WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid scaffoldin scaf

  1. Contribution of Scaffoldins to Biomass Degradation by Clostridium Thermocellum: The Effect of Scaffoldin-Deletions on Expression of Other Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qi; Podkaminer, Kara; Resch, Michael G.; Donohoe, Bryon; Olson, Daniel G.; Baker, John O.; Klingeman, Dawn M.; Syed, Mustafa; Wilson, Charlotte M.; Brown, Steven D.; Yang, Shihui; Magnusson, Lauren; Maness, Pin-Ching; Decker, Steve R.; Lynd, Lee R.; Bomble, Yannick J.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2014-04-28

    The cellulosome system contributes greatly to the extreme efficiency of C. thermocellum cellulose degradation. In order to further understand the cellulosome working mechanism, we have knocked out C. thermocellum scaffoldin genes to generate a variety of deletion mutants. The knockout most detrimental to enzymatic hydrolysis by the secretome is that of the primary scaffoldin CipA. Deletion of multiple secondary scaffoldins results in secretome activities intermediate between those of the parent strain and the CipA-knockout mutants. The order of relative secretome activities is the same, whether the cellulosic substrate is microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) or deacetylated acid-pretreated corn stover (DACS), but the relative magnitudes of the deletion effects are strongly substrate-dependent. Similar trends are observed in fermentation studies of the abilities of the parent and knockout strains themselves to utilize Avicel and DACS. Data from transcriptomic and proteomic studies of these strains when grown on both substrates are used to relate the activity and growth effects of the deletions to their effects on the overall expression of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes by C. thermocellum.

  2. Scaffoldin-borne family 3b carbohydrate-binding module from the cellulosome of Bacteroides cellulosolvens: structural diversity and significance of calcium for carbohydrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Oren; Shimon, Linda J W; Bayer, Edward A; Lamed, Raphael; Frolow, Felix

    2011-06-01

    The potent cellulose-binding modules of cellulosomal scaffoldin subunits belong to the greater family of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). They have generally been classified as belonging to family 3a on the basis of sequence similarity. They form nine-stranded β-sandwich structures with jelly-roll topology. The members of this family possess on their surface a planar array of aromatic amino-acid residues (known as the linear strip) that form stacking interactions with the glucose rings of cellulose chains and have a conserved Ca(2+)-binding site. Intriguingly, the CBM3 from scaffoldin A (ScaA) of Bacteroides cellulosolvens exhibits alterations in sequence that make it more similar to the CBMs of free cellulolytic enzymes, which are classified into CBM family 3b. X-ray structural analysis was undertaken in order to examine the structural consequences of the sequence changes and the consequent family affiliation. The CBM3 crystallized in space group I4(1)22 with one molecule in the asymmetric unit, yielding diffraction to a resolution of 1.83 Å using X-ray synchrotron radiation. Compared with the known structures of other scaffoldin-borne CBMs, a sequence insertion and deletion appear to compensate for each other as both contained an aromatic residue that is capable of contributing to cellulose binding; hence, even though there are alterations in the composition and localization of the aromatic residues in the linear strip its binding ability was not compromised. Interestingly, no Ca(2+) ions were detected in the conserved calcium-binding site, although the module was properly folded; this suggests that the structural role of Ca(2+) is less important than originally supposed. These observations indicate that despite their conserved function the scaffoldin-borne CBMs are more diverse in their sequences and structures than previously assumed. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography

  3. Differences in biomass degradation between newly isolated environmental strains of Clostridium thermocellum and heterogeneity in the size of the cellulosomal scaffoldin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, D E; Koellmeier, T; Zverlov, V V; Liebl, W; Schwarz, W H

    2015-09-01

    Cellulolytic bacterial strains with high activity were isolated from cellulose degrading enrichment cultures derived from thermophilic biogas plants and environmental samples. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the strains revealed >99.8% sequence identity and affiliation with the species Clostridium thermocellum. The strains differed in their ability to degrade crystalline cellulose, especially at an elevated temperature of up to 67 °C and at relatively low pH values (pH 6.5). To evaluate the influence of amino acid sequences on the discrepancies in cellulose degradation efficacy, the gene for the major cellulosomal component CelR was sequenced for all strains. The sequences were found to be almost identical (>99%). In contrast, the cellulosomal scaffoldin gene cipA showed more differences in the amino acid sequence and contained 8 or 9 cohesin modules, which indicated a different size of the cellulosome depending on the isolate. Based on MALDI-TOF MS analysis the relative abundance of important cellulosomal enzyme classes was determined. The strains with better biomass degradation properties (BC1 and NB2) had a significantly higher fraction of xylanases.

