WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid seed development

  1. The development of juvenile plants of the hybrid orchid Bratonia after seed cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A S; Popova, E V; Nikishina, T V; Kolomeytseva, G L

    2004-01-01

    The development of juvenile plants of hybrid Bratonia orchid in vitro after seed storage in liquid nitrogen and the effect of nutrient medium composition on protocorm multiplication and plant regeneration were investigated. Cryopreservation did not inhibit the germination rate of seeds. Protocorms derived from cryopreserved seeds developed faster than protocorms from control (unfrozen) seeds during the first 45 days. But during further culturing, this tendency was not retained and finally protocorms from cryopreserved seeds had the same size as control ones. There were no significant differences in leaf number and shoot length between juvenile plants derived from unfrozen and cryopreserved seeds. We found that among four tested media liquid Morel medium was the most preferable for protocorm multiplication, and liquid ?S medium with half-strength macronutrients was the best one for the development of juvenile plants.

  2. Seedling development and evaluation of genetic stability of cryopreserved Dendrobium hybrid mature seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; de Faria, Ricardo Tadeu; Vendrame, Wagner Aparecido

    2014-03-01

    Vitrification, a simple, fast, and recommended cryopreservation method for orchid germplasm conservation, was evaluated for Dendrobium hybrid "Dong Yai" mature seeds. The genetic stability of regenerated seedlings was also evaluated using flow cytometry. Mature seeds from this hybrid were submitted to plant vitrification solution (PVS2) for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 h at 0 °C. Subsequently, they were plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196 °C for 1 h and recovered in half-strength Murashige and Skoog culture medium (1/2 MS), and seed germination was evaluated after 30 days. Seeds directly submitted to LN did not germinate after cryopreservation. Seeds treated with PVS2 between 1 and 3 h presented the best germination (between 51 and 58%), although longer exposure to PVS2 returned moderated germination (39%). Germinated seeds were further subcultured in P-723 culture medium and developed whole seedlings in vitro after 180 days, with no abnormal characteristics, diseases, or nutritional deficiencies. Seedlings were successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions with over 80% survival. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no chromosomal changes on vitrified seedlings, as well as seedlings germinated from the control treatment (direct exposure to LN). These findings indicate that vitrification is a feasible and safe germplasm cryopreservation method for commercial Dendrobium orchid hybrid conservation.

  3. Embryo development and corresponding factors affecting in vitro germination of Cymbidium faberi × C. sinense hybrid seeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Fengtong; Bao, Jianzhong; Sun, Ye; Liu, Chungui; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Tian; Chen, Xiulan

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of embryo development would provide insights into seed quality and subsequent germination events in the interspecific hybridization of Cymbidium faberi ‘Jiepeimei’ × C. sinense ‘Qijianheimo...

  4. Embryo development and corresponding factors affecting in vitro germination of Cymbidium faberi × C. sinense hybrid seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fengtong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of embryo development would provide insights into seed quality and subsequent germination events in the interspecific hybridization of Cymbidium faberi ‘Jiepeimei’ × C. sinense ‘Qijianheimo’. At the mature stage, 26.1% of the ovules were abnormal. Most of the hybrid embryos could develop normally. Abortions mainly occurred at the zygote (9.5% and 2-4-celled embryo (15.1% stages. No germination was observed at 90 and 105 days after pollination (DAP, when the embryo was at the early globular stage, with abundant organelles but no storage materials. During 110-130 DAP, the globular embryo was formed and the starch grains began to accumulate in plastids. The hybrid seeds collected at 120 DAP showed initiation of germination. Germination significantly increased at 135 DAP and was maximal at 150 DAP, during which period the hybrid embryos developed into the late globular stage. The storage materials, i.e. lipid and protein bodies, began to accumulate and the filamentary structures derived from suspensor cells still persisted. After the seeds matured (160 DAP, the germination percentage declined sharply. Safranin staining revealed that the outer seed coat was totally cuticularized and the inner seed coat appeared as a cuticle layer enclosing the embryo proper tightly, which may be the main factor inhibiting the subsequent germination of hybrid seeds. In conclusion, 150 DAP should be the opportune time for the in vitro germination of C. faberi ‘Jiepeimei’ × C. sinense ‘Qijianheimo’ hybrid seeds.

  5. Embryo development and corresponding factors affecting in vitro germination of Cymbidium faberi × C. sinense hybrid seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Li Fengtong; Bao Jianzhong; Sun Ye; Liu Chungui; Ma Hui; Zhang Tian; Chen Xiulan

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of embryo development would provide insights into seed quality and subsequent germination events in the interspecific hybridization of Cymbidium faberi ‘Jiepeimei’ × C. sinense ‘Qijianheimo’. At the mature stage, 26.1% of the ovules were abnormal. Most of the hybrid embryos could develop normally. Abortions mainly occurred at the zygote (9.5%) and 2-4-celled embryo (15.1%) stages. No germination was observed at 90 and 105 days after p...

  6. Effect of zinc salt solutions on the development of chlorophyll and formation of seeds of maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Tafij

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc as an element is considered as one of the most limiting nutrients for crop production, mainly for cereals in the arid areas of the world. The article explores the impact of zinc salts at different concentrations on the course of physiological biochemical processes, germination and development of nine investigated hybrids of maize. In particular, we investigate how zinc nitrate solutions influence physiological biochemical processes of different maize hybrids. It is established that high concentration of zinc salt solution can arrest or inhibit processes of plants growth, exerting an effect typical of heavy metals. The influence of 0.01% and 0.02% of zinc nitrate aqueous solution on the content of chlorophyll and number of seeds on the stalks of different corn hybrids was studied. The results of experiments in which germinating seeds were placed in Petri dishes containing 0.01% and 0.02% nitrate zinc solutions showed that zinc in these quantities stimulates the synthesis of chlorophyll in the leaves in all studied hybrids, thereby stimulating plant growth. Thereafter, low concentrations of salt solutions of the same element stimulated all development processes. Zinc enters the active enzyme centers and participates directly in chlorophyll synthesis. The spray of solutions as foliar fertilizers at critical stages of corn growth increases the number of seeds, the diameter and length of stalk in the early ripening hybrids group, compared with the control. It was shown that lack of zinc affects the formation of seeds. The results of the field experiments showed that corn foliar feeding with 0.01% sodium nitrate increased productivity of the studied hybrids. Symptoms of zinc deficiency develop throughout the whole plant or are localized on the old lower leaves. At first, brownish grey and purple-coloured spots appear on the leaves of the lower and middle layers and then spread over the rest of the plant. The tissue of the areas like these simply

  7. Development of a novel recessive genetic male sterility system for hybrid seed production in maize and other cross-pollinating crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongzhong; Fox, Tim W; Trimnell, Mary R; Wang, Lijuan; Xu, Rui-Ji; Cigan, A Mark; Huffman, Gary A; Garnaat, Carl W; Hershey, Howard; Albertsen, Marc C

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a novel hybridization platform that utilizes nuclear male sterility to produce hybrids in maize and other cross-pollinating crops. A key component of this platform is a process termed Seed Production Technology (SPT). This process incorporates a transgenic SPT maintainer line capable of propagating nontransgenic nuclear male-sterile lines for use as female parents in hybrid production. The maize SPT maintainer line is a homozygous recessive male sterile transformed with a SPT construct containing (i) a complementary wild-type male fertility gene to restore fertility, (ii) an α-amylase gene to disrupt pollination and (iii) a seed colour marker gene. The sporophytic wild-type allele complements the recessive mutation, enabling the development of pollen grains, all of which carry the recessive allele but with only half carrying the SPT transgenes. Pollen grains with the SPT transgenes exhibit starch depletion resulting from expression of α-amylase and are unable to germinate. Pollen grains that do not carry the SPT transgenes are nontransgenic and are able to fertilize homozygous mutant plants, resulting in nontransgenic male-sterile progeny for use as female parents. Because transgenic SPT maintainer seeds express a red fluorescent protein, they can be detected and efficiently separated from seeds that do not contain the SPT transgenes by mechanical colour sorting. The SPT process has the potential to replace current approaches to pollen control in commercial maize hybrid seed production. It also has important applications for other cross-pollinating crops where it can unlock the potential for greater hybrid productivity through expanding the parental germplasm pool.

  8. The development of seed-propagated peach-almond hybrids for use as almond rootstocks (Oral presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach-almond hybrids are becoming increasingly popular rootstocks in California almond orchards due to their enhanced vigor as compared with almond propagated on peach root. However, these hybrids are difficult to root without the use of in vitro micropropagation. The development of uniform and vi...

  9. 7 CFR 1400.212 - Growers of hybrid seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Growers of hybrid seed. 1400.212 Section 1400.212... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.212 Growers of hybrid seed. The existence of a hybrid seed contract for a person or legal entity will not be taken into...

  10. Technology for Hybrid Pepper Seed Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    History of hybrid pepper seed production, the status of annually balanced production, and innovative techniques for the large-scale seed production in China are reviewed. Helped by the technological breakthroughs in these fields, China has been the largest base for hybrid pepper seed production in the world.

  11. Genetic analysis of hybrid seed formation ability of Brassica rapa in intergeneric crossings with Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosaki, K; Michiba, K; Bang, S W; Kitashiba, H; Kaneko, Y; Nishio, T

    2013-03-01

    A hybridization barrier leads to the inability of seed formation after intergeneric crossings between Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus. Most B. rapa lines cannot set intergeneric hybrid seeds because of embryo breakdown, but a B. rapa line obtained from turnip cultivar 'Shogoin-kabu' is able to produce a large number of hybrid seeds as a maternal parent by crossings with R. sativus. In 'Shogoin-kabu' crossed with R. sativus, developments of embryos and endosperms were slower than those in intraspecific crossings, but some of them grew to mature seeds without embryo breakdown. Intergeneric hybrid seeds were obtained in a 'Shogoin-kabu' line at a rate of 0.13 per pollinated flower, while no hybrid seeds were obtained in a line developed from Chinese cabbage cultivar 'Chiifu'. F(1) hybrid plants between the lines of 'Shogoin-kabu' and 'Chiifu' set a larger number of hybrid seeds per flower, 0.68, than both the parental lines. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for hybrid seed formation were analyzed after intergeneric crossings using two different F(2) populations derived from the F(1) hybrids, and three QTLs with significant logarithm of odds scores were detected. Among them, two QTLs, i.e., one in linkage group A10 and the other in linkage group A01, were detected in both the F(2) populations. These two QTLs had contrary effects on the number of hybrid seeds. Epistatic interaction between these two QTLs was revealed. Possible candidate genes controlling hybrid seed formation ability in QTL regions were inferred using the published B. rapa genome sequences.

  12. Importance of permanent improvement of production and control of basic seed of ZP maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality seed is one of the key factors in the commercial maize grain production. In addition, hybrid seed production is conditioned by the production of basic seed of parental inbreds. According to the Law on Seed, 2005, the category of basic seed is defined as: original of self-pollinated plant species, hybrid components and potato elite, produced under control of the Ministry competent for agribusiness and is used for the production of certified seed of the first generation. This paper presents a chronological overview of the overall activity since1945. that led to the modern production of maize seed in our country. The activities have been based on scientific, technical and technological achievements within many fields, ranging from genetics and breeding, through growing practices, processing, quality control and legal regulations concerning all of this. Transition from maize breeding and production to hybrids has provided an amazing development of maize breeding and seed production and also included significant profit. Therefore, maize seed production has become high-technology industry. The scientific and professional work in improving the production of basic seed of ZP maize hybrids has been carried out in stages, and generally followed achievements in maize breeding and genetics, as well as developments in the growing practices and processing. In order to maintain a high quality of maize hybrid seed, as the end product, permanent efforts have to be invested into maize production improvement, drying, processing, storing, genetic purity of basic seed of parental inbreds of ZP maize hybrids, which are grown on the significant percentage of maize production areas not only in Serbia and countries in the region.

  13. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  14. Seed Development and Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  15. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by

  16. PRESENT STATE AND POSSIBILITIES OF MAIZE HYBRIDS SEED PRODUCTION WITH THE REVIEW ON THE EXPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Šimić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present seed production of maize in the Republic of Croatia is reduced in relation to the period before the Patriotic War. Production of maize seed in Croatia was between 14,000 and 21,000 tons yearly in the period from 1981 to 1986. It was reduced to 8000 tons yearly in the period from 1989 to 2001. Today, Croatia has 13 processing centres with the capacity approximately 50,000 tons of seed, but utilisation of these capacities is about 40%. Decreasing of maize seed production is caused by market reduction (less areas under the maize in Croatia and reduced export of maize hybrids seed. Before the Patriotic War, Croatia participated in the total seeds export of former Yugoslavia with 35-40%. The largest export of maize seed was 1983, with the approximately 10,700 tons. Seed export of Bc, Os and KWS hybrids was the Eastern European market, while the seed of Pioneer, SES and part of KWS hybrids was exported on the Western European market. Nowadays, production of maize hybrids at Croatia is about 5000 ha (in the world on about 1 mil. ha with the seed export of 3500 tons, approximately. Today, the largest amount of maize seed is exported in Spain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Slovenia and Turkey. The total value of maize seed production is 20 mil. Euro, approximately. Seed export should be the basic strategic aim in the program of seed production development because areas occupied with mercantile maize (approximately 400,000 ha cannot completely employ capacities for the production of seed.

  17. An Epigenetic Role for Disrupted Paternal Gene Expression in Postzygotic Seed Abortion in Arabidopsis Interspecific Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, Ryan C; Yu, Helen Hong; Nah, Gyoungju; Zhang, Changqing; Shi, Xiaoli; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2015-12-07

    Interspecific hybrids often increase the levels of heterozygosity and hybrid vigor, but some interspecific hybrid seeds are aborted shortly after fertilization. The mechanism behind this postzygotic seed abortion is poorly understood. Here, we report genome-wide analysis of allelic expression changes in developing siliques and seeds in three F1 interspecific crosses between Arabidopsis thaliana (Col, Ler, or C24) and Arabidopsis arenosa. The majority of maternally expressed genes (MEGs) were shared among all three F1 interspecific crosses, whereas ∼90% of 272 paternally expressed genes (PEGs) were found only in one or two F1 crosses, suggesting a role for disrupted paternal gene expression in seed abortion that varies in different crosses. Consistent with this notion, 12 PEGs in the infertile interspecific hybrids matched MEGs in fertile intraspecific hybrids. This disruption of PEGs in the interspecific hybrids was consistent with the upregulation of the genes in the paternal-excess interploidy cross (2X6) between a diploid mother and a hexaploid father, leading to the seed abortion. Moreover, a subset of PEGs in the interspecific crosses were also upregulated in the intraspecific hybrid met1XWT or meaXWT, in which the mutant of MET1 (DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1) or MEDEA, a Polycomb Repressive Complex2 gene, was used as the maternal parent. These data suggest that maternal epigenetic factors and paternal gene expression play important roles in the postzygotic seed abortion in interspecific hybrids or neo-allopolyploids.

  18. Machine Vision Analysis of Characteristics and Image Information Base Construction for Hybrid Rice Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Incompletely closed glumes, germination on panicle and disease ara thrae important factors causing poor seed quality of hybrid rice. To determine how many and which categories should be classified to meet the demand for seed in rice production, the effects of various degrees of incompletely closed glumes, germination on panicle and disease on germination percentage at the harvest and after storage for six months were studied by standard germination percentage test. Six categories of seeds with germ (germinated seeds), severe disease, incompletely closed glumes, spot disease, fine fissure and normal seeds were inspected and then treated separately. Images of the five hybrid rice seed (Jinyou 402, Shanyou 10, Zhongyou 27, Jiayou 99 and Ⅱ you 3207) were acquired with a self-developed machine vision system. Each image could be processed to get the feature values of seed region such as length, width, ratio of length to width, araa, solidity and hue. Then all the images of normal seeds were calculated to draw the feature value ranges of each hybrid rice variety. Finally, an image information base that stores typical images and related feature values of each variety was established. This image information base can help us to identify the classification limit of characteristics, and provide the reference of the threshold selection. The management of large numbers of pictures and the addition of new varieties have been supported. The research laid a foundation for extracting image features of hybrid rice seed, which is a key approach to futura quality inspection with machine vision.

  19. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Krizmanić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012 in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70% as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%, stored in four treatments (Control: processed-untreated seed; T-1: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M; T-2: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. imidacloprid and T-3: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. clothianidin. Based on the obtained results we have determined that sunflower hybrid ‘Luka’, compared to hybrid ‘Apolon’, in the given storage conditions and with the same seed treatment has 5-8% higher germination energy and seed germination and that in climate chamber both hybrids have 5-7% higher germination energy. Seed treatment of both sunflower hybrids with A.I. imidacloprid maximally reduced initial germination energy and seed germination in all tested periods and conditions of storage. On the average, natural seed, after 18 months of storage did not have better seed quality compared to seed treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M while other treatments had more significant influence on reduction of germination energy and seed germination, 6-15%. On the average, compared to other variants, seeds treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M after 18 months of storage in both storage conditions had higher germination energy by 4-15%, and seed germination by 2-12%.

  20. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system.

  1. 7 CFR 457.152 - Hybrid seed corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sterile. Field run. Commercial hybrid seed corn production before it has been dried, screened, or... production from the female parent plants that is not considered commercial hybrid seed corn under the terms... production from the replanted acreage can be delivered under the terms of the hybrid seed corn...

  2. Impact of tropical forage seed development in villages in Thailand and Laos: Research to village farmer production to seed export

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    Michael D. Hare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage varieties, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria, Cayman hybrid brachiaria, Mombasa guinea, Tanzania guinea, Ubon stylo and Ubon paspalum, are currently being produced by more than 1000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported overseas (95% and the remainder is sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of the Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs the seed producing and seed research group, Ubon Forage Seeds, to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper discusses in detail how the development in villages of a smallholder farmer seed production program has had positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed growers and enabled farmers in other countries to receive high quality forage seeds. The strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination, has had a large impact on tropical pastures in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America.

  3. Maternal Effects on Seed and Seedling Phenotypes in Reciprocal F1 Hybrids of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jugpreet; Clavijo Michelangeli, Jose A.; Gezan, Salvador A.; Lee, Hyungwon; Vallejos, C. Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Maternal control of seed size in the common bean provides an opportunity to study genotype-independent seed weight effects on early seedling growth and development. We set out to test the hypothesis that the early heterotrophic growth of bean seedlings is determined by both the relative amount of cotyledon storage reserves and the genotype of the seedling, provided the hybrid genotype could be fully expressed in the seedlings. The hypothesis was tested via comparison of seed weight and seedling growth phenotypes of small-seeded (wild, ~0.10 g) and large-seeded (landrace, ~0.55 g) parents and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. Akaike's Information Criteria were used to estimate growth parameters and identify the phenotypic model that best represented the data. The analysis presented here indicates that the hybrid embryo genotype is not fully expressed during both seed and seedling growth and development. The analysis presented here shows that seed growth and development are controlled by the sporophyte. The strong similarity in seed size and shape of the reciprocal hybrid seed with seeds of the maternal parents is evidence of this control. The analysis also indicates that since the maternal sporophyte controls seed size and therefore the amount of cotyledon reserves, the maternal sporophyte indirectly controls early seedling growth because the cotyledons are the primary nutrient source during heterotrophic growth. The most interesting and surprising results indicated that the maternal effects extended to the root architecture of the reciprocal hybrid seedlings. This phenomenon could not be explained by seed size, but by alterations in the control of the pattern of gene expression of the seedling, which apparently was set by a maternally controlled mechanism. Although seed weight increase was the main target of bean domestication, it also had positive repercussions on early-growth traits and stand establishment. PMID:28174586

  4. Brachiaria hybrids: potential, forage use and seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Pizarro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brachiaria breeding program initiated in 1988 at CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia combined desirable attributes found in accessions of Brachiaria brizantha and B. decumbens. Three apomictic hybrids have been released (cvv. Mulato, Mulato II and Cayman. Mulato showed agronomic potential but seed yields were low. Trials in Central America demonstrated the superiority of Mulato II, a vigorous grass with deep and branched roots, giving it excellent drought tolerance in the Brazilian Cerrado and Mexico, plus outstanding nutritional value. Following trials in Mexico and Thailand, evaluating 155 new hybrids for 7 years, cv. Cayman was released due to strong waterlogging tolerance. Research on production, quality and seed yields of brachiaria hybrids in Asia, the Americas and Africa from 2003 to 2013 is summarized in this paper.

  5. Production, Marketing and Value Chain Mapping of 'Srijana' Tomato Hybrid Seed in Nepal

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    Dinesh Babu Thapa Magar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A tomato variety known as ‘Srijana’ developed by Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC has been substantially popular among Nepalese farmers and entrepreneurs. To understand the seed value chain of the Srijana hybrid tomato, a survey was conducted in 2014/15 with public research and extension institutions, private seed companies/firms, non-governmental organization and community group including individual farmers, involved in Srijana tomato seed production. The survey covered random selection of 30 agro-vets and 30 farmers in Kathmandu valley, Kavre, Nuwakot, Dolakha and Kaski districts, Nepal where production of Srijana tomato seed is mostly concentrated. A focus group discussion was also conducted with commercial tomato farmers in each of the study districts. The study showed a total production of 293 kg Srijana seed having a value of around 47 million Nepalese Rupees (US $ 470 thousands in year 2013/14. Private sector was the dominant actor sharing about 85% of the total Srijana seed production followed by non-governmental organization (10%, farmers group (3% and governmental station/farm/centers (2%, respectively. Out of the total Srijana seed produced, about 95% was consumed in domestic market while 5% was exported to India. The study revealed increasing trend of production, supply and price of Srijana tomato seed. About 0.3 million NRs (US $ 3,000 profit was estimated through the production of Srijana tomato seed in 0.05 hectares (500 m2 of land. Agro-vets (private sector seed dealers were the major actors for supplying the seed from the producers to farms and received a higher profit margins. The farmers producing and selling the seed in technical assistance of public agencies received higher producer`s share (66.6% than farmers producing and selling seed through own group (60%, technical assistance of non-governmental organization (53.3%, and in contract with private seed companies (26.7%. Majority of commercial tomato farmers

  6. Brachiaria hybrids: potential, forage use and seed yield

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban A. Pizarro; Michael D. Hare; Mpenzi Mutimura; Bai Changjun

    2013-01-01

    A brachiaria breeding program initiated in 1988 at CIAT (Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia) combined desirable attributes found in accessions of Brachiaria brizantha and B. decumbens. Three apomictic hybrids have been released (cvv. Mulato, Mulato II and Cayman). Mulato showed agronomic potential but seed yields were low. Trials in Central America demonstrated the superiority of Mulato II, a vigorous grass with deep and branched roots, giving it excellent drought to...

  7. Biochemical changes in hybrid pumpkin seeds at different stages of maturation

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    Patrícia Pereira da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate biochemical changes in seeds of the pumpkin hybrid, 'Jabras', from fruit harvested at different stages of maturation (15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after anthesis. Thirty fruit were harvested at each stage, with the seeds from 15 of the fruit being extracted immediately. The remaining 15 were stored for twenty days in plastic boxes and the seeds extracted after this period. After processing and drying the seeds, the following were determined: moisture content, germination, first count and antioxidant enzyme activity (peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. Seeds from the fruit harvested at 30 DAA displayed low values for germination and vigour and high antioxidant enzyme activity, indicating that they were immature and that drying possibly caused damage to the system of cell membranes. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that analysis related to changes in the activity of enzymes during development and maturation of the seeds was effective in evaluating the physiological and biochemical changes in pumpkin seeds of the 'Jabras' cultivar.

  8. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of Arabidopsis in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves.

  9. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V

    2015-06-15

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility-fertility restoration system by engineering the in most nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high-level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy-related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1(NT131)) with TBPm3 (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum-specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1(L105A)) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1-mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops.

  10. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Different Involvement of Embryo and Endosperm Proteins during Aging of Yliangyou 2 Hybrid Rice Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xue; Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian M.; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Seed aging is a process that results in a delayed germination, a decreased germination percentage, and finally a total loss of seed viability. However, the mechanism of seed aging is poorly understood. In the present study, Yliangyou 2 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were artificially aged at 100% relative humidity and 40°C, and the effect of artificial aging on germination, germination time course and the change in protein profiles of embryo and endosperm was studied to understand the molecular mechanism behind seed aging. With an increasing duration of artificial aging, the germination percentage and germination rate of hybrid rice seeds decreased. By comparing the protein profiles from the seeds aged for 0, 10 and 25 days, a total of 91 and 100 protein spots were found to show a significant change of more than 2-fold (P cell defense and rescue (28%), and with storage protein (18%). In endosperms, most of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism (37%), in energy (27%), and in protein synthesis and destination (11%). The most marked change was the increased abundance of many glycolytic enzymes together with the two fermentation enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the embryos during aging. We hypothesize that the decreased viability of hybrid rice seeds during artificial aging is caused by the development of hypoxic conditions in the embryos followed by ethanol accumulation.

  11. EST-SSR Markers Development from Cucurbita and Their Use in Purity Testing of F1 Hybrid Seed%南瓜属EST-SSR标记的开发及在杂种纯度鉴定中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国裕; 张帆; 姜立纲; 翟伟卜; 李海真

    2011-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags(ESTs) are a source of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that can be used to develop molecular markers for genetic studies. The object of the present study is to develop EST-SSR markers from Cucurbita and uses these markers in quickly purity testing of F1 hybrid seed. The availability of 1457 ESTs for cucurbita,which documented in GenBank, provided a unique opportunity to develop EST-SSR markers, and 215 SSRs were identified among these non-redundant EST sequences. These SSRs contained 2 - 6 bp nucleotide motifs including 111 different motif types. The trinucleotide repeat is the dominant type,accounting for 40% with 86 motifs, and the frequency of occurrence of dinucleotide repeat is 28. 84% with 62 motifs. Among these motifs,CT motif (21 ,9. 77% ) was the most common type,and then were TC and AAG motifs,accounting for 6. 05% and 5. 58% , respectively. A total of 215 primer pairs were designed and 43 of them were synthesized and used to determine their usability by amplification in 4 Cucurbita inbred lines. The results show that 28 of them could successfully amplify, accounting for 65. 12% of testing primer pairs. Then these primer pairs were used to test the F, hybrid seed purity in Cucurbita. Seed genetic purity from 13 combinations ranged from 79. 2% to 100. 0% .which were in high accordance with those from field grow-out trials. Taken together, this study reported an effective and feasible approach to develop SSR markers for cucurbita,and demonstrated their usefulness in purity testing of hybrid squash seed.%为利用SSR标记进行快速、准确的南瓜杂交种纯度分析,进行了南瓜EST-SSR标记的开发.从NCBI数据库下载1 457条南瓜属作物EST序列,去除冗余序列后进行SSR位点搜索,共得到215条含有SSR位点的EST序列.这些SSR位点包含111种重复基元,其中二核苷酸(62个,占28.84%)和三核苷酸(86个,占40.0%)重复类型占主导地位;重复基元中出现最多的是CT(21个,占9.77

  12. Indirect Effects of Field Management on Pollination Service and Seed Set in Hybrid Onion Seed Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Williams, Neal

    2015-12-01

    Pollination in crops, as in native ecosystems, is a stepwise process that can be disrupted at any stage. Healthy pollinator populations are critical for adequate visitation, but pollination still might fail if crop management interferes with the attraction and retention of pollinators. Farmers must balance the direct benefits of applying insecticide and managing irrigation rates against their potential to indirectly interfere with the pollination process. We investigated these issues in hybrid onion seed production, where previous research has shown that high insecticide use reduces pollinator attraction. We conducted field surveys of soil moisture, nectar production, pollinator visitation, pollen-stigma interactions, and seed set at multiple commercial fields across 2 yr. We then examined how management actions, such as irrigation rate (approximated by soil moisture), or insecticide use could affect the pollination process. Onions produced maximum nectar at intermediate soil moisture, and high nectar production attracted more pollinators. Insecticide use weakly affected pollinator visitation, but when applied close to bloom reduced pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Ultimately, neither soil moisture nor insecticide use directly affected seed set, but the high correlation between pollinator visitation and seed set suggests that crop management will ultimately affect yields via indirect effects on the pollination process. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Hybrid rice achievements, development and prospect in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Guo-hui; YUAN Long-ping

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the history and progress of hybrid rice development. Hybrid rice research was initiated back in 1964, and commercialized in 1976. Three-line and two-line system hybrid rice were developed in 1974 and 1995, respectively. Research on super hybrid rice, which was ifrst launched by Ministry of Agriculture, China in 1996, is discussed, and the great progress of super hybrid rice had been achieved with a new yield record by 15.4 t ha–1 in the 6.84 ha demonstration location in Xupu, Hunan Province, China in 2014. And the mechanism of heterosis, the techniques of hybrid seed production and the modern ifeld managements in hybrid rice over the past decades are also discussed. Additional y, this article dealt with the intel ectual property protection (IPR) and development of hybrid rice seed industry in China. Major factors that constrain hybrid rice development are analyzed and possible solutions to this problems are proposed. Final y, the authors present methods to further increase production yield, and propose an improvement for breeding super high-yielding hybrid rice based on these methods.

  14. Evaluation of new hybrid brachiaria lines in Thailand. 2. Seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three new hybrid bracharia lines bred at CIAT, Colombia, were evaluated for seed production in Northeast Thailand between 2006 and 2010 in 2 experiments at 2 sites, Ubon Ratchathani and Amnart Charoen. These lines were compared with Mulato II hybrid brachiaria. From the BR02 collection, 4 lines, BR02/1718, BR02/1752, BR02/1794 and BR02/0465, were granted Plant Variety Rights in 2011. BR02/1794 produced more seed than Mulato II on most occasions, including both harvests at Ubon Ratchathani and 2 of 3 harvests at Amnart Charoen. The next best yielding lines were BR02/1718 and BR02/0465, which produced more seed than Mulato II in 1 of 2 harvests at Ubon Ratchathani and 2 of 3 harvests at Amnart Charoen. Seed-set (percentage of cleaned seed to spikelets was generally very low in all hybrid lines (1–12%. The reasons for low seed-set in hybrid brachiaria grasses are discussed, including: being a common defect in newly formed apomictic forage hybrids; previous selection for seed yield not being rigorous enough; and insufficient selection at latitudes and sites where commercial brachiaria seed production is practiced.Keywords: Cayman, Cobra, Mulato II, seed yields, seed yield components.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(394-103 

  15. Post-anthesis development of oil content and composition with respect to seed moisture in two high-oleic sunflower hybrids in the northern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiccating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) at physiological maturity (PM) or as early as possible can be used to hasten harvest and thus, reduce yield loss associated with severe weather, plant degradation, and bird predation. Previous work showed that two modern oilseed sunflower hybrids studied ...

  16. Capsule formation and asymbiotic seed germination in some hybrids of Phalaenopsis, influenced by pollination season and capsule maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balilashaki, Khosro; Gantait, Saikat; Naderi, Roohangiz; Vahedi, Maryam

    2015-07-01

    We explored the influence of pollination season and maturity of capsule on post-pollination capsule formation and in vitro asymbiotic seed germination, respectively. Three Phalaenopsis orchid hybrids, namely, 'Athens', 'Moscow' and 'Lusaka' flowers were artificially self-pollinated during winter, spring, summer and fall seasons and the impact of the pollination seasons was evident during capsule formation. It was observed that winter was the most suitable season for pollination of all the three Phalanaeopsis hybrids resulting in 80-88 % capsule formation. During summer, the pollination success rate was 24-28 %, but resulted in successful capsule formation. Season of pollination further delimited the germination efficiency of seeds harvested from capsules of variable maturity levels. Invariably, seeds collected from winter-pollinated capsules performed best in germination compared to other seasons, for instance, 'Moscow' seeds took less than 14 days to germinate from capsules developed following winter-pollination. Regarding the influence of capsule maturity on seed germination, we observed that seeds derived from 5-month mature capsules, invariably took least time to germinate than that of the 3-month or 7-month in all three hybrids, e.g., for 'Moscow' it was 13.9 days with a maximum of 90.3 % germination.

  17. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P.; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility–fertility restoration system by engineering the inmost nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high–level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy–related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1NT131) with TBPm3 (HFR1NT131-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum–specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1L105A) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1–mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1NT131-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops. PMID:26073981

  18. Genetic analysis of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis deals with the genetic aspects of seed development in Arabidopsisthaliana. Mutants affected in several aspects of seed development and, more specifically, in seed maturation have been isolated by various selection procedures. The mutants have been analyzed genetically, physiologically,

  19. Phenolic Composition Analysis and Gene Expression in Developing Seeds of Yellow-and Black-seeded Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinjin Jiang; Yanlin Shao; Aimin Li; Chunliang Lu; Yongtai Zhang; Youping Wang

    2013-01-01

    Breeders have focused on yellow-seeded Brassica napus (rapeseed) for its better quality compared with the black-seeded variety.Moreover,flavonoids have been associated with this kind of rapeseed.In this study,we applied lipid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MSn) to compare flavonoids in developing seeds of natural black-seeded B.napus and yellow-seeded introgression lines selected from progenies of B.napus-Sinapis alba somatic hybrids.Aside from the most abundant phenolic compounds (sinapine and sinapic acid) and 1,2-disinapoylglucose,16 different flavonoids were identified and quantified,including (-)-epicatechin,five monocharged oligomers of (-)-epicatechin ([DP 2]-,[DP 3]-,[DP 4] [DP 2]-B2 and [DP 2]-B5),quercetin,kaempferol,isorhamnetin-dihexoside,kaempferol-sinapoyl-trihexoside,isorhamnetinsinapoyl-trihexoside,isorhamnetin-hexoside-sulfate,and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside.Most of the flavonoids accumulated with seed development,whereas some rapidly decreased during maturation.The content of these flavonoids was lower in the yellow-seeded materials than in the black seeds.In addition,variations of insoluble procyanidin oligomers and soluble phenolic acids were observed among both rapeseed varieties.Transcriptome changes of genes participating in the flavonoid pathway were discovered by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis.Consistent with flavonoid changes identified by high performance liquid chromatography analysis,the expression of most genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway was also downregulated.

  20. Abscisic acid and assimilate partitioning during seed development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de S.M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on the transport of assimilates to seeds and the deposition of reserves in seeds. It is well-known from literature that ABA accumulates in seeds during development, and that ABA concentrations in seeds correlate rather well with seed size an

  1. The seed physiological potential of hybrid corn treated with insecticides and store in two environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Fátima Baldiga Tonin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment is a widely disseminated practice in Brazilian cultural areas, which linked to other cultural practices, has contributed to the increase in productivity, cost reduction, final product improvement, environmental damage reduction as well as good seed protection in the field level and storage. The work had the objective to check the insecticide effect on the germination and vigor of the hybrid maize seeds, stored in two environmental conditions. The seeds were treated with three insecticides, identified as: Insecticide one (Thiametoxan; Insecticide two (Neonicotinoide and Insecticide three [Neonicotinoide + (Imidaclopride+thiodicarbe]. After being treated, the seeds were stored for a period of 270 days, in two different places, one with (10ºC temperature and relative humidity (60% and another under normal condition of storage. During this period evaluations were accomplished every 45 days, through germination and vigor tests. In addition to germination and cooling tests, sanitation analysis, seedling emergency and seed inoculation were carried out. After that the seeds were stored for a period of 30 days in environmental places with and without control of air condition. The results obtained allow to conclude that the maintenance of seed quality of hybrid maize, treated with insecticides, depends on the hybrid and chemical product used in their treatment and that the reduction in feasibility and vigor of seeds treated with thiametoxan is intensified due to the storage period extension.

  2. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  3. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin-Hong; Lee, Soon-Leong; Ng, Kevin Kit-Siong; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2009-04-01

    The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean+/- s.e. t(m) = 0.86+/-0.01). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%-70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%-37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies.

  4. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium × A. auriculiformis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chin-Hong Ng; Soon-Leong Lee; Kevin Kit-Siong Ng; Norwati Muhammad; Wickneswari Ratnam

    2009-04-01

    The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium × A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean±s.e. $t_{m} = 0.86\\pm 0.01$). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%–70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%–37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (< 1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies.

  5. [Testing of germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-nian; Jiang, Dan; Liu, Ying-ying; Ding, Wei-min; Ding, Qi-shuo; Zha, Liang-yu

    2014-06-01

    Germination rate of rice seeds was measured according to technical stipulation of germination testing for agricultural crop seeds at present. There existed many faults for this technical stipulation such as long experimental period, more costing and higher professional requirement. A rapid and non-invasive method was put forward to measure the germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two varieties of hybrid rice seeds were aged artificially at temperature 45 degrees C and humidity 100% condition for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds with different aging time were acquired individually by near-infrared spectra analyzer. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds were randomly divided into calibration set (168 samples) and prediction set (112 samples). Gormination rate of rice seed with different aging time was tested. Regression model was established by using partial least squares (PLS). The effect of the different spectral bands on the accuracy of models was analyzed and the effect of the different spectral preprocessing methods on the accuracy of models was also compared. Optimal model was achieved under the whole bands and by using standardization and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) preprocessing algorithms with CM2000 software for spectral data of 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds, the coefficient of determination of the calibration set (Rc) and that of the prediction set (Rp) were 0.965 and 0.931 individually, standard error of calibration set (SEC) and that of prediction set (SEP) were 1.929 and 2.899 respectively. Relative error between tested value and predicted value for prediction set of rice seeds is below 4.2%. The experimental results show that it is feasible that rice germination rate is detected rapidly and nondestructively by using the near-infrared spectroscopy analysis technology.

  6. Effect of hybrid, storage conditions and seed protection on sunflower field emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed emergence under field conditions decisively and directly determines the number of plants per hectare, which is one of three basic components of yield in the plant world. Influence of chemical treatment on field emergence of three commercial sunflower hybrids stored in different conditions was tested in 2007 and 2008 on experimental field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. On average, hybrid H1 had the highest value of field emergence (88.79% and for chemical treatment fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (87.71%. Seed kept in common storage had the highest emergence value in fi eld (87.92%. Seed treated with fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid and stored for one year in common storage had the highest field emergence (90.18%. Considering interaction between storage conditions and genotype, hybrid H1 seed sown after chemical treatment had the highest field emergence (91.82% and seed kept in common storage (90.48%. Hybrid H1 seed compared with other two had the highest field emergence treated with fludioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (91.84%.

  7. Discrimination of Maize Haploid Seeds from Hybrid Seeds Using Vis Spectroscopy and Support Vector Machine Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Guo, Ting-ting; Li, Hao-chuan; Jia, Shi-qiang; Yan, Yan-lu; An, Dong; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Shao-jiang

    2015-11-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) lines are routinely applied in the hybrid maize breeding programs of many institutes and companies for their advantages of complete homozygosity and short breeding cycle length. A key issue in this approach is an efficient screening system to identify haploid kernels from the hybrid kernels crossed with the inducer. At present, haploid kernel selection is carried out manually using the"red-crown" kernel trait (the haploid kernel has a non-pigmented embryo and pigmented endosperm) controlled by the R1-nj gene. Manual selection is time-consuming and unreliable. Furthermore, the color of the kernel embryo is concealed by the pericarp. Here, we establish a novel approach for identifying maize haploid kernels based on visible (Vis) spectroscopy and support vector machine (SVM) pattern recognition technology. The diffuse transmittance spectra of individual kernels (141 haploid kernels and 141 hybrid kernels from 9 genotypes) were collected using a portable UV-Vis spectrometer and integrating sphere. The raw spectral data were preprocessed using smoothing and vector normalization methods. The desired feature wavelengths were selected based on the results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The wavelengths with p values above 0. 05 were eliminated because the distributions of absorbance data in these wavelengths show no significant difference between haploid and hybrid kernels. Principal component analysis was then performed to reduce the number of variables. The SVM model was evaluated by 9-fold cross-validation. In each round, samples of one genotype were used as the testing set, while those of other genotypes were used as the training set. The mean rate of correct discrimination was 92.06%. This result demonstrates the feasibility of using Vis spectroscopy to identify haploid maize kernels. The method would help develop a rapid and accurate automated screening-system for haploid kernels.

  8. Seed quality and water use characteristics of maize landraces compared with selected commercial hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Mazvimbakupa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding seed quality and water use characteristics of maize (Zea mays L. landraces will improve food security among subsistence farmers who still cultivate them. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed quality and water use characteristics of two maize landraces (GQ1 and GQ2 compared with two commercial hybrids (SC701 and PAN53. Seed quality was determined by the standard germination, electrical conductivity, and tetrazolium tests. A controlled environment study was conducted in which the landraces were compared with hybrids across three water treatments (30% ETc; 50% ETc, and 80% ETc. Although landrace GQ2 performed at par with the hybrids, overall, seed quality tests showed that hybrids had superior seed quality than landraces. This was also confirmed by highly significant emergence results (P < 0.001 from pot trials where SC701 and PAN53 had higher emergence (100% and 94.44%, respectively compared with GQ2 (86.11% and GQ1 (61.11%. Subjecting landraces and hybrids to water stress (50% and 30% ETc resulted in shorter plants with fewer leaves and earlier tasselling compared with non-stressed plants (80% ETc. Plant height for the 30% ETc water treatment was 156.1 cm compared with 175.8 cm for the 80% ETc water treatment, while plants under the 30% ETc water treatment tasseled at 105.4 d compared with 129.5 d for the 80% ETc water treatment. The GQ2 landrace continued to perform similar to, and often better, than the hybrid varieties, especially under stress conditions. Yield was poor under controlled conditions. Performance of the GQ2 landrace for both seed quality tests and under controlled conditions shows that landraces remain an important germplasm resource.

  9. Abscisic acid and assimilate partitioning during seed development.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijn, de, NG Dick

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on the transport of assimilates to seeds and the deposition of reserves in seeds. It is well-known from literature that ABA accumulates in seeds during development, and that ABA concentrations in seeds correlate rather well with seed size and seed growth rates. However, since ABA is at least partly synthesized in the leaves and transported to the seeds via the phloem, a correlation between ABA levels and growth rate can easily be expl...

  10. Characterisation by molecular hybridization of RNA fragments isolated from ancient (1400 B.C.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, F

    1985-12-01

    The analysis of cress seeds from Thebes dated approximately 1400 years B.C. showed that fragments of RNA up to 10 bases in length were still present in the ancient seeds. After having been made radioactive at the 5'OH terminus, the RNA fragments were used as probes in a spot hybridization experiment. They were shown to hybridize to cress DNA and, to a lesser extent, to that of phylogenetically distant species. When fixed onto nitrocellulose and probed with different cloned genes, the RNA fragments were shown to originate from breakage of the 25 and 18s cytoplasmic rRNA.

  11. Analysis of seed and maternal genetic effects on cooking quality characters in indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIChunhai; ZHUJun

    1994-01-01

    We analysed seed and maternal genetic effects on characters of cooking quality in indica hybrid riceby using the model for quantitative characters of seeds of cereal crops. IncompLete dialiel crosses were made by using six male sterile lines (Zhenshan 97A, Erjiuqing A, Erjiunan 1A, V2OA, Zhe'nan |A and Zhe'nan 3A)as females and three restorer lines (Cezao 2-2, T49 and 26715) as males. Sampled seeds were used to measure the cooking quality characters ncluding amylose content (%), gelatinization temperature (alkali spreading score)and gelconsistency(ram).

  12. RAPD Technique Used to Determine the Purity of Hybrid Hot Pepper Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two hybrid hot pepper varieties Xiangyan 5 and Xiangyan 10, and their parents were analyzed the polymerase chain reaction with MJ /PT 200 Peltrier Themal Cycler and DS 800 White-ultravilot Transilluminator to set up a RAPD system adaptable to the purity determination of the hybrid seeds. Among the 39 random primers, 2 and 4 primers were found to be used effectively in Xiangyan 5 and Xiangyan 10 respectively.

  13. Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

  14. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  15. Direction of Pollination Affects Seed Productivity in (Shortleaf x Loblolly) x Loblolly Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy La Farge; Davie L. Hunt

    1980-01-01

    In reciprocal crosses between shortleaf X loblolly pine hybrids and loblolly pines, seed production per pollinated flower was higher when the loblolly pine was the mother tree. We therefore recommend that loblolly pines be favored as mother trees in such work, even though storage of pollen for 1 year is required.

  16. Response of SC704 maize hybrid seed production to planting pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed Reza

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... 1Safiabad Research Center, Dezful, Iran. 2Department of ... Key words: Planting pattern, seed produce, corn grain, S.C.704 hybrid. INTRODUCTION ... plants for light, moisture and food would decrease and plants will have a ...

  17. 'US Early Pride', a very low-seeded, early-maturing mandarin hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘US Early Pride’ is an irradiation-induced, very low-seeded mutant of the ‘Fallglo’ mandarin hybrid [‘Bower’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco x (C. paradisi Macf. X C. reticulata) x Temple’]. Mature ‘Fallglo’ budwood was irradiated in 1991 using 3 kRAD units of gamma irradiation from a Cobalt-60 source in ...

  18. Evaluation of the agronomic performance of atrazine-tolerant transgenic japonica rice parental lines for utilization in hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luhua; Chen, Haiwei; Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9-7.0% or 0.8-8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0-59.2% or 28.1-30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production.

  19. Evaluation of the agronomic performance of atrazine-tolerant transgenic japonica rice parental lines for utilization in hybrid seed production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.. To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer, and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9-7.0% or 0.8-8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0-59.2% or 28.1-30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production.

  20. Evaluation of the Agronomic Performance of Atrazine-Tolerant Transgenic japonica Rice Parental Lines for Utilization in Hybrid Seed Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9–7.0% or 0.8–8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0–59.2% or 28.1–30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production. PMID:25275554

  1. Study on diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in seeds of hybrid maize and their parental lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zuo, Shan; Xu, Liwen; Zou, Yuanyuan; Song, Wei

    2012-12-01

    The seeds of plants are carriers of a variety of beneficial bacteria and pathogens. Using the non-culture methods of building 16S rDNA libraries, we investigated the endophytic bacterial communities of seeds of four hybrid maize offspring and their respective parents. The results of this study show that the hybrid offspring Yuyu 23, Zhengdan958, Jingdan 28 and Jingyu 11 had 3, 33, 38 and 2 OTUs of bacteria, respectively. The parents Ye 478, Chang 7-2, Zheng 58, Jing 24 and Jing 89 had 12, 36, 6, 12 and 2 OTUs, respectively. In the hybrid Yuyu 23, the dominant bacterium Pantoea (73.38 %) was detected in its female parent Ye 478, and the second dominant bacterium of Sphingomonas (26.62 %) was detected in both its female (Ye 478) and male (Chang 7-2) parent. In the hybrid Zhengdan 958, the first dominant bacterium Stenotrophomonas (41.67 %) was detected in both the female (Zheng 58) and male (Chang 7-2) parent. The second dominant bacterium Acinetobacter (9.26 %) was also the second dominant bacterium of its male parent. In the hybrid Jingdan 28, the second dominant bacterium Pseudomonas (12.78 %) was also the second dominant bacterium of its female parent, and its third dominant bacterium Sphingomonas (9.90 %) was the second dominant bacterium of its male parent and detected in its female parent. In the hybrid Jingyu 11, the first dominant bacterium Leclercia (73.85 %) was the third dominant bacterium of its male parent, and the second dominant bacterium Enterobacter (26.15 %) was detected in its male parent. As far as we know, this was the first research reported in China on the diversity of the endophytic bacterial communities of the seeds of various maize hybrids with different genotypes.

  2. Trends in the Development of Hybrid Drives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Josef Morkus

    2016-01-01

    .... This paper deals with the growth in sales of vehicles with hybrid propulsion, the directions of their technological development, new solutions for transmission systems, the capacity and location...

  3. Impact of heat stress during seed development on soybean seed metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed development is a temperature-sensitive process that is much more vulnerable than vegetative tissues to abiotic stresses. Climate change is expected to increase the incidence and severity of summer heatwaves, and the impact of heat stress on seed development is expected to become more widespread...

  4. Strategic research on the development of China's seed enterprises (brief)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The development of agricultural industry dependson the development of seed sector to a large degree. As amain means of agricultural production, seed is producedand marketed by oneself for a long tine in China. Withthe development of science and technology and the growthof market economy, seed industry has grown into the mostimportant leading sector in developed countries'agricultural industry. As China is gearing its economy andeconomic system to the world after the country's entry intothe WTO, the research on the development strategy ofChina's seed enterprises is particularly necessary.

  5. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3 is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe', along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless', following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF, both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  6. Localization of peroxidase mRNAs in soybean seeds by in situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, M.; Miller, S.S.; Bowman, L.; Batchelor, A.K.; Boutilier, K.; Miki, B.L.A.

    1999-01-01

    The soybean Ep gene encodes an anionic peroxidase enzyme that accumulates in large amounts in seed coat tissues. We have isolated a second peroxidase gene, Prx2, that is also highly expressed in developing seed coat tissues. Sequence analysis of Prx2 cDNA indicates that this transcript encodes a cat

  7. Do Hybrid Trees Inherit Invasive Characteristics? Fruits of Corymbia torelliana X C. citriodora Hybrids and Potential for Seed Dispersal by Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Helen Margaret; Leonhardt, Sara Diana

    2015-01-01

    Tree invasions have substantial impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and trees that are dispersed by animals are more likely to become invasive. In addition, hybridisation between plants is well documented as a source of new weeds, as hybrids gain new characteristics that allow them to become invasive. Corymbia torelliana is an invasive tree with an unusual animal dispersal mechanism: seed dispersal by stingless bees, that hybridizes readily with other species. We examined hybrids between C. torelliana and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora to determine whether hybrids have inherited the seed dispersal characteristics of C. torelliana that allow bee dispersal. Some hybrid fruits displayed the characteristic hollowness, resin production and resin chemistry associated with seed dispersal by bees. However, we did not observe bees foraging on any hybrid fruits until they had been damaged. We conclude that C. torelliana and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora hybrids can inherit some fruit characters that are associated with dispersal by bees, but we did not find a hybrid with the complete set of characters that would enable bee dispersal. However, around 20,000 hybrids have been planted in Australia, and ongoing monitoring is necessary to identify any hybrids that may become invasive.

  8. Pollen Morphology and Viability Relates to Seed Production in Hybrid Roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertility of hybrid tea roses is often reduced due to their interspesific origin but also to intensive inbreeding. New genotypes used as pollen donors represent an economic risk for a breeding program, as their influence on seed production is unknown. In this study 9 garden rose genotypes were selected from a company database as high fertile or low fertile male parents, according to the number of seeds per hybridization. Pollen morphology and in vitro germination of the selected genotypes were characterized. Pollen was either small (mean diameter = 30 urn, shrunken, and irregular (abnormal, or large (mean diameter = 30 urn, elliptical and crossed by furrows (normal. High correlations were found between the number of seeds produced per hybridization and the pollen diameter (r = 0.94 or the percentage of normal pollen (r = 0.96. In order to evaluate the predictive power of the models, we conducted regression analyses and performed a validation experiment on genotypes not present in the database and without background information on fertility. Pollen diameter and percentage of normal pollen were characterized and fitted in the regression models for seed set predictions. Validation with an independent dataset gave a good prediction for 83.3% of the data. This indicates that using either the mean pollen diameter or the percentage of normal pollen resulted in effective fertility prediction. Moreover cluster analysis of the data classified all the cultivars into various groups with varying fertility. This tool could enhance the genetic variability in crossings between hybrid tea roses, thus creating possibilities for less economically risky exploitation of new tetraploid genotypes as male parents.

