanding of the in vivo efficacy of CD8 T cells produced by vaccination. Using a: recently developed experimental method of in vivo cytotoxicity we have investigated quantitative aspects of killing of peptide-pulsed targets by effector and memory CD8 T cells, specific to three epitopes of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), in the mouse spleen. By analyzing data on killing of targets with varying number of epitope-specific effector and memory CD8 T cells, we find that killing of targets by effectors follows the law of mass-action, that is the death rate of peptide-pulsed targets is proportional to the frequency of CTLs in the spleen. In contrast, killing of targets by memory CD8 T cells does not follow the mass action law because the death rate of targets saturates at high frequencies of memory CD8 T cells. For both effector and memory cells, we also find little support for the killing term that includes the decrease of the death rate of targets with target cell density. Interestingly, our analysis suggests that at low CD8 T cell frequencies, memory CD8 T cells on the per capita basis are more efficient at killing peptide-pulsed targets than effectors, but at high frequencies, effectors are more efficient killers than memory T cells. Comparison of the estimated killing efficacy of effector T cells with the value that is predicted from theoretical physics and based on motility of T cells in lymphoid tissues, suggests that limiting step in the killing of peptide-pulsed targets is delivering the lethal hit and not finding the target. Our results thus form a basis for quantitative understanding of the process of killing of virus-infected cells by T cell responses in tissues and can be used to correlate the

  19. Allogeneic Th1 cells home to host bone marrow and spleen and mediate IFNγ-dependent aplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewning, Joseph H; Zhang, Weiwei; Randolph, David A; Swindle, C Scott; Schoeb, Trenton R; Weaver, Casey T

    2013-06-01

    Bone marrow graft failure and poor graft function are frequent complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and result in significant morbidity and mortality. Both conditions are associated with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), although the mechanism remains undefined. Here we show, in 2 distinct murine models of GVHD (complete MHC- and class II-disparate) that mimic human peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, that Th1 CD4(+) cells induce bone marrow failure in allogeneic recipients. Bone marrow failure after transplantation of allogeneic naïve CD4(+) T cells was associated with increased CD4(+) Th1 cell development within bone marrow and lymphoid tissues. Using IFNγ-reporter mice, we found that Th1 cells generated during GVHD induced bone marrow failure after transfers into secondary recipients. Homing studies demonstrated that transferred Th1 cells express CXCR4, which was associated with accumulation within bone marrow and spleen. Allogeneic Th1 cells were activated by radiation-resistant host bone marrow cells and induced bone marrow failure through an IFNγ-dependent mechanism. Thus, allogeneic Th1 CD4(+) cells generated during GVHD traffic to hematopoietic sites and induce bone marrow failure via IFNγ-mediated toxicity. These results have important implications for prevention and treatment of bone marrow graft failure after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinct CCR2(+) Gr1(+) cells control growth of the Yersinia pestis ΔyopM mutant in liver and spleen during systemic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhan; Uittenbogaard, Annette M; Cohen, Donald A; Kaplan, Alan M; Ambati, Jayakrishna; Straley, Susan C

    2011-02-01

    We are using a systemic plague model to identify the cells and pathways that are undermined by the virulence protein YopM of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. In this study, we pursued previous findings that Gr1(+) cells are required to selectively limit growth of ΔyopM Y. pestis and that CD11b(+) cells other than polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are selectively lost in spleens infected with parent Y. pestis. When PMNs were ablated from mice, ΔyopM Y. pestis grew as well as the parent strain in liver but not in spleen, showing that these cells are critical for controlling growth of the mutant in liver but not spleen. In mice lacking expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2, wild-type growth was restored to ΔyopM Y. pestis in both organs. In spleen, the Gr1(+) cells differentially recruited by parent and ΔyopM Y. pestis infections were CCR2(+) Gr1(+) CD11b(+) CD11c(Lo-Int) MAC3(+) iNOS(+) (inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive) inflammatory dendritic cells (iDCs), and their recruitment to spleen from blood was blocked when YopM was present in the infecting strain. Consistent with influx of iDCs being affected by YopM in spleen, the growth defect of the ΔyopM mutant was relieved by the parent Y. pestis strain in a coinfection assay in which the parent strain could affect the fate of the mutant in trans. In a mouse model of bubonic plague, CCR2 also was shown to be required for ΔyopM Y. pestis to show wild-type growth in skin. The data imply that YopM's pathogenic effect indirectly undermines signaling through CCR2. We propose a model for how YopM exerts its different effects in liver and spleen.

  1. Homing of antigen-presenting cells (APCs in head kidney and spleen – salmon head kidney hosts diverse APC types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Borisov Iliev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymph nodes and spleen are major organs where mammalian APCs initiate and orchestrate Ag-specific immune responses. Unlike mammals, teleosts lack lymph nodes and an interesting question is whether alternative organs may serve as sites for antigen presentation in teleosts. In the current study, fluorescent ovalbumin (Ova and CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs injected intra-abdominally were detected in significant numbers of salmon head kidney (HK MHCII+ cells over a period of 2 weeks while in spleen the percentage of these was transient and declined from day 1 post injection. In vitro studies further shed light on the properties of the diverse MHCII+ cell types found in HK. The ultrastructure of a subpopulation of MHCII+ cells with a high capacity to endocytose and process Ova indicated that these were able to perform constitutive macropinocytosis. Upon stimulation with CpG ODNs these cells upregulated CD86 and gave very high levels of TNF mRNA indicating that these are professional APCs, related to macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs. A subpopulation of HK granulocytes expressed high levels of surface MHCII and upon CpG stimulation upregulated most of the tested APC marker genes. Although these granulocytes expressed TNF weakly, they had relatively high basal levels of IL-1β mRNA and the CpG stimulation upregulated IL-1β, along with its signaling and decoy receptors, to the highest levels as compared to other HK cell types. Interestingly, the high expression of IL-1β mRNA in the granulocytes correlated with a high autophagy flux as demonstrated by LC3-II conversion. Autophagy has recently been found to be implicated in IL-1β processing and secretion and the presented data suggests that granulocytes of salmon, and perhaps other teleost species, may serve as a valuable model to study the involvement of autophagy in regulation of the vertebrate immune response.

  2. Discrepancy of B cell frequency between periphery and spleen after rituximab treatment in ABO-incompatible liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Yukihiro; Sawada, Tokihiko; Kita, Junji; Shiraki, Takayuki; Sakuraoka, Yuki; Kato, Masato; Shimoda, Mitsugi; Kubota, Keiichi

    2013-10-01

    ABO-incompatible living-donor liver transplantation (ABO-LDLT) is generally more difficult to perform than ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. Despite introduction of rituximab, ABO-LDLT in non-responders is a still difficult issue. A 23-year-old woman with primary sclerosing cholangitis underwent LDLT. The recipient's blood type was 0(+) and the donor's was B(+). Rituximab was infused twice on preoperative day (POD) 14 and 7. Plasma exchange (PE) was performed on PODs 5, 3, 2, and 1. However, repeated PE failed to decrease the anti-B antibody titer. On the other hand, preoperative esophagogastroscopy revealed esophageal varices with red color sign. Therefore, simultaneous liver transplantation and Hassab operation were performed. The donor left lobe of the liver was orthotopically transplanted into the recipient following Hassab operation. Flow cytometry on the day of surgery showed that the frequencies of B cells (CD20+) and memory B cells (CD20+/CD27+) in the peripheral blood were 0.9% and 0.3%, respectively; flow cytometry of cells recovered from the spleen revealed that the frequencies of B cells and memory B cells were 2.5% and 2.4%, respectively. Acute cellular rejection occurred on POD 15, and was treated by steroid pulse therapy, leading to a decrease in the anti-B antibody titer. The liver was functioning well on POD 390 (AST 19, ALT 34). In non-responders to ABO-LDLT, anti-donor blood type antibody-producing cells remains in the spleen after the conventional preoperative regimen. Splenectomy is an option for ABO-LDLT non-responders.

  3. Comparison of CTL reactivity in the spleen and draining lymph nodes after immunization with peptides pulsed on dendritic cells or mixed with Freund's incomplete adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ming-Jun; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Buus, Søren

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare CTL reactivity in the spleen and the draining lymph nodes (LN) from C57BL/6 mice after immunization with self and non-self peptides pulsed on autologous dendritic cells (DC) or mixed with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA). METHODS: Peptides showing high to low binding...... in the draining LN, whereas non-self peptides mixed with FIA generated the strongest response in the spleen. CONCLUSIONS: DC-based immunization with non-self and self peptides is more efficient than immunization based on peptides mixed with FIA. DC-based immunization focuses the CTL response towards the spleen....... Immunization based on FIA focuses the response against self peptides towards the draining LN and non-self peptides towards the spleen....

  4. Programmed cell death and hybrid incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A; Barr, C M

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new theory to explain developmental aberrations in plant hybrids. In our theory, hybrid incompatibilities arise from imbalances in the mechanisms that cause male sterility in hermaphroditic plants. Mitochondria often cause male sterility by killing the tapetal tissue that nurtures pollen mother cells. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria destroy the tapetum by triggering standard pathways of programmed cell death. Some nuclear genotypes repress mitochondrial male sterility and restore pollen fertility. Normal regulation of tapetal development therefore arises from a delicate balance between the disruptive effects of mitochondria and the defensive countermeasures of the nuclear genes. In hybrids, incompatibilities between male-sterile mitochondria and nuclear restorers may frequently upset the regulatory control of programmed cell death, causing tapetal abnormalities and male sterility. We propose that hybrid misregulation of programmed cell death may also spill over into other tissues, explaining various developmental aberrations observed in hybrids.

  5. SIRPα and FHOD1 are unique markers of littoral cells, a recently evolved major cell population of red pulp of human spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogembo, Javier Gordon; Milner, Danny A.; Mansfield, Keith G.; Rodig, Scott J.; Murphy, George F.; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Pinkus, Geraldine S.; Fingeroth, Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    Asplenic individuals are compromised not only in their ability to destroy infectious agents, but are at increased risk of death from autoimmune disease, certain tumors, and ischemic heart disease. Enhanced mortality is attributed to lack of phagocytes sequestered in spleen that efficiently engulf and destroy appropriate targets, though related cells are found elsewhere. To determine whether a unique population regulates RBC-pathogen clearance and filtration of altered self, we reviewed the anatomic literature and analyzed in situ by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence the expression patterns of a little-characterized cell that dominates the splenic red pulp of man and closely related primates-the venous sinus lining or littoral cell (LC). High expression of the formin FHOD1 outlines the LC population. Though LCs are endothelial-like in distribution they express several macrophage directed proteins, the RBC antigen DARC and T-cell co-receptor CD8α/α yet they lack lineage-associated markers CD34 and CD45. Strikingly, SIRPα (CD172a) expression in human spleen concentrates on LCs, consistent with recent demonstration of a key role in RBC turnover and elimination versus release of infected or altered self. Our results indicate human LCs (SIRPα+, FHOD1+, CD8α/α+, CD34−, CD45−) comprise a highly plastic barrier cell population that emerged late in primate evolution coordinate with CD8 expression. Unique to Hominidae, LCs may be the ultimate determinant of which cells re-circulate after passage through human spleen. PMID:22490440

  6. ω-3 PUFA rich camelina oil by-products improve the systemic metabolism and spleen cell functions in fattening pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionelia Taranu

    Full Text Available Camelina oil-cakes results after the extraction of oil from Camelina sativa plant. In this study, camelina oil-cakes were fed to fattening pigs for 33 days and its effect on performance, plasma biochemical analytes, pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and antioxidant detoxifying defence in spleen was investigated in comparison with sunflower meal. 24 crossbred TOPIG pigs were randomly assigned to one of two experimental dietary treatments containing either 12% sunflower meal (treatment 1-T1, or 12.0% camelina oil-cakes, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (ω-3 PUFA (treatment 2-T2. The results showed no effect of T2 diet (camelina cakes on feed intake, average weight gain or feed efficiency. Consumption of camelina diet resulted in a significant decrease in plasma glucose concentration (18.47% with a trend towards also a decrease of plasma cholesterol. In spleen, T2 diet modulated cellular immune response by decreasing the protein and gene expression of pro-inflammatory markers, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin (IL-8 and cyclooxigenase 2 (COX-2 in comparison with T1 diet. By contrast, T2 diet increased (P<0.05 in spleen the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1 by 3.43, 2.47 and 1.83 fold change respectively, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS (4.60 fold, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS (3.23 fold and the total antioxidant level (9.02% in plasma. Camelina diet increased also peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ mRNA and decreased that of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (p38α MAPK and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB. At this level of inclusion (12% camelina oil-cakes appears to be a potentially alternative feed source for pig which preserves a high content of ω-3 PUFA indicating antioxidant properties by the stimulation

  7. The relative toxicity of metal salts to immune hemolysis in a mixture of antibody-secreting spleen cells, sheep red blood cells and complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Y; Koyama, T; Ichiki, A; Sugamata, M; Miura, T

    1982-05-01

    The relative toxicity of metal salts was examined using a mixture of antibody-secreting spleen cells, sheep red blood cells and complement. The amount of immune hemolysis in the mixture was reduced by mercuric chloride, methylmercuric chloride and nickel chloride at concentrations of 14 microM or more, by sodium selenite and zinc chloride at 140 microM or more, and by sodium selenate, cadmium chloride, cadmium acetate, chromic chloride and beryllium chloride at 1400 microM. On the other hand, the amount of immune hemolysis was increased by both cadmium chloride anc cadmium acetate at concentrations of 14 and 140 microM. Mercuric chloride, methylmercuric chloride and nickel chloride were assumed to inhibit the antibody secretion of antibody-forming spleen cells.

  8. Cutting Edge: Marginal Zone Macrophages Regulate Antigen Transport by B Cells to the Follicle in the Spleen via CD21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopec, Kajsa E; Georgoudaki, Anna-Maria; Sohn, Silke; Wermeling, Fredrik; Grönlund, Hans; Lindh, Emma; Carroll, Michael C; Karlsson, Mikael C I

    2016-09-15

    Marginal zone macrophages (MZM) are strategically located in the spleen, lining the marginal sinus where they sense inflammation and capture Ag from the circulation. One of the receptors expressed by MZM is scavenger receptor macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), which has affinity for modified self-antigens. In this article, we show that engagement of MARCO on murine macrophages induces extracellular ATP and loss of CD21 and CD62L on marginal zone B cells. Engagement of MARCO also leads to reduction of Ag transport by marginal zone B cells and affects the subsequent immune response. This study highlights a novel function for MZM in regulating Ag transport and activation, and we suggest that MARCO-dependent ATP release regulates this through shedding of CD21 and CD62L. Because systemic lupus erythematosus patients were shown to acquire autoantibodies against MARCO, this highlights a mechanism that could affect a patient's ability to combat infections.

  9. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen in a patient with previous pulmonary sarcoidosis: a TNF-α related pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titze Ulf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Littoral cell angioma (LCA is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen. Generally thought to be benign, additional cases of LCA with malignant features have been described. Thus, its malignant potential seems to vary and must be considered uncertain. The etiology remains unclear, but an immune dysregulation for the apparent association with malignancies of visceral organs or immune-mediated diseases has been proposed. Case Presentation We report a case of LCA in a 43-year old male patient who presented with a loss of appetite and intermittent upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed multiple hypoattenuating splenic lesions which were hyperechogenic on abdominal ultrasound. Lymphoma was presumed and splenectomy was performed. Pathological evaluation revealed LCA. Conclusions LCA is a rare, primary vascular neoplasm of the spleen that might etiologically be associated with immune dysregulation. In addition, it shows a striking association with synchronous or prior malignancies. With about one-third of the reported cases to date being co-existent with malignancies of visceral organs or immune-mediated diseases, this advocates for close follow-ups in all patients diagnosed with LCA. To our knowledge, this report is the first one of LCA associated with previous pulmonary sarcoidosis and hypothesizes a TNF-α related pathogenesis of this splenic tumor.

  10. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  11. Malaria Induces Anemia through CD8+ T Cell-Dependent Parasite Clearance and Erythrocyte Removal in the Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safeukui, Innocent; Gomez, Noé D.; Adelani, Aanuoluwa A.; Burte, Florence; Afolabi, Nathaniel K.; Akondy, Rama; Velazquez, Peter; Tewari, Rita; Buffet, Pierre; Brown, Biobele J.; Shokunbi, Wuraola A.; Olaleye, David; Sodeinde, Olugbemiro; Kazura, James; Ahmed, Rafi; Mohandas, Narla; Fernandez-Reyes, Delmiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Severe malarial anemia (SMA) in semi-immune individuals eliminates both infected and uninfected erythrocytes and is a frequent fatal complication. It is proportional not to circulating parasitemia but total parasite mass (sequestered) in the organs. Thus, immune responses that clear parasites in organs may trigger changes leading to anemia. Here, we use an outbred-rat model where increasing parasite removal in the spleen escalated uninfected-erythrocyte removal. Splenic parasite clearance was associated with activated CD8+ T cells, immunodepletion of which prevented parasite clearance. CD8+ T cell repletion and concomitant reduction of the parasite load was associated with exacerbated (40 to 60%) hemoglobin loss and changes in properties of uninfected erythrocytes. Together, these data suggest that CD8+ T cell-dependent parasite clearance causes erythrocyte removal in the spleen and thus anemia. In children infected with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, elevation of parasite biomass (not the number of circulating parasites) increased the odds ratio for SMA by 3.5-fold (95% confidence intervals [CI95%], 1.8- to 7.5-fold). CD8+ T cell expansion/activation independently increased the odds ratio by 2.4-fold (CI95%, 1.0- to 5.7-fold). Concomitant increases in both conferred a 7-fold (CI95%, 1.9- to 27.4-fold)-greater risk for SMA. Together, these data suggest that CD8+-dependent parasite clearance may predispose individuals to uninfected-erythrocyte loss and SMA, thus informing severe disease diagnosis and strategies for vaccine development. PMID:25604792

  12. Class-switched marginal zone B cells in spleen have relatively low numbers of somatic mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricks, Jacobus; Visser, Annie; Dammers, Peter M.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Bos, Nicolaas A.; Kroese, Frans G. M.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of rodent splenic marginal zone (MZ)-B cells are naive IgM(+) cells. A small fraction of these MZ-B cells carry mutated V-genes, and represent IgM(+) memory MZ-B cells. Here we reveal further heterogeneity of B cells with a MZ-B cell phenotype, by providing evidence for the existen

  13. Emergence of long-lived autoreactive plasma cells in the spleen of primary warm auto-immune hemolytic anemia patients treated with rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahévas, Matthieu; Michel, Marc; Vingert, Benoit; Moroch, Julien; Boutboul, David; Audia, Sylvain; Cagnard, Nicolas; Ripa, Julie; Menard, Cédric; Tarte, Karin; Mégret, Jérôme; Le Gallou, Simon; Patin, Pauline; Thai, Lan; Galicier, Lionel; Bonnotte, Bernard; Godeau, Bertrand; Noizat-Pirenne, France; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès

    2015-08-01

    Primary warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (wAIHA) is a rare autoimmune disease in which red blood cells are eliminated by IgG autoantibodies. We analyzed the antibody-secreting cells in the spleen and the peripheral blood of wAIHA patients in various contexts of treatment. Plasmablasts were observed in peripheral blood of newly diagnosed wAIHA patients and, accordingly, active germinal center reactions were present in the spleen of patients receiving short-term corticosteroid therapy. Long-term corticosteroid regimens markedly reduced this response while splenic plasma cells were able to persist, a fraction of them secreting anti-red blood cell IgG in vitro. In wAIHA patients treated by rituximab and who underwent splenectomy because of treatment failure, plasma cells were still present in the spleen, some of them being autoreactive. By using a set of diagnostic genes that allowed us to assess the plasma cell maturation stage, we observed that these cells displayed a long-lived program, differing from the one of plasma cells from healthy donors or from wAIHA patients with various immunosuppressant treatments, and more similar to the one of normal long-lived bone-marrow plasma cells. Interestingly, an increased level of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) was observed in the supernatant of spleen cell cultures from such rituximab-treated wAIHA patients. These results suggest, in line with our previous report on primary immune thrombocytopenia, that the B-cell depletion induced by rituximab promoted a suitable environment for the maturation and survival of auto-immune long-lived plasma cells in the spleen.

  14. Long-term effects on the histology and function of livers and spleens in rats after 33% toploading of PEG-PLA-nano artificial red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun Chang; Chang, Thomas M S

    2008-01-01

    This study is to investigate the long-term effects of nanodimension PEG-PLA artificial red blood cells containing hemoglobin and red blood cell enzymes on the liver and spleen after 1/3 blood volume top loading in rats. The experimental rats received one of the following infusions: Nano artificial red blood cells in Ringer lactate, Ringer lactate, stroma-free hemoglobin, polyhemoglobin, and autologous rat whole blood. Blood samples were taken before infusions and on days 1, 7, and 21 after infusions for analysis. Nano artificial red blood cells, polyhemoglobin, Ringer lactate and rat red blood cells did not have any significant adverse effects on alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, amylase and creatine kinase. On the other hand, stroma-free hemoglobin induced significant adverse effects on liver as shown by elevation in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase throughout the 21 days. On day 21 after infusions rats were sacrificed and livers and spleens were excised for histological examination. Nano artificial red blood cells, polyhemoglobin, Ringer lactate and rat red blood cells did not cause any abnormalities in the microscopic histology of the livers and spleens. In the stroma-free hemoglobin group the livers showed accumulation of hemoglobin in central veins and sinusoids, and hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, injected nano artificial red blood cells can be efficiently metabolized and removed by the reticuloendothelial system, and do not have any biochemical or histological adverse effects on the livers or the spleens.

  15. Difference in gene expression of macrophage between normal spleen and portal hypertensive spleen idendified by cDNA microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yan; Xiao-Min Wang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To identify the difference in gene expression of microphage (Mφ) between normal spleen and portal hypertensive spleen using cDNA microarrays and find new gene functions associated with hypersplenism in portal hypertension.METHODS: The Biostar-H140s chip containing 14112 spots of cDNAs were used to investigate the difference of the expression. The total RNA extracted from macrophages isolated from both normal spleen and portal hypertensive spleen was reversely transcribed to cDNA with the incorporation of fluorescent (cy3 and cy5) labeled dCTP to prepare the hybridization probes.After hybridization, the gene chip was scanned for the fluorescent intensity. The differentially expressed genes were screened. That was repeated three times,and only the genes which had differential expression in all three chips were considered to be associated with hypersplenism in portal hypertension.RESULTS: Eight hundred and ninety-six, 1330 and 898 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in three chips, respectively. One hundred and twenty-one genes (0.86%) were identified to be differentially expressed in all three chips, including 21 up-regulated genes and 73 down-regulated genes. The differentially expressed genes were related to ionic channel and transport protein, cyclin, cytoskeleton, cell receptor, cell signal conduct, metabolism, immune, and so on. These genes might be related to the hypersplenism in portal hypertension.CONCLUSION: The investigations based on cDNA microarray can screen differentially expressed genes of macrophages between normal spleen and portal hypertensive spleen, thus may provide a new idea in studying the pathogenesis of hypersplenism in portal hypertension.

  16. Bone marrow histopathology in the diagnostic evaluation of splenic marginal-zone and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma: a reliable substitute for spleen histopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Maurilio; Kanellis, George; Pouliou, Evi; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Scarfò, Lydia; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Doglioni, Claudio; Bikos, Vasilis; Dagklis, Antonis; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Ghia, Paolo; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Papadaki, Theodora

    2012-11-01

    Primary splenic small B-cell lymphomas mostly comprise the distinct entity of splenic marginal-zone lymphoma (SMZL) and the provisional category of splenic lymphoma/leukemia unclassifiable, mainly represented by the hairy cell leukemia variant and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRL). Until recently, histopathologic examination of splenectomy specimens was considered mandatory for the diagnosis of SMZL. However, nowadays, mainly because of advances in chemoimmunotherapy, splenectomy is performed much less frequently. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of bone marrow biopsy (BMB) histopathology in the diagnostic approach toward SMZL and SDRL and tested whether it may serve as a substitute for spleen histopathology in the differential diagnosis between these 2 entities. To this end, we conducted a paired assessment of BMB and spleen diagnostic samples from 46 cases with a diagnosis of SMZL (n=32) or SDRL (n=14) based on spleen histopathology. We demonstrate that detailed immunohistopathologic BMB evaluation offers adequate evidence for the confirmation of these entities and their differential diagnosis from other small B-cell lymphoma histotypes. Notably, the immunophenotypical profile of SMZL and SDRL was identical in both BMB and spleen specimens for 21 evaluated markers. Paired assessment of BMB and spleen specimens did not identify discriminating patterns of BMB infiltration, cytology, and/or immunohistology between SMZL and SDRL. Accordingly, bone marrow histopathology contributes significantly in confirming the diagnosis of SMZL and SDRL. However, presently it is not possible to distinguish SMZL from SDRL on the basis of BMB evaluation alone; hence, histopathologic examination of the spleen remains the "gold standard" approach.

  17. Life span, testis damage and immune cell populations of spleen in C57BL mice with neutron irradiation by lying flat pose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; kim, Myung Sup; Kyung, Yoo Bo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea)

    2003-10-01

    This study deals with the biological effects of black mouse (C57BL) irradiated with neutron irradiation by using Boron Neutron Capture Therapy facility in HANARO reactor. These include mortality, body wt., hair color, testis volume, sperm count and immune cell populations in mouse spleen after 80 days later by thermal neutron irradiation. Six week old C57BL male mice were irradiated with neutron irradiation for 1 hr or 2 hrs (flux : 1.036739E +09). These irradiat ion doses estimated 15Gy and 30Gy, respectively. Survival days and hair color in mice was checked. On day 80 after irradiation, testis were taken for volume and sperm count. Also spleen was taken for FACS and spleen cells were isolatd and discarded RBC by treating with lysising solution. These cells were placed on ice and immunofluorescence staining was performed. Phycoerythrin (PE )-anti-CD3e, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-anti-CD4, and FITC-anti-CD8 were added, then the immunostaining cells were incubated on ice for 40 min. The resulting cells were washed with a PBS buffer 3 times and analyzed using a Flow cytometer. All experimental animals survived over 90 days but in case of 30 Gy neutron irradiation, black mice hair were changed white color on the center of the back. Neutron irradiation of black mice show similar in damage of spleen immune cells by subpopulation of T helper and T cytotoxic cells compared to the control non - irradiated group. These results show that treatment of neutron irradiation without boron compounds for 2 hrs in mice can survive over 90 days with hair color change from black to white. Damaged spleen cells recover after long time by irradiation but testis volume and no. of sperm are not recover compared to the normal group in response to neutron irradiation.

  18. Molecular Biosensing Mechanisms in the Spleen for the Removal of Aged and Damaged Red Cells from the Blood Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Ueno

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO2 A prepared from healthy donors showed a tendency to produce hemichrome, even at close to physiological temperature and pH. Recent studies found that the number of Heinz bodies formed in red cells increased with increasing temperature when freshly drawn venous blood from healthy donors was subjected to mild heating above 37 °C. These findings suggest that Hb molecules control the removal of non-functional erythrocytes from the circulation via hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering. In this review, we discuss the molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen, where hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering within erythrocytes play a key role in the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

  19. Molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen for the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Yuko; Shigemasa, Yuki; Abe, Yoko; Ohgushi, Ikumi; Ueno, Eriko; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO(2) A) prepared from healthy donors showed a tendency to produce hemichrome, even at close to physiological temperature and pH. Recent studies found that the number of Heinz bodies formed in red cells increased with increasing temperature when freshly drawn venous blood from healthy donors was subjected to mild heating above 37 °C. These findings suggest that Hb molecules control the removal of non-functional erythrocytes from the circulation via hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering. In this review, we discuss the molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen, where hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering within erythrocytes play a key role in the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

  20. Evaluation of a 99mTc-labeled AnnexinA5 variant for non-invasive SPECT imaging of cell death in liver, spleen and prostate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greupink, A.H.; Sio, C.F.; Ederveen, A.; Orsel, J.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigate radio-labeling and pharmacokinetics of a new AnnexinA5 variant (HYNIC-cys-AnxA5) and then assess its utility for the non-invasive detection of cell death in liver, spleen and prostate. METHODS: AnnexinA5 binds to phosphatidylserine expressed on the surface of apoptotic and ne

  1. Electrophoretic separation of cells and particles from rat pituitary and rat spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.

    1993-01-01

    There are 3 parts to the IML-2 TX-101 experiment. Part 1 is a pituitary cell culture experiment. Part 2 is a pituitary cell separation experiment using the Japanese free flow electrophoresis unit (FFEU). Part 3 is a pituitary secretory granule separation experiment using the FFEU. The objectives of this three part experiment are: (1) to determine the kinetics of production of biologically active growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) in rat pituitary GH and PRL cells in microgravity (micro-g); (2) to investigate three mechanisms by which a micro-g-induced lesion in hormone production may occur; and (3) to determine the quality of separations of pituitary cells and organelles by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE) in micro-g under conditions where buoyancy-induced convection is eliminated.

  2. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of spleen diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Douglas H; Wu, Yaping; Weston, Allan P; McAnaw, Mary P; Bromfield, Cecil; Bhattatiry, Manu M

    2003-07-01

    Splenic metastases are infrequent, and determination of the primary site by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can be complex. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who was found to have a large heterogeneously enhancing 8 x 7-inch splenic mass by abdominal computed tomography (CT). FNA by transesophageal endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated atypical cells conclusive for malignancy and consistent with metastatic renal cell carcinoma based on cytomorphology, histochemical lipid positivity, and immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratin, vimentin, and renal cell carcinoma marker. Repeat CT with and without arteriovenous contrast demonstrated bilateral renal cysts, including a 0.9 x 0.8-cm lesion on the left with significant enhancement. Splenectomy confirmed the radiological and cytological findings, and left kidney exploration and nephrectomy demonstrated a small (1.5 cm) lower pole renal cell carcinoma of chromophil (papillary) type, histologically similar to the splenic metastasis. This case demonstrates the diagnostic importance of interdisciplinary involvement (oncology, radiology, gastroenterology, pathology, and general and urologic surgery); cytomorphology; histochemistry, including fat stain on frozen cell block; and immunohistochemistry, including the recently developed renal cell carcinoma marker.

  3. Transplantation of human spleen into immunodeficient NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) mice generates humanized mice that improve functional B cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Shin; Son, Jin Kyung; Choi, Bongkum; Park, Jae Berm; Chang, Jun; Kim, Sung Joo

    2015-12-01

    We previously generated humanized TB34N mice that received human fetal thymus (T), bone tissue (B) and fetal liver-derived (FL)-CD34(+) cells (34) in immunodeficient, NOD/SCID IL2Rγ(null) (N) mice. Although humanized TB34N mice had excellent hematopoiesis, here, we sought to further improve this model by additional transplantation of human spleen tissue (S) as a secondary hematopoietic tissue (TBS34N). The human spleen grafts were enlarged and differentiated into a similar morphology of adult humans, including follicular lymphoid structures with T- and B-cells. The TBS34N mice mimicked mature human immune system (HIS): mature T- and B-cells and follicular dendritic cells; activated germinal center B-cells expressing CD71, BR3(+) cells, memory B-cells and activation-induced cytidine deaminase(+) B-cells; CD138(+) plasma cells were enriched in the mouse spleen. HBsAg-specific hIgG antibodies were secreted into the sera of all TBS34N mice upon immunization with HBsAg. Taken together, the humanized TBS34N mice improved mature HIS and achieved adaptive antibody responses.

  4. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a

  5. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a station

  6. [Single Fe(2)O(3)-PLL labeled mouse spleen-derived endothelial progenitor cell detection by 7.0T MR system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Jun; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2010-02-01

    To explore the feasibility of Single Fe(2)O(3)-PLL labeled mouse spleen-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) detection by 7.0T MR system. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from mouse spleen by density gradient centrifugation and EPCs were obtained by the different adherence of cells.Immunocytochemistry and fluorescent staining were performed to identify EPCs. The EPCs were labeled with Fe(2)O(3)-PLL and the intracellular iron was identified with prussian blue staining. MTT assay was assessed to evaluate proliferation of Fe(2)O(3)-PLL labeled EPCs. The cells underwent MR imaging with different sequences. Cultured in vitro, mouse spleen-derived MNCs resulted in EC-like morphology. These cells expressed EPCs-specific antigens, such as CD31, CD34 and vWF, and had the ability to incorporate ac-LDL and bind UEA-1. Between Fe(2)O(3)-PLL labeled EPCs and unlabeled cells, MTT value of light absorption had no statistical significant difference (day4 t = 2.81, day5 t = -1.87, day6 t = -0.298, day7 t = -0.115, all P > 0.05). The signal void induced by labeled single cell is 20.2 pixels in MSME sequence, and 20.2 pixels in 3D-FLASH sequence (t = 15.2, P PLL efficiently. The labeled EPCs can be imaged as dispersed single cells.

  7. Hybrid resistance to EL-4 lymphoma cells. 2. Association between loss of hybrid resistance and detection of suppressor cells after treatment of mice with /sup 89/Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luevano, E.; Kumar, V.; Bennett, M. (Boston Univ., MA (USA). School of Medicine)

    1981-01-01

    (C57BL/6XDBA/2)F/sub 1/ hybrid (B6D2F/sub 1/) mice resist the growth of parental-strain (B6) EL-4 lymphoma cells inoculated intraperitoneally; i.e., B6D2F/sub 1/ mice survive longer than B6 mice and do not develop ascites. As compared with B6 mice, B6D2F/sub 1/ mice have higher levels of natural killer (NK) activity against /sup 51/Cr-labelled EL-4 cells in their lymphoid organs. B6D2F/sub 1/ mice treated with /sup 89/Sr lose NK activity for certain lymphoma cell targets, e.g. YAC-1, but NK(EL-4) function is usually intact. However, /sup 89/Sr-treated mice had lost hybrid resistance to EL-4 cells in vivo, as determined by survival times and the development of ascites. NK(EL-4) and NK(YAC-1) activities were stimulated by irradiated or unirradiated EL-4 cells, Corynebacterium parvum, or polyinosinic:polycytiylic acid (pI:pC) in spleens of normal B6D2F/sub 1/ mice, but NK(EL-4) activity was depressed within 3 days by such treatment in B6D2F/sub 1/ mice previously injected with /sup 89/Sr. Suppressor cells for NK(EL-4) but not for NK(YAC-1) effectors were easily detected in spleens of /sup 89/Sr- treated mice 'challenged' with C. parvum. Thus, agents capable of stimulating NK cell function in normal mice may lead to suppression of that activity in mice depleted of marrow-dependent cell function by /sup 89/Sr. Spleen cells of /sup 89/Sr-treated B6D2F/sub 1/ mice were also unable to generate anti-EL-4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes in a cell-mediated lympholysis system; this defect appeared also to be mediated by suppressor cells. Lymphoid cells depleted by /sup 89/Sr- induced marrow aplasia may have two functions in host defences against tumours (especially lymphomas): they may lyse tumour cells directly and they may 'down-regulate' suppressor cells capable of inhibiting other 'natural' or 'induced' immune functions.

  8. CD25 signaling regulates the function and stability of peripheral Foxp3+ regulatory T cells derived from the spleen and lymph nodes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Gu, Jian; Ni, Xuhao; Ding, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Haoming; Zheng, SongGuo; Li, Bin; Lu, Ling

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in sustaining immune tolerance and maintaining immune balance to alloantigen after transplatation. However, the functions of peripheral Tregs in different organs have not been fully characterized. Here, we showed that spleen-derived Tregs exhibited higher expression of Foxp3, greater suppressive capacity, and lower levels of IL-17A secretion than lymph node-derived Tregs in vitro in the presence or absence of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6. We found a higher percentage of CD25(bright) Tregs among spleen-derived Tregs than among lymph node-derived Tregs. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrated that adoptive transfer of spleen-derived Tregs, but not lymph node-derived Tregs, alleviated ischemia-reperfusion injury. These results reveal novel functions of Tregs derived from peripheral organs. In particular, spleen-derived Tregs, primarily consisting of CD25(bright) cells, may provide a more significant contribution to the suppression of immune-mediated autoimmune and inflammatory disease.

  9. Dynamic changes of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in spleen and brain of canine distemper virus-infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qeska, V; Barthel, Y; Iseringhausen, M; Tipold, A; Stein, V M; Khan, M A; Baumgärtner, W; Beineke, A

    2013-12-15

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection causes immunosuppression and demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs. In viral diseases, an ambiguous function of regulatory T cells (Treg), with both beneficial effects by reducing immunopathology and detrimental effects by inhibiting antiviral immunity, has been described. However, the role of Treg in the pathogenesis of canine distemper remains unknown. In order to determine the effect of CDV upon immune homeostasis, the amount of Foxp3(+) Treg in spleen and brain of naturally infected dogs has been determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, splenic cytokine expression has been quantified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Splenic depletion of Foxp3(+) Treg was associated with an increased mRNA-expression of tumor necrosis factor and decreased transcription of interleukin-2 in the acute disease phase, indicative of disturbed immunological counter regulation in peripheral lymphoid organs. In the brain, a lack of Foxp3(+) Treg in predemyelinating and early demyelinating lesions and significantly increased infiltrations of Foxp3(+) Treg in chronic demyelinating lesions were observed. In conclusion, disturbed peripheral and CNS immune regulation associated with a reduction of Treg represents a potential prerequisite for excessive neuroinflammation and early lesion development in canine distemper leukoencephalitis.

  10. One novel quinoxaline derivative as a potent human cyclophilin A inhibitor shows highly inhibitory activity against mouse spleen cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Li; Wang, Feng; Gui, Chunshan; Zhang, Li; Qin, Yu; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Hong; Nan, Fajun; Shen, Jingkang; Bai, Donglu; Chen, Kaixian; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang

    2006-08-15

    Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a ubiquitous cellular enzyme playing critical roles in many biological processes, and its inhibitor has been reported to have potential immunosuppressive activity. In this work, we reported a novel quinoxaline derivative, 2,3-di(furan-2-yl)-6-(3-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-piperidino)carbonylamino quinoxaline (DC838, 3), which was confirmed to be a potent inhibitor against human CypA. By using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence titration techniques, the kinetic analysis of CypA/DC838 interaction was quantitatively performed. CypA peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity inhibition assay showed that DC838 demonstrated highly CypA PPIase inhibitory activity. In vivo assay results showed that DC838 could inhibit mouse spleen cell proliferation induced by concanavalin A (Con A). Molecular docking simulation further elucidated the specific DC838 binding to CypA at the atomic level. The current work should provide useful information in the discovery of immunosuppressor based on CypA inhibitor.

  11. Effects of lead on ultrastructural charactristics of sinusoidal endothelial cell of fetal rat's spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Z

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Amount of environmental lead pollution is increased with progression of industry. This pollution is able to damage the living beings in many ways. Blood and Immune systems are more sensitive to toxic effects of lead. 30 female and 6 male rats from Sprague dawley race are chosen by simple random sampling. After copulation and vaginal plug observation, expectant rats are calssified in test and control groups. Since the first day of pregnancy, test group is given a drink containing lead acetate 0.13% in distilled water and control group is given distilled water. After delivery, for ultrastrectural studies, spleen specimens of newborn rats are fixed in glutaraldehyde solution 2% and after processing are studied by T.E.M. Sinusoidal endothelial cell show: morphological changes in mitochondria, appearance of primary & secondary lysosomes and multivesicular bodies and swelling in ER. It seems that these changes are caused by interaction of lead with enzymathic functions or lead accumulation in these cellular organels.

  12. Podophyllotoxin and Rutin Modulates Ionizing Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death in Mice Bone Marrow and Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhinav; Yashavarddhan, M. H.; Kalita, Bhargab; Ranjan, Rajiv; Bajaj, Sania; Prakash, Hridayesh; Gupta, Manju Lata

    2017-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the radioprotective efficacy of G-003M (combination of podophyllotoxin and rutin) against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress and subsequent cell death in mice bone marrow and spleen. Prophylactic administration of G-003M (−1 h) rendered more than 85% survival in mice exposed to 9 Gy (lethal dose) with dose reduction factor of 1.26. G-003M pretreated mice demonstrated significantly reduced level of reactive oxygen species, membrane lipid peroxidation, and retained glutathione level. In the same group, we obtained increased expression of master redox regulator, nuclear factor erythroid-derived like-2 factor (Nrf-2), and its downstream targets (heme oxygenase-1, Nqo-1, glutathione S-transferase, and thioredoxin reductase-1). In addition, G-003M preadministration has also shown a significant reduction in Keap-1 level (Nrf-2 inhibitor). Radiation-induced lethality was significantly amended in combination-treated (G-003M) mice as demonstrated by reduced 8-OHdG, annexin V FITC+ cells, and restored mitochondrial membrane potential. Expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was restored in G-003M pretreated group. However, proapoptotic proteins (Puma, Bax, Bak, Caspase-3, and Caspase-7) were significantly declined in this group. Further analysis of immune cells revealed G-003M-mediated restoration of CD3 and CD19 receptor, which was found decreased to significant level following irradiation. Similarly, Gr-1, a marker of granulocytes, was also retained by G-003M administration prior to radiation. Modulatory potential of this formulation (G-003M) can be exploited as a safe and effective countermeasure against radiation-induced lymphohemopoietic injury. PMID:28289414

  13. Xenogeneic transfer of fetal liver and adult bone marrow-derived haemopoietic cells in rodents: changes in spleen colony differentials with increased doses of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, E; Gábor Szabó, L; Kelemen, E

    1997-01-01

    The effect of very high haemopoietic cell doses were investigated on the composition of splenic cell colonies/clusters in irradiated animals under xenogeneic circumstances. Differential cluster/colony counts from serial histological sections of the spleen were investigated before, and 9-12 days after transplantation of fetal liver- or adult bone marrow-derived haemopoietic cells following 5.0 to 8.5 Gy total body irradiation. Syngeneic as well as xenogeneic (mouse to rat and rat to mouse) transplantations were carried out. Cluster/colony differentials changed with the increase of the injected cell mass from 10(5) to 10(6) and 10(7) or more, i.e. the overwhelming erythroid pattern became trilinear even with xenogeneic transplants.

  14. Hybrid Arc Cell Studies: Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg J. S.

    2012-09-28

    I report on the status, at the end of FY12, of the studies of an arc cell for a hybrid synchrotron accelerating from 375 GeV/c to 750 GeV/c in momentum. Garren produced a complete lattice that gives a good outline of the structure of a hybrid synchrotron lattice. It is, however, lacking in some details: it does not maintain a constant time of flight, it lacks chromaticity correction, its cell structure is not ideal for removing aberrations from chromaticity correction, and it probably needs more space between magnets. I have begun studying cell structures for the arc cells to optimize the lattice performance and cost. I present some preliminary results for two magnets per half cell. I then discuss difficulties encountered, some preliminary attempts at resolving them, and the future plans for this work.

  15. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  16. Heterogeneous profiles of a factor that renders neutrophils cytotoxic obtained from a concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cell culture in partial purification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Y.; Inoue, T.; Ito, M.; Kimura, S.; Fuyama, S.; Arai, S.; Naiki, M.; Sendo, F.

    1986-05-15

    Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated rat spleen cells were cultured in a serum-free conditioned medium. This culture supernatant contained a certain factor(s) that renders neutrophil cytotoxic for various tumor cells. The factor was tentatively termed neutrophil-activating factor (NAF). NAF activity was eluted in broad fractions by the ion exchange chromatography and the gel filtration. Moreover, on the Con A column, some NAF activities were bound to the column, but other activities passed through the column. These results showed the heterogeneity or polydispersity of NAF activity in both molecular size and charge-based separation properties. Monoclonal antibodies were produced by fusing BALB/c myeloma cells (P3-X63 Ag8.653) with spleen cells from syngeneic mice immunized with partially purified NAF (pNAF) obtained from the gel filtration. Absorbent beads which were linked with one monoclonal antibody (ANAF-10) partially absorbed NAF activity from supernatants of a Con A-stimulated spleen cell culture. By further purification of pNAF the NAF activity was concentrated about 10,000-fold. Heterogeneity of NAF activity, however, did not disappear in even this affinity chromatography. On the other hand, /sup 125/I-labeled material of the final product migrated to one major band corresponding with an m.w. of about 20,000 as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis, and NAF activity was detected in the same band.

  17. In vitro and in vivo study of pluripotency in intraspecific hybrid cells obtained by fusion of murine embryonic stem cells with splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, N M; Shilov, A G; Kaftanovskaya, E M; Maximovsky, L P; Zhelezova, A I; Golubitsa, A N; Bayborodin, S I; Fokina, M M; Serov, O L

    1998-06-01

    Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient (HPRT-) mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, HM-1 cells (genotype XY), were fused with adult female DD/c mouse spleen cells. As a result, a set of HAT-resistant clones was isolated. Four hybrid clones most similar in morphology and growth characteristics to the HM-1 cells were studied in detail with respect to their pluripotency. Of these, three clones contained 41-43 chromosomes, and one clone was nearly tetraploid. All the clones had the XXY set of sex chromosomes and expressed the HPRT of the somatic partner only. The hybrid clones shared features with the HM-1 cells, indicating that they retained their pluripotent properties: (1) embryonic ECMA-7 antigen, not TROMA-1 antigen, was present in most cells; (2) the hybrid cells showed high activity of endogenous alkaline phosphatase (AP); (3) all the hybrid clones were able to form complex embryoid bodies containing derivatives of all the embryonic germinal layers; (4) the hybrid cells contained synchronously replicating X chromosomes, indicating that they were in an active state; and (5) a set of chimeric animals was generated by injecting hybrid cells into BALB/c and C57BL/6J mouse blastocysts. Evidence for chimerism was provided by the spotted coat derived from 129/Ola mice and identification of 129/Ola glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in many organs. Thus the results obtained demonstrated that the hybrid cells retain their high pluripotency level despite the close contact of the "pluripotent" HM-1 genome with the "somatic" spleen cell genome during hybrid cell formation and the presence of the "somatic" X chromosome during many cell generations. The presence of HPRT of the somatic partner in many organs and tissues, including the testes in chimeric animals, shows that the "somatic" X chromosome segregates weakly, if at all, during development of the chimeras. There were no individuals with the 129/Ola genotype among the more than 50 offspring from chimeric mice. The

  18. Hybrid solar cells : Perovskites under the Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, Maria Antonietta; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-halide organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites are reported to display electron–hole diffusion lengths over 1 μm. This observation provides important insight into the charge-carrier dynamics of this class of semiconductors and increases the expectations for highly efficient and cheap solar cells.