  4. Distrofia retiniana com onda rápida escotópica (DRORE associada à síndrome dos cabelos anágenos frouxos (SCAF. Parte I: Achados oftalmológicos Scotopic fast wave retinal dystrophy (SFWRD associated with loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS. Part I: Ophthalmological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Teruo Sato

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever os achados oftalmológicos de nova distrofia macular associada à síndrome dos cabelos anágenos frouxos (SCAF. MÉTODOS: Uma família de onze pacientes, quatro deles afetados ocularmente, foram examinados. Sete pacientes foram submetidos aos seguintes exames: avaliação oftalmológica completa, teste de cores, ecografia, angiografia, campo visual, topografia de papila, eletro-oculograma (EOG, eletrorretinograma (ERG, testes laboratoriais e exame dermatológico, teste de suor, microscopia óptica (MO e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV dos fios de cabelo. Em quatro pacientes, filhos dos afetados, realizamos somente exame oftalmológico, microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura dos fios de cabelo. RESULTADOS: Dos quatro pacientes afetados, em duas irmãs encontramos no fundo de olho dispersões pigmentares em pólo posterior da retina, com coloboma macular. Em dois de seus irmãos foram encontradas as mesmas alterações oculares, com maior pigmentação e coloração amarelada em área macular e ausência de coloboma. Os resultados do eletro-oculograma e eletrorretinograma estavam dentro dos limites de normalidade em três pacientes sem alterações oculares; por outro lado, o eletro-oculograma foi subnormal e o eletrorretinograma foi subnormal com tempo de culminação diminuído (rápido na fase escotópica dos pacientes com a distrofia macular, sugerindo que a alteração dessa distrofia se encontra em nível do epitélio pigmentado da retina. Devido a esse comportamento peculiar do tempo de culminação, este achado pode ser considerado como fundamental para o diagnóstico desta distrofia. A denominação sugerida é de distrofia retiniana com onda rápida escotópica (DRORE. A microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura dos fios de cabelo confirmaram a síndrome dos cabelos anágenos frouxos. CONCLUSÕES: Descrevemos os achados da distrofia retiniana com onda rápida escot

  5. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  6. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  7. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  8. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  9. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  10. ScafBank: a public comprehensive Scaffold database to support molecular hopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bibo YAN; Mengzhu XUE; Bing XIONG; Ke LIU; Dingyu HU; Jingkang SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim:The search for molecules whose bioactivities are similar to those of given compounds or to optimize the initial lead compounds from high throughput screening has attracted increasing interest in recent years.Our goal is to provide a publi-cally searchable database of scaffolds out from a large collection of existing chemical molecules.Results: Although a number of in silico methods have emerged to facilitate this process,which has become known as "scaffold hopping" or "molecular hopping",there is an urgent need for a database system to provide such valuable data in the drug design field.Here we have systematically analyzed a collection of commercially available small molecule databases and a bioactive compound database to identify unique scaffolds and we have built apublically searchable database.The analysis of approximately 4 800 000 of these compounds identified 241 824 unique scaffolds,which are stored in a relational database (http://202.127.30.184:8080/db.html).Each entry in the database is associated with a molecular occurrence and includes its distribution of molecular properties,such as molecular weight,logP,hydrogen bond acceptor number,hydrogen bond donor number,rotatable bond number and ring number.More importantly,for scaffolds derived from the bioactive compounds database,it also contains the original compounds and their target information.Conclusion: This Web-based database system could help researchers in the fields of medicinal and organic chemistry to design novel molecules with properties similar to the original compounds,but built on novel scaffolds.

  11. ScafBank: a public comprehensive Scaffold database to support molecular hopping

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The search for molecules whose bioactivities are similar to those of given compounds or to optimize the initial lead compounds from high throughput screening has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Our goal is to provide a publically searchable database of scaffolds out from a large collection of existing chemical molecules. Results: Although a number of in silico methods have emerged to facilitate this process, which has become known as ”scaffold hopping” or “molecular hoppin...

  12. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  13. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  14. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  15. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  16. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  17. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  18. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  19. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  20. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  1. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  2. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  3. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  4. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  5. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  6. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  7. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  8. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  9. Hybrid armature projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  10. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  11. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  12. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  13. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  14. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  15. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  16. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  17. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  18. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  19. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  20. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  2. Hybrid Unifying Variable Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare new phenomenon of topology change,evolution,hybrid ratio and network characteristics of unified hybrid network theoretical model with unified hybrid supernetwork model,this paper constructed unified hybrid variable supernetwork model(HUVSM).The first layer introduces a hybrid ratio dr,the

  3. Large Unifying Hybrid Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    For depicting multi-hybrid process,large unifying hybrid network model(so called LUHNM)has two sub-hybrid ratios except dr.They are deterministic hybrid ratio(so called fd)and random hybrid ratio(so called gr),respectively.

  4. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankaran Venugopal; K K Rajesh; V Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems...

  5. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  6. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  7. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  8. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  9. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial...

  10. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space is given a na

  11. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  12. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  13. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  14. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  15. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  16. Hybrid Bloch Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Losano, L

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  17. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  18. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  19. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  20. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  1. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  2. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  3. Functional hybrid materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahmi, Amir; Pietsch, Torsten; Mendoza, Cesar; Cheval, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    .... This paper describes our group's achievements towards the development of multifunctional nanostructures via self-assembly of hybrid systems based on the block copolymer PS-b-P4VP and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs...