  9. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seed Sterilization and Germination Enhancement via Atmospheric Hybrid Nonthermal Discharge Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamsen, Natthaporn; Onwimol, Damrongvudhi; Teerakawanich, Nithiphat; Dechanupaprittha, Sanchai; Kanokbannakorn, Weerawoot; Hongesombut, Komsan; Srisonphan, Siwapon

    2016-08-01

    We designed a system to produce atmospheric hybrid cold-discharge plasma (HCP) based on microcorona discharge on a single dielectric barrier and applied it to inactivate microorganisms that commonly attach the rice seed husk. The cold-plasma treatment modified the surface of the rice seeds, resulting in accelerated germination and enhanced water imbibition. The treatment can operate under air-based ambient conditions without the need for a vacuum. The cold-plasma treatment completely inactivated pathogenic fungi and other microorganisms, enhancing the germination percentage and seedling quality. The final germination percentage of the treated rice seeds was ∼98%, whereas that of the nontreated seeds was ∼90%. Microcorona discharge on a single dielectric barrier provides a nonaggressive cold plasma that can be applied to organic materials without causing thermal and electrical damage. The hybrid nonthermal plasma is cost effective and consumes relatively little power, making it suitable for the surface sterilization and disinfection of organic and biological materials with large-scale compatibility.

  10. A hybrid semi-automatic method for liver segmentation based on level-set methods using multiple seed points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Hee Chul; Choi, Younggeun; Lee, Wonsup; Wang, Baojian; Yang, Jaedo; Hwang, Hongpil; Kim, Ji Hyun; Song, Jisoo; Cho, Baik Hwan; You, Heecheon

    2014-01-01

    The present study developed a hybrid semi-automatic method to extract the liver from abdominal computerized tomography (CT) images. The proposed hybrid method consists of a customized fast-marching level-set method for detection of an optimal initial liver region from multiple seed points selected by the user and a threshold-based level-set method for extraction of the actual liver region based on the initial liver region. The performance of the hybrid method was compared with those of the 2D region growing method implemented in OsiriX using abdominal CT datasets of 15 patients. The hybrid method showed a significantly higher accuracy in liver extraction (similarity index, SI=97.6 ± 0.5%; false positive error, FPE = 2.2 ± 0.7%; false negative error, FNE=2.5 ± 0.8%; average symmetric surface distance, ASD=1.4 ± 0.5mm) than the 2D (SI=94.0 ± 1.9%; FPE = 5.3 ± 1.1%; FNE=6.5 ± 3.7%; ASD=6.7 ± 3.8mm) region growing method. The total liver extraction time per CT dataset of the hybrid method (77 ± 10 s) is significantly less than the 2D region growing method (575 ± 136 s). The interaction time per CT dataset between the user and a computer of the hybrid method (28 ± 4 s) is significantly shorter than the 2D region growing method (484 ± 126 s). The proposed hybrid method was found preferred for liver segmentation in preoperative virtual liver surgery planning.

  11. Development of a Hybrid Photopolymer for Stereolithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    New liquid free radical-cationic hybrid photopolymer, consisting of acrylate-based photocurable resin and epoxy-based photosensitive resin for stereolithography by UV laser was developed.The experiment results indicated that the hybrid photopolymer exhibits advantages of both the acrylate- based photosensitive resin and the epoxy- based photosensitive polymer contained in the hybrid system with relatively high photospeed and low linear shrinkage.Stereolithography parts without obvious distortion were built on the stereolithography apparatus HRPLAI from this hybrid resin successfully and efficiently.

  12. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, P., E-mail: pkrishnan@iari.res.in; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  13. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  14. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bingham

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids. However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed.

  15. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  16. Characterization of interploid hybrids from crosses between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea and the production of yellow-seeded B. napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zhu, Lixia; Qi, Liping; Ke, Hongmei; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong

    2012-06-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica napus was for the first time developed from interspecific crosses using yellow-seeded B. juncea (AABB), yellow-seeded B. oleracea (CC), and black-seeded artificial B. napus (AACC). Three different mating approaches were undertaken to eliminate B-genome chromosomes after trigenomic hexaploids (AABBCC) were generated. Hybrids (AABCC, ABCC) from crosses AABBCC × AACC, AABBCC × CC and ABCC × AACC were advanced by continuous selfing in approach 1, 2 and 3, respectively. To provide more insight into Brassica genome evolution and the cytological basis for B. napus resynthesis in each approach, B-genome chromosome pairing and segregation were intensively analyzed in AABCC and ABCC plants using genomic in situ hybridization methods. The frequencies at which B-genome chromosomes underwent autosyndesis and allosyndesis were generally higher in ABCC than in AABCC plants. The difference was statistically significant for allosyndesis but not autosyndesis. Abnormal distributions of B-genome chromosomes were encountered at anaphase I, including chromosome lagging and precocious sister centromere separation of univalents. These abnormalities were observed at a significantly higher frequency in AABCC than in ABCC plants, which resulted in more rapid B-genome chromosome elimination in the AABCC derivatives. Yellow or yellow-brown seeds were obtained in all approaches, although true-breeding yellow-seeded B. napus was developed only in approaches 2 and 3. The efficiency of the B. napus construction approaches was in the order 1 > 3 > 2 whereas this order was 3 > 2 > 1 with respect to the construction of yellow-seeded B. napus. The results are discussed in relation to Brassica genome evolution and the development and utilization of the yellow-seeded B. napus obtained here.

  17. Degree of Hybridization in Seed Stands of Pinus engelmannii Carr. In the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Jaime Ávila-Flores

    Full Text Available Hybridization is an important evolutionary force, because interspecific gene transfer can introduce more new genetic material than is directly generated by mutations. Pinus engelmannii Carr. is one of the nine most common pine species in the pine-oak forest ecoregion in the state of Durango, Mexico. This species is widely harvested for lumber and is also used in reforestation programmes. Interspecific hybrids between P.engelmannii and Pinus arizonica Engelm. have been detected by morphological analysis. The presence of hybrids in P. engelmannii seed stands may affect seed quality and reforestation success. Therefore, the goals of this research were to identify introgressive hybridization between P. engelmannii and other pine species in eight seed stands of this species in Durango, Mexico, and to examine how hybrid proportion is related to mean genetic dissimilarity between trees in these stands, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers and morphological traits. Differences in the average current annual increment of putative hybrids and pure trees were also tested for statistical significance. Morphological and genetic analyses of 280 adult trees were carried out. Putative hybrids were found in all the seed stands studied. The hybrids did not differ from the pure trees in vigour or robustness. All stands with putative P. engelmannii hybrids detected by both AFLPs and morphological traits showed the highest average values of the Tanimoto distance, which indicates: i more heterogeneous genetic material, ii higher genetic variation and therefore iii the higher evolutionary potential of these stands, and iv that the morphological differentiation (hybrid/not hybrid is strongly associated with the Tanimoto distance per stand. We conclude that natural pairwise hybrids are very common in the studied stands. Both morphological and molecular approaches are necessary to confirm the genetic identity of forest reproductive material.

  18. Milk line as an indicator of the harvesting time of three hybrid seeds of corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Trzeciak dos Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the time for harvesting seeds of three hybrids of corn (Zea mays L. at their best physiological quality and the use of the milk line as an indicator of the physiological seed maturity. Single hybrids CD 1723 and CD 5501 and double hybrid OC 705 seeds were collected for 59 days, every four days, starting 23 days after female flowering. Seed dry weight, moisture content, germination, vigour (cold and accelerated aging tests, black layer formation and seed milk line development were analysed. The harvesting time started 47 days after female flowering with high physiological quality of the seeds identified by a joint analysis of those seven characteristics of them. The milk line at stage 4 proved to be the best indicator of the time to harvest corn seeds for maximum physiological quality, because different stages of milk line development in corn seeds could be easily identified in the filed without any special equipment.O experimento foi conduzido durante o ano agrícola de 1996/97 em área experimental da Cooperativa de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Tecnológico (Coodetec, em Cascavel, Paraná, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da época de colheita de três híbridos de milho (Zea mays L. na qualidade fisiológica das sementes e o uso da linha de solidificação do endosperma como indicativo da maturidade fisiológica das sementes. O plantio foi realizado em 30 de setembro de 1996. Amostras de sementes dos híbridos simples CD 1723 e CD 5501, bem como do híbrido duplo OC 705, foram colhidas em intervalos de quatro dias, durante 59 dias, iniciando-se a colheita no vigésimo terceiro dia após o florescimento feminino. As características avaliadas nas sementes foram o acúmulo de matéria seca, o conteúdo de umidade, a germinação, o vigor (pelos testes de frio e de envelhecimento acelerado, a formação da camada preta e o desenvolvimento da linha de solidificação do endosperma. A colheita dos tr

  19. Metabolic Characteristics in Meal of Black Rapeseed and Yellow-Seeded Progeny of Brassica napus–Sinapis alba Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjin Jiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus is preferred over black-seeded rapeseed for the desirable properties of the former. This study evaluated the metabolites and nutritive values of black-seeded rapeseed meal and yellow-seeded meal from the progeny of a B. napus–Sinapis alba hybrid. Yellow-seed meal presented higher protein (35.46% vs. 30.29%, higher sucrose (7.85% vs. 7.29%, less dietary fiber (26.19% vs. 34.63% and crude fiber (4.56% vs. 8.86%, and less glucosinolates (22.18 vs. 28.19 μmol/g than black-seeded one. Amounts of ash (3.65% vs. 4.55%, phytic acid (4.98% vs. 5.60%, and total polyphenols (2.67% vs. 2.82% were decreased slightly in yellow-seeded meal compared with black-seeded meal. Yellow-seeded meal contained more essential amino acids than black-seeded meal. Levels of the mineral elements Fe, Mn, and Zn in yellow-seeded meal were higher than black-seeded meal. By contrast, levels of P, Ca, and Mg were lower in yellow-seeded meal. Moreover, yellow-seeded meal showed lower flavonol (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and their derivatives content than black-seeded meal. Comparison of metabolites between yellow and black rapeseed confirmed the improved nutritional value of meal from yellow-seeded B. napus, and this would be helpful to the breeding and improvement of rapeseed for animal feeding.

  20. Performance of super hybrid rice cultivars grown under no-tillage and direct seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Good progress has been made in the super hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. breeding in China. However, rice yield not only depends on the genetic characteristics but also on the agronomic practices. No-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS is a simplified cultivation technology that greatly simplifies both land preparation and crop establishment. Aiming to determine the grain yield performance of super hybrid rice under NTDS and to identify critical factors that determine grain yield, field experiments were conducted in Nanxian, Hunan Province, China in 2009 and 2010. Two super hybrid cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu and Y-liangyou 1, were grown under conventional tillage and transplanting (CTTP and NTDS. Grain yield, yield components, biomass production, crop growth rate and biomass accumulation during sowing to heading (HD and HD to maturity were measured for each cultivar. There was no difference in grain yield under NTDS and CTTP. However, grain yield differed with cultivar and year. Y-liangyou 1 produced 4 % higher grain yield than Liangyoupeijiu in 2009, whereas in 2010 both cultivars yielded similarly. Grain yields of both cultivars were higher in 2009 than in 2010. Higher grain yield of Y-liangyou 1 in 2009 was associated with higher spikelet filling (spikelet filling percentage and grain weight, which resulted from higher biomass production. Crop growth rate after HD was critical for biomass production by the super hybrid rice. We suggest that increasing the crop growth rate after HD is an effective approach to increase grain yield of super hybrid rice under NTDS.

  1. [Growth and development of fruit and seed of Panax quinquefolium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaolei; Li, Xian'en; Guo, Qiaosheng

    2012-08-01

    To understand the embryo after-ripening phenomenon of Panax quinquefolium, the growth and development process of fruit and seed was investigated in this study. The growth and development characteristics of fruit and seed were obtained by field observation, the morphological changes were measured with a vernier caliper, paraffin section was used as well. The plant reached the most flowering numbers in 5-8 d after initial blooming time and the lag phase of embryo occurred in about 70 d. The size, fresh and dry weight of fruit and seed were all reached maximum in fruit maturation period. As the result showed, the development of seed was stopped at torpedo form of embryos, this conclusion can be applied to explore the morphological after-ripening mechanism of P. quinquefolium seed.

  2. Seed development and hydroxy fatty acid biosynthesis in physaria lindheimeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) are valuable industrial raw materials used in many industries. Physaria lindheimeri (Pl) accumulates over 80% HFA, in the form of lesquerolic acid (20:1OH), in its seed oil. Understanding the seed development of Pl is an important step to utilizing this unique wild specie...

  3. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  4. [Maize Hybrid Seed Purity Identification Based on Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmittance (NIT) Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-xin; Jia, Shi-qiang; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Sheng-yi; Ran, Hang; Yan, Yan-lu; An, Dong

    2015-12-01

    This article explore the feasibility of using Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmittance (NIT) Spectroscopy (908.1-1677.2 nm wavelength range) to identify maize hybrid purity, and compare the performance of NIR and NIT spectroscopy. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (OLDA) were used to reduce the dimension of spectra which have been pretreated by first derivative and vector normalization. The hybrid purity identification model of Nonghua101 and Jingyu16 were built by SVM. Models based on NIR spectra obtained correct identification rate as 100% and 90% for Nonghua101 and Jingyu16 respectively. But NIR spectra were greatly influenced by the placement of seeds, and there existed significant difference between NIR spectra of embryo and non-embryo side. Models based on NIT spectroscopy yielded correct identification rate as 98% both for Nonghua101 and Jingyu16. NIT spectra of embryo and non-embryo side were highly similar. The results indicate that it is feasible to identify maize hybrid purity based on NIR and NIT spectroscopy, and NIT spectroscopy is more suitable to analyze single seed kernel than NIR spectroscopy.

  5. Amino Acid Transporters Are Localized to Transfer Cells of Developing Pea Seeds1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Offler, Christina E.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Patrick, John W.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the nature and cellular localization of amino acid transport in pea seeds, two cDNA clones belonging to the AAP family of H+/amino acid co-transporters (PsAAP1 and PsAAP2) were isolated from a cotyledon cDNA library of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Functional expression in the yeast amino acid uptake mutants 22Δ6AAL and 22Δ8AA showed that PsAAP1 mediates transport of neutral, acidic, and basic amino acids. RNA-blot analyses showed that PsAAP1 is expressed in seeds and vegetative organs, including amino acid sinks and sources, whereas PsAAP2 could not be detected. For developing seeds, transcripts of PsAAP1 were detected in coats and cotyledons, with seed coats giving a weak signal. In cotyledons, expression was highest in epidermal-transfer-cell-enriched tissue. RNA in situ hybridization analysis showed that PsAAP1 was predominantly present in epidermal transfer cells forming the outer surface of cotyledons, which abuts the seed coats. Overall, our observations suggest that this transporter, which is localized in transfer cells of cotyledons, might play a role in the uptake of the full spectrum of amino acids released from seed coats. PMID:10677425

  6. Proposta de modelagem não-linear do desempenho germinativo de sementes de milho híbrido Nonlinear proposal modeling of seed germination performance of hybrid corn seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Gazola

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de ajustar um modelo de regressão não-linear para estimar o desempenho germinativo de sementes de três lotes comerciais de milho híbrido OC 705, submetidas ao teste de envelhecimento acelerado, à temperatura de 43ºC. Utilizou-se o modelo logístico y(t=C/(1+exp(B(t-M para ajustar os dados. As medidas de viés de Box e de curvaturas paramétrica e intrínseca foram usadas para o diagnóstico do modelo. O modelo proposto ajusta-se adequadamente aos dados de percentuais germinativos de sementes de milho híbrido OC 705, para todos os lotes. Com base nas estimativas dos parâmetros e qualidade de ajuste, o lote três foi identificado como sendo o melhor para comercialização, por apresentar menor redução no poder germinativo ao longo do tempo.This research was developed with the goal to adjust a nonlinear regression model to estimate seed germination performance of three commercial seed lots of hybrid maize OC 705, subjected to accelerated aging test at a temperature of 43oC. The logistic model y(t=C/(1+exp (B (t-M was used to fit the data. Measures of bias Box and parametric intrinsic bends were used for the diagnosis of the model. The proposed model fits properly to seed germination percentage data of hybrid corn seeds for OC 705, for all seed lots. Based on estimates of the parameters and fit quality, the seed lot three was identified as being the best for marketing, by presenting less reduction in seed germination power over time.

  7. Integrated approach for hybrid rocket technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Francesco; Bellomo, Nicolas; Pavarin, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid rocket motors tend generally to be simple from a mechanical point of view but difficult to optimize because of their complex and still not well understood cross-coupled physics. This paper addresses the previous issue presenting the integrated approach established at University of Padua to develop hybrid rocket based systems. The methodology tightly combines together system analysis and design, numerical modeling from elementary to sophisticated CFD, and experimental testing done with incremental philosophy. As an example of the approach, the paper presents the experience done in the successful development of a hybrid rocket booster designed for rocket assisted take off operations. It is thought that following the proposed approach and selecting carefully the most promising applications it is possible to finally exploit the major advantages of hybrid rocket motors as safety, simplicity, low cost and reliability.

  8. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Virginia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10 served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organoleptically evaluated by using Nine point Hedonic scale. The data obtained during study were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and C.D techniques. The prepared products were analyzed for nutrient content using the standard method of AOAC (2005.It was concluded that in case of “Biscuits” and “Mathri” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds flour and 10 percent watermelon seeds flour scored highest while in case of “Laddoo” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds and 10 percent watermelon seeds scored highest, with regard to colour and appearance, body and texture, taste and flavour and over all acceptability, However all the treatments were found to be acceptable. It is therefore concluded that amaranth seeds and watermelon seeds can be suitably incorporated in various developed products. “Laddoo” had maximum carbohydrate (64.49g/100g, protein (13.59g/100g calcium (100.1mg/100g and iron (3.33mg/100g content. The content of Protein (14.46g/100g, carbohydrate (59.90 Calcium (59.90mg/100g, were increased as compared to control in “Biscuits”. “Mathri” was rich in Protein, Fat, carbohydrate and calcium content (11.10g/100g, 38.56g/100g, 38.83g/100g, and 53.95mg/100g. Cost of products on the basis raw ingredients per 100g ranged between Rs 6.33-12.45 for “Biscuits”, Rs 16.06-30.07, Rs 12.27-18.19 for “Mathri” and Rs.6.42-12.26 for “Laddoo”. On the basis of findings it is concluded

  9. Quantification of mRNA in Salmonella sp. seeded soil and chicken manure using magnetic capture hybridization RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr; Holben, William E

    2007-05-01

    Direct quantification of mRNA from Salmonella sp. seeded for 1 h to soil and chicken manure was accomplished using magnetic capture hybridization as a purification technique. This detection strategy targeted the invA gene present in Salmonella sp. After cell lysis, phenol/chloroform purification and isopropanol precipitation, the RNA extract was combined with the hybridization probe conjugated to paramagnetic beads. After hybridization, the captured nucleic acids were released by denaturation and purified of contaminating DNA using DNase. The resulting RNA was of high purity and there was no need for dilution of the samples prior to RT-PCR. The developed procedure was reproducibly used to quantify Salmonella sp. in high organic agricultural soil. The detection limit for mRNA using ordinary quantitative PCR (employing SYBRgreen-based detection) was 5 x 10(4)Salmonella sp. cells per gram of soil. Chicken manure amended into soil (1:4 w/w) did not reduce the ability to quantify Salmonella sp. mRNA in soil. Pasteurization (65 degrees C, 30 min) of chicken manure containing Salmonella sp. dramatically reduced the detection of invA mRNA (requiring 42 qPCR cycles for detection versus 26 cycles in unpasteurized manure), presumably due to degradation of the invA mRNA in Salmonella sp. cells killed by pasteurization. By contrast, DNA-based qPCR still detected Salmonella sp. in the pasteurized manure. Thus, in this case using samples seeded with fresh Salmonella sp. the mRNA-based detection appears to be superior to minimizing false-positive detection which was prevalent with DNA-based qPCR.

  10. Compositional analysis of grain and forage from MON 87427, an inducible male sterile and tissue selective glyphosate-tolerant maize product for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Breeze, Matthew L; Liu, Kang; Harrigan, George G; Culler, Angela H

    2014-02-26

    Conventional maize hybrid seed production has historically relied upon detasseling using either manual methods or semiautomated processes to ensure the purity of the hybrid cross. Monsanto Co. has developed biotechnology-derived MON 87427 maize with tissue-selective glyphosate tolerance to facilitate the production of hybrid maize seed. MON 87427 utilizes a specific promoter and intron combination to drive expression of CP4 EPSPS protein in vegetative and female reproductive tissues, conferring tolerance to glyphosate. This specific combination of regulatory elements also results in limited or no production of CP4 EPSPS protein in two key male reproductive tissues: pollen microspores, which develop into pollen grains, and tapetum cells that supply nutrients to the pollen. Thus, MON 87427 induces a male sterile phenotype after appropriately timed glyphosate applications. To confer additional benefits of herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance, MON 87427 was combined with MON 89034 and NK603 by conventional breeding to develop MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. The work described here is an assessment of the nutrient, antinutrient, and secondary metabolite levels in grain and forage tissues of MON 87427 and MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. Results demonstrated that MON 87427 is compositionally equivalent to a near-isogenic conventional comparator. Results from this analysis established that the compositional equivalence observed for the single-event product MON 87427 is extendable to the combined-trait product, MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. With increasing global demand for food production, the development of more efficient seed production strategies is important to sustainable agriculture. The study reported here demonstrated that biotechnology can be applied to simplify hybrid maize seed production without affecting crop composition.

  11. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF FLUTED PUMPKIN SEED DEHULLING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Odewole, M M; Adesoye, O A; Oyeniyi, S K; Isiaka, A O

    2016-01-01

    A machine for dehulling fluted pumpkin seed (Telfairia occidentalis) was developed. The main objective of developing the machine was to provide a better substitute to traditional methods of dehulling the seed which contains edible oil of high medicinal and nutritional values. Traditional methods are full of drudgery, slow, injury prone and would lead to low and poor outputs in terms of quantity and quality of dehulled products. The machine is made of five major parts: the feed hopper (for hol...

  13. Cytokinin Activity in Avocado Seeds during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, A; Gazit, S

    1970-08-01

    The soybean callus bioassay was used to determine levels of cytokinin activity in avocado (Persea americana) seeds.In the embryo, levels are high during the early stages of development, but diminish as the fruit grows. The level of cytokinin activity in the endosperm is very high throughout the period that this tissue exists. The seed coats have very high activity levels while the fruit is young, reaching values comparable with those found in the endosperm. The activity level falls as the rate of fruit growth slows down and disappears completely by the time the seed coats shrivel at approximately the same time the fruit reaches "horticultural maturity".

  14. Evapotranspiration partitioning and variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production in arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is useful in accurately determining water use of the female and male parents and improving irrigation management of maize for hybrid seed production. Sap fl...

  15. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism......, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748...... could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work...

  16. Impact of accelerated plant growth on seed variety development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The commercial lives of agricultural seed products have steadily declined in recent years. The introduction of genetically engineered crop seeds in 1966 has accentuated that trend. Widespread grower demand for genetically engineered seed requires competitive response by industry followers in order to avert market share losses to the industry leaders. Limitations on plant transformation technology, regulatory requirements and patent impediments require companies to rapidly convert transformed lines into elite commercial products. Massive multigenerational backcrossing efforts are required to distribute genetically engineered traits into a broad product mix. Significant incidents of expression failures, or ``gene silencing,'' have occurred unexpectedly, requiring product substitution strategies. First-to-market strategies, competitive response, broad germplasm conversion and rescue of product failures all share the element of urgency. Technologies which reliably accelerate product development rates can expect favorable reception by commercial seed developers. A growth chamber which dramatically accelerates the rate of plant growth is described.

  17. Proteome analysis of developing seeds of Jatropha curcas L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohibullah Shah

    2014-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an important crop due to its ability of storing high content of oil in the seeds, which can serve as raw material for biodiesel production. Because of the presence of toxic constituents like phorbol esters (PEs) and curcins, the seed cake produced as a result of oil extraction cannot be utilize for animal feed. Development of the genotypes better suited for the industrial applications and biodiesel production as well as with lower level of toxic constituent...

  18. Alterations in Seed Development Gene Expression Affect Size and Oil Content of Arabidopsis Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds. PMID:24014578

  19. Cytogenetic studies in Trifolium Spp. related to berseem : I. Intra- and interspecific hybrid seed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putiyevsky, E; Katznelson, J

    1973-01-01

    Seed formation by large-scale hybridization within and between Trifolium species related to T. alexandrinum L., was studied. The twelve species studied were: a. T. alexandrinum L., b. T. berytheum Boiss., c. T.salmoneum Mout., d, T. apertum Bobr., e. T. Meironense Zoh. et Lern., f. T. echinatum M.B., g. T. latinum Seb., h. T.carmeli Boiss., i. T. scutatum Boiss., j. T. plebeium Boiss., k. T. vavilovi Eig. and 1. T. constantinopolitanum Ser. Hybridization was done either by emasculation and fertilization by hand, or in nature, by utilizing the existence of natural stands and to serve as pollen source the self-incompatibility of some of the species concerned. Results of the two methods were highly comparable although seedset was much higher when crossing was done manually.Crossability, as estimated by seedset, varied in specific cross combinations and ranged between 0 and 70%. Based on the pattern of crossability, five crossability groups were identified with > 20% seedset in interspecific-intra-group cross combinations, and usually less than 5% in inter-group cross combinations. Species a, b, c, d and e form the first crossability group; f, g and h form the second one; h, i, j belong to the third crossability group, while k and l appear as unispecific fourth and fifth crossability groups. The high level of seedset in interspecific hybridization is discussed.

  20. Proteomic analysis of early seed development in Pinus massoniana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Yan; Zhao, Zhen-Zhou; Zheng, Ren-Hua; Shi, Jisen

    2012-05-01

    Understanding seed development is important for large-scale propagation and germplasm conservation for the Masson pine. We undertook a proteomic analysis of Masson pine seeds during the early stages of embryogenesis. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) was used to quantify the differences in protein expression during early seed development. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, we identified proteins from 43 gel spots that had been excised from preparative "pick" gels. Proteins involved in carbon metabolism were identified and were predominantly expressed at higher levels during the cleavage polyembryony and columnar embryo stages. Functional annotation of one seed protein revealed it involvement in programmed cell death and translation of selective mRNAs, which may play an important role in subordinate embryo elimination and suspensor degeneration in polyembryonic seed gymnosperms. Other identified proteins were associated with protein folding, nitrogen metabolism, disease/defense response, and protein storage, synthesis and stabilization. The comprehensive protein expression profiles generated by this study will provide new insights into the complex developmental process of seed development in Masson pine.

  1. Development and efficacy assessments of tea seed oil makeup remover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnsamut, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2017-05-01

    The efficacy of tea seed oil to clean foundation and eyeliner was evaluated. The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup remover was developed. In vitro cleansing efficacy of makeup remover was UV-spectrophotometric validated. The stability evaluation by means of accelerated stability test was conducted. In vitro and in vivo cleansing efficacy of the removers was conducted in a comparison with benchmark majorly containing olive oil. Tea seed oil cleaned 90.64±4.56% of foundation and 87.62±8.35% of eyeliner. The stable with most appropriate textures base was incorporated with tea seed oil. Three tea seed oil removers (50, 55 and 60%) were stabled. The 60% tea seed oil remover significantly removed foundation better than others (94.48±3.37%; Pmakeup removers had been developed. The consumers' choices towards the makeup remover containing the bio-oils are widen. In vitro cleansing efficacy during the course of makeup remover development using UV-spectrophotometric method feasible for pharmaceutic industries is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.

  3. Extension of oil biosynthesis during the mid-phase of seed development enhances oil content in Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Masatake; Mano, Shoji; Kondo, Maki; Hayashi, Makoto; Nishimura, Mikio

    2016-05-01

    Regulation of oil biosynthesis in plant seeds has been extensively studied, and biotechnological approaches have been designed to increase seed oil content. Oil and protein synthesis is negatively correlated in seeds, but the mechanisms controlling interactions between these two pathways are unknown. Here, we identify the molecular mechanism controlling oil and protein content in seeds. We utilized transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing WRINKLED1 (WRI1), a master transcription factor regulating seed oil biosynthesis, and knockout mutants of major seed storage proteins. Oil and protein biosynthesis in wild-type plants was sequentially activated during early and late seed development, respectively. The negative correlation between oil and protein contents in seeds arises from competition between the pathways. Extension of WRI1 expression during mid-phase of seed development significantly enhanced seed oil content. This study demonstrates that temporal activation of genes involved in oil or storage protein biosynthesis determines the oil/protein ratio in Arabidopsis seeds. These results provide novel insights into potential breeding strategies to generate crops with high oil contents in seeds.

  4. Partially redundant functions of two SET-domain polycomb-group proteins in controlling initiation of seed development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongfang; Tyson, Mark D; Jackson, Shawn S; Yadegari, Ramin

    2006-08-29

    In Arabidopsis, a complex of Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins functions in the female gametophyte to control the initiation of seed development. Mutations in the PcG genes, including MEDEA (MEA) and FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT SEED 2 (FIS2), produce autonomous seeds where endosperm proliferation occurs in the absence of fertilization. By using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified MEA and a related protein, SWINGER (SWN), as SET-domain partners of FIS2. Localization data indicated that all three proteins are present in the female gametophyte. Although single-mutant swn plants did not show any defects, swn mutations enhanced the mea mutant phenotype in producing autonomous seeds. Thus, MEA and SWN perform partially redundant functions in controlling the initiation of endosperm development before fertilization in Arabidopsis.

  5. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Heather

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  6. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Heather; Park, Haram; Paolini, Maion

    2012-04-23

    Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this "hybrid premium" is the cost of the vehicles' batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  7. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil. PMID:22540987

  8. Recent Advances in Development of Herbicide Resistant Transgenic Hybrid Rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Guo-ying

    2009-01-01

    In addition to weed control in direct seeding field of hybrid rice, herbicide resistance genes were used by Chinese scientists to increase and identify the purity of hybrid seeds, and to realize the mechanization of hybrid seed production. The elite restorer lines, such as Minghui 63, R752, T461, R402, D68 and E32 were transformed directly with herbicide resistance genes, in which D68 and E32 are restorer lines of two-line system and the others are of three-line system. Because almost all of important restorer lines are indica varieties and are recalcitrant in transformation, many herbicide resistant near-isogenic restorer lines were developed by sexual hybridization of indica and japonica varieties and backcross with indica restorer lines later, such as Ce 64, Minghui 63, Teqing, Milyang 46, R402 and 9311, in which 9311 is a restorer line of two-line system. The elite photoperiod-sensitive/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines, such as Pei'ai 64S, P88S, 4008S and 7001S, were transformed with herbicide resistance genes. A few herbicide resistant male sterile lines were developed through sexual hybridization and subsequently systemic selection, such as Bar1259S, Bar2172S, 05Z221A and 05Z227A. With the employment of herbicide resistant male sterile lines or herbicide resistant restorer lines, a few herbicide resistant hybrid rice combinations were developed, such as Xiang 125S/Bar 68-1 and Pei'ai 64S/Bar 9311. Based on herbicide resistance, the research was marching on to investigate the parental lines of hybrid rice with insect resistance, drought tolerance, etc.

  9. High Temperature Induced Glume Closure Resulted in Lower Fertility in Hybrid Rice Seed Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haoliang; Zhang, Binglin; Zhang, Yunbo; Chen, Xinlan; Xiong, Hui; Matsui, Tsutomu; Tian, Xiaohai

    2017-01-01

    Predicted climate changes, in particular, the increased dimension and frequency of heat waves, are expected to affect crop growth in the future seriously. Hybrid rice relies on seed production from male sterile and restorer lines. Experiments were conducted over two consecutive years to compare the high temperature tolerance of parents of different hybrid rice combinations, in terms of fertility rate, flowering pattern, pollination and physiological parameters of the lodicule. Three male sterile lines and a broad compatibility restorer line (as pollen donor and conventional variety as well) were grown to heading stage and then treated with average daily temperatures of 26°C (range 23–30°C), 28°C (25–32°C), and 30°C (26–34°C), respectively, continued for 5–7 days each in a natural light phytotron which simulated the local typical high temperature weather in the field. The results indicated that male sterile lines were more sensitive to high temperature than the restorer line for fertility rate, and the sensitivity varied between varieties. The fertility rate of the restorer line was maintained at about 90% under the high temperature treatments, while it decreased in the male sterile lines by 23.3 and 48.1% at 28 and 30°C, respectively. The fertility rate of the most sensitive line declined by 70%, and the tolerant line declined by 34% at 30°C. Glume closure in the male sterile lines was a major reason for the reduced fertility rate under high temperature, which is closely correlated with carbohydrates content and the vascular bundle pattern in the lodicule. The present study identified a useful trait to select male sterile lines with high temperature tolerance for seed production. PMID:28105031

  10. Development of Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakayama, N. [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen powered ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicles can play an important role as an automotive power source in the future, because of its higher reliability and cost performance than those of fuel cell vehicles. Combined with hydrogen, Mazda's unique rotary engine (RE) has merits such as a prevention of hydrogen pre-ignition. Mazda has been developing hydrogen vehicles with the hydrogen RE from the early 1990s. Premacy (Mazda5) Hydrogen RE Hybrid was developed and launched in 2009, following RX-8 Hydrogen RE delivered in 2006. A series hybrid system was adopted in Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid. A traction motor switches its windings while the vehicle is moving. This switching technology allows the motor to be small and high-efficient. The lithium-ion high voltage battery, which has excellent input-output characteristics, was installed. These features extend the hydrogen fuel driving range to 200 km and obtain excellent acceleration performance. The hydrogen RE can be also operated by gasoline (Dual Fuel System). The additional gasoline operation makes hydrogen vehicles possible to drive in non-hydrogen station area. With approval from the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport, Mazda Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid was delivered successfully to the Japanese market in the form of leasing. (orig.)

  11. Interspecific hybridization and inbreeding effect in seed from a Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla clonal orchard in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campinhos Eduardo N.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We used allozyme markers to estimate the amount of natural hybridization between Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla in a 7.4-hectare commercial hybrid-seed orchard planted in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This orchard was planted in 1982 using a honeycomb design, with each hexagonal plot containing one E. grandis tree surrounded by six E. urophylla trees. There were 267 replicated hexagonal plots in the orchard. Seeds were harvested from the E. grandis clone only. The multilocus outcrossing rate estimated for the E. grandis clone averaged 70.2%, ranging from 33.0 to 99.0% among individual trees. Contaminant pollination, inferred from progeny genotypes containing alleles not present in the seven parental clones, accounted for 14.4% of the hybrid seed. Contaminant pollen was attributed to neighboring eucalyptus stands isolated from the orchard by a 400-m wide belt of native forest. Inbred and hybrid progenies were identified by their allozyme genotypes and transplanted to the field. Field growth of inbred progeny was 30% lower than that of hybrid plants at two and three years of age.

  12. Massive primordial black holes from hybrid inflation as dark matter and the seeds of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clesse, Sébastien; García-Bellido, Juan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we present a new scenario where massive primordial black holes (PBHs) are produced from the collapse of large curvature perturbations generated during a mild-waterfall phase of hybrid inflation. We determine the values of the inflaton potential parameters leading to a PBH mass spectrum peaking on planetarylike masses at matter-radiation equality and producing abundances comparable to those of dark matter today, while the matter power spectrum on scales probed by cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies agrees with Planck data. These PBHs could have acquired large stellar masses today, via merging, and the model passes both the constraints from CMB distortions and microlensing. This scenario is supported by Chandra observations of numerous BH candidates in the central region of Andromeda. Moreover, the tail of the PBH mass distribution could be responsible for the seeds of supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies, as well as for ultraluminous x-ray sources. We find that our effective hybrid potential can originate e.g. from D-term inflation with a Fayet-Iliopoulos term of the order of the Planck scale but sub-Planckian values of the inflaton field. Finally, we discuss the implications of quantum diffusion at the instability point of the potential, able to generate a Swiss-cheese-like structure of the Universe, eventually leading to apparent accelerated cosmic expansion.

  13. Development of hybrid genetic algorithms for product line designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, P V Sundar; Gupta, Rakesh; Jacob, Varghese S

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the efficacy of artificial intelligence (AI) based meta-heuristic techniques namely genetic algorithms (GAs), for the product line design problem. This work extends previously developed methods for the single product design problem. We conduct a large scale simulation study to determine the effectiveness of such an AI based technique for providing good solutions and bench mark the performance of this against the current dominant approach of beam search (BS). We investigate the potential advantages of pursuing the avenue of developing hybrid models and then implement and study such hybrid models using two very distinct approaches: namely, seeding the initial GA population with the BS solution, and employing the BS solution as part of the GA operator's process. We go on to examine the impact of two alternate string representation formats on the quality of the solutions obtained by the above proposed techniques. We also explicitly investigate a critical managerial factor of attribute importance in terms of its impact on the solutions obtained by the alternate modeling procedures. The alternate techniques are then evaluated, using statistical analysis of variance, on a fairy large number of data sets, as to the quality of the solutions obtained with respect to the state-of-the-art benchmark and in terms of their ability to provide multiple, unique product line options.

  14. Recent Developments in Abrasive Hybrid Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszaj Adam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent dynamic development of abrasive hybrid manufacturing processes results from application of a new difficult for machining materials and improvement of technological indicators of manufacturing processes already applied in practice. This tendency also occurs in abrasive machining processes which are often supported by ultrasonic vibrations, electrochemical dissolution or by electrical discharges. In the paper we present the review of new results of investigations and new practical applications of Abrasive Electrodischarge (AEDM and Electrochemical (AECM Machining.

  15. Characterization of Peptides from Capsicum annuum Hybrid Seeds with Inhibitory Activity Against α-Amylase, Serine Proteinases and Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Rodrigues, Rosana; Perales, Jonas; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Carvalho, André O; Fernandes, Katia Valevski S; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2015-04-01

    Over the last several years, the activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), isolated from plant species, against different microorganisms has been demonstrated. More recently, some of these AMPs have been described as potent inhibitors of α-amylases and serine proteinases from insects and mammals. The aim of this work was to obtain AMPs from protein extracts of a hybrid Capsicum (Ikeda × UENF 1381) seeds and to evaluate their microbial and enzyme inhibitory activities. Initially, proteins were extracted from the Capsicum hybrid seeds in buffer (sodium phosphate pH 5.4,) and precipitated with ammonium sulfate (90% saturated). Extract of hybrid seeds was subjected to size exclusion chromatography, and three fractions were obtained: S1, S2 and S3. The amino acid sequence, obtained by mass spectrometry, of the 6 kDa peptide from the S3 fraction, named HyPep, showed 100% identity with PSI-1.2, a serine protease inhibitor isolated from C. annuum seeds, however the bifunctionality of this inhibitor against two enzymes is being shown for the first time in this work. The S3 fraction showed the highest antifungal activity, inhibiting all the yeast strains tested, and it also exhibited inhibitory activity against human salivary and Callosobruchus maculatus α-amylases as well as serine proteinases.

  16. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Na Zhu

    2016-01-01

    An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid veh...

  17. Development history of the Hybrid Test Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummel, M. C.; Burke, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Phase I of a joint Department of Energy/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Program undertook the development of the Hybrid Test Vehicle (HTV), which has subsequently progressed through design, fabrication, and testing and evaluation phases. Attention is presently given to the design and test experience gained during the HTV development program, and a discussion is presented of the design features and performance capabilities of the various 'mule' vehicles, devoted to the separate development of engine microprocessor control, vehicle structure, and mechanical components, whose elements were incorporated into the final HTV design. Computer projections of the HTV's performance are given.

  18. Arabinan Metabolism during Seed Development and Germination in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leonardo D. Gomez; Clare G. Steele-King; Louise Jones; Jonathan M. Foster; Supachai Vuttipongchaikij; Simon J. McQueen-Mason

    2009-01-01

    Arabinans are found in the pectic network of many cell walls, where, along with galactan, they are present as side chains of Rhamnogalacturonan I. Whilst arabinans have been reported to be abundant polymers in the cell walls of seeds from a range of plant species, their proposed role as a storage reserve has not been thoroughly investigated. In the cell walls of Arabidopsis seeds, arabinose accounts for approximately 40% of the monosaccharide composition of non-cellulosic polysaccharides of embryos. Arabinose levels decline to ~ 15% during seedling establishment, indicating that cell wall arabinans may be mobilized during germination. Immunolocalization of arabinan in embryos, seeds, and seedlings reveals that arabinans accumulate in developing and mature embryos, but disappear during germination and seedling establishment. Experiments using ~(14)C-arabinose show that it is readily incorporated and metabolized in growing seed-lings, indicating an active catabolic pathway for this sugar. We found that depleting arabinans in seeds using a fungal arabinanase causes delayed seedling growth, lending support to the hypothesis that these polymers may help fuel early seedling growth.

  19. Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, Rebecca S.

    2010-11-20

    Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presence of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.

  20. Proteomics of seed development, desiccation tolerance, germination and vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Song-Quan; Møller, Ian Max

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics, the large-scale study of the total complement of proteins in a given sample, has been applied to all aspects of seed biology mainly using model species such as Arabidopsis or important agricultural crops such as corn and rice. Proteins extracted from the sample have typically been separated and quantified by 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify the proteins in the gel spots. In this way, qualitative and quantitative changes in the proteome during seed development, desiccation tolerance, germination, dormancy release, vigor alteration and responses to environmental factors have all been studied. Many proteins or biological processes potentially important for each seed process have been highlighted by these studies, which greatly expands our knowledge of seed biology. Proteins that have been identified to be particularly important for at least two of the seed processes are involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the cytoskeleton, glycolysis, protein biosynthesis, post-translational modifications, methionine metabolism, and late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins. It will be useful for molecular biologists and molecular plant breeders to identify and study genes encoding particularly interesting target proteins with the aim to improve the yield, stress tolerance or other critical properties of our crop species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Diversity of TITAN function in Arabidopsis Seed Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzafrir, I.; McElver, J.A.; Liu, C.M.; Yang, L.J.; Wu, J.Q.; Martinez, A.; Patton, D.A.; Meinke, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    The titan mutants of Arabidopsis exhibit striking defects in seed development. The defining feature is the presence of abnormal endosperm with giant polyploid nuclei. Several TTN genes encode structural maintenance of chromosome proteins (condensins and cohesins) required for chromosome function at

  2. Proteomic Analysis the Seed Development of Jatropha curcas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Liu; Setsuko Komatsu; Qing Yang; Shihua Shen

    2012-01-01

    Differential proteomic analysis and cellular structure observation were employed to analyze the developing seeds at 5,10,15,20,25 and 30 days after flowering.Results revealed that 214 of 355 protein spots with significant changes in abundance were identified through MALDI/TOF-TOF MS.Energy and metabolism related proteins were notable abundant in developing Jatropha curcas seed,accounting for 47% and 36% of the identified differentially expressed proteins respectively.The expressional profiles of energy and metabolic proteins identified in this study ensured a comprehensive overview on the carbon flux to lipid accumulation from the early to late stages of seed development.It seems that glycolysis and OPP are the major pathways for producing carbon flux in developing J.curcas seeds.These data suggested that sugar mobilization from glucose to coenzyme A and its acyl derivative is collaboration between the cytosol and plastids and that temporal control of enzymes and pathways extends beyond transcription.

  3. Assessment of Variation in Seed Longevity within Rye, Wheat and the Intergeneric Hybrid Triticale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the mechanisms by which seeds deteriorate in storage and the genetic and environmental factors that modify seed aging rates require reliable measurement of the seed longevity phenotype and good estimates of within-species variation. To that end, this study compares seed longevity amo...

  4. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2011-12-28

    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  5. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  6. Flux of transcript patterns during soybean seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Delkin O

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand gene expression networks leading to functional properties of the soybean seed, we have undertaken a detailed examination of soybean seed development during the stages of major accumulation of oils, proteins, and starches, as well as the desiccating and mature stages, using microarrays consisting of up to 27,000 soybean cDNAs. A subset of these genes on a highly-repetitive 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray was also used to support the results. Results It was discovered that genes related to cell growth and maintenance processes, as well as energy processes like photosynthesis, decreased in expression levels as the cotyledons approached the mature, dry stage. Genes involved with some storage proteins had their highest expression levels at the stage of highest fresh weight. However, genes encoding many transcription factors and DNA binding proteins showed higher expression levels in the desiccating and dry seeds than in most of the green stages. Conclusions Data on 27,000 cDNAs have been obtained over five stages of soybean development, including the stages of major accumulation of agronomically-important products, using two different types of microarrays. Of particular interest are the genes found to peak in expression at the desiccating and dry seed stages, such as those annotated as transcription factors, which may indicate the preparation of pathways that will be needed later in the early stages of imbibition and germination.

  7. Hybrid microcircuit via development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, D.P.

    1980-06-01

    Manufacturing processes were developed for making holes in alumina substrates, metallizing substrates on both sides and through the holes (vias), dry film photolithographing 6-..mu..m-thick gold to 127-..mu..m line widths and spacings, determining via quality, and protecting vias during HMC assembly processes. The few problems encountered were solved, and via technology is now established as a reliable and repeatable production technology for hybrid microcircuits. Via resistance on product HMCs usually measures from 4 to 6 m..cap omega.. which is well below the 10 m..cap omega.. maximum limit.

  8. Hybrid pump for Pazflor deepwater development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibet, Pierre-Jean

    2010-07-01

    Subsea Processing gives engineers permanent technical challenges due to the comprehensive specifications which often stretch the proven limits of technology. It is particularly true for pumps that have to boost a multiphase effluent, because they must, often at the same time, be tolerant to free gas, able to handle very viscous, generate a high ?P, and be efficient. The Pazflor project decided to base the development on full utilization of subsea pumps. This paper presents the state of the art of the pumps that are designed to be installed on the sea floor. It further describes why existing technology could not match the technical requirements for the Pazflor project. It finally presents the pump specifically developed for this world first full field's development application, the so called 'Hybrid Pump', with the description of the associated qualification program and results. (Author)

  9. Developing integrated patient pathways using hybrid simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkepli, Jafri; Eldabi, Tillal

    2016-10-01

    Integrated patient pathways includes several departments, i.e. healthcare which includes emergency care and inpatient ward; intermediate care which patient(s) will stay for a maximum of two weeks and at the same time be assessed by assessment team to find the most suitable care; and social care. The reason behind introducing the intermediate care in western countries was to reduce the rate of patients that stays in the hospital especially for elderly patients. This type of care setting has been considered to be set up in some other countries including Malaysia. Therefore, to assess the advantages of introducing this type of integrated healthcare setting, we suggest develop the model using simulation technique. We argue that single simulation technique is not viable enough to represent this type of patient pathways. Therefore, we suggest develop this model using hybrid techniques, i.e. System Dynamics (SD) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES). Based on hybrid model result, we argued that the result is viable to be as references for decision making process.

  10. Development of the Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, William A.; Steimke, John L

    2005-09-23

    The production of hydrogen via the thermochemical splitting of water is being considered as a primary means for utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors to provide fuel for a hydrogen economy. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is one of the baseline candidates identified by the U.S. Department of Energy [1] for this purpose. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that only involves sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen compounds. Recent work has resulted in an improved process design with a calculated overall thermal efficiency (nuclear heat to hydrogen, higher heating value basis) approaching 50%. Economic analyses indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant employing the HyS Process in conjunction with an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor system can produce hydrogen at competitive prices. Experimental work has begun on the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer, the major developmental component in the cycle. Proof-of-concept tests have established proton-exchange-membrane cells (a state-of-the-art technology) as a viable approach for conducting this reaction. This is expected to lead to more efficient and economical cell designs than were previously available. Considerable development and scale-up issues remain to be resolved, but the development of a viable commercial-scale HyS Process should be feasible in time to meet the commercialization schedule for Generation IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

  11. Hybrid Warfare: Implications for CAF Force Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    also McCulloh and Johnson who demonstrate throughout their study that context is critical . Indeed, their summary statement for “hybrid warfare theory ...Muhr, eds., Hybrid and Cyber War as Consequences of the Asymmetry, Frankfurt : Peter Lang, 2011, p.95. Interestingly, the CFD Hybrid Warfare Concept...the highest political and military levels. The study of hybrid-type case studies yields the critical lesson that: “leadership is essential to victory

  12. Alternative technological development for RF hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antônio Finardi, Célio; da Fontoura Ponchet, André; Battesini Adamo, Cristina; Flacker, Alexander; Cotrin Teixeira, Ricardo; Panepucci, Roberto Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents a technological solution for high frequency packaging platform evaluated up to 40 GHz. The main purpose of this development was to define an alternative hybrid technology that is more flexible and faster to prototype compared with thin film or multi chip module (MCM-D). The alternative technology also shows adequate performance for high bit rate solutions integrating optical and electronics blocks. This approach consists of a soft substrate (laminate material), plating processes (electroless Ni-P/Au, electrolytic Au) and lithography patterning. Ground coplanar waveguide was used for microwave structures with excellent ground planes connections due to easy via holes implementation. We present results of high frequency packaging of important RF blocks, such as integrated broadband bias-T, transimpedance amplifier ICs and silicon photonics optical modulators. The paper demonstrates a solution for high frequency hybridization that can be implemented with standard substrates, designed with any shape and with large numbers of metalized via holes and compatible with usual assembling techniques.

  13. Practice and Thought on Developing Hybrid Rice for Super High Yield by Exploiting Inter-subspecific Heterosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Since the breakthrough of grain yield owing to the development of dwarf rice and three-line system hybrid rice, rice breeding for high yield hardly had showed significant progress in the next successive two decades. It was considered that utilizing heterosis between subspecific varieties (Oryza sativa L.) would be an effective approach to increase yield further. During 1987-1993,an indica-japonica hybrid Yayou 2 yielded as high as 10.5 t/ha; however, it failed to be commercialized because of seed purity problem due to non-uniform emasculation by chemical agent in seed production, and sensitivity of seed setting in F1 plants to environmental conditions. In the past decade, two inter-subspeific hybrids, Liangyoupeijiu (Peiai 64S/9311, javanica/indica) and Liangyou E32 (Peiai 64S/E32, javanica/japonica); both of them exhibited grain yield higher than 10.5 t/ha, and were widely judged as the pioneers of super hybrid rice. Liangyoupeijiu has been successfully popularized over 4 million hectare in wide climatic areas, while Liangyou E32 made a yield record and offered a model of plant ideotype for super hybrid rice. It was considered that in combination with plant ideotype, active physiological functions, and wide-range adaptability to ecological conditions, exploitation of indica-japonica heterosis would be the key approach for super hybrid rice breeding.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of embryos between a maize hybrid and its parental lines during early stages of seed germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojian Guo

    Full Text Available In spite of commercial use of heterosis in agriculture, the molecular basis of heterosis is poorly understood. It was observed that maize hybrid Zong3/87-1 exhibited an earlier onset or heterosis in radicle emergence. To get insights into the underlying mechanism of heterosis in radicle emergence, differential proteomic analysis between hybrid and its parental lines was performed. In total, the number of differentially expressed protein spots between hybrid and its parental lines in dry and 24 h imbibed seed embryos were 134 and 191, respectively, among which 47.01% (63/134 and 34.55% (66/191 protein spots displayed nonadditively expressed pattern. Remarkably, 54.55% of nonadditively accumulated proteins in 24 h imbibed seed embryos displayed above or equal to the level of the higher parent patterns. Moreover, 155 differentially expressed protein spots were identified, which were grouped into eight functional classes, including transcription & translation, energy & metabolism, signal transduction, disease & defense, storage protein, transposable element, cell growth & division and unclassified proteins. In addition, one of the upregulated proteins in F1 hybrids was ZmACT2, a homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana ACT7 (AtACT7. Expressing ZmACT2 driven by the AtACT7 promoter partially complemented the low germination phenotype in the Atact7 mutant. These results indicated that hybridization between two parental lines can cause changes in the expression of a variety of proteins, and it is concluded that the altered pattern of gene expression at translational level in the hybrid may be responsible for the observed heterosis.

  15. Systems Engineering Education Development(SEED)Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Thomas C., III; Brumfield, Mark D.; Jamison, Donald E.; Granata, Raymond L.; Casey, Carolyn A.

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Development Program (SEED) was initiated to help Goddard resolve a Systems Engineering skill shortage. The chronology of events and the experiences of the pilot program are outlined to describe the development of the present program. The program goals are included in order to give a focus on what the developers saw as the program drivers. Lessons learned from a pilot program were incorporated into the present program. This program is constantly learning from its past efforts and looks for continuous improvement. We list several future ideas for improvement and change.