  19. Neonatal microbial colonization in mice promotes prolonged dominance of CD11b+Gr-1+cells and accelerated establishment of the CD4+T cell population in the spleen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Bergström, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    To assess the microbial influence on postnatal hematopoiesis, we examined the role of early life microbial colonization on the composition of leukocyte subsets in the neonatal spleen. A high number of CD11b+Gr-1+ splenocytes present perinatally was sustained for a longer period in conventionally...... event, which we suggest impacts the subsequent development of the T cell population in the murine spleen....

  20. Potent antigen-specific immune response induced by infusion of spleen cells coupled with succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl cyclohexane)-1-carboxylate (SMCC) conjugated antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yixian; Werbel, Tyler; Wan, Suigui; Wu, Haitao; Li, Yaohua; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we report our recently developed new approach to inducing antigen-specific immune response. We use two nucleophilic substitution "click" chemistry processes to successfully couple protein antigens or peptides to mouse spleen cells or T cells by a heterobifunctional crosslinker, succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl cyclohexane)-1-carboxylate (SMCC) or sulfo-SMCC. SMCC and its water-soluble analog sulfo-SMCC contain N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester and maleimide groups, which allow stable covalent conjugation of amine- and sulfhydryl-containing molecules in trans. Protein coupling to cells relies on the free sulfhydryls (thiols) on cell surfaces and the free amines on protein antigens. Although the amount of protein coupled to cells is limited due to the limited number of cell surface thiols, the injection of spleen cells coupled with antigenic proteins, such as keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or ovalbumin (OVA), induces a potent antigen-specific immune response in vivo, which is even stronger than that induced by the injection of a large dose of protein plus adjuvants. In addition, short peptides coupled to purified splenic T cells also potently elicit peptide-specific T cell proliferation in vivo after injection. Further studies show that antigen-coupled spleen cell treatment leads to augmented IFN-γ-producing T cells. Our study provides a unique antigen delivery method that efficiently distributes antigen to the entire immune system, subsequently eliciting a potent antigen-specific immune response with enhanced IFN-γ production. The findings in the present study suggest that this antigen-cell coupling strategy could be employed in immunotherapy for cancers, infectious diseases as well as immune-mediated disorders.

  1. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  2. M tuberculosis in the adjuvant modulates time of appearance of CNS-specific effector T cells in the spleen through a polymorphic site of TLR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nicolò

    Full Text Available DC deliver information regulating trafficking of effector T cells along T-cell priming. However, the role of pathogen-derived motives in the regulation of movement of T cells has not been studied. We hereinafter report that amount of M tuberculosis in the adjuvant modulates relocation of PLP139-151 specific T cells. In the presence of a low dose of M tuberculosis in the adjuvant, T cells (detected by CDR3 BV-BJ spectratyping, the so-called "immunoscope" mostly reach the spleen by day 28 after immunization ("late relocation" in the SJL strain, whereas T cells reach the spleen by d 14 with a high dose of M tuberculosis ("early relocation". The C57Bl/6 background confers a dominant "early relocation" phenotype to F1 (SJL×C57Bl/6 mice, allowing early relocation of T cells in the presence of low dose M tuberculosis. A single non-synonymous polymorphism of TLR2 is responsible for "early/late" relocation phenotype. Egress of T lymphocytes is regulated by TLR2 expressed on T cells. Thus, pathogens engaging TLR2 on T cells regulate directly T-cell trafficking, and polymorphisms of TLR2 condition T-cell trafficking upon a limiting concentration of ligand.

  3. Identification of schistosoma mansoni antigens recognised by spleen cells of C57B1/6 mice immunized with ultraviolet-irradiated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, A.; El Ridi, R. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt)); Guirguis, N. (VACSERA, El Agouza Cairo (Egypt). Biomedical Research Dept.); Dean, D.A. (U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo (Egypt))

    1994-11-01

    Spleen cells of C57B1/6 mice immunized twice with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae attenuated by ultraviolet irradiation proliferated and produced interleukin-(I1)-2 and/or I1-4 in response to both soluble schistosomular and adult worm antigens of 72-68, 60-62, 50, 45, 29.5 and 28 kDa. All of these bands, except the 45 kDa, were also recognized by serum antibodies in Western blotting. (author).

  4. Genetic stability of murine pluripotent and somatic hybrid cells may be affected by conditions of their cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovna, Shramova Elena; Alekseevich, Larionov Oleg; Mikhailovich, Khodarovich Yurii; Vladimirovna, Zatsepina Olga

    2011-01-01

    Using mouse pluripotent teratocarcinoma PCC4azal cells and proliferating spleen lymphocytes we obtained a new type of hybrids, in which marker lymphocyte genes were suppressed, but expression the Oct-4 gene was not effected; the hybrid cells were able to differentiate to cardiomyocytes. In order to specify the environmental factors which may affect the genetic stability and other hybrid properties, we analyzed the total chromosome number and differentiation potencies of hybrids respectively to conditions of their cultivation. Particular attention was paid to the number and transcription activity of chromosomal nucleolus organizing regions (NORs), which harbor the most actively transcribed - ribosomal - genes. The results showed that the hybrids obtained are characterized by a relatively stable chromosome number which diminished less than in 5% during 27 passages. However, a long-term cultivation of hybrid cells in non-selective conditions resulted in preferential elimination of some NO- chromosomes, whereas the number of active NORs per cell was increased due to activation of latent NORs. On the contrary, in selective conditions, i.e. in the presence of hypoxantine, aminopterin and thymidine, the total number of NOR-bearing chromosomes was not changed, but a partial inactivation of remaining NORs was observed. The higher number of active NORs directly correlated with the capability of hybrid cells for differentiation to cardiomyocytes.

  5. Photoperiodic induced melatonin regulates immunity and expression pattern of melatonin receptor MT1 in spleen and bone marrow mononuclear cells of male golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, Dipanshu Kumar; Haldar, Chandana

    2013-11-05

    The pineal gland transduces day length information into chemical signal of melatonin that ultimately translates photic stimulus into season-specific immune responses to promote survival of individual from incidence of opportunistic diseases. To date, the immune adjustments being a result of photoperiodic exposures for any nocturnal seasonally breeding rodent have not been systematically examined. Therefore, we evaluated the humoral and cell mediated immune responses of photoperiodically entrained male golden hamsters. Short day induced melatonin increased the immune parameters such as spleen mass, total leukocyte (TLC) and lymphocyte count (LC), proliferation of splenocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) along with serum IL-2 and anti-Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) IgG production when compared with long day experienced hamsters. Short term melatonin treatment (for two weeks) to long day hamsters enhanced to some extent the proliferation of splenocytes, PBMC and TLC/LC. We also localized the melatonin membrane receptor MT1 in spleen and BMMNCs that strongly supported our western blot analysis for the expression of MT1 in spleen suggesting that different photoperiodically induced circulatory melatonin is responsible for the immunomodulation. Therefore, photoperiod can influence the peripheral melatonin level to improve immune responses of hamsters according to season for better survival.

  6. T-cell populations and cytokine expression are impaired in thymus and spleen of protein malnourished BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania infantum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cuervo-Escobar

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a parasitic infectious disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although infections with visceralizing Leishmania may be asymptomatic, factors such as undernutrition increase the likelihood of progressing to clinical disease. Protein malnutrition, the most deleterious cause of malnutrition in developing countries, has been considered as a primary risk factor for the development of clinical VL. However, data regarding the immunological basis of this association are scarce. With the aim to analyze the effects of protein malnutrition on Leishmania infantum infection, we used BALB/c mice subjected to control or low protein isocaloric diets. Each animal group was divided into two subgroups and one was infected with L. infantum resulting in four study groups: animals fed 14% protein diet (CP, animals fed 4% protein diet (LP, animals fed 14% protein diet and infected (CPi, and animals fed 4% protein diet and infected (LPi.The susceptibility to L. infantum infection and immune responses were assessed in terms of body and lymphoid organ weight, parasite load, lymphocyte subpopulations, and cytokine expression. LPi mice had a significant reduction of body and lymphoid organ weight and exhibited a severe decrease of lymphoid follicles in the spleen. Moreover, LPi animals showed a significant decrease in CD4+CD8+ T cells in the thymus, whereas there was an increase of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells percentages in the spleen. Notably, the cytokine mRNA levels in the thymus and spleen of protein malnourished-infected animals were altered compared to the CP mice. Protein malnutrition results in a drastic dysregulation of T cells and cytokine expression in the thymus and spleen of L. infantum-infected BALB/c mice, which may lead to defective regulation of the thymocyte population and an impaired splenic immune response, accelerating the events of a normal course of

  7. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo

    2012-06-13

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. In vitro Induction of primary antibody responses to particulate and soluble protein antigens in T cell—replaced murine spleen cell cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuKun

    1990-01-01

    Specific antibody responses could be induced in serumfree condition.Specific anti-SRBC or anti-SRBC ghost antibody were induced from anti-Thy treated (T-depleted) murine spleen cells in serum-free culture in the presence of Con A conditioned medium.This induction system may facilitate the study of lymphokine functions on antigen triggered B cells. In T cell-replaced cultures,the antibody responses of B cells could be successfully induced when soluble SRBC membrane proteins were used as antigens.It thus indicates that antigen together with lymphokines are sufficient to drive B cells to become antibody secreting cells in the absence of T cells.The T cell-replaced system provides a more stable way for in vitro immunization and may be applied to monoclonal antibody production when in vivo immunization is difficult to be carried out.

  9. Analysis of fuel cell hybrid locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arnold R.; Peters, John; Smith, Brian E.; Velev, Omourtag A.

    Led by Vehicle Projects LLC, an international industry-government consortium is developing a 109 t, 1.2 MW road-switcher locomotive for commercial and military railway applications. As part of the feasibility and conceptual-design analysis, a study has been made of the potential benefits of a hybrid power plant in which fuel cells comprise the prime mover and a battery or flywheel provides auxiliary power. The potential benefits of a hybrid power plant are: (i) enhancement of transient power and hence tractive effort; (ii) regenerative braking; (iii) reduction of capital cost. Generally, the tractive effort of a locomotive at low speed is limited by wheel adhesion and not by available power. Enhanced transient power is therefore unlikely to benefit a switcher locomotive, but could assist applications that require high acceleration, e.g. subway trains with all axles powered. In most cases, the value of regeneration in locomotives is minimal. For low-speed applications such as switchers, the available kinetic energy and the effectiveness of traction motors as generators are both minimal. For high-speed heavy applications such as freight, the ability of the auxiliary power device to absorb a significant portion of the available kinetic energy is low. Moreover, the hybrid power plant suffers a double efficiency penalty, namely, losses occur in both absorbing and then releasing energy from the auxiliary device, which result in a net storage efficiency of no more than 50% for present battery technology. Capital cost in some applications may be reduced. Based on an observed locomotive duty cycle, a cost model shows that a hybrid power plant for a switcher may indeed reduce capital cost. Offsetting this potential benefit are the increased complexity, weight and volume of the power plant, as well as 20-40% increased fuel consumption that results from lower efficiency. Based on this analysis, the consortium has decided to develop a pure fuel cell road-switcher locomotive

  10. Cytokine production by spleen cells from mice with ovalbumin-specific, IgE-selective unresponsiveness induced by ovalbumin-liposome conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Horino

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovalbumin coupled with liposomes (OVA–liposome induced selective unresponsiveness of anti-OVA IgE antibody production in BALB/c mice, whereas OVA adsorbed with aluminum hydroxide (OVA–alum induced a substantial amount of anti-OVA IgE antibody production. Ovalbumin–liposome and OVA–alum predominantly induced IgG2a and IgG1 anti-OVA production, respectively. These results suggest that OVA–liposome and OVA–alum induce type 1 and type 2 T helper (Th immune responses, respectively. To further investigate this issue, we examined the cytokine production induced by these two distinct adjuvants. Spleen cells taken from mice immunized with either OVA–liposome or OVA–alum were cultured in vitro with OVA and the cytokine production from each culture was analyzed. It was demonstrated that spleen cells from mice immunized with OVA–liposome produced more interferon (IFN-γ than those immunized with OVA–alum and, furthermore, interleukin (IL-4 was produced only by spleen cells from mice immunized with OVA–alum. These results favor the notion that OVA–liposome and OVA–alum induce Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively. Interestingly, the production of IL-2, a Th1 cytokine, was higher in the OVA–alum-immunized group and the production of IL-10, a Th2 cytokine, remained at low levels in both groups after primary immunization; levels of IL-10 increased in the OVA–liposome-immunized group after secondary immunization. These results do not agree with the above notion and, thus, suggest that it may be important to consider the balance between IFN-γ-producing cells and IL-4-producing cells rather than that between Th1 and Th2 cells for the regulation of IgE antibody production.

  11. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288519361; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416355; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  12. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  13. Effect of Artificial Humidity Environment on Normal and Spleen Yang De-ficiency Oliferation of Spleen Cells in Rats%人工模拟外湿环境对正常及脾阳虚大鼠脾细胞增殖能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳芳; 王平; 陶功定; 李俊莲; 邱继云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of external humidity environment factors on the pro-liferation of spleen cells in normal and spleen deficiency rats,and to study the pathogenesis of internal and external pathogenic mechanisms of the compound. Methods Forty SD rats were randomly divided into the control group,the wet group,the spleen yang deficiency group,and the Spleen Yang humidification group. There were 10 rats in each group. The spleen was successfully removed after the model was successfully made,and the spleen lymphocyte proliferation was induced by ConA,so as to express the function of the lym-phocyte. Results The spleen lymphocyte proliferation ability of spleen deficiency group,external dampness group and spleen yang humidification group were significantly lower than that of the control group( P ﹤0. 01). The spleen lymphocyte proliferation ability of spleen deficiency and spleen deficiency humidification group were significantly decreased( P ﹤ 0. 01). Conclusion The external humidity environment factor is stronger than the spleen yang deficiency factor to the immune suppression effect of organism. Wet environment factors shows more obvious immunological effect in normal rats and spleen yang deficiency model rats than simple spleen yang deficiency model rats. And wet environment factors and spleen yang deficiency model have collaborative induced decline effect in immune function.%目的:探讨外湿环境因素对正常及脾阳虚大鼠脾细胞增殖能力的影响,研究复合病因内外合邪发病机制。方法选取 SD 大鼠40只随机分为对照组、外湿组、脾阳虚组、脾阳虚加湿组,每组10只。造模成功后无菌摘除脾脏,采用 ConA 诱导脾淋巴细胞增殖,以此表示淋巴细胞的功能水平。结果脾阳虚组、外湿组、脾阳虚加湿组脾淋巴细胞增殖能力均显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.01)。脾阳虚加湿组脾淋巴细胞增殖能力较脾阳虚组

  14. ω-3 PUFA rich camelina oil by-products improve the systemic metabolism and spleen cell functions in fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranu, Ionelia; Gras, Mihail; Pistol, Gina Cecilia; Motiu, Monica; Marin, Daniela E; Lefter, Nicoleta; Ropota, Mariana; Habeanu, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Camelina oil-cakes results after the extraction of oil from Camelina sativa plant. In this study, camelina oil-cakes were fed to fattening pigs for 33 days and its effect on performance, plasma biochemical analytes, pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and antioxidant detoxifying defence in spleen was investigated in comparison with sunflower meal. 24 crossbred TOPIG pigs were randomly assigned to one of two experimental dietary treatments containing either 12% sunflower meal (treatment 1-T1), or 12.0% camelina oil-cakes, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (ω-3 PUFA) (treatment 2-T2). The results showed no effect of T2 diet (camelina cakes) on feed intake, average weight gain or feed efficiency. Consumption of camelina diet resulted in a significant decrease in plasma glucose concentration (18.47%) with a trend towards also a decrease of plasma cholesterol. In spleen, T2 diet modulated cellular immune response by decreasing the protein and gene expression of pro-inflammatory markers, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin (IL-8) and cyclooxigenase 2 (COX-2) in comparison with T1 diet. By contrast, T2 diet increased (Poil-cakes appears to be a potentially alternative feed source for pig which preserves a high content of ω-3 PUFA indicating antioxidant properties by the stimulation of detoxifying enzymes expression and the suppression of spleen pro-inflammatory markers.

  15. Investigating the interaction between hematopoietic stem cells and their niche during embryonic development: optimizing the isolation of fetal and newborn stem cells from liver, spleen, and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huimin; Williams, Brenda; Nilsson, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a particular microenvironment termed a "niche." Within the niche, a number of critical molecules and supportive cell types have been identified to play key roles in modulating adult HSC quiescence, proliferation, differentiation, and reconstitution. However, unlike in the adult bone marrow (BM), the components of stem cell niches, as well as their interactions with fetal HSC during different stages of embryonic development, are poorly understood. During embryogenesis, hematopoietic development migrates through multiple organs, each with different cellular and molecular components and hence each with a potentially unique HSC niche. As a consequence, isolating fetal HSC from each organ at the time of hematopoietic colonization is fundamental for assessing and understanding both HSC function and their interactions with specific microenvironments. Herein, we describe methodologies for harvesting cells as well as the purification of stem and progenitors from fetal and newborn liver, spleen, and BM at various developmental stages following the expansion of hematopoiesis in the fetal liver at E14.5.

  16. A Neuroblastoma × Glioma Hybrid Cell Line with Morphine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Werner A.; Nirenberg, Marshall

    1974-01-01

    A neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid cell line with well-developed neural properties was found that has high-affinity morphine receptors. The average cell contains approximately 3 × 106 receptors. In contrast, parent cells and other neuroblastoma or hybrid cell lines tested had few or no morphine receptors. PMID:4530316

  17. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway and production of type I interferon in spleen cells from lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueqin; Xie, Zhijun; Liu, Fenfen; Han, Chunwen; Zhang, Dongyu; Wang, Dawei; Bao, Xi; Sun, Jing; Wen, Chengping; Fan, Yongsheng

    2014-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by various immunological abnormalities. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a metabolite of artemisinin, has been recently reported to exhibit immunosuppressive properties. The present study aims to determine the effects of DHA on spleen cell activation triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and investigate the effects of DHA on LPS-induced activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/interferon regulatory factor (IRF) signaling pathway. Spleen cells from lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice were isolated, prepared and cultured. Cells were treated with LPS alone or LPS with DHA, and spleen cell proliferation was analyzed using MTS assay. Protein expressions of TLR4, IRF3, and IRF7 were analyzed by Western blot. IRF3 phosphorylation was also determined. Gene expression levels of IFN-α and IFN-β were measured using real-time PCR, and protein levels in cells' supernatants were determined by ELISA. DHA was found to inhibit LPS-induced spleen cell proliferation, decrease LPS-induced protein expression of TLR4, and inhibit IRF3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, LPS significantly induced IRF3 expression and slightly increased IRF7 expression in the nucleus of spleen cells, which was accompanied by enhanced IFN-α and IFN-β production. DHA inhibited the effects of LPS in spleen cells of MRL/lpr mice. Taken together, the data obtained reveal that DHA inhibits LPS-induced cell activation possibly by suppressing the TLR4/IRF/IFN pathway in spleen cells of MRL/lpr mice. These data suggest that DHA has the potential therapeutic utility for the treatment of SLE.

  18. Hybrid solar cell on a carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynko, Dmytro A.; Fedoryak, Alexander N.; Smertenko, Petro S.; Dimitriev, Oleg P.; Ogurtsov, Nikolay A.; Pud, Alexander A.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a method to assemble nanoscale hybrid solar cells in the form of a brush of radially oriented CdS nanowire crystals around a single carbon fiber is demonstrated for the first time. A solar cell was assembled on a carbon fiber with a diameter of ~5-10 μm which served as a core electrode; inorganic CdS nanowire crystals and organic dye or polymer layers were successively deposited on the carbon fiber as active components resulting in a core-shell photovoltaic structure. Polymer, dye-sensitized, and inverted solar cells have been prepared and compared with their analogues made on the flat indium-tin oxide electrode.

  19. BAFF induces spleen CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation by down-regulating phosphorylation of FOXO3A and activates cyclin D2 and D3 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Fang; Chen, Rongjing [Department of Orthodontics, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Liu, Baojun [Laboratory of Lung, Inflammation and Cancers, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Xiaoping [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Han, Junli; Wang, Haining [Department of General Dentistry, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Shen, Gang [Department of Orthodontics, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Tao, Jiang, E-mail: taojiang2012@yahoo.cn [Department of General Dentistry, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Firstly analyze the mechanism of BAFF and anti-CD3 co-stimulation on purified mouse splenic CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carrying out siRNA technology to study FOXO3A protein function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Helpful to understand the T cell especially CD4{sup +} T cell's role in immunological reaction. -- Abstract: The TNF ligand family member 'B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family' (BAFF, also called BLyS, TALL-1, zTNF-4, and THANK) is an important survival factor for B and T cells. In this study, we show that BAFF is able to induce CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation when co-stimulated with anti-CD3. Expression of phosphorylated FOXO3A was notably down-regulated and cyclins D2 and D3 were up-regulated and higher in the CD4{sup +} T cells when treated with BAFF and anti-CD3, as assessed by Western blotting. Furthermore, after FOXO3A was knocked down, expression of cyclin D1 was unchanged, compared with control group levels, but the expression of cyclins D2 and D3 increased, compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that BAFF induced CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation by down-regulating the phosphorylation of FOXO3A and then activating cyclin D2 and D3 expression, leading to CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation.

  20. Immunization with PIII, a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation, affects nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Magalhães de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important effector molecule involved in immune regulation and defense. NO produced by cytokine-activated macrophages was reported to be cytotoxic against the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Identification and characterization of S. mansoni antigens that can provide protective immunity is crucial for understanding the complex immunoregulatory events that modulate the immune response in schistosomiasis. It is, then, essential to have available defined, purified parasite antigens. Previous work by our laboratory identified a fraction of S. mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation (SWAP, named PIII, able to elicit significant in vitro cell proliferation and at the same time lower in vitro and in vivo granuloma formation when compared either to SEA (soluble egg antigen or to SWAP. In the present work we report the effect of different in vivo trials with mice on their spleen cells ability to produce NO. We demonstrate that PIII-immunization is able to significantly increase NO production by spleen cells after in vitro stimulation with LPS. These data suggest a possible role for NO on the protective immunity induced by PIII.

  1. Effect of operation-synchronizing transfusion of apoptotic spleen cells from donor rats on acute rejection of recipient rats after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Yi Gao; Shuan Wang; Er-Wei Sun; Yu Wang; Zhi Zhang; Yi-Qiang Shan; Shi-Zheng Zhong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study effect of operation-synchronizing transfusion of apoptotic spleen cells from donor rats on acute rejection of recipient rats after liver transplantation.METHODS: Two of Wistar rats were chosen randomly for normal liver pathology control and ten of SD rats chosen randomly for liver function control as blank group (no operation). The rest of Wistar and SD rats were divided into four groups: control group (only liver transplantation),Dex group (donors receiving intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone), SpC group (recipients receiving infusion of spleen cells of donors), Dex-SpC group (recipients receiving infusion of apoptotic spleen cells of donors),with each group except blank group, containing 10 SD rats and 10 Wistar rats, respectively. Wistar rats received liver transplantation from SD rats, in the meantime they received infusion of spleen cells of donors, which were induced by an intraperitoneal injection of dexamethasone The serum alanine transaminase (ALT), total bilirubin (T bili), liver pathological changes and survival time were analysed. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Differences of the parametric data of ALT in means were examined by one-way ANOVA.Differences of ALT between two groups were examined by LSD. Differences of the nonparametric data of T bili in means and scores of pathology classification for acute rejection were examined by Kruskal-Willis H test. The correlations between ALT and T bili were analysed by Bivariate. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to demonstrate survival distribution. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival data.RESULTS: There were significant differences in ALT of the five groups (F= 23.164 P= 0.000), and ALT in DexSpC group was significantly higher than that in blank control, control, Dex, and SpC groups (P = 0.000), and ALT in SpC group was significantly higher than that in blank control (P = 0.000), control (P = 0.004), and Dex groups (P = 0.02). Results of

  2. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Oscar P. R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, André P. C.

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost €5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO 2 km -1 compared to reference petrol (163 g km -1) and diesel cars (156 g km -1). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO 2 km -1.

  3. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Crossland, Edward J. W.

    2009-08-12

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided channels of a self-assembled, selectively degradable block copolymer film. The highly ordered pore structure is ideal for uniform infiltration of an organic hole transporting material, and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells only 400 nm thick exhibit up to 1.7% power conversion efficiency. This patterning technique can be readily extended to other promising heterojunction systems and is a major step toward realizing the full potential of self-assembly in the next generation of device technologies. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Wendy U; Dittmer, Janke J; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2002-03-29

    We demonstrate that semiconductor nanorods can be used to fabricate readily processed and efficient hybrid solar cells together with polymers. By controlling nanorod length, we can change the distance on which electrons are transported directly through the thin film device. Tuning the band gap by altering the nanorod radius enabled us to optimize the overlap between the absorption spectrum of the cell and the solar emission spectrum. A photovoltaic device consisting of 7-nanometer by 60-nanometer CdSe nanorods and the conjugated polymer poly-3(hexylthiophene) was assembled from solution with an external quantum efficiency of over 54% and a monochromatic power conversion efficiency of 6.9% under 0.1 milliwatt per square centimeter illumination at 515 nanometers. Under Air Mass (A.M.) 1.5 Global solar conditions, we obtained a power conversion efficiency of 1.7%.

  5. Cell-in-Shell Hybrids: Chemical Nanoencapsulation of Individual Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hun; Hong, Daewha; Lee, Juno; Choi, Insung S

    2016-05-17

    Nature has developed a fascinating strategy of cryptobiosis ("secret life") for counteracting the stressful, and often lethal, environmental conditions that fluctuate sporadically over time. For example, certain bacteria sporulate to transform from a metabolically active, vegetative state to an ametabolic endospore state. The bacterial endospores, encased within tough biomolecular shells, withstand the extremes of harmful stressors, such as radiation, desiccation, and malnutrition, for extended periods of time and return to a vegetative state by breaking their protective shells apart when their environment becomes hospitable for living. Certain ciliates and even higher organisms, for example, tardigrades, and others are also found to adopt a cryptobiotic strategy for survival. A common feature of cryptobiosis is the structural presence of tough sheaths on cellular structures. However, most cells and cellular assemblies are not "spore-forming" and are vulnerable to the outside threats. In particular, mammalian cells, enclosed with labile lipid bilayers, are highly susceptible to in vitro conditions in the laboratory and daily life settings, making manipulation and preservation difficult outside of specialized conditions. The instability of living cells has been a main bottleneck to the advanced development of cell-based applications, such as cell therapy and cell-based sensors. A judicious question arises: can cellular tolerance against harmful stresses be enhanced by simply forming cell-in-shell hybrid structures? Experimental results suggest that the answer is yes. A micrometer-sized "Iron Man" can be generated by chemically forming an ultrathin (cell. Since the report on silica nanoencapsulation of yeast cells, in which cytoprotective yeast-in-silica hybrids were formed, several synthetic strategies have been developed to encapsulate individual cells in a cytocompatible fashion, mimicking the cryptobiotic cell-in-shell structures found in nature, for example

  6. Time course of programmed cell death, which included autophagic features, in hybrid tobacco cells expressing hybrid lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Naoya; Nihei, Saori; Miyakawa, Naoto; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Marubashi, Wataru; van Doorn, Wouter G; Yamada, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    PCD with features of vacuolar cell death including autophagy-related features were detected in hybrid tobacco cells, and detailed time course of features of vacuolar cell death were established. A type of interspecific Nicotiana hybrid, Nicotiana suaveolens × N. tabacum exhibits temperature-sensitive lethality. This lethality results from programmed cell death (PCD) in hybrid seedlings, but this PCD occurs only in seedlings and suspension-cultured cells grown at 28 °C, not those grown at 36 °C. Plant PCD can be classified as vacuolar cell death or necrotic cell death. Induction of autophagy, vacuolar membrane collapse and actin disorganization are each known features of vacuolar cell death, but observed cases of PCD showing all these features simultaneously are rare. In this study, these features of vacuolar cell death were evident in hybrid tobacco cells expressing hybrid lethality. Ion leakage, plasma membrane disruption, increased activity of vacuolar processing enzyme, vacuolar membrane collapse, and formation of punctate F-actin foci were each evident in these cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that macroautophagic structures formed and tonoplasts ruptured in these cells. The number of cells that contained monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-stained structures and the abundance of nine autophagy-related gene transcripts increased just before cell death at 28 °C; these features were not evident at 36 °C. We assessed whether an autophagic inhibitor, wortmannin (WM), influenced lethality in hybrid cells. After the hybrid cell began to die, WM suppressed increases in ion leakage and cell deaths, and it decreased the number of cells containing MDC-stained structures. These results showed that several features indicative of autophagy and vacuolar cell death were evident in the hybrid tobacco cells subject to lethality. In addition, we documented a detailed time course of these vacuolar cell death features.

  7. FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells in Hepatic Fibrosis and Splenomegaly Caused by Schistosoma japonicum: The Spleen May Be a Major Source of Tregs in Subjects with Splenomegaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertorio, Mathieu; Dessein, Hélia; Cabantous, Sandrine; Oliveira, Pablo; Li, Jun; Oyegue, Sandrine; Arnaud, Violaine; Luo, Xinsong; Chavanieu, Martine; Mariani, Odette; Sastre, Xavier; Dombey, Anne-Marie; He, Hongbin; Li, Yuesheng; Dessein, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma eggs cause chronic liver inflammation and a complex disease characterized by hepatic fibrosis (HF) and splenomegaly (SplM). FOXP3+ Tregs could regulate inflammation, but it is unclear where these cells are produced and what roles they play in human schistosomiasis. We investigated blood and spleen FOXP3+ Tregs in Chinese fishermen with lifelong exposure to Schistosoma japonicum and various degrees of liver and spleen disease. FOXP3+ Tregs accounted for 4.3% of CD4+ T cells and 41.2% of FOXP3+CD4+ T cells; they could be divided into CD45RA-FOXP3hi effector (eTregs) and CD45RA+FOXP3low naive Tregs. Blood Treg levels were high in severe HF (+1.3; p = 0.004) and in SplM (+1.03, p = 0.03). Multivariate regression showed that severe HF (+0.85, p = 0.01) and SplM (+0.97; p = 0.05) were independently associated with the higher proportion of Tregs in the blood. This effect was mostly due to an increase in the proportion of eTregs in the blood of HF+++ (+0.9%; p = 0.04) and SplM (+0.9%; p = 0.04) patients. The proportion of eTregs expressing CXCR3 in the blood was lower in the HF+++ patients (37.4 +/- 5.9%) than in those with milder fibrosis (51.7 ± 2%; p = 0.009), whereas proportion were similar for cells expressing CD25hi, CCR7, and CTLA-4. Splenectomy improves symptoms and was associated with decreases in blood FOXP3+ Treg (-2.5; pTregs (p = 0.009). Thus, higher blood Treg levels are associated with severe liver disease and splenomegaly. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the spleen is a major source of Tregs in subjects with splenomegaly. In most cases, Tregs migrate to the Th1-infiltrated liver and the lower levels of CXCR3+ Tregs in the blood of patients with severe schistosomiasis suggest that decreases in Treg migration sites of inflammation may aggravate the disease. PMID:26731721

  8. Follicular dendritic cell-specific prion protein (PrP expression alone is sufficient to sustain prion infection in the spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McCulloch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are characterised by the accumulation of PrP(Sc, an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C, in affected tissues. Following peripheral exposure high levels of prion-specific PrP(Sc accumulate first upon follicular dendritic cells (FDC in lymphoid tissues before spreading to the CNS. Expression of PrP(C is mandatory for cells to sustain prion infection and FDC appear to express high levels. However, whether FDC actively replicate prions or simply acquire them from other infected cells is uncertain. In the attempts to-date to establish the role of FDC in prion pathogenesis it was not possible to dissociate the Prnp expression of FDC from that of the nervous system and all other non-haematopoietic lineages. This is important as FDC may simply acquire prions after synthesis by other infected cells. To establish the role of FDC in prion pathogenesis transgenic mice were created in which PrP(C expression was specifically "switched on" or "off" only on FDC. We show that PrP(C-expression only on FDC is sufficient to sustain prion replication in the spleen. Furthermore, prion replication is blocked in the spleen when PrP(C-expression is specifically ablated only on FDC. These data definitively demonstrate that FDC are the essential sites of prion replication in lymphoid tissues. The demonstration that Prnp-ablation only on FDC blocked splenic prion accumulation without apparent consequences for FDC status represents a novel opportunity to prevent neuroinvasion by modulation of PrP(C expression on FDC.

  9. Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, induces human hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, performs immunomodulatory activity on cancer patients suffering from radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The present study aims to investigate the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects of CSEI in cells and tumor-xenografted mouse models. In HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, CSEI reduced cell viability, enhanced apoptosis rate, caused reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, inhibited migration ability, and induced caspases cascade and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. CSEI significantly inhibited HepG2-xenografted tumor growth in nude mice. In cell and animal experiments, CSEI increased the activations of pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase 8, caspase 9 and caspase 3; meanwhile, it suppressed the expressions of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and anti-oxidation proteins, such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 and catalase (CAT. The enhanced phosphorylation of P38 and c-JunN-terminalkinase (JNK, and decreased phosphorylation of extra cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERKs were observed in CSEI-treated cells and tumor tissues. CSEI-induced cell viability reduction was significantly attenuated by N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (a ROS inhibitor pretreatment. All data demonstrated that the upregulated oxidative stress status and the altered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs phosphorylation contributed to CSEI-driven mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, CSEI exactly induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  10. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchuan Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  11. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-04-02

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  12. Mouse B- and T-cell colony formation in vitro. I. Separation of colony-promoting and -inhibiting activities in concanavalin A rat spleen conditioned medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claësson, M H; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Röpke, C

    1984-01-01

    Rat spleen cell cultures exposed for 24 h to concanavalin A (Con A-CM) contain, in addition to interleukin 2 (IL-2), factors that promote colony formation in vitro by mouse T cells (TCPA) and B cells (BCPA). TCPA and BCPA are separable on a Sephadex G-75 column. TCPA has a molecular weight of 15......,000 daltons and shows the same elution profile as IL-2. Absorption studies with Con A-activated T cells suggested that TCPA and IL-2 are the same entity. BCPA has an apparent molecular weight of 45,000 daltons and stimulates colony formation by B lymphocytes seeded at very low cell density (10(4) - 5 X 10......(4) cells/ml). In contrast to TCPA, BCPA can only be demonstrated in gel-filtered material owing to the presence of B colony suppressor activities in crude Con A-CM. Two B colony inhibitory activities were demonstrated by AcA 34 chromatography of crude Con A-CM with molecular weights of 80...

  13. Hybrid Perovskite/Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinghong; Schlipf, Johannes; Wussler, Michael; Petrus, Michiel L; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Bein, Thomas; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Docampo, Pablo

    2016-06-28

    Recently developed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells combine low-cost fabrication and high power conversion efficiency. Advances in perovskite film optimization have led to an outstanding power conversion efficiency of more than 20%. Looking forward, shifting the focus toward new device architectures holds great potential to induce the next leap in device performance. Here, we demonstrate a perovskite/perovskite heterojunction solar cell. We developed a facile solution-based cation infiltration process to deposit layered perovskite (LPK) structures onto methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments were performed to gain insights into the crystallite orientation and the formation process of the perovskite bilayer. Our results show that the self-assembly of the LPK layer on top of an intact MAPI layer is accompanied by a reorganization of the perovskite interface. This leads to an enhancement of the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency due to reduced recombination losses, as well as improved moisture stability in the resulting photovoltaic devices.

  14. Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splenectomy - adult - discharge; Spleen removal - adult - discharge ... You had surgery to remove your spleen. This operation is called splenectomy . The surgeon made a cut (incision) in the middle of your belly or on the left side ...

  15. The equivalents of human blood and spleen dendritic cell subtypes can be generated in vitro from human CD34+ stem cells in the presence of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand and thrombopoietin

    OpenAIRE

    Proietto, AI; Mittag, D; Roberts, AW; Sprigg, N; L. Wu

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells specialized to capture, process and present antigen to T cells in order to initiate an appropriate adaptive immune response. The study of mouse DC has revealed a heterogeneous population of cells that differ in their development, surface phenotype and function. The study of human blood and spleen has shown the presence of two subsets of conventional DC including the CD1b/c+ and CD141+CLEC9A+ conventional DC (cDC) and a plasmacytoid DC (pDC) that is CD304...

  16. Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calio, Francesco; Pacilè, Maria A; Carboni, Fabio; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen is a very rare tumor, with 14 isolated reports. It was our aim to review our experience and compare it with all the reported cases in an attempt to standardize surgical treatment, adjuvant treatment and follow-up protocol of this infrequent condition. A consecutive case series study, with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Five patients (mean age, 49 years) underwent simple splenectomy for hemangiopericytoma limited to the spleen followed by adriamycin-based chemotherapy in one patient. All the patients are alive and free from disease. For tumors confined to the spleen, simple splenectomy can be considered curative, without any need for further adjuvant treatment. On review of the medical literature, cure can still be achieved with complete resection of recurrences, when feasible, with adjuvant chemotherapy being also indicated. The slow-growing pattern of the tumor suggests a 10-year follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Th2/1 Hybrid Cells Occurring in Murine and Human Strongyloidiasis Share Effector Functions of Th1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristin N. Bock

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections by the soil-transmitted threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis affect 30–100 million people worldwide, predominantly in tropic and sub-tropic regions. Here we assessed the T helper cell phenotypes in threadworm-infected patients and experimental murine infections with focus on CD4+ T cells co-expressing markers of Th2 and Th1 differentiation. We show that mice infected with the close relative S. ratti generate strong Th2 responses characterized by the expansion of CD4+ GATA-3+ cells expressing IL-4/-5/-13 in blood, spleen, gut-draining lymph nodes, lung and gut tissue. In addition to conventional Th2 cells, significantly increased frequencies of GATA-3+T-bet+ Th2/1-hybrid cells were detected in all organs and co-expressed Th2- and Th1-cytokines at intermediate levels. Assessing the phenotype of blood-derived CD4+ T cells from South Indian patients infected with S. stercoralis and local uninfected control donors we found that GATA-3 expressing Th2 cells were significantly increased in the patient cohort, coinciding with elevated eosinophil and IgE/IgG4 levels. A fraction of IL-4+CD4+ T cells simultaneously expressed IFN-γ hence displaying a Th2/1 hybrid phenotype. In accordance with murine Th2/1 cells, human Th2/1 cells expressed intermediate levels of Th2 cytokines. Contrasting their murine counterparts, human Th2/1 hybrids were marked by high levels of IFN-γ and rather low GATA-3 expression. Assessing the effector function of murine Th2/1 cells in vitro we found that Th2/1 cells were qualified for driving the classical activation of macrophages. Furthermore, Th2/1 cells shared innate, cytokine-driven effector functions with Th1 cells. Hence, the key findings of our study are that T helper cells with combined characteristics of Th2 and Th1 cells are integral to immune responses of helminth-infected mice, but also occur in helminth-infected humans and we suggest that Th2/1 cells are poised for the instruction of balanced immune

  18. Administration of sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate conjugated GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled spleen cells effectively mounts antigen-specific immune response against mouse melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiaoli [Department of Hematology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Xia, Chang-Qing, E-mail: cqx65@yahoo.com [Department of Hematology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL32610 (United States)

    2015-12-04

    It remains a top research priority to develop immunotherapeutic approaches to induce potent antigen-specific immune responses against tumors. However, in spite of some promising results, most strategies are ineffective because they generate low numbers of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we designed a strategy to enhance antigen-specific immune response via administering sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC)-conjugated melanoma tumor antigen GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled syngeneic spleen cells in a mouse model of melanoma. We found that infusion of GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled spleen cells significantly attenuated the growth of melanoma in prophylactic and therapeutic immunizations. Consistent with these findings, the adoptive transfer of spleen cells from immunized mice to naïve syngeneic mice was able to transfer anti-tumor effect, suggesting that GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-specific immune response was induced. Further studies showed that, CD8+ T cell proliferation and the frequency of interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD8+ T cells upon ex vivo stimulation by GP100{sub 25–33} were significantly increased compared to control groups. Tumor antigen, GP100{sub 25–23} specific immune response was also confirmed by ELISpot and GP100-tetramer assays. This approach is simple, easy-handled, and efficiently delivering antigens to lymphoid tissues. Our study offers an opportunity for clinically translating this approach into tumor immunotherapy. - Highlights: • Infusion of GP100{sub 25–33}-coupled spleen cells leads to potent anti-melanoma immunity. • GP100{sub 25–33}-coupled spleen cell treatment induces antigen-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells. • This approach takes advantage of homing nature of immune cells.

  19. THE EFFECT OF ANTISENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDE ON THE INTERLEUKIN-5 IN THE SUPERNATANTS OF SPLEEN CELL CULTURES OF ASTHMATIC MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美琴; 白春学; 钮善福; 方晓惠; 陈常庆; 陈波

    2001-01-01

    To explore the effect of antisense oligonucleotide on the production of IL-5 by mouse spleen T lymphocytes.Methods Based on the IL-5 cDNA sequence of mouse, a segment of antisense oligonucleotide was designed and synthesized. 5’-labeling of antisense oligonucleotide was signed by T4 PNK in order that the efficiency of stearylamine liposome in transfecting antisense oligonucleotide can be evaluated. Asthma model was duplicated with ovalbumin(OVA) absorbed to aluminum hydroxide. T lymphocytes of mice were separated by nylon fiber method, then T lymphocytes transfected with different concentration of antisense oligonucleotide with cation stearylamine liposme were incubated respectively in order to observe the effect of antisense oligonucleotide on Il-5 production by T lymphocytes. IL-5 levels in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures were determined by ELISA.Results Stearylamine liposome could markedly increase the efficiency of antisense oligonucleotide transfection. The transfection efficiency of antisense oligouncleotide increased approximately 12 times at a ratio of 1: 15m/m (antisense oligonucleotide to SA liposome). In healthy and asthma Balb/c mice, IL-5 was not detectable in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures without stimulated with OVA; however, IL-5 was increased markedly in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures stimulated with OVA. After transfection with different concentrations of antisense oligonucleotide, IL-5 levels in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures were significantly lower than those in control cultured without antisense oligonucleotide transfection. IL-5 levels decreased from 44.60±6.23 pg/ml to 30.70±7.362 pg/ml, 17.20±6.181 pg/ml and 8.16±2.34 pg/ml respectively. And IL-5 synthesis was inhibited by 31.17%, 61.43% and 81.7% respectively.Conclusion IL-5 synthesis could be obviously inhibited by antisense oligonucleotide and showed a markedly correlation between dose and effectiveness. It suggests the production

  20. A novel supercapacitor-fuel cell hybrid cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Y; ZHENG Jim P

    2006-01-01

    A monolithic hybrid fuel cell (MHFC) with a novel configuration was proposed in an effort to improve the fuel cell performance during instantaneous power changes. A modified direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) with a layer of hydrous ruthenium dioxide (RuO2·xH2O) sandwiched between the anode catalyst layer and membrane was used to demonstrate the principle of the MHFC. Experimental results indicate that the RuO2·xH2O layer is equivalent to a resistor-capacitor transmission line and functions similar to a capacitor in parallel with the anode electrode. The improvement in dynamic response of the MHFC was experimentally confirmed under step current change and square current pulse operating. The ionic conductivity of the RuO2·xH2O layer was also obtained.

  1. New hybrid model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui-min; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2007-01-01

    Model and simulation are good tools for design optimization of fuel cell systems. This paper proposes a new hybrid model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The hybrid model includes physical component and black-box component. The physical component represents the well-known part of PEMFC, while artificial neural network (ANN) component estimates the poorly known part of PEMFC. The ANN model can compensate the performance of the physical model. This hybrid model is implemented on Matlab/Simulink software. The hybrid model shows better accuracy than that of the physical model and ANN model. Simulation results suggest that the hybrid model can be used as a suitable and accurate model for PEMFC.

  2. A stamped PEDOT:PSS-silicon nanowire hybrid solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiz, Syed Abdul; Nahhas, Ahmed Muhammad; Um, Han-Don; Jee, Sang-Won; Cho, Hyung Koun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2012-04-13

    A novel stamped hybrid solar cell was proposed using the stamping transfer technique by stamping an active PEDOT:PSS thin layer onto the top of silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Compared to a bulk-type counterpart that fully embeds SiNWs inside PEDOT:PSS, an increase in the photovoltaic efficiency was observed by a factor of ∼4.6, along with improvements in both electrical and optical responses for the stamped hybrid cell. Such improvements for hybrid cells was due to the formation of well-connected and linearly aligned active PEDOT:PSS channels at the top ends of the nanowires after the stamping process. These stamped channels facilitated not only to improve the charge transport, light absorption, but also to decrease the free carriers as well as exciton recombination losses for stamped hybrid solar cells.

  3. Morphological study of the dove spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, T; Shimizu, K; Nakai, M

    1992-09-01

    The spleen and vascular resin cast from doves were observed by a light and a scanning electron microscope for the purpose of studying the histological structure and the mode of the splenic blood microcirculation. The trabeculae of the dove spleen were poorly developed and the white and red pulps could not be distinguished from each other as is also the case of the chicken spleen. The luminal surface of the sinus was covered by continuous endothelial cells that had nuclear protrusion into the lumen. The blood cells passed to the sinus via the small gap of the luminal surface of the sinus. Irregular resin masses that connected the terminal portion of the artery with the venous sinus were observed. The direct connection between the arterial terminalis and venous sinus could not be recognized. When the resin was injected retrograde to blood flow from the vein, the sinus ended blindly.

  4. Investigation of the photovoltaic cell/ thermoelectric element hybrid system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotfas, D. T.; Cotfas, P. A.; Machidon, O. M.; Ciobanu, D.