  4. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Venugopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nontoxic, and not hazardous to store and transport. Solid fuel grains are not highly susceptible to cracks, imperfections, and environmental temperature and are therefore safer to manufacture, store, transport, and use for launch. The status of development based on the experience of the last few decades indicating the maturity of the hybrid rocket technology is given in brief.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.193-200, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.518

  5. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  6. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  7. Hybridity in Disgrace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2015-01-01

    John Maxwell Coetzee's masterpiece-Disgrace is the representative work about post colonialism.The novel describes a series of disgraceful events happened between the white and the black in the post apartheid South Africa.The famous literature theory-hybridity of Homi K.Bhabha is the very key theory to analyze the work.In post apartheid South Africa,hybridity is the only way for the white and the black to coexist.

  8. Hybrid Baryon Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2000-01-01

    We discuss whether a low-lying hybrid baryon should be defined as a three quark - gluon bound state or as three quarks moving on an excited adiabatic potential. We show that the latter definition becomes exact, not only for very heavy quarks, but also for specific dynamics. We review the literature on the signatures of hybrid baryons, with specific reference to strong hadronic decays, electromagnetic couplings, diffractive production and production in psi decay.

  9. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  10. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-16

    hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard. A cosimulation standard de nes interfaces that enable diverse simulation...cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard...V. Peetz, and S. Wolf. The functional mockup interface for tool independent exchange of simulation models. In Proc. of the 8-th International

  11. The Hybrids of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BĂDULESCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization is a fundamental characteristic of postmodernism, included by Ihab Hassan in his “catena” of features. This paper looks into the hybrids of postmodernism, which are the result of migration, displacement and uprooting, the re-visitation of myths, folklore and legends, or projections of their author’s imagination. The hybrids used as examples here are drawn from several novels written by Salman Rushdie, especially The Satanic Verses, two short stories, one by Márquez and the other by Donald Barthelme, Borges’s Book of Imaginary Beings, Cărtărescu’s Encyclopaedia of Dragons and Michelle Cliff’s No Telephone to Heaven. Diverse as they may be, these hybrids emphasize a defining characteristic of postmodernism, which is its pluralism. I conclude that the hybrids of postmodernism are aesthetically or politically subversive. Besides, what makes them difficult to grasp is their unfixed and protean nature. They ask for high leaps of the imagination, a total suspension of disbelief and a complete surrender to the powerful seduction of imagination on the reader’s part.

  12. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  13. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  14. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  15. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  16. Porosity in hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D.W.; Beaucage, G.; Loy, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Multicomponent, or hybrid composites are emerging as precursors to porous materials. Sacrifice of an ephemeral phase can be used to generate porosity, the nature of which depends on precursor structure. Retention of an organic constituent, on the other hand, can add desirable toughness to an otherwise brittle ceramic. We use small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering to examine porosity in both simple and hybrid materials. We find that microphase separation controls porosity in almost all systems studied. Pore distributions are controlled by the detailed bonding within and between phases as well as the flexibility of polymeric constituents. Thus hybridization opens new regions of pore distributions not available in simple systems. We look at several sacrificial concepts and show that it is possible to generate multimodal pore size distributions due to the complicated phase structure in the precursor.

  17. Photoproduction of Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, T

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution I discuss prospects for photoproducing hybrid mesons at CEBAF, based on recent model results and experimental indications of possible hybrids. One excellent opportunity appears to be a search for the I=1, JPC=2+-, neutral "(b2)o" hybrid in (a2 pi)o through diffractive photoproduction. Other notable possibilities accessible through pi+ or pio exchange photoproduction are I=1, JPC=1-+, charged "pi1+" in f1 pi+, (b1 pi)+ and (rho pi)+; piJ(1770)+ in f2 pi+ and (b1 pi)+; pi(1800)+ in f0 pi+, f2 pi+, omega rho+ and (rho pi)+; a1 in f1 pi+ and f2 pi+; and omega in (rho pi)o, omega eta and (K1 K)o.

  18. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  19. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  20. Hybrid Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Luo, Xi; Dai, Xi; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2016-09-01

    We construct a tight-binding model realizing one pair of Weyl nodes and three distinct Weyl semimetals. In the type-I (type-II) Weyl semimetal, both nodes belong to type-I (type-II) Weyl nodes. In addition, there exists a third type, previously undiscovered and dubbed "hybrid Weyl semimetal", in which one Weyl node is of type I while the other is of type II. For the hybrid Weyl semimetal, we further demonstrate the bulk Fermi surfaces and the topologically protected surface states, analyze the unique Landau-level structure and quantum oscillation, and discuss the conditions for possible material realization.

  1. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  2. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  3. THERMALLY CLEAVABLE HYBRID MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gaina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermally cleavable hybrid materials were prepared by the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction of poly(vinyl furfural to N phenylmaleimido-N’-(triethoxysilylpropylurea followed by the sol-gel condensation reaction of trietoxysilyl groups with water and acetic acid. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis, dielectric and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The size of the inorganic silica particles in the hybrid material varied dependent on the silica content. The DSC study of the prepared materials revealed that the cleavage process of the formed cycloadducts takes place at temperatures varying between 143-165°C and is an endothermic process.