  16. D-glufosinate as a male sterility agent for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Tim; Pline-Srnic, Wendy; Dale, Richard; Friend, Emma; Hollinshead, Tricia; Howe, Peter; Thompson, Paul; Viner, Russell; Greenland, Andy

    2011-04-01

    A chemical male sterility system based on anther-localized conversion of the inactive D-enantiomer of the herbicide, glufosinate (2-amino-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoate) to the phytotoxic L is described. Highly pure D-glufosinate was isolated in >98% enantiomeric excess from the racemate via fermentation with a strain of Escherichia coli expressing the PAT (L-glufosinate N-acetyl transferase) gene and purification of the unreacted D-enantiomer from the broth by ion exchange. A modified (F58K, M213S) form of the D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) (EC 1.4.3.3) from Rhodosporidium toruloides was designed, tested in vitro and found to efficiently oxidize D-glufosinate to its 2-oxo derivative [2-oxo-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoic acid]. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were transformed to express this modified oxidase under control of the TAP1 tapetum-specific promoter. A number of the resultant transgenic lines exhibited complete male sterility that persisted for two or more weeks immediately following foliar treatment with 75 or 200 g/ha of D-glufosinate without exhibiting obvious phytotoxic symptoms or any measurable decline in female fertility. Similarly, plants containing the same construct and, additionally, a PAT gene expressed from a plastocyanin promoter exhibited significantly reduced male fertility and no reduction in female fertility following foliar application of racemic glufosinate. Thus, foliar application of d-glufosinate either purified or as the commercial herbicide, combined with anther expression of a modified DAAO promises to provide a cost-effective conditional chemical male sterility system with the characteristics necessary for practical F₁ hybrid seed production.

  17. The Proteome of Seed Development in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S.; Ornfelt, Jane H.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic...

  18. Global Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Brassica napus Developing Seeds Reveals a Conserved Lipid Metabolism Regulation with Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Niu; Guo-Zhang Wu; Rui Ye; Wen-Hui Lin; Qiu-Ming Shi; Liang-Jiao Xue; Xiao-Dong Xu; Yao Li; Yu-Guang; Hong-Wei Xue

    2009-01-01

    In order to study Brassica napus fatty acid (FA) metabolism and relevant regulatory networks, a systematic identification of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis-related genes was conducted. Following gene identification, gene expression profiles during B. napus seed development and FA metabolism were performed by cDNA chip hybridization (>8000 EST clones from seed). The results showed that FA biosynthesis and regulation, and carbon flux, were conserved between B. napus and Arabidopsis. However, a more critical role of starch metabolism was detected for B. napus seed FA metabolism and storage-component accumulation when compared with Arabidopsis. In addition, a crucial stage for the transition of seed-to-sink tissue was 17-21 d after flowering (DAF), whereas FA biosynthesis-related genes were highly expressed pri-marily at 21 DAF. Hormone (auxin and jasmonate) signaling is found to be important for FA metabolism. This study helps to reveal the global regulatory network of FA metabolism in developing B. napus seeds.

  19. Critical phases in the seed development of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; Leroux, O; De Frenne, P; Tack, W; Viane, R; Verheyen, K

    2013-01-01

    Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) populations in northwest European lowlands are currently declining in size and number. An important cause of this decline is a lack of natural regeneration. Low seed viability seems to be one of the main bottlenecks in this process. Previous research revealed a negative relation between seed viability and both temperature and nitrogen deposition. Additionally, the seeds of common juniper have a variable ripening time, which possibly influences seed viability. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In order to elucidate this puzzle, it is important to understand in which phases of seed production the main defects are situated, together with the influence of ripening time. In this study, we compared seed viability of populations with and without successful recruitment. We examined three seed phases: (i) gamete development; (ii) fertilisation and early-embryo development; and (iii) late-embryo development. After the first two phases, we found no difference in the percentage viable seeds between populations with or without recruitment. After late-embryo development, populations without recruitment showed a significantly lower percentage of viable seeds. These results suggest that late-embryo development is a bottleneck in seed development. However, the complex interaction between seed viability and ripening time suggest that the causes should be in the second seed phase, as the accelerated development of male and female gametophytes may disturb the male-female synchrony for successful mating. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  1. CUSHAW3: sensitive and accurate base-space and color-space short-read alignment with hybrid seeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao Liu

    Full Text Available The majority of next-generation sequencing short-reads can be properly aligned by leading aligners at high speed. However, the alignment quality can still be further improved, since usually not all reads can be correctly aligned to large genomes, such as the human genome, even for simulated data. Moreover, even slight improvements in this area are important but challenging, and usually require significantly more computational endeavor. In this paper, we present CUSHAW3, an open-source parallelized, sensitive and accurate short-read aligner for both base-space and color-space sequences. In this aligner, we have investigated a hybrid seeding approach to improve alignment quality, which incorporates three different seed types, i.e. maximal exact match seeds, exact-match k-mer seeds and variable-length seeds, into the alignment pipeline. Furthermore, three techniques: weighted seed-pairing heuristic, paired-end alignment pair ranking and read mate rescuing have been conceived to facilitate accurate paired-end alignment. For base-space alignment, we have compared CUSHAW3 to Novoalign, CUSHAW2, BWA-MEM, Bowtie2 and GEM, by aligning both simulated and real reads to the human genome. The results show that CUSHAW3 consistently outperforms CUSHAW2, BWA-MEM, Bowtie2 and GEM in terms of single-end and paired-end alignment. Furthermore, our aligner has demonstrated better paired-end alignment performance than Novoalign for short-reads with high error rates. For color-space alignment, CUSHAW3 is consistently one of the best aligners compared to SHRiMP2 and BFAST. The source code of CUSHAW3 and all simulated data are available at http://cushaw3.sourceforge.net.

  2. Condutividade elétrica em sementes de abóbora, híbrido Bárbara Electrical conductivity of pumpkin hybrid Bárbara seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberval Daiton Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A condutividade elétrica na solução de embebição de sementes tem sido um procedimento usado com sucesso para avaliar o vigor de sementes. A presente pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de determinar os procedimentos adequados para o teste de condutividade elétrica de sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata Duch ex. Lam. Foram utilizadas sementes do híbrido Bárbara, representadas por cinco lotes (1 a 5 na primeira etapa e por outros cinco (6 a 10 na segunda. Foram realizados os teste de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência e de condutividade elétrica (CE. Para o teste de CE, foram estudadas variações no volume de água (50 e 75mL, na temperatura (20, 25 e 30ºC e no tempo de embebição (1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 e 24 horas. Assim, concluiu-se que a condição mais adequada para o teste de CE é a utilização de 50 sementes em 75mL de água por oito horas, à temperatura de 25ºC.The electrical conductivity in the soaked seed solution has been used successfully to evaluate seed vigor. This work was developed with the objective of determining the adequate procedures to evaluate the electrical conductivity test of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch ex. Lam seeds. For pumpkin, hybrid Bárbara, five lots of seeds, in both stages, were used, all with quality patterns (germination above the minimum demanded by commercialization. The standard germination, first countig of germination, seedling emergency, and emergency speed index and electrical conductivity (EC test were run. For the EC test two volumes of water (50 and 75mL, three temperatures (20, 25 and 30ºC and eight period of seed soaking (1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours were used. So, it can be concluded that the EC test can be conducted using 50 seeds, 25ºC, 75mL and 8h of embibition period for pumpkin seeds.

  3. Forty Years' Development of Hybrid Rice:China's Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang-xian; CHENG Shi-hua; DONG Hai-tao; CAO Li-yong; LI De-bao; YANG Shi-hua; ZHAI Hu-qu

    2004-01-01

    China is the first country where heterosis of hybrid rice was successfully exploited commercially on a large scale in the world. Hybrid rice has been developed for 40 years since Prof. Yuan initiated it in China. It had been planted about 330 million hectares with an increase of nearly 400 million tons of rice during 1976-2002. China's experience on hybrid rice could be attributed to utilization of various cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) resources, high outcrossing rate CMS lines and stable environmentally induced genetic male sterile (EGMS) lines, improvement of diseases resistance and grain quality, and combination of ideal plant type with heterosis in hybrid rice breeding program. Innovative breeding techniques, e.g. improvement in root system, molecular marker-assisted selection and wild hybridization should be considered in further development of hybrid rice in China.

  4. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 1. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, F.T.

    1979-09-30

    The results of investigations conducted under Ce Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task are reported in 10 volumes. This volume contains an overview of the study and its results. The purpose of the overall study was to determine if the petroleum fuel savings achievable through the use of hybrid electric vehicles is worth the R and D expenditures needed to develop the hybrid vehicles and to determine R and D priorities. It was concluded that by the year 2010 hybrid vehicles could replace 80% of the automotive power that would otherwise be produced from petroleum fuels; the public should not suffer any mobility loss through the use of hybrid vehicles; high initial and life-cycle costs are a limiting factor; and R and D funds should be spent for systems design and the development of low-cost batteries and controllers. (LCL)

  5. Development of irradiation support devices for production of brachytherapy seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Souza, Carla D.; Moura, Joao A.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Karan Junior, Dib; Feher, Anselmo; Oliveira, Tiago B.; Benega, Marcos A.G., E-mail: tiagooliveira298@gmail.com, E-mail: mattos.fr@gmail.com, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: czeituni@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jamoura@ipen.br, E-mail: ernandopeleias@gmail.com, E-mail: s, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.br, E-mail: afeher@ipen.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ophthalmic tumors treatment with brachytherapy sources has been widely used as a primary or secondary therapy for non-malignant or malignant tumors, for example, choroid melanoma, and retinoblastoma. Ruthenium-106, Iodine-125, Palladium -103, Gold-198 and Iridium-192, are some radionuclides that can be applied for treatment of ocular tumors. These sources are in small sizes (a few millimeters) and different shapes (rods, wires, disks). To ensure high accuracy during treatment, they are positioned in eye applicators, specially designed to fit on the surface of tumor. The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN) in a partnership with Paulista Medicine School (UNIFESP) created a project that aims to develop a prototype of Iridium-192 seeds for treatment of eye cancer. This seed consists in a core of Ir -Pt alloy (20%-80%) with a length of 3 mm, to be activated in IPEN's IEA-R1 Reactor, and a titanium capsule sealing the core. It was imperative to develop a sustainer device for irradiation. This piece is used to avoid overlapping of one cores and, therefore, avoiding the 'shadow effect' that does not allow full activation of each core due to the high density. (author)

  6. Progress and future development of hybrid rapeseed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Tingdong; Zhou Yongming

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid growth of rapeseed now has reached to 4.7 × 106 hm2,accounting for 70%of total rapeseed growth area in China. Over the last 40 years,the researches and utilizations of hybrid rapeseed in China have sig-nificantly contributed to the development of rapeseed industry in China. The production of hybrid rapeseed mainly utilizes cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS),combined at the same time with nuclear male sterility and other pollinat-ing-control systems in China. The hybrid rapeseed studies in China are also characterized by the improvement of quality and oil content in hybrid breeding. Future studies to enhance the heterosis of rapeseed will be focused on several important issues,including the combination of heterosis and ideotype breeding,further increase of oil con-tent in hybrids,utilization of sub-genomic heterosis and resistance improvement. The paper will discuss the follow-ing perspectives in hybrid rapeseed studies:relationships among heterosis,quality and disease traits,solutions for excessive source and pool in hybrids compared with open-pollinated cultivars,and the importance of increasing harvest index of hybrids to achieve a better yield in hybrids.

  7. Post-floral perianth functionality: contribution of persistent sepals to seed development in Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M

    2005-09-01

    The perianth persists after flowering in many plants, yet its post-floral functionality has been little investigated, and the few studies available provide ambiguous evidence. This paper tests the hypothesis that the green persistent sepals of the perennial herb, Helleborus foetidus, contribute to the plant's fitness by enhancing seed number and/or size. Post-floral contribution of the calyx to fruit and seed development was evaluated by manipulating sepal number and measuring the effect on follicle size, seed set, seeds per follicle, and mean seed mass. The allometric relationship between calyx size and follicle mass was examined for flower buds, open flowers, and immature fruits differing in follicle number. Calyx manipulation had no significant effect on follicle size, seed set, or number of seeds per follicle, but it did have a significant influence on the size of individual seeds. Calyx size and mean seed mass were positively, linearly related. The calyx mass/seed number ratio declined with increasing number of follicles per fruit. The persistent sepals of Helleborus do contribute resources to the development of seeds, although there is not evidence of post-floral allometric adjustment of the calyx mass/follicle number ratio that could compensate for variations in seed number per fruit.

  8. The plastid-localized NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase is crucial for energy homeostasis in developing Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinski, Jennifer; König, Nicolas; Wellmeyer, Benedikt; Hanke, Guy T; Linke, Vera; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Scheibe, Renate

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of photosynthesis, ATP is imported into chloroplasts and non-green plastids by ATP/ADP transporters or formed during glycolysis, the latter requiring continuous regeneration of NAD(+), supplied by the plastidial isoform of NAD-MDH. During screening for T-DNA insertion mutants in the plNAD-MDH gene of Arabidopsis, only heterozygous plants could be isolated and homozygous knockout mutants grew only after complementation. These heterozygous plants show higher transcript levels of an alternative NAD(+)-regenerating enzyme, NADH-GOGAT, and, remarkably, improved growth when ammonium is the sole N-source. In situ hybridization and GUS-histochemical staining revealed that plNAD-MDH was particularly abundant in male and female gametophytes. Knockout plNAD-MDH pollen exhibit impaired tube growth in vitro, which can be overcome by adding the substrates of NADH-GOGAT. In vivo, knockout pollen is able to fertilize the egg cell. Young siliques of selfed heterozygous plants contain both green and white seeds corresponding to wild-type/heterozygous (green) and homozygous knockout mutants (white) in a (1:2):1 ratio. Embryos of the homozygous knockout seeds only reached the globular stage, did not green, and developed to tiny wrinkled seeds. Complementation with the gene under the native promoter rescued this defect, and all seeds developed as wild-type. This suggests that a blocked major physiological process in plNAD-MDH mutants stops both embryo and endosperm development, thus avoiding assimilate investment in compromised offspring.

  9. Relationships between changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor during development stages of F1 seeds of sh 2 sweet corn*

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dong-dong; Hu, Jin; Huang, Xin-xian; Wang, Xian-Ju; Guan, Ya-jing; Wang, Zhou-fei

    2008-01-01

    The changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor in F1 seeds of sh 2 sweet corn during seed development stage were investigated and the relationships between them were analyzed by time series regression (TSR) analysis. The results show that total soluble sugar and reducing sugar contents gradually declined, while starch and soluble protein contents increased throughout the seed development stages. Germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor inde...

  10. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts.

  11. Electroless Sliver-Plating Process in the Preparation of 103Pd-125I Hybrid Brachytherapy Seed Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhong-yong1,2;CHEN Bin-da1;Lv Xiao-zhou1;LU Jin-hui1;CUI Hai-ping1,2

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Electroless 103Pd plating and electroless Ag plating and chemical 125I depositing were took place on the surface of carbon rods in turn, which was a reliable method for the preparation of 103Pd-125I hybrid brachytherapy seed cores. 103Pd and 125I were deposited on the same substrate effectively through silver coating as a bridge. The process of electroless Ag plating was a novel and important step in the preparation of 103Pd-125I hybrid seed. In this work, the process of electroless Ag plating was studied using 0.5×3.0 mm carbon rods with palladium coating as substrate, silver-ammino complex as precursor, 110mAg as radioactive tracer, and hydrazine as reductant. The optimum conditions were AgNO3 2g/L,Na2EDTA 40 g/L,NH3•H2O 16.25%,H4N2•H2O 5‰,pH=10,t=60 min,and T=35 ℃. Sliver deposited on each carbon rod was uniform, and sliver-coating was white and smooth.

  12. Hormonal Regulation of Dormancy in Developing Sorghum Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, H. S.; Benech-Arnold, R. L.; Sanchez, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) in determining the dormancy level of developing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench.) seeds from varieties presenting contrasting preharvest sprouting behavior (Redland B2, susceptible; IS 9530, resistant) was investigated. Panicles from both varieties were sprayed soon after pollination with fluridone or paclobutrazol to inhibit ABA and GA synthesis, respectively. Fluridone application to the panicles increased germinability of Redland B2 immature caryopses, whereas early treatment with paclobutrazol completely inhibited germination of this variety during most of the developmental period. Incubating caryopses in the presence of 100 [mu]M GA4+7 overcame the inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol, but also stimulated germination of seeds from other treatments. IS 9530 caryopses presented germination indices close to zero until physiological maturity (44 d after pollination) in control and paclobutrazol-treated particles. However, fluridone-treated caryopses were released from dormancy earlier than control and paclobutrazol-treated caryopses. Incubation in the presence of GA4+7 stimulated germination of caryopses from all treatments. Our results support the proposition that a low dormancy level (which is related to a high preharvest sprouting susceptibility) is determined not only by a low embryonic sensitivity to ABA, but also by a high GA content or sensitivity.

  13. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events.

  14. Research on Theories and Techniques of Irrigation for Safeguarding Seed Production of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Jiang-shi; L(U) Chuan-gen; YAO Ke-min; HU Ning; XIA Shi-jian

    2006-01-01

    By inducing frequency, intensity and duration of lower temperature in the middle and last ten-day periods in August in the rice-growing areas of southern China, increasing temperature for safe seed production was defined as 2℃. During the sensitive period of fertility, characters of panicle height and canopy structure of TGMS rice, Pei'ai64S, were measured.Results showed that temperature changes caused by irrigation in fields were below 40 cm of rice plant, and heating effect was significant at 20 cm when the temperature was increased by 3.1℃. For the present study, the following irrigation techniques were put forth: the water depth of 15-20 cm, current water used, irrigating after 17:00 and bailing at 10:00 in sunny or cloudy weather, irrigating on whole day, in shady or rainy weather, increasing inflows and outflows in large fields. In the present experiment, pollen fertility and self-fertilized seed setting rate accepted that the techniques were feasible and effective for against lower temperature and safeguarding seed production of two-line hybrid rice.

  15. Relationships between changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor during development stages of F1 seeds of sh2 sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dong-dong; Hu, Jin; Huang, Xin-xian; Wang, Xian-ju; Guan, Ya-jing; Wang, Zhou-fei

    2008-12-01

    The changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor in F1 seeds of sh2 sweet corn during seed development stage were investigated and the relationships between them were analyzed by time series regression (TSR) analysis. The results show that total soluble sugar and reducing sugar contents gradually declined, while starch and soluble protein contents increased throughout the seed development stages. Germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index gradually increased along with seed development and reached the highest levels at 38 d after pollination (DAP). The TSR showed that, during 14 to 42 DAP, total soluble sugar content was independent of the vigor parameters determined in present experiment, while the reducing sugar content had a significant effect on seed vigor. TSR equations between seed reducing sugar and seed vigor were also developed. There were negative correlations between the seed reducing sugar content and the germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index, respectively. It is suggested that the seed germination, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index could be predicted by the content of reducing sugar in sweet corn seeds during seed development stages.

  16. Relationships between changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor during development stages of F1 seeds of sh2 sweet corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-dong CAO; Jin HU; Xin-xian HUANG; Xian-ju WANG; Ya-jing GUAN; Zhou-fei WANG

    2008-01-01

    The changes of kernel nutritive components and seed vigor in F1 seeds of sh2 sweet corn during seed development stage were investigated and the relationships between them were analyzed by time series regression (TSR) analysis. The results show that total soluble sugar and reducing sugar contents gradually declined, while starch and soluble protein contents increased throughout the seed development stages. Germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index gradually increased along with seed development and reached the highest levels at 38 d aider pollination (DAP). The TSR showed that, during 14 to 42 DAP, total soluble sugar content was independent of the vigor parameters determined in present experiment, while the reducing sugar content had a significant effect on seed vigor. TSR equations between seed reducing sugar and seed vigor were also developed. There were negative correlations between the seed reducing sugar content and the germination percentage, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index, respectively. It is suggested that the seed germination, energy of germination, germination index and vigor index could be predicted by the content of reducing sugar in sweet corn seeds during seed development stages.

  17. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid accumulation during seed development represses seed germination in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Anuja; Hernández, M Luisa; He, Zhesi; Andriotis, Vasilios M E; Vaistij, Fabián E; Larson, Tony R; Graham, Ian A

    2011-02-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana COMATOSE (CTS) encodes an ABC transporter involved in peroxisomal import of substrates for β-oxidation. Various cts alleles and mutants disrupted in steps of peroxisomal β-oxidation have previously been reported to exhibit a severe block on seed germination. Oxylipin analysis on cts, acyl CoA oxidase1 acyl CoA oxidase2 (acx1 acx2), and keto acyl thiolase2 dry seeds revealed that they contain elevated levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and JA-Ile. Oxylipin and transcriptomic analysis showed that accumulation of these oxylipins occurs during late seed maturation in cts. Analysis of double mutants generated by crossing cts with mutants in the JA biosynthesis pathway indicate that OPDA, rather than JA or JA-Ile, contributes to the block on germination in cts seeds. We found that OPDA was more effective at inhibiting wild-type germination than was JA and that this effect was independent of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 but was synergistic with abscisic acid (ABA). Consistent with this, OPDA treatment increased ABA INSENSITIVE5 protein abundance in a manner that parallels the inhibitory effect of OPDA and OPDA+ABA on seed germination. These results demonstrate that OPDA acts along with ABA to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis.

  18. Polycomb-group (Pc-G) Proteins Control Seed Development in Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xue Wang; Li-Geng Ma

    2007-01-01

    Polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins repress their target gene expression by assemble complexes in Drosophila and mammals. Three groups of Pc-G genes, controlling seed development, flower development and vernalization response, have been identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.). MEDEA (MEA), FERTIL IZA TION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2), and FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) are Pc-G genes in Arabidopsis. Their functions in seed development have been extensively explored. The advanced findings of molecular mechanism on how MEA, FIS2 and FIE control seed development in Arabidopsis are reviewed in this paper.

  19. Analysis of Gene Expression Patterns during Seed Coat Development in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gillian Dean; George Haughn; YoncgGuo Cao; DaoQuan Xiang; Nicholas J. Provart; Larissa Ramsay; Abdul Ahada; Rick White; Gopalan Selvaraj; Raju Datla

    2011-01-01

    The seed coat is important for embryo protection,seed hydration,and dispersal.Seed coat composition is also of interest to the agricultural sector,since it impacts the nutritional value for humans and livestock alike.Although some seed coat genes have been identified,the developmental pathways controlling seed coat development are not completely elucidated,and a global genetic program associated with seed coat development has not been reported.This study uses a combination of genetic and genomic approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana to begin to address these knowledge gaps.Seed coat development is a complex process whereby the integuments of the ovule differentiate into specialized cell types.In Arabidopsis,the outermost layer of cells secretes mucilage into the apoplast and develops a secondary cell wall known as a columella.The layer beneath the epidermis,the palisade,synthesizes a secondary cell wall on its inner tangential side.The innermost layer (the pigmented layer or endothelium) produces proanthocyanidins that condense into tannins and oxidize,giving a brown color to mature seeds.Genetic separation of these cell layers was achieved using the ap2-7 and tt16-1 mutants,where the epidermis/palisade and the endothelium do not develop respectively.This genetic ablation was exploited to examine the developmental programs of these cell types by isolating and collecting seed coats at key transitions during development and performing global gene expression analysis.The data indicate that the developmental programs of the epidermis and the pigmented layer proceed relatively independently.Global expression datasets that can be used for identification of new gene candidates for seed coat development were generated.These dataset provide a comprehensive expression profile for developing seed coats in Arabidopsis,and should provide a useful resource and reference for other seed systems.

  20. Development and structure of hawthorn seeds (Crataegus L. from species occurring in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Pelc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development, internal and external structure of seeds of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., C. curvisepala Lindm., C. lindmannii Hrabĕt-Uhr., C. oxyacantha L. em. Jacq., C. palmstruchii Lindm., C. macrocarpa Hegetsch were investigated. It was found that the embryo development is specific, and the development of endosperm precedes that of the embryo. In mature seeds of the examined species endosperm is present under the seed coat and the embryo with large cotyledones and radicle is completely immersed in it. The external appearance of the seeds of particular species differs, and on this basis their specific appurtenance may be determined.

  1. Effect of seed coat on the seed germination and seedling development of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Aparecida Mendes de Jesus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the effect of the Calophyllum brasiliense seed coat on the seed germination process. To this end, three experiments were conducted in laboratory, greenhouse and screenhouse. From a total of six treatments, five are related to the seed coat (mechanical scarification; mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water, chemical scarification, hot water immersion and complete seed coat removal and one control. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD. Screenhouse experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design (RBD. We evaluated the total percentage, the speed index and the average time of germination or emergence. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by LSD test, at 5%. Under the conditions of this work, it was possible to infer that, in laboratory, mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water increases the proportion and germination speed index (GSI, in the greenhouse, the complete seed coat removal increases the percentage and emergence speed index (ESI, and in the screenhouse, mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water and chemical scarification presented the best results. The average germination time was not significantly different in the three experiments evaluated.

  2. Drought stress delays endosperm development and misregulates genes associated with cytoskeleton organization and grain quality proteins in developing wheat seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-11-01

    Drought stress is a major yield-limiting factor for wheat. Wheat yields are particularly sensitive to drought stress during reproductive development. Early seed development stage is an important determinant of seed size, one of the yield components. We specifically examined the impact of drought stress imposed during postzygotic early seed development in wheat. We imposed a short-term drought stress on plants with day-old seeds and observed that even a short-duration drought stress significantly reduced the size of developing seeds as well as mature seeds. Drought stress delayed the developmental transition from syncytial to cellularized stage of endosperm. Coincident with reduced seed size and delayed endosperm development, a subset of genes associated with cytoskeleton organization was misregulated in developing seeds under drought-stressed. Several genes linked to hormone pathways were also differentially regulated in response to drought stress in early seeds. Notably, drought stress strongly repressed the expression of wheat storage protein genes such as gliadins, glutenins and avenins as early as 3 days after pollination. Our results provide new insights on how some of the early seed developmental events are impacted by water stress, and the underlying molecular pathways that can possibly impact both grain size and quality in wheat.

  3. Development of sorghum varieties and hybrids for dryland areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    A study was conducted to scrutinize the development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolar) varieties and hybrids .... national variety trial in the case of open pollinated varieties ...... Principles of field crop production. 3rd Ed., Macmillan. Publishing Co.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CODOMINANT MARKERS FOR IDENTIFYING SPECIES HYBRIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herein we describe a simple method for developing species-diagnostic markers that would permit the rapid identification of hybrid individuals. Our method relies on amplified length polymorphism (AFLP) and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technologies, both of which...

  5. Development and Testing of Cool-Season Grass Species, Varieties and Hybrids for Biomass Feedstock Production in Western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Larson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of native cool-season grasses has the potential to improve forage production and expand the range of bioenergy feedstocks throughout western North America. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus and creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides rank among the tallest and most rhizomatous grasses of this region, respectively. The objectives of this study were to develop interspecific creeping wildrye (CWR × basin wildrye (BWR hybrids and evaluate their biomass yield relative to tetraploid ‘Trailhead’, octoploid ‘Magnar’ and interploidy-hybrid ‘Continental’ BWR cultivars in comparison with other perennial grasses across diverse single-harvest dryland range sites and a two-harvest irrigated production system. Two half-sib hybrid populations were produced by harvesting seed from the tetraploid self-incompatible Acc:641.T CWR genet, which was clonally propagated by rhizomes into isolated hybridization blocks with two tetraploid BWR pollen parents: Acc:636 and ‘Trailhead’. Full-sib hybrid seed was also produced from a controlled cross of tetraploid ‘Rio’ CWR and ‘Trailhead’ BWR plants. In space-planted range plots, the ‘Rio’ CWR × ‘Trailhead’ BWR and Acc:641.T CWR × Acc:636 BWR hybrids displayed high-parent heterosis with 75% and 36% yield advantages, respectively, but the Acc:641.T CWR × ‘Trailhead’ BWR hybrid yielded significantly less than its BWR high-parent in this evaluation. Half-sib CWR × BWR hybrids of Acc:636 and ‘Trailhead’ both yielded as good as or better than available BWR cultivars, with yields similar to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, in the irrigated sward plots. These results elucidate opportunity to harness genetic variation among native grass species for the development of forage and bioenergy feedstocks in western North America.

  6. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid vehicle systems available in market and under development. Hybrid vehicle technology is a new area and developed rapidly in the field of automotive and mechanical engineering. Students need not only the fundamentals and concepts from college, but also the ability to keep up with the latest technology after their graduation. Therefore, a blended course type is employed to help students have a better understanding of the fundamentals of hybrid vehicle and developing their self-studying ability. Topics in the course have three steps of learning. Firstly, on-ground lecture is given in class, where the instructor explains basic knowledge, such as principles, equations, and design rules.  In this way, the students will have enough background knowledge and be able to conduct further self-reading and research work. Secondly, students are required to go to university’s desire to learn (D2L online system and finish the online part of the topic. In the D2L system, students will find a quiz and its supporting materials. Thirdly, students come back to the on-ground lecture and discuss the quiz in groups with instructor. After the discussion, the instructor gives students a conclusion of the topic and moves forward to the next topic. A computer simulation class is also given to help student better understand the operation strategies of the hybrid vehicle systems and have a trial of design of hybrid vehicle.

  7. The ubiquitin extension protein S27a is differentially expressed in developing flower organs of Thompson seedless versus Thompson seeded grape isogenic clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Uri; Velcheva, Margarita; Sahar, Nachman; Flaishman, Moshe; Or, Etti; Degani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2009-07-01

    In Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless, fertilization occurs but seeds abort, a type of stenospermocarpy. To clone transcripts with differential expression during flower development, suppressive subtractive hybridization was carried out using two isogenic clones 'Thompson seedless' and 'Thompson seeded', at three stages of inflorescence development (from bud break to ~20 days prior to anthesis). Differential screening and sequencing of a forward and reverse subtractive cDNA library yielded several singleton ESTs. One differentially expressed clone in 'Thompson' seeded versus seedless isogenic clones was the ubiquitin extension protein S27a. In situ hybridization demonstrated its significantly higher expression in the carpel and ovaries of 'Thompson' seedless versus seeded isogenic clones during flower development. Overexpression of this gene resulted in abnormal plant regeneration and inhibited shoot development compared to controls; its silencing in embryogenic callus induced cell necrosis and callus death, evidencing tight regulation of this gene in developing organs of grape. S27a overexpression in carpels and integuments of the seedless flower may interfere with normal development of these organs, leading to embryo abortion and seedlessness.

  8. Cytochemical localization of reserves during seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana under spaceflight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Xiao, Y.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    Successful development of seeds under spaceflight conditions has been an elusive goal of numerous long-duration experiments with plants on orbital spacecraft. Because carbohydrate metabolism undergoes changes when plants are grown in microgravity, developing seed storage reserves might be detrimentally affected during spaceflight. Seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana plants that flowered during 11 d in space on shuttle mission STS-68 has been investigated in this study. Plants were grown to the rosette stage (13 d) on a nutrient agar medium on the ground and loaded into the Plant Growth Unit flight hardware 18 h prior to lift-off. Plants were retrieved 3 h after landing and siliques were immediately removed from plants. Young seeds were fixed and processed for microscopic observation. Seeds in both the ground control and flight plants are similar in their morphology and size. The oldest seeds from these plants contain completely developed embryos and seed coats. These embryos developed radicle, hypocotyl, meristematic apical tissue, and differentiated cotyledons. Protoderm, procambium, and primary ground tissue had differentiated. Reserves such as starch and protein were deposited in the embryos during tissue differentiation. The aleurone layer contains a large quantity of storage protein and starch grains. A seed coat developed from integuments of the ovule with gradual change in cell composition and cell material deposition. Carbohydrates were deposited in outer integument cells especially in the outside cell walls. Starch grains decreased in number per cell in the integument during seed coat development. All these characteristics during seed development represent normal features in the ground control plants and show that the spaceflight environment does not prevent normal development of seeds in Arabidopsis.

  9. Registration of seed sterile, Perennial Sorghum spp. [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench x S. halepense (L.) Pers.] Hybrid 'PSH09TX15'

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel, Perennial Sorghum spp. Hybrid (PSH) [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench x S. halepense (L.) Pers.] ('PSH09TX15'; PI ______) was identified that possessed complete seed sterility, only rare occurrences (< 0.1%) of flowering, and significantly higher mean leaf number per tiller than S. halepense. I...

  10. Pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene expression and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside accumulation in developing flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, C; Martin, I; Fliniaux, O; Legrand, B; Gutierrez, L; Arroo, R R J; Mesnard, F; Lamblin, F; Lainé, E

    2006-11-01

    The transcription activity of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) gene of Linum usitatissimum (so-called LuPLR), a key gene in lignan synthesis, was studied by RT-PCR and promoter-reporter transgenesis. The promoter was found to drive transcription of a GUSint reporter gene in the seed coats during the flax seed development. This fitted well with the tissue localization monitored by semi-quantitative RT-PCR of LuPLR expression. Accumulation of the main flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside was coherent with LuPLR expression during seed development. This three-way approach demonstrated that the LuPLR gene is expressed in the seed coat of flax seeds, and that the synthesis of PLR enzyme occurs where flax main lignan is found stored in mature seeds, confirming its involvement in SDG synthesis.

  11. Current Development Situation,Problem and Countermeasures on Tilapia Seed Industry in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaozhong; JIANG; Fei; SUN; Qun; LI; Quanfu; ZHONG

    2013-01-01

    As one of the four main production areas of China’s tilapia farming,Fujian province plays a critical role in China’s tilapia industry development."Quality seed makes the industry a half success",therefore,the study on seed industry has a very important significance for the development of tilapia industry.Based on the field survey,study and analysis,we found that there is abroad prospect of the seed industry development in Fujian province.However,in recent years,some problems has emerged during the development process,such as the serious germplasm degeneration,frequent disease occurrence,etc.,which to some extent has restricted its further development.Establishment of tilapia seed production base,financial support and quality and security system should be strengthened,so that the tilapia seed industry in Fujian province will get better development.

  12. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids...

  13. Ectopic expression of a soybean phytase in developing seeds of Glycine max to improve phosphorus availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiera, Joseph M; Finer, John J; Grabau, Elizabeth A

    2004-12-01

    A transgenic approach was used to alter soybean seed phytate content by expressing a soybean phytase gene (GmPhy) during seed development to degrade accumulating phytic acid (IP6). An expression vector containing the soybean phytase cDNA controlled by the seed-specific beta-conglycinin promoter (alpha'-subunit) was used to transform embryogenic soybean cultures. Plants from four independent transgenic lines were analyzed for transgene integration and seed IP6 levels. The reduction in IP6 levels in transgenic seeds compared to control 'Jack' soybeans ranged from 12.6 to 24.8 as determined by HPLC. A low copy transformant was propagated to the T4 generation and examined in more detail for phytase expression and enzyme activity during seed development. Expression of phytase mRNA and phytase activity increased during seed development, consistent with the use of an embryo-specific promoter. Ectopic phytase expression during seed development offers potential as an effective strategy for reducing phytate content in soybean seed.

  14. Development and standardization of a simple technique for breaking seed dormancy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maiti R.K.; Vidyasagar P; Shahapur S.C.; Ghosh S.K.; Seiler G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Seed dormancy causes a great problem in efficient seed production of sunflower. Attempts have been made to develop simple techniques for breaking seed dormancy. In the first experiment, different techniques were evaluated using treatments such as a growth regulator, Ethrel, priming (water soaking followed by 2-3 days drying in shade), chemicals such as acetone (CH3COCH3), and potassium nitrate (KNO3) which showed the most promise. To confirm these findings, several treatments (25% acetone, 0....

  15. Gm1-MMP is involved in growth and development of leaf and seed, and enhances tolerance to high temperature and humidity stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sushuang; Liu, Yanmin; Jia, Yanhong; Wei, Jiaping; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhou, Yali; Zhu, Yajing; Gu, Weihong; Ma, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases. Gm1-MMP was found to play an important role in soybean tissue remodeling during leaf expansion. In this study, Gm1-MMP was isolated and characterized. Its encoding protein had a relatively low phylogenetic relationship with the MMPs in other plant species. Subcellular localization indicated that Gm1-MMP was a plasma membrane protein. Gm1-MMP showed higher expression levels in mature leaves, old leaves, pods, and mature seeds, as well as was involved in the development of soybean seed. Additionally, it was involved in response to high temperature and humidity (HTH) stress in R7 leaves and seeds in soybean. The analysis of promoter of Gm1-MMP suggested that the fragment from -399 to -299 was essential for its promoter activity in response to HTH stress. The overexpression of Gm1-MMP in Arabidopsis affected the growth and development of leaves, enhanced leaf and developing seed tolerance to HTH stress and improved seed vitality. The levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ROS in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds were lower than those in wild type seeds under HTH stress. Gm1-MMP could interact with soybean metallothionein-II (GmMT-II), which was confirmed by analysis of yeast two-hybrid assay and BiFC assays. All the results indicated that Gm1-MMP plays an important role in the growth and development of leaves and seeds as well as in tolerance to HTH stress. It will be helpful for us understanding the functions of Gm1-MMP in plant growth and development, and in response to abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The proteome of seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S; Ornfelt, Jane H; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Staerfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Besenbacher, Søren; Krusell, Lene; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-03-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea. In a first attempt to determine the seed proteome, both a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach and a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach were used. Globulins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and five legumins, LLP1 to LLP5, and two convicilins, LCP1 and LCP2, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For two distinct developmental phases, seed filling and desiccation, a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was used, and 665 and 181 unique proteins corresponding to gene accession numbers were identified for the two phases, respectively. All of the proteome data, including the experimental data and mass spectrometry spectra peaks, were collected in a database that is available to the scientific community via a Web interface (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi). This database establishes the basis for relating physiology, biochemistry, and regulation of seed development in Lotus. Together with a new Web interface (http://bioinfoserver.rsbs.anu.edu.au/utils/PathExpress4legumes/) collecting all protein identifications for Lotus, Medicago, and soybean seed proteomes, this database is a valuable resource for comparative seed proteomics and pathway analysis within and beyond the legume family.

  17. The development of a mathematical model of a hybrid airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Ghaffar, Alia Farhana

    The mathematical model of a winged hybrid airship is developed for the analysis of its dynamic stability characteristics. A full nonlinear equation of motion that describes the dynamics of the hybrid airship is determined and for completeness, some of the components in the equations are estimated using the appropriate methods that has been established and used in the past. Adequate assumptions are made in order to apply any relevant computation and estimation methods. While this hybrid airship design is unique, its modeling and stability analysis were done according to the typical procedure of conventional airships and aircrafts. All computations pertaining to the hybrid airship's equation of motion are carried out and any issues related to the integration of the wing to the conventional airship design are discussed in this thesis. The design of the hybrid airship is also slightly modified to suit the demanding requirement of a complete and feasible mathematical model. Then, linearization is performed under a chosen trim condition, and eigenvalue analysis is carried out to determine the general dynamic stability characteristics of the winged hybrid airship. The result shows that the winged hybrid airship possesses dynamic instability in longitudinal pitch motion and lateral-directional slow roll motion. This is due to the strong coupling between the aerostatic lift from the buoyant gas and aerodynamic lift from the wing.

  18. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Effects of four asymbiotic media; Murashige and Skoog (MS), Phytamax (Sigma, USA; PM), ... wholesale prices estimated at $126 million (USDA, 2008). ..... conservation and commercialization of Indian orchids: seed culture.

  19. Systematic Analysis and Innovation for Development Policies of Beijing Seed Industry at Transformation Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing LIU; Fengjun LU; Guozhi ZHANG; Lijiao XIE

    2015-01-01

    At transformation stage,seed Industry is not only a fundamental and strategic industry during the construction of World City,but also part of urban and modern agriculture in Beijing. Based on the analysis of the theory of industrial economics and system theory,the article constructs the seed industry policy analysis model,systematically analyzes the support points of national level and the city of Beijing seed industry policy,and studies policy input,mechanism,output and effects by way of systematic analysis,as well as proposes polices and suggestions on promotion of development for Beijing seed industry and on construction of new seed industry from talent incentive,platform construction,seed trading and enterprise cultivation.

  20. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of vegetable and grain pea (Pisum sativum L. seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding.

  1. Development of high performance hybrid rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Christopher R.

    In this document I discuss paraffin fuel combustion and investigate the effects of additives on paraffin entrainment and regression. In general, hybrid rockets offer an economical and safe alternative to standard liquid and solid rockets. However, slow polymeric fuel regression and low combustion efficiency have limited the commercial use of hybrid rockets. Paraffin is a fast burning fuel that has received significant attention in the 2000's and 2010's as a replacement for standard fuels. Paraffin regresses three to four times faster than polymeric fuels due to the entrainment of a surface melt layer. However, further regression rate enhancement over the base paraffin fuel is necessary for widespread hybrid rocket adoption. I use a small scale opposed flow burner to investigate the effect of additives on the combustion of paraffin. Standard additives such as aluminum combust above the flame zone where sufficient oxidizer levels are present. As a result no heat is generated below the flame itself. In small scale opposed burner experiments the effect of limited heat feedback is apparent. Aluminum in particular does not improve the regression of paraffin in the opposed burner. The lack of heat feedback from additive combustion limits the applicability of the opposed burner. In turn, the results obtained in the opposed burner with metal additive loaded hybrid fuels do not match results from hybrid rocket experiments. In addition, nano-scale aluminum increases melt layer viscosity and greatly slows the regression of paraffin in the opposed flow burner. However, the reactive additives improve the regression rate of paraffin in the opposed burner where standard metals do not. At 5 wt.% mechanically activated titanium and carbon (Ti-C) improves the regression rate of paraffin by 47% in the opposed burner. The mechanically activated Ti C likely reacts in or near the melt layer and provides heat feedback below the flame region that results in faster opposed burner regression

  2. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

    2006-04-01

    The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight—had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated ($r = -0.69$) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was $y = 0.074x_{8} + 1.819x_{9} + 6.72x_{12} - 60.78 (R^{2} = 0.993)$, where $x_{8}$, $x_{9}$ and $x_{12}$ represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and

  3. Study of reproductive barriers in the production of P. elliottii x P. caribaea hybrid seed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivlal, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction, the P. elliottii (Pe) x P. caribaea var. hondurensis (Pch) hybrid has played a very important role in the plantation forestry industry due to its displayed improved growth, desirable wood properties (Du Plooy, 1984; Malan...

  4. Using RNA-Seq to profile soybean seed development from fertilization to maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah I; Vodkin, Lila O

    2013-01-01

    To understand gene expression networks leading to functional properties and compositional traits of the soybean seed, we have undertaken a detailed examination of soybean seed development from a few days post-fertilization to the mature seed using Illumina high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). RNA was sequenced from seven different stages of seed development, yielding between 12 million and 78 million sequenced transcripts. These have been aligned to the 79,000 gene models predicted from the soybean genome recently sequenced by the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute. Over one hundred gene models were identified with high expression exclusively in young seed stages, starting at just four days after fertilization. These were annotated as being related to many basic components and processes such as histones and proline-rich proteins. Genes encoding storage proteins such as glycinin and beta-conglycinin had their highest expression levels at the stages of largest fresh weight, confirming previous knowledge that these storage products are being rapidly accumulated before the seed begins the desiccation process. Other gene models showed high expression in the dry, mature seeds, perhaps indicating the preparation of pathways needed later, in the early stages of imbibition. Many highly-expressed gene models at the dry seed stage are, as expected, annotated as hydrophilic proteins associated with low water conditions, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins and dehydrins, which help preserve the cellular structures and nutrients within the seed during desiccation. More significantly, the power of RNA-Seq to detect genes expressed at low levels revealed hundreds of transcription factors with notable expression in at least one stage of seed development. Results from a second biological replicate demonstrate high reproducibility of these data revealing a comprehensive view of the transciptome of seed development in the cultivar Williams, the

  5. Using RNA-Seq to profile soybean seed development from fertilization to maturity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah I Jones

    Full Text Available To understand gene expression networks leading to functional properties and compositional traits of the soybean seed, we have undertaken a detailed examination of soybean seed development from a few days post-fertilization to the mature seed using Illumina high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq. RNA was sequenced from seven different stages of seed development, yielding between 12 million and 78 million sequenced transcripts. These have been aligned to the 79,000 gene models predicted from the soybean genome recently sequenced by the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute. Over one hundred gene models were identified with high expression exclusively in young seed stages, starting at just four days after fertilization. These were annotated as being related to many basic components and processes such as histones and proline-rich proteins. Genes encoding storage proteins such as glycinin and beta-conglycinin had their highest expression levels at the stages of largest fresh weight, confirming previous knowledge that these storage products are being rapidly accumulated before the seed begins the desiccation process. Other gene models showed high expression in the dry, mature seeds, perhaps indicating the preparation of pathways needed later, in the early stages of imbibition. Many highly-expressed gene models at the dry seed stage are, as expected, annotated as hydrophilic proteins associated with low water conditions, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins and dehydrins, which help preserve the cellular structures and nutrients within the seed during desiccation. More significantly, the power of RNA-Seq to detect genes expressed at low levels revealed hundreds of transcription factors with notable expression in at least one stage of seed development. Results from a second biological replicate demonstrate high reproducibility of these data revealing a comprehensive view of the transciptome of seed development in the

  6. Merging photovoltaic hardware development with hybrid applications in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W.

    1993-11-01

    The use of multi-source power systems, ``hybrids,`` is one of the fastest growing, potentially significant markets for photovoltaic (PV) system technology today. Cost-effective applications today include remote facility power, remote area power supplies, remote home and village power, and power for dedicated electrical loads such as communications systems. This market sector is anticipated to be one of the most important growth opportunities for PV over the next five years. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are currently engaged in an effort to accelerate the adoption of market-driven PV hybrid power systems and to effectively integrate PV with other energy sources. This paper provides details of this development and the ongoing hybrid activities in the United States. Hybrid systems are the primary focus of this paper.

  7. Merging photovoltaic hardware development with hybrid applications in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, W.

    The use of multi-source power systems, 'hybrids,' is one of the fastest growing, potentially significant markets for photovoltaic (PV) system technology today. Cost-effective applications today include remote facility power, remote area power supplies, remote home and village power, and power for dedicated electrical loads such as communications systems. This market sector is anticipated to be one of the most important growth opportunities for PV over the next five years. The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are currently engaged in an effort to accelerate the adoption of market-driven PV hybrid power systems and to effectively integrate PV with other energy sources. This paper provides details of this development and the ongoing hybrid activities in the United States. Hybrid systems are the primary focus of this paper.

  8. Identifying conserved and novel microRNAs in developing seeds of Brassica napus using deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Körbes

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of plant development and seed formation. In Brassica napus, an important edible oil crop, valuable lipids are synthesized and stored in specific seed tissues during embryogenesis. The miRNA transcriptome of B. napus is currently poorly characterized, especially at different seed developmental stages. This work aims to describe the miRNAome of developing seeds of B. napus by identifying plant-conserved and novel miRNAs and comparing miRNA abundance in mature versus developing seeds. Members of 59 miRNA families were detected through a computational analysis of a large number of reads obtained from deep sequencing two small RNA and two RNA-seq libraries of (i pooled immature developing stages and (ii mature B. napus seeds. Among these miRNA families, 17 families are currently known to exist in B. napus; additionally 29 families not reported in B. napus but conserved in other plant species were identified by alignment with known plant mature miRNAs. Assembled mRNA-seq contigs allowed for a search of putative new precursors and led to the identification of 13 novel miRNA families. Analysis of miRNA population between libraries reveals that several miRNAs and isomiRNAs have different abundance in developing stages compared to mature seeds. The predicted miRNA target genes encode a broad range of proteins related to seed development and energy storage. This work presents a comparative study of the miRNA transcriptome of mature and developing B. napus seeds and provides a basis for future research on individual miRNAs and their functions in embryogenesis, seed maturation and lipid accumulation in B. napus.

  9. A functional analysis of cell cycle events in developing and germinating tomato seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, de R.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds are complex biological structures and the primary dispersal units of higher plants. They consist of nutrient reserve storage tissue(s), an embryo and encapsulating structures designated for protection and that may also regulate germination. Seeds have developed mechanisms of withstanding desic

  10. Monitoring viability of seeds in gene banks: developing software tools to increase efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the decline of seed viability is essential for effective long term seed storage in ex situ collections. Recent FAO Genebank Standards recommend monitoring intervals at one-third the time predicted for viability to fall to 85% of initial viability. This poster outlines the development of ...

  11. Deciphering Transcriptional Programming during Pod and Seed Development Using RNA-Seq in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhamala, Lekha T.; Agarwal, Gaurav; Bajaj, Prasad; Kumar, Vinay; Kulshreshtha, Akanksha; Saxena, Rachit K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Seed development is an important event in plant life cycle that has interested humankind since ages, especially in crops of economic importance. Pigeonpea is an important grain legume of the semi-arid tropics, used mainly for its protein rich seeds. In order to understand the transcriptional programming during the pod and seed development, RNA-seq data was generated from embryo sac from the day of anthesis (0 DAA), seed and pod wall (5, 10, 20 and 30 DAA) of pigeonpea variety “Asha” (ICPL 87119) using Illumina HiSeq 2500. About 684 million sequencing reads have been generated from nine samples, which resulted in the identification of 27,441 expressed genes after sequence analysis. These genes have been studied for their differentially expression, co-expression, temporal and spatial gene expression. We have also used the RNA-seq data to identify important seed-specific transcription factors, biological processes and associated pathways during seed development process in pigeonpea. The comprehensive gene expression study from flowering to mature pod development in pigeonpea would be crucial in identifying candidate genes involved in seed traits directly or indirectly related to yield and quality. The dataset will serve as an important resource for gene discovery and deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying various seed related traits. PMID:27760186

  12. Note on the structure of developing seeds of Knema and Horsfieldia (Myristicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of the seed is based on the massive development of the ovule immediately above the insertion of the outer integument. This may be called endochalazal development, as suggested by F. Bouman (Pers. comm.).

  13. Mineral accumulation in vegetative and reproductive tissues during seed development in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B. Garcia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing nutrient density in legume seeds is one of several strategies being explored to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply. In order to develop crop varieties with increased seed mineral concentration, a more detailed understanding of mineral translocation within the plant is required. By studying mineral accumulation in different organs within genetically diverse members of the same species, it may be possible to identify variable traits that modulate seed mineral concentration. We utilized two ecotypes (A17 and DZA315.16 of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, to study dry mass and mineral accumulation in the leaves, pod walls, and seeds during reproductive development. The pod wall dry mass was significantly different between the two ecotypes beginning at 12 days after pollination, whereas there was no significant difference in the average dry mass of individual seeds between the two ecotypes at any time point. There were also no significant differences in leaf dry mass between ecotypes; however, we observed expansion of A17 leaves during the first 21 days of pod development, while DZA315.16 leaves did not display a significant increase in leaf area. Mineral profiling of the leaves, pod walls, and seeds highlighted differences in accumulation patterns among minerals within each tissue as well as genotypic differences with respect to individual minerals. Because there were differences in the average seed number per pod, the total seed mineral content per pod was generally higher in A17 than DZA315.16. In addition, mineral partitioning to the seeds tended to be higher in A17 pods. These data revealed that mineral retention within leaves and/or pod walls might attenuate mineral accumulation within the seeds. As a result, strategies to increase seed mineral content should include approaches that will enhance export from these tissues.