    2016-06-01

    The PV/TEG hybrid system, consisting of the photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric element, is presented in the paper. The dependence of the PV/TEG hybrid system parameters on the illumination levels and the temperature is analysed. The maxim power values of the photovoltaic cell, of the thermoelectric element and of the PV/TEG system are calculated and a comparison between them is presented and analysed. An economic analysis is also presented.

  5. The {sup 57}Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@gmail.com; Alenkina, I. V. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S. [Ural State Medical University (Russian Federation); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient’s tissues were detected and related to small variations in the {sup 57}Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients’ spleen and liver tissues.

  6. The 57Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Alenkina, I. V.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient's tissues were detected and related to small variations in the 57Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients' spleen and liver tissues.

  7. Presence of bluetongue virus in the marginal zone of the spleen in acute infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fan; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Lin, Chun-Ming; Wang, Fun-In

    2011-08-26

    Bluetongue virus, a member of the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae, is the causative agent of bluetongue, which is a non-contagious Culicoides mediated blood-borne disease. The present study characterizes the pathogenicity of a Taiwan prototype BTV2/KM/2003 in Corriedale sheep inoculated subcutaneously into the ear pinna. Histologically, multifocal petechiated hemorrhage, with mild to moderate inflammation and edema, were present in the contralateral ear pinna, tongue, and facial skin, without remarkable lesions in lymphoid organs. By days post-infection (DPI) 7, viral VP7 antigen, detected by immunohistochemistry, presented in the spleen, chiefly located in the outer rim of macrophages bordering the marginal zone and red pulp, and T lymphocytes of the red pulp. By DPI 11, viral signals shifted from the marginal zone to macrophages and small lymphocytes within follicles of the spleen. In situ hybridization with VP7 gene probe detected strong signals in the spleen, chiefly spanning the whole width of 5-10 cell thickness of the marginal zone, including the marginal zone macrophages and marginal zone B cells, as well as macrophages of sheathed capillaries in the red pulp. This study demonstrates molecular as well as morphologic evidence of the presence of bluetongue virus in the marginal zone of the spleen, most likely associated with viremia in acute infection, as previously demonstrated by the authors.

  8. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup +}CD25{sup −} (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4{sup −}CD8{sup −}CD44{sup −}CD25{sup +} (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells, CD8{sup +} T cells, and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1{sup +}). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8{sup +} T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ► The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed

  9. Differential expression of migration inhibitory and migration stimulatory factors in two lines of mice genetically selected for high or low responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin. 1. Migration stimulatory factor(s) from T and B cells of immune spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Rahman, S; el-Gharbi, N; Siddiqui, M U; Couderc, J; Decreusefond, C; Stiffel, C

    1991-01-01

    Expression of the lymphokine migration inhibition factor in two lines of mice genetically selected for the high (Hi/PHA) or low (Lo/PHA) response of their lymph node cells to phytohemagglutinin was found to be modulated by concomitant expression of migration stimulation factor(s) [MStF(s)]. The expression of both lymphokines was dependent on genetic character and the immunizing dose of antigen. In mice immunized 5 days earlier with 50 micrograms ovalbumin in Freund's complete adjuvant (Ova in FCA immune), migration inhibition factor, assessed with a sensitive photoelectric method, was well expressed by male spleen or lymph node 24-hour culture supernatants of Lo/PHA but Hi/PHA, especially female, expressed marked MStF(s) instead. Immunization with 500 micrograms Ova in FCA markedly enhanced expression of MStF(s) in Lo/PHA but inhibited it in Hi/PHA. MStF(s) of Ova in FCA immune spleens of the two lines were found to derive from both T and B cells, B cell activity being greater. Lo/PHA were by far better expressors of both T- and B-cell-derived MStF(s) as compared to Hi/PHA (p less than 0.01). Spleen cells of mice immunized with FCA alone also expressed MStF(s) but to lesser extent than Ova in FCA immune spleens, expression by Lo/PHA B cells being significantly higher than in Hi/PHA (p less than 0.05). The MStF(s) of Ova in FCA immune spleens was found to be non-immunoglobulin in nature.

  10. Cathode-supported hybrid direct carbon fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Gurauskis, Jonas; Deleebeeck, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The direct conversion of coal to heat and electricity by a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC) is a highly efficient and cleaner technology than the conventional combustion power plants. HDCFC is defined as a combination of solid oxide fuel cell and molten carbonate fuel cell. This work...

  11. Spleen Volume Variation in Patients with Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Platinum-Based Chemo-Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shu Wen; Everitt, Sarah J; Bedő, Justin; Chabrot, Marine; Ball, David L; Solomon, Benjamin; MacManus, Michael; Hicks, Rodney J; Möller, Andreas; Leimgruber, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the immune regulatory role of the spleen in oncology. To date, very few studies have examined macroscopic variations of splenic volume in the setting of cancer, prior to or during therapy, especially in humans. Changes in splenic volume may be associated with changes in splenic function. The purpose of this study was to investigate variations in spleen volume in NSCLC patients during chemo-radiotherapy. Sixty patients with stage I-IIIB NSCLC underwent radiotherapy (60 Gy/30 fractions) for six weeks with concomitant carboplatin/paclitaxel (Ca/P; n = 32) or cisplatin/etoposide (Ci/E; n = 28). A baseline PET/CT scan was performed within 2 weeks prior to treatment and during Weeks 2 and 4 of chemo-radiotherapy. Spleen volume was measured by contouring all CT slices. Significant macroscopic changes in splenic volume occurred early after the commencement of treatment. A significant decrease in spleen volume was observed for 66% of Ca/P and 79% of Ci/E patients between baseline and Week 2. Spleen volume was decreased by 14.2% for Ca/P (pspleen volume was still significantly decreased for Ca/P patients compared to baseline, while for Ci/E patients, spleen volume returned to above baseline levels. This is the first report demonstrating macroscopic changes in the spleen in NSCLC patients undergoing radical chemo-radiotherapy that can be visualized by non-invasive imaging.

  12. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  13. Fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells require beta1 integrin function for colonizing fetal liver, spleen, and bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potocnik, A J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    Homing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into hematopoietic organs is a prerequisite for the establishment of hematopoiesis during embryogenesis and after bone marrow transplantation. We show that beta1 integrin-deficient HSCs from the para-aortic splanchnopleura and the fetal blood had...... hematolymphoid differentiation potential in vitro and in fetal organ cultures but were unable to seed fetal and adult hematopoietic tissues. Adult beta1 integrin null HSCs isolated from mice carrying loxP-tagged beta1 integrin alleles and ablated for beta1 integrin expression by retroviral cre transduction...... failed to engraft irradiated recipient mice. Moreover, absence of beta1 integrin resulted in sequestration of HSCs in the circulation and their reduced adhesion to endothelioma cells. These findings define beta1 integrin as an essential adhesion receptor for the homing of HSCs....

  14. Molecular Biosensing Mechanisms in the Spleen for the Removal of Aged and Damaged Red Cells from the Blood Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Eriko Ueno; Ikumi Ohgushi; Yoko Abe; Yuki Shigemasa; Yuko Hayashi; Yoshiaki Sugawara; Fumio Shimamoto

    2010-01-01

    Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO2...

  15. Locally vascularized pelvic accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, F; Frantellizzi, V; Drudi, Francesco M; Maghella, F; Liberatore, M

    2016-01-01

    Polysplenism and accessory spleen are congenital, usually asymptomatic anomalies. A rare case of polysplenism with ectopic spleen in pelvis of a 67-year-old, Caucasian female is reported here. A transvaginal ultrasound found a soft well-defined homogeneous and vascularized mass in the left pelvis. Patient underwent MRI evaluation and contrast-CT abdominal scan: images with parenchymal aspect, similar to spleen were obtained. Abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid was performed and pelvic region was studied with planar scans and SPECT. The results showed the presence of an uptake area of the radiopharmaceutical in the pelvis, while the spleen was normally visualized. These findings confirmed the presence of an accessory spleen with an artery originated from the aorta and a vein that joined with the superior mesenteric vein. To our knowledge, in the literature, there is just only one case of a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis.

  16. Characterization of hybrids between bovine (MDBK) and mouse (L-cell) cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, V G; Floyd, A D; Chinchar, G D; Taylor, M W

    1979-02-01

    Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT)-deficient mutants of a bovine kidney cell line (MDBK) were selected following mutagenesis with ethylmethane sulfonate or ICR-170G. MDBK mutants were hybridized to thymidine kinase-deficient L cells and selected in HAT medium. Parental and hybrid cells were characterized for isozyme patterns of lactic dehydrogenase malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutamate oxalate transaminase. Chromosomes of MDBK can be distinguished from mouse L cells by configuration and by fluorescent staining with Hoechst 33-258 stain. Hybrid cells contained both MDBK and L-cell chromosomes and had elevated DNA content. MDBK cells are normally restrictive for mengovirus replication. Both permissive and restrictive hybrids were found. Our data indicate that there was preferential loss of MDBK chromosomes in the hybrid cell lines.

  17. Antitumor immunopreventive and immunotherapeutic effect in mice induced by hybrid vaccine of dendritic cells and hepatocarcinoma in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Kun Zhang; Jun Li; Juan Zhang; Hai-Bin Chen; Su-Biao Chen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To develop atumor vaccine by fusion of H22 hepatocarcinoma cells and DC, and to study its protective and therapeutical effect against H22 cell.METHODS: H22-DC vaccine was produced by PEG fusion of H22 and DC induced by cytokine released from splenic mononuclear cells, sorted by CD11c magnetic microbead marker. It was injected through the tail vein of the mice and the H22-DC oncogenesis was detected in the liver, spleen and lung. In order to study the therapeutical and protective effect of H22-DC against tumor H22, two groups were divided:immune group and therapeutic group. Immune group was further divided into P, D, HD and H subgroups, immunized by PBS, DC, H22-DC and inactivated H22, respectively, and attacked by H22 cell. The tumor size, tumor weight, mice survival time and tumor latent period were recorded and statistically analyzed; Therapeutical group was divided into three subgroups of P, D and HD, and attacked by H22, then treated with PBS, DC, and H22-DC, respectively. Pathology and flow cytometry were also applied to study the mechanism how the H22-DC vaccine attacked on the H22 cell.RESULTS: 1. No oncogenesis was found in spleen, lung and liver after H22-DC injection. 2. Hybrid vaccine immunized mice had strongest CTL activity. 3. In the immune group,latent period was longer in HD subgroup than that in P, H and D subgroup; and tumor size and weight were smaller in HD subgroup than that in P, H and D subgroup. 4. In therapeutic group, tumor size was smaller in HD subgroup than that in P, D subgroup.CONCLUSION: 1. H22-DC tumor vaccine is safe without oncogenesis in vivo. 2. Hybrid vaccine can stimulate potent specific CTL activity against H22.3. H22-DC vaccine has distinctive prophylatic effect on tumor H22 and can inhibit the tumor growth.

  18. The cell immunological study of the transplanted spleen patch on the rats' liver surface%大鼠肝表面移植脾片细胞免疫学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓春; 赵国; 宋家琨; 兰孟东; 夏成青

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察不同时期肝表面移植脾片的细胞免疫学情况以及移植前后脾片量的变化,对肝表面脾片移植进行综合评价。方法:以Wistar大白鼠为研究对象,流式细胞仪检测移植脾片的T淋巴细胞总数、活化T细胞数、T辅助细胞数、T抑制细胞数。结果:8周组CD3+CD8、CD4与对照组比,P<0.05,4周组与任一组比,P<0.01,脾片重量6~8周均明显低于移植前(P<0.01)。结论:肝表面移植脾片6周及8周各项T淋巴细胞数达到正常脾脏水平,脾片重量较移植前有所减轻。脾片成活理想。%Objective:To make a cell immunological study of the patch of the spleen transplanted on the liver surface and the weight of the patch of the spleen in difference period,and evaluate the transplantation of the patch of the spleen on the liver surface.Methods:Wistar rats were used as the investigated object. Flow cytometry was used to examine the transplanted patch of the spleen in terms of the CD3、CD3+CD25、CD4、CD8 and CD4/CD8.Results:Statistical difference was found between 8-week group and control group in CD3+CD25 and CD4(P<0.05) was significantly different. 4-week group and every other group(P<0.01),and the weight of the patch of the spleen in 6~8-week group and control group(P<0.01).Conclusion:All of the T-lymphocytes in the patch of the spleen achieve the normal level in 6 to 8 weeks. The weight of the patch of the spleen is lighter than before. The patch of the spleen has desirable survival.

  19. Spleen tyrosine kinase mediates high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 up-regulation in proximal tubular epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Seok; Chang, Jai Won [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Nam Jeong [Department of Cell Biology, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Koo [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su-Kil, E-mail: skpark@amc.seoul.kr [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-10

    The role of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in high glucose-induced intracellular signal transduction has yet to be elucidated. We investigated whether Syk is implicated in high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) up-regulation in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cell). High glucose increased TGF-{beta}1 gene expression through Syk, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B. High glucose-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity was decreased by Syk inhibitors and U0126 (an ERK inhibitor). Syk inhibitors suppressed high glucose-induced ERK activation, whereas U0126 had no effect on Syk activation. High glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity was also decreased by Syk inhibitors. High glucose increased nuclear translocation of p65 without serine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and without degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, but with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} that may account for the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Both Syk inhibitors and Syk-siRNA attenuated high glucose-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} tyrosine phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Depletion of p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) by transfection of Pak2-siRNA abolished high glucose-induced Syk activation. In summary, high glucose-induced TGF-{beta}1 gene transcription occurred through Pak2, Syk and subsequent ERK/AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B pathways. This suggests that Syk might be implicated in the diabetic kidney disease.

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  1. Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Leen Ong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the emerging class of hybrid solar cells based on organic-semiconductor (Group IV, III-V, nanocomposites, which states separately from dye synthesized, polymer-metal oxides and organic-inorganic (Group II-VI nanocomposite photovoltaics. The structure of such hybrid cell comprises of an organic active material (p-type deposited by coating, printing or spraying technique on the surface of bulk or nanostructured semiconductor (n-type forming a heterojunction between the two materials. Organic components include various photosensitive monomers (e.g., phtalocyanines or porphyrines, conjugated polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Mechanisms of the charge separation at the interface and their transport are discussed. Also, perspectives on the future development of such hybrid cells and comparative analysis with other classes of photovoltaics of third generation are presented.

  2. Selection of BW 5147 subclones devoid of non-specific suppressive activity for use in cell hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouat, G; Liacopoulos-Briot, M; Couderc, J; Parlebas, J; Perrodon, Y; Briffaut, O; Liacopoulos, P

    1985-02-01

    Culture supernatants of BW 5147 cells widely used for T-cell hybridization often manifest non-MHC-restricted, non-antigen-specific regulatory activities on the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) of mouse cells. This report demonstrates that, whereas supernatants of BW 5147 cells grown at low concentrations (2 X 10(5)/ml) enhanced MLR, high cell concentration (2 X 10(6)/ml) supernatants markedly inhibited this reaction. BW 5147 cell-free extracts significantly inhibited MLR and in vitro antibody production (PFC), as well as the mitogenic response to lipopolysaccharide E. coli (LPS) of mouse spleen cells, but did not affect the response to an optimal dose of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Both supernatant and cell-free extract inhibitory activities were located in 60,000 MW fraction. Inhibitory material of low MW (less than 12,000) was also found in high cell concentration supernatants. A similar suppressive activity was exerted by cell-free extracts of P3 X 63 NS cells used for B-cell hybridization. The suppressive activity seemed to stem from some kind of interaction between BW 5147 cells and the fetal calf serum (FCS) of the culture medium. Supernatants from subclones of BW 5147 cells obtained in selected batches of FCS and maintained in the same serum, even at high cell concentrations, did not affect MLR, whereas the supernatants from the same subclones maintained in other batches definitely suppressed this reaction. Thus, provided that culture conditions are chosen carefully, subclones of BW 5147 devoid of effect on in vitro immune reactions can be obtained.

  3. Patterned hybrid nanohole array surfaces for cell adhesion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Nathan P; Lou, Yi; Muth, John F; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2009-10-06

    We report the fabrication of hybrid nanohole array surfaces to study the role of the surface nanoevironment on cell adhesion and cell migration. We use polystyrene beads and reactive ion etching to control the size and the spacing between nanoholes on a tailored self-assembled monolayer inert gold surface. The arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and brightfield microscopy. For cell adhesion studies, cells were seeded to these substrates to study the effect of ligand spacing on cell spreading, stress fiber formation, and focal adhesion structure and size. Finally, comparative cell migration rates were examined on the various nanohole array surfaces using time-lapse microscopy.

  4. Pluripotent hybrid stem cells from transgenic Huntington's disease monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowtammathron, Chuti; Chan, Anthony W S

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating disease that currently has no cure. Transgenic HD monkeys have developed key neuropathological and cognitive behavioral impairments similar to HD patients. Thus, pluripotent stem cells derived from transgenic HD monkeys could be a useful comparative model for clarifying HD pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic approaches, which could be validated in HD monkeys. In order to create personal pluripotent stem cells from HD monkeys, here we present a tetraploid technique for deriving pluripotent hybrid HD monkey stem cells.

  5. Lineage development of cell fusion hybrids upon somatic reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Molecular e Genética). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Somatic cell reprogramming has been extensively studied over the last years and opened new perspectives in the use of pluripotent cells for regenerative biomedical purposes. Spontaneous cell fusion has been suggested to be involved in regenerative processes in vivo. Strong evidences support the hypothesis that the reprogrammed hybrids resulting from the fusion between a pluripote...

  6. Early ovariectomy results in reduced numbers of CD11c+/CD11b+ spleen cells and impacts disease expression in murine lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Anne Cunningham

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ninety percent of those diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are female, with peak incidence between the ages of 15 and 45, when women are most hormonally active. Despite significant research effort, the mechanisms underlying this sex bias remain unclear. We previously showed that a functional knockout of estrogen receptor alpha (ERαKO resulted in significantly reduced renal disease and increased survival in murine lupus. Dendritic cell (DC development, which requires both estrogen and ERα is impacted, as is activation status and cytokine production. Since both estrogen and testosterone levels have immunomodulating effects, we presently studied the phenotype of NZM2410 lupus-prone mice following post-pubertal and pre-pubertal ovariectomy (OVX +/- estradiol (E2 replacement to determine the impact of hormonal status on disease expression and DC development in these mice. We observed a trend towards survival benefit in addition to decreased proteinuria and improved renal histology in the early OVX but not late OVX or E2-repleted WT mice. Interestingly, there was a also significant difference in splenic DC subsets by flow cytometry. Spleens from NZM mice OVX’d early had a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory CD11c+CD11b+ DCs (vs. unmanipulated WTs, late OVX and E2-repleted mice. These early OVX’d animals also had a significant increase in tolerogenic CD11c+CD8a+ DCs vs. WT. These data join a growing body of evidence that supports a role for hormone modulation of DCs that likely impacts the penetrance and severity of autoimmune diseases such as lupus.

  7. Differential effects of viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotypes IVa and IVb on gill epithelial and spleen macrophage cell lines from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, P H; Lumsden, J S; Tafalla, C; Dixon, B; Bols, N C

    2013-02-01

    The two most prominent genotypes of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are -I in the Northeastern Atlantic region and -IV in North America, but much more is known about the cellular pathogenesis of genotype -I than -IV. VHSV genotype -IV is divided into -IVa from the Northeast Pacific Ocean and -IVb from the Great Lakes and both of which are less virulent to rainbow trout than genotype -I. In this work, infections of VHSV-IVa and -IVb have been studied in two rainbow trout cell lines, RTgill-W1 from the gill epithelium, and RTS11 from spleen macrophages. RTgill-W1 produced infectious progeny of both VHSV-IVa and -IVb. However, VHSV-IVa was more infectious than -IVb toward RTgill-W1: -IVa caused cytopathic effect (CPE) at a lower viral titre, elicited CPE earlier, and yielded higher titres. By contrast, no CPE and no increase in viral titre were observed in RTS11 cultures infected with either genotype. Yet in RTS11 all six VHSV genes were expressed and antiviral genes, Mx2 and Mx3, were up regulated by VHSV-IVb and -IVa. However, replication appeared to terminate at the translational stage as viral N protein, presumably the most abundant of the VSHV proteins, was not detected in either infected RTS11 cultures. In RTgill-W1, Mx2 and Mx3 were up regulated to similar levels by both viral genotypes, while VHSV-IVa induced higher levels of IFN1, IFN2 and LGP2A than VHSV-IVb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute arsenic exposure induces inflammatory responses and CD4(+) T cell subpopulations differentiation in spleen and thymus with the involvement of MAPK, NF-kB, and Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoxu; Gao, Shuang; Li, Jinlong; Wu, Liuzhong; Zhang, Yang; Li, Wei; Zhao, Lu; Chen, Jinli; Yang, Shan; Sun, Guifan; Li, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Increasing lines of evidence indicate that arsenic may be associated with immune related problems, but its detailed effects on immune organs are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to explore inflammatory responses and T cell differentiation of arsenic exposure in spleen and thymus. Female C57BL/6 mice were used as a model to systemically administration 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg NaAsO2 intra-gastrically for 24h. We found that arsenic significantly decreased the spleen and thymus weights and indices, and flow cytometry revealed that arsenic decreased the relative frequency of CD4(+) T cell subpopulation and the ratios of CD4/CD8 in spleen. In contrast, serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-1β and IL-6 as well as the mRNA of key inflammatory mediators in spleen and thymus, including transforming growth factor β (Tgf-β), Tnf-α, Il-12, Il-1β and Il-6 were significantly increased in arsenic-treated mice compared to the control as assayed by ELISA and real time PCR, respectively. In addition, arsenic increased the expression of T helper cell 1 (Th1), Th2 and regulatory T cell (Treg) -associated transcription factors and cytokines as well as decreased Th17-associated transcription factors and cytokines. Moreover, arsenic enhanced oxidative stress and induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 and their downstream transcription factors nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which comprise important mechanistic pathways involved in immune-inflammatory manifestations. Together, these results provide a novel strategy to block the arsenic-dependent impairments in immune responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajin Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypersplenism is a common complication of portal hypertension. Cytopenia in hypersplenism is predominantly caused by splenomegaly. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection is an original surgical technique that regulates cytopenia by reduction of the enlarged spleen. Objective. The aim of our study was to present the advantages of distal splenorenal shunt (Warren with partial spleen resection comparing morbidity and mortality in a group of patients treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection with a group of patients treated only by a distal splenorenal shunt. Method. From 1995 to 2003, 41 patients with portal hypertension were surgically treated due to hypersplenism and oesophageal varices. The first group consisted of 20 patients (11 male, mean age 42.3 years who were treated by distal splenorenal shunt with partial spleen resection. The second group consisted of 21 patients (13 male, mean age 49.4 years that were treated by distal splenorenal shunt only. All patients underwent endoscopy and assessment of oesophageal varices. The size of the spleen was evaluated by ultrasound, CT or by scintigraphy. Angiography was performed in all patients. The platelet and white blood cell count and haemoglobin level were registered. Postoperatively, we noted blood transfusion, complications and total hospital stay. Follow-up period was 12 months, with first checkup after one month. Results In the first group, only one patient had splenomegaly postoperatively (5%, while in the second group there were 13 patients with splenomegaly (68%. Before surgery, the mean platelet count in the first group was 51.6±18.3x109/l, to 118.6±25.4x109/l postoperatively. The mean platelet count in the second group was 67.6±22.8x109/l, to 87.8±32.1x109/l postoperatively. Concerning postoperative splenomegaly, statistically significant difference was noted between the first and the second group (p<0.05. Comparing the

  10. B lymphocyte differentiation in lethally irradiated and reconstituted mice. I. The effect of strontium-89 induced bone marrow aplasia on the recovery of the B cell compartment in the spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozing, J.; Buurman, W.A.; Benner, R.

    1976-06-01

    The influence of /sup 89/Sr-treatment on the recovery of the B cell compartment in lethally irradiated, fetal liver reconstituted mice was studied by means of membrane fluorescence, /sup 89/Sr is a bone-seeking radio-isotope which causes in a dose of 3 ..mu..Ci /sup 89/Sr/g body weight a depletion of all nucleated cells, including immunoglobulin-bearing (B) cells, of the bone marrow. Treatment of irradiated and fetal liver reconstituted mice with 3 ..mu..Ci /sup 89/Sr/g body weight immediately and at 17 days after irradiation and reconstitution prevented recovery of the nucleated cell population, including B cells, in the bone marrow. In the spleen of such mice both nucleated cells and B cells reappeared at day 7 and 14 respectively. The B cell population in the spleen did not recover up to normal values during the experimental period of 45 days. It is concluded that B cell differentiation in lethally irradiated, fetal liver reconstituted mice can take place outside the bone marrow. The efficiency of this extra-medullary differentiation is discussed. The conclusion was drawn that mice with a /sup 89/Sr-induced bone marrow aplasia are able to generate B lymphocytes. Consequently the bone marrow microenvironment seems not to be obligate to the differentiation of B lymphocytes. The peripheral lymphoid organs of such mice were found to be unable to compensate completely for the absence of B lymphocyte production in the bone marrow.

  11. Torsion of a wandering spleen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of peri-umbilical pain progressing to generalised abdominal pain ... surgical intervention. A midline ... No improvement was noted on detorsion of the vascular pedicle, and a ... Surgical treatment of patients with wandering spleen: Report of six.

  12. A perisinusoidal niche for extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Melih; Murphy, Malea M.; Richardson, James; Zhao, Zhiyu; Morrison, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Haematopoietic stresses mobilize haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the bone marrow to the spleen and induce extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH). However, the cellular nature of the EMH niche is unknown. Here, we assessed the sources of the key niche factors, SCF and CXCL12, in the mouse spleen after EMH induction by myeloablation, blood loss, or pregnancy. In each case, Scf was expressed by endothelial cells and Tcf21+ stromal cells, primarily around sinusoids in the red pulp, while Cxcl12 was expressed by a subset of Tcf21+ stromal cells. EMH induction markedly expanded the Scf-expressing endothelial cells and stromal cells by inducing proliferation. Most splenic HSCs were adjacent to Tcf21+ stromal cells in red pulp. Conditional deletion of Scf from spleen endothelial cells or Scf or Cxcl12 from Tcf21+ stromal cells severely reduced spleen EMH and reduced blood cell counts without affecting bone marrow haematopoiesis. Endothelial cells and Tcf21+ stromal cells thus create a perisinusoidal EMH niche in the spleen, which is necessary for the physiological response to diverse haematopoietic stresses. PMID:26570997

  13. A perisinusoidal niche for extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inra, Christopher N; Zhou, Bo O; Acar, Melih; Murphy, Malea M; Richardson, James; Zhao, Zhiyu; Morrison, Sean J

    2015-11-26

    Haematopoietic stresses mobilize haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the bone marrow to the spleen and induce extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH). However, the cellular nature of the EMH niche is unknown. Here we assessed the sources of the key niche factors, SCF (also known as KITL) and CXCL12, in the mouse spleen after EMH induction by myeloablation, blood loss, or pregnancy. In each case, Scf was expressed by endothelial cells and Tcf21(+) stromal cells, primarily around sinusoids in the red pulp, while Cxcl12 was expressed by a subset of Tcf21(+) stromal cells. EMH induction markedly expanded the Scf-expressing endothelial cells and stromal cells by inducing proliferation. Most splenic HSCs were adjacent to Tcf21(+) stromal cells in red pulp. Conditional deletion of Scf from spleen endothelial cells, or of Scf or Cxcl12 from Tcf21+ stromal cells, severely reduced spleen EMH and reduced blood cell counts without affecting bone marrow haematopoiesis. Endothelial cells and Tcf21(+) stromal cells thus create a perisinusoidal EMH niche in the spleen, which is necessary for the physiological response to diverse haematopoietic stresses.

  14. File list: Oth.ALL.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.ALL.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.ALL.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.ALL.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids All cell ...types http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  18. Hybrid multiscale modeling and prediction of cancer cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangooei, Mohammad Hossein; Habibi, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Understanding cancer development crossing several spatial-temporal scales is of great practical significance to better understand and treat cancers. It is difficult to tackle this challenge with pure biological means. Moreover, hybrid modeling techniques have been proposed that combine the advantages of the continuum and the discrete methods to model multiscale problems. In light of these problems, we have proposed a new hybrid vascular model to facilitate the multiscale modeling and simulation of cancer development with respect to the agent-based, cellular automata and machine learning methods. The purpose of this simulation is to create a dataset that can be used for prediction of cell phenotypes. By using a proposed Q-learning based on SVR-NSGA-II method, the cells have the capability to predict their phenotypes autonomously that is, to act on its own without external direction in response to situations it encounters. Computational simulations of the model were performed in order to analyze its performance. The most striking feature of our results is that each cell can select its phenotype at each time step according to its condition. We provide evidence that the prediction of cell phenotypes is reliable. Our proposed model, which we term a hybrid multiscale modeling of cancer cell behavior, has the potential to combine the best features of both continuum and discrete models. The in silico results indicate that the 3D model can represent key features of cancer growth, angiogenesis, and its related micro-environment and show that the findings are in good agreement with biological tumor behavior. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first hybrid vascular multiscale modeling of cancer cell behavior that has the capability to predict cell phenotypes individually by a self-generated dataset.

  19. Iron oxides in human spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopáni, Martin; Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Dekan, Július; Čaplovicová, Mária; Jakubovský, Ján; Boča, Roman; Mrazova, Hedviga

    2015-10-01

    Iron is an essential element for fundamental cell functions and a catalyst for chemical reactions. Three samples extracted from the human spleen were investigated by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectrometry (MS), and SQUID magnetometry. The sample with diagnosis of hemosiderosis (H) differs from that referring to hereditary spherocytosis and the reference sample. SEM reveals iron-rich micrometer-sized aggregate of various structures-tiny fibrils in hereditary spherocytosis sample and no fibrils in hemochromatosis. Hematite and magnetite particles from 2 to 6 μm in TEM with diffraction in all samples were shown. The SQUID magnetometry shows different amount of diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic structures in the tissues. The MS results indicate contribution of ferromagnetically split sextets for all investigated samples. Their occurrence indicates that at least part of the sample is magnetically ordered below the critical temperature. The iron accumulation process is different in hereditary spherocytosis and hemosiderosis. This fact may be the reason of different iron crystallization.

  20. Graphene-based transparent electrodes for hybrid solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The graphene-based transparent and conductive films were demonstrated to be cost-effective electrodes working in organic-inorganic hybrid Schottky solar cells. Large area graphene films were produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD on copper foils and transferred onto glass as transparent electrodes. The hybrid solar cell devices consist of solution processed poly (3, 4-ethlenedioxythiophene: poly (styrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS which is sandwiched between silicon wafer and graphene electrode. The solar cells based on graphene electrodes, especially those doped with HNO3, has comparable performance to the reference devices using commercial indium tin oxide (ITO. Our work suggests that graphene-based transparent electrode is a promising candidate to replace ITO.

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh

    2005-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC2601NT40779 for the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a gas turbine. A conceptual hybrid system design was selected for analysis and evaluation. The selected system is estimated to have over 65% system efficiency, a first cost of approximately $650/kW, and a cost of electricity of 8.4 cents/kW-hr. A control strategy and conceptual control design have been developed for the system. A number of SOFC module tests have been completed to evaluate the pressure impact to performance stability. The results show that the operating pressure accelerates the performance degradation. Several experiments were conducted to explore the effects of pressure on carbon formation. Experimental observations on a functioning cell have verified that carbon deposition does not occur in the cell at steam-to-carbon ratios lower than the steady-state design point for hybrid systems. Heat exchanger design, fabrication and performance testing as well as oxidation testing to support heat exchanger life analysis were also conducted. Performance tests of the prototype heat exchanger yielded heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics consistent with the heat exchanger specification. Multicell stacks have been tested and performance maps were obtained under hybrid operating conditions. Successful and repeatable fabrication of large (>12-inch diameter) planar SOFC cells was demonstrated using the tape calendering process. A number of large area cells and stacks were successfully performance tested at ambient and pressurized conditions. A 25 MW plant configuration was

  2. Natural suppressor cells in spleens of irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted mice and normal bone marrow: Lack of Sca-1 expression and enrichment by depletion of Mac1-positive cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, M.; Sharabi, Y.; Sachs, D.H. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    We have recently reported the development of natural suppressor (NS) cells in lethally irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted mice during the early weeks after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). These cells were shown to be derived primarily from the syngeneic marrow component in recipients of mixed allogeneic plus syngeneic (host type) marrow, and it was speculated that they might be responsible for the anti-GVHD effect previously described for T-cell-depleted syngeneic marrow. It was therefore of interest to look for such suppressive activity in normal adult bone marrow, which might serve as an obtainable source of such cells if they were to be isolated and used clinically. Such activity has indeed been found in normal adult bone marrow and its characteristics compared to that in spleens of early BMT recipients. Suppressive cells from both sources were similar in their specificity patterns and radiosensitivity, and were of the null (i.e., non-T, non-B, nonmacrophage) cell phenotype. Suppression from either source can be enriched by removal of Mac1-positive cells, providing a possible approach to obtaining NS-enriched populations for in vitro expansion and adoptive transfer studies. Such depletion of Mac1-positive cells was associated with a threefold enrichment of Thy1-positive cells, of which one half were CD4- and CD8-negative, similar to the reported phenotype of cultured NS cell lines. Even when enriched in this manner, the contribution of Thy1-positive cell populations did not reach statistical significance. A recent report has suggested that NS cells might actually be pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. In contrast, we report here that depletion of Sca1-positive pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells with monoclonal antibody plus immunomagnetic beads does not remove NS activity.

  3. Instructing cells with programmable peptide DNA hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ronit; Stephanopoulos, Nicholas; Álvarez, Zaida; Lewis, Jacob A.; Sur, Shantanu; Serrano, Chris M.; Boekhoven, Job; Lee, Sungsoo S.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2017-07-01

    The native extracellular matrix is a space in which signals can be displayed dynamically and reversibly, positioned with nanoscale precision, and combined synergistically to control cell function. Here we describe a molecular system that can be programmed to control these three characteristics. In this approach we immobilize peptide-DNA (P-DNA) molecules on a surface through complementary DNA tethers directing cells to adhere and spread reversibly over multiple cycles. The DNA can also serve as a molecular ruler to control the distance-dependent synergy between two peptides. Finally, we use two orthogonal DNA handles to regulate two different bioactive signals, with the ability to independently up- or downregulate each over time. This enabled us to discover that neural stem cells, derived from the murine spinal cord and organized as neurospheres, can be triggered to migrate out in response to an exogenous signal but then regroup into a neurosphere as the signal is removed.

  4. A hybrid sequential deposition fabrication technique for micro fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Kevin G.; Czyzewska, Eva K.; Vanderhoek, Tom P. K.; Fan, Lilian L. Y.; Abel, Keith A.; Wu, Q. M. Jonathan; Parameswaran, M. Ash

    2005-10-01

    Micro fuel cell systems have elicited significant interest due to their promise for instantly rechargeable, longer duration and portable power. Most micro fuel cell systems are either built as miniaturized plate-and-frame or silicon-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Plate-and-frame systems are difficult to fabricate smaller than 20 cm3. Existing micro fuel cell designs cannot meet the cost, scale and power requirements of some portable power markets. Traditional MEMS scaling advantages do not apply to fuel cells because the minimum area for the fuel cell is fixed by the catalyst area required for a given power output, and minimum volume set by mass transport limitations. We have developed a new hybrid technique that borrows from both micro and macro machining techniques to create fuel cells in the 1-20 cm3 range, suitable for cell phones, PDAs and smaller devices.

  5. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  6. Spleen and Lymphatic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... along the network of lymph vessels. The nodes house lymphocytes , a type of white blood cell. Some ... Works Carrying Away Waste Lymph fluid drains into tiny vessels called lymph capillaries. The fluid is then ...

  7. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  9. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  10. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  11. Isolation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells subsets from spleens of orthotopic liver cancer-bearing mice by fluorescent-activated and magnetic-activated cell sorting: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaping; Zhao, Wenxiu; Wu, Duan; Xu, Jianfeng; Lin, Suqiong; Tang, Kai; Yin, Zhenyu; Wang, Xiaomin

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that commonly expand during tumor development and that play a critical role in suppression of immune responses. MDSCs can be classified into two groups: Mo-MDSCs and G-MDSCs. These cells differ in their morphology, phenotype, differentiation ability, and immunosuppressive activity, and inhibit immune responses via different mechanisms. Therefore, identifying an effective method for isolating viable Mo-MDSCs and G-MDSCs is important. Here, we demonstrated the differences and similarities between fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) in sorting G-MDSCs and Mo-MDSCs. Both MACS and FACS could obtain G-MDSCs and Mo-MDSCs with high viability and purity. A high yield and purity of G-MDSCs could be obtained both by using FACS and MACS, because G-MDSCs are highly expressed in the spleen of tumor-bearing mice. However, Mo-MDSCs, which comprise a small population among leukocytes, when sorted by MACS, could be obtained at much greater cell number, although with a slightly lower purity, than when sorted by FACS. In conclusion, we recommended using both FACS and MACS for isolating G-MDSCs, and using MACS for isolation of Mo-MDSCs.

  12. Defective IL-4/Stat6 Signaling Correlates with Increased Apoptosis of Human EBV-lymphoblastoid B Cells and Mouse Spleen Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1Introduction IL-4-induced Stat6 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6) pathway is active in many cell types including cancer cells and immune cells which plays an important role in cell differenciation/growth and resistance to apoptosis~([1]). IL-4/Stat6 signaling up-regulates cell surface moleculi suchas CD23, MHC class II and IL-4Rα, and down-regulates proinflammatory cytokines,i.e, IL-12 and TNFα.Stat6 can be spontaneously activated in Hodgkin's lymphoma and other tumors, suggesting its...

  13. Nanocomposite-Based Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich Phuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices based on nanocomposites composed of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanocrystals show promise for the fabrication of low-cost third-generation thin film photovoltaics. In theory, hybrid solar cells can combine the advantages of the two classes of materials to potentially provide high power conversion efficiencies of up to 10%; however, certain limitations on the current within a hybrid solar cell must be overcome. Current limitations arise from incompatibilities among the various intradevice interfaces and the uncontrolled aggregation of nanocrystals during the step in which the nanocrystals are mixed into the polymer matrix. Both effects can lead to charge transfer and transport inefficiencies. This paper highlights potential strategies for resolving these obstacles and presents an outlook on the future directions of this field.

  14. Stable organic-inorganic hybrid multilayered photoelectrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Min-gyeong; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Jinhee; Hong, Eun Mi; Choi, Sung Mook; Lee, Joo-Yul; Cho, Shinuk; Hong, Kihyon; Lim, Dong Chan

    2017-02-01

    The production of hydrogen from water via solar energy conversion has attracted immense attention as a potential solution for addressing energy supply issues. We demonstrated a stable and efficient organic-inorganic hybrid photoelectrochemical (H-PEC) cell. Modifying the surface energy and structure of the organic photoactive layer using multi-functional nanomaterials including -OH-modified NiO nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) led to a 2.8-fold enhancement of the water splitting performance in a single junction H-PEC cell. The enhanced performance was attributed to the i) improved water-wettability, ii) enhanced charge extraction property by band-edge alignment, and iii) the catalytic effect of the introduced NiO-OH nanoparticles. In addition, because of the effects of the RGO layer preventing water penetration and photo-corrosion during the oxidation of water, a distinguishable long-term stability was achieved from the H-PEC cell with an RGO capping layer. The best performance was obtained from the organic-inorganic hybrid multi-junction PEC cells consisting of the WO3 photo-anode (activated under UV irradiation) and the H-PEC cell (activated under visible light irradiation). The H-PEC cell with a WO3 photo-anode exhibited significantly enhanced stability and performance by a factor of 11.6 higher than photocurrent of the single H-PEC cell.

  15. Morphology and function of isolated hepatocytes transplanted into rat spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mito, M; Ebata, H; Kusano, M; Onishi, T; Saito, T; Sakamoto, S

    1979-12-01

    Hepatocytes isolated by the collagenase digestive method were transplanted into the spleens of syngeneic rats. Morphology and function of the hepatocytes in the spleen were investigated for 12 to 17 months after transplantation. The transplanted hepatocytes proliferated and reconfigured in the spleen without direct perfusion of portal venous blood and with the presence of an intact host liver. Fourteen to 17 months after transplantation, the hepatocytes which had formed a demarcated nodule occupied approximately 40% of the area of the splenic parenchyma without undifferentiation on microscopic examination. However, the weight of the hepatized spleen did not increase beyond the weight of a normal spleen and the weight of the host liver that had normal morphology also did not differ from a normal liver. Light and electron microscopic studies demonstrated differentiated cord structure and normal architecture for each heptocyte. Furthermore, the hepatized spleen synthesized albumin and glycogen as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and histochemical studies. Ammonia tolerance and indocyanine green clearance tests revealed functioning hepatocytes in the spleen proper. These results indicate that our experimental model lends itself well to investigations in cell growth mechanism and that hepatocellular transplantation has potential clinical application to compensate for impaired hepatic function.

  16. File list: Oth.Unc.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Oth.YSt.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Oth.Unc.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Oth.YSt.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Yeast str...ain http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Unc.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Unc.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Unclassif...ied http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.Unc.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Unc.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Unc.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Unclassif...ied http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.Unc.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.YSt.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Yeast str...ain http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.YSt.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.YSt.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids Yeast str...ain http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.YSt.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  4. Hybrid CMOS / Microfluidic Systems for Cell Manipulation with Dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tom; Issadore, David; Westervelt, Robert M.

    2007-03-01

    A hybrid CMOS/microfluidic chip combines the biocompatibility of microfluidics with the built-in logic, programmability, and sensitivity of CMOS integrated circuits (ICs)^1 We have designed a CMOS IC for moving individual cells using dielectrophoresis (DEP). The IC was built in a commercial foundry and we subsequently fabricated a microfluidic chamber on the top surface. The chip consists of a 1.4 by 2.8mm array of over 32,000 individually addressable 11x11 micron pixels. An RF voltage of 5V at 10MHz can be applied to each pixel with respect to the conductive lid of the microfluidic chamber, producing a localized electric field that can trap a cell. By shifting the location of energized pixels, the array can trap and move cells along programmable paths through the microfluidic chamber. We show the design, fabrication, and testing of the hybrid chip. Bringing together the biocompatibility of microfluidics and the power of CMOS chips, hybrid CMOS / microfluidic systems are an exciting technology for biomedical research. Thanks to NSEC NSF grant PHY-0117795 and the NCI MIT-Harvard CCNE. [1] H Lee, Y Liu, RM Westervelt, D Ham, IEEE JSSC 41, 6, pp. 1471-1480, 2006

  5. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  6. Inflammatory pseudotumor of spleen: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Paúl; García Bernardo, Carmen; Granero, Pablo; Miyar, Alberto; González, Carmen; González-Pinto, Ignacio; Barneo, Luis; Vazquez, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor of spleen is an extremely rare benign condition of uncertain etiology that presents with nonspecific symptoms or as an incidental finding in patients studied by other processes. Since the first description in 1984 by Cotelingam and Jaffe, only 114 cases have been reported. We present a case of a fifty-six years old woman with a splenic injury in ultrasound and computed tomography. The patient undergoes laparoscopic splenectomy and the histologic study of the specimen revealed findings consistent with inflammatory pseudotumor of spleen. This rare entity whose pathogenesis is still unknown, can present with nonspecific symptoms. Radiologic studies may lead the diagnosis being useful CT and MRI. The definitive diagnosis is established with the histological findings, characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells with areas of necrosis and fibrosis. There are multiple differentials diagnoses: metastasis, lymphoma, splenic infarction, hemangiomas, vascular malformations, lymphangioma, plasmacytoma, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, abscess and infectious granulomatous processes; therefore suspicion of malignant neoplasm must be considered, being indicated splenectomy to confirm the diagnosis. Inflammatory pseudotumor of spleen is a benign disease, in which diagnostic approach must bear in mind the possibility of a malignant lesion. For this reason, the surgical approach is appropriate to confirm the diagnosis and rule out malignancy with histology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Cell Assignment in Hybrid CMOS/Nanodevices Architecture Using a PSO/SA Hybrid Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq M. Sait

    2013-10-01

    anowire\\MOLecular Hybrid, higher circuit densities are possible. In CMOL there is an additional layer of nanofabric on top of CMOS stack. Nanodevices that lie between overlapping nanowires are programmable and can implement any combinational logic using a netlist of NOR gates. The limitation on the length of nanowires put a constraint on the connectivity domain of a circuit. The gates connected to each other must be within a connectivity radius; otherwise an extra buffer is inserted to connect them. Particle swarm optimization (PSO has been used in a variety of problems that are NP- hard. PSO compared to the other iterative heuristic techniques is simpler to implement. Besides, it delivers comparable results. In this paper, a hybrid of PSO and simulated annealing (SA for solving the cell assignment in CMOL, an NP-hard problem, is proposed. The proposed method takes advantage of the exploration and exploitation factors of PSO and the intrinsic hill climbing feature of SA to reduce the number of buffers to be inserted. Experiments conducted on ISCAS'89 benchmark circuits and a comparison with other heuristic techniques, are presented. Results showed that the proposed hybrid algorithm achieved better solution in terms of buffer count in reasonable time.

  8. Pathological rupture of malarial spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokashi A

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of spontaneous rupture of malarial spleen are reported here. One of them was a male who was on chloroquine for an acute attack of malaria. While on therapy, he complained of pain in left hypochondrium followed by palpitations. The other patient was a female who was admitted for continuous dull aching pain and fever. In both the patients, exploratory laparotomy revealed an enlarged spleen with tear. Splenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed dilated congested sinusoid with follicular atrophy, and RBCs with malarial parasites. The post-operative course was smooth in both patients.