  4. The hybrid BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Pfurtscheller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has 2 engines, its main purpose being to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a typical hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI is also composed of 2 BCIs or at least one BCI and another system. Such a hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfil the following four criteria: (i the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii real time processing; and (iv the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces some hybrid BCIs which have already been published or are currently in development or validation, and some concepts for future work. The BCIs described classify 2 EEG patterns: One is the event-related (desynchronisation (ERD, ERS of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP. The hybrid BCI can either have more than one input whereby the inputs are typically processed simultaneously or operate 2 systems sequentially, whereby the first system can act as a “brain switch”. In the case of self-paced operation of a SSVEP-based hand orthosis control with an motor imagery-based switch it was possible to reduce the rate of false positives during resting periods by about 50% compared to the SSVEP BCI alone. It is shown that such a brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Another interesting approach is a hybrid BCI with simultaneous operations of ERD- and SSVEP-based BCIs. Here it is important to prove the existing promising offline simulation results with online experiments. Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and another input. Such an additional input can be a physiological signal like the heart rate but also a signal from an external device like, an eye gaze control system.

  5. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  6. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  7. (Hybrid) Baryons Symmetries and Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1999-01-01

    We construct (hybrid) baryons in the flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. In the limit of adiabatic quark motion, we build proper eigenstates of orbital angular momentum and construct the flavour, spin and J^P of hybrid baryons from the symmetries of the system. The lowest mass hybrid baryon is estimated at approximately 2 GeV.

  8. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  9. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  10. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een s

  11. Organics go hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; Petrozza, Annamaria; Caironi, Mario

    2017-01-01

    From displays to solar cells, the field of organic optoelectronics has come a long way over the past 50 years, but the realization of an electrically pumped organic laser remains elusive. The answer may lie with hybrid organic-inorganic materials called perovskites.

  12. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    Most protocols for distributed, fault-tolerant computation, or multi-party computation (MPC), provide security guarantees in an all-or-nothing fashion. In contrast, a hybrid-secure protocol provides different security guarantees depending on the set of corrupted parties and the computational powe...

  13. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  14. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  15. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  16. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  17. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  18. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  19. Phoxonic Hybrid Superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Redondo, Elena; Huesmann, Hannah; El Boudouti, El-Houssaine; Tremel, Wolfgang; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Fytas, George

    2015-06-17

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the direction-dependent elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation in a supported film of hybrid PMMA (poly[methyl-methacrylate])-TiO2 superlattice (SL). In the direction normal to the layers, this one-dimensional periodic structure opens propagation band gaps for both hypersonic (GHz) phonons and near-UV photons. The high mismatch of elastic and optical impedance results in a large dual phoxonic band gap. The presence of defects inherent to the spin-coating fabrication technique is sensitively manifested in the band gap region. Utilizing Brillouin light scattering, phonon propagation along the layers was observed to be distinctly different from propagation normal to them and can, under certain conditions (SL thickness and substrate elasticity), reveal the nanomechanical properties of the constituent layers. Besides the first realization of unidirectional phoxonic behavior, hybrid (soft-hard) periodic materials are a promising simple platform for opto-acoustic interactions and applications such as filters and Bragg mirrors.

  20. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  1. A Pseudoscalar Hybrid Meson?

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    New experimental information on the non--exotic J^{PC} = 0^{-+} isovector seen at 1.8 GeV by VES yields convincing evidence of its excited gluonic (hybrid) nature when a critical study of alternative quarkonium assignments is made in the context of ^3 P_0 decay by flux--tube breaking. Production of this gluonic excitation via meson exchange is promising, although its two photon production vanishes.

  2. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    Furthermore, a standard duty cycle that is accepted for measuring fuel economy does not exist nor does a focus towards a particular technology. This...expanded into mild hybrid with the addition of a clutch connecting the generator to the transmission and additional energy storage [16-17...speed control and one for engine/generator torque [35]. Urban, Highway, Composite 33%, 27.9%, 49% General vehicle simulation [30]. Urban 19.0

  3. Fibonacci-Pell Hybridities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    We develop a recurrence satisfied by the Fibonacci and Pell families. We then use it to find explicit formulae and generating functions for the hybrids "F[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "F[subscript n]Q[subscript n]" and "L[subscript n]Q[subscript n]", where "F[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]", "P[subscript n]" and…

  4. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  5. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  6. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  7. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ashish

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1) It takes into account the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2) For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, the hybrid auction can result in significantly higher revenue. 3) An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's es...

  8. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  9. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  11. Hybridization in geese: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Herbert H. T. Prins

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large knowledge gap in geese. In this review, we assemble the available information on hybrid geese by focusing on three main themes: (1) incidence and frequency, (2) behavioural mechanisms leading to hybridizatio...