  14. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  15. Control of Lipid Synthesis during Soybean Seed Development: Enzymic and Immunochemical Assay of Acyl Carrier Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlrogge, J B; Kuo, T M

    1984-03-01

    During soybean seed (Glycine max, var Am Soy 71) development, the rate of lipid biosynthesis per seed increases greatly. As the seed reaches maturity, lipid synthesis declines. To study the controls over the oil synthesis and storage process, we have chosen acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a representative marker for the fatty acid synthetase pathway. We have quantitated soybean ACP levels by both enzymic and immunochemical methods. Escherichia coli acyl-ACP synthetase was used as an assay for enzymically active ACP. Total ACP protein was determined by immunoassay using antibodies prepared in rabbits against spinach ACP. These antibody preparations also bind ACP isolated from soybeans, allowing development of a radioimmunoassay based on competition with [(3)H]palmitoyl-ACP. The enzymic and immunochemical measurement of ACP at various stages of seed development have indicated that ACP activity and ACP antigen increase markedly in correlation with the in vivo increase in lipid synthesis. These results indicate that a major control over the increase in lipid synthesis arises through regulation of the levels of the fatty acid biosynthetic proteins. However, as the seed reaches maturity and lipid biosynthesis declines, ACP per seed remains relatively high. In the mature seed, we found that more than 95% of the ACP is localized in the cotyledons, less than 5% is in the axis, and less than 1% is in the seed coat.

  16. Super-distant molecular hybridization of plant seeds by ion beam-mediated gene cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The N beam-mediated distant molecular hybridization between Ginkgo biloba I and watermelon was studied. The results showed that the ester gene of Ginkgo biloba L was successfully expressed in two varieties of watermelon. 3-16 and SR2-14-2, in both of which the ester quantities were measured as 17.0756 μg/g and 45.9998 μg/g respectively. Meanwhile, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves of the watennelon expressing ester gene was increased twofold as compared to that of the control, showing that ion beam could mediate distant and/or super-distant donor gene expression in the cells of a receptor. Furthermore, the molecular nechanism of distant hybridization was analyzed.

  17. Development of sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Siniša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of tribenuron-methyl resistant wild Helianthus annuus L. population (ANN-KAN created an opportunity for expansion of sunflower herbicide resistance breeding program. The aim of this study was development of sunflower hybrids resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Creation of tribenuron-methyl resistant hybrids would enable the use of a wider palette of herbicides for sunflower, more efficient chemical control of Cirsium arvense and more economically profitable post-emergence control of some annual broad-leaves weeds in sunflower. Original populations SURES-1 and SURES-2 are homozygous for resistance to tribenuron-methyl. F1 generations produced from the crossings are completely resistant to tribenuron-methyl, pointing out to dominant way of inheritance of this trait. Studies on the exact number of genes controlling the resistance are in progress. Tribenuron-methyl resistance was transferred from original populations into a number of female and male inbred lines of cultivated sunflower. These inbred lines could enable creation of a number of hybrids resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Hybrids SUMO-1-PR, SUMO-2- OR and SUMO-3 are resistant to doubled application dose of tribenuron-methyl. Agronomical characteristics of these hybrids are on the level with the leading conventional sunflower hybrids.

  18. Gibberellic and kaurenoic hybrid strigolactone mimics for seed germination of parasitic weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rondinelle G; Cala, Antonio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Molinillo, José Mg; Boaventura, Maria Ad; Macías, Francisco A

    2017-06-23

    Parasitic weeds are widespread and cause significant losses in important crops. Their germination requires the detection of crop-derived molecules such as strigolactones. Strigolactone mimics are germination-inducing molecules with the potential to apply a suicidal germination strategy for seed bank control of parasitic weeds. The D-ring, which is instrumental in the germination process of seeds of parasitic weeds, was attached to gibberellin (GA3 ) and kaurenoic acid as the scaffold. It was shown that indeed strigolactone mimics prepared from GA3 and kaurenoic acid are active as stimulants when a D-ring is present; some of the mimics are as active as GR24. The starting molecules were plant hormones that had previous growth-regulating activity in other organisms and the products showed enhanced activity towards parasitic weeds. The information generated may contribute to a better understanding of the germination biochemistry of the weed species used. Further research is required in this area but it is clear that the results are promising. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Development and Characterization of Elite Doubled Haploid Lines from Two Indica Rice Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rukmini MISHRA; Gundimeda Jwala Narashima RAO; Ravi Nageswara RAO; Pankaj KAUSHAL

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant yield advantage over inbred rice, the adoption rate of hybrid rice in India is very low due to the high seed cost and poor quality of the produce. To alleviate the problem, we initiated a doubled haploid (DH) breeding approach to develop new lines from two elite indica rice hybrids (CRHR5 and CRHR7) through rapid fixation of homozygosity in the recombinants.In vitro culture of the rice anthers resulted in 243 and 186 fertile DH lines of CRHR5 and CRHR7, respectively. Flow cytometric and pollen fertility analyses confirmed the DH ploidy status of the regenerations. Morpho-agronomic evaluation revealed 100% uniformity and stability for all the characters in the DH lines of both hybrids. Nineteen promising DH lines of each hybrid were advanced to A2 generation for yield evaluation. The yield levels of the DH lines ranged from 5 097–6 965 kg/hm2 for CRHR5 and 5 141–7 235 kg/hm2 for CRHR7, which were at par or higher than the parental hybrids. Physico-chemicalcharacterization and cooking quality analyses revealed significant and acceptable values for grain length and width, alkali spreading value, amylose content and water uptake ratio of the selected DH lines. Three DH lines, CR5-10, CR5-49, CR5-61 from CRHR5, and four DH lines, CR7-5, CR7-7, CR7-12 and CR7-52 from CRHR7, showed significant grain yield and quality characteristics and have been recommended for multi-location trials for subsequent release as new indicadoubled haploid rice varieties.

  20. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nuno D; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  1. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno D Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  2. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno D Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  3. THE COMPOSITION OF UNSAPONIFIABLE MATTERS IN TEA SEED OIL AND THE CONTENT OF THEM DURING SEED DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuLuqi; ZengJianzhong; 等

    2000-01-01

    The unsaponifiable matters of seed oil of Camellia sinensis L.have inhibitory effect against tumor promotion.Throughout the period of seed development,the content of oil and unsaponifiable matters were measured.The unsaponifiable matters of this oil were separated by flash chromatography into four fractions:less polar compounds,triterpene alcohols,4-methylsterols and sterols.Thin-layer chromatography on silver nitrate impregnated silica gel were used to separate triterpene acetates and steryl acetates.The β-amyrin acetates,germanicol acetate,taraxerol acetate,lupeol acetate and dammaradienyl acetate,△7-stigmastenyl acetate and α-spinasteryl acetate were isolated and identified.α-Amyrin acetate,Φ-taraxasteryl acetate,butyrospermol acetate,tirucalla-7,24-dienyl acetate and △7-Avenasteryl acetate were identified.

  4. THE COMPOSITION OF UNSAPONIFIABLE MA TTERS IN TEA SEED OIL AND THE CONTENT OF THEM DURING SEED DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Luqi; Zeng Jianzhong; Liu Junying; Chen Zhongfang; Li He

    2000-01-01

    The unsaponifiable matters of seed oil of Camellia sinensis L. have inhibitory effect against tumor promotion. Throughout the period of seed development, the content of oil and unsaponifiable matters were measured. The unsaponifiable matters of this oil were separated by flash chromatography into four fractions: less polar compounds, triterpene alcohols, 4 - methylsterols and sterols. Thin-layer chromatography on silver nitrate impregnated silica gel were used to separate triterpene acetates and steryl acetates.The β-amyrin acetate, germanicol acetate,taraxerol acetate, lupeol acetate and dammaradienyl acetate, △ 7-stigmastenyl acetate and α-spinasteryl acetate were isolated and identified, α-Amyrin acetate, ψ-taraxasteryl acetate,butyrospermol acetate, tirucalla-7, 24-dienyl acetate and △ 7-Avenasteryl acetate were identifled.

  5. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, Petr; Vernoud, Vanessa; Blair, Matthew W.; Soukup, Aleš; Thompson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the “domestication syndrome.” Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness), as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation), the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa color in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defense against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on

  6. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr eSmýkal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the domestication syndrome. Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness, as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation, the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. MYB transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa colour in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defence against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on structural and

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SEED DEVELOPMENT IN A HAWAIIAN PALM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic diversity of palms (Arecaceae) is threatened and ex situ conservation efforts are hampered by a poor understanding of their seed biology and storage behavior. Pritchardia remota is fan palm endemic to Hawaii (subtribe Corypheae). Flowering of P. remota occurs mostly during the dry seas...

  8. Microstructural, spectroscopic, and antibacterial properties of silver-based hybrid nanostructures biosynthesized using extracts of coriander leaves and seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos; Barriga-Castro, Enrique Díaz; Gómez-Treviño, Alberto; Núñez, Nuria O; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Coriander leaves and seeds have been highly appreciated since ancient times, not only due to their pleasant flavors but also due to their inhibitory activity on food degradation and their beneficial properties for health, both ascribed to their strong antioxidant activity. Recently, it has been shown that coriander leaf extracts can mediate the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles through oxidation/reduction reactions. In the present study, extracts of coriander leaves and seeds have been used as reaction media for the wet chemical synthesis of ultrafine silver nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters, with urchin- and tree-like shapes, coated by biomolecules (mainly, proteins and polyphenols). In this greener route of nanostructure preparation, the active biocompounds of coriander simultaneously play the roles of reducing and stabilizing agents. The morphological and microstructural studies of the resulting biosynthesized silver nanostructures revealed that the nanostructures prepared with a small concentration of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =5 mM) exhibit an ultrafine size and a narrow size distribution, whereas particles synthesized with high concentrations of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =0.5 M) are polydisperse and formation of supramolecular structures occurs. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy studies indicated that the bioreduction of the Ag− ions takes place through their interactions with free amines, carboxylate ions, and hydroxyl groups. As a consequence of such interactions, residues of proteins and polyphenols cap the biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles providing them a hybrid core/shell structure. In addition, these biosynthesized Ag nanomaterials exhibited size-dependent plasmon extinction bands and enhanced bactericidal activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, displaying minimal inhibitory Ag concentrations lower than typical values reported in the literature for Ag nanoparticles, probably due to the synergy of

  9. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Tong, Xiaohong; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Zhiyong; Nallamilli, Babi R; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed serves as a major food source for over half of the global population. Though it has been long recognized that phosphorylation plays an essential role in rice seed development, the phosphorylation events and dynamics in this process remain largely unknown so far. Here, we report the first large scale identification of rice seed phosphoproteins and phosphosites by using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. Thorough proteomic studies in pistils and seeds at 3, 7 days after pollination resulted in the successful identification of 3885, 4313 and 4135 phosphopeptides respectively. A total of 2487 proteins were differentially phosphorylated among the three stages, including Kip related protein 1, Rice basic leucine zipper factor 1, Rice prolamin box binding factor and numerous other master regulators of rice seed development. Moreover, differentially phosphorylated proteins may be extensively involved in the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones such as auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid. Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. Overall, the current study enhanced our understanding of the rice phosphoproteome and shed novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of rice seed development.

  10. Germination and Seedling Development of Seeds from Different Parkia biglobosa (Jacq G. Don Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana O. ADEYEMI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daylight, continuous illumination and acid scarification on the seed germination and seedling vegetative growth (epicotyl and hypocotyl lengths, and number of secondary roots of different Parkia biglobosawere investigated in the Plant Physiology Laboratory University of Ilorin, Ilorin Kwara State Nigeria. Seeds from two out of the twenty six Parkia tree samples (trees B and T germinated within 24 hours of planting in the daylight germination study while seeds from another tree (Q did not germinate until the third week after planting (3WAP. Some seeds have higher germination percentage both in the daylight (preliminary germination study and in the continuous light (illuminated study. The treatment with concentrated Sulphric acid (conc. H2SO4was effective in breaking the seed dormancy as seeds from eight (8 trees produced one hundred percent (100% germination. At p= 0.05 the length of epicotyl and hypocoty1 lengths were significantly different as seedling vegetative growth were long in the seedlings from the daylight experiment than the continuous light experiment. The vegetative growths of the seedlings from the scarified seed were longer at 15min of scarification in all except in trees F and Z. It was observed that the time of scarification affect the both seed germination and seedling development.

  11. Effect of seed on ripening control components during avocado fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Vera; Friedman, Haya; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Feygenberg, Oleg; Pesis, Edna

    2011-12-15

    Seedless avocado fruit are produced alongside seeded fruit in the cultivar Arad, and both reach maturity at the same time. Using this system, it was possible to show that avocado seed inhibits the ripening process: seedless fruits exhibited higher response to exogenous ethylene already at the fruitlet stage, and also at the immature and mature fruit stages. They produced higher CO₂ levels, and the ethylene peak was apparent at the fruitlet stage of seedless fruit, but not of seeded ones. The expression levels of PaETR, PaERS1 and PaCTR1 on the day of harvest at all developmental stages were very similar between seeded and seedless fruit, except that PaCTR1 was higher in seedless fruit only at very early stages. This expression pattern suggests that the seed does not have an effect on components of the ethylene response pathway when fruits are just picked. The expression of MADS-box genes, PaAG1 and PaAGL9, preceded the increase in ethylene production of mature seeded fruit, but not at earlier stages. However, only PaAGL9 was induced in seedless fruit at early stages of development. Taken together, these data suggest that these genes are perhaps involved in climacteric response in seeded fruit, and the seed is responsible for their induction at normal fruit ripening.

  12. Design and development of desiccant seed dryer with airflow inversion and recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2014-11-01

    A desiccant seed dryer has been developed to dry seed in deep bed at safe temperatures for good shelf life and germination. The dryer consists of two chambers viz., air conditioning control unit and seed drying chamber. It operates in seed drying mode and desiccant regeneration mode. It has provision for recirculation of the drying air to minimise the moisture removal from drying air. Also, it has provision of airflow inversion through deep seed bed for uniform drying. Moisture removal from drying air has been done using silica gel desiccant. Chilly 'Punjab Surakh', Chilly 'Punjab Guchhedaar', Paddy, Coriander, Fenugreek and Radish seeds was dried with hot air at 38 °C from initial moisture content of 26.9 to 5 % (wb) in 2 h, 46.52 to 4.19 % (wb) in 4.25 h, 13.3 to 2.61 % (wb) in 4 h, 13.4 to 10.08 % (wb) in 3 h, 12.4 to 8.22 % (wb) in 4¼ h and 10.6 to 6.08 % (wb) in 4 h respectively. The statistical analysis based on paired t-test showed that seed drying in this dryer has no adverse effect on seed germination.

  13. Seed Embryo Development is Regulated via an AN3-MINI3 Gene Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-Sheng Meng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture, seed mass is one of the most important components related to seed yield. MINISEED3 (MINI3 which encodes the transcriptional activator WRKY10, is thought to be a pivotal regulator of seed mass. In Arabidopsis SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1 associates with the promoter of MINI3, regulating embryo cell proliferation (both cell division and elongation, which, in turn, modulates seed mass. Furthermore, the recruitment of SHB1 via MINI3 to both its cognate promoter and that of IKU2 implies a two-step amplification for countering the low expression level of IKU2, which is thought to function as a molecular switch for seed cavity enlargement. However, it is largely unknown how embryo cell proliferation, which encompasses both cell division and elongation, is regulated by SHB1 and MINI3 function. Here, we show that a loss of function mutation within the transcriptional coactivator ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3, increases seed mass. Further, AN3 associates with the MINI3 promoter in vivo. Genetic evidence indicates that the absence of MINI3 function suppresses the decrease of cell number observed in an3-4 mutants by regulating cell division and in turn inhibits increased cell size of the an3-4 line by controlling cell elongation. Thus, seed embryo development is modulated via an AN3-MINI3 gene cascade. This regulatory model provides a deeper understanding of seed mass regulation, which may in turn lead to increased crop yields.

  14. Timing of fire relative to seed development may enable non-serotinous species to recolonize from the aerial seed banks of fire-killed trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Michaletz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The existence of non-serotinous, non-sprouting species in fire regimes where serotiny confers an adaptive advantage is puzzling, particularly when these species recruit poorly from soil seed banks or from burn edges. In this paper, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss was used to show how the timing of fire relative to seed development may permit non-serotinous species to recolonize burned areas from the aerial seed banks of fire-killed trees. To estimate survival of seeds within closed cones during crown fires, cone heating was simulated using a one-dimensional conduction model implemented in a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics fire behavior model. To quantify the area burned when germinable seed would be contained within closed cones during a mast year, empirical fire occurrence and seed development (germinability and cone opening data were compared for multiple locations across the white spruce range. Approximately 12% of cones contained viable seed following crown fire simulations (0.072 m s−1 mean spread rate; 9147 kW m−1 mean intensity, and roughly half of the historical area burned resulted from fires that occurred when closed cones would contain germinable seed. Together, these results suggest that non-serotinous species may recolonize burned areas from in situ aerial seed banks, and that this may be an important cause of their existence in fire regimes to which they otherwise seem poorly suited.

  15. Programmed cell death (PCD an essential process of cereal seed development and germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eDomínguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of cereal seeds can be divided into two phases, development and germination, separated by a quiescent period. Seed development and germination require the growth and differentiation of new tissues, but also the ordered disappearance of cells, which takes place by a process of programmed cell death (PCD. For this reason, cereal seeds have become excellent model systems for the study of developmental PCD in plants. At early stages of seed development, maternal tissues such as the nucellus, the pericarp and the nucellar projections undergo a progressive degeneration by PCD, which allows the remobilization of their cellular contents for nourishing new filial tissues such as the embryo and the endosperm. At a later stage, during seed maturation, the endosperm undergoes PCD, but these cells remain intact in the mature grain and their contents will not be remobilized until germination. Thus, the only tissues that remain alive when seed development is completed are the embryo axis, the scutellum and the aleurone layer. In germinating seeds, both the scutellum and the aleurone layer play essential roles in producing the hydrolytic enzymes for the mobilization of the storage compounds of the starchy endosperm, which serve to support early seedling growth. Once this function is completed, scutellum and aleurone cells undergo PCD; their contents being used to support the growth of the germinated embryo. PCD occurs with tightly controlled spatial-temporal patterns allowing coordinated fluxes of nutrients between the different seed tissues. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the tissues undergoing PCD in developing and germinating cereal seeds, focussing on the biochemical features of the process. The effect of hormones and redox regulation on PCD control will be discussed.

  16. Type-h thioredoxins accumulate in the nucleus of developing wheat seed tissues suffering oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato, Antonio J; Cejudo, Francisco J

    2003-07-01

    Thioredoxin h (Trx h) proteins are ubiquitous in all wheat organs, but show the highest accumulation in mature seeds. This distribution suggests the expression of Trx h during seed development. In the present study, we have analyzed the pattern of Trx h expression in developing wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) seeds. Northern blot analysis detected a single band at any stage of development, which corresponded to the expression of at least two genes, TrxhA and TrxhB, as shown by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments. The analysis of the content of Trx h polypeptides showed the highest content in the embryo. The spatial pattern of accumulation of these proteins was established by immunocytological techniques. At early stages of development Trx h proteins localized to maternal tissues (nucellus projection cells and pedicel), the route of transport of nutrients to the developing endosperm. In the endosperm, Trx h proteins accumulated at a high level in the aleurone layer. At later stages of development, during seed maturation, Trx h proteins localized predominantly to the nucleus of both aleurone and scutellum cells, a feature exclusive of these seed tissues. The nuclear localization of Trx h proteins was associated with oxidative stress in these tissues, as shown by in situ staining of superoxide radicals in developing and germinating seeds.

  17. Evolution of the Systems Engineering Education Development (SEED) Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Thomas C., III; Brumfield, Mark D.; Jamison, Donald E.; Granata, Raymond L.; Casey, Carolyn A.; Heller, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Education Development (SEED) Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center develops systems engineers from existing discipline engineers. The program has evolved significantly since the report to INCOSE in 2003. This paper describes the SEED Program as it is now, outlines the changes over the last year, discusses current status and results, and shows the value of human systems and leadership skills for practicing systems engineers.

  18. Model of experimental clonal seed orchard for the production of Serbian spruce šPicea omorika /Panc./Purkyne intraspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented model for the establishment of an experimental clonal seed orchard of Serbian spruce was designed based on the results of the analysis and assessment of the genetic potential of Serbian spruce seedling seed orchard at Godovik. Based on the results of the analyses, eight superior half-sib lines of Serbian spruce were selected, of which 24 genotypes were selected. Their hybridisation, by the model of incomplete diallel cross resulted in 21 combinations at the level of half-sib lines, i.e. 48 combinations at the level of parent genotypes. The applied study methods identified the potentially valuable genotypes-cone producers i.e. pollinators, which will be fixed by cloning in the seed orchard of the second generation for the production of the promising hybrids.

  19. Metabolism of the seed and endocarp of cherry (Prunus avium L.) during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2011-08-01

    In this study some aspects of organic and amino acid metabolism in cherry endocarp and seed were investigated during their development. The abundance and location of a number of enzymes involved in these processes were investigated. These enzymes were aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT; EC:2.6.1.1), glutamine synthetase (GS; EC:6.3.1.2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC:4.1.1.31), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK; EC:4.1.1.49), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; EC:4.1.1.39). There was a transient and massive accumulation of vegetative storage proteins in the endocarp. These proteins were remobilised as the endocarp lignified and at the same time that proteins were accumulated in the seed. This raised the possibility that a proportion of imported amino acids were temporarily stored in the endocarp as protein, and that these were later utilised by the seed when it started to accumulate storage proteins. Rubisco was present in the embryo and integuments of the seed although no chlorophyll was present. This is the first time that Rubisco has been detected in non-green seeds. The maximum abundance of Rubisco in the seed coincided with the deposition of seed storage proteins. A possible function for Rubisco in cherry seed is discussed. PEPCK was located in the integuments and appeared when seed storage proteins were being accumulated. In the integuments and embryo AspAT, GS, PEPC and Rubisco also appeared, or greatly increased in abundance, when seed storage proteins were being deposited.

  20. High acid invertase activity for a prolonged period in developing seeds/podwall of wild chickpea is detrimental to seed filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harinderjeet; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Kaur, Narinder; Sandhu, Jeet Singh

    2012-10-01

    In the present study factors responsible for low seed biomass in wild Cicer species has been investigated. Cicer judaicum and chickpea cultivar PBG-1 were investigated to compare activities of some enzymes involved in carbon metabolism in podwall and seeds during crop development. Seed filling duration in wild species was about 15 days shorter than that of cultivated varieties due to rapid loss of moisture content and hence resulted in earlier maturity and reduced seed biomass. Longer seed filling duration appeared to be an important factor responsible for greater biomass of chickpea seeds. Because of absence of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase from 25-35 days after flowering and low sucrose synthase activities, the podwall of C. judaicum is not in a position to contribute significantly to the sink filling capacity of seeds. High acid invertase, low sucrose synthase activities during seed storage phase cause detrimental effect on seed filling and resulting in highly reduced sink strength and productivity of wild species. Successful transfer of stress tolerance from wild Cicer species to chickpea cultivars need to prevent the transfer of these observed unfavourable biochemical factors so that the productivity of chickpea crop remains unaffected during utilization of wild Cicer species in chickpea improvement.

  1. Disasters and development in agricultural input markets: bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainville, Denise Y

    2003-06-01

    The bulk of developing countries' populations and poor depend on agriculture for food and income. While rural economies and people are generally the most severely affected by natural disasters, little is known about how disasters and subsequent relief activities affect agricultural markets with differing levels of development. The article addresses this gap, drawing evidence from bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. Case studies are used to address hypotheses about a disaster's effects on supply and demand in seed markets, farmers' responses and the performance of relief interventions in markets showing differing levels of development. The results show the importance of tailoring relief interventions to the markets that they will affect and to the specific effects of a disaster; the potential to use local and emerging seed distribution channels in a relief intervention; and opportunities for relief activities to strengthen community seed systems.

  2. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  3. ANALYSIS OF SLG GENE – THE MOLECULAR MARKER IN HYBRID BREEDING OF OIL SEED RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L DOLANSKÁ

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars, donors of quality (SC and self-incompatible (SI lines have been analysed using identification of S-locus. In several Brassica napus cultivars one S-locus SLG gene was detected as dominant and the second S-locus as recessive. Amplification class II SLG gene screened recessive gene in all analysed samples (SC and SI. The DNA fragment of recessive gene corresponded to SLG gene W found in cv. Westar. S-haplotypes were analysed by PCR-RFLP. Different Brassica napus cultivars had an identical electrophoretic profile conforming with nonfunctional A10 allele in B. campestris. In B. napus A10 allele is localised in genome A. The functional recessive SLG gene is probably localised in genome C. Model of their segregation was suggested. SC and SI plants segregated in F2 generation at the ratio of approximately 3:1. This indicates a recessive monogenic disposition of SI in the experimental population.

  4. Development of non-destructive sorting technique for viability of watermelon seed by using hyperspectral image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hyun Jin; Seo, Young Wook; Lohumi, Santosh; Park, Eun Soo; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Logistics institude, CJ Korea Express, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Seed viability is one of the most important parameters that is directly related with seed germination performance and seedling emergence. In this study, a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system having a range of 1000 –2500 nm was used to classify viable watermelon seeds from nonviable seeds. In order to obtain nonviable watermelon seeds, a total of 96 seeds were artificially aged by immersing the seeds in hot water (25°C) for 15 days. Further, hyperspectral images for 192 seeds (96 normal and 96 aged) were acquired using the developed HSI system. A germination test was performed for all the 192 seeds in order to confirm their viability. Spectral data from the hyperspectral images of the seeds were extracted by selecting pixels from the region of interest. Each seed spectrum was averaged and preprocessed to develop a classification model of partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The developed PLS-DA model showed a classification accuracy of 94.7% for the calibration set, and 84.2% for the validation set. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique can classify viable and nonviable watermelon seeds with a reasonable accuracy, and can be further converted into an online sorting system for rapid and nondestructive classification of watermelon seeds with regard to viability.

  5. Activation of Arabidopsis seed hair development by cotton fiber-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Guan

    Full Text Available Each cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome or hair, and over 20,000 fibers may develop semi-synchronously on each seed. The molecular basis for seed hair development is unknown but is likely to share many similarities with leaf trichome development in Arabidopsis. Leaf trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana is activated by GLABROUS1 (GL1 that is negatively regulated by TRIPTYCHON (TRY. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, we found that many putative MYB transcription factor and structural protein genes were differentially expressed in fiber and non-fiber tissues. Gossypium hirsutum MYB2 (GhMYB2, a putative GL1 homolog, and its downstream gene, GhRDL1, were highly expressed during fiber cell initiation. GhRDL1, a fiber-related gene with unknown function, was predominately localized around cell walls in stems, sepals, seed coats, and pollen grains. GFP:GhRDL1 and GhMYB2:YFP were co-localized in the nuclei of ectopic trichomes in siliques. Overexpressing GhRDL1 or GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0 activated fiber-like hair production in 4-6% of seeds and had on obvious effects on trichome development in leaves or siliques. Co-overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 plants increased hair formation in ∼8% of seeds. Overexpressing both GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 try mutant plants produced seed hair in ∼10% of seeds as well as dense trichomes inside and outside siliques, suggesting synergistic effects of GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 with try on development of trichomes inside and outside of siliques and seed hair in A. thaliana. These data suggest that a different combination of factors is required for the full development of trichomes (hairs in leaves, siliques, and seeds. A. thaliana can be developed as a model a system for discovering additional genes that control seed hair development in general and cotton fiber in particular.

  6. Separating parental environment from seed size effects on next generation growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Angela L; Gronwall, David S; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P; Brooks, Tessa L Durham

    2011-02-01

    Plant growth and development is profoundly influenced by environmental conditions that laboratory experimentation typically attempts to control. However, growth conditions are not uniform between or even within laboratories and the extent to which these differences influence plant growth and development is unknown. Experiments with wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana were designed to quantify the influences of parental environment and seed size on growth and development in the next generation. A single lot of seed was planted in six environmental chambers and grown to maturity. The seed produced was mechanically sieved into small and large size classes then grown in a common environment and subjected to a set of assays spanning the life cycle. Analysis of variance demonstrated that seed size effects were particularly significant early in development, affecting primary root growth and gravitropism, but also flowering time. Parental environment affected progeny germination time, flowering and weight of seed the progeny produced. In some cases, the parental environment affected the magnitude of (interacted with) the observed seed size effects. These data indicate that life history circumstances of the parental generation can affect growth and development throughout the life cycle of the next generation to an extent that should be considered when performing genetic studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Mother-plant-mediated pumping of zinc into the developing seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lene Irene; Hansen, Thomas H; Larue, Camille; Østerberg, Jeppe Thulin; Hoffmann, Robert D; Liesche, Johannes; Krämer, Ute; Surblé, Suzy; Cadarsi, Stéphanie; Samson, Vallerie Ann; Grolimund, Daniel; Husted, Søren; Palmgren, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient intake of zinc and iron from a cereal-based diet is one of the causes of 'hidden hunger' (micronutrient deficiency), which affects some two billion people(1,2). Identifying a limiting factor in the molecular mechanism of zinc loading into seeds is an important step towards determining the genetic basis for variation of grain micronutrient content and developing breeding strategies to improve this trait(3). Nutrients are translocated to developing seeds at a rate that is regulated by transport processes in source leaves, in the phloem vascular pathway, and at seed sinks. Nutrients are released from a symplasmic maternal seed domain into the seed apoplasm surrounding the endosperm and embryo by poorly understood membrane transport processes(4-6). Plants are unique among eukaryotes in having specific P1B-ATPase pumps for the cellular export of zinc(7). In Arabidopsis, we show that two zinc transporting P1B-ATPases actively export zinc from the mother plant to the filial tissues. Mutant plants that lack both zinc pumps accumulate zinc in the seed coat and consequently have vastly reduced amounts of zinc inside the seed. Blockage of zinc transport was observed at both high and low external zinc supplies. The phenotype was determined by the mother plant and is thus due to a lack of zinc pump activity in the seed coat and not in the filial tissues. The finding that P1B-ATPases are one of the limiting factors controlling the amount of zinc inside a seed is an important step towards combating nutritional zinc deficiency worldwide.

  8. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in developing physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawu Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP. The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.

  9. Physiological quality in coated seeds of the hybrid brachiaria cv. Mulato II = Qualidade fisiológica de sementes revestidas de braquiária híbrida cv. Mulato II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria de Fátima Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for fodder has driven development of the seed industry in Brazil, which seeks to provide value-added quality seeds by means of technology. The Mulato II cultivar is the first hybrid species of brachiaria to be marketed in Brazil. It was developed from the crossing of three species of Urochloa (U. brizantha x U. decumbens x U. ruziziensis. Coating seeds is a pre-sowing technique, which is able to improve plant performance in the field. However, the coating can lead to problems of seed quality. Given the above, the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of seed coating on physiological quality in seeds of the hybrid brachiaria cv. Mulato II. The research was carried out at the Laboratory for Seed Analysis of the Federal University of Lavras, in the state of Minas Gerais, (MG, using a completely randomised design, in a 6 x 2 factorial, six seed batches, with and without incrustation. The physiological tests carried out were: germination, emergence, speed of emergence index, average time of emergence, tetrazolium, and α -amylase (enzyme analysis. Seed coating in the hybrid brachiaria cv. Mulato II reduces viability, speed of germination, germination, speed of seedling emergence and the percentage of emerged seedlings, demonstrated by a reduced expression of the α -amylase enzyme = A crescente demanda por forrageiras tem impulsionado o desenvolvimento da indústria sementeira no Brasil que busca oferecer sementes de qualidade com valor agregado por meio de tecnologias. O cultivar Mulato II é a primeira espécie híbrida de braquiária comercializada no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido a partir do cruzamento de três espécies de Urochloa (U. brizantha x U. decumbens x U. ruziziensis . O revestimento de sementes é uma técnica de tratamento na pré-semeadura capaz de melhorar o desempenho das plantas no campo. Porém, o revestimento pode acarretar problemas com relação à qualidade das sementes. Diante do exposto

  10. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, G.; Dam, S.; Laursen, B. S.;

    2010-01-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses...... seed proteins, including 263 proteins distinguishing the pod. The complete data set is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi , where spots in a reference map are linked to experimental data, such as matched peptides, quantification values, and gene accessions. Identified pod...... of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965...

  11. Identification of desiccation tolerance transcripts potentially involved in rape (Brassica napus L.) seeds development and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sirui; Liu, Xiaoxia; Ma, Gang; Lan, QinYing; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-10-01

    To investigate regulatory processes and protective mechanisms leading to desiccation tolerance (DT) in seeds, cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in conjunction with 128 primer combinations was used to detect differential gene expression in rape seeds in response to DT during seed development and germination. We obtained approximately 8000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), of which 394 TDFs with differential expression patterns ("sustained expression", "up-regulated", "couple with seed DT", and "down-regulated") were excised from gels and re-amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After sequencing and comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, 176 TDFs presented significant similarity with known genes that could be classified into the following categories: metabolism and energy, stress resistance and defense, storage, signal transduction, and other functional categories. Using semiquantitative reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR approaches, the significance of the differences was further confirmed in fresh seeds and dehydrated seeds. The genes that encode superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin, caleosin, oleosin S3, steroleosin, late embryogenesis abundant protein, glutathione reductase, β-glucosidase, S23 transcriptional repressor, and some heat-shock proteins could be associated with DT. The results of this study will aid in the identification of candidate genes for future experiments that seek to understand seed DT.

  12. Research analysis of hybrid seed production of Marigold in 2014 of Chifeng district%2014年赤峰地区万寿菊杂交制种情况调研分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海波; 郝永丽; 高博; 李杰

    2015-01-01

    Flower industry has developed rapidly in recent y ears of Chifeng region, especially the marigold hybrid seeds has become one of the leading industry of the agricultural increasing efficiency and farmers' income.By research analysis of marigold hybrid seeds on planting varieties, growth situation , yield, benefit in 2014 of Chifeng area,the industry development situation preliminary was mastered at present and the relevant development proposals was proposed.%近年来,赤峰地区花卉产业发展迅速,尤其是万寿菊制种已成为农业增效、农民增收的主导产业之一. 文章对赤峰地区2014年万寿菊制种的种植品种、生长情况、产量和效益等方面进行了调研分析,初步掌握了产业发展现状,并提出了相关发展建议.

  13. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

  14. Development of lead-free solders for hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Frear, D.R.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive work has been conducted by industry to develop lead-free solders for electronics applications. The driving force behind this effort is pressure to ban or tax the use of lead-bearing solders. There has been further interest to reduce the use of hazardous chemical cleaners. Lead-free soldering and low-residue, ``no clean`` assembly processing are being considered as solutions to these environmental issues. Most of the work has been directed toward commercial and military printed wiring board (PWB) technology, although similar problems confront the hybrid microcircuit (HMC) industry, where the development of lead-free HMC solders is generally lagging. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for designing a variety of critical, high reliability hybrid components for radars. Sandia has consequently initiated a project, as part of its Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing program, to develop low-residue, lead-free soldering for HMCs. This paper discusses the progress of that work.

  15. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayeh Kwadwo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW, width of funicles (WFN, seed width (SW and seed height (SH were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ or an abscission-less zone (ALZ forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat.

  16. Analysis of cDNA libraries from developing seeds of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L. Taub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon Richard A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guar, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L. Taub, is a member of the Leguminosae (Fabaceae family and is economically the most important of the four species in the genus. The endosperm of guar seed is a rich source of mucilage or gum, which forms a viscous gel in cold water, and is used as an emulsifier, thickener and stabilizer in a wide range of foods and industrial applications. Guar gum is a galactomannan, consisting of a linear (1→4-β-linked D-mannan backbone with single-unit, (1→6-linked, α-D-galactopyranosyl side chains. To better understand regulation of guar seed development and galactomannan metabolism we created cDNA libraries and a resulting EST dataset from different developmental stages of guar seeds. Results A database of 16,476 guar seed ESTs was constructed, with 8,163 and 8,313 ESTs derived from cDNA libraries I and II, respectively. Library I was constructed from seeds at an early developmental stage (15–25 days after flowering, DAF, and library II from seeds at 30–40 DAF. Quite different sets of genes were represented in these two libraries. Approximately 27% of the clones were not similar to known sequences, suggesting that these ESTs represent novel genes or may represent non-coding RNA. The high flux of energy into carbohydrate and storage protein synthesis in guar seeds was reflected by a high representation of genes annotated as involved in signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, chaperone and proteolytic processes, and translation and ribosome structure. Guar unigenes involved in galactomannan metabolism were identified. Among the seed storage proteins, the most abundant contig represented a conglutin accounting for 3.7% of the total ESTs from both libraries. Conclusion The present EST collection and its annotation provide a resource for understanding guar seed biology and galactomannan metabolism.

  17. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, Gitte; Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S; Siegumfeldt, Astrid L; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Lorentzen, Andrea; Roepstorff, Peter; Stougaard, Jens

    2010-11-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965 seed proteins, including 263 proteins distinguishing the pod. The complete data set is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi , where spots in a reference map are linked to experimental data, such as matched peptides, quantification values, and gene accessions. Identified pod proteins represented enzymes from 85 different metabolic pathways, including storage globulins and a late embryogenesis abundant protein. In contrast to seed maturation, pod maturation was associated with decreasing total protein content, especially proteins involved in protein biosynthesis and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate metabolism pathway were identified.

  18. Development tools for hybrids and electric cars; Entwicklungswerkzeuge fuer Hybrid- und Elektroautos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauff, Ulrich; Stoermer, Christoph; Dollmaier, Thomas; Klauda, Matthias [ETAS GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    With the ongoing CO{sub 2} discussion as a backdrop, there is a rush to get hybrid and electric vehicles ready for series production. This calls for the development of numerous new components and systems, along with their integration in the vehicle. The function, safety, and reliability of both ECU software and electronics contribute to a successful market introduction of the new vehicle concepts. To handle the design, implementation, testing, integration, and calibration of the complex functions of electronic controls, engineers require development tools suited to these tasks. (orig.)

  19. Microstructural, spectroscopic, and antibacterial properties of silver-based hybrid nanostructures biosynthesized using extracts of coriander leaves and seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Luna,1 Enrique Díaz Barriga-Castro,2 Alberto Gómez-Treviño,3 Nuria O Núñez,4 Raquel Mendoza-Reséndez1 1Research Center of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; 2Central Laboratory of Analytical Instrumentation, Research Center for Applied Chemistry, Coahuila, Mexico; 3Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; 4Colloidal Materials Research Group, Institute of Materials Science of Seville, Spanish National Research Council, University of Seville, Seville, Spain Abstract: Coriander leaves and seeds have been highly appreciated since ancient times, not only due to their pleasant flavors but also due to their inhibitory activity on food degradation and their beneficial properties for health, both ascribed to their strong antioxidant activity. Recently, it has been shown that coriander leaf extracts can mediate the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles through oxidation/reduction reactions. In the present study, extracts of coriander leaves and seeds have been used as reaction media for the wet chemical synthesis of ultrafine silver nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters, with urchin- and tree-like shapes, coated by biomolecules (mainly, proteins and polyphenols. In this greener route of nanostructure preparation, the active biocompounds of coriander simultaneously play the roles of reducing and stabilizing agents. The morphological and microstructural studies of the resulting biosynthesized silver nanostructures revealed that the nanostructures prepared with a small concentration of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =5 mM exhibit an ultrafine size and a narrow size distribution, whereas particles synthesized with high concentrations of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =0.5 M are polydisperse and formation of supramolecular structures occurs. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy

  20. Development of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for visualizing CGMMV in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargil, D; Zemach, H; Belausov, E; Lachman, O; Kamenetsky, R; Dombrovsky, A

    2015-10-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), which belongs to the genus Tobamovirus, is a major pathogen of cucurbit crops grown indoors and in open fields. Currently, immunology (e.g., ELISA) and molecular amplification techniques (e.g., RT-PCR) are employed extensively for virus detection in plant tissues and commercial seed lots diagnostics. In this study, a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using oligonucleotides whose 5'-terminals were labeled with red cyanine 3 (Cy3) or green fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), was developed for the visualization of the pathogen in situ. This simple and reliable method allows detection and localization of CGMMV in the vegetative and reproductive tissues of cucumber and melon. When this technique was applied in male flowers, anther tissues were found to be infected; whereas the pollen grains were found to be virus-free. These results have meaningful epidemiological implications for the management of CGMMV, particularly with regard to virus transfer via seed and the role of insects as CGMMV vectors.

  1. Dynamic distribution and the role of abscisic acid during seed development of a lady’s slipper orchid, Cypripedium formosanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-I; Chung, Mei-Chu; Yeung, Edward C.; Lee, Nean

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Although abscisic acid (ABA) is commonly recognized as a primary cause of seed dormancy, there is a lack of information on the role of ABA during orchid seed development. In order to address this issue, the localization and quantification of ABA were determined in developing seeds of Cypripedium formosanum. Methods The endogenous ABA profile of seeds was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Temporal and spatial distributions of ABA in developing seeds were visualized by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal ABA antibodies. Fluoridone was applied to test the causal relationship between ABA content and seed germinability. Key Results ABA content was low at the proembryo stage, then increased rapidly from 120 to 150 days after pollination (DAP), accompanied by a progressive decrease in water content and seed germination. Immunofluorescence signals indicated an increase in fluorescence over time from the proembryo stage to seed maturation. From immunogold labelling, gold particles could be seen within the cytoplasm of embryo-proper cells during the early stages of seed development. As seeds approached maturity, increased localization of gold particles was observed in the periplasmic space, the plasmalemma between embryo-proper cells, the surface wall of the embryo proper, and the inner walls of inner seed-coat cells. At maturity, gold particles were found mainly in the apoplast, such as the surface wall of the embryo proper, and the shrivelled inner and outer seed coats. Injection of fluoridone into capsules resulted in enhanced germination of mature seeds. Conclusions The results indicate that ABA is the key inhibitor of germination in C. formosanum. The distinct accumulation pattern of ABA suggests that it is synthesized in the cytosol of embryo cells during the early stages of seed development, and then exported to the apoplastic region of the cells for subsequent regulatory processes as seeds approach maturity. PMID

  2. Silage production and quality of pearl millet, sorghum, and corn hybrids grown from seed exposed to low doses of gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, G.W.; Monson, W.G.; Hanna, W.W.; Constantin, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Just before planting, seeds of pearl millet, Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum., (formerly P. typhoides) hybrid, ''Tift 23 x L/sub 1/,'' and corn, Zea mays L., hybrids ''Coker 71,'' ''DeKalb 1214,'' and ''Pioneer 3030'' were exposed to ..gamma.. ray dosages of 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, and 19.2 kR. ''FS26'' hybrid sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., seeds were exposed to ..gamma.. ray dosages of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 kR. In one 2-yr. experiment, pearl millet, sorghum, and Coker 71 corn gave respective dry matter yields of 12, 166, 6,993, and 6,306 kg/ha and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) percentages of 45.7, 52.8, and 59.9. The heaviest exposures of ..gamma.. rays generally reduced yields of all species, and lighter exposures failed to increase yield significantly. Seed irradiation did not affect the quality (IVDMD) of the forage. In a 2-yr. corn hybrid experiment, DeKalb 1214 yielded 24 percent more dry matter and tolerated the heavy exposures of ..gamma.. rays better than Pioneer 3030 and Coker 71. None of the lower exposures increased yield significantly. (auth)

  3. Enhanced seed oil production in canola by conditional expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-07-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production.

  4. Ways of Developing Plants in Interspecific Hybridization of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAKHMANKULOV; S; DAMINOVA; D; RAKHMANKULOV; M

    2008-01-01

    It is known,that there are various barriers to fertilization,development of embryos,and endosperm because of different number of chromosomes in parents in the interspecific hybridization of cotton.Thus the factors providing normal cell fission of a germ and endosperm are necessary.It is necessary to culture embryos in vitro on the artificial environments containing various phytohormones,or to

  5. Evaluation of some Newly Developed Diploid Hybrids and their Breeding Value in 4x-2x Crosses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The narrow genetic base in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) limits the progress in cultivar development.The rich diploid germplasm in the origin center of potato provide a unique resource for improvement of tetraploid potatoes. Seven newly developed diploid hybrids with 2n pollen production, all of which have S.phureja background,were developed and evaluated for their value in potato breeding. They were crossed as male parnets to six tetraploid Solanum tuberosum cultivars,and seeds in large quantity from eleven crosses were obtained. Main agronomic traits ,such as tuber yield ,tuber number,mean tuber weight ,tuber shape ,eye depth, skin smoothness, flesh color, and specific gravity, were measured for 4x-2x tetraploid progenies in seedling generation ,and their parents as well. All of the diploid hybrids had some merit for specific traits and the DH39 was more promising ;high specific gravity trait in some diploid hybrids was successfully introgressed into tetroploid progenies via 4x-2x crosses. These diploid hybrids have potential value in potato breeding.

  6. The seed composition of Arabidopsis mutants for the group 3 sulfate transporters indicates a role in sulfate translocation within developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Hélène; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Aubert, Grégoire; Aimé, Delphine; Belghazi, Maya; Lugan, Raphaël; Heintz, Dimitri; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2010-10-01

    Sulfate is required for the synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids and numerous other compounds essential for the plant life cycle. The delivery of sulfate to seeds and its translocation between seed tissues is likely to require specific transporters. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the group 3 plasmalemma-predicted sulfate transporters (SULTR3) comprise five genes, all expressed in developing seeds, especially in the tissues surrounding the embryo. Here, we show that sulfur supply to seeds is unaffected by T-DNA insertions in the SULTR3 genes. However, remarkably, an increased accumulation of sulfate was found in mature seeds of four mutants out of five. In these mutant seeds, the ratio of sulfur in sulfate form versus total sulfur was significantly increased, accompanied by a reduction in free cysteine content, which varied depending on the gene inactivated. These results demonstrate a reduced capacity of the mutant seeds to metabolize sulfate and suggest that these transporters may be involved in sulfate translocation between seed compartments. This was further supported by sulfate measurements of the envelopes separated from the embryo of the sultr3;2 mutant seeds, which showed differences in sulfate partitioning compared with the wild type. A dissection of the seed proteome of the sultr3 mutants revealed protein changes characteristic of a sulfur-stress response, supporting a role for these transporters in providing sulfate to the embryo. The mutants were affected in 12S globulin accumulation, demonstrating the importance of intraseed sulfate transport for the synthesis and maturation of embryo proteins. Metabolic adjustments were also revealed, some of which could release sulfur from glucosinolates.

  7. Expression of 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4 Is Essential for Thermoinhibition of Lettuce Seed Germination but Not for Seed Development or Stress Tolerance[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Heqiang; Dahal, Peetambar; Kunusoth, Keshavulu; McCallum, Claire M.; Bradford, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Thermoinhibition, or failure of seeds to germinate at warm temperatures, is common in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars. Using a recombinant inbred line population developed from a lettuce cultivar (Salinas) and thermotolerant Lactuca serriola accession UC96US23 (UC), we previously mapped a quantitative trait locus associated with thermoinhibition of germination to a genomic region containing a gene encoding a key regulated enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4 (NCED4). NCED4 from either Salinas or UC complements seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana nced6-1 nced9-1 double mutant by restoring germination thermosensitivity, indicating that both NCED4 genes encode functional proteins. Transgenic expression of Salinas NCED4 in UC seeds resulted in thermoinhibition, whereas silencing of NCED4 in Salinas seeds led to loss of thermoinhibition. Mutations in NCED4 also alleviated thermoinhibition. NCED4 expression was elevated during late seed development but was not required for seed maturation. Heat but not water stress elevated NCED4 expression in leaves, while NCED2 and NCED3 exhibited the opposite responses. Silencing of NCED4 altered the expression of genes involved in ABA, gibberellin, and ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Together, these data demonstrate that NCED4 expression is required for thermoinhibition of lettuce seeds and that it may play additional roles in plant responses to elevated temperature. PMID:23503626

  8. Development of the pneumatic service robot with a hybrid type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol U; Choi, Hyeun Seok; Han, Chang Soo [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, the pneumatic service robot with a hybrid type is developed. A pneumatic has the advantage of good compliance, high payload-to-weight and payload-to-volume ratios, high speed and force capabilities. Using pneumatic actuators which have low stiffness, the service robot can guarantee safety. By suggesting a new serial-parallel hybrid type for the service robot which separates into positioning motion and orienting motion, we can achieve large workspace and high strength-to-moving-weight ratio at the same time. A sliding mode controller can be designed for tracking the desired output using the Lyapunov stability theory and structural properties of pneumatic servo systems. Through many experiments of circular trajectory, the pneumatic service robot is evaluated and verified.

  9. Physiological quality and gene expression during the development of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, H O; Von Pinho, E V R; Von Pinho, I V; Dutra, S M F; Andrade, T; Guimarães, R M

    2015-05-12

    Phytohormones have different characteristics and functions, and they may be subject to changes in their gene expression and synthesis during seed development. In this study, we evaluated the physiological qualities of habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacquin) during seed development and the expression of genes involved in germination. Seeds were obtained from fruits harvested at different stages of development [i.e., 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days after anthesis (DAA)]. Immediately after harvesting, the seeds were subjected to various tests to determine moisture content, germination, first count germination, and seedling emergence. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of various genes, including MAN2, NCED, B73, ICL6, and GA3ox. Electrophoresis was used to assess the expression of various enzymes, including α-amylase, isocitrate-lyase, and endo-β-mannanase. Habanero peppers harvested at 70 DAA and subjected to 7 days of rest exhibited higher germination rates and vigor compared to those harvested at all other developmental stages. Peppers harvested at 63 DAA without drying exhibited higher α amylase and AmyB73 gene expression levels. Peppers harvested at 70 DAA with 7 days of rest exhibited higher endo-β-mannanase expression levels. MAN2 gene expression increased during the development of non-dried seeds until 70 DAA. Peppers harvested at 42 DAA exhibited the highest isocitrate-lyase and ICL6 gene activity levels in comparison to those at all other developmental stages.

  10. Embryo development in association with asymbiotic seed germination in vitro of Paphiopedilum armeniacum S. C. Chen et F. Y. Liu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Yan; Wu, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Jian-Xia; Deng, Ru-Fang; Duan, Jun; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Huang, Wei-Chang; Zeng, Song-Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the key anatomical features during the development of P. armeniacum zygotic embryos and their ability to germinate asymbiotically in vitro. This study also examines the effect of media and seed pretreatments on seed germination and subsequent seedling growth. Seeds collected from pods 45 days after pollination (DAP) did not germinate while 95 DAP seeds displayed the highest seed germination percentage (96.2%). Most seedlings (50%) developed to stage 5 from 110 DAP seeds whose compact testa had not yet fully formed. Suspensor cells were vacuolated, which enabled the functional uptake of nutrients. The optimum basal medium for seed germination and subsequent protocorm development was eighth-strength Murashige and Skoog (1/8MS) for 95 DAP seeds and ¼MS for 110 DAP seeds. Poor germination was displayed by 140 DAP seeds with a compact testa. Pretreatment of dry mature seeds (180 DAP) with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite solution for 90 min or 40 kHz of ultrasound for 8 min improved germination percentage from 0 to 29.2% or to 19.7%, respectively. Plantlets that were at least 5 cm in height were transplanted to a Zhijing stone substrate for orchids, and 85.3% of plantlets survived 180 days after transplanting. PMID:26559888

  11. Embryo development in association with asymbiotic seed germination in vitro of Paphiopedilum armeniacum S. C. Chen et F. Y. Liu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Yan; Wu, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Jian-Xia; Deng, Ru-Fang; Duan, Jun; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Huang, Wei-Chang; Zeng, Song-Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the key anatomical features during the development of P. armeniacum zygotic embryos and their ability to germinate asymbiotically in vitro. This study also examines the effect of media and seed pretreatments on seed germination and subsequent seedling growth. Seeds collected from pods 45 days after pollination (DAP) did not germinate while 95 DAP seeds displayed the highest seed germination percentage (96.2%). Most seedlings (50%) developed to stage 5 from 110 DAP seeds whose compact testa had not yet fully formed. Suspensor cells were vacuolated, which enabled the functional uptake of nutrients. The optimum basal medium for seed germination and subsequent protocorm development was eighth-strength Murashige and Skoog (1/8MS) for 95 DAP seeds and ¼MS for 110 DAP seeds. Poor germination was displayed by 140 DAP seeds with a compact testa. Pretreatment of dry mature seeds (180 DAP) with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite solution for 90 min or 40 kHz of ultrasound for 8 min improved germination percentage from 0 to 29.2% or to 19.7%, respectively. Plantlets that were at least 5 cm in height were transplanted to a Zhijing stone substrate for orchids, and 85.3% of plantlets survived 180 days after transplanting.