  9. Intravenous delivery of HIV-based lentiviral vectors preferentially transduces F4/80+ and Ly-6C+ cells in spleen, important target cells in autoimmune arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, B.T. van den; Vermeij, E.A.; Waterborg, C.E.; Arntz, O.J.; Kracht, M.; Bennink, M.B.; Berg, W.B. van den; Loo, F.A. van de

    2013-01-01

    Antigen presenting cells (APCs) play an important role in arthritis and APC specific gene therapeutic targeting will enable intracellular modulation of cell activity. Viral mediated overexpression is a potent approach to achieve adequate transgene expression levels and lentivirus (LV) is useful for

  10. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF THE HEMOPOIETIC MICROENVIRONMENT IN HUMAN FETAL SPLEEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱莲; 朱萍; 李学均; 张丽; 迟凤琴; 吴振铎; 宋雁南; 张亚坤

    1994-01-01

    Reciprocal interations between hemopoietic stromal cells and immature hemopoietic cells in human spleens obtained from 20 fetuses of 10-28 weeks gestation were observed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.The close association of stromal cells with immature hemopoietic cells was confirmed under the electron microscope and a preasumptive HIM(Hemopoietic inductive mocroenvironment) was visualized.In regions of immature hemopoietice cell-reticular cell,endothelial cell,macrophage and interdigitating cell contact,some communicating structures were found between the plasma membranes of adjacent cells.moreovcer,the cytoplasm of these four stromal cells were full of various kinds of organelles.These results suggest that reticular cells,endothelial cells,macrophages and interdigitating cells are component parts of the HIM of human fetal spleen and that these cells have a nurturing function in relation to hemopoietic cells.

  11. Paradoxical effects of Auger electron-emitting (111)In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 radioimmunoconjugates on hCD45(+) cells in the bone marrow and spleen of leukemia-engrafted NOD/SCID or NRG mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Dane; Leyton, Jeffrey V; Zereshkian, Arman; Chan, Conrad; Cai, Zhongli; Reilly, Raymond M

    2016-10-01

    (111)In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 radioimmunoconjugates (RIC) recognize the overexpression of the interleukin-3 receptor α-subchain (CD123) relative to the β-subchain (CD131) on leukemia stem cells (LSC). Our aim was to study Auger electron radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with (111)In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 in non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice or NOD-Rag1(null)IL2rγ(null) (NRG) mice engrafted with CD123(+) human AML-5 cells. The toxicity of three doses of (111)In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 (3.3-4.8MBq; 11-15μg each) injected i.v. every two weeks was studied in non-engrafted NOD/SCID or NRG mice pre-treated with 200cGy of γ-radiation required for AML engraftment. Engraftment efficiency of (1-5)×10(6) cells AML-5 cells inoculated i.v. into NOD/SCID or NRG mice was assessed by flow cytometric analysis for human CD45(+) (hCD45(+)) cells in the bone marrow (BM) and spleen. AML-5 engrafted mice were treated with two or three doses (3.7MBq; 10μg each) every two weeks of (111)In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360, non-specific (111)In-DTPA-NLS-hIgG, unlabeled CSL360 (10μg) or normal saline. The percentage of hCD45(+) cells in the BM and spleen were measured at one week after completion of treatment. (111)In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 in combination with 200cGy of γ-radiation caused an initial transient decrease in body weight in NOD/SCID but not in NRG mice. There were no hematological, liver or kidney toxicities. The spleen exhibited 13-fold lower engraftment efficiency than the BM in NOD/SCID mice inoculated with 1×10(6) cells but both organs were highly (>85%) engrafted in NRG mice. Unexpectedly, (111)In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 or non-specific (111)In-DTPA-NLS-hIgG caused a paradoxical 1.5-fold increase (PDTPA-NLS-CSL360 reduced hCD45(+) cells in the spleen by 3.0-fold compared to (111)In-DTPA-NLS-hIgG (P=0.0015) but the proportion of hCD45(+) cells was not significantly different than in normal saline treated mice. Unlabeled CSL360 decreased the percentage of hCD45

  12. [The spleen in non-malignant haematological disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüfer, Axel; Wuillemin, Walter A

    2013-03-01

    The spleen functions as a filter of the circulating blood, removing aging or abnormal red blood cells, intraerythrocyte inclusions as well as foreign particals. As the spleen is composed of lymphocytic tissue, circulatory elements and mononuclear phagocytic cells it plays an important role in the nonspecific as well as the specific immune response. Additionally, the spleen serves as a reservoir for circulating blood cells, especially platelet sequestration by the spleen is well do cumented. The spleen produces blood cells during fetal development and in certain haematological disorders such as myelofibrosis. The destruction of red blood cells within the splenic cords releases iron in the circulation, which is recycled and used to manufacture new erythrocytes in the bone marrow. In several non-malignant haematological disorders antibody-coated cells are cleared from the circulation by phagocytic cells of the spleen. This involves erythrocytes in autoimmunhaemolytic anaemias, platelets in immunthrombocytopenia and neutrophils in Felty syndrome. In hereditary spherocytosis the spleen destroys the resulting defective, spherical red cells. In pyruvate kinase deficiency impaired production of adenosine triphosphate leads to destruction of red blood cells in the spleen or in the liver. In sickle cell anaemia the defective erythrocytes cause sludging and thrombosis in small vessels with infarcts for instance in the spleen, which over time can result in autosplenectomy. In thalassaemia major abnormal haemoglobin forms protein precipitates in the red cells with development of a severe hypochromic anaemia with haemolysis and intramedullary inef fective erythropoiesis. Therapeutic splenectomy can be an option in all of these mentioned non-malignant haematological disorders. The rationale and the pathophysiology of its role in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is probably at least well understood. The use of new and effective drugs such as the monoclonal antibody rituximab or

  13. Experimental study on treatment of liver fibrosis by hepatic oval cell transplantation via spleen injection%肝卵圆细胞经脾脏移植治疗肝纤维化的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 林楠; 胡鲲鹏

    2009-01-01

    especially in the group of ceasing CCl4 injection. Conclusion After transplanted into the liver by spleen injection, hepatic oval cells could plant in the portal area, which improve liver function and alleviate the cirrhosis level.%有所减轻,尤以停止注射四氯化碳组明显.结论 携带GFP的基因卵圆细胞经脾注射至肝纤维化小鼠体内后,可定植于受者肝脏内,并可缓解肝硬化的进展,促进肝纤维的逆转.

  14. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. R.; Hess, K. S.; Barnes, D. L.; Erickson, T. L.

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads.

  15. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.R.; Hess, K.S.; Barnes, D.L.; Erickson, T.L. [Vehicle Projects LLC, 621 17th Street, Suite 2131, Denver, CO 80293 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads. (author)

  16. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  17. Pseudoislet of hybrid cellular spheroids from commercial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Y H; Nam, B M; Kim, B Y; Nemeno, J G; Lee, S; Yeo, J E; Yang, W; Park, S H; Kim, Y S; Lee, J I

    2013-10-01

    Investigators conducting diabetes-related research have focused on islet transplantation as a radical therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic islet isolation, an essential process, is a very demanding work because of the proteolytic enzymes, species, treatment time, and individual difference. Replacement of primary isolated pancreatic islets must be carried out continuously for various in vitro tests, making primary isolated islets a useful tool for cell transplantation research. Hence, we sought to develop pseudoislets from commercial pancreas-derived cell lines. In this study, we used RIN-5F and RIN-m cells, which secrete insulin, somatostatin, or glucagon. To manufacture hybrid cellular spheroids, the cells were cultured under hanging drop plate and nonadhesive plate methods. We observed that hybrid cellular pseudoislets exhibited an oval shape, with sizes ranging from 590 to 1200 μm. Their morphology was similar to naïve islets. Cell line pseudoislets secreted and expressed insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Thus, the current artificially manufactured biomimetic pseudoislets resembled pancreatic islets of the endocrine system, appearing as cellular aggregates that secreted insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Enhanced immunoisolation techniques may lead to the development of new islet sources for pancreatic transplantation through this pseudoislet strategy.

  18. Bio-hybrid cell-based actuators for microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Rika Wright; Sitti, Metin

    2014-10-15

    As we move towards the miniaturization of devices to perform tasks at the nano and microscale, it has become increasingly important to develop new methods for actuation, sensing, and control. Over the past decade, bio-hybrid methods have been investigated as a promising new approach to overcome the challenges of scaling down robotic and other functional devices. These methods integrate biological cells with artificial components and therefore, can take advantage of the intrinsic actuation and sensing functionalities of biological cells. Here, the recent advancements in bio-hybrid actuation are reviewed, and the challenges associated with the design, fabrication, and control of bio-hybrid microsystems are discussed. As a case study, focus is put on the development of bacteria-driven microswimmers, which has been investigated as a targeted drug delivery carrier. Finally, a future outlook for the development of these systems is provided. The continued integration of biological and artificial components is envisioned to enable the performance of tasks at a smaller and smaller scale in the future, leading to the parallel and distributed operation of functional systems at the microscale.

  19. Hybrid cells derived from breast epithelial cell/breast cancer cell fusion events show a differential RAF-AKT crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özel Cem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been linked to several characteristics of tumour progression, including an enhanced metastatogenic capacity and an enhanced drug resistance of hybrid cells. We demonstrated recently that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics spontaneously fused with MDA-MB-435-Hyg breast cancer cells, thereby giving rise to stable M13MDA435 hybrid cells, which are characterised by a unique gene expression profile and migratory behaviour. Here we investigated the involvement of the PLC-β/γ1, PI3K/AKT and RAS-RAF-ERK signal transduction cascades in the EGF and SDF-1α induced migration of two M13MDA435 hybrid cell clones in comparison to their parental cells. Results Analysis of the migratory behaviour by using the three-dimensional collagen matrix migration assay showed that M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells as well as M13MDA435 hybrid cells, but not the breast cancer cell line, responded to EGF stimulation with an increased locomotory activity. By contrast, SDF-1α solely stimulated the migration of M13SV1-EGFP-Neo cells, whereas the migratory activity of the other cell lines was blocked. Analysis of signal transduction cascades revealed a putative differential RAF-AKT crosstalk in M13MDA435-1 and -3 hybrid cell clones. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 effectively blocked the EGF induced migration of M13MDA435-3 hybrid cells, whereas the EGF induced locomotion of M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells was markedly increased. Analysis of RAF-1 S259 phosphorylation, being a major mediator of the negative regulation of RAF-1 by AKT, showed decreased pRAF-1 S259 levels in LY294002 treated M13MDA435-1 hybrid cells. By contrast, pRAF-1 S259 levels remained unaltered in the other cell lines. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT signalling by Ly294002 relieves the AKT mediated phosphorylation of RAF-1, thereby restoring MAPK signalling. Conclusions Here we show that hybrid cells could evolve exhibiting a

  20. Energy-restricted diets result in higher numbers of CD4+, CD8+, immunoglobulins (A, M, and G), and CD45RA cells in spleen and CD4+, immunoglobulin A, and CD45RA cells in colonic lamina propria of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Bob N; Friel, James K; Rempel, Curtis B; Jones, Peter J H

    2009-07-01

    Dietary energy restriction (ER) offers certain health benefits, particularly when ER is controlled through manipulation of dietary fats. Our hypothesis is that cellular immunity is modulated by dietary ER. Furthermore, we believe that the immune response may differ between spleen and colon because their lymphatic and vascular organization is different. The objective of the study was to test this hypothesis by determining the effects of dietary ER through manipulation of energy intake from high-fat (HF) diets on the expression and frequency of the CD4(+) (T-helper/T-inducer) and CD8(+) (T-cytotoxic/T-suppressor) cells, CD45RA (B-cell-specific marker), and immunoglobulins (Ig) A-, G-, and M-bearing cells in spleen and colon in rats by immunohistochemical method. Rats fed the HF diet had a significantly (P < .05) reduced number of immune cells as compared with those fed ER diets. Energy-restricted diet-fed rats showed higher (P < .05) numbers of CD4(+), CD8(+), IgA, IgM, IgG, and CD45RA cells in spleen and CD4(+), IgA, and CD45RA cells in colonic lamina propria. The IgA-containing cells were markedly higher in the colon compared with the spleen. No change occurred in the number of IgM- and IgG-containing cells in colonic tissues between groups, except for the 20% ER group where IgM-labeled cells were higher (P < .05) compared with HF and 40% ER groups. These findings suggest that ER may modulate adaptive immune function and that CD4(+) and IgA cells may serve as biological indicators for dietary energy-modulated immunoresponse in spleen and colon, respectively.

  1. Recent progress in efficient hybrid lead halide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Yuan, Huailiang; Li, Junpeng; Xu, Xiaobao; Shen, Yan; Lin, Hong; Wang, Mingkui

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been improved from 9.7 to 19.3%, with the highest value of 20.1% achieved in 2014. Such a high photovoltaic performance can be attributed to optically high absorption characteristics and balanced charge transport properties with long diffusion lengths of the hybrid lead halide perovskite materials. In this review, some fundamental details of hybrid lead iodide perovskite materials, various fabrication techniques and device structures are described, aiming for a better understanding of these materials and thus highly efficient PSC devices. In addition, some advantages and open issues are discussed here to outline the prospects and challenges of using perovskites in commercial photovoltaic devices. PMID:27877815

  2. Recent progress in efficient hybrid lead halide perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Yuan, Huailiang; Li, Junpeng; Xu, Xiaobao; Shen, Yan; Lin, Hong; Wang, Mingkui

    2015-06-01

    The efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been improved from 9.7 to 19.3%, with the highest value of 20.1% achieved in 2014. Such a high photovoltaic performance can be attributed to optically high absorption characteristics and balanced charge transport properties with long diffusion lengths of the hybrid lead halide perovskite materials. In this review, some fundamental details of hybrid lead iodide perovskite materials, various fabrication techniques and device structures are described, aiming for a better understanding of these materials and thus highly efficient PSC devices. In addition, some advantages and open issues are discussed here to outline the prospects and challenges of using perovskites in commercial photovoltaic devices.

  3. Hybrid proton-conducting membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Romero, Pedro [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)]. E-mail: pedro.gomez@icmab.es; Asensio, Juan Antonio [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, E-08017 Barcelona (Spain); Borros, Salvador [Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, E-08017 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-30

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel hybrid organic-inorganic material formed by phosphomolybdic acid H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40} (PMo{sub 12}) and poly(2,5-benzimidazole) (ABPBI) is reported. This material, composed of two proton-conducting components, can be cast in the form of membranes from methanesulfonic acid (MSA) solutions. Upon impregnation with phosphoric acid, the hybrid membranes present higher conductivity than the best ABPBI polymer membranes impregnated in the same conditions. These electrolyte membranes are stable up to 200 deg. C, and have a proton conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 185 deg. C without humidification. These properties make them very good candidates as membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) at temperatures of 100-200 deg. C.

  4. Technoeconomy of different solid oxide fuel cell based hybrid cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine, steam turbine and heat engine (Stirling engine) is used as bottoming cycle for a solid oxide fuel cell plant to compare different plants efficiencies, CO2 emissionsand plants cost in terms of $/kW. Each plant is then integrated with biomass gasification and finally six plants...... configurations are compared with each other. Technoeconomy is used when calculating the cost if the plants. It is found that when a solid oxide fuel cell plant is combined with a gas turbine cycle then the plant efficiency will be the highest one while if a biomass gasification plant is integrated...... with these hybrid cycles then integrated biomass gasification with solid oxide fuel cell and steam cycle will have the highest plant efficiency. The cost of solid oxide fuel cell with steam plant is found to be the lowest one with a value of about 1030$/kW....

  5. Simulation and Test of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Golf Cart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the simulation model of fuel cell hybrid golf cart (FCHGC, which applies the non-GUI mode of the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR and the genetic algorithm (GA to optimize it. Simulation of the objective function is composed of fuel consumption and vehicle dynamic performance; the variables are the fuel cell stack power sizes and the battery numbers. By means of simulation, the optimal parameters of vehicle power unit, fuel cell stack, and battery pack are worked out. On this basis, GUI mode of ADVISOR is used to select the rated power of vehicle motor. In line with simulation parameters, an electrical golf cart is refitted by adding a 2 kW hydrogen air proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack system and test the FCHGC. The result shows that the simulation data is effective but it needs improving compared with that of the real cart test.

  6. Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells via electropolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenchun

    Integrating polymers with inorganic nanostructures is difficult due to wetting and surface energy considerations. We developed an electropolymerization method to grow conformal polymers on high aspect ratio nanostructures. Our method is shown to improve the polymer filling rate inside the nanostructures and can be used in the development of efficient hybrid solar cells. As an example, we have studied the hybrid system of electropolymerized polythiophene (e-PT) on a variety of conductive (Au and ITO) and semiconductive substrates (Si, Ge, ZnO). In particular, e-PT/ZnO hybrid structure can be further developed into organic photovoltaics (OPV). Although unsubstituted PT is not the ideal polymer material for high efficiency solar cells, it is an excellent choice for studying basic bonding and morphology in hybrid structures. We find that e-PT is covalently bound to the polar ZnO planar substrate via a Zn-S bond, adopting an upright geometry. By contrast, no strong covalent bonding was observed between e-PT and ZnO nanorods that consist of non-polar ZnO surfaces predominantly. Energy level alignment at interfaces is critical for fundamental understanding and optimization of OPV as band offsets of the donor and acceptor materials largely determine the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the device. Using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPS), we examined the correlation between energy alignment and photovoltaic properties of a model hybrid solar cell structure incorporating undoped electrodeposited polythiophene (e-PT) films on ZnO planar substrates. The electrolyte anion (BF4-, PF6 -, ClO4- or CF3SO3 -) used in the electrodeposition solution was found to exert a strong influence on the neutral e-PT film morphology and adhesion, the band alignment at the interface, and ultimately the photovoltaic behavior. The interfacial dipole lowers polythiophene energy levels, increasing the theoretical and actual Voc in polythiophene

  7. Morphogenesis of the spleen during the human embryonic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Aya; Ueno, Saki; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to observe morphological changes in the spleen from the emergence of the primordium to the end of the embryonic period using histological serial sections of 228 samples. Between Carnegie stages (CSs) 14 and 17, the spleen was usually recognized as a bulge in the dorsal mesogastrium (DM), and after CS 20, the spleen became apparent. Intrasplenic folds were observed later. A high-density area was first recognized in 6 of the 58 cases at CS 16 and in all cases examined after CS 18. The spleen was recognized neither as a bulge nor as a high-density area at CS 13. The mesothelium was pseudostratified until CS 16 and was replaced with high columnar cells and then with low columnar cells. The basement membrane was obvious after CS 17. The mesenchymal cells differentiated from cells in the DM, and sinus formation started at CS 20. Hematopoietic cells were detected after CS 18. The vessels were observed at CS 14 in the DM. Hilus formation was observed after CS 20. The parallel entries of the arteries and veins were observed at CS 23. The rate of increase in spleen length in relation to that of stomach length along the cranial-caudal direction was 0.51 ± 0.11, which remained constant during CSs 19 and 23, indicating that their growths were similar. These data may help to better understand the development of normal human embryos and to detect abnormal embryos in the early stages of development.

  8. Embryonic stem cell/fibroblast hybrid cells with near-tetraploid karyotype provide high yield of chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglova, A A; Kizilova, E A; Zhelezova, A I; Gridina, M M; Golubitsa, A N; Serov, O L

    2008-12-01

    Ten primary clones of hybrid cells were produced by the fusion of diploid embryonic stem (ES) cells, viz., line E14Tg2aSc4TP6.3 marked by green fluorescent protein (GFP), with diploid embryonic or adult fibroblasts derived from DD/c mice. All the hybrid clones had many characteristics similar to those of ES cells and were positive for GFP. Five hybrid clones having ploidy close to tetraploidy (over 80% of cells had 76-80 chromosomes) were chosen for the generation of chimeras via injection into C57BL blastocysts. These hybrid clones also contained microsatellites marking all ES cell and fibroblast chromosomes judging from microsatellite analysis. Twenty chimeric embryos at 11-13 days post-conception were obtained after injection of hybrid cells derived from two of three clones. Many embryos showed a high content of GFP-positive descendents of the tested hybrid cells. Twenty one adult chimeras were generated by the injection of hybrid cells derived from three clones. The contribution of GFP-labeled hybrid cells was significant and comparable with that of diploid E14Tg2aSc4TP6.3 cells. Cytogenetic and microsatellite analyses of cell cultures derived from chimeric embryos or adults indicated that the initial karyotype of the tested hybrid cells remained stable during the development of the chimeras, i.e., the hybrid cells were mainly responsible for the generation of the chimeras. Thus, ES cell/fibroblast hybrid cells with near-tetraploid karyotype are able to generate chimeras at a high rate, and many adult chimeras contain a high percentage of descendants of the hybrid cells.

  9. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  10. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode processes investigated using a 3-electrode half-cell setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Arenillas, A.; Menendez, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A 3-electrode half-cell setup consisting of a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte support was employed to investigate the chemical and electrochemical processes occurring in the vicinity of a model hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC) anode (Ni-YSZ) in contact with a molten carbon...

  11. Monkey hybrid stem cells develop cellular features of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorthongpanich Chanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types and develop robust hallmark cellular features are useful tools for clarifying the impact of developmental events on neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. Additionally, a Huntington's cell model that develops robust pathological features of Huntington's disease would be valuable for drug discovery research. Results To test this hypothesis, a pluripotent Huntington's disease monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1 was established from a tetraploid Huntington's disease monkey blastocyst generated by the fusion of transgenic Huntington's monkey skin fibroblast and a wild-type non-transgenic monkey oocyte. The TrES1 developed key Huntington's disease cellular pathological features that paralleled neural development. It expressed mutant huntingtin and stem cell markers, was capable of differentiating to neural cells, and developed teratoma in severely compromised immune deficient (SCID mice. Interestingly, the expression of mutant htt, the accumulation of oligomeric mutant htt and the formation of intranuclear inclusions paralleled neural development in vitro , and even mutant htt was ubiquitously expressed. This suggests the development of Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. Conclusions Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. These results are the first to demonstrate that a pluripotent stem cell line is able to mimic Huntington's disease progression that parallels neural development, which could be a useful cell model for investigating the developmental impact on Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

  12. Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and their hybrids during embryoid body formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josane Mittmann

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the karyotypes of three hybrid clones of mouse embryonic stem cells and murine splenocytes (two having near diploid and one having near tetraploid chromosome numbers and the characteristics of their differentiation during the formation of embryoid bodies. The X chromosome originating from embryonic stem cells may be lost in hybrids with a near diploid chromosome number and reprogramming of the "somatic" X may occur. The morphological data we obtained using light and electron microscopy revealed a correlation between the karyotype constitution of hybrid cells and their differentiation during the formation of embryoid bodies. At the beginning of development, the embryoid bodies derived from hybrid cells already showed an advanced degree of differentiation. The production of significant quantities of cartilage was typical for hybrid cells with near tetraploid chromosome numbers. The hybrid cells showed restricted pluripotent capacity and were already committed when they started to differentiate into embryoid bodies.

  13. Laser Crystallization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Taewoo; Jin, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Ju Min; Park, Hyung Il; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae; Shin, Byungha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-23

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites attract enormous research interest for next generation solar energy harvest. Synergistic crystalline structures comprising organic and inorganic components enable solution processing of perovskite films. A reliable crystallization method for perovskites, compatible with fast continuous process over large-area flexible substrates, is crucial for high performance solar cell production. Here, we present laser crystallization of hybrid perovskite solar cells using near-infrared (NIR) laser (λ = 1064 nm). Crystalline morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite films are widely controllable with laser irradiation condition while maintaining film uniformity. Photothermal heating effectively assisted by interfacial photoconversion layers is critical for phase transformation without beam damage of multilayered device structures. Notably, laser crystallization attains higher device performances than conventional thermal annealing. Fast laser crystallization with manufacture level scan rate (1 m min(-1)) demonstrates inverted-type perovskite solar cells with 11.3 and 8.0% efficiencies on typical glass and flexible polymer substrates, respectively, without rigorous device optimization.

  14. Functional evaluation of ES-somatic cell hybrids in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Huseyin; Kim, Kitai; Liu, Jun; Ng, Kitwa; Daley, George Q; Verma, Paul J

    2014-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have previously been reported to reprogram somatic cells following fusion. The resulting ES-somatic cell hybrids have been shown to adopt the transcriptional profile of ESCs, suggesting that the pluripotent program is dominant. ES-somatic cell hybrids have most characteristics of pluripotent cells in vitro; however, it remains unclear whether the somatic genome is an active partner in the hybrid cells or simply retained predominately as silent cargo. Furthermore, the functional properties of ES-somatic cell hybrids in vivo have been limited to studies on their contribution to teratomas and developing embryos/chimeras. The extent of their pluripotency remains largely unclear. Here we determined that the somatic genome is actively transcribed by generating ES-somatic cell hybrids using Rag2-deficient ESCs fused to autologous wild-type somatic cells. Rag2 expression was detected during in vitro differentiation, suggesting that the somatic genome follows the correct temporal cues during differentiation. Furthermore, ES-somatic cell hybrids maintain their tetraploid state following 4 weeks of differentiation in vivo and are immune tolerated when transferred into matched individuals. The ES-somatic cell hybrids can efficiently differentiate into hematopoietic precursors in both myeloid and lymphoid lineages in vitro, suggesting that the somatic genome is actively transcribed following cell fusion based reprogramming. However, the ES-somatic cell hybrids showed an altered hematopoietic potential following in vitro differentiation and were unable to show hematopoietic engraftment in a mouse model.

  15. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    ...% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  16. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  17. Dendritic cell-tumor cell hybrids and immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cathelin, Dominique; Nicolas, Alexandra; Bouchot, André

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells currently being used as a cellular adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy strategies. Unfortunately, DC-based vaccines have not demonstrated spectacular clinical results. DC loading with tumor antigens and DC differentiation and activation...

  18. Human spleen microanatomy: why mice do not suffice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiniger, Birte S

    2015-07-01

    The microanatomical structure of the spleen has been primarily described in mice and rats. This leads to terminological problems with respect to humans and their species-specific splenic microstructure. In mice, rats and humans the spleen consists of the white pulp embedded in the red pulp. In the white pulp, T and B lymphocytes form accumulations, the periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths and the follicles, located around intermediate-sized arterial vessels, the central arteries. The red pulp is a reticular connective tissue containing all types of blood cells. The spleen of mice and rats exhibits an additional well-delineated B-cell compartment, the marginal zone, between white and red pulp. This area is, however, absent in human spleen. Human splenic secondary follicles comprise three zones: a germinal centre, a mantle zone and a superficial zone. In humans, arterioles and sheathed capillaries in the red pulp are surrounded by lymphocytes, especially by B cells. Human sheathed capillaries are related to the splenic ellipsoids of most other vertebrates. Such vessels are lacking in rats or mice, which form an evolutionary exception. Capillary sheaths are composed of endothelial cells, pericytes, special stromal sheath cells, macrophages and B lymphocytes. Human spleens most probably host a totally open circulation system, as connections from capillaries to sinuses were not found in the red pulp. Three stromal cell types of different phenotype and location occur in the human white pulp. Splenic white and red pulp structure is reviewed in rats, mice and humans to encourage further investigations on lymphocyte recirculation through the spleen.

  19. Genome-wide reprogramming in hybrids of somatic cells and embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Dominic J; Tanasijevic, Borko; Kaur, Anupinder; Obergfell, Craig; O'Neill, Rachel J; Krueger, Winfried; Rasmussen, Theodore P

    2007-05-01

    Recent experiments demonstrate that somatic nuclei can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state when fused to ESCs. The resulting hybrids are pluripotent as judged by developmental assays, but detailed analyses of the underlying molecular-genetic control of reprogrammed transcription in such hybrids are required to better understand fusion-mediated reprogramming. We produced hybrids of mouse ESCs and fibroblasts that, although nearly tetraploid, exhibit characteristics of normal ESCs, including apparent immortality in culture, ESC-like colony morphology, and pluripotency. Comprehensive analysis of the mouse embryonic fibroblast/ESC hybrid transcriptome revealed global patterns of gene expression reminiscent of ESCs. However, combined analysis of variance and hierarchical clustering analyses revealed at least seven distinct classes of differentially regulated genes in comparisons of hybrids, ESCs, and somatic cells. The largest class includes somatic genes that are silenced in hybrids and ESCs, but a smaller class includes genes that are expressed at nearly equivalent levels in hybrids and ESCs that contain many genes implicated in pluripotency and chromatin function. Reprogrammed genes are distributed throughout the genome. Reprogramming events include both transcriptional silencing and activation of genes residing on chromosomes of somatic origin. Somatic/ESC hybrid cell lines resemble their pre-fusion ESC partners in terms of behavior in culture and pluripotency. However, they contain unique expression profiles that are similar but not identical to normal ESCs. ESC fusion-mediated reprogramming provides a tractable system for the investigation of mechanisms of reprogramming. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  20. Tumor associated macrophage × cancer cell hybrids may acquire cancer stem cell properties in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Ding

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women, and metastasis makes it lethal. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs that acquire an alternatively activated macrophage (M2 phenotype may promote metastasis. However, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we examined how TAMs interact with breast cancer cells to promote metastasis. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of the M2-specific antigen CD163 in paraffin-embedded mammary carcinoma blocks to explore fusion events in breast cancer patients. U937 cells were used as a substitute for human monocytes, and these cells differentiated into M2 macrophages following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and M-CSF stimulation. M2 macrophages and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 fused in the presence of 50% polyethylene glycol. Hybrids were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and the relevant cell biological properties were compared with their parental counterparts. Breast cancer stem cell (BCSC-related markers were quantified by immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and/or western blotting. The tumor-initiating and metastatic capacities of the hybrids and their parental counterparts were assessed in NOD/SCID mice. We found that the CD163 expression rate in breast cancer tissues varied significantly and correlated with estrogen receptor status (p0.05. Characterization of the fusion hybrids revealed a more aggressive phenotype, including increased migration, invasion and tumorigenicity, but reduced proliferative ability, compared with the parental lines. The hybrids also gained a CD44(+CD24(-/low phenotype and over-expressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated genes. These results indicate that TAMs may promote breast cancer metastasis through cell fusion, and the hybrids may gain a BCSC phenotype.

  1. In vivo immunotoxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate in BALB/c mice: Identification of T-cell receptor and calcium-mediated signaling pathway disruption through gene expression profiling of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qi-Yan; Wan, Bin; Guo, Liang-Hong; Yang, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Hui

    2015-10-05

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant that is used worldwide and is continuously being detected in biota and the environment, thus presenting potential threats to the ecosystem and human health. Although PFOS is highly immunotoxic, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study examined PFOS-induced immunotoxicity in the mouse spleen and explored its underlying mechanisms by gene expression profiling. Oral exposure of male BALB/c mice for three weeks followed by one-week recovery showed that a 10 mg/kg/day PFOS exposure damaged the splenic architecture, inhibited T-cell proliferation in response to mitogen, and increased the percentages of T helper (CD3(+)CD4(+)) and cytotoxic T (CD3(+)CD8(+)) cells, despite the decrease in the absolute number of these cells. A delayed type of PFOS immunotoxicity was observed, which mainly occurred during the recovery period. Global gene expression profiling of mouse spleens and QRT-PCR analyses suggest that PFOS inhibited the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, and upregulated those in TCR signaling, calcium signaling, and p38/MAPK signaling pathways. Western blot analysis confirmed that the expressions of CAMK4, THEMIS, and CD3G, which were involved in the upregulated pathways, were induced upon PFOS exposure. Acute PFOS exposure modulated calcium homoeostasis in splenocytes. These results indicate that PFOS exposure can activate TCR signaling and calcium ion influx, which provides a clue for the potential mechanism of PFOS immunotoxicity. The altered signaling pathways by PFOS treatment as revealed in the present study might facilitate in better understanding PFOS immunotoxicity and explain the association between immune disease and PFOS exposure.

  2. A hybrid model of mammalian cell cycle regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Singhania

    Full Text Available The timing of DNA synthesis, mitosis and cell division is regulated by a complex network of biochemical reactions that control the activities of a family of cyclin-dependent kinases. The temporal dynamics of this reaction network is typically modeled by nonlinear differential equations describing the rates of the component reactions. This approach provides exquisite details about molecular regulatory processes but is hampered by the need to estimate realistic values for the many kinetic constants that determine the reaction rates. It is difficult to estimate these kinetic constants from available experimental data. To avoid this problem, modelers often resort to 'qualitative' modeling strategies, such as Boolean switching networks, but these models describe only the coarsest features of cell cycle regulation. In this paper we describe a hybrid approach that combines the best features of continuous differential equations and discrete Boolean networks. Cyclin abundances are tracked by piecewise linear differential equations for cyclin synthesis and degradation. Cyclin synthesis is regulated by transcription factors whose activities are represented by discrete variables (0 or 1 and likewise for the activities of the ubiquitin-ligating enzyme complexes that govern cyclin degradation. The discrete variables change according to a predetermined sequence, with the times between transitions determined in part by cyclin accumulation and degradation and as well by exponentially distributed random variables. The model is evaluated in terms of flow cytometry measurements of cyclin proteins in asynchronous populations of human cell lines. The few kinetic constants in the model are easily estimated from the experimental data. Using this hybrid approach, modelers can quickly create quantitatively accurate, computational models of protein regulatory networks in cells.

  3. Protoscoleces and hydatid fluid promote expression of TGF-β from mouse spleen cells in vitro%原头蚴及囊液促体外培养小鼠脾细胞TGF-β表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小林; 印双红; 吴向未; 陈雪玲

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察细粒棘球蚴囊液及原头蚴对体外培养BABL/c小鼠脾细胞TGF-β表达的影响. 方法 取BABL/c小鼠脾细胞,制成细胞悬液,加入不同浓度囊液/原头蚴共培养72 h,用ELISA检测上清液TGF-β含量;同时收集细胞并提取mRNA,用RT-PCR检测TGF-βmRNA的相对表达量.试验以PBS与脾细胞混合培养组为对照. 结果 ELISA检测囊液组和原头蚴组TGF-β分泌均增加,与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);RT-PCR检测囊液组和原头蚴不同浓度组及对照组TGF-β mRNA的相对表达量,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),但囊液/原头蚴不同浓度组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). 结论 原头蚴和囊液均能刺激体外培养小鼠脾细胞TGF-β表达增加,提示原头蚴和囊液中含有能促使宿主产生TGF-β的抗原物质,这些抗原物质在包虫病的免疫逃避中发挥一定作用.%Objective To observe the effect of treatment with Echinococcus granulosus fluid/protoscoleces on TGF-β expression in mouse spleen cells in vitro.Methods After spleen cells from BABL/c mice were co-cultured with different concentrations of hydatid fluid or protoscoleces,the level of TGF-β in the co-culture supernatant were measured using ELISA.mRNA extracted from cells was collected and the relative level of expression of TGF-β mRNA was detected using RT-PCR.Spleen cells were co-cultured with PBS to serve as a control.Results ELISA indicated that,compared to the controls,cells co-cultured with hydatid fluid and protoscoleces had increased secretion of TGF-β; the difference in secretion was statistically significant (P<0.05).RT-PCR to detect the relative level of expression of TGF-β mRNA indicated that,compared to the controls,cells co-cultured with hydatid fluid and protoscoleces had significantly increased expression (P<0.05),but this increased expression did not differ significantly with different concentrations of hydatid fluid or protoscoleces

  4. Spleen-specific isoforms of Pax5 and Ataxin-7 as potential proteomic markers of lymphoma-affected spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Brij; Mishra, Rajnikant

    2015-04-01

    The splenomegaly, enlargement of spleen, has been observed in several diseases. It has been intended to evaluate histochemical alterations, spleen-specific enzymatic and proteomic markers during splenomegaly, and lympho-proliferative disorders from spleen of mice bearing Dalton's lymphoma. The higher expression of c-fos, c-jun, and MAPK testifies proliferation of lymphocytes. The lower expression of Pax5, higher expression of CD3, and the presence of additional form of Zap-70 suggest hypertrophy of follicles and splenomegaly influenced by weak B-cell receptor-mediated signaling, but activated T-cell receptor-mediated signaling. Simultaneously, lower levels of SOD, NDR2, and MIB2 and higher expression levels of Ataxin-7 and LDH also suggest impact of stress either as a cause or effect of cell proliferation. Spleen-specific isoform of Pax5, NDR2, MIB2, and Ataxin-7 can be considered as spleen-specific unique molecular markers for the evaluation of splenomegaly and lympho-proliferative disorders.

  5. Cell studies of hybridized carbon nanofibers containing bioactive glass nanoparticles using bone mesenchymal stromal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Rui; Hu, Xiao-Qing; Jia, Xiao-Long; Yang, Li-Ka; Meng, Qing-Yang; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Cai, Qing; Ao, Yin-Fang; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Bone regeneration required suitable scaffolding materials to support the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells. In this study, a kind of hybridized nanofibrous scaffold material (CNF/BG) was prepared by incorporating bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles into carbon nanofibers (CNF) via the combination of BG sol-gel and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) electrospinning, followed by carbonization. Three types (49 s, 68 s and 86 s) of BG nanoparticles were incorporated. To understand the mechanism of CNF/BG hybrids exerting osteogenic effects, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured directly on these hybrids (contact culture) or cultured in transwell chambers in the presence of these materials (non-contact culture). The contributions of ion release and contact effect on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were able to be correlated. It was found that the ionic dissolution products had limited effect on cell proliferation, while they were able to enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in comparison with pure CNF. Differently, the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were both significantly promoted in the contact culture. In both cases, CNF/BG(68 s) showed the strongest ability in influencing cell behaviors due to its fastest release rate of soluble silicium-relating ions. The synergistic effect of CNF and BG would make CNF/BG hybrids promising substrates for bone repairing.

  6. Si/PEDOT:PSS core/shell nanowire arrays for efficient hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenhui; Wang, Chengwei; Yue, Wei; Chen, Liwei

    2011-09-01

    A solution filling and drying method has been demonstrated to fabricate Si/PEDOT:PSS core/shell nanowire arrays for hybrid solar cells. The hybrid core/shell nanowire arrays show excellent broadband anti-reflection, and resulting hybrid solar cells absorb about 88% of AM 1.5G photons in the 300-1100 nm range. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the hybrid solar cell reaches 6.35%, and is primarily limited by direct and indirect interfacial recombination of charge carriers.

  7. Two Beam Energy Exchange in Hybrid Liquid Crystal Cells with Photorefractive Field Controlled Boundary Conditions (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0209 TWO BEAM ENERGY EXCHANGE IN HYBRID LIQUID CRYSTAL CELLS WITH PHOTOREFRACTIVE FIELD CONTROLLED BOUNDARY...DATES COVERED (From - To) 29 August 2016 Interim 26 October 2015 – 29 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TWO BEAM ENERGY EXCHANGE IN HYBRID LIQUID... energy gain when two light beams intersect in a hybrid nematic liquid crystal (LC) cell with photorefractive crystalline substrates. A periodic space

  8. A novel organic-inorganic hybrid tandem solar cell with inverted structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, A.; Faez, R.

    2017-04-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid tandem solar cell with inverted structure is proposed. This efficient double-junction hybrid tandem solar cell consists of a single-junction hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) subcell with n-i-p structure as front cell and a P3HT:PCBM organic subcell with inverted structure as back cell. In order to optimize the hybrid tandem cell, we have performed a simulation based on transfer matrix method. We have compared the characteristics of this novel structure with a conventional structure. As a result, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.1 and 24% improvement compared to the conventional hybrid tandem cell was achieved. We also discuss the high potential of this novel structure for realizing high-stability organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic devices.

  9. Plant protoplast fusion and growth of intergeneric hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, K N; Constabel, F; Michayluk, M R; Gamborg, O L

    1974-01-01

    Interspecific and intergeneric fusions of plant protoplasts were induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1540 or 4000. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation (or rate of fusion) was much higher when PEG was eluted with a high pH-high Ca(2+) solution or a salt solution than when it was eluted with a protoplast culture medium. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was also affected by the types of enzymes used for wall degradation, duration of enzyme incubation and molality of the PEG solutions.The maximum frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was 23% for V. hajastana Grossh.-soybean (Glycine max L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-soybean, 35% for pea (Pisum sativum L.)-soybean, 20% for pea-V. hajastana, 14% for corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean and 10% for V. villosa Roth-V. hajastana.40% of the barley-soybean, corn-soybean and pea-soybean heterokaryocytes divided at least once. Some divided many times and formed clusters of up to 100 cells in 2 weeks. The heterokaryocytes of soybean-V. hajastana, V. villosa-V. hajastana also divided. Of the PEG-treated protoplasts of N. langsdorffii and N. glauca 13.5% developed into tumor-like calli. The morphology of these calli was very much like that of the tumors produced on amphidiploid plants of N. langsdorffii x glauca.Nuclear staining indicated that heterokaryocytes of V. hajastana-soybean, pea-soybean, corn-soybean and barley-soybean could undergo mitosis. Nuclear divisions in a heterokaryocyte were usually synchronized or almost synchronized. Nuclear fusion and true hybrid formation usually occurred during the first mitotic division after protoplast fusion. A hybrid of barley-soybean in third cell division was observed. The frequency of heterokaryocytes which underwent nuclear fusion has not been determined. Multipole formation and chimeral cell colonies were also observed.

  10. Characterization of hybridization between synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides and RNA in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politz, J C; Taneja, K L; Singer, R H

    1995-01-01

    Cells internalized synthetic oligonucleotides (oligos) in culture. The hybridization of these molecules to target RNA in the living cell was subsequently detected and characterized after fixation of the cells, with or without previous detergent extraction. Hybridized oligo was distinguished from free oligo in the cell using an in situ reverse transcription technique. This assay exploited the ability of the hybridized oligo to prime synthesis of a specific cDNA strand; unhybridized oligo present in the cell could not act as a primer for reverse transcription. Phosphorothioate and fluorochrome-labeled phosphodiester oligo dT were found to enter cells rapidly and hybridize to poly (A) RNA within 30 min. Hybrids containing phosphorothioate oligo dT were detectable in cells after up to 4 h of efflux time. Phosphodiester bonded oligo dT containing covalently-linked fluorochromes appeared more stable in the cell than unmodified phosphodiester oligo dT; hybrids containing these oligos could be detected in cells as long as 18h after efflux began. The in situ transcription assay was also sensitive enough to detect hybridization of anti-actin oligos to actin mRNA in the cell. It is probable, therefore, that this assay can be used to help assess the efficacy of antisense oligos by their hybridization to a target mRNA in cells or tissues; hybridized oligos are more likely to induce a specific antisense effect. Additionally, this assay will help to identify probes that would be useful as stable hybridization tags to follow RNA movement in living cells. Images PMID:8559650

  11. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; P.P.J. van den Bosch; Y. Shen; T. Hofman; Edwin Tazelaar

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell hybrid vehicles are believed to provide a solution to cut down emissions in the long term. They provide local zero-emission propulsion and when the hydrogen as fuel is derived from renewable energy sources, fuel cell hybrids enable well-to-wheel zero-emission transportation,

  12. Organic Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Efficiency Improvement By Employing Au Nanocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-14

    Specialists Conference Conference Date: June 14, 2015 Organic - Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Efficiency Improvement by Employing Au Nanocluster Manisha...tunable conductivity, organic polymer, heterojunction, nanocluster I. INTRODUCTION Recently, organic / inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells have...conventional Si p−n junction. These heterojunction devices are intended to exploit the advantageous properties of both organic and inorganic materials

  13. Thin Film Solar Cells: Organic, Inorganic and Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankovich, John

    2004-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are an important developing resource for hundreds of applications including space travel. In addition to being more cost effective than traditional single crystal silicon cells, thin film multi-crystaline cells are plastic and light weight. The plasticity of the cells allows for whole solar panels to be rolled out from reams. Organic layers are being investigated in order to increase the efficiency of the cells to create an organic / inorganic hybrid cell. The main focus of the group is a thin film inorganic cell made with the absorber CuInS2. So far the group has been successful in creating the layer from a single-source precursor. They also use a unique method of film deposition called chemical vapor deposition for this. The general makeup of the cell is a molybdenum back contact with the CuInS2 layer, then CdS, ZnO and aluminum top contacts. While working cells have been produced, the efficiency so far has been low. Along with quantum dot fabrication the side project of this that is currently being studied is adding a polymer layer to increase efficiency. The polymer that we are using is P3OT (Poly(3-octylthiopene-2,5-diyll), retroregular). Before (and if) it is added to the cell, it must be understood in itself. To do this simple diodes are being constructed to begin to look at its behavior. The P3OT is spin coated onto indium tin oxide and silver or aluminum contacts are added. This method is being studied in order to find the optimal thickness of the layer as well as other important considerations that may later affect the composition of the finished solar cell. Because the sun is the most abundant renewable, energy source that we have, it is important to learn how to harness that energy and begin to move away from our other depleted non-renewable energy sources. While traditional silicon cells currently create electricity at relatively high efficiencies, they have drawbacks such as weight and rigidness that make them unattractive

  14. Unrepaired DNA damage facilitates elimination of uniparental chromosomes in interspecific hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Yin, Hao; Lv, Lei; Feng, Yingying; Chen, Shaopeng; Liang, Junting; Huang, Yun; Jiang, Xiaohua; Jiang, Hanwei; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Wu, Lijun; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Elimination of uniparental chromosomes occurs frequently in interspecific hybrid cells. For example, human chromosomes are always eliminated during clone formation when human cells are fused with mouse cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we show that the elimination of human chromosomes in human-mouse hybrid cells is accompanied by continued cell division at the presence of DNA damage on human chromosomes. Deficiency in DNA damage repair on human chromosomes occurs after cell fusion. Furthermore, increasing the level of DNA damage on human chromosomes by irradiation accelerates human chromosome loss in hybrid cells. Our results indicate that the elimination of human chromosomes in human-mouse hybrid cells results from unrepaired DNA damage on human chromosomes. We therefore provide a novel mechanism underlying chromosome instability which may facilitate the understanding of carcinogenesis.

  15. A hybrid of cells and pancreatic islets toward a new bioartificial pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Teramura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface engineering using single-stranded DNA–poly(ethylene glycol-conjugated phospholipid (ssDNA–PEG-lipid is useful for inducing cell–cell attachment two and three dimensionally. In this review, we summarize our recent techniques for cell surface engineering and their applications to islet transplantation. Because any DNA sequence can be immobilized onto the cell surface by hydrophobic interactions between ssDNA–PEG-lipid and the cellular membrane without impairing cell function, a cell–cell hybrid can be formed through the DNA hybridization. With this technique, it would be possible to create three-dimensional hybrid structures of pancreatic islets coated with various accessory cells, such as patients’ own cells, mesenchymal and adipose-derived stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, neural crest stem cells or regulatory T cells, which might significantly improve the outcome of islet transplantation in diabetic patients.