  12. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  13. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  14. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?......The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  15. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  16. Hybrid power semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-10-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  17. Hybrid Random Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Freno, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an exciting new synthesis of directed and undirected, discrete and continuous graphical models. Combining elements of Bayesian networks and Markov random fields, the newly introduced hybrid random fields are an interesting approach to get the best of both these worlds, with an added promise of modularity and scalability. The authors have written an enjoyable book---rigorous in the treatment of the mathematical background, but also enlivened by interesting and original historical and philosophical perspectives. -- Manfred Jaeger, Aalborg Universitet The book not only marks an

  18. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  19. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the ...

  20. Hybrid optofluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joshua W.

    Optofluidics, born of the desire to create a system containing microfluidic environments with integrated optical elements, has seen dramatic increases in popularity over the last 10 years. In particular, the application of this technology towards chip based molecular sensors has undergone significant development. The most sensitive of these biosensors interface liquid- and solid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs). These sensor chips are created using conventional silicon microfabrication. As such, ARROW technology has previously been unable to utilize state-of-the-art microfluidic developments because the technology used--soft polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micromolded chips--is unamenable to the silicon microfabrication workflows implemented in the creation of ARROW detection chips. The original goal of this thesis was to employ hybrid integration, or the connection of independently designed and fabricated optofluidic and microfluidic chips, to create enhanced biosensors with the capability of processing and detecting biological samples on a single hybrid system. After successful demonstration of this paradigm, this work expanded into a new direction--direct integration of sensing and detection technologies on a new platform with dynamic, multi-dimensional photonic re-configurability. This thesis reports a number of firsts, including: • 1,000 fold optical transmission enhancement of ARROW optofluidic detection chips through thermal annealing, • Detection of single nucleic acids on a silicon-based ARROW chip, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and passive PDMS microfluidic chips, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and actively controllable PDMS microfluidic chips with integrated microvalves, • On-chip concentration and detection of clinical Ebola nucleic acids, • Multimode interference (MMI) waveguide based wavelength division multiplexing for detection of single influenza virions,

  1. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.

    1979-09-30

    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  2. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  3. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  4. Analysis of hybrid viscous damper by real time hybrid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Ou, Ge; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    Results from real time hybrid simulations are compared to full numerical simulations for a hybrid viscous damper, composed of a viscous dashpot in series with an active actuator and a load cell. By controlling the actuator displacement via filtered integral force feedback the damping performance...... of the hybrid viscous damper is improved, while for pure integral force feedback the damper stroke is instead increased. In the real time hybrid simulations viscous damping is emulated by a bang-bang controlled Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper. The controller activates high-frequency modes and generates drift...... in the actuator displacement, and only a fraction of the measured damper force can therefore be used as input to the investigated integral force feedback in the real time hybrid simulations....

  5. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A

    2011-08-23

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation.

  6. Suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two RNA populations that differ from the effects of a single independent variable, such as a drug treatment or a specific genetic defect, can establish differences in the abundance of specific transcripts that vary in a population dependent manner. There are different methods for identifying differentially expressed genes. These methods include microarray, Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Herein, the protocol describes an easy and cost-effective alternative that does not require prior knowledge of the transcriptomes under examination. It is specifically relevant when low levels of RNA starting material are available. This protocol describes the use of Switching Mechanism At RNA Termini Polymerase Chain Reaction (SMART-PCR) to amplify cDNA from small amounts of RNA. The amplified cDNA populations under comparison are then subjected to Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-PCR). SSH-PCR is a technique that couples subtractive hybridization with suppression PCR to selectively amplify fragments of differentially expressed genes. The resulting products are cDNA populations enriched for significantly overrepresented transcripts in either of the two input RNAs. These cDNA populations can then be cloned to generate subtracted cDNA library. Microarrays made with clones from the subtracted forward and reverse cDNA libraries are then screened for differentially expressed genes using targets generated from tester and driver total RNAs.

  7. Landmarks in Hybrid Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elkawkagy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although planning techniques achieved a significant progress during recent years, solving many planning problem still difficult even for modern planners. In this paper, we will adopt landmark concept to hybrid planning setting - a method that combines reasoning about procedural knowledge and causalities. Land-marks are a well-known concept in the realm of classical planning. Recently, they have been adapted to hierarchical approaches. Such landmarks can be extracted in a pre-processing step from a declarative hierarchical planning domain and problem description. It was shown how this technique allows for a considerable reduction of the search space by eliminating futile plan development options before the actual planning. Therefore, we will present a new approach to in¬tegrate landmark pre-processing technique in the context of hierarchical planning with landmark technique in the classical planning. This integration allows to incorporate the ability of using extracted landmark tasks from hierarchical domain knowledge in the form of HTN and using landmark literals from classical planning. To this end, we will construct a transformation technique to transform the hybrid planning domain into a classical domain model. The method¬ologies in this paper have been implemented successfully, and we will present some experimental results that give evidence for the consid-erable performance increase gained through planning system.