  12. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  13. 美国杂交水稻现状及发展前景%Current Status and Developing Prospect of Hybrid Rice in the United States of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继银; 蒋艾青

    2011-01-01

    The history and current status in research and application including the aspects of breeding, seed production and expansion of hybrid rice in the United States of America were introduced.Based on the achievements and progresses, the authors suggested that the development of hybrid rice would have a good prospect in the United States of America and other countries with similar conditions.%介绍了美国杂交水稻的发展历程及杂交水稻育种、种子生产和推广现状及发展前景.

  14. Influence of Genetic Drift of Restoring Gene (Rf on Seed Purity of Yuetai A, a Honglian-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-feng Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed samples of Yuetai A, a Honglian (HL type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS line in hybrid rice were investigated to assess the seed purity and to analyze the cause of off-type plants by imitating the biological contaminant to Yuetai A in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province and Lingshui, Hainan Province during 2004–2006. The seed impurity of Yuetai A mainly resulted from the genetic drift of restoring fertility gene (Rf after biological contamination but not from its sterility unstability. All of the ten maintainer lines, five restorer lines and three thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines used in the study could pollinate Yuetai A and Yuetai B to produce F1 plants, directly or indirectly resulting in Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A and generating ‘iso-cytoplasm restoring-generations’. Furthermore, high outcrossing rate and similar heading date of Yuetai A with many varieties used in rice production might easily result in the biological contamination. After removing all plants with Rf-gene mixed in Yuetai A and preventing Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A, the seed purity of Yuetai A and Yuetai B had been raised to 100%.

  15. Influence of Genetic Drift of Restoring Gene (Rf) on Seed Purity of Yuetai A, a Honglian-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The seed samples of Yuetai A,a Honglian (HL) type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line in hybrid rice were investigated to assess the seed purity and to analyze the cause of off-type plants by imitating the biological contaminant to Yuetai A in Nanjing,Jiangsu Province and Lingshui,Hainan Province during 2004-2006.The seed impurity of Yuotai A mainly resulted from the genetic drift of restoring fertility gene (Rt) after biological contamination but not from its sterility unstability.All of the ten maintainer lines,five restorer lines and three thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines used in the study could pollinate Yuetai A and Yuetai B to produce F1 plants,directly or indirectly resulting in Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A and generating 'iso-cytoplasm restoring-generations'.Furthermore,high outcrossing rate and similar heading date of Yuetai A with many varieties used in rice production might easily result in the biological contamination.After removing all plants with Rf-gene mixed in Yuetai A and preventing Rf-gene drifting into Yuetai A,the seed purity of Yuetai A and Yuetai B had been raised to 100%.

  16. Phytic acid and raffinose series oligosaccharides metabolism in developing chickpea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhawar, Vikramjit Kaur; Kaur, Narinder; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Phytic acid and raffinose series oligosaccharides (RFOs) have anti-nutritional properties where phytic acid chelates minerals and reduces their bioavailability to humans and other animals, and RFOs cause flatulence. Both phytic acid and RFOs cannot be digested by monogastric animals and are released as pollutant-wastes. Efforts are being made to reduce the contents of these factors without affecting the viability of seeds. This will require a thorough understanding of their metabolism in different crops. Biosynthetic pathways of both metabolites though are interlinked but not well described. This study was made on metabolism of these two contents in developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L cv GL 769) seeds. In this study, deposition of RFOs was found to occur before deposition of phytic acid. A decline in inorganic phosphorus and increase in phospholipid phosphorus and phytic acid was observed in seeds during development. Acid phosphatase was the major phosphatase in seed as well as podwall and its activity was highest at early stage of development, thereafter it decreased. Partitioning of (14) C label from (14) C-glucose and (14) C-sucrose into RFOs and phytic acid was studied in seeds in presence of inositol, galactose and iositol and galactose, which favored the view that galactinol synthase is not the key enzyme in RFOs synthesis.

  17. The roles of cysteine proteases and phytocystatins in development and germination of cereal seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewińska, Joanna; Simińska, Joanna; Bielawski, Wiesław

    2016-12-01

    Proteolysis is an important process for development and germination of cereal seeds. Among the many types of proteases identified in plants are the cysteine proteases (CPs) of the papain and legumain families, which play a crucial role in hydrolysing storage proteins during seed germination as well as in processing the precursors of these proteins and the inactive forms of other proteases. Moreover, all of the tissues of cereal seeds undergo progressive degradation via programed cell death, which is integral to their growth. In view of the important roles played by proteases, their uncontrolled activity could be harmful to the development of seeds and young seedlings. Thus, the activities of these enzymes are regulated by intracellular inhibitors called phytocystatins (PhyCys). The phytocystatins inhibit the activity of proteases of the papain family, and the presence of an additional motif in their C-termini allows them to also regulate the activity of members of the legumain family. A balance between the levels of cysteine proteases and phytocystatins is necessary for proper cereal seed development, and this is maintained through the antagonistic activities of gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA), which regulate the expression of the corresponding genes. Transcriptional regulation of cysteine proteases and phytocystatins is determined by cis-acting elements located in the promoters of these genes and by the expression of their corresponding transcription factors (TFs) and the interactions between different TFs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. On the development of an intrinsic hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kießling, R.; Ihlemann, J.; Riemer, M.; Drossel, W.-G.; Scharf, I.; Lampke, T.; Sharafiev, S.; Pouya, M.; F-X Wagner, M.

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid parts, which combine low weight with high strength, are moving into the focus of the automotive industry, due to their high potential for usage in the field of crash-relevant structures. In this contribution, the development of an intrinsic hybrid composite is presented, with a focus on the manufacturing process, complex simulations of the material behaviour and material testing. The hybrid composite is made up of a continuous fibre- reinforced plastic (FRP), in which a metallic insert is integrated. The mechanical behaviour of the individual components is characterised. For material modelling, an approach is pointed out that enables modelling at large strains by directly connected rheological elements. The connection between the FRP and the metallic insert is realised by a combination of form fit and adhesive bonds. On the one hand, adhesive bonds are generated within a sol gel process. On the other hand, local form elements of the metallic insert are pressed into the FRP. We show how these form elements are generated during the macroscopic forming process. In addition, the applied sol gel process is explained. Finally, we consider design concepts for a specimen type for high strain testing of the resulting interfaces.

  19. Deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of two Viburnum species, with special reference to shoot growth and development inside the seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ching-Te; Chen, Shun-Ying; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long

    2011-07-01

    In seeds with deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy, warm and cold stratification are required to break dormancy of the radicle and shoot, respectively. Although the shoot remains inside the seed all winter, little is known about its growth and morphological development prior to emergence in spring. The aims of the present study were to determine the temperature requirements for radicle and shoot emergence in seeds of Viburnum betulifolium and V. parvifolium and to monitor growth of the epicotyl, plumule and cotyledons in root-emerged seeds. Fresh and pre-treated seeds of V. betulifolium and V. parvifolium were incubated under various temperature regimes and monitored for radicle and shoot emergence. Growth of the epicotyl and cotyledons at different stages was observed with dissecting and scanning electron microscopes. The optimum temperature for radicle emergence of seeds of both species, either kept continuously at a single regime or exposed to a sequence of regimes, was 20/10 °C. GA(3) had no effect on radicle emergence. Cold stratification (5 °C) was required for shoot emergence. The shoot apical meristem in fresh seeds did not form a bulge until the embryo had grown to the critical length for radicle emergence. After radicle emergence, the epicotyl--plumule and cotyledons grew slowly at 5 and 20/10 °C, and the first pair of true leaves was initiated. However, the shoot emerged only from seeds that received cold stratification. Seeds of V. betulifolium and V. parvifolium have deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy, C(1b)B (root)-C(3) (epicotyl). Warm stratification was required to break the first part of physiological dormancy (PD), thereby allowing embryo growth and subsequently radicle emergence. Although cold stratification was not required for differentiation of the epicotyl--plumule, it was required to break the second part of PD, thereby allowing the shoot to emerge in spring.

  20. Software development infrastructure for the HYBRID modeling and simulation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron S. Epiney; Robert A. Kinoshita; Jong Suk Kim; Cristian Rabiti; M. Scott Greenwood

    2016-09-01

    One of the goals of the HYBRID modeling and simulation project is to assess the economic viability of hybrid systems in a market that contains renewable energy sources like wind. The idea is that it is possible for the nuclear plant to sell non-electric energy cushions, which absorb (at least partially) the volatility introduced by the renewable energy sources. This system is currently modeled in the Modelica programming language. To assess the economics of the system, an optimization procedure is trying to find the minimal cost of electricity production. The RAVEN code is used as a driver for the whole problem. It is assumed that at this stage, the HYBRID modeling and simulation framework can be classified as non-safety “research and development” software. The associated quality level is Quality Level 3 software. This imposes low requirements on quality control, testing and documentation. The quality level could change as the application development continues.Despite the low quality requirement level, a workflow for the HYBRID developers has been defined that include a coding standard and some documentation and testing requirements. The repository performs automated unit testing of contributed models. The automated testing is achieved via an open-source python script called BuildingsP from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. BuildingsPy runs Modelica simulation tests using Dymola in an automated manner and generates and runs unit tests from Modelica scripts written by developers. In order to assure effective communication between the different national laboratories a biweekly videoconference has been set-up, where developers can report their progress and issues. In addition, periodic face-face meetings are organized intended to discuss high-level strategy decisions with management. A second means of communication is the developer email list. This is a list to which everybody can send emails that will be received by the collective of the developers and managers

  1. Development of hybrid artificial intelligent based handover decision algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Aibinu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of seamless handover remains a mirage despite the plethora of existing handover algorithms. The underlying factor responsible for this has been traced to the Handover decision module in the Handover process. Hence, in this paper, the development of novel hybrid artificial intelligent handover decision algorithm has been developed. The developed model is made up of hybrid of Artificial Neural Network (ANN based prediction model and Fuzzy Logic. On accessing the network, the Received Signal Strength (RSS was acquired over a period of time to form a time series data. The data was then fed to the newly proposed k-step ahead ANN-based RSS prediction system for estimation of prediction model coefficients. The synaptic weights and adaptive coefficients of the trained ANN was then used to compute the k-step ahead ANN based RSS prediction model coefficients. The predicted RSS value was later codified as Fuzzy sets and in conjunction with other measured network parameters were fed into the Fuzzy logic controller in order to finalize handover decision process. The performance of the newly developed k-step ahead ANN based RSS prediction algorithm was evaluated using simulated and real data acquired from available mobile communication networks. Results obtained in both cases shows that the proposed algorithm is capable of predicting ahead the RSS value to about ±0.0002 dB. Also, the cascaded effect of the complete handover decision module was also evaluated. Results obtained show that the newly proposed hybrid approach was able to reduce ping-pong effect associated with other handover techniques.

  2. TAF13 interacts with PRC2 members and is essential for Arabidopsis seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Matias; Simonini, Sara; Kooiker, Maarten; Gagliardini, Valeria; Somssich, Marc; Hohenstatt, Mareike; Simon, Rüdiger; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Kater, Martin M

    2013-07-01

    TBP-Associated Factors (TAFs) are components of complexes like TFIID, TFTC, SAGA/STAGA and SMAT that are important for the activation of transcription, either by establishing the basic transcription machinery or by facilitating histone acetylation. However, in Drosophila embryos several TAFs were shown to be associated with the Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1), even though the role of this interaction remains unclear. Here we show that in Arabidopsis TAF13 interacts with MEDEA and SWINGER, both members of a plant variant of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). PRC2 variants play important roles during the plant life cycle, including seed development. The taf13 mutation causes seed defects, showing embryo arrest at the 8-16 cell stage and over-proliferation of the endosperm in the chalazal region, which is typical for Arabidopsis PRC2 mutants. Our data suggest that TAF13 functions together with PRC2 in transcriptional regulation during seed development.

  3. Current perspectives on the hormonal control of seed development in Arabidopsis and maize: a focus on auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locascio, Antonella; Roig-Villanova, Irma; Bernardi, Jamila; Varotto, Serena

    2014-01-01

    The seed represents the unit of reproduction of flowering plants, capable of developing into another plant, and to ensure the survival of the species under unfavorable environmental conditions. It is composed of three compartments: seed coat, endosperm and embryo. Proper seed development depends on the coordination of the processes that lead to seed compartments differentiation, development and maturation. The coordination of these processes is based on the constant transmission/perception of signals by the three compartments. Phytohormones constitute one of these signals; gradients of hormones are generated in the different seed compartments, and their ratios comprise the signals that induce/inhibit particular processes in seed development. Among the hormones, auxin seems to exert a central role, as it is the only one in maintaining high levels of accumulation from fertilization to seed maturation. The gradient of auxin generated by its PIN carriers affects several processes of seed development, including pattern formation, cell division and expansion. Despite the high degree of conservation in the regulatory mechanisms that lead to seed development within the Spermatophytes, remarkable differences exist during seed maturation between Monocots and Eudicots species. For instance, in Monocots the endosperm persists until maturation, and constitutes an important compartment for nutrients storage, while in Eudicots it is reduced to a single cell layer, as the expanding embryo gradually replaces it during the maturation. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on hormonal control of seed development, by considering the data available in two model plants: Arabidopsis thaliana, for Eudicots and Zea mays L., for Monocots. We will emphasize the control exerted by auxin on the correct progress of seed development comparing, when possible, the two species.

  4. Current perspectives on the hormonal control of seed development in Arabidopsis and maize: a focus on auxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella eLocascio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The seed represents the unit of reproduction of flowering plants, capable of developing into another plant, and to ensure the survival of the species under unfavorable environmental conditions. It is composed of three compartments: seed coat, endosperm and embryo. Proper seed development depends on the coordination of the processes that lead to seed compartments differentiation, development and maturation. The coordination of these processes is based on the constant transmission/perception of signals by the three compartments. Phytohormones constitute one of these signals, gradients of hormones are generated in the different seed compartments, and the ratios of which constitute the signals that induce/inhibit a particular process in seed development. Among the hormones, auxin seems to exert a pivotal role; since it is the unique hormone that maintains high level of accumulation from fertilization to seed maturation. The gradient of auxin generated by its PIN carriers, affects several processes of seed development, including pattern formation, cell division and expansion. Despite the high degree of conservation in the regulatory mechanisms that lead to seed development within the Spermatophytes, remarkable differences exists during seed maturation between Monocots and Eudicots species. For instance, in Monocots, the endosperm persists until maturation, and constitutes an important compartment for nutrients storage; while in Eudicots it is reduced to a single cell layer, as the expanding embryo gradually replaces it during the maturation.This review will provide an overview of the current knowledge on hormonal control of seed development, by considering the data available in two model plants: Arabidopsis thaliana,for Eudicots, and Zea mays, for Monocots. We will emphasize the control exerted by auxin on the correct progress of seed development comparing, when possible, the two species.

  5. Content of plant growth regulators in the developing seeds of oak (Quercus robur L.) III. Kinetin-like substances

    OpenAIRE

    Leszek Michalski

    2015-01-01

    Kinetin-like substances in developing oak seeds have been investigated. The methods of extraction, fractionation, paper and column chromatography and bioassays, demonstrated that an active cell division factor appears in various phases of seeds development. A high level of this substance has been found mainly in developing acorns. In the course of thier ripening this level decreases considerably.

  6. Content of plant growth regulators in the developing seeds of oak (Quercus robur L. III. Kinetin-like substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Michalski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetin-like substances in developing oak seeds have been investigated. The methods of extraction, fractionation, paper and column chromatography and bioassays, demonstrated that an active cell division factor appears in various phases of seeds development. A high level of this substance has been found mainly in developing acorns. In the course of thier ripening this level decreases considerably.

  7. GERMINATION PERFORMANCE OF SEQUENTIALLY HARVESTED TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) SEED LOTS DURING SEED DEVELOPMENT UNDER SALT AND OSMOTIC STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    OZCOBAN, Mustafa; Demir, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    This work concluded that tomato seeds harvested 70 days after anthesis showed the maximum germination not only under water but also salt stress. Seeds harvested earlier or later were more sensitive to stress at germinations. High Ki value of the lots indicated high resistance under stress conditions.

  8. GERMINATION PERFORMANCE OF SEQUENTIALLY HARVESTED TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. SEED LOTS DURING SEED DEVELOPMENT UNDER SALT AND OSMOTIC STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa OZCOBAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This work concluded that tomato seeds harvested 70 days after anthesis showed the maximum germination not only under water but also salt stress. Seeds harvested earlier or later were more sensitive to stress at germinations. High Ki value of the lots indicated high resistance under stress conditions.

  9. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  10. Development of a 40 T compact hybrid magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, K.; Awaji, S.; Kobayashi, N. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research] [and others

    1996-07-01

    A 40 T compact hybrid magnet consisting of a 16 T outer superconducting magnet and a 24 T inner resistive magnet is conceptually designed. A highly strengthened superconducting magnet with a 360 mm room temperature bore can be made using newly developed (Nb,Ti){sub 3}Sn wires with Cu-Nb or Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reinforcing stabilizer, and as a result the coil weight is outstandingly reduced by about 70%. A poly-Bitter resistive magnet which generates 24 T in a 14 mm room temperature bore is realized consuming 8 MW power.

  11. Development and Testing of a Green-Propellant Micro-Hybrid Thruster with Electrostatic Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Judson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    As early as 1937 German scientists at Peenemunde experimented with highly unstable fuel blends of nitrous oxide (N2O) and ethanol. These early tests mostly resulted in explosions and destroyed rocket engines. More recently several companies have developed experimental nitrous oxide fuel blends (NOFB) with Isp exceeding 300 sec. Although NOFBx has recently been cleared for tests on the International Space Station, this propellant remains highly experimental and has not been cleared for commercial transport by the US DOT. Recent work by Karabeyoglu et al. has raised concerns about the safety risks of mixing hydrocarbons with N2O. Liquid oxidizer/fuel blends are highly explosive and require extreme care in transport and servicing. By adding small amounts of a liquid organic fuel such as alcohol or a hydrocarbon, the odds of an explosive decomposition event are significantly increased.iv The proposed solution mitigates the explosion hazards of NOFB by separating the oxidizer from the hydrocarbon fuel formed as of a small cylindrical section of ABS thermoplastic. As N2O vapor flows across the grain segment, current enters a 1000 VDC high-tension lead in the ABS fuel grain and produces an inductive spark that vaporizes a small amount of the material. The ablated fuel vapor plus residual energy from the spark seed a localized exothermic N2O dissociation that produces sufficient heat to initiate combustion. The process is also effective when gaseous oxygen is used. A low TRL (2-3) prototype demonstrating the feasibility of controlled hydrocarbon-seeding was recently tested at Utah State University.v The unit features a miniature 2.5 cm ABS fuel grain fabricated using a Stratasys Dimension 3-D printer. The 9-N thruster was pulse-fired up to 27 consecutive times on a single ABS grain segment. Ignition was achieved by as little as 12-15 Joules energy input. This value is contrasted with the typical 30-minute pre-heat requirement for the ECAPS LMP-103S ADN-based monopropellant

  12. Strategies for the development of the sweetpotato early generation seed sector in eastern and southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Srinivasulu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Smallholders in Eastern and Southern Africa(ESA have limited access to timely availability of quality sweetpotato seed which contributes to sub-optimal root yields. To enhance availability and access to quality seed it is necessary to link formal plant breeding efforts to a sustainable seed supply system by means of identifying business opportunities for sweetpotato Early Generation Seed (EGS producers. In most ESA countries, public institutions have the sole mandate for EGS production, but have not adopted an explicit business orientation. The study used primary information collected from business plans prepared by eight National Agricultural Research Institutions(NARIs in seven countries in ESA. This study first analyzed the overall business opportunities for public institutions using a Strengths, Weaknesses Opportunities, and Threats(SWOT tool and then a Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses and Strengths (TOWS approach was used to transform the SWOT results into strategies for the further development of the early generation seed sector. It was concluded that over a five to ten year period, the NARIs do have a business case for production of sweetpotato EGS. However, to capitalise on this NARIs and policy makers need to take up there commendations from the TOWS analysis to refine strategies for exploiting opportunities in the business environment and for mitigating weaknesses to reduce vulnerability to any identified threats to the potential business in EGS.

  13. Development of a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail: s-yama@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Hamamura, Fuka; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ogata, Yoshimune [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi 461-8673 (Japan); Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi [CYRIC, Tohoku University, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov-light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects visible photons from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. However, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging remains unclear. If a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system were developed, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging would be clarified by directly comparing these two imaging modalities. Methods: The authors developed and tested a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system that consists of a dual-head PET system, a reflection mirror located above the subject, and a high sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The authors installed these systems inside a black box for imaging the Cerenkov-light. The dual-head PET system employed a 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3} GSO arranged in a 33 × 33 matrix that was optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube to form a GSO block detector. The authors arranged two GSO block detectors 10 cm apart and positioned the subject between them. The Cerenkov-light above the subject is reflected by the mirror and changes its direction to the side of the PET system and is imaged by the high sensitivity CCD camera. Results: The dual-head PET system had a spatial resolution of ∼1.2 mm FWHM and sensitivity of ∼0.31% at the center of the FOV. The Cerenkov-light imaging system's spatial resolution was ∼275μm for a {sup 22}Na point source. Using the combined PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, the authors successfully obtained fused images from simultaneously acquired images. The image distributions are sometimes different due to the light transmission and absorption in the body of the subject in the Cerenkov-light images. In simultaneous imaging of rat, the authors found that {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation was observed mainly in the Harderian gland on the PET image, while the distribution of Cerenkov-light was observed in the eyes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that their developed PET

  14. Symbiotic seed germination and protocorm development of Aa achalensis Schltr., a terrestrial orchid endemic from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, Fracchia; Vanesa, Silvani; Eduardo, Flachsland; Graciela, Terada; Silvana, Sede

    2014-01-01

    Aa achalensis is an endangered terrestrial orchid endemic from Argentina. In vitro symbiotic seed germination was evaluated for its propagation. Five different fungal strains were isolated from this species: two Rhizoctonia-like related to Thanatephorus cucumeris and three ascomicetaceous fungi belonging to Phialophora graminicola and one to an uncultured Pezizaceae. All five isolates promoted seed germination being one T. cucumeris strain the most effective. After 16 weeks of growth, 30% of A. achalensis protocorms developed until seedlings with two/four leaves in this treatment. These findings open an opportunity to the knowledge and preservation of this species.

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms Among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Susan E.; Daniels, Julie; Schieve, Laura; Croen, Lisa A.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Blaskey, Lisa; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Thompson, Patrick; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Young, Lisa; Schendel, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30–68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive, behavioral, and social functioning and the presence of parent-reported conditions. Children with ASD and DD with ASD symptoms had mild to severe ASD risk on several measures compared to children with other DD and POP who had little ASD risk across measures. We conclude that children in SEED have varying degrees of ASD impairment and associated deficits. SEED thus provides a valuable sample to explore ASD phenotypes and inform risk factor analyses. PMID:26048040

  16. Effects of temperature during soybean seed development on defense-related gene expression and fungal pathogen accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Robert G; Ramirez, Martha E

    2011-12-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] plants were exposed to three temperature regimens during seed development to investigate the effect of temperature on the expression of eight defense-related genes and the accumulation of two fungal pathogens in inoculated seeds. In seeds prior to inoculation, either a day/night warm (34/26 °C) or a cool temperature (22/18 °C) relative to normal (26/22 °C) resulted in altered patterns of gene expression including substantially lower expression of PR1, PR3 and PR10. After seed inoculation with Cercospora kikuchii, pathogen accumulation was lowest in seeds produced at 22/18 °C in which of all defense genes, MMP2 was uniquely most highly induced. For seeds inoculated with Diaporthe phaseolorum, pathogen accumulation was lowest in seeds produced at 34/26 °C in which of all defense genes, PR10 was uniquely most highly induced. Our detached seed assays clearly demonstrated that the temperature regimens we applied during seed development produced significant changes in seed defense-related gene expression both pre- and post inoculation and our findings support the hypothesis that global climate change may alter plant-pathogen interactions and thereby potentially crop productivity.

  17. Assisted Imitation: First Steps in the Seed Model of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukow-Goldring, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I present the theoretical and empirical grounding for the SEED ("situated", culturally "embodied", "emergent", "distributed") model of early language development. A fundamental prerequisite to the emergence of language behavior/communication is a hands-on, active understanding of everyday events (, and ). At the heart of this…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Levy, Susan E.; Daniels, Julie; Schieve, Laura; Croen, Lisa A.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Blaskey, Lisa; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Thompson, Patrick; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Young, Lisa; Schendel, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30-68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive,…

  19. Initial description of the developing soybean seed protein-Lys-Ne-acetylome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of the myriad protein posttranslational modifications (PTM) is a key aspect of proteome profiling. While there have been previous studies of the developing soybean seed phospho-proteome, herein we present the first analysis of protein Lys-Ne-acetylation (PKA) in this system. In rece...

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Levy, Susan E.; Daniels, Julie; Schieve, Laura; Croen, Lisa A.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Blaskey, Lisa; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Thompson, Patrick; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Young, Lisa; Schendel, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30-68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive,…

  1. Comparing carbohydrate status during norway spruce seed development and somatic embryo formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gösslová, M.; Svobodová, H.; Lipavská, H.; Albrechtová, J.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2001-01-01

    The carbohydrate status of developing seeds of Picea abies was examined in order to provide a frame of reference for the evaluation of changes in carbohydrate content in maturing somatic embryos of the same species. Samples were taken at weekly intervals from 12 May 1998 (estimated time of pollinati

  2. Development of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.; Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the current development status of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump for low-lift applications. The heat pump provides electronics cooling by evaporating a pure refrigerant from an absorbent/refrigerant mixture in a generator/cold plate. The current development focused on evaluation of absorbent/refrigerant pairs, corrosion testing, pump and compressor design, and electronic cold plate design. Two cycle configurations were considered. The first configuration utilized a standard mechanical compressor and pump. The second cycle configuration investigated pumps and compressors with non-moving parts. An innovative generator/cold plate design is also presented. The development to date shows that this cycle has about the same performance as standard vapor compression heat pumps with standard refrigerants but may have some performance and reliability advantages over vapor compression heat pumps.

  3. Development of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.; Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the current development status of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump for low-lift applications. The heat pump provides electronics cooling by evaporating a pure refrigerant from an absorbent/refrigerant mixture in a generator/cold plate. The current development focused on evaluation of absorbent/refrigerant pairs, corrosion testing, pump and compressor design, and electronic cold plate design. Two cycle configurations were considered. The first configuration utilized a standard mechanical compressor and pump. The second cycle configuration investigated pumps and compressors with non-moving parts. An innovative generator/cold plate design is also presented. The development to date shows that this cycle has about the same performance as standard vapor compression heat pumps with standard refrigerants but may have some performance and reliability advantages over vapor compression heat pumps.

  4. Male fitness of oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤), weedy ¤B-rapa¤ and their F1 hybrids when pollinating ¤B-rapa¤ seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, M.; Hauser, T.P.; Damgaard, C.

    2002-01-01

    The likelihood that two species hybridise and backcross may depend strongly on environmental conditions, and possibly on competitive interactions between parents and hybrids. We studied the paternity of seeds produced by weedy Brassica rapa growing in mixtures with oilseed rape (B. napus...... is strongly influenced by their local frequencies, and that male fitness of F(1)hybrids, when pollinating B. rapa seeds, is low even when their female fitness (seed set) is high.......), respectively. F(1) and backcross offspring were produced mainly by a few B. rapa mother plants. The observed hybridisation and backcrossing frequencies were much lower than expected from our compilation of fitness components. Our results show that the male fitness of B. rapa, B. napus, and F(1) hybrids...

  5. Fleshy seeds form in the basal Angiosperm Magnolia grandiflora and several MADS-box genes are expressed as fleshy seed tissues develop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovisetto, Alessandro; Masiero, Simona; Rahim, Md Abdur; Mendes, Marta Adelina Miranda; Casadoro, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    One successful mechanism of seed dispersal in plants involves production of edible fleshy structures which attract frugivorous animals and transfer this task to them. Not only Angiosperms but also Gymnosperms may use the fleshy fruit habit for seed dispersal, and a similar suite of MADS-box genes may be expressed as these structures form. Magnolia grandiflora produces dry follicles which, at maturity, open to reveal brightly colored fleshy seeds. This species thus also employs endozoochory for seed dispersal, although it produces dry fruits. Molecular analysis reveals that genes involved in softening and color changes are expressed at late stages of seed development, when the fleshy seed sarcotesta softens and accumulates carotenoids. Several MADS-box genes have also been studied and results highlight the existence of a basic genetic toolkit which may be common to all fleshy fruit-like structures, independently of their anatomic origin. According to their expression patterns, one of two AGAMOUS genes and the three SEPALLATA genes known so far in Magnolia are of particular interest. Duplication of AGAMOUS already occurs in both Nymphaeales and Magnoliids, although the lack of functional gene analysis prevents comparisons with known duplications in the AGAMOUS lineage of core Eudicots.

  6. Accelerating Seed Germination and seedling development of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) through hydro-priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, S., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Mali, a West Africa Sahelian country, is characterized by a strong dependence on rain-fed agriculture and a low adaptive capacity, making it one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change worldwide. Moreover, although with high uncertainties, most climate models used for the region recognize a growing uncertainty in the onset of the rainy season, which demands urgent adaptation measures. Early-season drought limits crops germination, and hence growth, and yield during rainfed depending production as is common now in Mali, West Africa. Crops germination and establishment could be improved by using seed priming, a process that dry seeds take up water to initiate the primary stages of germination, but the amount of water added is not enough for completing germination. The effects of hydro-priming (distilled, tap, rain, river and well water) were evaluated for three priming durations (4, 8 and 12 hour) in 2014 and 2015. Monitored were seed germination and seedling development of nine sorghum genotypes. Preliminary results showed that hydro-priming significantly improved germination rate, germination speed, number of seminal root, rate of survival and seedling vigour index, compared to non-primed seed treatments. However, seedling length, root length, shoot length and seedling dry weight did not differ significantly. Four out of the nine genotypes evaluated were attributed good seed quality and good response to hydro-priming. The priming with different sources of water resulted in higher seed germination (90%) and seedling development with well and river water, compared to the others. Seed germination rate, uniformity and speed were also enhanced by hydro-priming. It is argued that hydro-priming is a simple but effective method for improving seed germination and seedling development of sorghum. In addition hydro-priming is a safe, simple and inexpensive method to enhance germination. The most promising genotypes have consequently been included in consequent pot

  7. Seed development in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Populus nigra L., and Ranunculus sceleratus L. with special reference to the microtubular cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XuHan, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, seed development is investigated in celery-leafed buttercup ( Ranunculus sceleratus L.), bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and poplar ( Populus nigra L.). Developing embryos, endosperms and seed coats are investigate

  8. Developing a participatory approach to seed production and varietal selection (OF0330)

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Dr Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Overall Aim To develop a robust system for identifying, testing, multiplying and marketing cereal varieties, lines, mixtures and populations best suited to organic production in different parts of the country. Objectives 1. Develop a participatory research and development methodology for UK organic farmers using variety trialling and the management of seed-borne disease as examples. 2. Collect information on the range of cereal varieties currently grown by organic farmers to ...

  9. Tracing back seed and pollen flow within the crop-wild Beta vulgaris complex: genetic distinctiveness vs. hot spots of hybridization over a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Frédérique; Arnaud, Jean-François; Delescluse, Maxime; Cuguen, Joël

    2004-06-01

    Hybrids between transgenic crops and wild relatives have been documented successfully in a wide range of cultivated species, having implications on conservation and biosafety management. Nonetheless, the magnitude and frequency of hybridization in the wild is still an open question, in particular when considering several populations at the landscape level. The Beta vulgaris complex provides an excellent biological model to tackle this issue. Weed beets contaminating sugar beet fields are expected to act as a relay between wild populations and crops and from crops-to-crops. In one major European sugar beet production area, nine wild populations and 12 weed populations were genetically characterized using cytoplasmic markers specific to the cultivated lines and nuclear microsatellite loci. A tremendous overall genetic differentiation between neighbouring wild and weed populations was depicted. However, genetic admixture analyses at the individual level revealed clear evidence for gene flow between wild and weed populations. In particular, one wild population displayed a high magnitude of nuclear genetic admixture, reinforced by direct seed flow as evidenced by cytoplasmic markers. Altogether, weed beets were shown to act as relay for gene flow between crops to wild populations and crops to crops by pollen and seeds at a landscape level.

  10. Development and characterization of interspecific hybrids between Oryza sativa and O. latifolia by in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI ChuanDeng; TANG ShuZhu; ZHOU Yong; LIANG GuoHua; GONG ZhiYun; GU MingHong

    2008-01-01

    Oryza sativa and O. latifolia belong to the AA and CCDD genomes of Oryza, respectively. In this study, interspecific hybrids of these species were obtained using the embryo rescue technique. Hybrid pani-cle traits, such as long awns, small grain, exoteric large purple stigma, grain shattering and dispersed panicles, resemble that of the paternal parent, O. latifolia, whereas there is obvious heterosis in such respects as plant height, tillering ability and vegetative vigor. Chromosome pairing and the genomic components of the hybrid were subsequently investigated using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Based on the mitotic metaphase chromosome numbers of the root tips investigated, the hybrid is a triploid with 36 chromosomes. The genomic con-stitution of the hybrid is ACD. In the meiotic metaphase I of the hybrid pollen mother cell, poor chro-mosome pairing was identified and most of the chromosomes were univalent, which resulted in com-plete male sterility in the hybrid.

  11. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Triticale Phytocystatins During Development and Germination of Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewińska, Joanna; Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta; Pojmaj, Mirosław; Bielawski, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    Three triticale cDNAs encoding inhibitors of cysteine endopeptidases, belonging to phytocystatins, have been identified and designated as TrcC-1, TrcC-4 and TrcC-5. Full-length cDNAs of TrcC-1 (617 bp) and TrcC-4 (940 bp), as well as a fragment of TrcC-5 cDNA (369 bp), were obtained. A high-level identity of the deduced amino acid sequence of TrcCs with other known phytocystatins, especially with wheat and barley, has been observed. Moreover, the presence of conserved domain, containing the G and W residues, the sequence of QxVxG and the sequence of LARFAV, characteristic for plant cysteine endopeptidase inhibitors, has been noted. The profiles of TrcC-1 and TrcC-5 mRNA levels in the developing seeds of two triticale cultivars that differ in their resistance to preharvest sprouting (Zorro and Disco) were similar. However, the expression of TrcC-4 was, higher in the developing seeds, and in the scutellum of germinating seeds of a cultivar more resistant to preharvest sprouting (Zorro) than in the less resistant (Disco). Additionally, the expression of TrcC-4 remained longer in developing seeds of Zorro as compared to Disco. The performed studies suggest that TrcC-4 might have an influence on the higher resistance of Zorro cultivar to preharvest sprouting.

  12. Hybrid armature projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  13. Fruit, seed and embryo development of different cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-24

    Mar 24, 2014 ... production of doubled haploids with the ultimate objective of introducing ... roles in cassava breeding: (1) rescue plantlets from the younger fruits ..... embryo development in reciprocal crosses of wheat and barley. Euphytica ...

  14. Monkey hybrid stem cells develop cellular features of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorthongpanich Chanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types and develop robust hallmark cellular features are useful tools for clarifying the impact of developmental events on neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. Additionally, a Huntington's cell model that develops robust pathological features of Huntington's disease would be valuable for drug discovery research. Results To test this hypothesis, a pluripotent Huntington's disease monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1 was established from a tetraploid Huntington's disease monkey blastocyst generated by the fusion of transgenic Huntington's monkey skin fibroblast and a wild-type non-transgenic monkey oocyte. The TrES1 developed key Huntington's disease cellular pathological features that paralleled neural development. It expressed mutant huntingtin and stem cell markers, was capable of differentiating to neural cells, and developed teratoma in severely compromised immune deficient (SCID mice. Interestingly, the expression of mutant htt, the accumulation of oligomeric mutant htt and the formation of intranuclear inclusions paralleled neural development in vitro , and even mutant htt was ubiquitously expressed. This suggests the development of Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. Conclusions Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. These results are the first to demonstrate that a pluripotent stem cell line is able to mimic Huntington's disease progression that parallels neural development, which could be a useful cell model for investigating the developmental impact on Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

  15. Impacts of Greening Materials and Seed Pretreatment on Vegetation Development at an initial stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriejetan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Slope protection using greening measures as an integral part of soil-bioengineering is characterized by an increasing demand in research and practice. However, successful greening is a very complex issue due to the vast variety in specific slope characteristics such as morphology, soil properties and environmental factors. Because of practical experience in the greening of slopes and the results of further investigations in small-scale tests, it can be stated that the use of appropriate planting techniques, the quality of the materials used and the proper implementation of potential needed auxiliary materials at difficult locations are seen as key success criteria for sustainable vegetation development. Within this framework small-scale testing series were conducted regarding the influence of specific soil-properties, the use of auxiliary greening materials (fertilizer, mycorrhiza fungi, Bonded fiber matrix (BFM)…), application of different seed-pretreatment methods and influences of specific environmental factors (inclination, seeding depth) on vegetational development in an early phase. The aim of the series is to quantitatively and thus economically optimize the use of different greening-components and seed mixtures for practical application, while ensuring optimal development of vegetation. To quantify the influence of the treatment systems, vegetation cover ratio, biomass production (aboveground and belowground) and the germination of plant seeds served as main criteria for assessing the development in an initial stage. Selected findings for instance show that the admixture of mycorrhiza fungi can increase the cover ratio up to 23 % compared to untreated plots. In addition, pretreatment of seeds showed distinct effects too by shortening germination phase and increasing the capability of producing a higher amount of healthy sprouts. From a bioengineering perspective the results will serve as potential decisive advantage for successful implementation of

  16. 12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Accumulation during Seed Development Represses Seed Germination in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Anuja; Hernández, M. Luisa; He, Zhesi; Andriotis, Vasilios M.E.; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Larson, Tony R.; Graham, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana COMATOSE (CTS) encodes an ABC transporter involved in peroxisomal import of substrates for β-oxidation. Various cts alleles and mutants disrupted in steps of peroxisomal β-oxidation have previously been reported to exhibit a severe block on seed germination. Oxylipin analysis on cts, acyl CoA oxidase1 acyl CoA oxidase2 (acx1 acx2), and keto acyl thiolase2 dry seeds revealed that they contain elevated levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and JA-Ile. Oxylipin and transcriptomic analysis showed that accumulation of these oxylipins occurs during late seed maturation in cts. Analysis of double mutants generated by crossing cts with mutants in the JA biosynthesis pathway indicate that OPDA, rather than JA or JA-Ile, contributes to the block on germination in cts seeds. We found that OPDA was more effective at inhibiting wild-type germination than was JA and that this effect was independent of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 but was synergistic with abscisic acid (ABA). Consistent with this, OPDA treatment increased ABA INSENSITIVE5 protein abundance in a manner that parallels the inhibitory effect of OPDA and OPDA+ABA on seed germination. These results demonstrate that OPDA acts along with ABA to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis. PMID:21335376

  17. The Forms and Sources of Cytokinins in Developing White Lupine Seeds and Fruits1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, R.J. Neil; Ma, Qifu; Atkins, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive range of cytokinins (CK) was identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tissues of and in xylem and phloem serving developing white lupine (Lupinus albus) fruits. Analyses were initiated at anthesis and included stages of podset, embryogenesis, and seed filling up to physiological maturation 77 d post anthesis (DPA). In the first 10 DPA, fertilized ovaries destined to set pods accumulated CK. The proportion of cis-CK:trans-CK isomers was initially 10:1 but declined to less than 1:1. In ovaries destined to abort, the ratio of cis-isomers to trans-isomers remained high. During early podset, accumulation of CK (30–40 pmol ovary−1) was accounted for by xylem and phloem translocation, both containing more than 90% cis-isomers. During embryogenesis and early seed filling (40–46 DPA), translocation accounted for 1% to 14% of the increases of CK in endosperm (20 nmol fruit−1) and seed coat (15 nmol fruit−1), indicating synthesis in situ. High CK concentrations in seeds (0.6 μmol g−1 fresh weight) were transient, declining rapidly to less than 1% of maximum levels by physiological maturity. These data pose new questions about the localization and timing of CK synthesis, the significance of translocation, and the role(s) of CK forms in reproductive development. PMID:10938375

  18. Control of Seed Germination and Plant Development by Carbon and Nitrogen Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Daniel; Prieto, Pilar; Aguilar, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular basis of the influence of external carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and other abiotic factors on phytohormones regulation during seed germination and plant developmental processes, and the identification of elements that participate in this response is essential to understand plant nutrient perception and signaling. Sugars (sucrose, glucose) and nitrate not only act as nutrients but also as signaling molecules in plant development. A connection between changes in auxin transport and nitrate signal transduction has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana through the NRT1.1, a nitrate sensor and transporter that also functions as a repressor of lateral root growth under low concentrations of nitrate by promoting auxin transport. Nitrate inhibits the elongation of lateral roots, but this effect is significantly reduced in abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive mutants, what suggests that ABA might mediate the inhibition of lateral root elongation by nitrate. Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis has been also related to nitrate level in seed germination and its requirement is determined by embryonic ABA. These mechanisms connect nutrients and hormones signaling during seed germination and plant development. Thus, the genetic identification of the molecular components involved in nutrients-dependent pathways would help to elucidate the potential crosstalk between nutrients, nitric oxide (NO) and phytohormones (ABA, auxins and GAs) in seed germination and plant development. In this review we focus on changes in C and N levels and how they control seed germination and plant developmental processes through the interaction with other plant growth regulators, such as phytohormones. PMID:26635847

  19. Radioactive Chernobyl environment has produced high-oil flax seeds that show proteome alterations related to carbon metabolism during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Starting in 2007, we have grown soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. variety Soniachna) and flax (Linum usitatissimum, L. variety Kyivskyi) in the radio-contaminated Chernobyl area and analyzed the seed proteomes. In the second-generation flax seeds, we detected a 12% increase in oil content. To characterize the bases for this increase, seed development has been studied. Flax seeds were harvested in biological triplicate at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after flowering and at maturity from plants grown in nonradioactive and radio-contaminated plots in the Chernobyl area for two generations. Quantitative proteomic analyses based on 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) allowed us to establish developmental profiles for 199 2-DE spots in both plots, out of which 79 were reliably identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The data suggest a statistically significant increased abundance of proteins associated with pyruvate biosynthesis via cytoplasmic glycolysis, L-malate decarboxylation, isocitrate dehydrogenation, and ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde in early stages of seed development. This was followed by statistically significant increased abundance of ketoacyl-[acylcarrier protein] synthase I related to condensation of malonyl-ACP with elongating fatty acid chains. On the basis of these and previous data, we propose a preliminary model for plant adaptation to growth in a radio-contaminated environment. One aspect of the model suggests that changes in carbon assimilation and fatty acid biosynthesis are an integral part of plant adaptation.

  20. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  1. Pathways for the developing Myanmar’s seed sector: A scoping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den J.A.; Subedi, A.; Jongeleen, F.; Naing Lin Oo,

    2015-01-01

    The study presents an integrated assessment of Myanmar’s seed sector. The study includes information and analyses on regulatory environment for seed production and sales, a characterization of Myanmar’s seed sector with its various seed systems, a landscape of current seed sector interventions; an a

  2. Pathways for the developing Myanmar’s seed sector: A scoping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den J.A.; Subedi, A.; Jongeleen, F.; Naing Lin Oo,

    2015-01-01

    The study presents an integrated assessment of Myanmar’s seed sector. The study includes information and analyses on regulatory environment for seed production and sales, a characterization of Myanmar’s seed sector with its various seed systems, a landscape of current seed sector interventions; an a

  3. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) female gametophyte and embryo pH changes during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Johnson, Shannon

    2009-06-01

    Stage-specific measurements of female gametophyte (FG) and embryo pH (hydrogen ion concentration) were made through the sequence of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed development. The FG tissue from two open-pollinated trees showed similar pH profiles starting at 5.5 shortly after fertilization, increasing to about 6.1 at stage 7, levelling off at 6.3-6.5 towards the end of development and dropping to 6.0 just before cone opening. Measurements of the chalazal end were 0.05-0.2 pH units less than the micropylar end through early-to-mid-development. In contrast, embryo pH maintained a nearly constant value near 7.0 through development. Profiles of pH through seed development were similar whether portrayed by date or stage of embryo present in the seed. The pH profiles assisted in the development of improved embryogenic tissue initiation techniques. When post-autoclaving maturation medium pH was raised from about 5.3 in control medium to 5.7 or 5.5-5.7 with 2(n-morpholino)ethanesulphonic acid, cotyledonary embryo yields increased.

  4. The hybrid opacity code SCO-RCG: recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Jean-Christophe; Porcherot, Quentin; Blenski, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Absorption and emission spectra of multicharged-ion plasmas contain a huge number of electron configurations and electric-dipolar lines, which can be handled by global methods. However, some transition arrays consist only of a small bunch of lines. For that reason, we developed the hybrid opacity code SCO-RCG combining the (statistical) super-transition-array method and the (detailed) fine-structure calculation (requiring the diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix) of atomic structure. In order to decide whether a detailed treatment of lines is necessary and to determine the validity of statistical methods, the code involves criteria taking into account coalescence of lines and porosity (localized absence of lines) in transition arrays. Data required for the calculation of detailed transition arrays (Slater, spin-orbit and dipolar integrals) are provided by the super-configuration code SCO, which takes into account plasma screening effects on wavefunctions. Then, level energies and lines are calculated by ...

  5. Water relations of GA- and ABA-deficient tomato mutants during seed and fruit development and their influence on germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Bino, R.J.; Karssen, C.M.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    To explain the differing germination behaviour of seeds of wild type, gibberellin-deficient (gib1) or abscisic acid-deficient (sitw) mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker), growth and water relations of fruit tissues, seeds and embryos were determined during development. Th

  6. Metabolomic and proteomic profiles reveal the dynamics of primary metabolism during seed development of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingfang eYang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera belongs to Nelumbonaceae family. Its seeds are widely consumed in Asia countries as snacks or even medicine. Besides the market values, lotus seed also plays crucial roles in lotus life cycle. Consequently, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the development of lotus seed. During its development, lotus seed undergoes cell division, expansion, reserve accumulation, desiccation and maturation phases. We observed morphological and biochemical changes from 10 to 25 days after pollination (DAP which was corresponding to the reserve synthesis and accumulation phase. The volume of the seed expanded until 20 DAP with the color of the seed coat changing from yellow-green to dark green and gradually fading again. Starch and protein rapidly accumulated from 15 to 20 DAP. To further reveal the metabolism adaptation, primary metabolites and proteins profiles were obtained using mass spectrometry based platforms. Metabolites and enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle and amino acids metabolism showed sequential dynamics enabling the clear separation of the different metabolic states during lotus seed development. The integration of the data revealed a highly significant metabolic switch at 15 DAP going through a transition of metabolically highly active tissue to the preparation of storage tissue. The results provide reference data set for the evaluation of primary metabolism during lotus seed development.

  7. Metabolomic and Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Dynamics of Primary Metabolism during Seed Development of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Fu, Jinlei; Li, Ming; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-01-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) belongs to the Nelumbonaceae family. Its seeds are widely consumed in Asian countries as snacks or even medicine. Besides the market value, lotus seed also plays a crucial role in the lotus life cycle. Consequently, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the development of lotus seed. During its development, lotus seed undergoes cell division, expansion, reserve accumulation, desiccation, and maturation phases. We observed morphological and biochemical changes from 10 to 25 days after pollination (DAP) which corresponded to the reserve synthesis and accumulation phase. The volume of the seed expanded until 20 DAP with the color of the seed coat changing from yellow-green to dark green and gradually fading again. Starch and protein rapidly accumulated from 15 to 20 DAP. To further reveal metabolic adaptation, primary metabolites and proteins profiles were obtained using mass spectrometry based platforms. Metabolites and enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism showed sequential dynamics enabling the clear separation of the different metabolic states during lotus seed development. The integration of the data revealed a highly significant metabolic switch at 15 DAP going through a transition of metabolically highly active tissue to the preparation of storage tissue. The results provide a reference data set for the evaluation of primary metabolism during lotus seed development.

  8. On the Use of Hybrid Development Approaches in Software and Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Münch, Jürgen; Diebold, Philipp;

    2016-01-01

    embody this framework with more agile (and/or lean) practices to keep their flexibility. The paper at hand provides insights into the HELENA study with which we aim to investigate the use of “Hybrid dEveLopmENt Approaches in software systems development”. We present the survey design and initial findings...

  9. Spatial organisation and biomass development after relaying of mussel seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; Schellekens, Tim; van Stralen, Marnix R.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether and by what factors spatial heterogeneity in mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) affects mussel production in human-created mussel beds. In a field experiment, the same number of mussels was relayed on four different areas within plots of the same size, resulting in four treatments with different mussel densities. Density, individual weight and spatial structure of mussels were followed per treatment. The uniformly placed mussels on different areas redistributed into new patches, but mussels did not spread out over a larger area. Initial mussel density affected redistribution and mussel survival. At high densities mussels redistributed into a uniform matrix or in a few larger patches, that showed larger losses than at low densities, where mussels redistributed into a high number of patches. Growth rate and condition index of the mussels did not differ between treatments and no relation was found between treatment and number of foraging shore crabs, which was the major predator of mussels in this experiment. We hypothesise that the relation between initial mussel density and mussel loss after relaying is associated with redistribution, with less competition for space when mussels are positioned at the edge of a mussel patch. The very high mussel losses that we observed in the experiment within four weeks after relaying were the major factor in biomass development. Mussel bed formation concerns mussel growers and managers involved in natural mussel bed restoration. Initial mussel survival determines the success of these activities. The present study shows the effects of mussel relaying on spatial redistribution for the first time under field conditions, and underlines the importance of edge effects in understanding mussel loss in redistribution. Mussel survival after relaying will be higher when the mussels are distributed homogeneously and in relatively low density.

  10. Development of an encapsulation method using plasma arc welding to produce iodine-125 seeds for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, Anselmo; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Rostelato, Maria E.C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Somessari, Samir L.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Moura, Joao A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rela, Paulo R., E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: somessar@ipen.b, E-mail: olcosta@ipen.b, E-mail: esmoura@ipen.b, E-mail: cdsouza@ipen.b, E-mail: prela@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The prostate cancer, which is the second cause of death by cancer in men, overcome only by lung cancer is public health problem in Brazil. Brachytherapy is among the possible available treatments for prostate cancer, in which small seeds containing Iodine-125 radioisotope are implanted into the prostate gland. The seed consists of a titanium sealed capsule with 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, containing a central silver wire with adsorbed Iodine-125. The Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) is one of the viable techniques for sealing process. The equipment used in this technique is less costly than in other processes, such as, Laser Beam Welding (LBW). The main purpose of this work was the development of an encapsulation method using PAW. The development of this work has presented the following phases: cutting and cleaning titanium tube, determination of the welding parameters, development of a titanium tube holding device for PAW, sealed sources validation according to ISO 2919 - Sealed Radioactive Sources - General Requirements and Classification, and metallographic assays. The developed procedure to seal Iodine-125 seeds using PAW has shown high efficiency, satisfying all the established requirements of ISO 2919. The results obtained in this work will give the possibility to establish a routine production process according to the orientations presented in resolution RDC 17 - Good Manufacturing Practices to Medical Products defined by the ANVISA - National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance. (author)

  11. Boosting seed development as a new strategy to increase cotton fiber yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2013-07-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers, which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis. Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation, elongation and cellulose synthesis. However, manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality. On the other hand, evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development. Therefore, I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Boosting Seed Development as a New Strategy to Increase Cotton Fiber Yield and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ling Ruan

    2013-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers,which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis.Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation,elongation and cellulose synthesis.However,manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality.On the other hand,evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development.Therefore,I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality.