  16. Pancreatic tumors and immature immunosuppressive myeloid cells in blood and spleen: role of inhibitory co-stimulatory molecules PDL1 and CTLA4. An in vivo and in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Basso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood and spleen expansion of immature myeloid cells (IMCs might compromise the immune response to cancer. We studied in vivo circulating and splenic T lymphocyte and IMC subsets in patients with benign and malignant pancreatic diseases. We ascertained in vitro whether pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC-associated IMC subsets are induced by tumor-derived soluble factors and whether they are immunosuppressive focusing on the inhibitory co-stimulatory molecules PDL1 and CTLA4. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 103 pancreatic and/or splenic surgical patients were enrolled including 52 PDAC, 10 borderline and 10 neuroendocrine tumors (NETs. Lymphocytes and IMCs were analysed by flow cytometry in blood, in spleen and in three PDAC cell conditioned (CM or non conditioned PBMC. PDL1 and CTLA4 were studied in 30 splenic samples, in control and conditioned PBMC. IMCs were FACS sorted and co-coltured with allogenic T lymphocytes. In PDAC a reduction was found in circulating CD8(+ lymphocytes (p = 0.004 and dendritic cells (p = 0.01, which were reduced in vitro by one PDAC CM (Capan1; p = 0.03. Blood myeloid derived suppressive cells (MDSCs CD33(+CD14(-HLA-DR(- were increased in PDAC (p = 0.022 and were induced in vitro by BxPC3 CM. Splenic dendritic cells had a higher PDL1 expression (p = 0.007, while CD33(+CD14(+HLA-DR(- IMCs had a lower CTLA4 expression (p = 0.029 in PDAC patients. In vitro S100A8/A9 complex, one of the possible inflammatory mediators of immune suppression in PDAC, induced PDL1 (p = 0.018 and reduced CTLA4 expression (p = 0.028 among IMCs. IMCs not expressing CTLA4 were demonstrated to be immune suppressive. CONCLUSION: In PDAC circulating dendritic and cytotoxic T cells are reduced, while MDSCs are increased and this might favour tumoral growth and progression. The reduced CTLA4 expression found among splenic IMCs of PDAC patients was demonstrated to characterize an immune suppressive phenotype and to be consequent to the

  17. Corrosion Protection of Al/Au/ZnO Anode for Hybrid Cell Application

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Effective protection of power sources from corrosion is critical in the development of abiotic fuel cells, biofuel cells, hybrid cells and biobateries for implantable bioelectronics. Corrosion of these bioelectronic devices result in device inability to generate bioelectricity. In this paper Al/Au/ZnO was considered as a possible anodic substrate for the development of a hybrid cell. The protective abilities of corrosive resistant aluminum hydroxide and zinc phosphite composite films formed o...

  18. Ionic transport in hybrid lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Christopher; Frost, Jarvist M.; Barnes, Piers R. F.; O'Regan, Brian C.; Walsh, Aron; Islam, M. Saiful

    2015-01-01

    Solar cells based on organic–inorganic halide perovskites have recently shown rapidly rising power conversion efficiencies, but exhibit unusual behaviour such as current–voltage hysteresis and a low-frequency giant dielectric response. Ionic transport has been suggested to be an important factor contributing to these effects; however, the chemical origin of this transport and the mobile species are unclear. Here, the activation energies for ionic migration in methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) are derived from first principles, and are compared with kinetic data extracted from the current–voltage response of a perovskite-based solar cell. We identify the microscopic transport mechanisms, and find facile vacancy-assisted migration of iodide ions with an activation energy of 0.6 eV, in good agreement with the kinetic measurements. The results of this combined computational and experimental study suggest that hybrid halide perovskites are mixed ionic–electronic conductors, a finding that has major implications for solar cell device architectures. PMID:26105623

  19. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hajizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid power system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMIULINK environment and different operating conditions have been considered to evaluate the response of power management strategy.

  20. Giant Accessory Right-Sided Suprarenal Spleen in Thalassaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory spleen is defined as ectopic splenic tissue that develops due to failure of fusion of cells during embryonic development as they migrate from the midline to the left upper quadrant. While benign, complications may arise which include trauma, torsion, or infarction of the ectopic tissue. Additionally, patients who have had a splenectomy secondary to treatment for previous pathology such as a haematological malignancy or idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura may experience persistent symptoms due to the accessory splenic tissue. The presence of an accessory spleen is therefore of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the second and largest reported case of a giant right suprarenal accessory spleen and highlights the difficulty in differentiation of these masses from malignant adrenal tumours.

  1. The human spleen. Development and role in the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timens, Willem

    1988-01-01

    In the present thesis an extensive in situ characterization is given of cellular constituents of the human spleen, that play a role in the human immune system. The development of immunocompetent cells in their micro-environment was studied in early embryonic life, fetal life, infancy and childhood,

  2. Optical fiber-based core-shell coaxially structured hybrid cells for self-powered nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guo, Wenxi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dong, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); School of Materials Science and Enginnering, Zhenzhou University, Zhenghou 450001 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-03

    An optical fiber-based 3D hybrid cell consisting of a coaxially structured dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a nanogenerator (NG) for simultaneously or independently harvesting solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The current output of the hybrid cell is dominated by the DSSC, and the voltage output is dominated by the NG; these can be utilized complementarily for different applications. The output of the hybrid cell is about 7.65 {mu}A current and 3.3 V voltage, which is strong enough to power nanodevices and even commercial electronic components. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  4. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-12-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  5. Restriction of human adenovirus replication in Chinese hamster cell lines and their hybrids with human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radna, R L; Foellmer, B; Feldman, L A; Francke, U; Ozer, H L

    1987-11-01

    We have found that the replication of human adenovirus (Ad2) is restricted in multiple Chinese hamster cell lines including CHO and V79. The major site of restriction involves differential accumulation of late viral proteins as demonstrated by immunofluorescence assay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with and without prior immunoprecipitation. Synthesis of fiber and penton base are markedly reduced, whereas others, such as the 100K polypeptide, are synthesized efficiently. This pattern of restriction is similar to that previously reported for Ad2 infection of several monkey cell lines; however, the restriction is more marked in the Chinese hamster cell lines. The restriction is most likely due to a deficient cellular function since stable cell hybrids between V79 or CHO and human cells are permissive for virus replication. By analysis of a series of hybrids with reduced numbers of human chromosomes, fiber synthesis was correlated with the presence of the short arm of human chromosome 3. More hybrids showed restoration of fiber synthesis than production of progeny virus, suggesting that more than one unlinked function is required for the latter.

  6. Pluripotent hybrid cells contribute to extraembryonic as well as embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jeong Tae; Choi, Hyun Woo; Choi, Youngsok; Schöler, Hans R

    2011-06-01

    The restricted gene expression of a differentiated cell can be reversed by forming hybrid with embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The resulting hybrid cells showed not only an ESC-specific marker expression but also a differentiation potential similar to the pluripotent fusion partner. Here, we evaluated whether the tetraploid fusion hybrid cells have a unique differentiation potential compared with diploid pluripotent cells. The first Oct4-GFP-positive cells were observed at day 2 following fusion between ESCs and neurosphere cells (OG2(+/-)/ROSA26(+/-)). Reprogramming efficiency was as high as 94.5% at passage 5 and 96.4% at passage 13. We have found that the tetraploid hybrid cells could form chimera with contribution to placenta after blastocyst injection. This result indicates that the tetraploid pluripotent fusion hybrid cells have wide range of differentiation potential. Therefore, we suggest that once the somatic cells are reprogrammed by fusion with ESCs, the tetraploid hybrid cells contributed to the extraembryonic as well as embryonic tissues.

  7. An essential cell cycle regulation gene causes hybrid inviability in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Nitin; Baker, EmilyClare P; Cooper, Jacob C; Frizzell, Kimberly A; Hsieh, Emily; de la Cruz, Aida Flor A; Shendure, Jay; Kitzman, Jacob O; Malik, Harmit S

    2015-12-18

    Speciation, the process by which new biological species arise, involves the evolution of reproductive barriers, such as hybrid sterility or inviability between populations. However, identifying hybrid incompatibility genes remains a key obstacle in understanding the molecular basis of reproductive isolation. We devised a genomic screen, which identified a cell cycle-regulation gene as the cause of male inviability in hybrids resulting from a cross between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Ablation of the D. simulans allele of this gene is sufficient to rescue the adult viability of hybrid males. This dominantly acting cell cycle regulator causes mitotic arrest and, thereby, inviability of male hybrid larvae. Our genomic method provides a facile means to accelerate the identification of hybrid incompatibility genes in other model and nonmodel systems.

  8. Dominance of parental genomes in embryonic stem cell/fibroblast hybrid cells depends on the ploidy of the somatic partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglova, Anna A; Matveeva, Natalia M; Gridina, Maria M; Battulin, Nariman R; Karpov, Anton; Kiseleva, Elena V; Morozova, Ksenia N; Serov, Oleg L

    2010-06-01

    Two dozen hybrid clones were produced by fusion of diploid embryonic stem (ES) cells positive for green fluorescent protein (GFP) with tetraploid fibroblasts derived from DD/c and C57BL-I(I)1RK mice. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated that most cells from these hybrid clones contained near-hexaploid chromosome sets. Additionally, the presence of chromosomes derived from both parental cells was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of polymorphic microsatellites. All hybrid cells were positive for GFP and demonstrated growth characteristics and fibroblast-like morphology. In addition, most hybrid cells were positive for collagen type I, fibronectin, and lamin A/C but were negative for Oct4 and Nanog proteins. Methylation status of the Oct4 and Nanog gene promoters was evaluated by bisulfite genomic sequencing analysis. The methylation sites (CpG-sites) of the Oct4 and Nanog gene promoters were highly methylated in hybrid cells, whereas the CpG-sites were unmethylated in the parental ES cells. Thus, the fibroblast genome dominated the ES genome in the diploid ES cell/tetraploid fibroblast hybrid cells. Immunofluorescent analysis of the pluripotent and fibroblast markers demonstrated that establishment of the fibroblast phenotype occurred shortly after fusion and that the fibroblast phenotype was further maintained in the hybrid cells. Fusion of karyoplasts and cytoplast derived from tetraploid fibroblasts with whole ES cells demonstrated that karyoplasts were able to establish the fibroblast phenotype of the reconstructed cells but not fibroblast cytoplasts. Thus, these data suggest that the dominance of parental genomes in hybrid cells of ES cell/somatic cell type depends on the ploidy of the somatic partner.

  9. Hybrid Verification of A Deepwater Cell-Truss Spar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yi-hua; YANG Jian-min; XIAO Long-fei

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid model testing technique is widely used in verification of a deepwater floating structure and its mooring system,but the design of the truncated mooring systems which can reproduce both static and dynamic response same as the full-depth mooring system is still a big challenge,especially for the mooting systems with large truncation.A Cell-Tress Spar operated in 1500 m water depth is verified in a wave basin with 4 m water depth.A large truncation factor arises even though a small model scale 1:100 is adopted.Computer program modules for analyzing the static and frequency domain dynamic response of mooting line are combined with multi-objective genetic algorithm NSGA-II to optimize the truncared mooting system.Considering the asymmetry of layout of mooring hnes,two different truncated mooring systems are respectively designed for both directions in which the restoring forces of the.mooting system are quite,different.Not only the static characteristics of the mooting systems are calibrated,but also the dynamic responses of the single truncated mooting line are evaluated through time domain numerical simulation and model tests.The model test results of 100-year storm in the GOM are reconstructed and extrapolated to a full depth.It is found that the experimental and numerical resuits of Spar wave frequency motion agree well,and the dynamic responses of the full-depth mooring lines are better reproduced,but the low frequency surge motion is overestimated due to the smaller mooring-induced damping.It is a feasible method adopting different truncated mooring systems for different directions in which the restoring force characteristics are quite different and cannot be simulated by one truncated mooring system.Hybrid verification of a deepwater platform in wave basin with shallow water depth is still feasible if the truncated mooring systems are properly designed,and numerical extrapolation is necessary.

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIPID PEROXIDATION AND RED BLOOD CELL IMMUNE FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH SPLEEN DEFICIENCY%脾虚患者脂质过氧化和红细胞免疫功能关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章梅; 邱根全; 夏天

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of lipid peroxidation on red blood cell immune function in patients with spleen deficiency.Method:By the methods of TBA and red blood cell-yeast mixed flower circle,the RBC-C3b receptor rate,malonyldialdehyde(MDA) of plasma and erythrocyte membrane in patients with spleen deficiency were determined respectively.Result:The red blood cell C3b receptor rate(RBC-C3bRR)and red blood cell immune compound(RBC-IC) were lowered,but the MDA content in plasma and erythrocyte membrane were increased respectively.The relative analysis suggested that there were relationship between the RBC-C3bRR and MAD content in plasma and erythrocyte membrane.Conclusion:The lipid peroxidation lesion of red blood cell membrane had a bad effect on RBC-C3bRR.%目的:探讨脾虚患者脂质过氧化对红细胞免疫功能的影响。方法:采用红细胞酵母菌混合花环法和硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)法检测脾虚患者红细胞膜C3b受体花环率(RBC-C3bRR)、血浆及红细胞膜丙二醛(MDA)水平。结果:脾虚患者RBC-C3bRR和红细胞膜免疫复合物花环率(RBC-ICR)明显降低,血浆MDA和红细胞膜MDA明显升高;RBC-C3bRR与血浆MDA、红细胞膜MDA呈负相关,其中红细胞膜MDA和RBC-C3bRR关系更为密切。结论:红细胞膜脂质过氧化损害对RBC-C3bRR有不利影响。

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF SPLEEN: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Chidambaram

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spleen is a large lymphoid organ situated in the left hypochondrial region having an important role in immunological and hematological functions of the human body. The aim of this study was to find the morphological variations of the spleen with respect to it’s a Shape, b Number of notches on its borders and c Presence of anomalous fissure on its surface. The Study was done on 60 formalin fixed cadaveric spleen from the Department of Anatomy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Out of 60 spleens we examined, the various shapes of the spleen were noted suc h as wedge shape (73.33%, triangular (13.33%, tetrahedral (6.67% and oval shape(6.67%.The number of spleen showing notches on its superior border was 38(63.33% and in inferior border it was 6(10%. Absence of splenic notch was observed in 10(16.67% s pleens and the remaining 6 spleens (10% shows notches on its both the borders. The anomalous splenic fissure was found in 4(6.67% spleens on its diaphragmatic surface. The knowledge of variations in the morphology of spleen are essential for physician, s urgeon, radiologist and forensic surgeon to differentiate it from the splenic pathology and splenic injury. In addition to this, it is also important for anatomist during routine classroom dissection and discussion.

  12. Recent progress in stabilizing hybrid perovskites for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqing; Cai, Xin; Yang, Donghui; Song, Dan; Wang, Jiajia; Jiang, Jinghua; Ma, Aibin; Lv, Shiquan; Hu, Michael Z.; Ni, Chaoying

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites have quickly evolved as a promising group of materials for solar cells and optoelectronic applications mainly owing to the inexpensive materials, relatively simple and versatile fabrication and high power conversion efficiency (PCE). The certified energy conversion efficiency for perovskite solar cell (PSC) has reached above 20%, which is compatible to the current best for commercial applications. However, long-term stabilities of the materials and devices remain to be the biggest challenging issue for realistic implementation of the PSCs. This article discusses the key issues related to the stability of perovskite absorbing layer including crystal structural stability, chemical stability under moisture, oxygen, illumination and interface reaction, effects of electron-transporting materials (ETM), hole-transporting materials (HTM), contact electrodes, ion migration and preparation conditions. Towards the end, prospective strategies for improving the stability of PSCs are also briefly discussed and summarized. We focus on recent understanding of the stability of materials and devices and our perspectives about the strategies for the stability improvement.

  13. Comparison of hybrid blends for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechmann, M. C.; Gutmann, J. S. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Institute for Physical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Koll, D.; Tremel, W. [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Kessler, D. [Institute for Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Theato, P. [Institute for Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, WCU program of Chemical Convergence for Energy and Environment (C2E2), College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 151-744 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    In blended hybrid systems distinct micro- or nanostructured materials can be formed by phase separation. Network structures of particles or rods in a polymer matrix can be developed via self-assembly. We use this blending approach to compare active materials for application in solar cell devices. Blends were fabricated from either poly(hexylthiophene) P3HT or poly(triphenylamine) PTPA mixed with nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} rods. In this manner, we compare two different hole conducting polymers in their performance in photovoltaic devices, while experimental conditions are kept identical. We find that the choice of solvent and photovoltaic characterization conducted in inert atmosphere is of importance for blends prepared from P3HT/TiO{sub 2} blends, but not for PTPA/TiO{sub 2} blends. Even though prepared with the same TiO{sub 2} rods, solar cells prepared from PTPA blends showed an enhanced efficiency when measured under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the PTPA/TiO{sub 2} showed higher long-term stability. (author)

  14. Comparison of Hybrid Blends for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Lechmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In blended hybrid systems distinct micro- or nanostructured materials can be formed by phase separation. Network structures of particles or rods in a polymer matrix can be developed via self-assembly. We use this blending approach to compare active materials for application in solar cell devices. Blends were fabricated from either poly(hexylthiophene P3HT or poly(triphenylamine PTPA mixed with nanocrystalline TiO2 rods. In this manner, we compare two different hole conducting polymers in their performance in photovoltaic devices, while experimental conditions are kept identical. We find that the choice of solvent and photovoltaic characterization conducted in inert atmosphere is of importance for blends prepared from P3HT/TiO2 blends, but not for PTPA/TiO2 blends. Even though prepared with the same TiO2 rods, solar cells prepared from PTPA blends showed an enhanced efficiency when measured under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the PTPA/TiO2 showed higher long-term stability.

  15. Improved performance of silicon nanowire/cadmium telluride quantum dots/organic hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Zhaoyun [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003, Jiangsu Province (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Renqi; Xue, Zhaoguo; Wang, Hongyu; Xu, Jun; Yu, Yao; Su, Weining; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We introduce an intermediate cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) layer between the organic with silicon nanowires of hybrid solar cells as a down-shifting layer. • The hybrid solar cell got the maximum short circuit current density of 33.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, getting an increase of 15.1% comparing to solar cell without CdTe QDs. • The PCE of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layer increases 28.8%. - Abstract: We fabricated silicon nanowire/cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs)/organic hybrid solar cells and investigated their structure and electrical properties. Transmission electron microscope revealed that CdTe QDs were uniformly distributed on the surface of the silicon nanowires, which made PEDOT:PSS easily filled the space between SiNWs. The current density–voltage (J–V) characteristics of hybrid solar cells were investigated both in dark and under illumination. The result shows that the performance of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layer has an obvious improvement. The optimal short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of solar cells with CdTe QDs layer can reach 33.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Compared with the solar cells without CdTe QDs, J{sub sc} has an increase of 15.1%. Power conversion efficiency of solar cells also increases by 28.8%. The enhanced performance of the hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs layers are ascribed to down-shifting effect of CdTe QDs and the modification of the silicon nanowires surface with CdTe QDs. The result of our experiments suggests that hybrid solar cells with CdTe QDs modified are promising candidates for solar cell application.

  16. [Analysis of chromosome composition in interspecific embryonic stem hybrid cells of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristiazhniuk, I E; Matveeva, N M; Grafodatskiĭ, A S; Serdiukova, N A; Serov, O L

    2010-01-01

    Chromosome complements of twenty hybrid clones obtained by fusion of Mus musculus embryonic stem cells (ESC) and M. caroli splenocytes were studied. Using of double-color in situ hybridization with chromosome- and species-specific probes we were able to detect the parental origin for each chromosome in hybrid cells. Based on parental chromosome ratio, all 20 hybrid clones were separated in some different groups: from the group containing practically tetraploid M. musculus genome with single M. caroli chromosomes to hybrids with dominance of M. caroli chromosome homologues. In 8 hybrid cells clones we observed prevalence of chromosomes originated from ESC in ratio from 5:1 to 3:1. Another hybrid cells clones have either equal (1:1, 1:2) ratio of M. musculus to M. caroli chromosomes or with the prevalence of ESC- (2:1) or splenocyte- (1:2) originated parental chromosome homologues. In 3 hybrid cells clones, we observed preferable segregation of ESC-originated pluripotent chromosomes. This phenomenon was found for the first time and it possibly indicates compensation of the epigenetic differences between parental chromosomes of ESC- and splenocyte-origination.

  17. TLR5 signaling stimulates the innate production of IL-17 and IL-22 by CD3negCD127+ immune cells in spleen and mucosa1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maele, Laurye; Carnoy, Christophe; Cayet, Delphine; Songhet, Pascal; Dumoutier, Laure; Ferrero, Isabel; Janot, Laure; Erard, François; Bertout, Julie; Leger, Hélène; Sebbane, Florent; Benecke, Arndt; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Ryffel, Bernhard; Sirard, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    In adaptive immunity, T helper-17 lymphocytes produce the IL-17 and IL-22 cytokines that stimulate mucosal antimicrobial defenses and tissue repair. Here, we observed that the TLR5 agonist flagellin induced swift and transient transcription genes encoding IL-17 and IL-22 in lymphoid, gut and lung tissues. This innate response also temporarily enhanced the expression of genes associated with the antimicrobial Th17 signature. The source of the Th17-related cytokines was identified as novel populations of CD3negCD127+ immune cells among which CD4-expressing cells resembling lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also demonstrated that dendritic cells are essential for expression of Th17-related cytokines and so for stimulation of innate cells. These data define that TLR-induced activation of CD3negCD127+ cells and production of Th17-related cytokines may be crucial for the early defenses against pathogen invasion of host tissues. PMID:20566828

  18. Neonatal microbial colonization in mice promotes prolonged dominance of CD11b+Gr-1+cells and accelerated establishment of the CD4+T cell population in the spleen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Bergström, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    To assess the microbial influence on postnatal hematopoiesis, we examined the role of early life microbial colonization on the composition of leukocyte subsets in the neonatal spleen. A high number of CD11b+Gr-1+ splenocytes present perinatally was sustained for a longer period in conventionally...

  19. Analysis of the inner collection efficiency in hybrid silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nubile, P.; Torres, P; Hof, Ch.; Fischer, D.

    2008-01-01

    The collection of photogenerated carriers in hybrid silicon solar cells structures were determined by the DICE (dynamic inner collection efficiency) technique. The hybrid solar cells have a microcrystalline n-type emitter and a crystalline p-type base. Cells with amorphous buffers of several thickness and p+ back surface field microcrystalline layers were also studied. Spectral response and reflectivity were measured for each sample in order to obtain the internal spectral response or quantum...

  20. What Is Moving in Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    and fuel cell applications. We expound on the implications of these effects for the photovoltaic action. The temporal behavior displayed by hybrid perovskites introduces a sensitivity in materials characterization to the time and length scale of the measurement, as well as the history of each sample. It also poses significant challenges for accurate materials modeling and device simulations. There are large differences between the average and local crystal structures, and the nature of charge transport is too complex to be described by common one-dimensional drift-diffusion models. Herein, we critically discuss the atomistic origin of the dynamic processes and the associated chemical disorder intrinsic to crystalline hybrid perovskite semiconductors. PMID:26859250

  1. What Is Moving in Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jarvist M; Walsh, Aron

    2016-03-15

    Organic-inorganic semiconductors, which adopt the perovskite crystal structure, have perturbed the landscape of contemporary photovoltaics research. High-efficiency solar cells can be produced with solution-processed active layers. The materials are earth abundant, and the simple processing required suggests that high-throughput and low-cost manufacture at scale should be possible. While these materials bear considerable similarity to traditional inorganic semiconductors, there are notable differences in their optoelectronic behavior. A key distinction of these materials is that they are physically soft, leading to considerable thermally activated motion. In this Account, we discuss the internal motion of methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) and formamidinium lead iodide ([CH(NH2)2]PbI3), covering: (i) molecular rotation-libration in the cuboctahedral cavity; (ii) drift and diffusion of large electron and hole polarons; (iii) transport of charged ionic defects. These processes give rise to a range of properties that are unconventional for photovoltaic materials, including frequency-dependent permittivity, low electron-hole recombination rates, and current-voltage hysteresis. Multiscale simulations, drawing from electronic structure, ab initio molecular dynamic and Monte Carlo computational techniques, have been combined with neutron diffraction measurements, quasi-elastic neutron scattering, and ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy to qualify the nature and time scales of the motions. Electron and hole motion occurs on a femtosecond time scale. Molecular libration is a sub-picosecond process. Molecular rotations occur with a time constant of several picoseconds depending on the cation. Recent experimental evidence and theoretical models for simultaneous electron and ion transport in these materials has been presented, suggesting they are mixed-mode conductors with similarities to fast-ion conducting metal oxide perovskites developed for battery and fuel cell

  2. Comparative genomic and in situ hybridization of germ cell tumors of the infantile testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, M; Rosenberg, C; Stoop, H; Schuyer, M; Timmer, A; Oosterhuis, W; Looijenga, L

    2000-01-01

    Chromosomal information on germ cell tumors of the infantile testis, ie, teratomas and yolk sac tumors, is limited and controversial. We studied two teratomas and four yolk sac tumors using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and in situ hybridization. No chromosomal anomalies were found in the

  3. Metal octacarboxyphthalocyanine / multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid for the development of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available octacarboxyphthalocyanines-multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid was prepared through non- covalent (Pi)p-(Pi)p stacking. The metallo-octacarboxyphthalocyanines-multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid was later employed in dye solar cells as a photosensitiser of choice...

  4. Hybrid morphology dependence of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Furui; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Weifeng; Wang, Zhanguo

    2014-01-01

    A nanocrystal thin-film solar cell operating on an exciton splitting pattern requires a highly efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and transportation of separated charges. A hybrid bulk-heterojunction (HBH) nanostructure providing a large contact area and interpenetrated charge channels is favorable to an inorganic nanocrystal solar cell with high performance. For this freshly appeared structure, here in this work, we have firstly explored the influence of hybrid morphology on the photovoltaic performance of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells with variation in CdSe nanoparticle morphology. Quantum dot (QD) or nanotetrapod (NT)-shaped CdSe nanocrystals have been employed together with CdTe NTs to construct different hybrid structures. The solar cells with the two different hybrid active layers show obvious difference in photovoltaic performance. The hybrid structure with densely packed and continuously interpenetrated two phases generates superior morphological and electrical properties for more efficient inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells, which could be readily realized in the NTs:QDs hybrid. This proved strategy is applicable and promising in designing other highly efficient inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  5. Clinical application of laparoscopic spleen-preserving operation in traumatic spleen rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Han-bin; LU Xiao-ming; ZHENG Qi-chang; CAI Xiao-tang; ZHOU Hong; FEI Ke-li

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of laparoscopic spleen-preserving operation for traumatic spleen rupture. Methods: From 1997 to 2003, 15 cases of traumatic spleen rupture were treated with laparoscopic spleen-preserving operation in our hospital. Nine cases had operation history in the middle and lower abdomen. ZT binding, electrocoagulation, fibrin and gelfoam tamping and suture repairing were used in patients with spleen rupture of grade I and grade II. Combined hemostasis was used for spleen rupture of grade III.Results: All patients did not need laparotomy during operation and no postoperative bleeding occurred. They were all cured and followed up for 3-12 months. Determination of immunoglobulinis after operation showed normal, and spleen ultrasonic examination, CT and body state evaluations were all satisfactory.Conclusions: Laparoscopy in the management of spleen trauma can be used in confirmed diagnosis and in determining the degree of spleen injury. For patients with stable vital signs laparoscopic spleen-preserving operation can be used. The laparoscopic spleen-preserving operation is safe in the treatment of traumatic spleen rupture.

  6. Reduced Expression of SARM in Mouse Spleen during Polymicrobial Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu; Zou, Lin; Cen, Dongzhi; Chao, Wei; Chen, Dunjin

    2016-12-01

    Objective Immune dysfunction, including prominent apoptosis of immune cells and decreased functioning of the remaining immune cells, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Sterile α and HEAT/armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) is implicated in the regulation of immune cell apoptosis. This study aimed to elucidate SARM contributes to sepsis-induced immune cell death and immunosuppression. Methods A mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis was generated by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). SARM gene and protein expression, caspase 3 cleavage and intracellular ATP production were measured in the mouse spleens. Results CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis specifically attenuated both the gene and protein expression of SARM in the spleens. Moreover, the attenuation of SARM expression synchronized with splenocyte apoptosis, as evidenced by increased caspase 3 cleavage and ATP depletion. Conclusions These findings suggest that SARM is a potential regulator of sepsis-induced splenocyte apoptosis.

  7. Diverse effects of the MalE-LacZ hybrid protein on Escherichia coli cell physiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, K.; Akiyama, Y; Yura, T; Shiba, K

    1986-01-01

    The hybrid protein between the periplasmic maltose-binding protein and the cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase (the MalE-LacZ hybrid protein) was previously shown to block the export of envelope proteins when synthesized in large amounts. Now we show that the hybrid protein exerts another major effect on the cell, that is, induction of the heat shock proteins. This latter effect was dependent on the htpR gene product but independent of the function of the signal sequence on the hybrid protein. On ...

  8. Intrinsic borohydride fuel cell/battery hybrid power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jian; Fang, Bin; Wang, Chunsheng; Currie, Kenneth [Center for Manufacturing Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of NaBH{sub 4} on Zn, Zn-MH, and MH (metal-hydride) electrodes were investigated, and an intrinsic direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC)/battery hybrid power source using MH (or Zn-MH) as the anode and MnO{sub 2} as the cathode was tested. Borohydride cannot be effectively oxidized on Zn electrodes at the Zn oxidation potential because of the poor electrocatalytic ability of Zn for borohydride oxidation and the high overpotential, even though borohydride has the same oxidation potential of Zn in an alkaline solution. The borohydride can be electrochemically oxidized on Ni and MH electrodes through a 4e reaction at a high overpotential. Simply adding borohydride into an alkaline electrolyte of a Zn/air or MH/air battery can greatly increase the capacity, while an intrinsic DBFC/MH(or Zn)-MnO{sub 2} battery can deliver a higher peak power than regular DBFCs. (author)

  9. Elevated IFN-alpha/beta levels in a streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic mouse model promote oxidative stress and mediate depletion of spleen-homing CD8+ T cells by apoptosis through impaired CCL21/CCR7 axis and IL-7/CD127 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Badr, Gamal; Badr, Badr Mohamed; Kassem, Ahmad Usama; Mohamed, Mahmoud Shaaban

    2015-10-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is associated with increased type 1 interferon (IFN) levels and subsequent severe defects in lymphocyte function, which increase susceptibility to infections. The blockade of type 1 IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1) in non-obese diabetic mice has been shown to delay T1D onset and decrease T1D incidence by enhancing spleen CD4+ T cells and restoring B cell function. However, the effect of type 1 IFN blockade during T1D on splenic CD8+ T cells has not previously been studied. Therefore, we investigated, for the first time, the effect of IFNAR1 blockade on the survival and architecture of spleen-homing CD8+ T cells in a streptozotocin-induced T1D mouse model. Three groups of mice were examined: a non-diabetic control group; a diabetic group; and a diabetic group treated with an anti-IFNAR1 blocking antibody. We observed that T1D induction was accompanied by a marked destruction of β cells followed by a marked reduction in insulin levels and increased IFN-α and IFN-β levels in the diabetic group. The diabetic mice also exhibited many abnormal changes including an elevation in blood and spleen free radical (reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide) and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) levels, a significant decrease in IL-7 levels, and subsequently, a significant decrease in the numbers of spleen-homing CD8+ T cells. This decrease in spleen-homing CD8+ T cells resulted from a marked reduction in the CCL21-mediated entry of CD8+ T cells into the spleen and from increased apoptosis due to a marked reduction in IL-7-mediated STAT5 and AKT phosphorylation. Interestingly, type 1 IFN signaling blockade in diabetic mice significantly restored the numbers of splenic CD8+ T cells by restoring free radical, pro-inflammatory cytokine and IL-7 levels. These effects subsequently rescued splenic CD8+ T cells from apoptosis through a mechanism that was dependent upon CCL21- and IL-7-mediated signaling. Our data suggest that type 1 IFN is an essential

  10. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis and Inflammatory Pseudotumour of the Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Hadimeri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory pseudotumour is a rare condition that can affect various organs. The clinical and histologic appearance of the pseudotumour may mimic haematological, lymphoproliferative, paraneoplastic or malignant processes. A previously healthy 39-year-old man presented with nephrotic syndrome. He had a history of headaches, nausea and swollen ankles. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a 6-cm mass in the spleen. Following a renal biopsy, a diagnosis of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN type I was made. Splenectomy was performed and the examination revealed a mixed population of lymphocytes with predominantly T-cells, B-cells and lymphoplasmacytoid cells. Immunostaining confirmed that the small cells were mostly T-cells positive for all T-cell markers including CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7 and CD8. A diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumour was established. The removal of the spleen was followed by remission of glomerulonephritis, but it was complicated by a subphrenic abscess and pneumonia. This association between an inflammatory pseudotumour of the spleen and MPGN has not been previously described. Abnormal immune response due to the inflammation leading to secondary glomerulonephritis might be the main pathogenic mechanism.

  11. File list: Oth.NoD.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.05.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.NoD.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.10.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.NoD.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.50.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.NoD.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.NoD.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell sacCer3 TFs and others DNA-RNA hybrids No descri...ption http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Oth.NoD.20.DNA-RNA_hybrids.AllCell.bed ...

  15. Effect of Spleen Lymphocytes on the Splenomegaly in Hepatocellular Carcinoma-bearing Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jing Jing; ZHU Zhen Yuan; DONG Hui; ZHENG Guo Qiang; TENG An Guo; LIU An Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of spleen lymphocytes on the splenomegaly by hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing mouse model. Methods Cell counts, cell cycle distribution, the percentage of lymphocytes subsets and the levels of IL-2 were measured, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to investigate the relationship between spleen lymphocytes and splenomegaly in hepatocellular carcinoma-bearing mice. Results Compared with the normal group, the thymus was obviously atrophied and the spleen was significantly enlarged in the tumor-bearing group. Correlation study showed that the number of whole spleen cells was positively correlated with the splenic index. The cell diameter and cell-cycle phase distribution of splenocytes in the tumor-bearing group showed no significant difference compared to the normal group. The percentage of CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD8+ T lymphocytes in spleen and peripheral blood of tumor-bearing mice were substantially higher than that in the normal mice. Meanwhile, the IL-2 level was also higher in the tumor-bearing group than in the normal group. Furthermore, two dysregulated protein, β-actin and S100-A9 were identified in spleen lymphocytes from H22-bearing mice, which were closely related to cellular motility. Conclusion It is suggested that dysregulated β-actin and S100-A9 can result in recirculating T lymphocytes trapped in the spleen, which may explain the underlying cause of splenomegaly in H22-bearing mice.

  16. [Hybridization of cells of the same mating type in Saccharomyces yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge-Vechtomov, S G; Repnevskaia, M V; Karpova, T S

    1986-11-01

    The problem of mating-type switches in heterothallic yeast cells was investigated. 93% of non-mating hybrids were obtained in a X a crosses. The hybrids obtained in alpha X alpha crosses expressed alpha-mating type predominantly. Hybrids with no major rearrangements or loss of chromosome III were detected among these hybrids. In the selective system for cytoduction in a X a crosses the significant part of all cytoductants were alpha-maters, i.e. those originated through a----alpha switches. In alpha X alpha crosses alpha cytoductants were predominantly obtained either spontaneously or after UV-irradiation, though the frequency of cytoductants after UV-irradiation exceeded the control value several times. So, we developed the method for selection of mating-type "switchers" (a in equilibrium alpha), avoiding the diploid stage, and demonstrated the possibility of hybridization among the alpha-cells without hereditary changes at the MAT locus.

  17. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Rita; Fois, Gabriela; Catarsi, Paolo; Poletto, Valentina; Villani, Laura; Erba, Benedetta Gaia; Maddaluno, Luigi; Jemos, Basilio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Paola; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian Andrea; Balduini, Alessandra; Iurlo, Alessandra; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Massa, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2) have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs), and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62−CCR2− (TEMs) and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008) in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ. PMID:27281335

  18. Optimal design of a hybridization scheme with a fuel cell using genetic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A.

    Fuel cell is one of the most dependable "green power" technologies, readily available for immediate application. It enables direct conversion of hydrogen and other gases into electric energy without any pollution of the environment. However, the efficient power generation is strictly stationary process that cannot operate under dynamic environment. Consequently, fuel cell becomes practical only within a specially designed hybridization scheme, capable of power storage and power management functions. The resultant technology could be utilized to its full potential only when both the fuel cell element and the entire hybridization scheme are optimally designed. The design optimization in engineering is among the most complex computational tasks due to its multidimensionality, nonlinearity, discontinuity and presence of constraints in the underlying optimization problem. this research aims at the optimal utilization of the fuel cell technology through the use of genetic optimization, and advance computing. This study implements genetic optimization in the definition of optimum hybridization rules for a PEM fuel cell/supercapacitor power system. PEM fuel cells exhibit high energy density but they are not intended for pulsating power draw applications. They work better in steady state operation and thus, are often hybridized. In a hybrid system, the fuel cell provides power during steady state operation while capacitors or batteries augment the power of the fuel cell during power surges. Capacitors and batteries can also be recharged when the motor is acting as a generator. Making analogies to driving cycles, three hybrid system operating modes are investigated: 'Flat' mode, 'Uphill' mode, and 'Downhill' mode. In the process of discovering the switching rules for these three modes, we also generate a model of a 30W PEM fuel cell. This study also proposes the optimum design of a 30W PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model and hybridization's switching rules are postulated

  19. Automated segmentation of the injured spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandin, Ozgür; Teomete, Uygar; Osman, Onur; Tulum, Gökalp; Ergin, Tuncer; Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer

    2016-03-01

    To develop a novel automated method for segmentation of the injured spleen using morphological properties following abdominal trauma. Average attenuation of a normal spleen in computed tomography (CT) does not vary significantly between subjects. However, in the case of solid organ injury, the shape and attenuation of the spleen on CT may vary depending on the time and severity of the injury. Timely assessment of the severity and extent of the injury is of vital importance in the setting of trauma. We developed an automated computer-aided method for segmenting the injured spleen from CT scans of patients who had splenectomy due to abdominal trauma. We used ten subjects to train our computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) method. To validate the CAD method, we used twenty subjects in our testing group. Probabilistic atlases of the spleens were created using manually segmented data from ten CT scans. The organ location was modeled based on the position of the spleen with respect to the left side of the spine followed by the extraction of shape features. We performed the spleen segmentation in three steps. First, we created a mask of the spleen, and then we used this mask to segment the spleen. The third and final step was the estimation of the spleen edges in the presence of an injury such as laceration or hematoma. The traumatized spleens were segmented with a high degree of agreement with the radiologist-drawn contours. The spleen quantification led to [Formula: see text] volume overlap, [Formula: see text] Dice similarity index, [Formula: see text] precision/sensitivity, [Formula: see text] volume estimation error rate, [Formula: see text] average surface distance/root-mean-squared error. Our CAD method robustly segments the spleen in the presence of morphological changes such as laceration, contusion, pseudoaneurysm, active bleeding, periorgan and parenchymal hematoma, including subcapsular hematoma due to abdominal trauma. CAD of the splenic injury due to abdominal

  20. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Farouk Odeim; Jürgen Roes; Angelika Heinzel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, ...

  1. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Paul

    2012-05-31

    This is the final report of the UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence which spanned from 2005-2012. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program, to provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills to create advanced automotive technologies. The UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence established in 2005 is focused on research, education, industrial collaboration and outreach within automotive technology. UC Davis has had two independent GATE centers with separate well-defined objectives and research programs from 1998. The Fuel Cell Center, administered by ITS-Davis, has focused on fuel cell technology. The Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (HEV Center), administered by the Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, has focused on the development of plug-in hybrid technology using internal combustion engines. The merger of these two centers in 2005 has broadened the scope of research and lead to higher visibility of the activity. UC Davis's existing GATE centers have become the campus's research focal points on fuel cells and hybrid-electric vehicles, and the home for graduate students who are studying advanced automotive technologies. The centers have been highly successful in attracting, training, and placing top-notch students into fuel cell and hybrid programs in both industry and government.

  2. Hybrid ODE/SSA methods and the cell cycle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Chen, M.; Cao, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Stochastic effect in cellular systems has been an important topic in systems biology. Stochastic modeling and simulation methods are important tools to study stochastic effect. Given the low efficiency of stochastic simulation algorithms, the hybrid method, which combines an ordinary differential equation (ODE) system with a stochastic chemically reacting system, shows its unique advantages in the modeling and simulation of biochemical systems. The efficiency of hybrid method is usually limited by reactions in the stochastic subsystem, which are modeled and simulated using Gillespie's framework and frequently interrupt the integration of the ODE subsystem. In this paper we develop an efficient implementation approach for the hybrid method coupled with traditional ODE solvers. We also compare the efficiency of hybrid methods with three widely used ODE solvers RADAU5, DASSL, and DLSODAR. Numerical experiments with three biochemical models are presented. A detailed discussion is presented for the performances of three ODE solvers.

  3. 脾窦岸细胞血管瘤诊治的研究进展%Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Littoral Cell Angioma in Spleen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李加美

    2011-01-01

    Littoral cell angioma(LCA)is a benign tumor which origins from splenic sinus-lining cells (littoral cells).LCA is a rare disease and mostly reported as case report in literatures. LCA is often misdiag-nosed as other conditions before operation because of the low the incidence, atypical clinical characteristics and non-specific imaging manifestations. Splenectomy is the main treatment for LCA currently. The reported cases of LCA see an increase in recent years,with the aim of improving the knowledge level of LCA,here is to review on the studies on the clinical, imaging and histopathological diagnosis and identification diagnosis.%脾窦岸细胞血管瘤(LCA)是发生于脾脏窦岸细胞的一种良性肿瘤.因本病少见,文献中多为个案报道,临床及病理医师对其认识不足,且影像学检查也缺乏特异性改变.因此,术前极易被误诊为脾脏其他病变.脾脏切除是目前治疗LCA的主要手段.近年来,有关LCA的病例报道逐渐增多,为提高对本病的认识,现对LCA临床、影像学及病理组织学诊断与鉴别诊断方面的相关研究予以综述.

  4. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  5. Dynamic Simulation of Carbonate Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.A. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Brouwer, J. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Liese, E.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    2006-04-01

    Hybrid fuel cell/gas turbine systems provide an efficient means of producing electricity from fossil fuels with ultra low emissions. However, there are many significant challenges involved in integrating the fuel cell with the gas turbine and other components of this type of system. The fuel cell and the gas turbine must maintain efficient operation and electricity production while protecting equipment during perturbations that may occur when the system is connected to the utility grid or in stand-alone mode. This paper presents recent dynamic simulation results from two laboratories focused on developing tools to aid in the design and dynamic analyses of hybrid fuel cell systems. The simulation results present the response of a carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, or molten carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, (MCFC/GT) hybrid system to a load demand perturbation. Initial results suggest that creative control strategies will be needed to ensure a flexible system with wide turndown and robust dynamic operation.

  6. Catalytic Enhancement of Carbon Black and Coal-Fueled Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells (HDCFCs) consisting of a solid carbon (carbon black)-molten carbonate ((62–38 wt% Li-K)2CO3) mixtures in the anode chamber of an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell type full-cell are tested for their electrochemical performance between 700 and 800°C. Performance...

  7. Indolent B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancy in the Spleen of a Man Who Handled Benzene: Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihye; Kang, Young Joong; Ahn, Jungho; Song, Seng-Ho

    2017-09-01

    We present the case of a 45-year-old man with a history of benzene exposure who developed splenic marginal zone lymphoma. For 6 years, he had worked in an enclosed space cleaning instruments with benzene. He was diagnosed with splenic marginal zone lymphoma 19 years after retirement. During his time of working in the laboratory in the 1980s, working environments were not monitored for hazardous materials. We indirectly estimated the cumulative level of past benzene exposure using job-exposure matrices and technical assumptions. Care must be taken in investigating the relevance of occupational benzene exposure in the occurrence of indolent B-cell lymphoma. Because of the long latency period and because occupational measurement data do not exist for the period during the patient's exposure, the epidemiological impact of benzene exposure may be underestimated.

  8. A wandering spleen: A common presentation of an uncommon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wandering spleen is a rare entity with less than 500 cases reported in literature so far. Method: This case report ... spleen.7 The noninvasiveness of ultrasonography makes ... Abell I. Wandering spleen with torsion of the pedicle. Ann Surg ...

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of Mandarin fish brain cells infected with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus with an emphasis on retinoic acid-inducible gene 1-like receptors and apoptosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianqin; Fu, Xiaozhe; Li, Ningqiu; Dong, Xingxing; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Ji, Wei; Zhou, Weidong; Ai, Taoshan; Wu, Shuqin; Lin, Li

    2015-08-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) has caused significant economic losses in the cultured Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) industry. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of the viral infection remain poorly understood. In this study, deep RNA sequencing technique was used to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of Mandarin fish brain cells (CPB) at progressive time points after ISKNV infection. A total of 96,206,040 clean data from 98,235,240 sequence reads were obtained. These raw data were assembled into 66,787 unigenes. Among these unigenes, 33,225 and 29,210 had significant hit the Nr and SwissProt databases where they matched 27,537and 19,638 unique protein accessions, respectively. In the samples harvested at 24 or 72 h post of the infection, a total of 10,834 or 7584 genes were differentially expressed in infected CPB cells compared to non-infected cells, including 5445 or 3766 up-regulated genes and 5389 or 3818 down-regulated genes, respectively. In addition, 12 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated by quantitative PCR. These DEGs were involved in many pathways of viral pathogenesis. Further analysis of the major DEGs genes involved in the RLRs and apoptosis pathways revealed some interesting findings. In the RLRs pathway, ISKNV infection inhibited the activation of NF-κB via over expression of the IKKB-α and IKKB-β and lessened expression of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4). In the apoptosis pathway, ISKNV infection could induce apoptosis mainly via tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mediated extrinsic pathway. The cellular apoptosis induced by ISKNV infection was confirmed using annexinV-FITC/PI and DAPI staining methods.