  8. Overview on hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, M.

    2011-10-01

    Aside of research works, this historical survey shows propulsion units used by students for small satellites and for gas generation, or those for the Space Ship One, even if LOx/HTPB was studied and tested in large motors for its potential very low cost; however, this combination highlights a series of technical problems without any performance advantage over the existing LOx/Kerosene family and never been operational for ETO applications. The particularity of hybrid propulsion is to use the state-of-the-art of both liquids and solids; the only show stopper is the propellant itself. The past work focused on LOx/HTPB (selected for its low cost) appears to be a dead-end (combustion problems and global low performances resulting from a high level of residuals). The solution that appears through the past experience is the addition of hydrides to a binder (HTPB or other) or to a binder and a homogeneous fuel or a mixture of both, with or without others additives; within these solutions some will not present any manufacturing problem and some may have a low cost. Nevertheless, the studies of the following phases have to demonstrate the compatibility of the potential regression rate range with a high-performance global design of a hybrid Motor and the manufacturing at a reasonable cost of a hydride giving a high level of performances.

  9. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  10. Hybrid internet access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vivek; Baras, John S.; Dillon, Douglas; Falk, Aaron; Suphasindhu, Narin

    1995-01-01

    Access to the Internet is either too slow (dial-up SLIP) or too expensive (switched 56 kbps, frame relay) for the home user or small enterprise. The Center for Satellite and Hybrid Communication Networks and Hughes Network Systems have collaborated using systems integration principles to develop a prototype of a low-cost hybrid (dial-up and satellite) newtork terminal which can deliver data from the Internet to the user at rates up to 160 kbps. An asymmetric TCP/IP connection is used breaking the network link into two physical channels: a terrestrial dial-up for carrying data from the terminal into the Internet and a receive-only satellite link carrying IP packets from the Internet to the user. With a goal of supporting bandwidth hungry Internet applications such as Mosaic, Gopher, and FTP, this system has been designed to support any Intel 80386/486 PC, any commercial TCP/IP package, any unmodified host on the Internet, and any of the routers, etc., within the Internet. The design exploits the following three observations: 1) satellites are able to offer high bandwidth connections to a large geographical area, 2) a receive-only VSAT is cheap to manufacture and easier to install than one which can also transmit, and 3) most computer users, especially those in a home environment, will want to consume much more information than they generate. IP encapsulation, or tunneling, issued to manipulate the TCP/IP protocols to route packets asymmetrically.

  11. Unified Hybrid Network Theoretical Model Trilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The first of the unified hybrid network theoretical model trilogy (UHNTF) is the harmonious unification hybrid preferential model (HUHPM), seen in the inner loop of Fig. 1, the unified hybrid ratio is defined.

  12. Chaotic Dynamics in Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  13. Chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  14. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  15. Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

  16. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  17. Hybridity in Embedded Computing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧群; 孙永强

    1996-01-01

    An embedded system is a system that computer is used as a component in a larger device.In this paper,we study hybridity in embedded systems and present an interval based temporal logic to express and reason about hybrid properties of such kind of systems.

  18. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  19. Hybrid Charmonium from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, X Q

    2006-01-01

    We review our recent results on the JPC = 0¡¡ exotic hybrid charmonium mass and JPC = 0¡+, 1¡¡ and 1++ nonexotic hybrid charmonium spectrum from anisotropic improved lattice QCD and discuss the relevance to the recent discovery of the Y(4260) state and future experimental search for other states.

  20. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  1. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  2. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  3. Molecular evidence for hybridization in Colias (Lepidoptera: Pieridae): are Colias hybrids really hybrids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Heather E; Jasieniuk, Marie; Okada, Miki; Shapiro, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow and hybridization among species dramatically affect our understanding of the species as a biological unit, species relationships, and species adaptations. In North American Colias eurytheme and Colias eriphyle, there has been historical debate over the extent of hybridization occurring and the identity of phenotypically intermediate individuals as genetic hybrids. This study assesses the population structure of these two species to measure the extent of hybridization and the genetic identity of phenotypic intermediates as hybrids. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker analysis was performed on 378 specimens collected from northern California and Nevada. Population structure was inferred using a Bayesian/Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which probabilistically assigns individuals to genetic clusters. Three genetic clusters provided the best fit for the data. C. eurytheme individuals were primarily assigned to two closely related clusters, and C. eriphyle individuals were mostly assigned to a third, more distantly related cluster. There appeared to be significant hybridization between the two species. Individuals of intermediate phenotype (putative hybrids) were found to be genetically indistinguishable from C. eriphyle, indicating that previous work based on the assumption that these intermediate forms are hybrids may warrant reconsideration. PMID:26306172

  4. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  5. Auditing Hybrid IT Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Mateescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a personal approach of auditing the hybrid IT environments consisting in both on premise and on demand services and systems. The analysis is performed from both safety and profitability perspectives and it aims to offer to strategy, technical and business teams a representation of the value added by the cloud programme within the company’s portfolio. Starting from the importance of the IT Governance in the actual business environments, we presented in the first section the main principles that drive the technology strategy in order to maximize the value added by IT assets in the business products. Section two summarizes the frameworks leveraged by our approach in order to implement the safety and profitability computation algorithms described in the third section. The paper concludes with benefits of our personal frameworks and presents the future developments.