  13. Development of a hybrid cooler; Udvikling af hybridkoeler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, P.; Toftegaard, R.; Weinkauff Kristoffersen, J. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Juel Skovrup, M. [IPU, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Ibsen, C. [VP Industries, Lem (Denmark)

    2013-04-15

    The project aims to develop a hybrid cooler which acts as a dry cooler in the winter and as cooling tower in summer. Energy consumption for cooling systems with a dry cooler and a cooling tower, respectively, is comparable in the winter months. This phase 1 of the project shows that improvements of 50-100% on the performance of a hybrid cooler can be achieved as compared to a dry cooler. The improvement is achieved by humidifying the air with recirculated water through nozzles so that the air temperature decreases from the dry temperature to the wet temperature, and that the dry cooler surface is humidified with a film of water, which increases the heat transfer coefficient considerably compared to a dry surface. The experiments showed that a humidifier system cannot be used without further action. At face velocities less than 5 m/s the humidification does not yield any improvement, and in some cases the heat transfer in a standard dry cooler is decreased. This is due to entrainment of not fully vaporized droplets which are deposited between the dry cooler fins and form bridges that block parts of the cooler. By modifying the surface characteristics with a coating, it will be possible to drain the water away so that no bridges are formed. The company Accoat, which makes special surfaces, will therefore be associated to phase 2 of the project. Another aspect that was evident in the tests, is the formation of biofilm on the heat exchanger surface, which can reduce performance by up to 25%. Biofilm can be prevented by treating the feed water, and therefore Danish Clean Water A/S associated to phase 2 of the project, as they produce water purification systems for biofouling decomposition. (LN)

  14. Identification of differentially expressed genes between developing seeds of different soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongshuang Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of protein and oil and a primary feedstock for biodiesel production. Research on soybean seed composition and yield has revealed that protein, oil and yield are controlled quantitatively and quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified for each of these traits. However, very limited information is available regarding the genetic mechanisms controlling seed composition and yield. To help address this deficiency, we used Affymetrix Soybean GeneChips® to identify genes that are differentially expressed between developing seeds of the Minsoy and Archer soybean cultivars, which differ in seed weight, yield, protein content and oil content. A total of 700 probe sets were found to be expressed at significantly different (defined as having an adjusted p-value below or equal to 0.05 and an at least 2-fold difference levels between the two cultivars at one or more of the three developmental stages and in at least one of the two years assayed. Comparison of data from soybeans collected in two different years revealed that 97 probe sets were expressed at significantly different levels in both years. Functional annotations were assigned to 78% of these 97 probe sets based on the SoyBase Affymetrix™ GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array Annotation. Genes involved in receptor binding/activity and protein binding are overrepresented among the group of 97 probe sets that were differentially expressed in both years assayed. Probe sets involved in growth/development, signal transduction, transcription, defense/stress response and protein and lipid metabolism were also identified among the 97 probe sets and their possible implications in the regulation of agronomic traits are discussed. As the Minsoy and Archer soybean cultivars differ with respect to seed size, yield, protein content and lipid content, some of the differentially expressed probe sets identified in this study may thus play important roles in controlling these traits

  15. A Hybrid Fuzzy Model for Lean Product Development Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osezua Aikhuele, Daniel; Mohd Turan, Faiz

    2016-02-01

    In the effort for manufacturing companies to meet up with the emerging consumer demands for mass customized products, many are turning to the application of lean in their product development process, and this is gradually moving from being a competitive advantage to a necessity. However, due to lack of clear understanding of the lean performance measurements, many of these companies are unable to implement and fully integrated the lean principle into their product development process. Extensive literature shows that only few studies have focus systematically on the lean product development performance (LPDP) evaluation. In order to fill this gap, the study therefore proposed a novel hybrid model based on Fuzzy Reasoning Approach (FRA), and the extension of Fuzzy-AHP and Fuzzy-TOPSIS methods for the assessment of the LPDP. Unlike the existing methods, the model considers the importance weight of each of the decision makers (Experts) since the performance criteria/attributes are required to be rated, and these experts have different level of expertise. The rating is done using a new fuzzy Likert rating scale (membership-scale) which is designed such that it can address problems resulting from information lost/distortion due to closed-form scaling and the ordinal nature of the existing Likert scale.

  16. Seed moisture at physiological maturity in oilseed and confectionary sunflower hybrids in the Northern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiccating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to hasten harvest has become a common practice in the northern U.S. and can aid in reducing yield loss associated with severe weather and bird predation. Currently, it is recommended to apply desiccants to sunflower at 35% or less seed moisture correspond...

  17. DNA endoreplication level in endosperm and in cotyledons during seed development in three dicotyledonous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Marciniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The DNA content of nuclear and cellular endosperm and in cotyledons in the course of seed development in Helianthus annuus, Pisum sativum and Vicia faba was cytophotometrically measured after Faulgen's reaction. Helianthus annuus is characterized by the lowest endoreplication dynamics attaining a maximum DNA content of 48C in nuclear endosperm, which corresponds to four endoreplication rounds, and 16C DNA (three rounds in cotyledons. In Pisum sativum cellular endosperm in the studied stages of seed development was absent and the highest DNA content in cotyledons was 512C DNA; this corresponds to eight endoreplication rounds. In Vicia faba, the maximum DNA endoreplication level was 1536C in nuclear endosperm, which corresponds to nine endoreplication rounds; in cotyledons the maximum DNA content was 64C (five rounds. In the course of seed development, differences in the dynamics of DNA endoreplication in throphic tissues of the examined species seem to be similar to differences in the endoreplication level in root and leaf parenchyma, but the DNA endoreplication level is much higher in throphic tissues. Therefore, the endoreplication pattern might be species-specific and genetically conditioned.

  18. Evaluation of germination, vegetative development and genotoxicity of lettuce from irradiated seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Caio H.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: caiohaddadfranco@lnbio.cnpem.com.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Silva, Regildo M.G. da, E-mail: regildo@assis.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Assis, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias de Letras. Lab. de Fitoterapicos e Farmacologia; Franco, Jose G.; Franco, Suely S. H., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: zegilmar60@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Agriculture has benefited from the use of radiation techniques, which provides plant varieties with distinguish characteristics, such as higher productivity, precocity and greater resistance to disease, pests and harsh weather conditions. Therefore, this study aimed on the analysis of greenhouse morphological development of Lactuca sativa originated from irradiated seeds; as well as test their genotoxic effect. The seeds were irradiated at doses of 25, 50, 75, 150 and 300 Gy. In order to determine the germination index, the number of seedlings emerged from each well was counted. Biometric and weight measurements were taken during the development and post-harvest stages. Genotoxicity tests were performed based on the biological assay Allium cepa. The results demonstrated that the best vegetative development was observed for individuals originated from seeds irradiated with doses of 25 and 50 Gy when compared with the control, while this dose did not differ significantly from 75 Gy The calculated germination index remained constant at all dosages. Inhibition of vegetative growth was observed on 150 and 300 Gy dosed individuals. It was also observed that the increasing rate of irradiation is inversely proportional to the mitotic index. A relationship can be established between increased levels of irradiation with increasing percentage of aberrant cells. (author)

  19. Genome-wide expression analysis of soybean MADS genes showing potential function in the seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Fan

    Full Text Available The MADS family is an ancient and best-studied transcription factor and plays fundamental roles in almost every developmental process in plants. In the plant evolutionary history, the whole genome duplication (WGD events are important not only to the plant species evolution, but to expansion of members of the gene families. Soybean as a model legume crop has experience three rounds of WGD events. Members of some MIKC(C subfamilies, such as SOC, AGL6, SQUA, SVP, AGL17 and DEF/GLO, were expanded after soybean three rounds of WGD events. And some MIKC(C subfamilies, MIKC* and type I MADS families had experienced faster birth-and-death evolution and their traces before the Glycine WGD event were not found. Transposed duplication played important roles in tandem arrangements among the members of different subfamilies. According to the expression profiles of type I and MIKC paralog pair genes, the fates of MIKC paralog gene pairs were subfunctionalization, and the fates of type I MADS paralog gene pairs were nonfunctionalization. 137 out of 163 MADS genes were close to 186 loci within 2 Mb genomic regions associated with seed-relative QTLs, among which 115 genes expressed during the seed development. Although MIKC(C genes kept the important and conserved functions of the flower development, most MIKC(C genes showed potentially essential roles in the seed development as well as the type I MADS.

  20. Galactinol synthase enzyme activity influences raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) accumulation in developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangola, Manu P; Jaiswal, Sarita; Kannan, Udhaya; Gaur, Pooran M; Båga, Monica; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2016-05-01

    To understand raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) metabolism in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, RFO accumulation and corresponding biosynthetic enzymes activities were determined during seed development of chickpea genotypes with contrasting RFO concentrations. RFO concentration in mature seeds was found as a facilitator rather than a regulating step of seed germination. In mature seeds, raffinose concentrations ranged from 0.38 to 0.68 and 0.75 to 0.99 g/100 g, whereas stachyose concentrations varied from 0.79 to 1.26 and 1.70 to 1.87 g/100 g indicating significant differences between low and high RFO genotypes, respectively. Chickpea genotypes with high RFO concentration accumulated higher concentrations of myo-inositol and sucrose during early seed developmental stages suggesting that initial substrate concentrations may influence RFO concentration in mature seeds. High RFO genotypes showed about two to three-fold higher activity for all RFO biosynthetic enzymes compared to those with low RFO concentrations. RFO biosynthetic enzymes activities correspond with accumulation of individual RFO during seed development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary Study on Mechanized Cultivation Technologies of Male Parent in Indica-Japonica Hybrid Rice Seed Production%籼粳杂交水稻制种父本机插机收技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆惠斌; 马寅超

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduced the trials and demonstration of male parent machine transplanting and machine harvesting in indica-japonica hybrid rice seed production in Ningbo City about four years. The costs and seed yield of male parent with different cultivation method were analyzed, and put forward the mechanized cultivation techniques of male parent in indica-japonica hybrid rice seed pro-duction.%介绍了宁波市4年来籼粳杂交水稻制种父本机插机收的试验示范情况,分析比较了父本机插机收与人工插种收割的成本和制种产量,提出了杂交水稻父本机插机收的配套栽培技术。

  2. Effect of seed mass on emergence and seedling development in Ptero-carpus marsupium Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yogeshwar Mishra; Rimi Rawat; P.K.Rana; M.K.Sonkar; Naseer Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of seed mass on emergence, seed-ling survival and growth of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., a medium to large, commercially valuable and deciduous tree species. Among the three size classes viz. small (10-12 mm), medium (13-15 mm) and large (16-17 mm), the maximum proportion of seed by number (54.12%) and dry weight (51.87%) was recorded in the medium size seed class. Seed length and seed width were greatest in the large seed class (16.50 mm, 7.33 mm) followed by medium (13.50 mm, 5.60 mm) and small (11.37 mm, 3.66 mm). Similarly, hundred seed weight (100 sw) varied from a maximum of 12.92 g in the large seed class to intermediate 10.95 g in the medium seed class and minimum of 7.02 g in the small seed class. The large seed size showed maximum emergence and shoot length over the medium and small seed class. After six months of growth, significant variations due to seed size were also observed for the growth and dry weight of P. marsupium seedlings. Seedling vigour, expressed in terms of height, collar diameter, number of leaves and dry biomass, was sig-nificantly affected by seed class. Seedlings that emerged from large seeds showed better growth and produced heavier seedlings as compared to medium and small seeds.

  3. Osmotic measurements in whole megagametophytes and embryos of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Johnson, Shannon

    2009-06-01

    Water potential (Psi) and osmotic potential (Psis) were measured weekly through the sequence of seed development in megagametophytes of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). A Wescor 5500XRS vapor pressure osmometer, modified with a cycle hold switch, was used to measure Psi for whole megagametophytes containing embryos. The Psi measurements for megagametophytes with embryos removed were also attempted but readings were distorted due to cell lysates from the cut surfaces. Six seasonal sets of megagametophyte Psi profiles were generated. Megagametophytes from most of the trees examined showed a consistent Psi pattern: low measurements of -1.0 to -0.75 MPa during early embryo development in late June to early July when embryo Stages 1-2 occur; an increase for one to several weeks to levels of -0.5 to -0.75 MPa, beginning at Stages 3-5 when apical dome formation occurs; followed by a steady drop from -0.85 to -1.7 to -2.0 MPa from Stage 6 onward from late August until just before cone seed release. The Psis was measured for supernatant from centrifuged frozen-thawed megagametophyte tissue (embryos removed). Megagametophyte Psis profiles were similar for seeds analyzed from two trees and resembled Psi observations starting low, rising around Stages 4-7 and then undergoing a major reduction indicating a strong solute accumulation beginning at Stages 7-9.1. Somatic embryos stop growth prematurely in vitro at Stages 8-9.1. The major change in the accumulation of megagametophyte solutes at Stages 8-9.1 correlates with the halt in somatic embryo maturation and suggests that identifying, quantifying and using the major natural soluble compounds that accumulate during mid- to late-stage seed development may be important to improve conifer somatic embryo maturation.

  4. Fatty Acid and Transcript Profiling in Developing Seeds of Three Brassica napus Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkova Mariana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid levels and gene expression profiles for selected genes associated with the synthesis of fatty acids (FA, triacylglycerol, and oil body proteins were examined in three oilseed rape (Brassica napus cultivars that have utility for cultivar development in our spring canola breeding program. The seed oil content of Bronowski, Q2, and Westar was 39.0, 40.1, and 40.6%, respectively at 40 days after flowering (DAF. During the 20 to 40 day period of seed development, cultivars had varying levels of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, eicosenoic, and erucic acid. In general, the percentage of each FA was similar among the cultivars during seed development. However, the level of oleic acid was lower and the levels of eicosenoic acid and erucic acid were higher in Bronowski than in Q2 and Westar seeds; linoleic acid also tended to be lower in Bronowski. Gene expression among the cultivars was similar from 10 to 40 DAF. The few exceptions were that expression of KAS1 and SAD were higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 25 DAF, SAD was highest in Q2, intermediate in Westar, and lowest in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD2 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD3 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 15 DAF and Q2 and Westar at 25 and 30 DAF, and FAE1 was higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 30 DAF. Correlation analysis for gene expression against DAF for each genotype supported a common trend in gene expression among the three cultivars with gene expression tending to decrease over time; except for LPAAT, which tended to increase. The correlation between the level of FAs and expression of genes by genotype indicated no general trend; rather correlations seem to depend on the genotype.

  5. Comparison of tree growth and undergrowth development in aerially seeded and planted Pinus tabulaeformis forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guolei LI; Yong LIU; Lvyi MA; Ruiheng LV; Haiqun YU; Shulan Bai; Yaoyao KANG

    2009-01-01

    Direct seeding is a less expensive practice than planting and has the potential to become a viable alternative to transplanting for afforestation and regeneration purposes. As an effective and a less costly regeneration method, aerial seeding has been applied with several tree species. As early as 1956, Chinese people engaged in aerial seeding and stands with a total of 2.97×107hm2 have been developed up to 2004. Our study tested whether the growth of planted Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) seedlings and its undergrowth development in northwest aspects differ from that of aerially sown seedlings on the northern and northwestern aspects of slopes. In 2007, we collected data such as height, diameter at breast height (DBH), clear bole height and canopy widths of trees, abundance, coverage, and frequency of shrubs and herbs from 21-year-old planted Chinese pine stands on a northwestern aspect (PNW), aerially sown stands in a northwest aspect (ANW) and aerially sown stands in a northern aspect (AN). Results showed that the relation of crown area and mean DBH was best fitted by a double inverse model for the ANW and AN forests and by a quadratic model for the PNW forest. There was no difference in the growth between ANW and AN forests, while growth was significantly higher in the PNW forest than in the ANW and AN forests. That was consistent with the Sorenson diversity indices in the shrub and herb layers, indicating that there was a large number of the same species in both aerially seeded stands, although their locations were different. Both the number of species in the undergrowth and the Shannon-Wiener index in the shrub layer were higher in the PNW stands than in the ANW and AN stands. Dominant families for all three stands were Rosaceae and Compositae in the shrub and herb layer, respectively. The dominant species for all three stands was Spiraea pubescens in the shrub layer, while the dominant species was different from each other in the three stands. The

  6. HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT FY09 SECOND QUARTER REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D; David Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Timothy Steeper, T; John Steimke, J; Mark Elvington, M

    2009-04-15

    The primary objective of the DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is to develop the nuclear hydrogen production technologies necessary to produce hydrogen at a cost competitive with other alternative transportation fuels. The focus of the NHI is on thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis that can be powered by heat from high temperature gas reactors. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with the primary responsibility to perform research and development in order to characterize, evaluate and develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) thermochemical process. This report documents work during the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, for the period between January 1, 2009 and March 31, 2009. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that is part of the 'Sulfur Family' of cycles. As a sulfur cycle, it uses high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and to regenerate the sulfur dioxide reactant. The second step of the process uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to split water and produce hydrogen by electrochemically reacting sulfur dioxide with H{sub 2}O. The SDE produces sulfuric acid, which is then sent to the acid decomposer to complete the cycle. The DOE NHI program is developing the acid decomposer at Sandia National Laboratory for application to both the HyS Process and the Sulfur Iodine Cycle. The SDE is being developed at SRNL. During FY05 and FY06, SRNL designed and conducted proof-of-concept testing for a SDE using a low temperature, PEM fuel cell-type design concept. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency, small footprint and potential for low capital cost, characteristics that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. During FY07, SRNL extended the range of testing of the SDE to higher temperature and pressure, conducted a 100-hour longevity test with a 60-cm{sup 2} single cell electrolyzer

  7. Development of an Experimental Vehicle with Hybrid Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ciancio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The first solar car competition in Latin America, in «The Solar Road» category, across the AtacamaDesert, Chile (2011 gave origin to an interdisciplinary project to encourage the use of sustainableenergy applied to the urban transport, without the use of fossil fuels damaging to the environment. Itaimed to develop a vehicle with minimum energy consumption for its transport, lightweight, stable,low-cost, and zero emission based on the combination of photovoltaic solar energy and electricpower obtained from a generator driven by human traction both stored in a battery. In this paper, theinherent aspects of the project and execution stages of an experimental hybrid vehicle, called PampaSolar, are presented. This includes the conception and sizing of the resistant structure, adoption ofthe solar cells configuration, battery sizing and choice, three-phase generator and electronicinstrumentation development, according to the basis of the competition and related loads. The analysisof the results of electric, electronic, mechanical, and vehicle energy systems during competitiondemonstrated a reliable performance, getting the award for the most efficient use of solar energy.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF SET AND DRINKING SESAME YOGHURT FROM DECORTICATED SESAME SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdullah Afaneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesame yoghurt developed from sesame seed fortified with different fortifiers resulted in yoghurt that lacks the typical yogurt texture. This study aimed to develop set and drinking yoghurt from sesame milk. Gums were used to develop sesame set yoghurt and sesame yoghurt drink. The best set yoghurt was produced from the sesame milk fortified with 2% Cheese Dried Whey (CDW plus 0.6% pectin and 0.2% CMC. The best yoghurt drink was produced from sesame milk fortified with dried whey plus 0.2% guar gum and pasteurized at 75°C for 5 min.

  9. Expression of the PmSUC1 sucrose carrier gene from Plantago major L. is induced during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahrtz, M; Schmelzer, E; Stolz, J; Sauer, N

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA clone of the plasma membrane sucrose-H+ symporter PmSUC1 from Plantago major L. has been isolated and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The PmSUC1 protein was characterized in transgenic yeast and in proteoliposomes with an artificial proton-motive-force (pmf) generator. PmSUC1 catalyzes the active uptake of sucrose or maltose in the presence of pmf and is sensitive to uncouplers. Unlike the extremely pH-dependent PmSUC2 sucrose-H+ symporter, PmSUC1 is relatively insensitive to changes of the extracellular pH. In leaves and petioles of P. major, expression of PmSUC1 mRNA is restricted to the vascular system. The important new feature about PmSUC1 is that the highest mRNA levels are found in non-vascular tissue of P. major flowers where the gene is transiently expressed during the early stages of seed development. In situ hybridization experiments show that PmSUC1 is expressed only in young ovules; the putative physiological role of PmSUC1 is discussed.

  10. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

    2013-01-16

    Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate.

  11. Development of Hydrophobic Coatings for Water-Repellent Surfaces Using Hybrid Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    windows, optical components, protective eyewear, and clothing, this type of surface is desired for the material to be soil repellent and water ...Development of Hydrophobic Coatings for Water - Repellent Surfaces Using Hybrid Methodology by Amanda S. Weerasooriya, Jacqueline Yim, Andres A...Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-TR-6898 April 2014 Development of Hydrophobic Coatings for Water - Repellent Surfaces Using Hybrid

  12. Distance to seed sources and land-use history affect forest development over a long-termheathland to forest succession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepfer Rojas, Sebastian; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Ransijn, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    of developing forest communities. Although both factors had long-lasting effects on rates of colonization, the spatial patterns of colonization and species composition were mainly determined by distance to seed sources. The importance of distance to seed sources became less over time, suggesting that dispersal......Questions Is there a spatial pattern in the community structure (stem densities, species richness and species composition) of trees and shrubs during more than 100 yr of heathland to forest succession? To what extent is community structure influenced by land-use history and distance to seed sources......) to analyse spatio-temporal patterns in stem densities, species richness and species composition and the effects of land-use history and distance to seed sources. Results Tree and shrub densities increased exponentially over time and were consistently lower at longer distance from seed sources. Land...

  13. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different

  14. CopenHybridDevelopment of a CO2 Neutral Hybrid Street Lighting System for the Danish Municipalities’ Illumination Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for the energy system of the hybrid street lighting making it possible to simulate a given configuration (solar panel performance data, size and orientation - wind turbine performance data, projected area and height - battery data) over a year in an urban...

  15. Identification and expression analysis of a novel phytocystatin in developing and germinating seeds of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Simińska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the complete cDNA sequence of a newly identified triticale phytocystatin, TrcC-7, was analyzed. Because TrcC-7 transcripts were present in seeds, we hypothesized that it may regulate storage protein accumulation and degradation. Therefore, changes in mRNA and protein levels during the entire period of seed development and germination were examined. Expression of TrcC-7 increased during development and decreased at the end of maturation and subsequently increased during seed germination. Based on these results, TrcC-7 likely regulates cysteine proteinase activity during the accumulation and mobilization of storage proteins.

  16. Development of marker-free transgenic Jatropha plants with increased levels of seed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas is recognized as a new energy crop due to the presence of the high amount of oil in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. The quality and performance of the biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of the fatty acids present in the oil. The fatty acids profile of the oil has a direct impact on ignition quality, heat of combustion and oxidative stability. An ideal biodiesel composition should have more monounsaturated fatty acids and less polyunsaturated acids. Jatropha seed oil contains 30% to 50% polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid which negatively impacts the oxidative stability and causes high rate of nitrogen oxides emission. Results The enzyme 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine delta 12-desaturase (FAD2 is the key enzyme responsible for the production of linoleic acid in plants. We identified three putative delta 12 fatty acid desaturase genes in Jatropha (JcFAD2s through genome-wide analysis and downregulated the expression of one of these genes, JcFAD2-1, in a seed-specific manner by RNA interference technology. The resulting JcFAD2-1 RNA interference transgenic plants showed a dramatic increase of oleic acid (> 78% and a corresponding reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids (Jatropha had around 37% oleic acid and 41% polyunsaturated fatty acids. This indicates that FAD2-1 is the major enzyme responsible for converting oleic acid to linoleic acid in Jatropha. Due to the changes in the fatty acids profile, the oil of the JcFAD2-1 RNA interference seed was estimated to yield a cetane number as high as 60.2, which is similar to the required cetane number for conventional premium diesel fuels (60 in Europe. The presence of high seed oleic acid did not have a negative impact on other Jatropha agronomic traits based on our preliminary data of the original plants under greenhouse conditions. Further, we developed a marker-free system to generate the transgenic Jatropha

  17. Desenvolvimento de frutos e sementes de tamarindo Development of tamarind fruits and seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cristina de Oliveira Gurjão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as mudanças físicas e fisiológicas ocorridas durante o desenvolvimento de frutos e sementes de tamarindo. Foram selecionadas árvores de um pomar localizado na Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Sousa-PB, com 50% das inflorescências em antese, cujos ramos, contendo flores abertas, foram marcados, e as colheitas realizadas aos 20; 40; 70; 100; 130; 160; 190; 220; 250; 270 e 280 dias após a antese. A cada colheita, os frutos e as sementes foram submetidos às seguintes avaliações: comprimento, largura e espessura dos frutos e sementes (cm; massa da matéria seca dos frutos e sementes (g; teor de água das sementes (%; teste de germinação (%. As plantas de tamarindo levaram aproximadamente 280 dias após a antese para completar o ciclo desde a floração até a colheita, período representado pelo crescimento, maturação e o amadurecimento dos frutos. O crescimento dos frutos de tamarindo pode ser descrito por um modelo sigmoidal simples. A maturação fisiológica dos frutos de tamarindo ocorreu no período entre 270 e 280 dias após a antese, coincidindo com o desprendimento natural da planta-mãe e a maturação das sementes, aos 277 dias após a antese.The objective of this work was to evaluate the physical and physiologic changes happened during the development of tamarind fruits and seeds. Trees of a located orchard were selected at the Federal Agrothechnic School of Sousa-PB, with 50% of the inflorescences in anthesis, which branches, containing open flowers, were marked and the crops were accomplished to the 20, 40, 70, 100, 130, 160, 190, 220, 250, 270 and 280 days after anthesis. To each crop, fruits and seeds were submitted to the following evaluations: length, width and thickness of fruits and seeds (cm; fruits and seeds dry matter mass (g; seeds water content (% and germination test (%.Tamarind plants took approximately 280 days after anthesis to complete the cycle from blooming to crop

  18. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination, oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium. [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effect of metabolic fluxes among different storage materials. Addition of glutamine led to a 7% increase of labeling in lipids and an inverse decrease of labeling in carbohydrates. It was postulated that changes in the glutamine concentration in the medium are likely to influence the partitioning of resources between the various storage products, especially carbohydrates and oil. These observations will contribute to a better understanding of assimilate partitioning in developing castor seeds and the development of molecular strategies to improve castor bean seed quality and plant breeding studies.

  19. Development of hybrid electric vehicle powertrain test system based on virtue instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmin; Guo, Konghui; Chen, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid powertrain has become the standard configuration of some automobile models. The test system of hybrid vehicle powertrain was developed based on virtual instrument, using electric dynamometer to simulate the work of engines, to test the motor and control unit of the powertrain. The test conditions include starting, acceleration, and deceleration. The results show that the test system can simulate the working conditions of the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain under various conditions.

  20. Development of hybrid gas detectors for monitoring neutrons induced from the large intensity proton linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, G. S.; Lee, G. S.; Ahn, S. H. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-15

    Design of a hybrid gaseous detector for slow neutrons. Construction of the hybrid gaseous detector and tests with a {sup 52}Cf isotope and the MC-50 cyclotron. Designs, constructions, and tests for hybrid scintillators using various neutron sensitive materials (2{sup nd} year). Application to development of detectors for high energy physics (2{sup nd} year). Practical R and Ds for applications to medical and industrial purposes (3{sup rd} year)

  1. Hybrid Rice Research and Development in China and Its New Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid rice's history and its development up to date are described in the paper. Compared with the conventional rice, hybrid rice can increase grain yield by about 20%. Hybrid rice breeding in China has been advancing along the three-line method, to two-line method, to super high-yielding rice application strategically and its success in higher degree will be seen by the utilization of distant heterosis cooperated with biotechnology.

  2. An expression analysis of 57 transcription factors derived from ESTs of developing seeds in Maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guifeng; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Fei; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-06-01

    Maize seeds are an important source of food, animal feed, and industrial raw materials. To understand global gene expression and regulation during maize seed development, a normalized cDNA library, covering most of the developmental stages of maize seeds, was constructed. Sequencing analysis of 10,848 randomly selected clones identified 6,630 unique ESTs. Among them, 57 putative transcription factors (TFs) were identified. The TFs belong to seven different super-families, specifically 17 Zinc-finger, 13 bZIP, 8 bHLH, 6 MADS, 7 MYB, 3 Homedomain, and 3 AP2/EREBP. The spatial and temporal expression of the TFs was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR with representative tissue types and seeds at different developmental stages, revealing their diverse expression patterns and expression levels. One-third (19) of the maize TFs was found their putative orthologs in Arabidopsis. Similar expression patterns were observed in both maize and Arabidopsis for the majority of orthologous pairs (15 out of 19), suggesting their conserved functions during seed development. In conclusion, the systematic analysis of maize seed TFs has provided valuable insight into transcriptional regulation during maize seed development.

  3. Development of commercial hybrid electric vehicle with native key components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bakhmutov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives of development of medium weight cargo vehicles with hybrid powertrain including Russian native key components are considered in this article. Series-parallel scheme of HEV is more relevant owing to limitations of series and parallel schemes. An example of this technology is described. This technical solution has good facilities for variation of HEV and AWD type. The authors have patented it. In addition, another main issue is to choose the types of key components with good correlation for parameters of ICE, electric motors, batteries, and inverter. Using mathematical model of the vehicle a selection and correlation of technical characteristics were carried out to meet ecological and economical requirements. After computing calculation two control strategies were accepted. The first strategy contributes to good fuel consumption, while the other one is aimed at ecology. Researchers use test benches to confirm the results of calculation, and this one was built by the authors applying native components. The result of experiment on the test bench is the growth of fuel consumption of the medium weight cargo vehicle by 25% and compliance with ecological class Euro-4.

  4. Application of Gibberellic Acid on Diploid and Tetraploid Cotton Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AJAFARI-MOFIDABADI; A; RANJBERAN; F; SOLTANLOO; H

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellic acid growth regulator was used to develop interspecific hybrids between tetraploid and diploid species to increase the genetic variability in cotton.In order to retain bolls and seed set in triploid hybrids,emasculated flowers of two Gossypium hirsutum commercial varieties(Sahel and Sephid)

  5. Variation in oil content, fatty acid and phytosterols profile of Onopordum acanthium L. during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaoui, Moufida Oueslati; Renaud, Justin; Ghazghazi, Hanen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Mayer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study has determined oil, fatty acid (FA) and phytosterols content during the ripening of the Tunisian Onopordum acanthium L. seeds. In total, nine FAs and six phytosterols were identified. The main FAs were linoleic acid (0.18-8.06 mg/g of seed) followed by oleic acid (0.051-2.45 mg/g of seed), palmitic acid and stearic acid. Pentadecanoic acid was detected, for the first time, in unripe fruits and the two last stages of development were characterised by a relative abundance of erucic acid. Overall, β-sitosterol (34.5-77.79% of total sterols) was the major 4-desmethylsterols during maturation. The first episodes of growth were characterised by the best amounts of stigmasterol and campesterol, while stigmastanol and Δ7 sitosterol had quoted the semi-ripe and fully ripe fruits; however, cholesterol was absent. These findings are useful in understanding a potential new source of important natural compounds (Phytosterols and USFA) found in this fruit and when harvest should be undertaken to optimise desired FA and phytosterols content.

  6. Deciphering transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with lysine metabolism during Arabidopsis seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelovici, Ruthie; Fait, Aaron; Zhu, Xiaohong; Szymanski, Jedrzej; Feldmesser, Ester; Fernie, Alisdair R; Galili, Gad

    2009-12-01

    In order to elucidate transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with lysine (Lys) metabolism, we utilized developing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds as a system in which Lys synthesis could be stimulated developmentally without application of chemicals and coupled this to a T-DNA insertion knockout mutation impaired in Lys catabolism. This seed-specific metabolic perturbation stimulated Lys accumulation starting from the initiation of storage reserve accumulation. Our results revealed that the response of seed metabolism to the inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was relatively minor; however, that which was observable operated in a modular manner. They also demonstrated that Lys metabolism is strongly associated with the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle while largely disconnected from other metabolic networks. In contrast, the inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was strongly associated with gene networks, stimulating the expression of hundreds of genes controlling anabolic processes that are associated with plant performance and vigor while suppressing a small number of genes associated with plant stress interactions. The most pronounced effect of the developmentally inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was an induction of expression of a large set of genes encoding ribosomal proteins as well as genes encoding translation initiation and elongation factors, all of which are associated with protein synthesis. With respect to metabolic regulation, the inducible alteration of Lys metabolism was primarily associated with altered expression of genes belonging to networks of amino acids and sugar metabolism. The combined data are discussed within the context of network interactions both between and within metabolic and transcriptional control systems.

  7. Development of plants resistant to Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by intergeneric hybridization between Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Kawano, Shinji; Yasuda, Keiji; Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V. cundinamarcensis. Flow cytometry and PCR of 28 plants confirmed they were intergeneric hybrids. To evaluate virus resistance, mechanical inoculation of PLDMV was carried out. The test showed that 41 of 134 intergeneric hybrid plants showed no symptoms and were resistant. The remaining 93 hybrids showed necrotic lesions on the younger leaves than the inoculated leaves. In most of the 93 hybrids, the necrotic lesions enclosed the virus and prevented further spread. These results suggest that the intergeneric hybrids will be valuable material for PLDMV-resistant papaya breeding.

  8. Dynamic Metabolic Profiles and Tissue-Specific Source Effects on the Metabolome of Developing Seeds of Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helin Tan

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of several important oil-producing crops, and the physiological processes, enzymes, and genes involved in oil synthesis in canola seeds have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation in seeds, as well as the mechanistic origins of metabolic changes. To explore the metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation, we isolated metabolites from both seed and silique wall and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results showed that a total of 443 metabolites were identified from four developmental stages. Dozens of these metabolites were differentially expressed during seed ripening, including 20 known to be involved in seed development. To investigate the contribution of tissue-specific carbon sources to the biosynthesis of these metabolites, we examined the metabolic changes of silique walls and seeds under three treatments: leaf-detachment (Ld, phloem-peeling (Pe, and selective silique darkening (Sd. Our study demonstrated that the oil content was independent of leaf photosynthesis and phloem transport during oil accumulation, but required the metabolic influx from the silique wall. Notably, Sd treatment resulted in seed senescence, which eventually led to a severe reduction of the oil content. Sd treatment also caused a significant accumulation of fatty acids (FA, organic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, an unexpected accumulation of sugar derivatives and organic acid was observed in the Pe- and Sd-treated seeds. Consistent with this, the expression of a subset of genes involved in FA metabolism, sugar and oil storage was significantly altered in Pe and Sd treated seeds. Taken together, our studies suggest the metabolite profiles of canola seeds dynamically varied during the course of oil accumulation, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms

  9. Dynamic Metabolic Profiles and Tissue-Specific Source Effects on the Metabolome of Developing Seeds of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Helin; Xie, Qingjun; Xiang, Xiaoe; Li, Jianqiao; Zheng, Suning; Xu, Xinying; Guo, Haolun; Ye, Wenxue

    2015-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is one of several important oil-producing crops, and the physiological processes, enzymes, and genes involved in oil synthesis in canola seeds have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation in seeds, as well as the mechanistic origins of metabolic changes. To explore the metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation, we isolated metabolites from both seed and silique wall and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that a total of 443 metabolites were identified from four developmental stages. Dozens of these metabolites were differentially expressed during seed ripening, including 20 known to be involved in seed development. To investigate the contribution of tissue-specific carbon sources to the biosynthesis of these metabolites, we examined the metabolic changes of silique walls and seeds under three treatments: leaf-detachment (Ld), phloem-peeling (Pe), and selective silique darkening (Sd). Our study demonstrated that the oil content was independent of leaf photosynthesis and phloem transport during oil accumulation, but required the metabolic influx from the silique wall. Notably, Sd treatment resulted in seed senescence, which eventually led to a severe reduction of the oil content. Sd treatment also caused a significant accumulation of fatty acids (FA), organic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, an unexpected accumulation of sugar derivatives and organic acid was observed in the Pe- and Sd-treated seeds. Consistent with this, the expression of a subset of genes involved in FA metabolism, sugar and oil storage was significantly altered in Pe and Sd treated seeds. Taken together, our studies suggest the metabolite profiles of canola seeds dynamically varied during the course of oil accumulation, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms of the oil

  10. The Polycomb-group protein MEDEA regulates seed development by controlling expression of the MADS-box gene PHERES1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Claudia; Hennig, Lars; Spillane, Charles; Pien, Stephane; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2003-06-15

    The Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins MEDEA, FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM, and FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 regulate seed development in Arabidopsis by controlling embryo and endosperm proliferation. All three of these FIS-class proteins are likely subunits of a multiprotein PcG complex, which epigenetically regulates downstream target genes that were previously unknown. Here we show that the MADS-box gene PHERES1 (PHE1) is commonly deregulated in the fis-class mutants. PHE1 belongs to the evolutionarily ancient type I class of MADS-box proteins that have not yet been assigned any function in plants. Both MEDEA and FIE directly associate with the promoter region of PHE1, suggesting that PHE1 expression is epigenetically regulated by PcG proteins. PHE1 is expressed transiently after fertilization in both the embryo and the endosperm; however, it remains up-regulated in the fis mutants, consistent with the proposed function of the FIS genes as transcriptional repressors. Reduced expression levels of PHE1 in medea mutant seeds can suppress medea seed abortion, indicating a key role of PHE1 repression in seed development. PHE1 expression in a hypomethylated medea mutant background resembles the wild-type expression pattern and is associated with rescue of the medea seed-abortion phenotype. In summary, our results demonstrate that seed abortion in the medea mutant is largely mediated by deregulated expression of the type I MADS-box gene PHE1.

  11. The effects of smoke derivatives on in vitro seed germination and development of the leopard orchid Ansellia africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfus, H B; Naidoo, D; Pošta, M; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2016-03-01

    Plant-derived smoke and smoke-isolated compounds stimulate germination in seeds from over 80 genera. It has also been reported that smoke affects overall plant vigour and has a stimulatory effect on pollen growth. The effect of smoke on orchid seeds, however, has not been assessed. In South Africa, orchid seeds from several genera may be exposed to smoke when they are released from their seedpods. It is therefore possible that smoke may affect their germination and growth. Therefore, the effects of smoke [applied as smoke-water (SW)] and two smoke-derived compounds, karrikinolide (KAR1 ) and trimethylbutenolide (TMB), were investigated on the germination and growth of orchid seeds in vitro. The effect of SW, KAR1 and TMB were investigated on the endangered epiphytic orchid, Ansellia africana, which is indigenous to tropical areas of Africa. Smoke-water, KAR1 and TMB were infused in half-strength MS medium. The number of germinated seeds and number of seeds and protocorm bodies to reach predetermined developmental stages were recorded on a weekly basis using a dissecting microscope for a 13-week period. Infusing SW 1:250 (v:v) into half-strength MS medium significantly increased the germination rate index (GRI) and the development rate index (DRI) of the A. africana seeds. All the SW treatments significantly increased the number of large protocorm bodies at the final stage of development. Infusing KAR1 into the growing medium had no significant effect on germination or development of the seeds. The TMB treatment, however, significantly reduced the GRI and DRI of A. africana seeds.

  12. A microarray approach to identify genes involved in seed-pericarp cross-talk and development in peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaffalon Valerio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field observations and a few physiological studies have demonstrated that peach embryogenesis and fruit development are tightly coupled. In fact, attempts to stimulate parthenocarpic fruit development by means of external tools have failed. Moreover, physiological disturbances during early embryo development lead to seed abortion and fruitlet abscission. Later in embryo development, the interactions between seed and fruit development become less strict. As there is limited genetic and molecular information about seed-pericarp cross-talk and development in peach, a massive gene approach based on the use of the μPEACH 1.0 array platform and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR was used to study this process. Results A comparative analysis of the transcription profiles conducted in seed and mesocarp (cv Fantasia throughout different developmental stages (S1, S2, S3 and S4 evidenced that 455 genes are differentially expressed in seed and fruit. Among differentially expressed genes some were validated as markers in two subsequent years and in three different genotypes. Seed markers were a LTP1 (lipid transfer protein, a PR (pathogenesis-related protein, a prunin and LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant protein, for S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively. Mesocarp markers were a RD22-like protein, a serin-carboxypeptidase, a senescence related protein and an Aux/IAA, for S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively. The microarray data, analyzed by using the HORMONOMETER platform, allowed the identification of hormone-responsive genes, some of them putatively involved in seed-pericarp crosstalk. Results indicated that auxin, cytokinins, and gibberellins are good candidates, acting either directly (auxin or indirectly as signals during early development, when the cross-talk is more active and vital for fruit set, whereas abscisic acid and ethylene may be involved later on. Conclusions In this research, genes were identified marking different phases of

  13. A study of ovule-to-seed development in Ceratiosicyos (Achariaceae and the systematic position of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. A. Steyn

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A light microscope study of developing ovules and seeds of Ceratiosicyos laevis (Thunb. A.Meeuse was undertaken to aug­ment an investigation of ovule and seed structure in Achariaceae. a tri-generic family comprising three species of herbaceous perennials endemic to southern Africa. Tests for myrmecochory suggest that seed of Ceratiosicyos Nees is not dispersed by ants like those of Acharia Thunb. and Guthriea Bolus. Structural differences include the absence of a raphal ridge and imbibition lidand the presence of long funicles and medium-sized embryos in Ceratiosicyos.

  14. A study of ovule-to-seed development in Ceratiosicyos (Achariaceae and the systematic position of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. A. Steyn

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A light microscope study of developing ovules and seeds of Ceratiosicyos laevis (Thunb. A.Meeuse was undertaken to aug­ment an investigation of ovule and seed structure in Achariaceae. a tri-generic family comprising three species of herbaceous perennials endemic to southern Africa. Tests for myrmecochory suggest that seed of Ceratiosicyos Nees is not dispersed by ants like those of Acharia Thunb. and Guthriea Bolus. Structural differences include the absence of a raphal ridge and imbibition lidand the presence of long funicles and medium-sized embryos in Ceratiosicyos.

  15. Development of an Auxiliary Power Unit Specification for Medium Duty Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    As a part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) program to develop hybrid and electric vehicles , a specification for medium duty...hybrid electric vehicles . Intended applications include medium duty commercial vehicles and buses. For the purposes of this specification an APU is

  16. Abscisic acid regulates pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene expression and secoisolariciresinol accumulation in developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouard, Sullivan; Corbin, Cyrielle; Lopez, Tatiana; Montguillon, Josiane; Gutierrez, Laurent; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main phytoestrogenic lignan of Linum usitatissimum, is accumulated in the seed coat of flax during its development and pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) is a key enzyme in flax for its synthesis. The promoter of LuPLR1, a flax gene encoding a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase, contains putative regulatory boxes related to transcription activation by abscisic acid (ABA). Gel mobility shift experiments evidenced an interaction of nuclear proteins extracted from immature flax seed coat with a putative cis-acting element involved in ABA response. As ABA regulates a number of physiological events during seed development and maturation we have investigated its involvement in the regulation of this lignan synthesis by different means. ABA and SDG accumulation time courses in the seed as well as LuPLR1 expression were first determined in natural conditions. These results showed that ABA timing and localization of accumulation in the flax seed coat could be correlated with the LuPLR1 gene expression and SDG biosynthesis. Experimental modulations of ABA levels were performed by exogenous application of ABA or fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. When submitted to exogenous ABA, immature seeds synthesized 3-times more SDG, whereas synthesis of SDG was reduced in immature seeds treated with fluridone. Similarly, the expression of LuPLR1 gene in the seed coat was up-regulated by exogenous ABA and down-regulated when fluridone was applied. These results demonstrate that SDG biosynthesis in the flax seed coat is positively controlled by ABA through the transcriptional regulation of LuPLR1 gene.

  17. Purity Identification of Jindan 999 Hybrid Maize Seed by SSR Marker%基于SSR标记的杂交玉米金单999种子的纯度检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安贵; 陈泽辉; 祝云芳; 郭向阳; 邬成; 李娟

    2011-01-01

    Two primers, Bnlg1496 and umc1222, which showed mutually supplementary bands of their parents and could identify the Jindan999's parents and hybrid clearly, stably and exactly, were screened out by SSR marker from 30 pairs of SSR primers to identify the purity of Jindan999 hybrid maize seed rapidly and exactly, effectively prevent the circulation of fake seeds on the market and enhance seed quality, and provide reference for purity identification of other hybrid maize seed. The results showed that Bnlg1496 and umc1222 could identify the purity of Jindan999 hybrid maize seed completely and its purity was 98. 12%.%为快速、准确地判断杂交玉米金单999种子的纯度,有效阻止伪劣种子在市场上的流通,提高种子市场的种子质量,同时为其他杂交玉米种子的纯度鉴定提供方法参考,利用SSR标记技术,从30对SSR引物中筛选出能够清楚、稳定、准确地鉴别出金单999的亲本及杂交种且呈现双亲互补带型的2个引物,对金单999玉米杂交种进行纯度检验.结果表明:Bnlg1496、umcl222这2对引物完全可以对杂交玉米金单999的种子进行纯度检验,并检验出金单999种子的纯度为98.12%.

  18. SEEDSTICK is a master regulator of development and metabolism in the Arabidopsis seed coat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Mizzotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of secondary metabolites in the determination of cell identity has been an area of particular interest over recent years, and studies strongly indicate a connection between cell fate and the regulation of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the maternally derived seed coat plays pivotal roles in both the protection of the developing embryo and the first steps of germination. In this regard, a characteristic feature of seed coat development is the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs - a class of phenylpropanoid metabolites in the innermost layer of the seed coat. Our genome-wide transcriptomic analysis suggests that the ovule identity factor SEEDSTICK (STK is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes, providing a strong basis for a connection between cell fate determination, development and metabolism. Using phenotypic, genetic, biochemical and transcriptomic approaches, we have focused specifically on the role of STK in PA biosynthesis. Our results indicate that STK exerts its effect by direct regulation of the gene encoding BANYULS/ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE (BAN/ANR, which converts anthocyanidins into their corresponding 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ols. Our study also demonstrates that the levels of H3K9ac chromatin modification directly correlate with the active state of BAN in an STK-dependent way. This is consistent with the idea that MADS-domain proteins control the expression of their target genes through the modification of chromatin states. STK might thus recruit or regulate histone modifying factors to control their activity. In addition, we show that STK is able to regulate other BAN regulators. Our study demonstrates for the first time how a floral homeotic gene controls tissue identity through the regulation of a wide range of processes including the accumulation of secondary metabolites.

  19. SEEDSTICK is a master regulator of development and metabolism in the Arabidopsis seed coat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Mizzotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of secondary metabolites in the determination of cell identity has been an area of particular interest over recent years, and studies strongly indicate a connection between cell fate and the regulation of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the maternally derived seed coat plays pivotal roles in both the protection of the developing embryo and the first steps of germination. In this regard, a characteristic feature of seed coat development is the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs - a class of phenylpropanoid metabolites in the innermost layer of the seed coat. Our genome-wide transcriptomic analysis suggests that the ovule identity factor SEEDSTICK (STK is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes, providing a strong basis for a connection between cell fate determination, development and metabolism. Using phenotypic, genetic, biochemical and transcriptomic approaches, we have focused specifically on the role of STK in PA biosynthesis. Our results indicate that STK exerts its effect by direct regulation of the gene encoding BANYULS/ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE (BAN/ANR, which converts anthocyanidins into their corresponding 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ols. Our study also demonstrates that the levels of H3K9ac chromatin modification directly correlate with the active state of BAN in an STK-dependent way. This is consistent with the idea that MADS-domain proteins control the expression of their target genes through the modification of chromatin states. STK might thus recruit or regulate histone modifying factors to control their activity. In addition, we show that STK is able to regulate other BAN regulators. Our study demonstrates for the first time how a floral homeotic gene controls tissue identity through the regulation of a wide range of processes including the accumulation of secondary metabolites.

  20. SEEDSTICK is a master regulator of development and metabolism in the Arabidopsis seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizzotti, Chiara; Ezquer, Ignacio; Paolo, Dario; Rueda-Romero, Paloma; Guerra, Rosalinda Fiorella; Battaglia, Raffaella; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Kater, Martin M; Caporali, Elisabetta; Colombo, Lucia

    2014-12-01

    The role of secondary metabolites in the determination of cell identity has been an area of particular interest over recent years, and studies strongly indicate a connection between cell fate and the regulation of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the maternally derived seed coat plays pivotal roles in both the protection of the developing embryo and the first steps of germination. In this regard, a characteristic feature of seed coat development is the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs - a class of phenylpropanoid metabolites) in the innermost layer of the seed coat. Our genome-wide transcriptomic analysis suggests that the ovule identity factor SEEDSTICK (STK) is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes, providing a strong basis for a connection between cell fate determination, development and metabolism. Using phenotypic, genetic, biochemical and transcriptomic approaches, we have focused specifically on the role of STK in PA biosynthesis. Our results indicate that STK exerts its effect by direct regulation of the gene encoding BANYULS/ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE (BAN/ANR), which converts anthocyanidins into their corresponding 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ols. Our study also demonstrates that the levels of H3K9ac chromatin modification directly correlate with the active state of BAN in an STK-dependent way. This is consistent with the idea that MADS-domain proteins control the expression of their target genes through the modification of chromatin states. STK might thus recruit or regulate histone modifying factors to control their activity. In addition, we show that STK is able to regulate other BAN regulators. Our study demonstrates for the first time how a floral homeotic gene controls tissue identity through the regulation of a wide range of processes including the accumulation of secondary metabolites.

  1. Development of hybrid fluid jet/float polishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucamp, Anthony T. H.; Namba, Yoshiharu; Freeman, Richard R.

    2013-09-01

    On one hand, the "float polishing" process consists of a tin lap having many concentric grooves, cut from a flat by single point diamond turning. This lap is rotated above a hydrostatic bearing spindle of high rigidity, damping and rotational accuracy. The optical surface thus floats above a thin layer of abrasive particles. But whilst surface texture can be smoothed to ~0.1nm rms (as measured by atomic force microscopy), this process can only be used on flat surfaces. On the other hand, the CNC "fluid jet polishing" process consists of pumping a mixture of water and abrasive particles to a converging nozzle, thus generating a polishing spot that can be moved along a tool path with tight track spacing. But whilst tool path feed can be moderated to ultra-precisely correct form error on freeform optical surfaces, surface finish improvement is generally limited to ~1.5nm rms (with fine abrasives). This paper reports on the development of a novel finishing method, that combines the advantages of "fluid jet polishing" (i.e. freeform corrective capability) with "float polishing" (i.e. super-smooth surface finish of 0.1nm rms or less). To come up with this new "hybrid" method, computational fluid dynamic modeling of both processes in COMSOL is being used to characterize abrasion conditions and adapt the process parameters of experimental fluid jet polishing equipment, including: (1) geometrical shape of nozzle, (2) position relative to the surface, (3) control of inlet pressure. This new process is aimed at finishing of next generation X-Ray / Gamma Ray focusing optics.