  10. On practicality of a hybrid car with solar cells; Taiyo denchi wo tosaishita hybrid car no jitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K.; Nagayoshi, H.; Kamisako, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The paper stated a development of a hybrid car which is a parallel type with gasoline engine and electric motor as driving source (connecting each according to the situation) and is also equipped with solar cells. Specifications are gasoline engine of 1200cc, induction motor of 5.5kW, lead battery of 288V and 7.2kWh, monocrystal silicon solar cells of 180W maximum output, and body weight of 1100kg. The rear wheel is driven by electric motor, and the front wheel by gasoline engine. The car is loaded with battery charge use solar cells on hood and roof. To enhance cleaning degree, 1.6kW solar cells are installed as an installed power system and used for battery charge. Even by an electric motor with output less than that of the usual electric car, harmful exhaust gas emitted in start-up can be controlled. This is because the electric motor can be used in accelerating. It was confirmed that the power required for it could be supplied by solar cells installed on the car. The hybrid car is practically useful for prevention of local air pollution. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of GO-Fe3O4 hybrid in cultured mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedrzejczak-Silicka Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at investigating the effect of the Fe3O4 hybrid deposited on graphene oxide (GO-Fe3O4 on the relative viability and DNA integrity. The properties of the GO-Fe3O4 hybrid were analyzed using a transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction technique (XRD and thermal gravimetric method (TGA, while the efficiency of graphene oxide covalent functionalization with iron oxide nanospheres was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. L929 and MCF-7 cell lines were selected to analyze the biocompatibility of GO-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The hybrid was tested using WST-1 and LDH leakage assays. DNA integrity was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and micronucleus assay was performed to examine chromosomal damage in the exposed cell lines. The tested GO-Fe3O4 hybrid did not significantly reduce cell metabolism of L929 cells. GO-Fe3O4 hybrid particles only slightly affected the integrity of cell membranes. DNA integrity and micronucleus assays did not indicate genotoxicity of the hybrid.

  12. Optimism system refrigerator hybrid power (solar cell + actuator motor to traditional fisherman boat in Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soetyono Ch. Iskandar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research of Pre-eminent Donation of This college aimed at energetic refrigerator system planning of hybrid (solar cell + actuator motor at inclusion ship of fish in coming, principal from this research is, exploiting of dissociation energy of diatomic is newest with usage of diesel fuel technology cell as coolant system actuator at actuator motor plus fisherman ship. This research program planned in a period of three years to design freezing device of energetic fish of hybrid (solarcell + actuator motor fisherman ship, yields storage device basis barium product of energetic fish of hybrid.In first year, does with refer to study study about base material refrigerator and solar cell and makes energetic refrigerator system prototype of solar (laboratory scale. In second year, does study to design energetic refrigerator of hybrid (solar cell + actuator motor with laboratory scale productively energetic refrigerator prototype of hybrid with laboratory scale. In third year, application of energetic refrigerator system of hybrid (solar cell + actuator motor at fisherman ship Poetere in Makassar, expected can push and motivates fisherman public in developing and applies this technology, causing can increase quality of produce of fish and at the same time increases fisherman public economics value without using again ice block to make cool fisherman fishing boat hold.

  13. A rare case of hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Isamu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-12-01

    We presented a very rare case of hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen in the tail of the pancreas. A previously healthy 45-year-old woman felt left back pain and received CT scan. Multiple splenic masses and a pancreatic mass in the tail were detected. Both the lesions presented gradual and weak enhancement and pooling of the contrast medium until very late phase on dynamic MRI. Since the lesions in the spleen and the pancreas presented the same characteristics on dynamic CT/MRI, ultrasonography, and positron emission tomography using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, we suspected these lesions as hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen. We performed distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, and pathological diagnosis was hemangiomatosis of the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen. We should consider the possibility of splenic tumors arising from the spleen and intrapancreatic accessory spleen when we find similar lesions in the spleen and the tail of the pancreas. Gradual and weak enhancement and pooling of the contrast medium until very late phase may be important findings for diagnosing splenic hemangiomatosis.

  14. Research on performance of hybrid organic dyes-sensitized solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Sun; Weizheng Yuan; Dayong Qiao

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid sensitizer rhodamine B and coumarin or eosin and coumarin is used to sensitize nanocrystalline porous films. Absorption of the nanocrystalline photovoltaic cell (NPC) is improved in visible light. The performance of these cells is more effective than that of cells sensitized only by sensitizer rhodamine B or eosin. In the simulative solar light, cell sensitized by hybrid sensitizer rhodamine B and coumarin can get open circuit voltage (Voc) of 550 mV and short circuit current (Isc) of 0.1375 mA/cm2.

  15. Modeling and control of a small solar fuel cell hybrid energy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; ZHU Xin-jian; CAO Guang-yi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a solar photovoltaic fuel cell (PVEC) hybrid generation system consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) generator, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), an electrolyser, a supercapacitor, a storage gas tank and power conditioning unit (PCU). The load is supplied from the PV generator with a fuel cell working in parallel. Excess PV energy when available is converted to hydrogen using an electrolyser for later use in the fuel cell. The individual mathematical model for each component is presented. Control strategy for the system is described. MATLAB/Simulink is used for the simulation of this highly nonlinear hybrid energy system. The simulation results are shown in the paper.

  16. ZnO-based nanocrystalline powders with applications in hybrid photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damonte, L.C. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Donderis, V. [Dto. De Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Ferrari, S.; Meyer, M. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Orozco, J. [Dto. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Materiales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Hernandez-Fenollosa, M.A. [Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the development of hybrid photovoltaic cells consisting of new materials, such as devices based on the combination of a wide gap semiconductor and an organic dye (dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSC). In this paper we obtain nano-zinc oxide particles whose optical and electrical properties have been modified by the presence of small amounts of Al or In acting as dopants. The aim of this study is to improve the compatibility of each of the compounds present in the photovoltaic solar cell. The knowledge gained will provide input to guide the processes in the manufacture of hybrid solar cells. (author)

  17. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  18. A Hybrid Tandem Solar Cell Combining a Dye-Sensitized and a Polymer Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhipeng; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhu, Liangzheng; Ye, Jiajiu; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell was assambled by connecting a dye sensitized solar cell and a polymer solar cell in series. A N719 sensitized TiO2 was used as photocathode in dye-sensitized subcell, and a MEH-PPV/PCBM composite was used as active layer in the polymer subcell. The polymer subcell fabricated on the counter electrode of the dye sensitized solar cell. A solution processed TiO(x) layer was used as electron collection layer of the polymer sub cell and the charge recombination layer. The effects of the TiO(x) interlayer and the spectral overlap between the two sub cells have been studied and optimized. The results shows that a proper thickness of the TiO(x) layer is needed for tandem solar cells. Thick TiO(x) will enhance the series resistance, but too thin TiO(x), layer will damage the hole blocking effect and its hydrophilic. The resulting optimized tandem solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.28% with a V(oc) of 0.95 V under simulated 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5 illumination.

  19. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  20. Numerical simulations for the effiency improvement of hybrid dye-microcrystalline silicon pin-solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdorf, Sven; Bauer, Gottfried Heinrich; Brueggemann, Rudolf [Institut fuer Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Hybrid solar cells consisting of dye sensitizers incorporated in the i-layer of microcrystalline silicon pin solar cell have been proposed and even recently processed. The dye sensitizer molecules are embedded in the matrix and enhance the overall absorption of the dye-matrix system due to their high absorption coefficient in the spectral range interesting for photovoltaic applications. However, the charge transport properties of dyes are quite poor. Microcrystalline silicon on the other hand has acceptable charge transport properties, while the absorption, given a layer thickness in the micron range, is relatively poor. This contribution investigates the effiency improvement of hybrid dye-microcrystalline solar cells compared to pure microcrystalline solar cells by simulation. The results indicate that, under optimal conditions, the effiency can be improved by more than 20 % compared to a pure microcrystalline silicon cell. The thickness reduction for the hybrid system can be as large as 50 % for the same effiency.

  1. A discussion on the origin and solutions of hysteresis in perovskite hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Ho; Hyeok Jang, Min; Lee, Min Ho; Hyuck Heo, Jin; Park, Jin Kyoung; Sung, Shi-Joon; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Hong, Ki-Ha; Im, Sang Hyuk

    2016-11-01

    Although the record efficiencies of perovskite hybrid solar cells are gradually reaching the efficiency of crystalline Si solar cells, perovskite hybrid solar cells often exhibit significant current density-voltage (J-V) hysteresis with respect to the forward and reverse scan direction and scan rate. The origin of the J-V hysteresis of perovskite hybrid solar cells has not, to date, been clearly elucidated. Dielectric polarization by the ferroelectric properties of perovskite (i), the ionic motion/migration of perovskite materials (ii), and charge trapping and detrapping at trap sites by the unbalanced electron and hole flux (iii) are considered the possible origins of J-V hysteresis. Here, we reviewed the origin of the J-V hysteresis of perovskite solar cells from the above three points of view and we then suggest how one may reduce the J-V hysteresis with respect to the scan direction and scan rate.

  2. Telomeres in ICF syndrome cells are vulnerable to DNA damage due to elevated DNA:RNA hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagie, Shira; Toubiana, Shir; Hartono, Stella R.; Katzir, Hagar; Tzur-Gilat, Aya; Havazelet, Shany; Francastel, Claire; Velasco, Guillaume; Chédin, Frédéric; Selig, Sara

    2017-01-01

    DNA:RNA hybrids, nucleic acid structures with diverse physiological functions, can disrupt genome integrity when dysregulated. Human telomeres were shown to form hybrids with the lncRNA TERRA, yet the formation and distribution of these hybrids among telomeres, their regulation and their cellular effects remain elusive. Here we predict and confirm in several human cell types that DNA:RNA hybrids form at many subtelomeric and telomeric regions. We demonstrate that ICF syndrome cells, which exhibit short telomeres and elevated TERRA levels, are enriched for hybrids at telomeric regions throughout the cell cycle. Telomeric hybrids are associated with high levels of DNA damage at chromosome ends in ICF cells, which are significantly reduced with overexpression of RNase H1. Our findings suggest that abnormally high TERRA levels in ICF syndrome lead to accumulation of telomeric hybrids that, in turn, can result in telomeric dysfunction. PMID:28117327

  3. Non-preconditioned conjugate gradient on cell and FPCA-based hybrid supercomputer nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubois, Andrew J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boorman, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Connor, Carolyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-03-10

    This work presents a detailed implementation of a double precision, Non-Preconditioned, Conjugate Gradient algorithm on a Roadrunner heterogeneous supercomputer node. These nodes utilize the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture{trademark} in conjunction with x86 Opteron{trademark} processors from AMD. We implement a common Conjugate Gradient algorithm, on a variety of systems, to compare and contrast performance. Implementation results are presented for the Roadrunner hybrid supercomputer, SRC Computers, Inc. MAPStation SRC-6 FPGA enhanced hybrid supercomputer, and AMD Opteron only. In all hybrid implementations wall clock time is measured, including all transfer overhead and compute timings.

  4. Non-preconditioned conjugate gradient on cell and FPGA based hybrid supercomputer nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubois, Andrew J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boorman, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Connor, Carolyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a detailed implementation of a double precision, non-preconditioned, Conjugate Gradient algorithm on a Roadrunner heterogeneous supercomputer node. These nodes utilize the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture{sup TM} in conjunction with x86 Opteron{sup TM} processors from AMD. We implement a common Conjugate Gradient algorithm, on a variety of systems, to compare and contrast performance. Implementation results are presented for the Roadrunner hybrid supercomputer, SRC Computers, Inc. MAPStation SRC-6 FPGA enhanced hybrid supercomputer, and AMD Opteron only. In all hybrid implementations wall clock time is measured, including all transfer overhead and compute timings.

  5. A hybrid biofuel cell based on electrooxidation of glucose using ultra-small silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongki; Wang, Gang; Nayfeh, Munir H; Yau, Siu-Tung

    2009-06-15

    The ultra-small silicon nanoparticle was shown to be an electrocatalyst for the electrooxidation of glucose. The oxidation appeared to be a first order reaction which involves the transfer of 1 electron. The oxidation potential showed a low onset of -0.4V vs. Ag/AgCl (-0.62 V vs. RHE). The particle was used as the anode catalyst of a prototype hybrid biofuel cell, which operated on glucose and hydrogen peroxide. The output power of the hybrid cell showed a dependence on the enzymes used as the cathode catalyst. The power density was optimized to 3.7 microW/cm(2) when horseradish peroxidase was replaced by microperoxidase-11 (MP-11). Comparing the output power of the hybrid cell to that of a biofuel cell indicates enhanced cell performance due to the fast reaction kinetics of the particle. The long-term stability of the hybrid cell was characterized by monitoring the cell voltage for 5 days. It appeared to that the robustness of the silicon particle resulted in more cell stability compared to the long-term performance of a biofuel cell.

  6. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  7. Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Weintraub, Benjamin

    2009-11-09

    Wired up: The energy conversion efficiency of three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in a hybrid structure that integrates optical fibers and nanowire arrays is greater than that of a two-dimensional device. Internal axial illumination enhances the energy conversion efficiency of a rectangular fiber-based hybrid structure (see picture) by a factor of up to six compared to light illumination normal to the fiber axis from outside the device.

  8. Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2015-10-01

    We investigate hybrid tandem solar cells that rely on the combination of solution-processed depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and bulk heterojunction polymer:fullerene subcells. The hybrid tandem solar cell is monolithically integrated and electrically connected in series with a suitable p-n recombination layer that includes metal oxides and a conjugated polyelectrolyte. We discuss the monolithic integration of the subcells, taking into account solvent interactions with underlayers and associated constraints on the tandem architecture, and show that an adequate device configuration consists of a low bandgap CQD bottom cell and a high bandgap polymer:fullerene top cell. Once we optimize the recombination layer and individual subcells, the hybrid tandem device reaches a VOC of 1.3V, approaching the sum of the individual subcell voltages. An impressive fill factor of 70% is achieved, further confirming that the subcells are efficiently connected via an appropriate recombination layer. © 2015.

  9. In situ hybridization of oxytocin messenger RNA: macroscopic distribution and quantitation in rat hypothalamic cell groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbach, J.P.; Voorhuis, T.A.; van Tol, H.H.; Ivell, R.

    1987-05-29

    Oxytocin mRNA was detected in the rat hypothalamus by in situ hybridization to a single stranded /sup 35/S-labelled DNA probe and the distribution of oxytocin mRNA-containing cell groups was studied at the macroscopic level. Specificity of hybridization was confirmed by comparison to vasopressin mRNA hybridization in parallel tissue sections. Cell groups containing oxytocin mRNA were confined to a set of hypothalamic cell groups, i.c. the supraoptic, paraventricular, anterior commissural nuclei, nucleus circularis and scattered hypothalamic islets. These cell groups displayed similar densities of autoradiographic signals indicating that the oxytocin gene is expressed at approximately the same average level at these various sites.

  10. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Use of density gradient centrifugation, magnetically activated cell sorting and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagnoli, C; Multhaupt, H A; Ludomirski, A;

    1997-01-01

    cells recovered did not differ. Seven of seven male pregnancies were correctly identified. One case of trisomy 21 was detected. CONCLUSION: The in situ hybridization analysis of fetal nucleated erythrocytes isolated from maternal blood using single density gradient centrifugation, anti-CD71/anti...... of the isolated cells were subjected to in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes for the Y chromosome and chromosome 21 to confirm the fetal origin. RESULTS: After MiniMACS the enrichment factors for the CD71/GPA- and CD36/GPA-positive cells from maternal blood were similar, and the percentages of fetal...

  11. Compact hybrid cell based on a convoluted nanowire structure for harvesting solar and mechanical energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    A fully integrated, solid-state, compact hybrid cell (CHC) that comprises ''convoluted'' ZnO nanowire structures for concurrent harvesting of both solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The compact hybrid cell is based on a conjunction design of an organic solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and piezoelectric nanogenerator in one compact structure. The CHC shows a significant increase in output power, clearly demonstrating its potential for simultaneously harvesting multiple types of energy for powering small electronic devices for independent, sustainable, and mobile operation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Improved photovoltaic performance of silicon nanowire/organic hybrid solar cells by incorporating silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kong; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Xinhui; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhanguo

    2013-02-18

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays show an excellent light-trapping characteristic and high mobility for carriers. Surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can be used to increase light scattering and absorption in solar cells. We fabricated a new kind of SiNW/organic hybrid solar cell by introducing AgNPs. Reflection spectra confirm the improved light scattering of AgNP-decorated SiNW arrays. A double-junction tandem structure was designed to manufacture our hybrid cells. Both short-circuit current and external quantum efficiency measurements show an enhancement in optical absorption of organic layer, especially at lower wavelengths.

  13. Fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell/battery systems for more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcau, Jenica-Ileana; Dinca, Liviu; Grigorie, Teodor Lucian; Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    In this paper is presented the simulation and analysis of a Fuzzy Energy Management for Hybrid Fuel cell/Battery Systems used for More Electric Aircraft. The fuel cell hybrid system contains of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries along with associated dc to dc boost converters. In this configuration the battery has a dc to dc converter, because it is an active in the system. The energy management scheme includes the rule based fuzzy logic strategy. This scheme has a faster response to load change and is more robust to measurement imprecisions. Simulation will be provided using Matlab/Simulink based models. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance.

  14. Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency by Douglas M. Kroll B.S...Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase

  15. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part I: Steady state performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-07-01

    The hybridization of gas turbine technology with high temperature fuel cells represents an ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emission, fuel flexible power generation platform. The performance of past prototypes has been limited by marginal compatibility of the two primary sub-systems. This paper addresses the challenge of selecting compatible hardware by presenting a simple and robust method for bespoke hybrid system design and off-the-shelf component integration. This is the first application of detailed, spatially resolved, physical models capable of resolving off-design performance to the integration analysis of FC-GT hybrids. Static maps are produced for both turbine and fuel cell sub-systems that readily evaluate the compatibility and hybrid performance. Molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells are considered for hybridization with recuperated micro-turbines and larger axial flow gas turbine systems. Current state-of-the-art molten carbonate technology is shown to pair well with present micro-turbine technology in an FC bottoming cycle design achieving 74.4% LHV efficiency. Solid oxide technology demonstrates remarkable potential for integration with larger scale axial turbo-machinery to achieve greater than 75% LHV efficiency. This performance map technique closely matches results from detailed integrated hybrid system analyses, and enables quick determination of performance requirements for balance of plant design and optimization.

  16. Beta-cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing a hybrid insulin gene-oncogene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efrat, S; Linde, S; Kofod, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Three pancreatic beta-cell lines have been established from insulinomas derived from transgenic mice carrying a hybrid insulin-promoted simian virus 40 tumor antigen gene. The beta tumor cell (beta TC) lines maintain the features of differentiated beta cells for about 50 passages in culture. The ...... both to immortalize a rare cell type and to provide a selection for the maintenance of its differentiated phenotype....

  17. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  18. Effect of CeO2 Addition on Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ippolito, Davide; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    The effect of CeO2 infiltration into the anode or CeO2 mixed with the carbon-fuel on the performance of a Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (HDCFC) was studied through the use of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The use CeO2 in both ways helped to increase the cell...

  19. Effect of CeO2 Infiltration on Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ippolito, Davide; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The effect of CeO2 infiltration into the anode or CeO2 mixed with the carbon-fuel on the performance of a Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (HDCFC) was studied through the use of polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The use CeO2 in both ways helped to increase the cell...

  20. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells: optimal carrier transport in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keisuke; Dutta, Mrinal; Fukata, Naoki

    2014-06-07

    Inorganic/organic hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells that combine vertically-aligned n-type silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) have great potential for replacing commercial Si solar cells. The chief advantage of such solar cells is that they exhibit higher absorbance for a given thickness than commercial Si solar cells, due to incident light-trapping within the NW arrays, thus enabling lower-cost solar cell production. We report herein on the effects of NW length, annealing and surface electrode on the device performance of SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid radial heterojunction solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the obtained SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by tuning the thickness of the surface electrode, and the etching conditions during NW formation and post-annealing. The PCE of 9.3% is obtained by forming efficient transport pathways for photogenerated charge carriers to electrodes. Our approach is a significant contribution to design of high-performance and low-cost inorganic/organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells.

  1. Selective Delivery of PEGylated Compounds to Tumor Cells by Anti-PEG Hybrid Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hsin-Yi; Su, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Bing-Mae; Burnouf, Pierre-Alain; Huang, Wei-Chiao; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Yan, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Roffler, Steve R

    2015-06-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is attached to many peptides, proteins, liposomes, and nanoparticles to reduce their immunogenicity and improve their pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties. Here, we describe hybrid antibodies that can selectively deliver PEGylated medicines, imaging agents, or nanomedicines to target cells. Human IgG1 hybrid antibodies αPEG:αHER2 and αPEG:αCD19 were shown by ELISA, FACS, and plasmon resonance to bind to both PEG and HER2 receptors on SK-BR-3 breast adenocarcinoma and BT-474 breast ductal carcinoma cells or CD19 receptors on Ramos and Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. In addition, αPEG:αHER2 specifically targeted PEGylated proteins, liposomes, and nanoparticles to SK-BR-3 cells that overexpressed HER2, but not to HER2-negative MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. Endocytosis of PEGylated nanoparticles into SK-BR-3 cells was induced specifically by the αPEG:αHER2 hybrid antibody, as observed by confocal imaging of the accumulation of Qdots inside SK-BR-3 cells. Treatment of HER2(+) SK-BR-3 and BT-474 cancer cells with αPEG:αHER2 and the clinically used chemotherapeutic agent PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin for 3 hours enhanced the in vitro effectiveness of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin by over two orders of magnitude. Hybrid anti-PEG antibodies offer a versatile and simple method to deliver PEGylated compounds to cellular locations and can potentially enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PEGylated medicines.

  2. Sample preparation and in situ hybridization techniques for automated molecular cytogenetic analysis of white blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijke, F.M. van de; Vrolijk, H.; Sloos, W. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    With the advent in situ hybridization techniques for the analysis of chromosome copy number or structure in interphase cells, the diagnostic and prognostic potential of cytogenetics has been augmented considerably. In theory, the strategies for detection of cytogenetically aberrant cells by in situ hybridization are simple and straightforward. In practice, however, they are fallible, because false classification of hybridization spot number or patterns occurs. When a decision has to be made on molecular cytogenetic normalcy or abnormalcy of a cell sample, the problem of false classification becomes particularly prominent if the fraction of aberrant cells is relatively small. In such mosaic situations, often > 200 cells have to be evaluated to reach a statistical sound figure. The manual enumeration of in situ hybridization spots in many cells in many patient samples is tedious. Assistance in the evaluation process by automation of microscope functions and image analysis techniques is, therefore, strongly indicated. Next to research and development of microscope hardware, camera technology, and image analysis, the optimization of the specimen for the (semi)automated microscopic analysis is essential, since factors such as cell density, thickness, and overlap have dramatic influences on the speed and complexity of the analysis process. Here we describe experiments that have led to a protocol for blood cell specimen that results in microscope preparations that are well suited for automated molecular cytogenetic analysis. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Perylenes as sensitizers in hybrid solar cells : how molecular size influences performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Chen; Liu, Zhihong; Schoneboom, Jan; Eickemeyer, Felix; Pschirer, Neil G.; Erk, Peter; Herrmann, Andreas; Mullen, Klaus; Schöneboom, Jan; Grätzel, Michael; Janssen, René

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), one kind of hybrid solar cells, are being intensively developed due to their high efficiency and low cost. One of the main factors to improve the efficiency is the minimization of the recombination of holes and electrons at the TiO(2)/dye/electrolyte interface. To

  4. Biomimetic hybrid nanofibrous substrates for mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into osteogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhimathi, Chinnasamy [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Tham, Allister Yingwei [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh, E-mail: dineshkumar@ntu.edu.sg [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2015-04-01

    Mimicking native extracellular matrix with electrospun porous bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds has huge potential in bone tissue regeneration. The aim of this study is to fabricate porous poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin/ascorbic acid/tetracycline hydrochloride (PLACL/SF/AA/TC) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) was deposited by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering (BTE). Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized for fiber morphology, hydrophilicity, porosity, mechanical test and chemical properties by FT-IR and EDX analysis. The results showed that the fiber diameter and pore size of scaffolds observed around 228 ± 62–320 ± 22 nm and 1.5–6.9 μm respectively. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds are highly porous (87–94%) with ultimate tensile strength observed in the range of 1.51–4.86 MPa and also showed better hydrophilic properties after addition of AA, TC and n-HA. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on these bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds and stimulated to osteogenic differentiation in the presence of AA/TC/n-HA for BTE. The cell proliferation and biomaterial interactions were studied using MTS assay, SEM and CMFDA dye exclusion methods. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was proven by using alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and double immunofluorescence staining of both CD90 and osteocalcin. The observed results suggested that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA biocomposite hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for the differentiation of MSCs into osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated and characterized hybrid porous nanofibrous scaffolds. • PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA scaffolds promote cell differentiation and mineralization. • Porous nanofibrous scaffolds initiate MSC differentiation into osteogenic cells. • Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for bone tissue engineering.

  5. Sonographic evaluation of spleen size and prevalence of accessory spleen in a healthy male Turkish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Serter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is known that the measurement of splenic length in routine clinical practice is a very good indicator of actual splenic size. Knowledge of the normal range of spleen size in the population being examined is a prerequisite. Racial differences in splenic length could result in incorrect interpretation of splenic measurements. The purpose of this study was to establish the range of spleen length in a young male Turkish population.Material and Methods: A total of 2179 volunteers, healthy men aged 17-42 years, from the annual Army Reserve Officer Training Corps training camp at Manisa were included in the study. Sonographic measurements of spleen length were performed on 2179 military personnel. Presence of accessory spleen was also determined. In addition, the height, weight, and age of each volunteer were recorded. Using linear regression analysis, the relation of spleen length and body height, weight and body mass index (BMI was evaluated. Additionally, the prevalence of accessory spleen detected on ultrasound was calculated.Results: The mean±SD height was 173,1±6,5 cm, mean weight 69,1±9,7 kg, and mean BMI 22,62±2,87. Mean spleen length was 10,76±1,8 cm. The length of the spleen was below 12,80 cm in 95% of the subjects. No statistically significant correlation (p<0.01 between spleen length and body height, weight and BMI was found. The prevalence of accessory spleen was determined as 2.5% on ultrasound screening.Conclusion: It was found that in healthy Turkish men, mean spleen length was 10,76±1,8 cm. This data should be taken into consideration when the diagnosis of splenomegaly is established in Turkish males.

  6. 17.6%-Efficient radial junction solar cells using silicon nano/micro hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kangmin; Hwang, Inchan; Kim, Namwoo; Choi, Deokjae; Um, Han-Don; Kim, Seungchul; Seo, Kwanyong

    2016-07-01

    We developed a unique nano- and microwire hybrid structure by selectively modifying only the tops of microwires using metal-assisted chemical etching. The proposed nano/micro hybrid structure not only minimizes surface recombination but also absorbs 97% of incident light under AM 1.5G illumination, demonstrating outstanding light absorption compared to that of planar (59%) and microwire arrays (85%). The proposed hybrid solar cells with an area of 1 cm2 exhibit power conversion efficiencies (Eff) of up to 17.6% under AM 1.5G illumination. In particular, the solar cells show a high short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 39.5 mA cm-2 because of the high light-absorbing characteristics of the nanostructures. This corresponds to an approximately 61.5% and 16.5% increase in efficiency compared to that of a planar silicon solar cell (Eff = 10.9%) and a microwire solar cell (Eff = 15.1%), respectively. Therefore, we expect the proposed hybrid structure to become a foundational technology for the development of highly efficient radial junction solar cells.We developed a unique nano- and microwire hybrid structure by selectively modifying only the tops of microwires using metal-assisted chemical etching. The proposed nano/micro hybrid structure not only minimizes surface recombination but also absorbs 97% of incident light under AM 1.5G illumination, demonstrating outstanding light absorption compared to that of planar (59%) and microwire arrays (85%). The proposed hybrid solar cells with an area of 1 cm2 exhibit power conversion efficiencies (Eff) of up to 17.6% under AM 1.5G illumination. In particular, the solar cells show a high short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 39.5 mA cm-2 because of the high light-absorbing characteristics of the nanostructures. This corresponds to an approximately 61.5% and 16.5% increase in efficiency compared to that of a planar silicon solar cell (Eff = 10.9%) and a microwire solar cell (Eff = 15.1%), respectively. Therefore, we expect the

  7. In vitro evaluation of human hybrid cell lines generated by fusion of B-lymphoblastoid cells and ex vivo tumour cells as candidate vaccines for haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Yehia S; Dunnion, Debbie; Teobald, Iryna; Walewska, Renata; Browning, Michael J

    2012-10-12

    Fusions of dendritic cells (DCs) and tumour cells have been shown to induce protective immunity to tumour challenge in animal models, and to represent a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. The broader clinical application of this approach, however, is potentially constrained by the lack of replicative capacity and limited standardisation of fusion cell preparations. We show here that fusion of ex vivo tumour cells isolated from patients with a range of haematological malignancies with the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), HMy2, followed by chemical selection of the hybridomas, generated stable, self-replicating human hybrid cell lines that grew continuously in tissue culture, and survived freeze/thawing cycles. The hybrid cell lines expressed HLA class I and class II molecules, and the major T-cell costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. All but two of 14 hybrid cell lines generated expressed tumour-associated antigens that were not expressed by HMy2 cells, and were therefore derived from the parent tumour cells. The hybrid cell lines stimulated allogeneic T-cell proliferative responses and interferon-gamma release in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent tumour cells. The enhanced T-cell stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, and by blocking antibodies to MHC class I and class II molecules. Finally, all of five LCL/tumour hybrid cell lines tested induced tumour antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in vitro in PBL from healthy, HLA-A2+ individuals, as detected by HLA-A2-peptide pentamer staining and cellular cytotoxicity. These data show that stable hybrid cell lines, with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination, can be generated by in vitro fusion and chemical selection of B-LCL and ex vivo haematological tumour cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Photoelectrochemical Cell of Hybrid Regioregular POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE-2,5-DIYL) and Molybdenum Disulfide Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmola, Fatmaelzahraa M.; Ram, Manoj K.; Takshi, Arash; Stafanakos, Elias; Kumar, Ashok; Goswami, D. Yogi

    The photoelectrochemical cell attracts attention worldwide due to conversion of optical energy into electricity, production of hydrogen through water splitting and use in photodetector and photo-sensor applications. We have been working on the photochemical cell based on regioregular polyhexylthiophenes hybrid-structured films for photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic applications. This paper discusses the hybrid film studies on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) with 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) for photoelectrochemical cell. The hybrid P3HT/MoS2 films deposited over indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate or n-type silicon substrates were characterized using FTIR, UV/vis, electrochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The optical measurements showed a higher absorption magnitude with low reflection properties of P3HT/MoS2 hybrid films revealing a superior photocurrent compared to both P3HT and MoS2 films. The P3HT/MoS2 hybrid-based photoelectrochemical cell yielded a short-circuit current (Isc) of 183.16μAṡcm-2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.92V, fill factor (FF) of 25% and power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.18% under the light intensity of 242Wṡm-2. The estimated power conversion efficiency and fill factor are comparable to organic-based photovoltaic devices.

  9. Study on the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹光耀; 张武宁; 沈小静; 何雪芬; 陈一

    2004-01-01

    Background Spleen in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is not actually the spleen in the anatomic sense designated in western medicine because its functions basically belong to the physiological category of digestive system in modern medicine, and it represents a macroscopic concept of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. Spleen deficiency syndrome refers to the clinical phenomena such as hypofunction of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. By integrating TCM with modern medicine , this paper is intended to explore the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis.Method By means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and histochemical staining, we conducted histopathological and subcellular ultrastructural (nuclei and mitochondrial) analysis of gastric mucosa of 188 patients of spleen deficiency, and that of 42 voluntary blood donors without clinical symptoms. Results The gastric mucosa of patients with spleen Qi deficiency (SQD) and spleen yang deficiency (SyangD) could either be affected by organic lesion (type G-occurring on the basis of chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG)) or unaffected (type F-chiefly belonging to functional indigestion); spleen yin deficiency (SyinD) and spleen deficiency with Qi stagnation (SDQS) both occurred on the basis of CSG and CAG; and the degree of mucosa inflammatory cells infiltration, the degree of decrease in glands propria, and the incidence of IMⅡb in CSG and CAG were more serious than those of G-SQD and G-SyangD, P<0.05-0.01.Conclusion Spleen deficiency syndrome is likely to occur on the basis of organic lesion of gastric mucosa (disease with symptoms of both CSG or CAG and spleen deficiency symptoms), as well as on the basis of inorganic lesion of gastric mucosa (nondisease with symptoms, which is, despite spleen deficiency symptoms, there is no CSG or CAG). Besides, the

  10. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  11. Oxygen release and exchange in niobium oxide MEHPPV hybrid solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lira-Cantu, M.; Norrman, K.; Andreasen, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate that niobium oxide exchanges oxygen with the atmosphere when illuminated by simulated sunlight. The oxygen exchange was found to take place for pristine niobium oxide films when illuminated in an oxygen atmosphere and when illuminated in an operational hybrid solar cell. The oxygen...... exchange was demonstrated using O-18(2)-isotopic labeling in combination with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging analysis of devices and oxide substrates. TOF-SIMS depth profiling confirmed O-18 incorporation throughout the device in hybrid solar cells. The results...

  12. High Efficiency Hybrid Solar Cells Using Nanocrystalline Si Quantum Dots and Si Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mrinal; Thirugnanam, Lavanya; Trinh, Pham Van; Fukata, Naoki

    2015-07-28

    We report on an efficient hybrid Si nanocrystal quantum dot modified radial p-n junction thinner Si solar cell that utilizes the advantages of effective exciton collection by energy transfer from nanocrystal-Si (nc-Si) quantum dots to underlying radial p-n junction Si nanowire arrays with excellent carrier separation and propagation via the built-in electric fields of radial p-n junctions. Minimization of recombination, optical, and spectrum losses in this hybrid structure led to a high cell efficiency of 12.9%.

  13. A High-Efficiency Si Nanowire Array/Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Jiamin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-01-01

    A low-cost Si nanowire array/perovskite hybrid solar cell is proposed and simulated. The solar cell consists of a Si p-i-n nanowire array filled with CH3NH3PbI3, in which both the nanowires and perovskite absorb the incident light while the nanowires act as the channels for transporting photo-generated electrons and holes. The hybrid structure has a high absorption efficiency in a broad wavelength range of 300~800 nm. A large short-circuit current density of 28.8 mA/cm2 and remarkable convers...

  14. VISUALIZATION OF DYNAMIC ORGANIZATION OF CYTOSKELETON GELS IN LIVING CELLS BY HYBRID-SPM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Kawabata; Y.Sado; M.Nagayama; T.Nitta; K.Nemoto; Y.Koyama; H.Haga

    2003-01-01

    We succeeded in performing of hybrid Scanning Probe Microscopy (hybrid-SPM) in which mechanical-SPM and fluorescence microscopy are combined. This technique is able to measure simultaneously mechanical properties and distribution of cytoskeletons of living cells by using green fluorescent protein. We measured evolution of both local elasticity and distributions of actin stress fibers in an identical fibroblast living in physiological conditions. The SPM experiments revealed that stiffer lines develop in living cells, which correspond to actin stress fibers. The elasticity of the actin stress fibers is as high as 100 kPa. We discuss mechanical effects on the development of actin filament networks.

  15. Spontaneous formation of tumorigenic hybrids between breast cancer and multipotent stromal cells is a source of tumor heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappa, Germana; Mercapide, Javier; Lorico, Aurelio

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer progression involves cancer cell heterogeneity, with generation of invasive/metastatic breast cancer cells within populations of nonmetastatic cells of the primary tumor. Sequential genetic mutations, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, interaction with local stroma, and formation of hybrids between cancer cells and normal bone marrow-derived cells have been advocated as tumor progression mechanisms. We report herein the spontaneous in vitro formation of heterotypic hybrids between human bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) and two different breast carcinoma cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (MDA) and MA11. Hybrids showed predominantly mesenchymal morphological characteristics, mixed gene expression profiles, and increased DNA ploidy. Both MA11 and MDA hybrids were tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice, and some MDA hybrids had an increased metastatic capacity. Both in culture and as xenografts, hybrids underwent DNA ploidy reduction and morphological reversal to breast carcinoma-like morphological characteristics, while maintaining a mixed breast cancer-mesenchymal expression profile. Analysis of coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms by RNA sequencing revealed genetic contributions from both parental partners to hybrid tumors and metastasis. Because MSCs migrate and localize to breast carcinoma, our findings indicate that formation of MSC-breast cancer cell hybrids is a potential mechanism of the generation of invasive/metastatic breast cancer cells. Our findings reconcile the fusion theory of cancer progression with the common observation that breast cancer metastases are generally aneuploid, but not tetraploid, and are histopathologically similar to the primary neoplasm.

  16. 21 cases reports on haemangioma of spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Mu, Guangchuan; Qin, Xingan; Lin, Jinling; Li, Shaosen; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    The growing activity of hemangioma of spleen keeps unknown. To search theoretical basis for whether to take the operation, this study analyzed clinical data of 21 hemangioma patients, and 16 surgical specimens were analyzed immunohistochemistry of Ki-67, Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Both 14 cases of cavernous hemangioma were positive for VEGF, and negative in capillary hemangioma, there was statistical significant difference between two types of hemangioma (P Hemangioma of spleen was one benign tumor with a tendency of slow growth. Therefore, operation should be strictly selected, we recommend observation of patients with small, asymptomatic splenic lesions, which meet the radiologic criteria for hemangiomas.

  17. Acute cadmium administration to rats exerts both immunosuppressive and proinflammatory effects in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demenesku, Jelena; Mirkov, Ivana; Ninkov, Marina; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2014-12-04

    Conflicting data (both suppression and augmentation as well as lack of the effect) exist in respect to cadmium (Cd) and splenic T cell-based immune cell activity. Spleen is also the site of innate immune responses but impact of Cd on this type of immunity has been less explored. In the present study the effects of acute Cd administration on basic aspects of both T cell-based and innate immune spleen cell activity were examined in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of 1mg of Cd/kg resulted in decrease in concanavalin A (ConA) induced proliferation which seems to be more related to altered spleen cells responsiveness to IL-2 than to apoptosis. Differential effects on proinflammatory T cell derived cytokines were observed (decreases of IFN-γ gene expression and ConA-stimulated production, but increases in IL-17 mRNA levels with no effect on concentrations of protein product). Reduction of IFN-γ production seemed not to rely on IL-4 and IL-10, but at least partly on nitric oxide (NO). Increased activity relevant for innate immunity (granulocyte and CD11b(+) cell accumulation in the spleen, inducible nitric oxide synthase/iNOS expression and NO production by spleen cells) was observed, but there was a decrease in respiratory burst (dihydrorhodamine/DHR oxidation and nitroblue tetrazolium/NBT reduction). Increases of TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression and IL-1β protein product were noted as well. Administration of 0.5mg Cd/kg resulted in less pronounced (ConA-induced proliferation) or lack of the effect (IFN-γ production) on spleen T cell activities and on innate activities (granulocyte accumulation, NO production) as well. However, increases of spleen cell respiratory burst activity and IL-1β production were observed. Effects of lower cadmium doses (5ppm and 50ppm) on several aspects of spleen cell immune activity were observed in intermediate period of exposure (30 days, oral intake) as well. Differential effects of Cd on immune activities of spleen cells might

  18. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Sethakul, Panarit [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Chunkag, Viboon [Department of Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sikkabut, Suwat [Thai-French Innovation Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Pierfederici, Serge; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM, 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an original control algorithm for a hybrid energy system with a renewable energy source, namely, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a photovoltaic (PV) array. A single storage device, i.e., a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) module, is in the proposed structure. The main weak point of fuel cells (FCs) is slow dynamics because the power slope is limited to prevent fuel starvation problems, improve performance and increase lifetime. The very fast power response and high specific power of a supercapacitor complements the slower power output of the main source to produce the compatibility and performance characteristics needed in a load. The energy in the system is balanced by d.c.-bus energy regulation (or indirect voltage regulation). A supercapacitor module functions by supplying energy to regulate the d.c.-bus energy. The fuel cell, as a slow dynamic source in this system, supplies energy to the supercapacitor module in order to keep it charged. The photovoltaic array assists the fuel cell during daytime. To verify the proposed principle, a hardware system is realized with analog circuits for the fuel cell, solar cell and supercapacitor current control loops, and with numerical calculation (dSPACE) for the energy control loops. Experimental results with small-scale devices, namely, a PEMFC (1200 W, 46 A) manufactured by the Ballard Power System Company, a photovoltaic array (800 W, 31 A) manufactured by the Ekarat Solar Company and a supercapacitor module (100 F, 32 V) manufactured by the Maxwell Technologies Company, illustrate the excellent energy-management scheme during load cycles. (author)

  19. Development of integrated fuel cell hybrid power source for electric forklift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, T. M.; Karimäki, H.; Viitakangas, J.; Vallet, J.; Ihonen, J.; Hyötylä, P.; Uusalo, H.; Tingelöf, T.

    A hybrid drivetrain comprising a 16 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system, ultracapacitor modules and a lead-acid battery was constructed and experimentally tested in a real counterweight forklift application. A scaled-down version of the hybrid system was assembled and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using a controllable resistive load. The control loops were operating in an in-house developed embedded system. The software is designed for building generic control applications, and the source code has been released as open source and made available on the internet. The hybrid drivetrain supplied the required 50 kW peak power in a typical forklift work cycle consisting of both loaded and unloaded driving, and lifting of a 2.4 tonne load. Load variations seen by the fuel cell were a fraction of the total current drawn by the forklift, with the average fuel cell power being 55% of nominal rating. A simple fuel cell hybrid model was also developed to further study the effects of energy storage dimensioning. Simulation results indicate that while a battery alone significantly reduces the load variations of the fuel cell, an ultracapacitor reduces them even further. Furthermore, a relatively small ultracapacitor is enough to achieve most of the potential benefit.

  20. Hybrid tandem quantum dot/organic photovoltaic cells with complementary near infrared absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taesoo; Palmiano, Elenita; Liang, Ru-Ze; Hu, Hanlin; Murali, Banavoth; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Firdaus, Yuliar; Gao, Yangqin; Sheikh, Arif; Yuan, Mingjian; Mohammed, Omar F.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Beaujuge, Pierre M.; Sargent, Edward H.; Amassian, Aram

    2017-05-01

    Monolithically integrated hybrid tandem solar cells that effectively combine solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and organic bulk heterojunction subcells to achieve tandem performance that surpasses the individual subcell efficiencies have not been demonstrated to date. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid tandem cells with a low bandgap PbS CQD subcell harvesting the visible and near-infrared photons and a polymer:fullerene—poly (diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)—top cell absorbing effectively the red and near-infrared photons of the solar spectrum in a complementary fashion. The two subcells are connected in series via an interconnecting layer (ICL) composed of a metal oxide layer, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, and an ultrathin layer of Au. The ultrathin layer of Au forms nano-islands in the ICL, reducing the series resistance, increasing the shunt resistance, and enhancing the device fill-factor. The hybrid tandems reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.9%, significantly higher than the PCE of the corresponding individual single cells, representing one of the highest efficiencies reported to date for hybrid tandem solar cells based on CQD and polymer subcells.

  1. Hybrid tandem quantum dot/organic photovoltaic cells with complementary near infrared absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2017-06-01

    Monolithically integrated hybrid tandem solar cells that effectively combine solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and organic bulk heterojunction subcells to achieve tandem performance that surpasses the individual subcell efficiencies have not been demonstrated to date. In this work, we demonstrate hybrid tandem cells with a low bandgap PbS CQD subcell harvesting the visible and near-infrared photons and a polymer:fullerene—poly (diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPP3T):[6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)—top cell absorbing effectively the red and near-infrared photons of the solar spectrum in a complementary fashion. The two subcells are connected in series via an interconnecting layer (ICL) composed of a metal oxide layer, a conjugated polyelectrolyte, and an ultrathin layer of Au. The ultrathin layer of Au forms nano-islands in the ICL, reducing the series resistance, increasing the shunt resistance, and enhancing the device fill-factor. The hybrid tandems reach a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.9%, significantly higher than the PCE of the corresponding individual single cells, representing one of the highest efficiencies reported to date for hybrid tandem solar cells based on CQD and polymer subcells.

  2. Improved dynamic performance of hybrid PEM fuel cells and ultracapacitors for portable applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcinoz, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nigde University, Nigde 51200 (Turkey); Alam, M.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Transient power demand fluctuations and maintaining high energy density are important for many portable devices. Small fuel cells are potentially good candidates as alternative energy sources for portable applications. Hybrid power sources have some inherent properties which may be effectively utilized to improve the efficiency and dynamic response of the system. In this paper, an improved dynamic model considering the characteristics of the temperature and equivalent internal resistance is presented for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The dynamic behavior of a system with hybrid PEM fuel cells and an ultracapacitor bank is simulated. The hybrid PEM fuel cell/ultracapacitor bank system is used for powering a portable device (such as a laptop computer). The power requirement of a laptop computer varies significantly under different operation conditions. The analytical models of the hybrid system with PEM fuel cells and an ultracapacitor bank are designed and simulated by developing a detailed simulation software using Matlab, Simulink and SimPowerSystems Blockset for portable applications. (author)

  3. TiO-Based Organic Hybrid Solar Cells with Mn+ Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zühal Alparslan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid solar cell is designed and proposed as a feasible and reasonable alternative, according to acquired efficiency with the employment of TiO2 (titanium dioxide and Mn-doped TiO2 thin films. In the scope of this work, TiO2 (titanium dioxide and Mn:TiO2 hybrid organic thin films are proposed as charge transporter layer in polymer solar cells. Poly(3-hexylthiophene:phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT: PCBM is used as active layer. When the Mn-doped TiO2 solar cells were compared with pure TiO2 cells, Mn-doped samples revealed a noteworthy efficiency enhancement with respect to undoped-TiO2-based cells. The highest conversion efficiency was obtained to be 2.44% at the ratio of 3.5% (wt/wt Mn doping.