  6. Hybrid Noncoherent Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Skachek, Vitaly; Nedic, Angelia

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel extension of subspace codes for noncoherent networks, suitable for use when the network is viewed as a communication system that introduces both dimension and symbol errors. We show that when symbol erasures occur in a significantly large number of different basis vectors transmitted through the network and when the min-cut of the networks is much smaller then the length of the transmitted codewords, the new family of codes outperforms their subspace code counterparts. For the proposed coding scheme, termed hybrid network coding, we derive two upper bounds on the size of the codes. These bounds represent a variation of the Singleton and of the sphere-packing bound. We show that a simple concatenated scheme that represents a combination of subspace codes and Reed-Solomon codes is asymptotically optimal with respect to the Singleton bound. Finally, we describe two efficient decoding algorithms for concatenated subspace codes that in certain cases have smaller complexity than subspace decoder...

  7. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  9. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  10. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  11. Photochromic mesoporous hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboin, L.; Matheron, M.; Gacoin, T.; Boilot, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Spirooxazine (SO) photochromic molecules were trapped in sol-gel matrices. In order to increase the colourability and improve mechanical properties of sol-gel photochromic films, we present an original strategy in which SO photochromic molecules were dispersed in mesoporous organized films using the impregnation technique. Well-ordered organosilicate mesoporous coatings with the 3D-hexagonal symmetry were prepared by the sol-gel technique. These robust mesoporous films, which contain high amounts of hydrophobic methyl groups at the pore surface, offer optimized environments for photochromic dyes dispersed by impregnation technique. After impregnation by a spirooxazine solution, the photochromic response is only slightly slower when compared with mesostructured or soft sol-gel matrices, showing that mesoporous organized hybrid matrix are good host for photochromic dyes. Moreover, the molecular loading in films is easily adjustable in a large range using multi-impregnation procedure and increasing the film thickness leading to coatings for optical switching devices.

  12. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  13. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Ørsten, Mark; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    An increasingly complex hybrid system of social- and traditional-news media surrounds Nordic election campaigns as politically experienced incumbents favour traditional news media, and younger, lesser-known candidates’ social media. Despite little evidence for hybrid-media politicians, politicians......’ media use is changing rapidly; 15%–16% of Danish candidates used Twitter in 2011 but 68% in 2015. In this large-sample content analysis, party leaders have high traditional-news-media and low Twitter presence, and younger candidates visa-versa, but some politicians have high presence in both. Hybrid...

  14. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  15. Wankel engine for hybrid powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butti, A. [Univ. of Florence (Italy); Site, V.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Wankel engine is suited to be used to drive hybrid propulsion systems. The main disadvantage of hybrid propulsion systems is the complexity that causes a high weight and large dimensions. For these reason hybrid systems are more suitable for large size vehicle (buses, vans) rather than for small passenger cars. A considerable reduction of hybrid systems weight and dimensions can be obtained using a Wankel rotary engine instead of a conventional engine. The Wankel engine is light, compact, simple, and produces low noise and low vibrations. Therefore a Wankel engine powered hybrid system is suited to be used on small cars. In this paper a 1,000 kg parallel hybrid car with continuously variable transmission and a 6,000 kg series hybrid minibus both equipped with Wankel engines are considered. The Wankel engine works at steady state to minimize fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The simulation of the behavior of these two vehicles during a ECE + EUDC test cycle is presented in order to evaluate the performances of the systems.

  16. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  17. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  18. Pseudovector mesons, hybrids and glueballs

    CERN Document Server

    Burakovsky, L; Burakovsky, Leonid; Page, Philip R.

    2000-01-01

    We consider glueball- (hybrid) meson mixing for the low-lying four pseudovector states. The h_1'(1380) decays dominantly to K*K with some presence in rho pi and omega eta. The newly observed h_1(1600) has a D- to S-wave width ratio to omega eta which does not enable differentiation between a conventional and hybrid meson interpretation. We predict the decay pattern of the isopartner conventional or hybrid meson b_1(1650). A notably narrow s sbar partner h_1'(1810) is predicted.

  19. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types...... the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @iαa , where αa is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that αa receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...