  2. Development of computational models for the simulation of isodose curves on dosimetry films generated by iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Adriano M.; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Reis, Sergio C.; Grynberg, Suely E., E-mail: amsantos@cdtn.b [Center for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The interstitial brachytherapy is one modality of radiotherapy in which radioactive sources are placed directly in the region to be treated or close to it. The seeds that are used in the treatment of prostate cancer are generally cylindrical radioactive sources, consisting of a ceramic or metal matrix, which acts as the carrier of the radionuclide and as the X-ray marker, encapsulated in a sealed titanium tube. This study aimed to develop a computational model to reproduce the film-seed geometry, in order to obtain the spatial regions of the isodose curves produced by the seed when it is put over the film surface. The seed modeled in this work was the OncoSeed 6711, a sealed source of iodine-125, which its isodose curves were obtained experimentally in previous work with the use of dosimetric films. For the films modeling, compositions and densities of the two types of dosimetric films were used: Agfa Personal Monitoring photographic film 2/10, manufactured by Agfa-Geavaert; and the model EBT radiochromic film, by International Specialty Products. The film-seed models were coupled to the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The results obtained by simulations showed to be in good agreement with experimental results performed in a previous work. This indicates that the computational model can be used in future studies for other seeds models. (author)

  3. Development of a threshold model to predict germination of Populus tomentosa seeds after harvest and storage under ambient condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Song, Song-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Effects of temperature, storage time and their combination on germination of aspen (Populus tomentosa) seeds were investigated. Aspen seeds were germinated at 5 to 30°C at 5°C intervals after storage for a period of time under 28°C and 75% relative humidity. The effect of temperature on aspen seed germination could not be effectively described by the thermal time (TT) model, which underestimated the germination rate at 5°C and poorly predicted the time courses of germination at 10, 20, 25 and 30°C. A modified TT model (MTT) which assumed a two-phased linear relationship between germination rate and temperature was more accurate in predicting the germination rate and percentage and had a higher likelihood of being correct than the TT model. The maximum lifetime threshold (MLT) model accurately described the effect of storage time on seed germination across all the germination temperatures. An aging thermal time (ATT) model combining both the TT and MLT models was developed to describe the effect of both temperature and storage time on seed germination. When the ATT model was applied to germination data across all the temperatures and storage times, it produced a relatively poor fit. Adjusting the ATT model to separately fit germination data at low and high temperatures in the suboptimal range increased the models accuracy for predicting seed germination. Both the MLT and ATT models indicate that germination of aspen seeds have distinct physiological responses to temperature within a suboptimal range.

  4. Development of Advanced Seed Laser Modules for Lidar and Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Rosiewicz, Alex; Coleman, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on recent progress made in the development of highly compact, single mode, distributed feedback laser (DFB) seed laser modules for lidar and spectroscopy applications from space based platforms. One of the intended application of this technology is in the NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The DFB laser modules operating at 1571 nm and 1262 nm have advanced current and temperature drivers built into them. A combination of temperature and current tuning allows coarse and fine adjustment of the diode wavelengths.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID MODEL FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid model for three-dimensional Geographical Information Systems which is an integration of surface- and volume-based models. The Triangulat ed Irregular Network (TIN) and octree models are integrated in this hybrid model. The TIN model works as a surface-based model which mainly serves for surface presentation and visualization. On the other hand, the octree encoding supports volumetric analysis. The designed data structure brings a major advantage in the three-dimensional selective retrieval. This technique increases the efficiency of three-dimensional data operation.

  6. Cytological Analyses on Development of Male and Female Gametophytes in an Interspecific Hybrid F1 from Cucumis hystrix Chakr. × Cucumis sativus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiang-dong; DAI Liang-fang; QIAN Chun-tao; CHEN Jin-feng

    2006-01-01

    An interspecific hybrid F1 of Cucumis hystrix Chakr. × Cucumis sativus L. (NC4406) was used to establish the developmental sequence and to characterize the male and female gametophytes at cytological level for further understanding of the phylogenic relationship and the mechanism of fertility or sterility in the interspecific hybrid F1. The development of male and female gametophytes was studied through meiotic analysis and paraffin section observation technique, respectively.Meanwhile, the fertility level was assessed through hybrid F1 backcrossing to cultivated cucumber 4406. Variable chromosome confgurations were observed in the pollen mother cells (PMCs) of hybrid F1 at metaphase Ⅰ, e.g., univalents,bivalents, trivalents, quadravalents, etc. At anaphase Ⅰ and Ⅱ, chromosome lagging and bridges were frequently observed as well, which led to the formation of polyads and only a partial number of microspores could develop into fertile pollen grains (about 23.3%). Observations of the paraffin sections showed numerous degenerated and abnormal embryo sacs during the development of female gametophytes, and only 40% of the female gametophytes could develop into normal eight-nuclear megaspore. On an average, 22.8 and 6.3 seeds per fruit could be obtained from the reciprocal backcross. The interspecific hybrid F1 of C. hystrix × NC4406 was partially fertile; however, the meiotic behaviors of hybrid F1 showed a high level of intergenomic recombination between C. hystrix and C. sativus chromosomes, which indicated that it plays an important role for introgression of useful traits from C. hystrix into C. sativus.

  7. Arabidopsis inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6 kinase 2 is required for seed coat development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Tang; Shutang Tan; Hongwei Xue

    2013-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6 kinase (ITPK) phosphorylates inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate to form inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate which can be finally transferred to inositoi hexaphosphate (IP6) and play important roles during plant growth and development.There are 4 putative ITPK members in Arabidopsis.Expression pattern analysis showed that ITPK2 is constitutively expressed in various tissues.A TDNA knockout mutant of ITPK2 was identified and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the epidermis structure of seed coat was irregularly formed in seeds of itpk2-1 mutant,resulting in the increased permeability of seed coat to tetrazolium salts.Further analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of lipid polyester monomers in cell wall confirmed a dramatic decrease in composition of suberin and cutin,which relate to the permeability of seed coat and the formation of which is accompanied with seed coat development.These results indicate that ITPK2 plays an essential role in seed coat development and lipid polyester barrier formation.

  8. Carbon partitioning between oil and carbohydrates in developing oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Asa; Hayden, Daniel M; Dehesh, Katayoon; Bülow, Leif; Stymne, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Cereals accumulate starch in the endosperm as their major energy reserve in the grain. In most cereals the embryo, scutellum, and aleurone layer are high in oil, but these tissues constitute a very small part of the total seed weight. However, in oat (Avena sativa L.) most of the oil in kernels is deposited in the same endosperm cells that accumulate starch. Thus oat endosperm is a desirable model system to study the metabolic switches responsible for carbon partitioning between oil and starch synthesis. A prerequisite for such investigations is the development of an experimental system for oat that allows for metabolic flux analysis using stable and radioactive isotope labelling. An in vitro liquid culture system, developed for detached oat panicles and optimized to mimic kernel composition during different developmental stages in planta, is presented here. This system was subsequently used in analyses of carbon partitioning between lipids and carbohydrates by the administration of 14C-labelled sucrose to two cultivars having different amounts of kernel oil. The data presented in this study clearly show that a higher amount of oil in the high-oil cultivar compared with the medium-oil cultivar was due to a higher proportion of carbon partitioning into oil during seed filling, predominantly at the earlier stages of kernel development.

  9. Carbon partitioning between oil and carbohydrates in developing oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Åsa; Hayden, Daniel M.; Dehesh, Katayoon; Bülow, Leif; Stymne, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Cereals accumulate starch in the endosperm as their major energy reserve in the grain. In most cereals the embryo, scutellum, and aleurone layer are high in oil, but these tissues constitute a very small part of the total seed weight. However, in oat (Avena sativa L.) most of the oil in kernels is deposited in the same endosperm cells that accumulate starch. Thus oat endosperm is a desirable model system to study the metabolic switches responsible for carbon partitioning between oil and starch synthesis. A prerequisite for such investigations is the development of an experimental system for oat that allows for metabolic flux analysis using stable and radioactive isotope labelling. An in vitro liquid culture system, developed for detached oat panicles and optimized to mimic kernel composition during different developmental stages in planta, is presented here. This system was subsequently used in analyses of carbon partitioning between lipids and carbohydrates by the administration of 14C-labelled sucrose to two cultivars having different amounts of kernel oil. The data presented in this study clearly show that a higher amount of oil in the high-oil cultivar compared with the medium-oil cultivar was due to a higher proportion of carbon partitioning into oil during seed filling, predominantly at the earlier stages of kernel development. PMID:19036843

  10. Development of a cell-seeded modified small intestinal submucosa for urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: A modified 3D porous SIS scaffold seeded with UC and treated with PAA produces better urethroplasty results than cell-seeded untreated SIS scaffolds, or unseeded PAA treated SIS scaffolds.

  11. The plastidic DEAD-box RNA helicase 22, HS3, is essential for plastid functions both in seed development and in seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Masatake; Hayashi, Makoto; Kondo, Maki; Nishimura, Mikio

    2013-09-01

    Plants accumulate large amounts of storage products in seeds to provide an energy reserve and to supply nutrients for germination and post-germinative growth. Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to the Brassica family, and oil is the main storage product in Arabidopsis seeds. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of oil biosynthesis in seeds, we screened for high density seeds (heavy seed) that have a low oil content. HS3 (heavy seed 3) encodes the DEAD-box RNA helicase 22 that is localized to plastids. The triacylglycerol (TAG) content of hs3-1 seeds was 10% lower than that of wild-type (WT) seeds, while the protein content was unchanged. The hs3-1 plants displayed a pale-green phenotype in developing seeds and seedlings, but not in adult leaves. The HS3 expression level was high in developing seeds and seedlings, but was low in stems, rosette leaves and flowers. The plastid gene expression profile of WT developing seeds and seedlings differed from that of hs3-1 developing seeds and seedlings. The expression of several genes was reduced in developing hs3-1 seeds, including accD, a gene that encodes the β subunit of carboxyltransferase, which is one component of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in plastids. In contrast, no differences were observed between the expression profiles of WT and hs3-1 rosette leaves. These results show that HS3 is essential for proper mRNA accumulation of plastid genes during seed development and seedling growth, and suggest that HS3 ensures seed oil biosynthesis by maintaining plastid mRNA levels.

  12. Biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols in developing and maturing seeds of winter vetch (Vicia vlllosa Roth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the accumulation of two types of α-D-galactosides: raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols were compared with changes in the activities of galactosyltransferases during winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. seed development and maturation. Occurrence of galactinol and raffinose in young seeds and changes in activities of galactinol synthase and raffinose synthase during seed development indicated that formation of raffinose oligosaccharides (RFOs preceded synthesis of galactopinitols. Although transfer of galactose residues into raffinose oligosaccharides increased as seeds were maturing, at late stages of seed maturation the accumulation of galactopinitols was preferred to that of RFOs. In the present study, activities of enzymes transferring galactose moieties from galactinol to D-pinitol forming galactopinitol A, and further transfer of galactose moieties from galactinol to mono- and di-galactopinitol A were detected throughout seed development and maturation. This is a new observation, indicating biological potential of winter vetch seeds to synthesize mono-, di- and tri-galactosides of D-pinitol in a pathway similar to RFOs. The pattern of changes in activities of stachyose synthase and enzymes synthesizing galactopinitols (named galactopinitol A synthase and ciceritol synthase suggests that formation of stachyose, mono- and di-galactopinitol A (ciceritol is catalyzed by one enzyme. High correlation between activities of verbascose synthase and enzyme catalyzing synthesis of tri-galactopinitol A from galactinol and ciceritol (named tri-galactopinitol A synthase also suggests that biosynthesis of both types of tri-galactosides was catalyzed by one enzyme, but distinct from stachyose synthase. Changes in concentrations of galactosyl acceptors (sucrose and D-pinitol can be a factor which regulates splitting of galactose moieties between both types of galactosides in winter vetch seeds.

  13. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  14. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  15. Development of an Electrochemical-Cantilever Hybrid Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie

    I denne afhandling er udviklingen af en nyskabende elektrokemisk-cantilever hybrid sensor platform præsenteret. Mikro cantileverer er meget følsomme over for ændringer i overflade stress, mens elektrokemiske metoder tillader kontrol og udlæsning af overflade ladning og potentiale. Det kan bruges...

  16. Development and characterization of hybrids from native wine yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For commercial purposes, the winemaking industry is constantly searching for new yeast strains. Historically, this has been achieved by collecting wild strains and selecting the best for industrial use through an enological evaluation. Furthermore, the increasing consumer demands have forced the industry to incorporate new strategies such as genetic engineering to obtain improved strains. In response to the lack of public acceptance of this methodology, alternative strategies based on breeding have gained acceptance in recent years. Through the use of conjugation of individual spores without the support of genetic engineering methods we generated intraspecific hybrids from wild strains with outstanding enological characteristics and interdelta fingerprinting was used to confirm the hybrid condition. A detailed enological characterization of the hybrids in synthetic and natural must indicates that physiological parameters such as sporulation, residual sugar, ethanol yield and total nitrogen uptake are within the levels determined for the parental strains, however, other parameters such as growth rate, lag phase and ethanol production show statistical differences with some parental or commercial strains. These findings allow us to propose these hybrids as new wine-making strains.

  17. Seed development, seed germination and seedling growth in the R50 (sym16) pea mutant are not directly linked to altered cytokinin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chengli; Held, Mark; Hayward, Allison; Nisler, Jaroslav; Spíchal, Lukas; Neil Emery, R J; Moffatt, Barbara A; Guinel, Frédérique C

    2012-06-01

    R50 (sym16) is a pea nodulation mutant that accumulates cytokinin (CK) in its vegetative organs. Total CK content increases as the plant ages because of the low activity of the enzyme cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) responsible for CK degradation. R50 exhibits a large seed with high relative water content, and its seedling establishes itself slowly. Whether these two traits are linked to abnormal CK levels was considered here. R50 was found to have a similar germination rate but a much slower epicotyl emergence than Sparkle, its wild-type (WT). At the onset of emergence, the starch grains in R50 cotyledons were larger than those of WT; furthermore, they did not degrade as fast as in WT because of low amylase activity. No differences between the pea lines were observed in the CK forms identified during seed embryogenesis. However, while CK content compared to that of WT was reduced early in R50 embryogenesis, it was elevated later on in its dry seeds where CKX activity was low, although CKX transcript abundance remained high. Transcripts of the two known PsCKX isoforms exhibited tissue- and development-specific profiles with no detectable PsCKX2 expression in cotyledons. There were more of both transcripts in R50 roots than in WT roots, but less of PsCKX2 than PsCKX1 in R50 shoots compared to WT shoots. Thus, although there is a definite CKX post-transcriptional defect in R50 dry seeds, an abnormal CK homeostasis is not the basis of the delay in R50 seedling establishment, which we linked to abnormal amylase activity early in development. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  18. "Erussica", the intergeneric fertile somatic hybrid developed through protoplast fusion between Eruca sativa Lam. and Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, S R; Chatterjee, G; Das, S; Sen, S K

    1990-04-01

    Hypocotyl calli-derived protoplasts of two cultivars of Brassica juncea (2n=36), a major oil-seed crop, were fused with normal as well as γ-irradiated mesophyll protoplasts of Eruca sativa (2n=22). The irradiation of the Eruca fusion partner increased the plating efficiency as well as the morphogenic potentiality of the fusion products over the normal fusion. Fertile plants could be regenerated from such fusion products. Analysis of 63 out of 181 plants regenerated showed that, indeed, 11 somatic hybrids (2n=58) and 10 partial somatic hybrids (chromosome number ranged between 50 and 56) had been obtained. Pollen viability (0%-82.9%) and seed set (0%-50%) of the hybrids indicated them to be useful for future studies.

  19. Development of methodologies for virus detection in soybean and wheat seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Stephanie R A; Martins, Thais P; Duarte, Macária F; Barbosa, Andreza V; Lau, Douglas; Fernandes, Fernanda R; Sanches, Marcio M

    2016-01-01

    Seeds that contain large amounts of oil, starch, fibers and phenols are the most difficult tissues for RNA extraction. Currently, there are some reports of virus detection in seeds using commercial kits for RNA extraction. However, individual seeds were used, which may not be always suitable for analyses that deal with large amounts of seeds. Sangha [1] described a simple, quick and efficient protocol for RNA extraction and downstream applications in a group of seeds of jatropha (Jatropha curcas), mustard (Brassica sp.) and rice (Oryza sativa). We tested this protocol for soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and triticale (×Triticosecale) seeds and further reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR)/quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in order to have a faster and more practical method for virus detection from seeds than the traditional scheme of seed planting and subsequent Elisa/RT-PCR from leaves. The essential points in the method are:•Some modifications in the protocol [1] were done in order to increase performance: Wheat and triticale seeds are incubated with water prior to maceration. An amount of 1.2 g of dry soybean seeds is used to maceration.•RT-PCR is used for detection of Wheat streak mosaic virus from wheat seeds and RT-qPCR for detection of Soybean mosaic virus from soybean seeds.•The method may be tested for other viruses, however, pre-validation will be needed.

  20. DNA elimination in embryogenic development of Pennisetum glaucum x Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J D; Azevedo, A L S; Pereira, A V; Paula, C M P; Campos, J M S; Lédo, F J S; Santos, V B

    2013-10-22

    Interspecific hybridization between Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), which is widely grown in Brazil for cattle forage, and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) has been used as a breeding strategy for the development of improved cultivars. However, the hybrid between these two species is sterile due to its triploid condition (2n = 3x = 21 chromosomes), which hinders its use in crop breeding programs. It is known that genomic alterations result from the hybridization process. In order to measure the loss of DNA during embryo development, we used flow cytometry to estimate the nuclear DNA content of triploid and tetraploid embryos produced by interspecific hybridization between Napier grass and pearl millet. The triploid and tetraploid hybrids had a mean DNA content of 4.99-4.87 and 5.25-4.84 pg, at 10 and 30 days after pollination, respectively. The mean reduction in DNA content was higher in the tetraploid hybrids. The flow cytometry results revealed progressive genomic instability in these triploid and tetraploid hybrids, with this instability causing significant alterations in the DNA content of the hybrids.

  1. Arabidopsis CPR5 independently regulates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development through LOX pathway and ABA signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Gao

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA and the lipoxygenases (LOXs pathway play important roles in seed germination and seedling growth and development. Here, we reported on the functional characterization of Arabidopsis CPR5 in the ABA signaling and LOX pathways. The cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to ABA in the seed germination, cotyledon greening and root growth, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing CPR5 were insensitive. Genetic analysis demonstrated that CPR5 gene may be located downstream of the ABI1 in the ABA signaling pathway. However, the cpr5 mutant showed an ABA independent drought-resistant phenotype. It was also found that the cpr5 mutant was hypersensitive to NDGA and NDGA treatment aggravated the ABA-induced delay in the seed germination and cotyledon greening. Taken together, these results suggest that the CPR5 plays a regulatory role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth through ABA and LOX pathways independently.

  2. Development of the Seeding System Used for Laser Velocimeter Surveys of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserbauer, C. A.; Hathaway, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Consideration is given to an atomizer-based system for distributing high-volume rates of polystyrene latex (PSL) seed material developed to support laser velocimeter investigations of the NASA Low-Speed Compressor flow field. Complete evaporation of the liquid carrier before the flow entering the compressor was of primary concern for the seeder system design. It is argued that the seed nozzle should incorporate a needle valve that can mechanically dislodge accumulated PSL seed material when the nozzle is turned off. Water is less expensive as the liquid carrier and should be used whenever adequate residence times are available to ensure complete evaporation. PSL agglomerates over time and needs to be mixed or blended before use. Arrangement of the spray nozzles needs to be adjustable to provide maximum seeding at the laser probe volume.

  3. Disruption of germination and seedling development in Brassica napus by mutations causing severe seed hormonal imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung eNguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica napus (oilseed rape accession 1012-98 shows a disturbed germination phenotype that was thought to be associated with its lack of testa pigmentation and thin seed coat. Here we demonstrate that the disturbed germination and seedling development are actually due to independent mutations that disrupt the balance of hormone metabolites and their regulators in the seeds. High-throughput UPLC-MS/MS hormone profiling of seeds and seedlings before and after germination revealed that 1012-98 has a severely disturbed hormone balance with extremely atypical, excessive quantities of auxin and ABA metabolites. The resulting hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA and a corresponding increase in dormancy often results in death of the embryo after imbibition or high frequencies of disturbed, often lethal developmental phenotypes, resembling Arabidopsis mutants for the auxin regulatory factor gene ARF10 or the auxin-overproducing transgenic line iaaM-OX. Molecular cloning of Brassica ARF10 orthologues revealed four loci in normal B. napus, two derived from the Brassica A genome and two from the C genome. On the other hand, the phenotypic mutant 1012-98 exhibited amplification of C-genome BnaC.ARF10 copy number along with a chimeric allele originating from recombination between homoeologous A and C genome loci which lead to minor increase of Bna.ARF10 transcription on the critical timepoint for seed germination, the indirect regulator of ABI3, the germinative inhibitor. Bna.GH3.5 expression was upregulated to conjugate free auxin to IAA-asp between 2-6 DAS. Functional amino acid changes were also found in important DNA binding domains of one BnaC.ARF10 locus, suggesting that regulatory changes in Bna.ARF10 are collectively responsible for the observed phenotpyes in 1012-98. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report disruption of germination and seedling development in Brassica napus caused by the crosstalk of auxin-ABA and the

  4. Analysis of Seed-expressed Sequence Tags in Triticum aestivum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIJia-Rui; WANGFang; ZHAOXiang-Yu; DONGYu-Xiu; ZHANGLi-Yuan; ZHANGXian-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    To isolate seed-expressed sequences, a cDNA library was constructed using wheat ( Triticumaest/vum L) seed tissues at 12 d after pollination. Plasmid DNAs of 10 000 clones randomly picked out fromthe library were prepared. The preparation of high density filters were made with the Biomek 2000 HDRTsystem, and then hybridized separately with three probes prepared by reverse transcription of RNA ofunpollinated ovary, embryo and endosperm. Based on the hybridization results, 800 clones expressed inembryo and/or endosperm were chosen for further analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Finally,216 different genes were identified preliminarily. Of them, 24 (11.5%) were considered identical to knownwheat genes, 122 (56%) were identified as putative new plant genes which may be involved in seed storageproteins, biochemical metabolisms, development, and other biological processes of seeds, while 70 (32.5%)sequence identities could not be determined.

  5. [Formation of the vascular system of developing bean (Phaseolus limensis L.) seeds according to nuclear magnetic resonance microtomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, I S; Falaleev, O V

    2012-01-01

    1H magnetic resonance microtomography imaging was applied to study vascular systems in developing bean (Phaseolus limensis L.) seeds. Using the gradient echo method, we recorded 2D tomographic sections in the sagittal and axial planes of the fruits sampled from a vegetating plant on days 10, 17, 24, and 31 after fertilization. Any vascular connection between the tissues of maternal plant (bean pod and seed coat) and the embryo were undetectable. The embryo has an autonomous branched network of procambial strands in the cotyledons, converging to the embryonic axis. The bean pods are covered with a network of vascular bundles; large vascular strands run along the dorsal and ventral sutures. The seed coat vascular bundles are formed in the process of seed ripening and are represented by a developed vascular system multiply branching in the middle part of the ground parenchyma at the stage of physiological maturity. They are connected with the source of assimilates via the lateral pod veins and a large vascular bundle, entering the seed below the hilum via the placenta. Assimilates enter the external part of the seed coat, which contains no vascular bundles, via the funiculus vascular bundles and hilum tissue.

  6. Effects of growth temperature and carbon dioxide enrichment on soybean seed components at different stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangli; Singh, Shardendu; Barnaby, Jinyoung; Buyer, Jeffrey; Reddy, Vangimalla; Sicher, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Soybean plants were grown to maturity in controlled environment chambers and at the onset of flowering three temperature treatments were imposed that provided optimum [28/24 °C], low [22/18 °C] or high [36/32 °C] chamber air temperatures. In addition, plants were treated continuously with either 400 or 800 μmol mol(-1) CO2. Seeds were harvested at 42, 53, 69 and 95 days after planting (i.e., final maturity). This study quantified 51 metabolites in developing soybean seeds, plus total lipids and proteins were measured at maturity. About 80% of measured soluble carbohydrates, amines and organic acids decreased to low levels in mature seeds, although important exceptions were raffinose, ribose/arabinose, citrate and all eight fatty acids. This suggested that the metabolism of young seeds supported lipid and protein synthesis. A total of 35 and 9 metabolites differed among temperature and CO2 treatments, respectively, and treatment effects were predominately observed on the first and second samplings. However, shikimate, pinitol and oleate were increased by high temperature treatments in mature seeds. The above results indicated that CO2 enrichment primarily altered metabolite levels during the initial stages of seed development and this was likely due to enhanced photosynthate formation in leaves. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Synthesis and Degradation of the Major Allergens in Developing and Germinating Soybean Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Mei Wu; Rong-Xia Guan; Zhang-Xiong Liu; Run-Zhi Li; Ru-Zhen Chang; Li-Juan Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Gly m Bd 28K,Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K are the major soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) allergens limiting the consumption of a good protein source for sensitive individuals.However,little is known about their temporal-spatial expression during seed development and upon germination.The present data shows that soy allergens accumulated in both the embryonic axes and cotyledon,but expression patterns differed depending on the specific allergen.Allergens accumulated sooner and to a greater level in cotyledons than in embryonic axes.Gly m Bd 28 began at 14 d after flowering,7 to 14 d earlier than Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K.Comparatively,their degradation was faster and more profound in embryonic axes than in cotyledons.Gly m Bd 60K began to decline at 36 h after imbibition and remained detectable up to 108 h in cotyledons.In contrast,the Glym Bd 60K protein was reduced at 24 h,and eventually disappeared at 96 h.In cotyledons Gly m Bd 28K first declined at 24 h,then increased from 36 h to 48 h,followed by its large reduction at 72 h after seed germination.These findings provide useful information on soy allergen biosynthesis and will help move forward towards developing a hypoallergenic soybean for safer food.

  8. Village-based tropical pasture seed production in Thailand and Laos – a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage species, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria (Brachiaria ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Cayman hybrid brachiaria (B. ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Mombasa guinea (Panicum maximum, Tanzania guinea (P. maximum, Ubon stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris x var. pauciflora and Ubon paspalum (Paspalum atratum, is currently being produced by more than 1,000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported (95%, with the remainder sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of a Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs Ubon Forage Seeds to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper details how the development of a smallholder-farmer seed-production program in Thailand and Laos produced positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed-growers. In addition, the strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination enabled pasture growers in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America, to establish more than 20,000 ha of pastures over the past 3 years. 

  9. Development of a hybrid scaffold and a bioreactor for cartilage regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Seung-Jae; LEE In Hwan; PARK Jeong Hun; GWAK So-Jung; RHIE Jong-Won; CHO Dong-Woo; KO Tae Jo; KIM Dong Sung

    2009-01-01

    We developed a hybrid scaffold and a bioreactor for cartilage regeneration. The hybrid scaffold was developed as combination of two components: a biodegradable framework and hydrogel-containing chondrocytes. We performed the MTT cell proliferation assay to compare the proliferation and viability of chondrocytes on three types of scaffolds: an alginate gel, the hybrid scaffold, and an alginate sponge. Cells were encapsulated in 2% agarose gel. The bioreactor consisted of a circulation system and a compression system. We performed dynamic cell culture on these agarose gels in the bioreactor for 3 days.

  10. The impact of temperature regimes on development, dormancy breaking and germination of dwarf shrub seeds from arctic, alpine and boreal sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graae, Bente Jessen; Alsos, Inger Greve; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    species. We examined whether recruitment of Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum and Vaccinium uliginosum (hereafter E. nigrum and V. uliginosum) was affected by temperature during three reproductive stages: seed development, dormancy breakage and germination. Seeds were collected from an arctic, an alpine...... (only E. nigrum) and a boreal site with different climates; stored at different winter temperatures and incubated for germination at different temperatures. Seeds of V. uliginosum developed in the boreal region had a higher percentage germination than did seeds developed in the Arctic. In contrast......, seeds of E. nigrum from the arctic site had a higher or similar percentage germination than did seeds from the alpine and boreal sites. Increased winter temperatures had no significant effect on resulting germination percentage of E. nigrum. However, V. uliginosum seeds from the arctic site suffered...

  11. The impact of temperature regimes on development, dormancy breaking and germination of dwarf shrub seeds from arctic, alpine and boreal sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graae, Bente Jessen; Alsos, Inger Greve; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    species. We examined whether recruitment of Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum and Vaccinium uliginosum (hereafter E. nigrum and V. uliginosum) was affected by temperature during three reproductive stages: seed development, dormancy breakage and germination. Seeds were collected from an arctic, an alpine...... (only E. nigrum) and a boreal site with different climates; stored at different winter temperatures and incubated for germination at different temperatures. Seeds of V. uliginosum developed in the boreal region had a higher percentage germination than did seeds developed in the Arctic. In contrast......, seeds of E. nigrum from the arctic site had a higher or similar percentage germination than did seeds from the alpine and boreal sites. Increased winter temperatures had no significant effect on resulting germination percentage of E. nigrum. However, V. uliginosum seeds from the arctic site suffered...

  12. Isolation and characterization of multiple abundant lipid transfer protein isoforms in developing sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ah Mi; Lee, Saet Buyl; Cho, Sung Ho; Hwang, Inhwan; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Suh, Mi Chung

    2008-02-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is an important oilseed crop; approximately 50% of the seed dry weight is storage oil. In a previous report, developing sesame seed expressed sequence tags (ESTs) revealed that ESTs encoding lipid transfer protein (LTPs) were one of the most abundant groups of sesame ESTs. LTP functions in the transfer of wax or cutin monomers and in the defense response against pathogen attack. To study the biological role of the abundant LTP isoforms in developing seeds, 122 ESTs out of 3328 sesame ESTs were analyzed against Arabidopsis and rice proteome databases. LTP fraction, which was partially purified from developing sesame seeds, actively transferred fluorescent phospholipids and bound to fatty acids. Full-length cDNAs of five out of 21 LTP isoforms were isolated and named SiLTP1-SiLTP5. The predicted amino acid sequences of the five SiLTPs harbor typical characteristics of LTPs, including conserved arrangement of cysteine residues. Northern blot analysis revealed that the five SiLTP isoforms were most abundantly expressed in developing seeds, but were also detected in flower tissues. Also, SiLTP3 and SiLTP4 transcripts were expressed in leaves and seed-pot walls, respectively. In addition, SiLTP2 and SiLTP4 transcripts were significantly induced in 6-day-old sesame seedlings by application of NaCl, mannitol, and abscisic acid (ABA). Transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion constructs in Arabidopsis protoplasts revealed that SiLTP1 and SiLTP2 were secreted by different pathways. Taken together, the abundant LTPs in developing sesame seeds are involved in lipid transfer into the extracellular matrix. Possible biological roles of SiLTPs related to organ-specific expression and abiotic stresses are discussed.

  13. The Proteome of Seed Development in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S.; Ornfelt, Jane H.

    2009-01-01

    three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea....... In a first attempt to determine the seed proteome, both a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach and a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach were used. Globulins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and five legumins, LLP1 to LLP5...

  14. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  15. OsSRT1 is involved in rice seed development through regulation of starch metabolism gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Lu, Yue; Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2016-07-01

    OsSRT1 is a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, closely related to the human SIRT6 that plays key roles in genome stability and metabolic homeostasis. In this work, we investigated the role of OsSRT1 in rice seed development. Down-regulation of OsSRT1 induced higher expression of Rice Starch Regulator1 (RSR1) and amylases genes in developing seeds, which resulted in a decrease of starch synthesis and an increase of starch degradation, leading to abnormal seed development. ChIP assay showed that OsSRT1 was required to reduce histone H3K9 acetylation on starch metabolism genes and transposons in developing seeds. In addition, OsSRT1 was detected to directly bind to starch metabolism genes such as OsAmy3B, OsAmy3E, OsBmy4, and OsBmy9. Our results suggested that OsSRT1-mediated histone deacetylation is involved in starch accumulation and transposon repression to regulate normal seed development.

  16. Lineage development of cell fusion hybrids upon somatic reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Molecular e Genética). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Somatic cell reprogramming has been extensively studied over the last years and opened new perspectives in the use of pluripotent cells for regenerative biomedical purposes. Spontaneous cell fusion has been suggested to be involved in regenerative processes in vivo. Strong evidences support the hypothesis that the reprogrammed hybrids resulting from the fusion between a pluripote...

  17. Seed size variation and predation of seeds produced by wild and crop-wild sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H M; Cummings, C L; Kahn, L; Snow, A A

    2001-04-01

    The movement of pollen between crop and wild sunflowers (both Helianthus annuus) has led to concerns about the possible introduction of crop transgenes into wild populations. The persistence of crop traits in wild populations will depend in part on the relative fitness of crop-wild hybrid vs. wild plants. Using seeds from two large experimental field plots, we found that seeds produced by crop-wild plants were twice the size of wild seeds and differed in coloration. Head diameter, date of flowering, identity of mother plant, and levels of predispersal predation explained some variation in mean seed size. We hypothesized that postdispersal vertebrate seed predation would be affected by seed size, with hybrid seeds preferentially eaten. In each of three field trials, significantly more hybrid seeds were eaten (62% of hybrid seed; 42% of wild seed). Within the category of wild seeds, larger seeds were preferentially eaten; however among hybrid seeds, predation was not significantly related to seed size. In this study, differential predation thus reduces hybrid fitness and would presumably slow the spread of transgenes into wild populations.

  18. Morphology and anatomy of developing fruits and seeds of Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, K S; Beltrati, C M

    2000-11-01

    Morphological, structural and developmental features of fruits and seeds of Mammea americana L. are here studied, with the purpose to give a proper classification of their fruit and embryo type and to contribute to future taxonomical and ecological studies. The fruit is a berry and the "rind" consists of the exocarp, represented by a periderm with lenticels, and by the parenchymatic mesocarp, with branched secretory ducts and vascular bundles. The edible pulpy is formed by the endocarp, destituted of secretory ducts, and derived from the activity of a ventral meristem, which emerges early in the fruit development. The inner endocarp cell layers undergo a radial elongation and become firmly attached to the testal outer layers. At maturation the endocarp may be released from the rest of the pericarp. The ovules are unitegmic and they turn into unitegmic and exalbuminous seeds. The multiseriate testa consists of thick-walled cells and sclerenchymatous fibers. This last features have carried out to a wrong interpretation that the fruit of this species is a drupe. The embryo is pseudo-conferruminate, with two massive foodstoring cotyledons, rich in starch, firmly attached.

  19. Development of non-effervescent floating matrix tablets based on Euryale ferox seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Singh Negi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Euryale ferox (family Nymphaeaceae, a plant belonging to the water lily family, grows in water ponds and remains buoyant on water surface. Similarly, its edible seeds also remain afloat in a wide variety of liquid mediums. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop non-effervescent floating matrix tablets using E. ferox seeds powder (EFSP. Different matrix tablets were prepared using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4M, ciprofloxacin HCl and EFSP. The effects of various formulation variables were investigated on in vitro drug release and in vitro floating behavior of the matrix tablets. With increase in EFSP proportion in the matrix tablets, improvement in buoyancy was observed. The floating behavior of tablets was also found to be dependent on particle size of EFSP. Further, surface morphology of different particle sizes of EFSP was studied with Scanning Electron Microscope images. Drug release from matrix tablets was reduced in the presence of EFSP particles. Most of the formulations were best fitted with Korsmeyer-Peppas and zero-order release kinetics. The value of n was found to be between 0.45 and 0.89, which indicates non-fickian drug transport. Thus, non-effervescent floating behavior can be successfully achieved by using EFSP in HPMC K4M based matrix tablets.

  20. Analysis of castor bean ribosome-inactivating proteins and their gene expression during seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Loss-Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs are enzymes that inhibit protein synthesis after depurination of a specific adenine in rRNA. The RIP family members are classified as type I RIPs that contain an RNA-N-glycosidase domain and type II RIPs that contain a lectin domain (B chain in addition to the glycosidase domain (A chain. In this work, we identified 30 new plant RIPs and characterized 18 Ricinus communis RIPs. Phylogenetic and functional divergence analyses indicated that the emergence of type I and II RIPs probably occurred before the monocot/eudicot split. We also report the expression profiles of 18 castor bean genes, including those for ricin and agglutinin, in five seed stages as assessed by quantitative PCR. Ricin and agglutinin were the most expressed RIPs in developing seeds although eight other RIPs were also expressed. All of the RIP genes were most highly expressed in the stages in which the endosperm was fully expanded. Although the reason for the large expansion of RIP genes in castor beans remains to be established, the differential expression patterns of the type I and type II members reinforce the existence of biological functions other than defense against predators and herbivory.

  1. 种衣剂现状及发展方向%Current Status and Development Direction of Seed Coating Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新娜; 陈俊霞; 苏文勇

    2015-01-01

    The concept, classification, composition, character and mechanism of seed coating agent were described, and its development status at home and abroad was analyzed, then the problems in the development of seed coating agent were discussed and put forward the development direction.%概述了种衣剂的概念、类型、组成、特性和机理,分析了种衣剂在国内外的发展现状,并讨论了种衣剂发展中存在的不足与发展方向。

  2. Breeding response of transcript profiling in developing seeds of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaodan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upgrading of rapeseed cultivars has resulted in a substantial improvement in yield and quality in China over the past 30 years. With the selective pressure against fatty acid composition and oil content, high erucic acid- and low oil-content cultivars have been replaced by low erucic acid- and high oil-content cultivars. The high erucic acid cultivar Zhongyou 821 and its descendent, low erucic acid cultivar Zhongshuang 9, are representatives of two generations of the most outstanding Chinese rapeseed cultivars (B. napus developed the past 2 decades. This paper compares the transcriptional profiles of Zhongshuang 9 and Zhongyou 821 for 32 genes that are principally involved in lipid biosynthesis during seed development in order to elucidate how the transcriptional profiles of these genes responded to quality improvement over the past 20 years. Results Comparison of the cultivar Zhongyou 821 with its descendent, Zhongshuang 9, shows that the transcriptional levels of seven of the 32 genes were upregulated by 30% to 109%, including FAD3, ACCase, FAE1, GKTP, Caleosin, GAPDH, and PEPC. Of the 32 genes, 10 (KAS3, β-CT, BcRK6, P450, FatA, Oleosin, FAD6, FatB, α-CT and SUC1 were downregulated by at least 20% and most by 50%. The Napin gene alone accounted for over 75% of total transcription from all 32 genes assessed in both cultivars. Most of the genes showed significant correlation with fatty acid accumulation, but the correlation in ZS9 was significantly different from that in ZY821. Higher KCR2 activity is associated with higher C16:0, C18:0, and C18:2 in both cultivars, lower C22:1 and total fatty acid content in ZY821, and lower 18:1 in ZS9. Conclusion This paper illustrates the response of the transcription levels of 32 genes to breeding in developing rapeseed seeds. Both cultivars showed similar transcription profiles, with the Napin gene predominantly transcribed. Selective pressure for zero erucic acid, low

  3. Developing hybrid cotton (Gossypium spp.) using honey bees as pollinators and the Roundup Ready® Phenotype as the selection trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile fiber crop in the United States (US). Hybrid cotton is grown in several countries but the use of hybrids in the US has been limited due to seed production costs. The objective of this study was to investigate a novel method for the production of ...

  4. Production Technology of Photo-thermo Sensitive Two-line Foxtail Millet Hybrid Seeds%光温敏两系谷子杂交种制种生产技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 宋国亮; 王峰; 刘晓婕

    2012-01-01

    光温敏两系谷子杂交种表现节水、抗逆,适应性、增产性和抗旱性显著高于常规品种,已大面积推广种植。详细介绍了谷子杂交制种中各个环节的技术要求,包括制种田选择、科学播种、田间管理、病虫鸟害防治、收获、脱粒和储存。可为生产优质的谷子杂交种提供技术指导。%Photo-thermo sensitive two-line foxtail millet hybrids has the characteristics of water saving, stress resistance, adaptability, performance of increasing yield and drought resistance, which was significantly higher thon the regular varieties. Therefore, they have been planted in a large area. The hybrid seed production technology of foxtail millet is introduced including the selection of seed field, scientific sowing, field management, diseases and insects control, harvesting, threshing, and storage, which can provide the technological guide for producing high quality hybrid millet seeds.

  5. Development and application of marker-assisted reverse breeding using hybrid maize germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yi-Xin; WANG Bao-hua; FENG Yan; LI Ping

    2015-01-01

    Humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aiming at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, whole genome sequencing and deep understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms have facilitated new plant breeding approaches to meet the chalenge of growing population, dwindling re-sources, and changing climate. Here we proposed a simple and fast molecular breeding method, marker-assisted reverse breeding (MARB), which wil revert any maize hybrid into inbred lines with any level of required similarity to its original parent lines. Since al the pericarp DNA of a hybrid is from the maternal parent, whereas one half of the embryo DNA is from the maternal parent and the other half from the paternal parent, so we ifrstly extract DNA from seed embryo and pericarp of a selected elite hybrid separately and then we derived the genotypes of the two parents with high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. The folowing marker-assisted selection was performed based on an Ilumina low-density SNP chip designed with 192 SNPs polymorphic between the two parental genotypes, which were uniformly distributed on 10 maize chromosomes. This method has the advantages of fast speed, ifxed heterotic mode, and quick recovery of beneifcial parental genotypes compared to traditional pedigree breeding using elite hybrids. Meanwhile, MARB has the advantage of not requiring sophisticated transformation and double haploid (DH) technologies over RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated reverse breeding. In addition, MARB can also be used with feed corn harvested from big farms, which is often similar to F2 populations, and the relevant transgenes in the population can be eliminated by marker-assisted selection. As a result, the whole global commercial maize hybrids can be utilized as germplasm for breeding with MARB technology. Starting with an F2 population derived from an elite hybrid, our experiment indicates that with three

  6. Seed-mediated synthesis and the photo-degradation activity of ZnO-graphene hybrids excluding the influence of dye adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dongying; Han, Gaoyi; Yang, Feifei; Zhang, Tianwen; Chang, Yunzhen; Liu, Feifei

    2013-10-01

    The nano-sized ZnO-graphene hybrid has been prepared through combining the facile sol-gel process and hydrothermal method by using Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) as growing reactants in the presence of ZnO-graphene oxide (ZnO-GO) seeds. The obtained products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the GO has been converted to reduced-graphene oxide during the hydrothermal process due to the released reductant from HMT. The photo-degradation of methylene blue in the presence of ZnO-graphene (excluding the influence of the dye adsorption on the catalyst) has also been investigated in detail. It is found that the preparation conditions have significant effects on photo-catalytic properties of the composites, and that ZnO-graphene prepared in the optimal conditions exhibits the optimum activity. This facile and low-cost method will make the composite a perfect candidate in applications of photo-catalysis and other areas.

  7. The effect of mitochondrial complex I inhibitor on longevity of short-lived and long-lived seed beetles and its mitonuclear hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Darka Šešlija; Dorđević, Mirko; Savković, Uroš; Lazarević, Jelica

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are suggested to play a central role in ageing and evolution of longevity. Gradual decline in mitochondrial function during ageing and concomitant increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative damage of macromolecules and impairment of ATP synthesis. To assess relationship between ageing and oxidative stress resistance we exposed different longevity lines of the seed beetle (Acanthoscelides obtectus) to four concentrations of tebufenpyrad, mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. Complex I is one of main sites of ROS production during normal respiration and its inhibition elevates oxidative stress. Our results showed that 24 h of exposure to tebufenpyrad decreased survival and post-stress longevity due to increased baseline mortality. Higher resistance was recorded in beetles from lines selected for late reproduction and extended longevity (L) than in early reproducing beetles (E). Also, females were more resistant than males. Since complex I is under dual genetic control, our second aim was to disentangle relative contribution of nuclear and mitochondrial genes to the variation in longevity. We used crossed combinations of distinct mitochondrial and nuclear genotypes (E × L, L × E) and compared them to control hybrids where mitochondrial genome was "transplanted" onto the original background (E × E, L × L). Our study revealed significant effect of nucleus, i.e. higher survival and post-stress longevity in beetles harbouring L nucleus. Mitochondrion effect was significant only within L nuclear background where E mitochondrion gave advantage.

  8. Seed-mediated synthesis and the photo-degradation activity of ZnO–graphene hybrids excluding the influence of dye adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Dongying; Han, Gaoyi, E-mail: han_gaoyis@sxu.edu.cn; Yang, Feifei; Zhang, Tianwen; Chang, Yunzhen; Liu, Feifei

    2013-10-15

    The nano-sized ZnO–graphene hybrid has been prepared through combining the facile sol–gel process and hydrothermal method by using Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) as growing reactants in the presence of ZnO–graphene oxide (ZnO–GO) seeds. The obtained products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the GO has been converted to reduced-graphene oxide during the hydrothermal process due to the released reductant from HMT. The photo-degradation of methylene blue in the presence of ZnO–graphene (excluding the influence of the dye adsorption on the catalyst) has also been investigated in detail. It is found that the preparation conditions have significant effects on photo-catalytic properties of the composites, and that ZnO–graphene prepared in the optimal conditions exhibits the optimum activity. This facile and low-cost method will make the composite a perfect candidate in applications of photo-catalysis and other areas.

  9. Dynamic changes in the distribution of minerals in relation to phytic acid accumulation during rice seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Toru; Takahashi, Michiko; Oda, Koshiro; Terada, Yasuko; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2012-12-01

    Phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate [InsP(6)]) is the storage compound of phosphorus in seeds. As phytic acid binds strongly to metallic cations, it also acts as a storage compound of metals. To understand the mechanisms underlying metal accumulation and localization in relation to phytic acid storage, we applied synchrotron-based x-ray microfluorescence imaging analysis to characterize the simultaneous subcellular distribution of some mineral elements (phosphorus, calcium, potassium, iron, zinc, and copper) in immature and mature rice (Oryza sativa) seeds. This fine-imaging method can reveal whether these elements colocalize. We also determined their accumulation patterns and the changes in phosphate and InsP(6) contents during seed development. While the InsP(6) content in the outer parts of seeds rapidly increased during seed development, the phosphate contents of both the outer and inner parts of seeds remained low. Phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and iron were most abundant in the aleurone layer, and they colocalized throughout seed development. Zinc was broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm. Copper localized outside the aleurone layer and did not colocalize with phosphorus. From these results, we suggest that phosphorus translocated from source organs was immediately converted to InsP(6) and accumulated in aleurone layer cells and that calcium, potassium, and iron accumulated as phytic acid salt (phytate) in the aleurone layer, whereas zinc bound loosely to InsP(6) and accumulated not only in phytate but also in another storage form. Copper accumulated in the endosperm and may exhibit a storage form other than phytate.

  10. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle G Beckman

    Full Text Available Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  11. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Noelle G

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  12. Development of eggplant hybrid cultivar ‘BATEM FILIZI’ and determination of yield performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Filiz BOYACI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cultivation is an important part of vegetable production in Turkey. It is highly affected by abiotic stress factors such as low temperatures during growth and development. The present study was aimed to improve new hybrid varieties with high quality and fruit setting under undesirable environmental conditions in eggplant. The 39 inbred lines were developed from eggplant genepool by using pedigree breeding method at the Bati Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute. They were characterized morphologically and evaluated for phylogenetic relationship among them. Selected seven lines were crossed each other to obtain F1 hybrids. Thirteen hybrids from these crosses were examined for their rate of heterosis and heterobeltiosis. These hybrids were not suitable for market demands although F1 hybrids including P350 as parental line had high heterosis rate. Oval fruit shaped P350 inbred line as female parent showed good performance and crossed with long fruit shaped P599 inbred line. The resultant F1 hybrid cultivar higher yielding, suitable for production under greenhouse and highly adaptable was registered with the name of BATEM FILIZI. It is recommended that this hybrid can be used in greenhouse production especially in single crop season.

  13. The investment in scent: time-resolved metabolic processes in developing volatile-producing Nigella sativa L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Xue

    Full Text Available The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol-3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18∶3n-3 abundant in "green" seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs.

  14. A New Hybrid Power Configuration Used In HEV And Development of Its Driving BLDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Xu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV that has the advantages of high performance, high fuel efficiency, low emissions, and long operating range is focused on nowadays. A new hybrid power configuration used in HEV is presented with different control strategies and HEV performances when equipping different weight of fuel power and battery one. In order to realize the new hybrid power configuration especially in the refitted HEV, fractional-slot concentrated-wingding BLDC with higher rated spinning speed is given and the prototyped one is developed and fabricated which satisfy successfully the requirements of high performance and demission restriction for the refitted HEV.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF SEED CROPS IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudnikov A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main detected problems in selection system and seed industry consist of depreciation of laboratory equipment and specialized technique; the lack of funds and low incentives for creators of sorts; decreasing of volumes of elite and original seeds production in the Krasnodar region; common use of low reproduction seeds in production of grain. The existing stairs of seed multiplication system are examined, as well as their organizational and legal status. Directions of improvement of system of state support in this field are defined on the basis of presenting subsidies and preferences on purchasing of import of highly specialized equipment, provided that there are no domestic equivalent; correction of requirements in order of receipt of support for development of elite and original seed industry. The necessity of creation of united seed selection center of seed industry in the Krasnodar region on the basis of a specialized research Institute (KNISH of Lukyanenko. Though, as the result of providing by center of consistent recommendations on peculiarities of cultivation of sorts and their adaptive placement, maintenance of contractual relations based on principals of franchising, evaluation of sort and sowing index of quality of seed lots and hybrids, will allow to speed up the development of domestic seed industry, increase the quality of corn farming in region

  16. Changes of Endogenous Hormone Contents in Fruit, Seeds and Their Effects on the Fruit Development of Rosa roxburghii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wei-guo; AN Hua-ming; LIU Guo-qin; HE Song-tao; LIU Jin-ping

    2003-01-01

    The fruit of cultivar Guinong5 (Rosa roxburghii Tratt. ) was used to investigate the regularity of its growth and development, and the changes of endogenous hormone contents during the period of the growth and development. The result showed that contents of GA1+3, IAA and ZRs in the flower receptacle of young fruit were high and then decreased, contents of GA1+3 and IAA in seeds increased with its development until maturity. The contents of ZRs and ABA in the flower receptacle of young fruits and seeds were high, and then had a tendency of descent with the development of fruits. The contents of GA1+3, IAA, ZRs and ABA in flower receptacle of young fruit with normal fertilization were much higher than those of in non-fertilization fruits. In the flower receptacle of malformed fruits, the contents of GA1+3, IAA and ZRs in normally developing flower receptacle were significantly higher than those in malformed fruits. The growth and development of fruits depended largely on the seeds, development because the seeds in the fruits with non-fertilization failed to be formed or even formed but irreproducible, which would lead to the decrease of GA1+3, IAA contents and the abnormal development of fruits. Therefore the fruits deformed and dropped inevitably.

  17. The competence to acquire cellular desiccation tolerance is independent of seed morphological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, E A; Hoekstra, F A; Van Aelst, A C

    2001-05-01

    Acquisition of desiccation tolerance and the related changes at the cellular level in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Priokskaya) kernels during normal development and premature drying on the ear were studied using a spin probe technique and low temperature scanning electron microscopy. During normal development, the ability of embryos to germinate after rapid drying and rehydration was acquired after completion of morphological development, which is a few days before mass maturity. The acquisition of desiccation tolerance, as assessed by germination, was associated with an upsurge in cytoplasmic viscosity, the onset of accumulation of protein and oil bodies, and the retention of membrane integrity upon dehydration/rehydration. These features were also used to assess cellular desiccation tolerance in the cases when germination could not occur. Slow premature drying was used to decouple the acquisition of cellular desiccation tolerance from morphogenesis. Upon premature drying of kernels on the ears of plants cut at 5 d after anthesis, desiccation-tolerant dwarf embryos were formed that were able to germinate. When plants were cut at earlier stages poorly developed embryos were formed that were unable to germinate, but cellular desiccation tolerance was nevertheless acquired. In such prematurely dried kernels, peripheral meristematic endosperm cells had already passed through similar physiological and ultrastructural changes associated with the acquisition of cellular desiccation tolerance. It is concluded that despite the apparent strong integration in seed development, desiccation tolerance can be acquired by the meristematic cells in the developing embryo and cambial layer of endosperm, independently of morphological development.

  18. Design, Development and Evaluation of a Pneumatic Seeder for Automatic Planting of Seeds in Cellular Trays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Movahedi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For planting fine seeds in cellular trays, an automatic pneumatic seeder was designed, constructed and evaluated. CATIA software was used to design and analysis the system parts of the seeder. Different parts of the seeder, including vibrating seed hopper, vacuum boom, seed picking nozzles, seed tube, pneumatic system and electronic control unit for automation of the seeder, were designed and constructed. The area of nozzle orifice was used to calculate the required pressure of nozzle tip. The seeder was evaluated using two sizes of trays. Experiments were performed with five replications and the error of planting the seeds in the 105 and 390-cellular trays were 1.9 and 0.46 percent, respectively. The time of planting for 105 and 390 cellular trays reduced from 20 min (for manual seeding to 35 s and from 90 min to 160 s, respectively.