  4. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; J.C.N. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this

  5. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuizen, Bram; Bosma, J.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this pape

  6. Intermittent use of a low-cost alkaline fuel cell-hybrid system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Voss, Susanne; Hacker, Victor; Aronson, Robert R.; Fabjan, Christoph; Hejze, Thomas; Daniel-Ivad, Josef

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) hybrids with the capability to shut down completely between uses (by draining the circulating KOH electrolyte) can expect an operating life of about 4000 h, which is equivalent to 200,000 km of driving, They should be able to compete on cost with heat engines (US50 to US100 per kW). An early model is the hydrogen/air fuel cell lead-acid hybrid car, built by K. Kordesch in the 1970s. Improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz, make success probable. In cooperation with Electric Auto (EAC), an ammonia cracker is also in development. A RAM™ battery-AFC hybrid combination has been optimized.

  7. Following EAU recovery there is an associated MC5r-dependent APC induction of regulatory immunity in the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Darren J; Taylor, Andrew W

    2011-11-17

    IRBPp-specific regulatory immunity is found in the spleens of mice recovered from experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Induction of this regulatory immunity is dependent on the expression of the melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5r). Therefore, the authors investigated whether dependence on the expression of MC5r was with the T cells or with the APCs mediating protective regulatory immunity in the EAU-recovered mouse spleen. Wild-type and MC5r-/- mice were immunized to induce EAU. The IRBPp-stimulated T-cell response in spleens of wild-type and MC5r-/- mice were compared for surface markers and cytokine production. Spleen APC were isolated and used to stimulate cytokine production and regulatory activity in IRBP-specific T cells from wild-type or MC5r-/- mice assayed in culture by ELISA, by flow cytometry, and in vivo by adoptive transfer into EAU mice. IRBPp-specific CD25+CD4+ T cells from spleens of EAU-recovered wild-type mice express a Treg cell phenotype of FoxP3 and TGF-β compared with the effector T-cell phenotype of IFN-γ and IL-17 production in EAU-recovered MC5r-/- mice. APCs from the spleens of wild-type mice recovering from EAU promoted regulatory T-cell activation in IRBP-specific effector T cells from the spleens of EAU-recovering MC5r-/- mice. Spleen APCs from EAU-recovering wild-type, but not MC5r-/-, mice induced TGF-β expression by primed IRBP-specific effector T cells. Dependence on MC5r expression is with an APC that promotes or selectively activates IRBP-specific FoxP3+ TGF-β+ CD25+CD4+ Treg cells in the spleens of EAU-recovered mice.

  8. Enhanced performance of microbial fuel cell with a bacteria/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Jia; Qu, Youpeng; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Yingjuan; Feng, Yujie

    2017-09-01

    The biofilm on the anode of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a vital component in system, and its formation and characteristic determines the performance of the system. In this study, a bacteria/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid biofilm is fabricated by effectively inserting the MWCNTs into the anode biofilm via an adsorption-filtration method. This hybrid biofilm has been demonstrated to be an efficient structure for improving an anode biofilm performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that the hybrid biofilm takes advantage of the conductivity and structure of MWCNT to enhance the electron transfer and substrate diffusion of the biofilm. With this hybrid biofilm, the current density, power density and coulombic efficiency are increased by 46.2%, 58.8% and 84.6%, respectively, relative to naturally grown biofilm. Furthermore, the start-up time is reduced by 53.8% compared with naturally grown biofilm. The perturbation test demonstrates that this type of hybrid biofilm exhibits strong adsorption ability and enhances the biofilm's resistance to a sudden change of substrate concentration. The superior performance of the hybrid biofilm with MWCNT ;nanowire; matrix compared with naturally grown biofilm demonstrates its great potential for boosting the performance of MFCs.

  9. Enlargement of the human spleen in graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, S A; Sloane, J P

    1988-04-01

    The spleens of 49 patients who had undergone allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for leukemia were compared at autopsy to determine the pathological changes associated with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The only significant finding was an increase in weight of about 1.7 times that of spleens from patients without GVHD. This was not explained by differences in the patients' sex, length of survival after transplantation, presence of infection, or liver pathology. On histological examination, there was no detectable increase in congestion, siderosis, or numbers of lymphocytes, macrophages, antigen-presenting cells, blast cells, pyknotic cells, plasma cells, or hemopoietic cells to explain the increase in spleen weight. On the contrary, there was actually a reduction in CD8+ T lymphocytes. No proliferative phase of GVHD could be identified, possibly due to a lack of specimens examined less than 8 days after transplantation and to prophylactic measures undertaken to minimize GVHD. The pathogenesis of splenomegaly in human GVHD is unclear.

  10. Functional stability of endothelial cells on a novel hybrid scaffold for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankajakshan, Divya; Krishnan, Lissy K [Thrombosis Research Unit, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojapura, Trivandrum 695 012 (India); Krishnan V, Kalliyana, E-mail: lissykk@sctimst.ac.i [Division of Polymer Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojapura, Trivandrum 695 012 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Porous and pliable conduits made of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds offer great potential for the development of blood vessel substitutes but they generally lack signals for cell proliferation, survival and maintenance of a normal phenotype. In this study we have prepared and evaluated porous poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) integrated with fibrin composite (FC) to get a biomimetic hybrid scaffold (FC PCL) with the biological properties of fibrin, fibronectin (FN), gelatin, growth factors and glycosaminoglycans. Reduced platelet adhesion on a human umbilical vein endothelial cell-seeded hybrid scaffold as compared to bare PCL or FC PCL was observed, which suggests the non-thrombogenic nature of the tissue-engineered scaffold. Analysis of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after 5 days of endothelial cell (EC) culture on a hybrid scaffold indicated that the prothrombotic von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were quiescent and stable. Meanwhile, dynamic expressions of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase indicated the desired cell phenotype on the scaffold. On the hybrid scaffold, shear stress could induce enhanced nitric oxide release, which implicates vaso-responsiveness of EC grown on the tissue-engineered construct. Significant upregulation of mRNA for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen IV and elastin, in EC was detected by RT-PCR after growing them on the hybrid scaffold and FC-coated tissue culture polystyrene (FC TCPS) but not on FN-coated TCPS. The results indicate that the FC PCL hybrid scaffold can accomplish a remodeled ECM and non-thrombogenic EC phenotype, and can be further investigated as a scaffold for cardiovascular tissue engineering. (communication)

  11. Avermectin induced autophagy in pigeon spleen tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ci; Zhao, Yanbing; Chen, Lijie; Zhang, Ziwei; Li, Ming; Li, Shu

    2015-12-05

    The level of autophagy is considered as an indicator for monitoring the toxic impact of pesticide exposure. Avermectin (AVM), a widely used insecticide, has immunotoxic effects on the pigeon spleen. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of autophagy and the expression levels of microtubule-associated protein1 light chain 3 (LC3), beclin-1, dynein, autophagy associated gene (Atg) 4B, Atg5, target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) and target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) in AVM-treated pigeon spleens. Eighty two-month-old pigeons were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a low-dose group, a medium-dose group and a high-dose group, which were fed a basal diet spiked with 0, 20, 40 and 60 mg AVM/kg diet, respectively. Microscopic cellular morphology revealed a significant increase in autophagic structures in the AVM-treated groups. The expression of LC3, beclin-1, dynein, Atg4B and Atg5 increased, while mRNA levels of TORC1 and TORC2 were decreased in the AVM-treated groups relative to the control groups at 30, 60 and 90 days in the pigeon spleen. These results indicated that AVM exposure could up-regulate the level of autophagy in a dose-time-dependent manner in the pigeon spleen.

  12. Inflammatory pseudotumor of spleen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Ugalde

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Inflammatory pseudotumor of spleen is a benign disease, in which diagnostic approach must bear in mind the possibility of a malignant lesion. For this reason, the surgical approach is appropriate to confirm the diagnosis and rule out malignancy with histology.

  13. Chromosome engineering: generation of mono- and dicentric isochromosomes in a somatic cell hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, A W; Schueler, M G; Willard, H F

    1999-08-01

    The most common isochromosome found in humans involves the long arm of the X, i(Xq), and is associated with a subset of Turner syndrome cases. To study the formation and behavior of isochromosomes in a more tractable experimental system, we have developed a somatic cell hybrid model system that allows for the selection of mono- or dicentric isochromosomes involving the short arm of the X, i(Xp). Simultaneous positive and negative counterselection of a mouse/human somatic cell hybrid containing a human X chromosome, selecting for retention of the UBE1 locus in Xp but against the HPRT locus in Xq, results in a variety of abnormalities of the X chromosome involving deletions of Xq. We have generated 70 such "Pushmi-Pullyu" hybrids derived from seven independent X chromosomes. Cytogenetic analysis of these hybrids using fluorescence in situ hybridization showed i(Xp) chromosomes in approximately 19% of the hybrids. Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction analyses of the Pushmi-Pullyu hybrids revealed a distribution of breakpoints along Xq. The distance between the centromeres of the dicentric i(Xp)s generated ranged from approximately 2 Mb to approximately 20 Mb. To examine centromeric activity in these dicentric i(Xp)s, we used indirect immunofluorescence with antibodies to centromere protein E (CENP-E). CENP-E was detected at only one of the centromeres of a dicentric i(Xp) with approximately 2-3 Mb of Xq DNA. In contrast, CENP-E was detected at both centromeres of a dicentric i(Xp) with approximately 14 Mb of Xq DNA. Two other dicentric i(Xp) chromosomes were heterogeneous with respect to centromeric activity, suggesting that centromeric activity and chromosome stability of dicentric chromosomes may be more complicated than previously thought. The Pushmi-Pullyu model system presented in this study may provide a tool for examining the structure and function of mammalian centromeres.

  14. Solution-processed, nanostructured hybrid solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjia; Zheng, Ying; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Holloway, Paul H; Xue, Jiangeng

    2012-06-07

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, as an alternative to all-organic solar cells, have received significant attention for their potential advantages in combining the solution-processability and versatility of organic materials with high charge mobility and environmental stability of inorganic semiconductors. Here we report efficient and air-stable hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity based on a low-gap polymer poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and spherical CdSe nanoparticles. The solvents used for depositing the hybrid PCPDTBT:CdSe active layer were shown to strongly influence the film morphology, and subsequently the photovoltaic performance of the resulted solar cells. Appropriate post-deposition annealing of the hybrid film was also shown to improve the solar cell efficiency. The inclusion of a thin ZnO nanoparticle layer between the active layer and the metal cathode leads to a significant increase in device efficiency especially at long wavelengths, due to a combination of optical and electronic effects including more optimal light absorption in the active layer and elimination of unwanted hole leakage into the cathode. Overall, maximum power conversion efficiencies up to 3.7 ± 0.2% and spectral sensitivity extending above 800 nm were achieved in such PCPDTBT:CdSe nanosphere hybrid solar cells. Furthermore, the devices with a ZnO nanoparticle layer retained ∼70% of the original efficiency after storage under ambient laboratory conditions for over 60 days without any encapsulation.

  15. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power system for a low power boat. The hybrid system consists of the association of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and battery bank. The mathematical models for the components of the hybrid system are presented. These models are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulations allow analyzing the dynamic performance and power allocation according to a typical driving cycle. In this system, an efficient energy management system (EMS based on operation states is proposed. This EMS strategy determines the operating point of each component of the system in order to maximize the system efficiency. Simulation results validate the adequacy of the hybrid power system and the proposed EMS for real ship driving cycles.

  16. Laser capture microdissection of bacterial cells targeted by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2005-01-01

    . By this method, a potentially pathogenic strain of the genus Brachyspira from formalin-fixed human colonic biopsies were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probe, followed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) of the targeted cells. Direct 16S r...

  17. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tazelaar, Edwin; Shen, Y.; Veenhuizen, Bram; Hofman, T.; Bosch, P. van den

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define

  18. Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Solar Cells with Advanced Antireflection and Back Surface Field Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiling; Yang, Zhenhai; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Yang, Xi; Sheng, Jiang; Wu, Sudong; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO3) is one of most suitable antireflection (AR) layers for silicon/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Si/PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cells due to its well-matched refractive index (2.1). A simulation model was employed to predict the optical characteristics of Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with the MoO3 layers as antireflection coatings (ARCs), as well as to analyze the loss in current density. By adding an optimum thickness of a 34-nm-thick ARC of MoO3 on the front side and an effective rear back surface field (BSF) of phosphorus-diffused N + layer at the rear side, the hybrid cells displayed higher light response in the visible and near infrared regions, boosting a short-circuit current density ( J sc) up to 28.7 mA/cm2. The average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells was thus increased up to 11.90 %, greater than the value of 9.23 % for the reference devices.

  19. Hybrid polymer solar cells from highly reactive diethylzinc : MDMO-PPV versus P3HT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moet, Date J.D.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Boer, Bert de; Blom, Paul W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloetyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) during the processing of hybrid organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells with zinc oxide (ZnO) from a molecular precursor as acceptor is reported. Upon addition of diethylzinc, the absorption spect

  20. Hybrid inorganic-organic tandem solar cells for broad absorption of the solar spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speirs, M. J.; Groeneveld, B. G. H. M.; Protesescu, L.; Piliego, Claudia; Kovalenko, M. V.; Loi, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first hybrid tandem solar cell with solution processable active layers using colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) as the front subcell in combination with a polymer-fullerene rear subcell. Al/WO3 is introduced as an interlayer, yielding an open circuit voltage (V-OC) equal to about 92% of

  1. Experimental assessment of an energy management strategy on a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell hybrid power trains comprise an energy storage to supply peaks in the power demand and to facilitate regenerative braking. In terms of control systems, the presence of storage provides additional freedom to minimize the vehicle’s fuel consumption. In a previous paper [1] an analytical

  2. Can Ferroelectric Polarization Explain the High Performance of Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherkar, Tejas; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    2016-01-01

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells based on the use of hybrid halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), now exceeds 20%. Recently, it was suggested that this high performance originates from the presence of ferroelectricity in the perovskite, which is hypothesized to lower c

  3. Annealing effect of hybrid solar cells based on poly (3-hexylthiophene) and zinc-oxide nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid Films June 2013/Vol. 537 Annealing effect of hybrid solar cells based on poly (3- hexylthiophene) and zinc-oxide nanostructures David E. Motaung a, *, Gerald F. Malgas a, **, Suprakas S. Ray a, Christopher J. Arendse b a DST...

  4. Sizing stack and battery of a fuel cell hybrid distribution truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Shen; P. van den Bosch; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; T. Hofman

    2012-01-01

    An existing fuel cell hybrid distribution truck, built for demonstration purposes, is used as a case study to investigate the effect of stack (kW) and battery (kW, kWh) sizes on the hydrogen consumption of the vehicle. Three driving cycles, the NEDC for Low Power vehicles, CSC and JE05 cycle, define

  5. Can Ferroelectric Polarization Explain the High Performance of Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherkar, Tejas; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    2016-01-01

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells based on the use of hybrid halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), now exceeds 20%. Recently, it was suggested that this high performance originates from the presence of ferroelectricity in the perovskite, which is hypothesized to lower c

  6. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  7. Fabrication and characterization of titania/poly (3-dodecylthiopene)/red seaweed as hybrid solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Salmah Mohd; Salleh, Hasiah; Dagang, Ahmad Nazri; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Khamsan, Muhammad Emmer Ashraf; Ahmad, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nik; Ali, Nik

    2017-03-01

    In this research, hybrid solar cells which consist of a combination of organic red seaweed (RS) (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and poly (3-dodecylthiophene) (P3DT) with inorganic titania nanocrystals (TiO2 NCs) materials are fabricated. These hybrid solar cells are fabricated in bilayer heterojunction of ITO/TiO2 NCs/P3DT/RS/Au via electrochemistry method using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The optical, electrical properties and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of these hybrid solar cells that can absorb over a broad range of light spectrum were studied. The UV-Vis spectra showed that TiO2 NCs, P3DT and RS were absorbed over a wide range of light spectrum which were 200-300 nm, 300-900 nm and 250-670 nm; respectively. The FTIR spectra of the RS showed the presence of carbonyl and hydroxyl group which was responsible for a good sensitizer for these hybrid solar cells. The electrical conductivity of ITO/ (1) TiO2 NCs/P3DT/RS thin film under the light radiation of 100 Wm-2 was 0.288 Scm-1, while for PCE, it was 2.0 %.

  8. Hybrid Lentivirus-transposon Vectors With a Random Integration Profile in Human Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Moldt, Brian; Mátés, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors have a significantly safer insertion profile, but efficient delivery into relevant cell/tissue types is a limitation. In an attempt to combine the favorable features of the two vector systems we established a novel hybrid vector technology based on SB transposase...

  9. Si nanowires organic semiconductor hybrid heterojunction solar cells toward 10% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lining; Jiang, Changyun; Wang, Hao; Lai, Donny; Rusli

    2012-03-01

    High-efficiency hybrid solar cells are fabricated using a simple approach of spin coating a transparent hole transporting organic small molecule, 2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) on silicon nanowires (SiNWs) arrays prepared by electroless chemical etching. The characteristics of the hybrid cells are investigated as a function of SiNWs length from 0.15 to 5 μm. A maximum average power conversion efficiency of 9.92% has been achieved from 0.35 μm length SiNWs cells, despite a 12% shadowing loss and the absence of antireflective coating and back surface field enhancement. It is found that enhanced aggregations in longer SiNWs limit the cell performance due to increased series resistance and higher carrier recombination in the shorter wavelength region. The effects of the Si substrate doping concentrations on the performance of the cells are also investigated. Cells with higher substrate doping concentration exhibit a significant drop in the incident photons-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) in the near infrared region. Nevertheless, a promising short circuit current density of 19 mA/cm(2) and IPCE peak of 57% have been achieved for a 0.9 μm length SiNWs cell fabricated on a highly doped substrate with a minority-carrier diffusion length of only 15 μm. The results suggest that such hybrid cells can potentially be realized using Si thin films instead of bulk substrates. This is promising towards realizing low-cost and high-efficiency SiNWs/organic hybrid solar cells.

  10. Hardware-Based Simulation of a Fuel Cell Turbine Hybrid Response to Imposed Fuel Cell Load Transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.P. (Georgia Inst. of Technology); Tucker, D.A.; Haynes, C.L. (Georgia Inst. of Technology); Liese, E.A.; Wepfer, W.J. (Georgia Inst. of Technology)

    2006-11-01

    Electrical load transients imposed on the cell stack of a solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power system are studied using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) project. The hardware simulation facility is located at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). A computational fuel cell model capable of operating in real time is integrated with operating gas turbine hardware. The thermal output of a modeled 350 kW solid oxide fuel cell stack is replicated in the facility by a natural gas fired burner in a direct fired hybrid configuration. Pressure vessels are used to represent a fuel cell stack's cathode flow and post combustion volume and flow impedance. This hardware is used to simulate the fuel cell stack and is incorporated with a modified turbine, compressor, and 120 kW generator on a single shaft. For this study, a simulation was started with a simulated current demand of 307 A on the fuel cell at approximately 0.75 V and an actual 45 kW electrical load on the gas turbine. An open loop response, allowing the turbine rotational speed to respond to thermal transients, was successfully evaluated for a 5% current reduction on the fuel cell followed by a 5% current increase. The impact of the fuel cell load change on system process variables is presented. The test results demonstrate the capabilities of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation approach in evaluating hybrid fuel cell turbine dynamics and performance.

  11. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  12. High-efficiency si/polymer hybrid solar cells based on synergistic surface texturing of Si nanowires on pyramids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lining; Lai, Donny; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Changyun; Rusli

    2012-06-11

    An efficient Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cell using synergistic surface texturing of Si nanowires (SiNWs) on pyramids is demonstrated. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.9% is achieved from the cells using the SiNW/pyramid binary structure, which is much higher than similar cells based on planar Si, pyramid-textured Si, and SiNWs. The PCE is the highest reported to-date for hybrid cells based on Si nanostructures and PEDOT.

  13. Platinum nanoparticle interlayer promoted improvement in photovoltaic performance of silicon/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xiao-Qing; Liu, L.F., E-mail: lifeng.liu@inl.int

    2015-01-15

    Inorganic–organic hybrid solar cells have attracted considerable interest in recent years for their low production cost, good mechanical flexibility and ease of processing of polymer films over a large area. Particularly, silicon/conducting polymer hybrid solar cells are extensively investigated and widely believed to be a low-cost alternative to the crystalline silicon solar cells. However, the power conversion efficiency of silicon/conducting polymer solar cells remains low in case hydrogen-terminated silicon is used. In this paper, we report that by introducing a platinum nanoparticle interlayer between the hydrogen-terminated silicon and the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate), namely PEDOT:PSS, the power conversion efficiency of the resulting Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be improved by a factor of 2–3. The possible mechanism responsible for the improvement has been investigated using different techniques including impedance spectroscopy, Mott–Schottky analysis and intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). The results show that with a platinum nanoparticle interlayer, both the series resistance and charge transport/transfer resistance of the Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells are reduced leading to an increased short circuit current density, and the built-in voltage at the space charge region is raised facilitating electron-hole separation. Moreover, the lifetime of charge carriers in the Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells is extended, namely, the recombination is effectively suppressed which also contributes to the improvement of photovoltaic performance. - Graphical abstract: A platinum nanoparticle interlayer electrolessly deposited between the n-Si:H and PEDOT:PSS can markedly improve the photovoltaic performance of the resulting Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. - Highlights: • A Pt nanoparticle layer is introduced between the Si and PEDOT:PSS in hybrid cells. • The Pt interlayer

  14. Study of fuel cell and gas turbine hybrid power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basurto, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental awareness and the interest in distributed generation caused by electricity market de-regulation are factors that promote research on renewable energies. Fuel cells transform the chemical energy stored in fuel into electricity by means of electrochemical reactions. Among the different fuel cell types, high temperature fuel cells (HTFCS) have many advantages: high efficiency, low emissions, fuel flexibility, modularity and high quality waste heat. The main disadvant...

  15. Study on the Immune Protective Effect of Sophora japonical Water Extract on the Spleen Cells of 60Co-γ Ray Irradiated Injured Mice%槐白皮水提物对60Co-γ射线损伤小鼠脾细胞的免疫保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃进; 董海艳; 张婵; 李安乐; 陈向敏

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究槐白皮水提物对50Co-γ射线损伤小鼠脾细胞的免疫保护作用.方法:实验分为5组,即正常(等容生理盐水)、照射对照(等容生理盐水)和槐白皮水提物高、中、低剂量(0.8、0.4、0.2 mL·kg-1)组.除正常组外其余各组给予60Co-γ射线一次性照射,照射后立即给药,每天1次,连续10d.测定小鼠脾细胞培养上清液中一氧化氮(NO)水平及脾指数.结果:槐白皮水提物中剂量组NO含量显著低于照射对照组(P<0.05);槐白皮水提物中、低剂量组脾指数显著高于照射对照组(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论:槐白皮水提物能降低射线对脾细胞的损伤,具有免疫保护作用.%OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immune protective effect of Sophora japonical water extract on the spleen cells of 6cCo-y ray irradiated injured mice. METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal group (constant volume normal saline), irradiation control group (constant volume normal saline) ,S. Japonical water extract high-dose, medium-dose and low-dose groups(0.8, 0.4, and 0.2 mL?kg"'). All the mice were irradiated with Mco-y ray except normal group, and then S. Japonical water extract was given once a day for 10 days. And then nitric oxide (NO) level and spleen index was detected in spleen cell of mice. RESULTS: NO level of S. Japonical water extract medium-dose group was significantly lower than irradiation control group(P< 0.01), and the spleen index of S. Japonical water extract medium-doce group and low-dose groups was significantly higher than irradiation control group(f <0.01 or P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: S. Japonical water extract can reduce the damage of the irradiated spleen cells, and have the immune protective function.

  16. [Pathogenesis and morphology of hemophagocytic syndrome in the spleen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattenlöhner, S; Müller-Hermelink, H K

    2008-03-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (macrophage activation syndrome) is a group of disorders characterized by clinical, histological and biological symptoms of T-lymphocytes/NK cell-driven macrophage stimulation with subsequent hemophagocytosis which can be observed in various organs, particularly in the bone marrow and spleen. The main clinical symptoms include cytopenia, multiple organ dysfunction, fever unresponsive to antibiotics, hepatosplenomegaly and rash. Besides rare inherited immune system anomalies (primary hemophagocytic syndrome), the most prevalent etiologies of hemophagocytic syndrome are infections (viral, bacterial and parasitic), cancers, lymphoproliferative disorders and systemic diseases. Hemophagocytic syndrome is treated with immunosuppressives, cytostatic drugs, plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulins/anti-TNF antibodies and due to the multiorgan involvement and the associated high mortality, recognition of early serum changes, such as very high levels of ferritin is mandatory. The most relevant histological changes are the increase of histiocytes showing evidence of phagocytosis of erythroid cells, platelets and granulocytes as well as in the spleen a rarefaction of the white pulpa with lack of lymph follicles and abundant lymphocytes, plasma cells and plasma cell precursors in the pulpa cords.

  17. [Additional phragmoplast corrects abnormal cytokinesis in wheat x rye hybrid pollen mother cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeeva, E I; Shamina, N V; Dudka, L F; Kovtunenko, V Ia; Bolobolova, E U

    2009-01-01

    The phragmoplast dysfunction in wheat x rye hybrid F1 male meiosis has been described. The pollen mother cells (PMCs) show the phenotype where transition from central spindle fibers (forming a solid bundle) to a phragmoplast (hollow cylinder) is blocked. The blockade suppresses centrifugal movement of the phragmoplast and cell plate formation. The resulting cells occur to be binucleate. Sometimes, the two nuclei join and form one restitution nucleus. PMCs of wheat x rye F1 hybrid N D-144gp 06r. F1 (T. aestivum c. 93-60 T 9 x S. cereale c. Saratovskaya 7) showing this phenotype have an additional phragmoplast at late telophase. This happens like that in the case of immobile phragmoplast formation in meiosis in bicotyledons: the new phragmoplast arises by the aid of microtubules polymerization starting from the spindle poles. The new additional phragmoplast builds a new cell plate and accomplishes cytokinesis.

  18. Flexible hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Zhu, Guang; Lee, Sangmin; Lin, Zong-Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-01-22

    We report the first flexible hybrid energy cell that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies to power some electronic devices. For having both the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based nanogenerator (NG) was used to harvest thermal and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on the flexible polyester (PET) substrate, a ZnO-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) heterojunction solar cell was designed for harvesting solar energy. By integrating the NGs and the solar cells, a hybrid energy cell was fabricated to simultaneously harvest three different types of energies. With the use of a Li-ion battery as the energy storage, the harvested energy can drive four red light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  19. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... and ultracapacitor. In this paper a design method to design the power system of a FCHEV is presented. 10 cases of combining the fuel stack with either the battery, ultracapacitor, or both are investigated. The system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime are also compared. It is concluded that when...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  20. Identification and structural composition of the blood-spleen barrier in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bing; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Linli; Liu, Yi; Ullah, Shakeeb; Wu, Li; Waqas, Yasir; Le, Yuan; Chen, Wei; Chen, Qiusheng

    2015-04-01

    To identify the existence and composition of the blood-spleen barrier (BSB) in chickens, the microanatomical features of the spleen were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy, intravenous injection of ink, acid phosphatase reaction, and silver impregnation. The results showed that the white pulp in chicken spleen consists of lymphoid nodules, periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths (PALS) and periellipsoidal lymphatic sheaths (PELS). There was no evidence for the presence of a marginal zone. The splenic ellipsoid was a unique structure, which functioned as a barrier for filtering and phagocytosis. Uptake of carbon particles was limited to the ellipsoid and PELS, 60 min after injection of carbon particles. Reticular fibres were densely distributed in the ellipsoid and extended into the PELS. Ellipsoid-associated cells (EACs), reticular cells and macrophages were acid phosphatase positive. The sheathed capillaries, surrounded by the ellipsoid, were similar to high endothelial venules (HEVs). These findings suggest that the BSB of chickens is present in the ellipsoid and PELS, protecting the spleen from invasion from circulating pathogens. The BSB was a reticular framework, between the arterial and venous vessels, which included cuboidal-shaped endothelial cells, supporting cells, EACs, macrophages, reticular cells and fibres. Lymphocyte migration into the spleen parenchyma is most likely via the HEV-like vessels. These research findings contribute to better understanding of avian immunology and provide an insight into evolutionary differences in the immune system.

  1. Localized SCF and IGF-1 secretion enhances erythropoiesis in the spleen of murine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keai Sinn Tan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fetal spleen is a major hematopoietic site prior to initiation of bone marrow hematopoiesis. Morphologic analysis suggested erythropoietic activity in fetal spleen, but it remained unclear how erythropoiesis was regulated. To address this question, we performed flow cytometric analysis and observed that the number of spleen erythroid cells increased 18.6-fold from 16.5 to 19.5 days post-coitum (dpc. Among erythropoietic cytokines, SCF and IGF-1 were primarily expressed in hematopoietic, endothelial and mesenchymal-like fetal spleen cells. Cultures treated with SCF and/or IGF-1R inhibitors showed significantly decreased CD45−c-Kit−CD71+/−Ter119+ erythroid cells and downregulated Gata1, Klf1 and β-major globin expression. Administration of these inhibitors to pregnant mice significantly decreased the number of CD45−c-Kit−CD71+/−Ter119+ cells and downregulated β-major globin gene expression in embryos derived from these mice. We conclude that fetal spleen is a major erythropoietic site where endothelial and mesenchymal-like cells primarily accelerate erythropoietic activity through SCF and IGF-1 secretion.

  2. Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai A, Banta L, Tucker D

    2010-08-01

    This work presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation built by the National Energy Technology Laboratory comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The public facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key difficulties encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the built facility comprising a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in transfer function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H{sub {infinity}} robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence. As a complementary tool to the aforementioned empirical plant, a nonlinear analytical model faithful to the existing process and instrumentation arrangement is evaluated and designed in the Simulink environment. This parallel task intends to serve as a building block to scalable hybrid configurations that might require a more detailed nonlinear representation for a wide variety of controller schemes and hardware implementations.

  3. Microinjection and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay for Studying mRNA Export in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Shi, Min; Cheng, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Microinjection and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) assay is a useful method for mRNA export studies, which can overcome the problems of traditional transfection in cells. Here, we describe the method of microinjection and FISH assay applied in investigation of mRNA export. By this method we can estimate the mRNA export kinetics, examining mRNA export in cells with low transfection efficiencies, and observing nuclear export of aberrant RNAs.

  4. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol) Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Redouan Mahou; Meier, Raphael P H; Bühler, Léo H.; Christine Wandrey

    2014-01-01

    The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M) were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg) using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly...

  5. Role of majority and minority carrier barriers silicon/organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasthi, Sushobhan; Lee, Stephanie; Loo, Yueh-Lin; Sturm, James C

    2011-12-22

    A hybrid approach to solar cells is demonstrated in which a silicon p-n junction, used in conventional silicon-based photovoltaics, is replaced by a room-temperature fabricated silicon/organic heterojunction. The unique advantage of silicon/organic heterojunction is that it exploits the cost advantage of organic semiconductors and the performance advantages of silicon to enable potentially low-cost, efficient solar cells.

  6. Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik

    Fuel cells achieve more and more attention due to their potential of replacing the traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) used in the area of transportation. In this PhD thesis a fuel cell shaft power pack (FCSPP) is designed and implemented in a small truck. The FCSPP replaces the original...

  7. A review and design of power electronics converters for fuel cell hybrid system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of most promising power electronics topologies for a fuel cell hybrid power conversion system which can be utilized in many applications such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), distributed generations (DG) and uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems. Then......, a multiple-input power conversion system including a decoupled dual-input converter and a three-phase neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter is proposed. The system can operate in both stand-alone and grid-connected modes. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed...

  8. LQR-Based Power Train Control Method Design for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Haitao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the mathematical model of fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV proposed in our previous study, a multistate feedback control strategy of the hybrid power train is designed based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR algorithm. A Kalman Filter (KF observer is introduced to estimate state of charge (SOC of the battery firstly, and then a linear quadratic regulator is constructed to compute the state feedback gain matrix of the closed-loop control system. At last, simulation and actual test are utilized to demonstrate this new approach.

  9. Hybrid nanocone forests with high absorption in full-solar spectrum for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yudong; Mao, Haiyang; Xiong, Jijun; Ming, Anjie; Wang, Weibing

    2016-11-01

    In this work, hybrid nanocone forests (HNFs) with high absorption in full-solar-spectrum are fabricated based on a plasma repolymerization technique. The HNFs combine light trapping effect of the nanocone forests with surface plasmon resonance effect of the metallic nanoparticles, thus can achieve an optimized absorption larger than 80% in the full-solar spectrum (i.e. 200-2500nm). Besides, with the hybrid nanostructures, the absorption decrease around the Si bandgap width can be narrowed greatly, while the normalized utilization efficiency of solar radiation can be increased. Therefore, usage of the HNFs as a texture structure in solar cells to obtain higher conversion efficiencies is foreseeable.

  10. Fabrication of stable photovoltachromic cells using a solvent-free hybrid polymer electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Che; Cho, Hsun-Wei; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2014-08-21

    In this work, photovoltachromic cells (PVCCs) are fabricated using a solvent-free polyethylene glycol (PEG)-titanium hybrid polymer electrolyte. With appropriate addition of 1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide in the electrolyte, the range of tunable colored-state transmittance of the PVCC is enlarged due to an improved fill factor. A transmittance modulation larger than 40% can be maintained for at least 3 months, demonstrating the good long-term stability of PVCCs fabricated using the solvent-free PEG-Ti hybrid electrolyte.

  11. Second generation hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of transformed cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richon, V M; Webb, Y; Merger, R; Sheppard, T; Jursic, B; Ngo, L; Civoli, F; Breslow, R; Rifkind, R A; Marks, P A

    1996-06-11

    Hybrid polar compounds, of which hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is the prototype, are potent inducers of differentiation of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and a wide variety of other transformed cells. HMBA has been shown to induce differentiation of neoplastic cells in patients, but is not an adequate therapeutic agent because of dose-limiting toxicity. We report on a group of three potent second generation hybrid polar compounds, diethyl bis-(pentamethylene-N,N-dimethylcarboxamide) malonate (EMBA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and m-carboxycinnamic acid bis-hydroxamide (CBHA) with optimal concentrations for inducing MEL cells of 0.4 mM, 2 microM, and 4 microM, respectively, compared to 5 mM for HMBA. All three agents induce accumulation of underphosphorylated pRB; increased levels of p2l protein, a prolongation of the initial G1 phase of the cell cycle; and accumulation of hemoglobin. However, based upon their effective concentrations, the cross-resistance or sensitivity of an HMBA-resistant MEL cell variant, and differences in c-myb expression during induction, these differentiation-inducing hybrid polar compounds can be grouped into two subsets, HMBA/EMBA and SAHA/CBHA. This classification may prove of value in selecting and planning prospective preclinical and clinical studies toward the treatment of cancer by differentiation therapy.

  12. Fusion of CCL21 non-migratory active breast epithelial and breast cancer cells give rise to CCL21 migratory active tumor hybrid cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Berndt

    Full Text Available The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been linked to tumor progression because several data provided evidence that fusion of tumor cells and normal cells gave rise to hybrid cell lines exhibiting novel properties, such as increased metastatogenic capacity and an enhanced drug resistance. Here we investigated M13HS hybrid cell lines, derived from spontaneous fusion events between M13SV1-EGFP-Neo breast epithelial cells exhibiting stem cell characteristics and HS578T-Hyg breast cancer cells, concerning CCL21/CCR7 signaling. Western Blot analysis showed that all cell lines varied in their CCR7 expression levels as well as differed in the induction and kinetics of CCR7 specific signal transduction cascades. Flow cytometry-based calcium measurements revealed that a CCL21 induced calcium influx was solely detected in M13HS hybrid cell lines. Cell migration demonstrated that only M13HS hybrid cell lines, but not parental derivatives, responded to CCL21 stimulation with an increased migratory activity. Knockdown of CCR7 expression by siRNA completely abrogated the CCL21 induced migration of hybrid cell lines indicating the necessity of CCL21/CCR7 signaling. Because the CCL21/CCR7 axis has been linked to metastatic spreading of breast cancer to lymph nodes we conclude from our data that cell fusion could be a mechanism explaining the origin of metastatic cancer (hybrid cells.

  13. Method of manufacturing a hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2017-02-07

    A method of manufacturing an all back contact solar cell which has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. A second emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The method further includes forming contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  14. Enhancing hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode performance using Ag2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid-direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of a molten slurry of solid carbon black and (Li-K)2CO3 added to the anode chamber of a solid oxide fuel cell, was characterized using current-potential-power density curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Two...... types of experimental setups were employed in this study, an anode-supported full cell configuration (two electrodes, two atmospheres setup) and a 3-electrode electrolyte-supported half-cell setup (single atmosphere). Anode processes with and without catalysts were investigated as a function...

  15. Intelligent uninterruptible power supply system with back-up fuel cell/battery hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yuedong; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Hua

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with a hybrid power source that comprises a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a battery. Attention is focused on the architecture of the UPS hybrid system and the data acquisition and control of the PEMFC. Specifically, the hybrid UPS system consists of a low-cost 60-cell 300 W PEMFC stack, a 3-cell lead-acid battery, an active power factor correction ac-dc rectifier, a half-bridge dc-ac inverter, a dc-dc converter, an ac-dc charger and their control units based on a digital signal processor TMS320F240, other integrated circuit chips, and a simple network management protocol adapter. Experimental tests and theoretical studies are conducted. First, the major parameters of the PEMFC are experimentally obtained and evaluated. Then an intelligent control strategy for the PEMFC stack is proposed and implemented. Finally, the performance of the hybrid UPS system is measured and analyzed.

  16. An in situ hybridization-based screen for heterogeneously expressed genes in mouse ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mark G; Stagg, Carole A; Falco, Geppino; Yoshikawa, Toshiyuki; Bassey, Uwem C; Aiba, Kazuhiro; Sharova, Lioudmila V; Shaik, Nabeebi; Ko, Minoru S H

    2008-02-01

    We previously reported that Zscan4 showed heterogeneous expression patterns in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. To identify genes that show similar expression patterns, we carried out high-throughput in situ hybridization assays on ES cell cultures for 244 genes. Most of the genes are involved in transcriptional regulation, and were selected using microarray-based comparisons of gene expression profiles in ES and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells versus differentiated cell types. Pou5f1 (Oct4, Oct3/4) and Krt8 (EndoA) were used as controls. Hybridization signals were detected on ES cell colonies for 147 genes (60%). The majority (136 genes) of them showed relatively homogeneous expression in ES cell colonies. However, we found that two genes unequivocally showed Zscan4-like spotted expression pattern (spot-in-colony pattern; Whsc2 and Rhox9). We also found that nine genes showed relatively heterogeneous expression pattern (mosaic-in-colony pattern: Zfp42/Rex1, Rest, Atf4, Pa2g4, E2f2, Nanog, Dppa3/Pgc7/Stella, Esrrb, and Fscn1). Among these genes, Zfp42/Rex1 showed unequivocally heterogeneous expression in individual ES cells prepared by the CytoSpin. These results show the presence of different types or states of cells within ES cell cultures otherwise thought to be undifferentiated and homogeneous, suggesting a previously unappreciated complexity in ES cell cultures.

  17. Ionic transport in hybrid lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eames, Christopher; Frost, Jarvist M; Barnes, Piers R F; O'Regan, Brian C; Walsh, Aron; Islam, M Saiful

    2015-01-01

    Solar cells based on organic-inorganic halide perovskites have recently shown rapidly rising power conversion efficiencies, but exhibit unusual behaviour such as current-voltage hysteresis and a low...

  18. Analysis of a model of fuel cell - gas turbine hybrid power system for enhanced energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calay, Rajnish K.; Mustafa, Mohamad Y.; Virk, Mohammad S.; Mustafa, Mahmoud F.

    2012-11-01

    A simple mathematical model to evaluate the performance of FC-GT hybrid system is presented in this paper. The model is used to analyse the influence of various parameters on the performance of a typical hybrid system, where excess heat rejected from the solid-oxide fuel cell stack is utilised to generate additional power through a gas turbine system and to provide heat energy for space heating. The model is based on thermodynamic analysis of various components of the plant and can be adapted for various configurations of the plant components. Because there are many parameters defining the efficiency and work output of the hybrid system, the technique is based on mathematical and graphical optimisation of various parameters; to obtain the maximum efficiency for a given plant configuration.

  19. Graphene hybrids: Synthesis strategies and applications in sensors and sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmee eBadhulika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structural, chemical and electronic properties that lead to its many potential applications. In order to expand the scope of its usage, graphene hybrids which combine the synergetic properties of graphene along with metals/ metal oxides and other nanostructured materials have been synthesized and are a widely emerging field of research. This review presents an overview of the recent progress made in the field of graphene hybrid architectures with a focus on the synthesis of graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT, graphene-semiconductor nanomaterial (G-SNM and graphene-metal nanomaterial (G-MNM hybrids. It attempts to identify the bottlenecks involved and outlines future directions for development and comprehensively summarizes their applications in the field of sensing and sensitized solar cells.

  20. Positioning of human chromosomes in murine cell hybrids according to synteny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaburn, Karen J; Newbold, Robert F; Bridger, Joanna M

    2008-12-01

    Chromosomes occupy non-random spatial positions in interphase nuclei. It remains unclear what orchestrates this high level of organisation. To determine how the nuclear environment influences the spatial positioning of chromosomes, we utilised a panel of stable mouse hybrid cell lines carrying a single, intact human chromosome. Eleven of 22 human chromosomes revealed an alternative location in hybrid nuclei compared to that of human fibroblasts, with the majority becoming more internally localised. Human chromosomes in mouse nuclei position according to neither their gene density nor size, but rather the position of human chromosomes in hybrid nuclei appears to mimic that of syntenic mouse chromosomes. These results suggest that chromosomes adopt the behaviour of their host species chromosomes and that the nuclear environment is an important determinant of the interphase positioning of chromosomes.

  1. Nonlinear mechanics of hybrid polymer networks that mimic the complex mechanical environment of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Maarten; Vaessen, Sarah L.; van Schayik, Pim; Voerman, Dion; Rowan, Alan E.; Kouwer, Paul H. J.

    2017-05-01

    The mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular environment they reside in are governed by a complex interplay of biopolymers. These biopolymers, which possess a wide range of stiffnesses, self-assemble into fibrous composite networks such as the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. They interact with each other both physically and chemically to create a highly responsive and adaptive mechanical environment that stiffens when stressed or strained. Here we show that hybrid networks of a synthetic mimic of biological networks and either stiff, flexible and semi-flexible components, even very low concentrations of these added components, strongly affect the network stiffness and/or its strain-responsive character. The stiffness (persistence length) of the second network, its concentration and the interaction between the components are all parameters that can be used to tune the mechanics of the hybrids. The equivalence of these hybrids with biological composites is striking.

  2. Auxiliary liver organ formation by implantation of spleen-encapsulated hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Reiji; Nakayama, Miyuki; Ikekita, Masahiko; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2006-09-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an attractive alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation. However, its application has been limited because of its short-term success only. Here we report a new approach to hepatocyte transplantation resulting in the generation of an auxiliary liver in vivo. Isolated primary hepatocytes were encapsulated in isolated spleens and then transplanted by attaching the spleens to the livers of recipient animals (mice or rats) using biodegradable adhesive. A vascular network was rapidly established, and protein molecules circulated freely between the transplanted spleen and the liver, to which they adhered. In contrast, the spleen, which did not adhere to the liver or adhered elsewhere (adipose tissue or peritoneum), did not become vascularized but shrank and died. Encapsulation of hepatocytes in an isolated spleen enhanced their survival significantly, and co-encapsulation of Engelbreth- Holm-Swarm gel together with the hepatocytes further enhanced it. The encapsulated hepatocytes expressed liver-specific differentiation genes for more than 3 weeks. Plasma albumin concentrations in Nagase analbuminemic rats began to increase 3 days after transplantation. The transplanted hepatic cells migrated into the liver parenchyma, whereas the spleen was absorbed. Thus, we have developed a novel, simple approach for the rapid and efficient formation of functional auxiliary liver using a modified hepatocyte transplantation method.

  3. Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen: Investigative Dilemmas and Role of EUS-Guided FNA for Diagnostic Confirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekar G Krishna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Context We submit a case of intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Case report A 33-year-old patient with history of dyspepsia underwent imaging studies suggestive of a neuroendocrine tumor. After referral to our institute, endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA confirmed diagnosis as intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Discussion An accessory spleen may develop from estranged mesenchymal cells due to fusion failure of the splenic anlage. The prevalence of an accessory spleen is 10-30% with 80% of them present at the splenic hilum and 17% in the pancreatic tail. Intrapancreatic accessory spleen is commonly misdiagnosed as a pancreatic tumor. Since, the differential diagnosis includes pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, additional investigation with EUS-FNA should be considered when radiological diagnosis is not definitive. Conclusion For diagnosis of intrapancreatic accessory spleen, radiographic imaging is useful, but lacks specificity without tissue diagnosis. Diagnosis can be safely and reliably established with EUS-FNA, leading to a benign prognosis and avoidance of unnecessary surgical intervention.

  4. Performance simulation and analysis of a fuel cell/battery hybrid forklift truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Advani, Suresh G.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a forklift truck powered by a hybrid system consisting of a PEM fuel cell and a lead acid battery is modeled and investigated by conducting a parametric study. Various combinations of fuel cell size and battery capacity are employed in conjunction with two distinct control...... strategies to study their effect on hydrogen consumption and battery state-of-charge for two drive cycles characterized by different operating speeds and forklift loads. The results show that for all case studies, the combination of a 110 cell stack with two strings of 55 Ah batteries is the most economical...... choice for the hybrid system based on system size and hydrogen consumption. In addition, it is observed that hydrogen consumption decreases by about 24% when the maximum speed of the drive cycle is decreased from 4.5 to 3 m/s. Similarly, by decreasing the forklift load from 2.5 to 1.5 ton, the hydrogen...

  5. A High-Efficiency Si Nanowire Array/Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Jiamin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-12-01

    A low-cost Si nanowire array/perovskite hybrid solar cell is proposed and simulated. The solar cell consists of a Si p-i-n nanowire array filled with CH3NH3PbI3, in which both the nanowires and perovskite absorb the incident light while the nanowires act as the channels for transporting photo-generated electrons and holes. The hybrid structure has a high absorption efficiency in a broad wavelength range of 300~800 nm. A large short-circuit current density of 28.8 mA/cm(2) and remarkable conversion efficiency of 13.3% are obtained at a thin absorber thickness of 1.6 μm, which are comparable to the best results of III-V nanowire solar cells.

  6. Evidence of programmed cell death during microsporogenesis in an interspecific Brachiaria (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzinatto, V A; Pagliarini, M S; Valle, C B

    2007-05-11

    Morphological changes have been investigated during plant programmed cell death (PCD) in the last few years due to the new interest in a possible apoptotic-like phenomenon existing in plants. Although PCD has been reported in several tissues and specialized cells in plants, there have been few reports of its occurrence during microsporogenesis. The present study reports a typical process of PCD during meiosis in an interspecific Brachiaria hybrid leading to male sterility. In this hybrid, some inflorescences initiated meiosis but it was arrested in zygotene/pachytene. From this stage, meiocytes underwent a severe alteration in shape showing substantial membrane blebbing; the cytoplasm became denser at the periphery; the cell nucleus entered a progressive stage of chromatin disintegration, and then the nucleolus disintegrated, and the cytoplasm condensed and shrunk. The oldest flowers of the raceme showed only the callose wall in the anthers showing obvious signs of complete sterility.

  7. Laser-ablated titania nanoparticles for aqueous processed hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körstgens, V.; Pröller, S.; Buchmann, T.; Moseguí González, D.; Song, L.; Yao, Y.; Wang, W.; Werhahn, J.; Santoro, G.; Roth, S. V.; Iglev, H.; Kienberger, R.; Müller-Buschbaum, P.

    2015-02-01

    Titania nanoparticles are produced by laser ablation in liquid in order to initiate functionalization of titania with the polymer for the active layer. By combining these titania nanoparticles and water-soluble poly[3-(potassium-6-hexanoate)thiophene-2,5-diyl] (P3P6T) hybrid solar cells are realized.Titania nanoparticles are produced by laser ablation in liquid in order to initiate functionalization of titania with the polymer for the active layer. By combining these titania nanoparticles and water-soluble poly[3-(potassium-6-hexanoate)thiophene-2,5-diyl] (P3P6T) hybrid solar cells are realized. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full scheme of the production of solar cells, additional spectra and details of the measurement techniques. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06782g

  8. A High-Efficiency Si Nanowire Array/Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Jiamin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-01-01

    A low-cost Si nanowire array/perovskite hybrid solar cell is proposed and simulated. The solar cell consists of a Si p-i-n nanowire array filled with CH3NH3PbI3, in which both the nanowires and perovskite absorb the incident light while the nanowires act as the channels for transporting photo-generated electrons and holes. The hybrid structure has a high absorption efficiency in a broad wavelength range of 300 800 nm. A large short-circuit current density of 28.8 mA/cm2 and remarkable conversion efficiency of 13.3% are obtained at a thin absorber thickness of 1.6 μm, which are comparable to the best results of III-V nanowire solar cells.

  9. A novel transferrin receptor-targeted hybrid peptide disintegrates cancer cell membrane to induce rapid killing of cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamoto Megumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transferrin receptor (TfR is a cell membrane-associated glycoprotein involved in the cellular uptake of iron and the regulation of cell growth. Recent studies have shown the elevated expression levels of TfR on cancer cells compared with normal cells. The elevated expression levels of this receptor in malignancies, which is the accessible extracellular protein, can be a fascinating target for the treatment of cancer. We have recently designed novel type of immunotoxin, termed "hybrid peptide", which is chemically synthesized and is composed of target-binding peptide and lytic peptide containing cationic-rich amino acids components that disintegrates the cell membrane for the cancer cell killing. The lytic peptide is newly designed to induce rapid killing of cancer cells due to conformational change. In this study, we designed TfR binding peptide connected with this novel lytic peptide and assessed the cytotoxic activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods In vitro: We assessed the cytotoxicity of TfR-lytic hybrid peptide for 12 cancer and 2 normal cell lines. The specificity for TfR is demonstrated by competitive assay using TfR antibody and siRNA. In addition, we performed analysis of confocal fluorescence microscopy and apoptosis assay by Annexin-V binding, caspase activity, and JC-1 staining to assess the change in mitochondria membrane potential. In vivo: TfR-lytic was administered intravenously in an athymic mice model with MDA-MB-231 cells. After three weeks tumor sections were histologically analyzed. Results The TfR-lytic hybrid peptide showed cytotoxic activity in 12 cancer cell lines, with IC50 values as low as 4.0-9.3 μM. Normal cells were less sensitive to this molecule, with IC50 values > 50 μM. Competition assay using TfR antibody and knockdown of this receptor by siRNA confirmed the specificity of the TfR-lytic hybrid peptide. In addition, it was revealed that this molecule can disintegrate the cell membrane of T47

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle Technology for Auxiliary Aerospace Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A notional 440 kW auxiliary power unit has been developed for 300 passenger commercial transport aircraft in 2015AD. A hybrid engine using solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and a gas turbine bottoming cycle has been considered. Steady-state performance analysis during cruise operation has been presented. Trades between performance efficiency and system mass were conducted with system specific energy as the discriminator. Fuel cell performance was examined with an area specific resistance. The ratio of fuel cell versus turbine power was explored through variable fuel utilization. Area specific resistance, fuel utilization, and mission length had interacting effects upon system specific energy. During cruise operation, the simple cycle fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid was not able to outperform current turbine-driven generators for system specific energy, despite a significant improvement in system efficiency. This was due in part to the increased mass of the hybrid engine, and the increased water flow required for on-board fuel reformation. Two planar, anode-supported cell design concepts were considered. Designs that seek to minimize the metallic interconnect layer mass were seen to have a large effect upon the system mass estimates.

  11. Investigation of organic semiconductor interlayers in hybrid PEDOT:PSS/silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Martin; Zweipfennig, Thorsten; Sanders, Simon; Stümmler, Dominik; Pfeiffer, Pascal; Vescan, Andrei; Kalisch, Holger

    2016-10-01

    In the last years, hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells have attracted great interest in photovoltaic research due to their expected potential to combine the advantages of both material classes, the excellent electrical properties and stability of the inorganic and the low-cost processability of the organic semiconductors. This work is focused on hybrid solar cells based on n-doped crystalline Si as the inorganic and the polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) as the organic part of the device. The hole-conducting organic semiconductors poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and 2,2‧,7,7‧-Tetrakis[N,N-di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9‧-spirobifluorene (Spiro-MeOTAD) are investigated as electron blocking interlayers to reduce the parasitic electron current into the metal top contact and thereby increase the efficiency of the solar cell. In this context, P3HT is identified to be insufficient as an interlayer material due to unfavorable hysteresis effects. On the other hand, for solar cells with a Spiro-MeOTAD interlayer, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is significantly increased. This is mainly attributed to an increased short-circuit current density. For the best performing device, a PCE of 14.3% is achieved, which is one of the highest values reported for this type of hybrid solar cells so far.

  12. A minimally invasive approach to spleen histopathology in dogs: A new method for follow-up studies of spleen changes in the course of Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Silvana Ornelas; Fontes, Jonathan L M; Laranjeira, Daniela F; Vassallo, José; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Dos-Santos, Washington L C

    2016-10-01

    Severe forms of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) are associated with disruption of the spleen structure. However, the study of spleen histology requires splenectomy or necropsy. In this work, we present a minimally invasive cell-block technique for studying spleen tissue histology in dogs with ZVL. We examined 13 dogs with and seven dogs without Leishmania infantum infection. The dogs with Leishmania infection had a lower frequency of lymphoid follicles (2/13, Fisher's test, P<0.02) and a higher density of plasma cells (score 3, Fisher's test, P<0.02) than uninfected dogs (5/7 exhibiting lymphoid follicles and a plasma cell score of 1). The dogs with Leishmania infection also presented with granulomas (8/13) and infected macrophages (5/13). These differences in the histological presentations of spleen tissue from infected and uninfected dogs corresponded to changes observed in conventional histology. Hence, the cell-block technique described here may be used in the follow-up care and study of dogs with ZVL and other diseases in both clinical practice and research.

  13. Melanoma metastasis to the spleen: Laparoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade Manoel Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of minimally invasive surgery in the management of metastasis to the spleen. A 67-year-old male patient with possible splenic soft tissue melanoma metastasis was referred to our hospital. He had a history of an excised soft tissue melanoma from his back eight months earlier, and the control abdominal computer tomography (CT scan revealed a hypodense spleen lesion. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery to diagnose and treat the splenic lesion. The splenectomy was performed and the histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient had a good postoperative course and was discharged on the second postoperative day. On his 12-month follow-up there was no sign of recurrence. The laparoscopic approach is a safe and effective alternative for treatment of splenic metastases.

  14. Melanoma metastasis to the spleen: Laparoscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel; Blaya, Rodrigo; Trindade, Eduardo Neubarth

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of minimally invasive surgery in the management of metastasis to the spleen. A 67-year-old male patient with possible splenic soft tissue melanoma metastasis was referred to our hospital. He had a history of an excised soft tissue melanoma from his back eight months earlier, and the control abdominal computer tomography (CT) scan revealed a hypodense spleen lesion. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery to diagnose and treat the splenic lesion. The splenectomy was performed and the histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient had a good postoperative course and was discharged on the second postoperative day. On his 12-month follow-up there was no sign of recurrence. The laparoscopic approach is a safe and effective alternative for treatment of splenic metastases. PMID:19547681

  15. Developmental potential of embryonic cells in a nucleocytoplasmic hybrid formed using a goldfish haploid nucleus and loach egg cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takafumi; Saito, Taiju; Sakao, Suzu; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2010-01-01

    In teleosts, viable nucleocytoplasmic hybrids, formed by combining a nucleus from one species with the egg cytoplasm of another, have been used as one of the methods for breed improvement in aquaculture, but have been little exploited for developmental biology studies. Here, we used an artificial androgenesis technique to form nucleocytoplasmic hybrids comprising a goldfish haploid nucleus and loach egg cytoplasm. These hybrids were used to investigate interactions between the nucleus and cytoplasm during embryonic development. Additionally, the developmental characteristics of embryonic cells of nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were examined in chimeras produced by transplantation of blastomeres into recipient loach or goldfish embryos. We found that the nucleocytoplasmic hybrids arrested at the dome stage of embryonic development and did not form any gastrula structures. The goosecoid (gsc) and no tail (ntl) genes were expressed normally before gastrulation in nucleocytoplasmic hybrids, similar to diploid loach. However, expression of the gsc and ntl genes was not maintained in nucleocytoplasmic hybrids. In chimeric embryos, blastomeres derived from nucleocytoplasmic hybrids were found to mix with the cells of recipient loach embryos at the gastrula stage. The transplanted blastomeres formed small clusters at the somitogenesis stage and, finally, small spots at the hatching stage. In contrast, when the blastomeres were transplanted into goldfish embryos, the transplanted blastomeres aggregated in the chimeric embryos. Thus, embryonic cells from nucleocytoplasmic hybrids that arrest before gastrulation could survive beyond the somitogenesis stage depending on the cytoplasmic environment in the recipient embryos.

  16. Generation of a Tlx1(CreER-Venus) knock-in mouse strain for the study of spleen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Ryo; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Oda, Akihisa; Nishimura, Miyuki; Murakami, Akikazu; Azuma, Takachika; Kaifu, Tomonori; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2014-11-01

    The spleen is a lymphoid organ that serves as a unique niche for immune reactions, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and the removal of aged erythrocytes from the circulation. While much is known about the immunological functions of the spleen, the mechanisms governing the development and organization of its stromal microenvironment remain poorly understood. Here we report the generation and analysis of a Tlx1(Cre) (ER) (-Venus) knock-in mouse strain engineered to simultaneously express tamoxifen-inducible CreER(T2) and Venus fluorescent protein under the control of regulatory elements of the Tlx1 gene, which encodes a transcription factor essential for spleen development. We demonstrated that Venus as well as CreER expression recapitulates endogenous Tlx1 transcription within the spleen microenvironment. When Tlx1(Cre) (ER) (-Venus) mice were crossed with the Cre-inducible reporter strain, Tlx1-expressing cells as well as their descendants were specifically labeled following tamoxifen administration. We also showed by cell lineage tracing that asplenia caused by Tlx1 deficiency is attributable to altered contribution of mesenchymal cells in the spleen anlage to the pancreatic mesenchyme. Thus, Tlx1(Cre) (ER) (-Venus) mice represent a new tool for lineage tracing and conditional gene manipulation of spleen mesenchymal cells, essential approaches for understanding the molecular mechanisms of spleen development.

  17. TGF-β1基因修饰的脾细胞对大鼠肝脏移植免疫耐受的实验研究%Transforming growth factor β1 gene-modified donor spleen cell transfuntion induced liver transplantation immune tolerance in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫振; 李卫; 吴波

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究TGF-β1修饰的供者脾细胞特异性输注对大鼠移植肝脏耐受的诱导及效果.方法 每组选10只雄性SD大鼠为供体,10只雄性Wistar大鼠为受体建立大鼠原位肝脏移植模型,于移植前7天分别经尾静脉输注TGF-β1基因修饰的脾细胞(5×106/mL) 1mL、脾细胞(5 × 106/mL)1 mL、空质粒1 mL、生理盐水1 mL.观察TGF-β1修饰的脾细胞输注组、脾细胞输注组、空质粒输注组、肝移植组存活天数和病理改变及凋亡情况.结果 TGF-β1修饰的脾细胞特异性输注可明显延长移植肝脏存活时间(36.4±4.16)d,与脾细胞输注组(20.0±4.00)d、空质粒输注(7.8±0.84)d、肝移植组(8.4±1.4)d比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);而且可明显减轻移植肝脏的病理损伤.结论 输注TGF-β1基因修饰的供体脾细胞可诱导大鼠移植肝脏的耐受产生.%Objective To study whether TGF-β1 gene-modifide donor spleen cell transfuntion could induce immune tolerance of liver transplatation. Methods In each group, selected 10 male Sprague-Dawely rats as donor and 10 male Wistar rats were established as a receptor for orthotopic liver transplantation. 7 days before transplantation, TGF-β1 gene-modified spleen cells (5×10/mL) 1 mL, spleen cells (5×10/mL) 1 mL, empty vector 1 mL, normal saline 1 mL were infused via the tail vein, respectively. Survival time, the pathological changes and apoptosis were observed in each group. Results TGF-β1-modified spleen cells transfusion could significantly prolong the survival time of ortho-topic liver transplantation (36.4 ±4.16)d, compared with spleen cell infusion group (20.0 ±4.00) d, empty plasmids infusion (7.8 ±0.84)d, liver transplantation group (8.4 ±1.4)d, there was significantly different among four groups (P <0.05); and could significantly reduce the pathological damage of the transplanted liver. Conclusion The infusion of TGF-pl gene modified donor spleen cells can induce the production of rat

  18. An experimental method for rapid growth of liver in spleen. The survival and proliferation of chemically induced preneoplastic hepatocytes in spleen.

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, S. D.; Lee, G.; Medline, A.; Tatematsu, M; Makowka, L.; Farber, E.

    1983-01-01

    Cellular suspensions (2 x 10(6) cells) of isolated preneoplastic liver cells, obtained from carcinogen-treated rats, were injected in the spleens of syngeneic rats divided into groups on the basis of no treatment, partial hepatectomy (PH), and/or feeding regimens including 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). Recipient rats undergoing both PH and AAF showed significantly more rapid proliferation of the preneoplastic liver cell implant, compared with other treatment groups and control. The theoretic b...

  19. Performance evaluation of hybrid modified micro-channel solar cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Solar cell thermal tile, Micro-channel, Electrical efficiency, Thermal modeling. 1. ... than that of the PV modules is heated, while at the same time, the PV module ..... For a number of modified MCSCT tiles connected in series, the outlet ..... Group Technology, Neural Networks, and Non-traditional Optimization and.

  20. Hybrid solar cells from water-soluble polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. McLeskey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of a water-soluble, light-absorbing polythiophene polymer to fabricate novel photovoltaic devices. The polymer is a water-soluble thiophene known as sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl-ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] or PTEBS. The intention is to take advantage of the properties of conjugated polymers (flexible, tunable, and easy to process and incorporate the additional benefits of water solubility (easily controlled evaporation rates and environmentally friendly. The PTEBS polythiophene has shown significant photovoltaic response and has been found to be effective for making solar cells. To date, solar cells in three different configurations have been produced: titanium dioxide (TiO2 bilayer cells, TiO2 bulk heterojunction solar cells, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs in bulk heterojunctions. The best performance thus far has been achieved with TiO2 bilayer devices. These devices have an open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.84V, a short circuit current (Jsc of 0.15 mA/cm2, a fill factor (ff of 0.91, and an efficiency (η of 0.15 %.

  1. Hybrid zinc oxide/graphene electrodes for depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Aashuri, Hossein; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-07

    Recently, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of graphene/nanomaterial heterostructures have emerged as promising candidates for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have employed a facile and in situ solution-based process to prepare zinc oxide/graphene quantum dots (ZnO/G QDs) in a hybrid structure. The prepared hybrid dots are composed of a ZnO core, with an average size of 5 nm, warped with graphene nanosheets. Spectroscopic studies show that the graphene shell quenches the photoluminescence intensity of the ZnO nanocrystals by about 72%, primarily due to charge transfer reactions and static quenching. A red shift in the absorption peak is also observed. Raman spectroscopy determines G-band splitting of the graphene shell into two separated sub-bands (G(+), G(-)) caused by the strain induced symmetry breaking. It is shown that the hybrid ZnO/G QDs can be used as a counter-electrode for heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells for efficient charge-carrier collection, as evidenced by the external quantum efficiency measurement. Under the solar simulated spectrum (AM 1.5G), we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (35%) with higher short current circuit (80%) for lead sulfide-based solar cells as compared to devices prepared by pristine ZnO nanocrystals.

  2. Design of embedded-hybrid antimicrobial peptides with enhanced cell selectivity and anti-biofilm activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerable attention because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and their low prognostic to induce antibiotic resistance which is the most common source of failure in bacterial infection treatment along with biofilms. The method to design hybrid peptide integrating different functional domains of peptides has many advantages. In this study, we designed an embedded-hybrid peptide R-FV-I16 by replacing a functional defective sequence RR7 with the anti-biofilm sequence FV7 embedded in the middle position of peptide RI16. The results demonstrated that the synthetic hybrid the peptide R-FV-I16 had potent antimicrobial activity over a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as anti-biofilm activity. More importantly, R-FV-I16 showed lower hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity. Fluorescent assays demonstrated that R-FV-I16 depolarized the outer and the inner bacterial membranes, while scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy further indicated that this peptide killed bacterial cells by disrupting the cell membrane, thereby damaging membrane integrity. Results from SEM also provided evidence that R-FV-I16 inherited anti-biofilm activity from the functional peptide sequence FV7. Embedded-hybrid peptides could provide a new pattern for combining different functional domains and showing an effective avenue to screen for novel antimicrobial agents.

  3. Cell response to single-walled carbon nanotubes in hybrid porous collagen sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hongli; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous collagen sponges incorporated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were prepared and used for 3D culture of bovine articular chondrocytes (BACs). The pore structures of the sponges were controlled by using ice particulates as a porogen material. The responses of cells to SWCNTs were investigated in this 3D cell culture system by evaluation of cell functions and cellular uptake of SWCNTs. The results showed that cells adhered and spatially distributed in the porous sponges. The incorporation of SWCNTs in the porous sponges promoted cell proliferation and production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG). Confocal Raman imaging revealed that SWCNTs could be internalized by cells. The hybrid porous sponges not only provided nanostructured pore surfaces to facilitate cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion but also supplied nanomaterials for cellular uptake which may be useful for biomedical applications.

  4. Survival of motor neurone protein is required for normal postnatal development of the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alison K; Somers, Eilidh; Powis, Rachael A; Shorrock, Hannah K; Murphy, Kelley; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Parson, Simon H

    2017-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), traditionally described as a predominantly childhood form of motor neurone disease, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Although motor neurones are undoubtedly the primary affected cell type, the severe infantile form of SMA (Type I SMA) is now widely recognised to represent a multisystem disorder where a variety of organs and systems in the body are also affected. Here, we report that the spleen is disproportionately small in the 'Taiwanese' murine model of severe SMA (Smn(-/-) ;SMN2(tg/0) ), correlated to low levels of cell proliferation and increased cell death. Spleen lacks its distinctive red appearance and presents with a degenerated capsule and a disorganised fibrotic architecture. Histologically distinct white pulp failed to form and this was reflected in an almost complete absence of B lymphocytes necessary for normal immune function. In addition, megakaryoctyes persisted in the red pulp. However, the vascular density remained unchanged in SMA spleen. Assessment of the spleen in SMA patients with the infantile form of the disease indicated a range of pathologies. We conclude that development of the spleen fails to occur normally in SMA mouse models and human patients. Thus, further analysis of immune function is likely to be required to fully understand the full extent of systemic disease pathology in SMA.

  5. A hybrid toxin from bacteriophage f1 attachment protein and colicin E3 has altered cell receptor specificity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakes, K S; Davis, N G; Zinder, N D

    1988-01-01

    A hybrid protein was constructed in vitro which consists of the first 372 amino acids of the attachment (gene III) protein of filamentous bacteriophage f1 fused, in frame, to the carboxy-terminal catalytic domain of colicin E3. The hybrid toxin killed cells that had the F-pilus receptor for phage f1 but not F- cells. The activity of the hybrid protein was not dependent upon the presence of the colicin E3 receptor, BtuB protein. The killing activity was colicin E3 specific, since F+ cells expr...

  6. Optimal control of a fuel cell/wind/PV/grid hybrid system with thermal heat pump load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic–wind-fuel cell hybrid power supply system. The hybrid system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater supplying thermal...

  7. Difference in gene expression of macrophage between normal spleen and portal hypertensive spleen idendified by cDNA microarray

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To identify the difference in gene expression of microphage (Mφ) between normal spleen and portal hypertensive spleen using cDNA microarrays and find new gene functions associated with hypersplenism in portal hypertension.

  8. Cytotoxic activity to acute myeloid leukemia cells by Antp-TPR hybrid peptide targeting Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Tomohisa; Kawamoto, Megumi; Kohno, Masayuki; Kawakami, Koji

    2012-07-01

    We previously reported that Antp-TPR hybrid peptide inhibited the interaction of Hsp90 with TPR2A and had selective cytotoxic activity discriminating between normal and cancer cells to induce cancer cell death. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of Antp-TPR peptide toward acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. It was demonstrated that Antp-TPR peptide induced AML cell death in cell lines such as U937, K562, THP-1, and HL-60 via activation of caspases 3 and 7, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conversely, Antp-TPR peptide did not reduce the viability of normal cells including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), although both geldanamycin and 17-AAG, small-molecule inhibitors of Hsp90, mediated cytotoxicity to these normal cells at low concentrations. In addition, mutation analysis of TPR peptide demonstrated that the highly conserved amino acids Lys and Arg were critical to the cytotoxic activity. These results indicated that Antp-TPR hybrid peptide would provide potent and selective therapeutic options in the treatment of AML.

  9. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma involving the spleen and splenic hilum: a report of a case with a rare growth pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Gen; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Hata, Hiroaki; Ogiso, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Otani, Tethushi; Ikai, Iwao

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of dedifferentiated liposarcoma confined to the spleen and splenic hilum. An 81-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a large asymptomatic splenic tumor. The patient underwent splenectomy, and the adipose tissue surrounding the splenic hilum was also resected. Microscopically, the tumor mainly consisted of high-grade spindle cells similar to those seen in undifferentiated pleomorphic liposarcoma. In the splenic hilum, scattered atypical cells were detected in the sclerosing component and adipose tissue. Immunohistochemically, both the spindle cells in the spleen and the atypical cells in the splenic hilum were positive for MDM2 and CDK4. The histopathologic diagnosis was dedifferentiated liposarcoma derived from an atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma of the adipose tissue in the splenic hilum with extension into the spleen. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma in the spleen and splenic hilum should be considered as a differential diagnosis of splenic tumors.

  10. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  11. A Two-stage DC-DC Converter for the Fuel Cell-Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    A wide input range multi-stage converter is proposed with the fuel cells and supercapacitors as a hybrid system. The front-end two-phase boost converter is used to optimize the output power and to reduce the current ripple of fuel cells. The supercapacitor power module is connected by push......-pull-forward half bridge (PPFHB) converter with coupled inductors in the second stage to handle the slow transient response of the fuel cells and realize the bidirectional power flow control. Moreover, this cascaded structure simplifies the power management. The control strategy for the whole system is analyzed...

  12. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel;

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  13. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...... collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector...

  14. The spleen in the sickling disorders: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatib, Rana; Sarnaik, Sharada A. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Carmen and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Detroit, MI (United States); Rabah, Raja [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-01-15

    In early life, patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have acute, life-threatening emergencies related to splenic hypofunction (overwhelming bacterial sepsis), as well as anemic crises from acute splenic sequestration because of sudden pooling of blood in the spleen. The landmark penicillin prophylaxis study in 1985 showed a remarkable decrease in mortality from sepsis in young children with SCD who were treated with oral penicillin prophylaxis compared to placebo. Since that study, newborns are screened for SCD and placed on oral penicillin prophylaxis in nearly all of the United States, as well as in other countries where the disease is highly prevalent. The previously described permanent, complete and nearly universal ''autosplenectomy'' emerging by late childhood or early adulthood is now challenged by recent findings of reversibility of splenic dysfunction by the antisickling drug hydroxyurea or by successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation, even in older patients. Imaging techniques for hypofunction of the spleen are the most commonly used modalities to guide the clinician in decisions regarding medical or surgical management. (orig.)

  15. Hybrid Solar Cell with TiO2 Film: BBOT Polymer and Copper Phthalocyanine as Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptadip Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell was fabricated using Titanium dioxide (TiO2: 2,5-bis(5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl thiophene (BBOT film and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc as a sensitizer. BBOT was used in photodetector in other reported research works, but as per best of our knowledge, it was not implemented in solar cells till date. The blend of TiO2: BBOT blend was used to fabricate the film on ITO-coated glass and further a thin layer of CuPc was coated on the film. This was acted as photoanode and another ITO coated glass with a platinum coating was used as a counter electrode (cathode. An optimal blend of acetonitrile (solvent (50-100%, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (10-25%, iodine (2.5-10% and lithium iodide, pyridine derivative and thiocyanate was used as electrolytes in the hybrid solar cell. The different structural, optical and electrical characteristics were measured. The Hybrid solar cell showed a maximum conversion efficiency of 6.51%.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Supercapacitor-Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source for HY-IEL Scooter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bujlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of development of a hybrid fuel cell supercapacitor power system for vehicular applications that was developed and investigated at the Energy Sources Research Section of the Wroclaw Division of Electrotechnical Institute (IEL/OW. The hybrid power source consists of a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack and an energy-type supercapacitor that supports the system in time of peak power demands. The developed system was installed in the HY-IEL electric scooter. The vehicle was equipped with auxiliary components (e.g., air compressor, hydrogen tank, and electromagnetic valves needed for proper operation of the fuel cell stack, as well as electronic control circuits and a data storage unit that enabled on-line recording of system and vehicle operation parameters. Attention is focused on the system energy flow monitoring. The experimental part includes field test results of a vehicle powered with the fuel cell-supercapacitor system. Values of currents and voltages recorded for the system, as well as the vehicle’s velocity and hydrogen consumption rate, are presented versus time of the experiment. Operation of the hybrid power system is discussed and analysed based on the results of measurements obtained.

  17. Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Microwave Heating for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Martínez-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-n are excellent electron acceptor for hybrid solar cell applications. However, the particle size and properties of the CdS-n products depend largely on the synthesis methodologies. In this work, CdS-n were synthetized by microwave heating using thioacetamide (TA or thiourea (TU as sulfur sources. The obtained CdS-n(TA showed a random distribution of hexagonal particles and contained TA residues. The latter could originate the charge carrier recombination process and cause a low photovoltage (Voc, 0.3 V in the hybrid solar cells formed by the inorganic particles and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. Under similar synthesis conditions, in contrast, CdS-n synthesized with TU consisted of spherical particles with similar size and contained carbonyl groups at their surface. CdS-n(TU could be well dispersed in the nonpolar P3HT solution, leading to a Voc of about 0.6–0.8 V in the resulting CdS-n(TU : P3HT solar cells. The results of this work suggest that the reactant sources in microwave methods can affect the physicochemical properties of the obtained inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, which finally influenced the photovoltaic performance of related hybrid solar cells.

  18. Hybrid microfluidic fuel cell based on Laccase/C and AuAg/C electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, B; Dector, A; Cuevas-Muñiz, F M; Arjona, N; Cruz-Madrid, C; Arana-Cuenca, A; Guerra-Balcázar, M; Arriaga, L G; Ledesma-García, J

    2014-12-15

    A hybrid glucose microfluidic fuel cell composed of an enzymatic cathode (Laccase/ABTS/C) and an inorganic anode (AuAg/C) was developed and tested. The enzymatic cathode was prepared by adsorption of 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Laccase on Vulcan XC-72, which act as a redox mediator, enzymatic catalyst and support, respectively. The Laccase/ABTS/C composite was characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, streaming current measurements (Zeta potential) and cyclic voltammetry. The AuAg/C anode catalyst was characterised by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The hybrid microfluidic fuel cell exhibited excellent performance with a maximum power density value (i.e., 0.45 mW cm(-2)) that is the highest reported to date. The cell also exhibited acceptable stability over the course of several days. In addition, a Mexican endemic Laccase was used as the biocathode electrode and evaluated in the hybrid microfluidic fuel cell generating 0.5 mW cm(-2) of maximum power density.

  19. Understanding polycarbazole-based polymer:CdSe hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lek, Jun Yan; Lam, Yeng Ming; Niziol, Jacek; Marzec, Mateusz

    2012-08-10

    We report for the first time the fabrication and characterization of organic-inorganic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid solar cells made of poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and pyridine-capped CdSe nanorods. By optimizing both CdSe loading and active layer film thickness, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of PCDTBT:CdSe hybrid solar cells were able to reach 2%, with PCDTBT:CdSe devices displaying an open-circuit voltage (V(OC )) that is 35% higher than P3HT:CdSe devices due to the deeper HOMO level of PCDTBT polymer. The performance of PCDTBT:CdSe devices is limited by its morphology and also its lower LUMO energy offset compared to P3HT:CdSe devices. Hence, the performance of PCDTBT:CdSe solar cells could be further improved by modifying the morphology of the films and also by including an interlayer to generate a built-in voltage to encourage exciton dissociation. Our results suggest that PCDTBT could be a viable alternative to P3HT as an electron donor in hybrid BHJ solar cells for high photovoltage application.

  20. Comparative study of two different powertrains for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2016-07-01

    The powertrain plays an essential role in improving the tractive performance and the fuel consumption of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. This paper presents a comparative study of two different powertrains for fuel cell hybrid buses. The significant difference between the two powertrains lies in the types and arrangements of the electrical motor. One powertrain employs an induction motor to drive the vehicle, while the other powertrain adopts two permanent magnetic synchronous motors for near-wheel propulsion. Besides, the tiny difference between the proposed powertrain is the supply path of the fuel cell accessories, which can have an effect on the powertrain efficiency. The component parameters and energy management strategies for the two powertrain are determined. The fuel cell hybrid buses equipped with the two powertrains are developed, and some road tests are achieved, according to the chosen procedures or driving cycles. The paper focuses on the tractive performance and energy analysis of the powertrains based on the testing results. Finally, the paper summarizes the relative merits of the proposed powertrains.

  1. Multiscale tomographic analysis of polymer-nanoparticle hybrid materials for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Jiu, Tonggang; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Chandezon, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    The present work focuses on the study of the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of polymer and nanoparticle hybrid nanocomposites used as active layers in solution-processed solar cells. The hybrid consists of blends of regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene) and CdSe nanorods. Electron tomography (ET) analysis performed in high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) allows resolving single nanorods in the hybrid blend. These results are compared with those obtained using focused ion beam coupled with scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), operated in a so-called 3D ``slice-and-view'' mode. This technique allows 3D information to be obtained on a whole device stack (hybrid active layers plus electrodes and the substrate) for significantly larger surface areas than with ET (~10 vs. ~0.1 μm2). The combination of ET and 3D FIB ``slice-and-view'' reconstructions provides complementary and coherent information on the 3D morphology of the hybrid systems at different length scales. Phase separation between the nanoparticles and the polymer is investigated by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes and is related to the performances of the hybrid devices.The present work focuses on the study of the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of polymer and nanoparticle hybrid nanocomposites used as active layers in solution-processed solar cells. The hybrid consists of blends of regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene) and CdSe nanorods. Electron tomography (ET) analysis performed in high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) allows resolving single nanorods in the hybrid blend. These results are compared with those obtained using focused ion beam coupled with scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), operated in a so-called 3D ``slice-and-view'' mode. This technique allows 3D information to be obtained on a whole device stack (hybrid active layers plus electrodes and the substrate) for

  2. Hybrid bright-field and hologram imaging of cell dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Jaehyun; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-09-01

    Volumetric observation is essential for understanding the details of complex biological phenomena. In this study, a bright-field microscope, which provides information on a specific 2D plane, and a holographic microscope, which provides information spread over 3D volumes, are integrated to acquire two complementary images simultaneously. The developed system was successfully applied to capture distinct T-cell adhesion dynamics on inflamed endothelial layers, including capture, rolling, crawling, transendothelial migration, and subendothelial migration.

  3. Planar organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell by electrospray

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the organic-inorganic perovskite solar cell has attracted great attention due to the easy processing and rapid developed power conversion efficiency. The tri-halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx possessing excellent optical and electronic properties, such as absorption hands span the visible region, long charge carrier diffusion lengths, and appropriate direct band gap, makes them ideal active layer material for photovoltaic devices. In this thesis, electrohydrodynamic spraying is used...

  4. What is moving in hybrid halide perovskite solar cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Jarvist M.; Walsh, Aron

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Organic–inorganic semiconductors, which adopt the perovskite crystal structure, have perturbed the landscape of contemporary photovoltaics research. High-efficiency solar cells can be produced with solution-processed active layers. The materials are earth abundant, and the simple processing required suggests that high-throughput and low-cost manufacture at scale should be possible. While these materials bear considerable similarity to traditional inorganic semiconductors, there are...

  5. Loss of wild-type ATRX expression in somatic cell hybrids segregates with activation of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Kylie; Napier, Christine E; Cole, Sara L; Dagg, Rebecca A; Lau, Loretta M S; Duncan, Emma L; Moy, Elsa L; Reddel, Roger R

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is a non-telomerase mechanism of telomere lengthening that occurs in about 10% of cancers overall and is particularly common in astrocytic brain tumors and specific types of sarcomas. Somatic cell hybridization analyses have previously shown that normal telomerase-negative fibroblasts and telomerase-positive immortalized cell lines contain repressors of ALT activity, indicating that activation of ALT results from loss of one or more unidentified repressors. More recently, ATRX or DAXX was shown to be mutated both in tumors with telomere lengths suggestive of ALT activity and in ALT cell lines. Here, an ALT cell line was separately fused to each of four telomerase-positive cell lines, and four or five independent hybrid lines from each fusion were examined for expression of ATRX and DAXX and for telomere lengthening mechanism. The hybrid lines expressed either telomerase or ALT, with the other mechanism being repressed. DAXX was expressed normally in all parental cell lines and in all of the hybrids. ATRX was expressed normally in each of the four telomerase-positive parental cell lines and in every telomerase-positive hybrid line, and was abnormal in the ALT parental cells and in all but one of the ALT hybrids. This correlation between ALT activity and loss of ATRX expression is consistent with ATRX being a repressor of ALT.

  6. Loss of wild-type ATRX expression in somatic cell hybrids segregates with activation of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Bower

    Full Text Available Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT is a non-telomerase mechanism of telomere lengthening that occurs in about 10% of cancers overall and is particularly common in astrocytic brain tumors and specific types of sarcomas. Somatic cell hybridization analyses have previously shown that normal telomerase-negative fibroblasts and telomerase-positive immortalized cell lines contain repressors of ALT activity, indicating that activation of ALT results from loss of one or more unidentified repressors. More recently, ATRX or DAXX was shown to be mutated both in tumors with telomere lengths suggestive of ALT activity and in ALT cell lines. Here, an ALT cell line was separately fused to each of four telomerase-positive cell lines, and four or five independent hybrid lines from each fusion were examined for expression of ATRX and DAXX and for telomere lengthening mechanism. The hybrid lines expressed either telomerase or ALT, with the other mechanism being repressed. DAXX was expressed normally in all parental cell lines and in all of the hybrids. ATRX was expressed normally in each of the four telomerase-positive parental cell lines and in every telomerase-positive hybrid line, and was abnormal in the ALT parental cells and in all but one of the ALT hybrids. This correlation between ALT activity and loss of ATRX expression is consistent with ATRX being a repressor of ALT.

  7. Correlation of Particle Traversals with Clonogenic Survival Using Cell-Fluorescent Ion Track Hybrid Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokic, Ivana; Niklas, Martin; Zimmermann, Ferdinand; Mairani, Andrea; Seidel, Philipp; Krunic, Damir; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Greilich, Steffen; Abdollahi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Development of novel approaches linking the physical characteristics of particles with biological responses are of high relevance for the field of particle therapy. In radiobiology, the clonogenic survival of cells is considered the gold standard assay for the assessment of cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Toward further development of next generation biodosimeters in particle therapy, cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-FIT-HD) was recently engineered by our group and successfully employed to study physical particle track information in correlation with irradiation-induced DNA damage in cell nuclei. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of Cell-FIT-HD as a tool to study the effects of clinical beams on cellular clonogenic survival. Tumor cells were grown on the fluorescent nuclear track detector as cell culture, mimicking the standard procedures for clonogenic assay. Cell-FIT-HD was used to detect the spatial distribution of particle tracks within colony-initiating cells. The physical data were associated with radiation-induced foci as surrogates for DNA double-strand breaks, the hallmark of radiation-induced cell lethality. Long-term cell fate was monitored to determine the ability of cells to form colonies. We report the first successful detection of particle traversal within colony-initiating cells at subcellular resolution using Cell-FIT-HD. PMID:26697410

  8. Correlation of Particle Traversals with Clonogenic Survival Using Cell-Fluorescent Ion Track Hybrid Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eDokic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of novel approaches linking the physical characteristics of particles with biological responses are of high relevance for the field of particle therapy. In radiobiology, the clonogenic survival of cells is considered the gold standard assay for assessment of cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Towards further development of next generation biodosimeters in particle therapy, cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-FIT-HD was recently engineered by our group and successfully employed to study physical particle track information in correlation with irradiation- induced DNA damage in cell nuclei. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of Cell-FIT-HD as a tool to study the effects of clinical beams on cellular clonogenic survival. Tumor cells were grown on the FNTD as cell culture, mimicking the standard procedures for clonogenic assay. Cell-FIT-HD was used to detect the spatial distribution of particle tracks within colony-initiating cells. The physical data were associated to radiation induced foci as surrogates for DNA double strand breakages (DSB, the hallmark of radiation ‐induced cell lethality. Long‐term cell fate was monitored to determine the ability of cells to form colonies. We report the first successful detection of particle traversal within colony-initiating cells at subcellular resolution using Cell-FIT-HD.

  9. A new method for quantitative analysis of the T cell receptor V region repertoires in healthy common marmosets by microplate hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaura, Kazutaka; Fujii, Yoshiki; Matsutani, Takaji; Shirai, Kenji; Suzuki, Satsuki; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Shimada, Shin; Kametani, Yoshie; Shiina, Takashi; Takabayashi, Shuji; Katoh, Hideki; Ogasawara, Kouetsu; Kurane, Ichiro; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2012-10-31

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is one of the smallest primates and is increasingly used for an experimental nonhuman primate model in many research fields. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires is a powerful tool to investigate T cell immunity in terms of antigen specificity and variability of TCR expression. However, monoclonal antibodies specific for many TCR Vα or Vβ chains have not been created. We have recently identified a large number of TCRα chain variable (TRAV) and TCRβ chain variable (TRBV) sequences from a cDNA library of common marmosets. The purpose of this study is to develop a new method for analysis of TCR repertoires in the common marmoset using this sequence information. This method is based on a microplate hybridization technique using 32 TRAV-specific and 32 TRBV-specific oligoprobes following an adaptor-ligation PCR. This enables the easy quantitation of the respective TRAV and TRBV expression levels. No cross-hybridization among specific-oligoprobes and very low variances in repeated measures of the same samples was found, demonstrating high specificity and reproducibility. Furthermore, this method was validated by an antihuman Vβ23 antibody which specifically bound to marmoset Vβ23. Using this method, we analyzed TCR repertoires from various tissue samples (PBMCs, spleen, lymph node and thymus) and isolated T cell subpopulations (CD4+CD8+, CD4+CD8− and CD4−CD8+) from the thymus of 10 common marmosets. Neither tissue-specific nor T cell subpopulation-specific differences was found in TRAV and TRBV repertoires. These results suggest that, unlike mice, TCR repertoires in the common marmoset are not affected by endogenous superantigens and are conserved among individuals, among tissues, and among T cell subpopulations. Thus, TCR repertoire analysis with high specificity and reproducibility is a very useful technique, with the potential to replace flow cytometric analysis using a panel of TRV-specific antibodies, many

  10. Hybrid resonant organic-inorganic nanostructures for novel light emitting devices and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovich, Vladimir M. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas (United States); Rupasov, Valery I. [ANTEOS, Inc., Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545 (United States); Silvestri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The energy transfer from an inorganic layer to an organic component of resonant hybrid organic/inorganic nanos-tructures can be used for creation of new type of LED. We mentioned the problem of electrical pumping which has to be solved. As was first suggested in 1979 by Dexter the transfer energy in opposite direction from organic part of nanostructure to semiconductor layer can be used for the creation of new type of solar cells. In this note we stress the importance of the idea by Dexter for photovoltaics and solar cells. We argue that the organic part in such hybrid structures can play a role of an effective organic collector of the light energy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Design, Modeling and Energy Management of a PEM Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahib Andari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the study and the modeling of hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM Fuel Cell electric vehicle. In fact, the paper deals with the model description of the powertrain which includes two energy sources: a PEM Fuel Cell as a primary source and a supercapacitor as a secondary source. The architecture is two degrees of freedom permitting a stability of the DC bus voltage. The hybridation of primary source with an energy storage system can improve vehicle dynamic response during transients and hydrogen consumption. The proposed energy management algorithm allows us to have a minimum hydrogen consumption. This algorithm is based on supercapacitor state of charge (SOC control and acceleration/deceleration phases making possible braking energy recovery. The proposed model is simulated and tested using Matlab/Simulink software allowing rapid transitions between sources. The obtained results with the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC cycle demonstrate a 22% gain in hydrogen consumption.

  12. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  13. Array comparative genomic hybridization of keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Kai; Gao, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a benign keratinocytic neoplasm that spontaneously regresses after 3-6 months and shares features with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Furthermore, there are reports of KAs that have metastasized, invoking the question of whether KA is a variant of SCC (Hodak et al., 1993......). To date, no reported criteria are sensitive enough to discriminate reliably between KA and SCC, and consequently there is a clinical need for discriminating markers. Our previous study analyzed 132 KAs and 29 SCCs and revealed significantly different regions of genomic aberrations using chromosomal...

  14. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells and their reaction mechanisms - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    with carbon capture and storage (CCS) due to the high purity of CO2 emitted in the exhaust gas. Direct carbon (or coal) fuel cells (DCFCs) are directly fed with solid carbon to the anode chamber. The fuel cell converts the carbon at the anode and the oxygen at the cathode into electricity, heat and reaction...... is discussed on the fuel cell stack and system levels. The range of DCFC types can be roughly broken down into four fuel cell types: aqueous hydroxide, molten hydroxide, molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells. Emphasis is placed on the electrochemical reactions occurring at the anode and the proposed...... mechanism(s) of these reactions for molten carbonate, solid oxide and hybrid direct carbon fuel cells. Additionally, the criteria of choosing the ‘best’ DCFC technology is explored, including system design (continuous supply of solid fuel), performance (power density, efficiency), environmental burden...

  15. Control strategy of fuel cell/supercapacitors hybrid power sources for electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Raeel, Stephane; Davat, Bernard [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (INPL), GREEN, CNRS (UMR 7037) 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-07-14

    This paper presents a control principle for utilizing PEM fuel cell as main power source and supercapacitors as auxiliary power source for electric vehicle applications. The strategy is based on dc link voltage regulation, and fuel cell is simply operating in almost steady state conditions in order to minimize the mechanical stresses of fuel cell and to ensure a good synchronization between fuel flow and fuel cell current. Supercapacitors are functioning during transient energy delivery or transient energy recovery. To authenticate control algorithms, the system structure is realized by analogical current loops and digital voltage loops (dSPACE). The experimental results with a 500W PEM fuel cell point out the fuel cell starvation problem when operating with dynamic load, and also confirm that the supercapacitor can improve system performance for hybrid power sources. (author)

  16. More stable hybrid organic solar cells deposited on amorphous Si electron transfer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samiee, Mehran; Modtland, Brian; Dalal, Vikram L., E-mail: vdalal@iastate.edu [Iowa State University, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Aidarkhanov, Damir [Nazarbayev University, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2014-05-26

    We report on defect densities, performance, and stability of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells produced using n-doped inorganic amorphous silicon-carbide layers as the electron transport layer (ETL). The organic material was poly-3-hexyl-thiophene (P3HT) and heterojunction was formed using phenyl-C{sub 71}-