  19. SEED GERMINATION AND PLANT DEVELOPMENT IN Escobedia grandiflora (OROBANCHACEAE: EVIDENCE OF OBLIGATE HEMIPARASITISM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison CARDONA-MEDINA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Root parasitic plants can be facultative or obligate. Facultative parasites are able to complete their life cycle and their seeds can germinate without a host. Escobedia grandiflora is a poorly studied species in spite of its ancestral importance as dye of foods and medicinal use. The present study evaluates the states of seed, seedlings and mature plants, under presence and absence of possible hosts, for inferring the type of parasitism exhibited by E. grandiflora. Seeds were evaluated using two conditions each of light (12 and 0 hours and temperature (20 ºC and 25 ºC; percentage germination, and germination speed were determined. The seeds did not require a host to germinate, as is typical of facultative parasitic plants.  Percentage of germination varied between 66 % and 85.3 % and was not affected by light or temperature although germination speed was greater at 25 ºC. Larger seeds had a higher percentage of germination and produced larger seedlings. The seedlings planted without a host did not survive, while those planted with Paspalum notatum had a 45 % survival rate, demonstrating that this is a critical stage of development, even with a host. Escobedia grandiflora plants sowed with grasses began the reproductive stage at the 28th week, and those planted with Pennisetum purpureum showed better performance, expressed in more haustoria, higher dry matter of total plant, rhizome and aerial stems. Plants sowed alone lived for more than six months, but they did not produce flowers or fruits. According to the behavior of seedlings and plants, E. grandiflora is an obligate parasite. Germinación de semillas y desarrollo de plantas en Escobedia grandiflora (Orobanchaceae: ¿Evidencia de hemiparasitismo obligado? Las plantas parásitas de raíces pueden ser facultativas u obligadas, las primeras pueden completar su ciclo de vida y sus semillas pueden germinar sin un hospedero. Escobedia grandiflora es una especie poco estudiada, a pesar de

  20. Influence of sowing terms on the field germination of seed and phenophase of growth and development of carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Потапський, Юрій Васильович

    2015-01-01

    The results of researches are presented from the study of influence of sowing terms on the field germination of seed and phenophase of growth and development of carrot. It is determined that the field germination hesitated from 69,5 to 71,3 % for Shantane Skvirska and from 63,2 to 68,8 % for Regul'ska . An increase or decrease of soil temperature on the depth of seeding continues or reduces passing of basic phenophases of growth and development of carrot. The results of researches testify tha...

  1. 新型油菜化学杂交剂SX-1对甘蓝型油菜制种亲本相关性状的影响研究%Study on Influence of a New Chemical Hybridization Agents (CHA) SX-1 to Parents’Traits in Hybrid Seed Production of Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建厂; 李永红; 王灏; 郭徐鹏; 田建华

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to reveal the influence of CHA SX-1 to parents, traits in Brassica napus.L, and explore the standardized scientific method of using CHA SX-1 in hybrids production in B. napus L. the two tested varieties of B. napus in the field was sprayed SX-1 with 5.5 mg/L on leaves for the first time,when the height of female parent stem was about 20 cm, and the biggest bud of 80% plants reached to about 2 mm, and pollen development was in uninucleate stage to the late uninucleate stage. After 7 days to 10 days, SX-1 with 6.5 mg/L was sprayed for the second time with 2.5 mL per plant. After spraying SX-1, sterility of the two female parents was completely, and the sterility rate reached to 99%, and self-cross of the two female parents could not obtain seeds, but outcrossing might set seeds normally, and plants did not show obvious phytotoxicity. However, parts of organ morphology and agronomic traits changed significantly. For example, plant height of female parents and effective branch position lowered, and main inflorescences shortened, buds, sepals and petals became smaller, filaments shortened and its weight lightened, and pistil elongated and its weight increased, and pods and 1000-seeds weight increased, seeds per silique reduced, but the yield of hybrids production just reduced 9.07% and 15.27% than CK, and correlated traits and yield traits of the two male parents did not been influenced significantly. SX-1 was a kind of efficient CHA for rape, and it was also safe and feasible in hybrids production of B. napus L.%研究化杀剂SX-1对甘蓝型油菜品种制种双亲的影响,探讨规范科学标准化的油菜化杀杂交制种技术。油菜母本苔高20 cm左右,80%植株最大花蕾达到2 mm,花粉发育在单核期到单核靠边期第一次喷施5.5 mg/L的SX-1,7~10天后第二次喷施6.5 mg/L,每次每株着药量2.5 mL左右。SX-1对两油菜品种母本的育性影响一致,杀雄彻底,雄性不育株率可达99%以上,

  2. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  3. Development of the ITER Advanced Steady State and Hybrid Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel, D. Campbell, T. Casper, Y. Gribov, and J. Snipes

    2010-09-24

    Full discharge simulations are performed to examine the plasma current rampup, flattop and rampdown phases self-consistently with the poloidal field (PF) coils and their limitations, plasma transport evolution, and heating/current drive (H/CD) sources. Steady state scenarios are found that obtain 100% non-inductive current with Ip = 7.3-10.0 MA, βN ~ 2.5 for H98 = 1.6, Q’s range from 3 to 6, n/nGr = 0.75-1.0, and NB, IC, EC, and LH source have been examined. The scenarios remain within CS/PF coil limits by advancing the pre-magnetization by 40 Wb. Hybrid scenarios have been identified with 35-40% non-inductive current for Ip = 12.5 MA, H98 ~ 1.25, with q(0) reaching 1 at or after the end of rampup. The equilibrium operating space for the hybrid shows a large range of scenarios can be accommodated, and access 925-1300 s flattop burn durations.

  4. Recent progress in hybrid mode thermionic converter development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1979-01-01

    Thermionic research has been conducted to investigate a hybrid-mode thermionic converter as a candidate for reducing the barrier index. The hybrid-mode thermionic converter is designed to operate in a combination ignited mode and unignited mode by using a series of parallel grooves in the emitter. The emitter material is molybdenum and the non-grooved land area is thinly coated with rhenium metal. When the emitter is exposed to cesium vapor, as it is during the converter operation, the rhenium-coated land area achieves a lower work function than the grooved molybdenum surface by as much as 0.5 eV. The low work function land area provides a major portion of electron emission, and the high work function grooved area provides cesium ions required for efficient transport of electrons generated in adjacent land areas to the collector. Experimental results obtained from two different converters and a numerical analysis of converter characteristics are presented in this paper.

  5. Influence of laser radiation on the growth and development of seeds of agricultural plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishkanich, Alexander; Zhevlakov, Alexander; Polyakov, Vadim; Kascheev, Sergey; Sidorov, Igor; Ruzankina, Julia; Yakovlev, Alexey; Mak, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The experimental results presented in this study focused on the study of biological processes caused by exposure to the coating layers of the laser green light seed (λ = 532 nm) range for the larch, violet (λ = 405 nm) and red (λ = 640 nm) for spruce. Spend a series of experiments to study the dependence of crop seed quality (spruce and larch from the pine family) from exposure to laser radiation under different conditions. In all the analyzed groups studied seed germination and growth of seedlings exposed to laser exposure, compared with the control group. The results showed that the higher percentage of germination than seeds of the control group.

  6. In-Vitro Seed Germination and Effect of Growth Regulators on Subsequent Development of Protocorms of Eulophia Nuda Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Dawande

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymbiotic seed germination of Eulophia nuda Lindl. was observed on Knudson C medium. About 90% seeds germinated within 8-10 weeks and formed green protocorms in 11-12 weeks. Effect of BA and IBA was studied on plantlet development from protocorms. BA shows the best results with respect to number and length of shoots. Maximum number (6.45±1.36 and length (3.90±0.99 was observed on MS medium supplemented with 4.44μM.BA. Maximum root growth was also observed on same medium (4.8±0.99 number of roots and 1.43±0.13cm length. The regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and transferred to earthen pots. The results presented here show that in vitro seed germination and plantlet development in Eulophia nuda Lindl., an endangered orchid, can be achieved at a higher rate by this method.

  7. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a transcriptomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R V, Sreedhar; Kumari, Priya; Rupwate, Sunny D; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2015-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA). At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb), with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO) terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG) classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%), of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications) followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34%) and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%). A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research and

  8. Development of a threshold model to predict germination of Populus tomentosa seeds after harvest and storage under ambient condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qing Wang

    Full Text Available Effects of temperature, storage time and their combination on germination of aspen (Populus tomentosa seeds were investigated. Aspen seeds were germinated at 5 to 30°C at 5°C intervals after storage for a period of time under 28°C and 75% relative humidity. The effect of temperature on aspen seed germination could not be effectively described by the thermal time (TT model, which underestimated the germination rate at 5°C and poorly predicted the time courses of germination at 10, 20, 25 and 30°C. A modified TT model (MTT which assumed a two-phased linear relationship between germination rate and temperature was more accurate in predicting the germination rate and percentage and had a higher likelihood of being correct than the TT model. The maximum lifetime threshold (MLT model accurately described the effect of storage time on seed germination across all the germination temperatures. An aging thermal time (ATT model combining both the TT and MLT models was developed to describe the effect of both temperature and storage time on seed germination. When the ATT model was applied to germination data across all the temperatures and storage times, it produced a relatively poor fit. Adjusting the ATT model to separately fit germination data at low and high temperatures in the suboptimal range increased the models accuracy for predicting seed germination. Both the MLT and ATT models indicate that germination of aspen seeds have distinct physiological responses to temperature within a suboptimal range.

  9. Development a method for producing vegetable oil from safflower seeds by pressing in the field of ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the prospects of production in agriculture safflower seeds for food and extract biologically active components. The physicochemical composition of safflower, which is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Safflower oil has a soothing and moisturizing effect, provides a barrier function of the skin, therefore, fatty oil is promising in terms of scientific evidence use in medical practice. In the article the task of developing a set of processes to extract oil from the seeds of safflower and effective use. The ways of processing safflower seed to obtain oil. It is the most productive and promising method for processing seeds of safflower scheme press extruder. Described compression step in the processing of safflower seeds scheme press extruder. Crucial processing technology safflower seeds have two fundamental rheological characteristics of viscosity and elasticity, which depend on the structure of the raw material, the molecular weight distribution, and processing conditions such as temperature, pressure and flow rate. The dependence of the density of its safflower cake moisture concluded that with humidity increase the particle density increases, due to the swelling of colloids grain. Furthermore, the dependence of shear stress and the effective viscosity versus shear rate, it is concluded that with increasing shear rate influence of temperature on the viscosity gradient weakens. The article shows the study of the prospects of the extrusion process in the presence of the ultrasound field and the creation of equipment that takes into account these properties. The use of ultrasound significantly reduces energy consumption and necessary to prevent the molding ion safflower seeds, improves product quality.

  10. Coincidence of flowering time and the productivity and quality of cauliflower hybrid seeds Coincidência de florescimento entre linhagens de couve-flor na produtividade e qualidade de sementes híbridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fontanetti Verdial

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The missing of flowering synchronization between the self-incompatible lines in a crop field of cauliflower hybrid seeds besides making the seed production smaller can compromise the genetic purity of them. The coincidence of the flowering time between two cauliflower lines was examined to study its effect on the productivity and quality of hybrid seeds. The treatments consisted of six different sowing dates, every fifteen days, using a self-incompatible tropical line pollinated by a winter line which does not present self-incompatibility. The following characteristics were evaluated: leaf average area and number of flowers per plant, number of siliques per plant, number and weight of seeds per plant, weight of thousand seeds and average number of seeds per silique. The germination standard test and genetic seed purity were determined for each treatment. The coincident flowering season between cauliflower lines affects directly the productivity and the genetic quality of the produced hybrid seeds. The closer the flowering time coincidence between the lines, the greater the number of seeds per silique and the smaller the percentage of non-hybrid seedlings. However, the coincidence of the flowering season between lines was found to influence physiological seed quality.A falta de sincronismo de florescimento entre as linhagens auto incompatíveis em um campo de produção de sementes híbridas de couve flor pode além de reduzir a produção de sementes comprometer a pureza genética das mesmas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da coincidência de florescimento entre linhagens de couve-flor na produtividade e qualidade de sementes híbridas, foi realizado o presente experimento. Os tratamentos consistiram em seis diferentes épocas de semeadura, espaçadas a cada quinze dias, de uma linhagem de verão auto-incompatível que foi polinizada por uma linhagem de inverno que não apresenta auto-incompatibilidade. Observou-se a coincidência do

  11. The Development of a Hybrid Underwater Micro Biped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great demand, in the medical field and in industrial applications, for a novel micro biped robot with multiple degrees of freedom that can swim smoothly in water or in aqueous medium. The fish-like micro-robot studied is a type of miniature device that is installed with sensing and actuating elements. This article describes the new structure and motion mechanism of a hybrid type of underwater micro-robot using an ion-conducting polymer film (ICPF actuator, and discusses the swimming and floating characteristics of the micro-robot in water, measured by changing the voltage frequency and the amplitude of the input voltage. Results indicate that the swimming speed of the proposed underwater micro-robot can be controlled by changing the frequency of the input voltage, and the direction (upward or downward can be manipulated by changing the frequency of the electric current applied and the amplitude of the voltage.

  12. Development of 3d micro-nano hybrid patterns using anodized aluminum and micro-indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hong Gue; Kwon, Jong Tae [Division of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehakgil, Chunchon, Gangwon-do, 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Young Ho [Division of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehakgil, Chunchon, Gangwon-do, 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mems@kangwon.ac.kr; Kim, Byeong Hee [Division of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehakgil, Chunchon, Gangwon-do, 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-31

    We developed a simple and cost-effective method of fabricating 3D micro-nano hybrid patterns in which micro-indentation is applied on the anodized aluminum substrate. Nano-patterns were formed first on the aluminum substrate, and then micro-patterns were fabricated by deforming the nano-patterned aluminum substrate. Hemispherical nano-patterns with a 150 nm-diameter on an aluminum substrate were fabricated by anodizing and alumina removing process. Then, micro-pyramid patterns with a side-length of 50 {mu}m were formed on the nano-patterns using micro-indentation. To verify 3D micro-nano hybrid patterns, we replicated 3D micro-nano hybrid patterns by a hot-embossing process. 3D micro-nano hybrid patterns may be used in nano-photonic devices and nano-biochips applications.

  13. TNB Experience in Developing Solar Hybrid Station at RPS Kemar, Gerik, Perak Darul Ridzuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, K. A.; Shamsudin, K. N.

    2013-06-01

    This paper will discuss on TNB experience in developing Solar Hybrid Station at RPS Kemar, Gerik, Perak. TNB has been approached by KKLW to submit proposal to provide electricity in the rural area namely RPS Kemar. Looking at area and source available, Solar Hybrid System was the best method in order to provide electricity at this area. This area is far from national grid sources. Solar Hybrid System is the best method to produce electrical power using the renewable energy from Solar PV, Battery and Diesel Generator Set. Nowadays, price of petroleum is slightly high due to higher demand from industry. Solar energy is good alternative in this country to practice in order to reduce cost for produce of electrical energy. Generally, Solar will produce energy during daytime and when become cloudy and dark, automatically battery and diesel generator set will recover the system through the hybrid controller system.

  14. Seed Development in Castor (Ricinus communis L.): Morphology, Reserve Synthesis and Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is a non-eatable oilseed crop producing seed oil comprising 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) which has numerous industrial uses. However, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of noxious seed storage proteins, the toxin ricin and hyper-allergenic 2S...

  15. Early embryo and larval development of inviable intergeneric hybrids derived from Crassostrea angulata and Saccostrea cucullata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiaqi; Wang, Zhaoping; Zhang, Yuehuan; Yan, Xiwu; Li, Qiongzhen; Yu, Ruihai

    2016-06-01

    To detect the intergeneric hybridization between the oyster Crassostrea angulata and Saccostrea cucullata coexisting along the southern coast of China, reciprocal crosses were conducted between the two species. Barriers for sperm recognizing, binding, penetrating the egg, and forming the pronucleus were detected by fluorescence staining. From the results, although fertilization success was observed in hybrid crosses, the overall fertilization rate was lower than that of intraspecific crosses. A large number of hybrid larvae died at 6-8 d after hatching, and those survived could not complete metamorphosis. C. angulata ♀× S. cucullata ♂ larvae had a growth rate similar to that of the maternal species, whereas S. cucullata ♀ × C. angulata ♂ larvae grew the slowest among all crosses. Molecular genetics analysis revealed that hybrid progeny were amphimixis hybrids. This study demonstrated that hybrid embryos generated by crossing C. angulata and S. cucullata could develop normally to the larval state, but could not complete metamorphosis and then develop to the spat stage. Thus, there is a post-reproductive isolation between C. angulata and S. cucullata.

  16. Profiles of phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids during the development of seeds of Theobroma cacao cv. Trinitario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Borges, Gina; Nagai, Chifumi; Jackson, Mel C; Yokota, Takao; Crozier, Alan; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-16

    Changes occurring in phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids, during the growth of seeds of cacao (Theobroma cacao) cv. Trinitario, were investigated using HPLC-MS/MS. Extracts of seeds with a fresh weight of 125, 700, 1550, and 2050 mg (stages 1-4, respectively) were analyzed. The phenolic compounds present in highest concentrations in developing and mature seeds (stages 3 and 4) were flavonols and flavan-3-ols. Flavan-3-ols existed as monomers of epicatechin and catechin and as procyanidins. Type B procyanidins were major components and varied from dimers to pentadecamer. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, along with the N-phenylpropernoyl-l-amino acids, N-caffeoyl-l-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-l-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-3-hydroxytyrosine (clovamide), and N-coumaroyltyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and the purine alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, were present in stage 3 and 4 seeds. Other purine alkaloids, such as theophylline and additional methylxanthines, did not occur in detectable quantities. Flavan-3-ols were the only components to accumulate in detectable quantities in young seeds at developmental stages 1 and 2.

  17. Development of an in Vitro System to Simulate the Adsorption of Self-Emulsifying Tea (Camellia oleifera Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issara Sramala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tea (Camellia oleifera seed oil was formulated into self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEOF to enhance the aqueous dispersibility and intestinal retention to achieve higher bioavailability. Self-emulsifying tea seed oils were developed by using different concentrations of lecithin in combination with surfactant blends (Span®80 and Tween®80. The lecithin/surfactant systems were able to provide clear and stable liquid formulations. The SEOF were investigated for physicochemical properties including appearance, emulsion droplets size, PDI and zeta potential. The chemical compositions of tea seed oil and SEOF were compared using GC-MS techniques. In addition, the oil adsorption measurement on artificial membranes was performed using a Franz cell apparatus and colorimetric analysis. The microscopic structure of membranes was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. After aqueous dilution with fed-state simulated gastric fluid (FeSSGF, the droplet size of all SEOF was close to 200 nm with low PDI values and the zeta potential was negative. GC-MS chromatograms revealed that the chemical compositions of SEOF were not significantly different from that of the original tea seed oil. The morphological study showed that only the SEOF could form film layers. The oil droplets were extracted both from membrane treated with tea seed oil and the SEOF in order to evaluate the chemical compositions by GC-MS.

  18. INFLUENCE OF STATIONARY MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE EARLY STAGES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOBACCO SEEDS (NICOTIANA TABACUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a stationary magnetic field with induction of 0,15 Т at expositions 10 min, 20 min и 30 min, on tobacco seeds (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Harmanly 11 has been investigated. The germination energy GE and the germination G have been determined with the aim of establishing the effect of the magnetic field on seed vitality. It has been found out that the magnetic field stimulates the development of the germ and leads to increasing the germination energy and germination. A hypothesis about the explanation of the results obtained has been proposed, especially about the stimulating effect of the magnetic field treatment.

  19. The in vivo synthesis and accumulation of lectin in developing seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseelan, K N; Mitra, R; Bhatia, C R; Gopalakrishna, T

    2004-01-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) seed contains two D-galactose-specific lectin species, BGL-I and BGL-II, identified on the basis of elution from ion exchange column and immunochemical cross-reactivity. BGL-I consisted of two monomeric lectins, BGL-I-1 and BGL-1-2, of relative molecular weights 94 and 89 kDa, respectively. BGL-II is another monomeric lectin with a molecular weight of 83 kDa. The in vivo synthesis studies using pulse-chase experiment showed that BGL-II lectin was synthesized as early as 14 days after flowering (DAF). The 94-kDa BGL-I-1 lectin was synthesized around 17 DAF. There was no cotranslational or posttranslational modification of the lectin proteins. The amount of lectin in developing seeds was determined by radial immunodiffusion assay technique. The maximum amount of lectin per seed was found at 28 DAF.

  20. How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop's maximum attainable seed quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Muui, C.W.; Struik, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    NJAS wageningen journal of life sciences, Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) Home About Log In Register Search Current Archives KLV Home > Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) > Muasya Font Size: How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop¿s maximum attainable seed quality R.M.

  1. How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop's maximum attainable seed quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Muui, C.W.; Struik, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    NJAS wageningen journal of life sciences, Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) Home About Log In Register Search Current Archives KLV Home > Vol 56, No 1/2 (2008) > Muasya Font Size: How weather during development of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affects the crop¿s maximum attainable seed quality R.M.

  2. Assessing climate change effects on long-term forest development: adjusting growth, phenology, and seed production in a gap model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over 4

  3. Development and Practical Use of RT-PCR for Seed-transmitted Prune dwarf virus in Quarantine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwon Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among imported plants, seeds are the items that have many latent pathogens and are difficult to inspect. Also, they are the import and export items whose market is expected to expand. The biggest problem with seeds is viruses. Prune dwarf virus (PDV is the virus that is commonly inspected in Prunus cerasifera, P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. mandshurica, P. cerasus, P. avium or P. serotina seeds. In this study, two RT-PCR primer sets, which can promptly and specifically diagnose plant quarantine seed-transmitted PDV, were developed; and nested PCR primers, where products amplify 739 and 673 nucleotides (nt, and an nested PCR-product, 305 nt, can be obtained as these products are amplified again, were developed. Also, a modified-positive control plasmid was developed, where the restriction enzyme XhoI, which can identify the contamination of samples from the control, was inserted. The method developed in this study has detected PDV in 18 cases since 2007, and is expected to continuously contribute to the plant quarantine in Korea.

  4. Assessing climate change effects on long-term forest development: adjusting growth, phenology, and seed production in a gap model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over 4

  5. Pollination-, development-, and auxin-specific regulation of gibberellin 3beta-hydroxylase gene expression in pea fruit and seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Jocelyn A; Yu, Jody; Reinecke, Dennis M

    2003-03-01

    To understand further how pollination, seeds, auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid [4-Cl-IAA]), and gibberellins (GAs) regulate GA biosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum) fruit, we studied expression of the gene PsGA3ox1 that codes for the enzyme that converts GA(20) to biologically active GA(1) using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. PsGA3ox1 mRNA levels were minimally detectable in prepollinated pericarps and ovules (-2 d after anthesis [DAA]), increased dramatically after pollination (0 DAA), then decreased by 1 DAA. Seed PsGA3ox1 mRNA levels increased at 4 DAA and again 8 to 12 DAA, when seed development was rapid. Pericarp PsGA3ox1 mRNA levels peaked coincidentally with rapid pod diameter expansion (6-10 DAA) to accommodate the growing seeds. The effects of seeds and hormones on the expression of pericarp PsGA3ox1 were investigated over a 24-h treatment period. Pericarp PsGA3ox1 mRNA levels gradually increased from 2 to 3 DAA when seeds were present; however, when the seeds were removed, the pericarp transcript levels dramatically declined. When 2-DAA deseeded pericarps were treated with 4-Cl-IAA, PsGA3ox1 mRNA levels peaked 4 h after hormone treatment (270-fold increase), then decreased. PsGA3ox1 mRNA levels in deseeded pericarps treated with indole-3-acetic acid or GA(3) were the same or lower than deseeded controls. These data show that PsGA3ox1 is expressed and developmentally regulated in pea pericarps and seeds. These data also show that pericarp PsGA3ox1 expression is hormonally regulated and suggest that the conversion of GA(20) to GA(1) occurs in the pericarp and is regulated by the presence of seeds and 4-Cl-IAA for fruit growth.

  6. Hybrid-Electric Aircraft TOGW Development Tool with Empirically-Based Airframe and Physics-Based Hybrid Propulsion System Component Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-Electric distributed propulsion (HEDP) is becoming widely accepted and new tools will be required for future development. This Phase I SBIR proposal creates a...

  7. Development of on-line sorting system for detection of infected seed potatoes using visible near-infrared transmittance spectral technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Yong; Cho, Byoung Kwan [Dept. of Biosystems Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Chang Yeun [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun Soon [Dept. of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, an online seed potato sorting system using a visible and near infrared (40 1100 nm) transmittance spectral technique and statistical model was evaluated for the nondestructive determination of infected and sound seed potatoes. Seed potatoes that had been artificially infected with Pectobacterium atrosepticum, which is known to cause a soil borne disease infection, were prepared for the experiments. After acquiring transmittance spectra from sound and infected seed potatoes, a determination algorithm for detecting infected seed potatoes was developed using the partial least square discriminant analysis method. The coefficient of determination(R{sup 2}{sub p}) of the prediction model was 0.943, and the classification accuracy was above 99% (n = 80) for discriminating diseased seed potatoes from sound ones. This online sorting system has good potential for developing a technique to detect agricultural products that are infected and contaminated by pathogens.

  8. Peanut gene expression profiling in developing seeds at different reproduction stages during Aspergillus parasiticus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xuanqiang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an important crop economically and nutritionally, and is one of the most susceptible host crops to colonization of Aspergillus parasiticus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Knowledge from molecular genetic studies could help to devise strategies in alleviating this problem; however, few peanut DNA sequences are available in the public database. In order to understand the molecular basis of host resistance to aflatoxin contamination, a large-scale project was conducted to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing seeds to identify resistance-related genes involved in defense response against Aspergillus infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Results We constructed six different cDNA libraries derived from developing peanut seeds at three reproduction stages (R5, R6 and R7 from a resistant and a susceptible cultivated peanut genotypes, 'Tifrunner' (susceptible to Aspergillus infection with higher aflatoxin contamination and resistant to TSWV and 'GT-C20' (resistant to Aspergillus with reduced aflatoxin contamination and susceptible to TSWV. The developing peanut seed tissues were challenged by A. parasiticus and drought stress in the field. A total of 24,192 randomly selected cDNA clones from six libraries were sequenced. After removing vector sequences and quality trimming, 21,777 high-quality EST sequences were generated. Sequence clustering and assembling resulted in 8,689 unique EST sequences with 1,741 tentative consensus EST sequences (TCs and 6,948 singleton ESTs. Functional classification was performed according to MIPS functional catalogue criteria. The unique EST sequences were divided into twenty-two categories. A similarity search against the non-redundant protein database available from NCBI indicated that 84.78% of total ESTs showed significant similarity to known proteins, of which 165 genes had been previously reported in peanuts. There were

  9. Research and Application of High-yield Seed Production Techniques of Hybrid Rice in Ecuador%杂交水稻在厄瓜多尔的高产制种技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚志明

    2011-01-01

    The key techniques of seed production of hybrid rice in Ecuador, such as performance of parents' characters, sowing method of female parent, sowing quantity of parents, CA3 dosage, were researched. The results showed that the optimum key techniques are as follows: direct sowing of female parent, sowing quantity of female parent by 45~50 kg/hm2, GA3 dosage with 600~750 g/hm2. Meanwhile, applying this experimental results in field seed production, it successfully supports the high-yield seed production technique of chinese hybrid rice in Ecuador.%对杂交水稻在厄瓜多尔制种的亲本特性表现、母本播种方式、亲本用种量、GA、用量等关键技术进行了研究,确定了采用母本直播方式、母本用种量45~50 kg/hm3、GA3适宜用量600-750 g/hm2等技术要点,并将试验成果应用于大田制种,成功配套了中国杂交水稻在厄瓜多尔的高产制种技术.

  10. Development of novel biocompatible hybrid nanocomposites based on polyurethane-silica prepared by sol gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashti, Ali; Yahyaei, Hossein; Firoozi, Saman; Ramezani, Sara; Rahiminejad, Ali; Karimi, Roya; Farzaneh, Khadijeh; Mohseni, Mohsen; Ghanbari, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Due to high biocompatibility, polyurethane has found many applications, particularly in development of biomedical devices. A new nanocomposite based on thermoset polyurethane and silica nanoparticles was synthesized using sol-gel method. Sol-gel process was fulfilled in two acidic and basic conditions by using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethoxyisocyanatesilane as precursors. The hybrid films characterized for mechanical and surface properties using tensile strength, contact angle, ATR-FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the hybrids were assessed using standard MTT, LDH and TUNEL assays. The results revealed that incorporation of silica nanoparticles was significantly improved tensile strength and mechanical properties of the hybrids. Based on the contact angle results, silica nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of the hybrids. Biocompatibility by using human lung epithelial cell line (MRC-5) demonstrated that the hybrids were significantly less cytotoxic compared to pristine polymer as tested by MTT and LDH assays. TUNEL assay revealed no signs of apoptosis in all tested samples. The results of this study demonstrated that incorporation of silica nanoparticles into polyurethane lead to the enhancement of biocompatibility, indicating that these hybrids could potentially be used in biomedical field in particular as a new coating for medical implants.

  11. Extractable amounts of trans-resveratrol in seed and berry skin in Vitis evaluated at the germplasm level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Benhong; Wang, Lijun; Li, Shaohua

    2006-11-15

    Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins and seeds were studied in 120 grape (Vitis) germplasm cultivars during two consecutive years to determine the distribution of resveratrol among the main grape genotypes. Interspecific rootstock cultivars had much higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in skin and seed than all other grape genotypes studied in both years. Extremely high extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins [>100 microg g(-1) of skin fresh weight (FW)] and seeds (>20 microg g(-1) of seed FW) were observed on two rootstock cultivars obtained from hybrids of V. monticula x V. riparia. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berries of rootstock cultivars that are the descendants of V. riparia were also very high. The cultivated European type (V. vinifera) cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low levels of extractable resveratrol in berry skin and seed, and the extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were, with a few exceptions, <2 microg g(-1) of skin or seed FW. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were closely related with fruit traits or purpose of uses and climate. Significantly higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin were found in seeded cultivars than in seedless ones, in both berry skin and seeds in winemaking grapes than in table grapes, and in red grapes than in green ones. Moreover, rainfall during fruit development resulted in higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin, whereas resveratrol synthesis and accumulation in grape seeds were not related to climate change.

  12. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure...

  13. Soil Seed Bank and Plant Community Development in Passive Restoration of Degraded Sandy Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renhui Miao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of passive restoration on soil seed bank and vegetation recovery, we measured the species composition and density of the soil seed bank, as well as the species composition, density, coverage, and height of the extant vegetation in sites passively restored for 0, 4, 7, and 12 years (S0, S4, S7, and S12 in a degraded grassland in desert land. Compared with S0, three more species in the soil seed bank at depths of 0–30 cm and one more plant species in the community was detected in S12. Seed density within the topsoil (0–5 cm was five times higher in S12 than that in S0. Plant densities in S7 and S12 were triple and quadruple than that in S0. Plant coverage was increased by 1.5 times (S4, double (S7, and triple (S12 compared with S0. Sørensen’s index of similarity in species composition between the soil seed bank and the plant community were high (0.43–0.63, but it was lower in short-term restoration sites (S4 and S7 than that in no and long-term restoration sites (S0 and S12. The soil seed bank recovered more slowly than the plant community under passive restoration. Passive restoration is a useful method to recover the soil seed bank and vegetation in degraded grasslands.

  14. A statistical model for estimating maternal-zygotic interactions and parent-of-origin effects of QTLs for seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Li

    Full Text Available Proper development of a seed requires coordinated exchanges of signals among the three components that develop side by side in the seed. One of these is the maternal integument that encloses the other two zygotic components, i.e., the diploid embryo and its nurturing annex, the triploid endosperm. Although the formation of the embryo and endosperm contains the contributions of both maternal and paternal parents, maternally and paternally derived alleles may be expressed differently, leading to a so-called parent-of-origin or imprinting effect. Currently, the nature of how genes from the maternal and zygotic genomes interact to affect seed development remains largely unknown. Here, we present a novel statistical model for estimating the main and interaction effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs that are derived from different genomes and further testing the imprinting effects of these QTLs on seed development. The experimental design used is based on reciprocal backcrosses toward both parents, so that the inheritance of parent-specific alleles could be traced. The computing model and algorithm were implemented with the maximum likelihood approach. The new strategy presented was applied to study the mode of inheritance for QTLs that control endoreduplication traits in maize endosperm. Monte Carlo simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical properties of the new model with the data simulated under different imprinting degrees. The false positive rate of imprinting QTL discovery by the model was examined by analyzing the simulated data that contain no imprinting QTL. The reciprocal design and a series of analytical and testing strategies proposed provide a standard procedure for genomic mapping of QTLs involved in the genetic control of complex seed development traits in flowering plants.

  15. Endosperm degradation during seed development of Echinocystis lobata (Cucurbitaceae) as a manifestation of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, Marzena; Olszewska, Maria J

    2003-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an active, genetically controlled process that ultimately leads to elimination of unnecessary or damaged cells from multicellular organism. It occurs during normal growth and development or in response to a variety of environmental triggers and is indispensable for survival of the organism. In Echinocystis lobata the endosperm, an ephemeral tissue in angiosperm plants, undergoes distinct cytological, physiological and molecular changes during seed development and maturation. As a result, mature seeds are deprived of this tissue. The endosperm was analyzed at the consecutive stages of seed development. The morphological changes of cells were studied at light and electron microscope levels. In this paper we report that endosperm cells undergo morphological and biochemical changes characteristic of apoptosis, a particular type of PCD, i.e. cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and cytoplasm degradation, while the ultrastructure of mitochondria seems to be less changed. Furthermore, the progression of DNA degradation has been shown by agarose gel electrophoresis (ladder pattern of DNA fragmentseparation), TUNEL and comet assay. It isconcluded that during seed maturation, endosperm degradation process is accompanied by typical PCD-related changes of cell morphology and internucleosomal DNA cleavage.

  16. Increased Maternal Genome Dosage Bypasses the Requirement of the FIS Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 in Arabidopsis Seed Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kradolfer, David; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Seed development in flowering plants is initiated after a double fertilization event with two sperm cells fertilizing two female gametes, the egg cell and the central cell, leading to the formation of embryo and endosperm, respectively. In most species the endosperm is a polyploid tissue inheriting two maternal genomes and one paternal genome. As a consequence of this particular genomic configuration the endosperm is a dosage sensitive tissue, and changes in the ratio of maternal to paternal contributions strongly impact on endosperm development. The FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED (FIS) Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is essential for endosperm development; however, the underlying forces that led to the evolution of the FIS-PRC2 remained unknown. Here, we show that the functional requirement of the FIS-PRC2 can be bypassed by increasing the ratio of maternal to paternal genomes in the endosperm, suggesting that the main functional requirement of the FIS-PRC2 is to balance parental genome contributions and to reduce genetic conflict. We furthermore reveal that the AGAMOUS LIKE (AGL) gene AGL62 acts as a dosage-sensitive seed size regulator and that reduced expression of AGL62 might be responsible for reduced size of seeds with increased maternal genome dosage. PMID:23326241

  17. Flavonoids from leaves of Derris urucu: assessment of potential effects on seed germination and development of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EWERTON A.S. DA SILVA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In some previous studies, we described the isolation of nine compounds from leaves of Derris urucu, a species found widely in the Amazon rainforest, identified as five stilbenes and four dihydroflavonols. In this work, three of these dihydroflavonols [urucuol A (1, urucuol B (2 and isotirumalin (3] were evaluated to identify their potential as allelochemicals, and we are also reporting the isolation and structural determination of a new flavonoid [5,3′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-(7,6:5″,6″-2″,2″-dimethylpyranoflavanone (4]. We investigated the effects of the dihydroflavonols 1-3 on seed germination and radicle and hypocotyl growth of the weed Mimosa pudica, using solutions at 150 mg.L–1. Urucuol B, alone, was the substance with the greatest potential to inhibit seed germination (26%, while isotirumalin showed greater ability to reduce the development of the hypocotyl (25%, but none of the three substances showed the potential to inhibit radicle. When combined in pairs, the substances showed synergism for the development of root and hypocotyl and effects on seed germination that could be attributed to antagonism. When tested separately, the trend has become more intense effects on seed germination, while for the substances tested in pairs, the intensity of the effect was greater on development of weed.

  18. Agronomic importance of first development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under semi-arid conditions: II. Seed imbibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukan, H; Bayraktar, N; Oksel, A; Gursoy, M; Kocak, N

    2012-02-15

    Due to the slowness growth and weakness of the first developments of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), it could not combated with weeds and easily caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr.) disease. Additionally, due to biotic and abiotic stress factors, esp. at the late sowing, important seed yield losses could be happened. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate of its first development as possible as. So, one of the best solutions to is to use chemical compounds such as Humic Acid (HA) known soil regulator under the semi-arid conditions. With this aim this research was performed in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications under semi-arid field conditions during (2008/2009) and (2009/2010) in Turkiye. Two cultivars (V1 = Gokce and V2 = Ispanyol) and four seed imbibition methods (A0 = 0, A1 = Tap Water, A2 = 1/2 Tap Water + 1/2 Humic acid (HA), A3 = Full HA, as w/w) and seven yield components Plant Height (PH), Number of Branches per Plant (NBP), Number of Pods per Plant (NPP), First Pod Height (NFP), Number of Seeds per Pod (NSP), Seed Weight per Plant (SWP) and 100-Seed weight (HSW) were investigated. The PH and FPH were affected the A0, the NBP, NPP and NSP were affected the A2 and the SWP and HSW were given the varied but not clear responses according to varieties for all the parameters in A1. The A0 and A1 were encouraged the germination and top soil of the plant but, the A2 to A3 were encouraged root system's development. It was concluded that the A2 is a promising method which makes the maximum and positive effect to the first development of the chickpea agronomy under the semi-arid conditions.

  19. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.: a transcriptomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar R V

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L., a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae, is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA. At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb, with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%, of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34% and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%. A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research

  20. An isentropic and sigma coordinate hybrid numerical model - Model development and some initial tests. [for atmospheric simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccellini, L. W.; Johnson, D. R.; Schlesinger, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A solution is presented for matching boundary conditions across the interface of an isentropic and sigma coordinate hybrid model. A hybrid model based on the flux form of the primitive equations is developed which allows direct vertical exchange between the model domains, satisfies conservation principles with respect to transport processes, and maintains a smooth transition across the interface without need for artificial adjustment or parameterization schemes. The initial hybrid model simulations of a jet streak propagating in a zonal channel are used to test the feasibility of the hybrid model approach. High efficiency of the hybrid model is demonstrated.

  1. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Astudillo-Reyes

    Full Text Available Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA. Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381 were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP, zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF and heavy metal associated (HMA family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager.

  2. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C; Cichy, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager.

  3. Environmental factors during seed development and their influence on pre-harvest sprouting in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciha, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The problem of pre-harvest sprouting of wheat is surveyed and a literature review of the effects of environmental conditions on pre-harvest sprouting is presenting. Physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes occurring within the wheat seed during germination, harvest, and storage are discussed. The effects of moisture, humidity, and temperature, particularly on seed dormancy, are considered. Procedures used in Europe for predicting the potential for sprouting are evaluated.

  4. ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM 1 is involved in development of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Griffiths

    Full Text Available Mutants in the rice PLASTOCHRON 3 and maize VIVIPAROUS 8 genes have been shown to have reduced dormancy and ABA levels. In this study we used several mutants in the orthologous gene ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM 1 (AMP1 to determine its role in seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Here we report that there are accession-specific effects of mutations in AMP1. In one accession, amp1 mutants produce seeds with higher dormancy, while those in two other accessions produce seeds of lower dormancy. These accession-specific effects of mutating AMP1 were shown to extend to ABA levels. We assayed global gene transcription differences in seeds of wild-type and mutant from two accessions demonstrating opposing phenotypes. The transcript changes observed indicate that the amp1 mutation shifts the seed transcriptome from a dormant into an after-ripened state. Specific changes in gene expression in the mutants give insight into the direct and indirect effects that may be contributing to the opposing dormancy phenotypes observed, and reveal a role for AMP1 in the acquisition and/or maintenance of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis.

  5. Seed vigour and seed lot quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekić Slavoljub S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses seed vigour as the most important seed characteristic the seed lot quality depends on. In Serbian, the terms such as vigor, viability and germ inability are used in various ways, depending on the author, which leaves room to possible misunderstanding in interpretation of research results and misuse of expert terminology. The modest lexical fund, compared to that of the English language, for instance, greatly contributes to the problem, and so does the absence of terminological standardization. Since the current technology and research level in seed science and technology requires appropriate terminology, this article offers an outline of basic seed traits related expert terminology as a foundation of future seed research and technology development. .

  6. Cattle and sheep develop preference for drinking water containing grape seed tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, S L; Schauer, C S

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of small amounts of some types of condensed tannins (CTs) by ruminant livestock can provide nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, practical methods are needed to make these tannins more available to ruminant livestock. Results from previous trials with crude quebracho and black wattle tannin indicated that cattle and/or sheep would not preferentially drink water containing these tannins. Therefore, we conducted preference trials to determine if cattle and sheep would learn to prefer water containing purified grape seed tannin (GST) that provided up to 2% of their daily dry matter (DM) intake. After gradual exposure to increasing amounts of this tannin in water during a pre-trial period, five adult ewes and five yearling heifers fed lucerne (Medicago sativa) pellets (19% CP) were offered water and several concentrations of GST solutions for either 15 (sheep trial) or 20 days (cattle trial). We measured intake of all liquids daily. Concentrations of blood urea were also measured for heifers when they drank only tannin solutions or water. Both sheep and cattle developed preferences for water with GST in it over water alone (P water alone and all tannin solutions (in total) was 0.6 and 6.1 l, respectively. For the cattle, mean daily intake of water and all tannin solutions in total was 21.8 and 20.6 l, respectively, in the first half of the trial and 10.8 and 26.1 l, respectively, in the second half of the trial. Compared with the other tannin solutions, both sheep and cattle drank more of the solution with the highest tannin concentration (2% of daily DM intake as GST) than of water on more trial days (P water with the highest concentration of GST reduced blood plasma urea concentration in the cattle by 9% to 14% (P ≤ 0.10) compared with ingestion of water alone. Results from the trials suggest that providing grape seed and perhaps other CTs via drinking water may be a practical way to introduce CTs into sheep and cattle diets.

  7. Roles of ABA Signal Transduction during Higher Plant Seed Development and Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Hongbo; Liang Zongsuo; Shao Mingan

    2003-01-01

    ABA is one of the 5 phytohormones in higher plants, which is also the most important hormone that regulates higher plants in response to environmental stress, by ABA signal transduction. Understanding ABA signal transduction at the molecular level is crucial to biology and ecology, and rational breeding complied with corresponding eco-environmental changes.Great advancements have taken place over the past 10 years by application of the 4rabidopsis experimental system. Many components involved in ABA signal transduction have been isolated and identified and a clear overall picture of gene expression and control for this transduction has become an Accepted fact. On the basis of the work in our laboratory, in conjunction with the data available at the moment, the authors have attempted to integrate ABA signal transduction pathways into a common one and give some insights into the relationship between ABA signal transduction and other hormone signal transduction pathways, with an emphasis upon the ABA signal transduction during higher plant seed development. A future challenge in this field is that different experimental systems are applied and various receptors and genes need to be characterized through the utilization of microarray chips.

  8. Development and characterization of electrosprayed Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum nanoparticles for encapsulation of d-limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshakhlagh, Khadije; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Allafchian, Alireza

    2017-03-15

    In this study, the feasibility of developing Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) nanocapsules containing d-limonene by electrospraying has been investigated. d-limonene emulsions with constant AHSG (0.5% w/w) and various flavor concentrations (10-30% based on gum weight) with 0.1% Tween 20 were electrosprayed at 20kV and 0.1ml/h of flow rate. The effects of key parameters of emulsions (rheological properties, droplet size, surface tension and electrical conductivity) on the morphology of structures have been studied. The morphology of nanocapsules had strong dependency on solution properties. The aggregated irregular shaped nanoparticles were obtained from electrospraying of AHSG solution. After incorporation of 10 and 20% d-limonene, spherical nanocapsules were yielded. However, morphology of nanocapsules changed to nanofibers by increasing the flavor content to 30%. The encapsulation efficiency for 10 and 20% d-limonene loaded nanocapsules was around 87-93%. Attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also employed to study the physicochemical characteristics of nanocapsules. These experiments provided evidences that electrosprayed AHSG nanoparticles introduce a novel and efficient carrier for encapsulation of bioactive ingredients.

  9. Development and chemical and sensory characterization of pumpkin seed flour-based cereal bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovane Santana Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, popularly known as squash, is a widely grown vegetable in Brazil. In this study, pumpkin seed flours (PSF with different granulometries were used: PSF 1 (medium granulometry and PSF 2 (coarse granulometry in the preparation of cereal bars (CB with different combinations with brown oats. Five formulations were prepared: CB-1 (control - 25% brown oats and 0% PSF; CB-2 (12.5% PSF 1 and 12.5% brown oats; CB-3 (25% PSF 1 and 0% brown oats; CB-4 (12.5% PSF 2 and 12.5% brown oats; and CB-5 (25% PSF 2 and 0% brown oats. The acceptance test results were analyzed in a conventional preference mapping which indicated that the bars CB-2 and CB-5 received mostly the maximum hedonistic score. With the objective of developing a cereal bar replacing oats with PSF, the bars CB-2 and CB-5 were compared to the conventional bar CB-1. The cereal bars CB-2 and CB-5 showed an increase in crude protein (87.5% and 62.5% and in dietary fiber (77% and 44%, respectively. These results allowed the classification of CB-2 and CB-5 as fiber sources; they can, therefore, be classified as light products according to the Brazilian legislation.

  10. Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-07-01

    Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications.

  11. Development of calcium pectinate-tamarind seed polysaccharide mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-01-30

    Novel mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl made of low methoxy (LM) pectin-tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) polymer-blend was developed through ionotropic-gelation technique and optimized using 3(2) factorial design. Effects of LM pectin and TSP amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h) were analyzed using response surface methodology. The optimized calcium pectinate-TSP beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 95.12 ± 4.26%, R10h of 46.53 ± 3.28%, and mean diameter of 1.93 ± 0.26 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  12. Blends of jackfruit seed starch-pectin in the development of mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2013-11-01

    In this work, calcium pectinate-jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seed starch (JFSS) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic-gelation. Effects of pectin and JFSS amounts on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE), and cumulative drug release after 10 h (R10 h) were optimized using 3(2) factorial design. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 94.11 ± 3.92%, R10 h of 48.88 ± 2.02%, and mean diameter of 2.06 ± 0.20 mm. The in vitro drug release from these beads was followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The pH of test mediums was found critical for swelling and mucoadhesion of these beads. The optimized calcium pectinate-JFSS beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  13. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  14. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural

  15. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  16. Child human model development: a hybrid validation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Rooij, L. van; Rodarius, C.; Crandall, J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study presents a development and validation approach of a child human body model that will help understand child impact injuries and improve the biofidelity of child anthropometric test devices. Due to the lack of fundamental child biomechanical data needed to fully develop such models a

  17. A PROPOSED HYBRID AGILE FRAMEWORK MODEL FOR MOBILE APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Khader Almasri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing in mobile application systems and a high competition between companies, that led to increase in the number of mobile application projects. Mobile software development is a group of process for creating software for mobile devices with limited resources like small screen, low-power. The development of mobile applications is a big challenging because of rapidly changing business requirements and technical constraints for mobile systems. So, developers faced the challenge of a dynamic environment and the Changing of mobile application requirements. Moreover, Mobile applications should adapt appropriate software development methods that act in response efficiently to these challenges. However, at the moment, there is limited knowledge about the suitability of different software practices for the development of mobile applications. According to many researchers ,Agile methodologies was found to be most suitable for mobile development projects as they are short time, require flexibility, reduces waste and time to market. Finally, in this research we are looking for a suitable process model that conforms to the requirement of mobile application, we are going to investigate agile development methods to find a way, making the development of mobile application easy and compatible with mobile device features.

  18. Characterization of seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum (Orchidaceae promoted by mycorrhizal fungi Epulorhiza spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtopodium glutiniferum is an endemic orchid of Brazil with potential medicinal and ornamental applications. As mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the initiation of the orchid life cycle, the aim of this study was to determine the strains of mycorrhizal fungi suitable for seed germination and protocorm development of C. glutiniferum and to characterize the symbiotic development of protocorms. Seeds of C. glutiniferum were inoculated with nine mycorrhizal fungi, Epulorhiza spp., Ceratorhiza spp., Rhizoctonia sp., originally isolated from Brazilian neotropical orchids. Only Epulorhiza isolates promoted seed germination and protocorm development. Three Epulorhiza isolates (M1, M6 = E. epiphytica, M20 = Epulorhiza sp. promoted protocorm development until leaf production at 63 days. The protocorms are comprised of parenchyma cells delimited by a unistratified epidermis; the parenchyma cells of the upper part of the protocorms are smaller than those located more towards the base. Intact and digested pelotons were observed inside of protocorms implying that the seedlings were capable of mycotrophy. Additionally, the development of a bud primordium only occurred after colonization by fungus. This study suggests that C. glutiniferum has a preference for strains of Epulorhiza and that fungus digestion is essential to protocorm development.

  19. Research and application of hybrid wheat in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Changping

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid wheat is recognized as a preferred approach to improve wheat yield,and it will be a competi-tion focus in high-tech seed industry in the future. We have made a breakthrough for the first time in creation of two-line hybrid wheat system,which reaches the world leading level in wheat research and has laid an important foundation for the future direction of the world wheat research. Similar to hybrid rice,the innovation of two-line hybrid wheat system is another achievement in science and technology. The application of hybrid wheat in China will greatly increase the food production,and make a great significance to food production and food security. This paper introduces the development process and major breakthrough of hybrid wheat in China,and the main bottle-neck and countermeasures in the application of hybrid wheat.

  20. Insights on germinability and desiccation tolerance in developing neem seeds (Azadirachta indica): Role of AOS, antioxidative enzymes and dehydrin-like protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Balram; Sahu, Alok Kumar; Chennareddy, Srinivasa Rao; Soni, Avinash; Naithani, Subhash Chandra

    2017-03-01

    The germinability and desiccation tolerance (DT) in developing seed are regulated by cellular metabolism involving active oxygen species (AOS) and protective proteins during maturation drying. The aim of the present investigation was to unravel the functions of AOS (superoxide, H2O2 and OH-radical), antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT and APX) and dehydrin-like proteins in regulating the germinability and DT in undried and artificially desiccated developing neem seeds. Germination was first observed in seeds of 8 weeks after anthesis (waa) whereas DT was noticed from 9 waa. High levels of superoxide in undried and artificially desiccated seeds of 9 waa were rapidly declined up to 15 waa with simultaneous increase in levels of SOD (quantitative and isoenzymes) that dismutates superoxide with corresponding formation and accumulation of H2O2. Activities and isoenzymes of APX and CAT were promoted in seeds from 9 to 12 waa. Intensity of dehydrin-like proteins increased as development progressed in seeds with higher intensities in slow dried (SD) seeds. Desiccation modulated the metabolism for the acquisition of germinability and DT in the developing neem seeds from 8 to 15 waa by altering the levels of superoxide, H2O2 and OH-radical those possibly act as signalling molecules for reprogramming protective proteins. Desiccation mediated the expression of new bands of SOD and APX in undried as well as SD seeds during 9-12 waa but the bands were more intense in SD seeds. The superoxide and H2O2-regulated intensity of dehydrin-like protein in SD seeds further validated our conclusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.