  20. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  1. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  2. HYBRIDIZATION AND CHAMELEONIC JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Schryver Kurtz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda a crescente hibridização entre o Jornalismo e demais formatos midiáticos como resultado natural de um processo que já está na própria raiz da comunicação enquanto atividade histórica. A lógica interna e as potencialidades estéticas e discursivas do fenômeno são analisadas a partir das convergências entre jornalismo e cinema. Para tanto, utiliza o falso documentário Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido por natureza, postulado como um microcosmo rico em pistas e sugestões para refletir sobre a fusão entre conteúdos informativos e não informativos.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hibridização; Jornalismo; Cinema; Zelig.       ABSTRACT The text discusses the growing hybridization between journalism and other media formats as a natural result of a process that is already in the very root of communication while historical activity. The internal logic and the aesthetic and discursive potential of the phenomenon are analyzed through the convergences between journalism and cinema. Therefore, uses the mockumentary Zelig (1983, filmic text of Woody Allen, hybrid by nature, postulated as a microcosm rich in clues and suggestions to reflect about the merger between informative and uninformative content.      KEYWORDS: Hybridization; Journalism; Cinema; Zelig.     RESUMEN El texto aborda la creciente hibridación entre el periodismo y otros formatos de medios como um resultado natural de un proceso que ya está en la raíz misma de la comunicación mientras actividad histórica. Se analizan la lógica interna y el potencial estético y discursivo del fenómeno a través de las convergencias entre el periodismo y el cine. Para ello, utiliza el falso documental Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido en su naturaleza, postulado como un microcosmos rico en pistas y sugerencias para reflexionar sobre la fusión entre contenidos informativos y no informativos.      PALABRAS CLAVE: Hibridaci

  3. Advanced Hybrid Computer Systems. Software Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This software technology final report evaluates advances made in Advanced Hybrid Computer System software technology . The report describes what...automatic patching software is available as well as which analog/hybrid programming languages would be most feasible for the Advanced Hybrid Computer...compiler software . The problem of how software would interface with the hybrid system is also presented.

  4. How common is homoploid hybrid speciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Molly; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization has long been considered a process that prevents divergence between species. In contrast to this historical view, an increasing number of empirical studies claim to show evidence for hybrid speciation without a ploidy change. However, the importance of hybridization as a route to speciation is poorly understood, and many claims have been made with insufficient evidence that hybridization played a role in the speciation process. We propose criteria to determine the strength of evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation. Based on an evaluation of the literature using this framework, we conclude that although hybridization appears to be common, evidence for an important role of hybridization in homoploid speciation is more circumscribed.

  5. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  6. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  7. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  8. Hybrid models for complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    This paper formulates a new approach to complex fluid dynamics, which accounts for microscopic statistical effects in the micromotion. While the ordinary fluid variables (mass density and momentum) undergo usual dynamics, the order parameter field is replaced by a statistical distribution on the order parameter space. This distribution depends also on the point in physical space and its dynamics retains the usual fluid transport features while containing the statistical information on the order parameter space. This approach is based on a hybrid moment closure for Yang-Mills Vlasov plasmas, which replaces the usual cold-plasma assumption. After presenting the basic properties of the hybrid closure, such as momentum map features, singular solutions and Casimir invariants, the effect of Yang-Mills fields is considered and a direct application to ferromagnetic fluids is presented. Hybrid models are also formulated for complex fluids with symmetry breaking. For the special case of liquid crystals, a hybrid formul...

  9. Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has been...

  10. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  11. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  12. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  13. Hybrid Platforms, Tools, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.; Bruenjes, Linda S.; Smith, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses common tools and resources for building a hybrid course in a higher education setting and provides recommendations for best practices in Learning Management Systems and Open Educational Resources.

  14. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  15. Ion-atom hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Willitsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The study of interactions between simultaneously trapped cold ions and atoms has emerged as a new research direction in recent years. The development of ion-atom hybrid experiments has paved the way for investigating elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions between these species at very low temperatures, for exploring new cooling mechanisms of ions by atoms and for implementing new hybrid quantum systems. The present lecture reviews experimental methods, recent results and upcoming developments in this emerging field.

  16. Information component of hybrid war

    OpenAIRE

    Bohdanov, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid warfare in the three-dimensional coordinate system «Matter-Information-measure» is considering. In particular, the information component is highlighted and analyzed. The factors of preparation of information operations is defined, which are disclosed as an example of experience of volunteer group information warfare of Institute of special communication and information security of NTUU «KPI».Keywords: coordinate system «Matter-Information-Measure» hybrid warfare, information componen...

  17. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...... processes to be embedded into the logic. The semantics thus provides a secure link to hybrid system models based on a general theory of dynamical systems....

  18. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  19. Hybrid cluster identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Herrero, J.

    2004-10-01

    I present a hybrid method for the labelling of clusters in two-dimensional lattices, which combines the recursive approach with iterative scanning to reduce the stack size required by the pure recursive technique, while keeping its benefits: single pass and straightforward cluster characterization and percolation detection parallel to the labelling. While the capacity to hold the entire lattice in memory is usually regarded as the major constraint for the applicability of the recursive technique, the required stack size is the real limiting factor. Resorting to recursion only for the transverse direction greatly reduces the recursion depth and therefore the required stack. It also enhances the overall performance of the recursive technique, as is shown by results on a set of uniform random binary lattices and on a set of samples of the Ising model. I also show how this technique may replace the recursive technique in Wolff's cluster algorithm, decreasing the risk of stack overflow and increasing its speed, and the Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm in the Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithm, allowing effortless characterization during generation of the samples and increasing its speed.

  20. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  1. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  2. Hybrid manifold embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yan; Chan, Keith C C; Hua, Kien A

    2014-12-01

    In this brief, we present a novel supervised manifold learning framework dubbed hybrid manifold embedding (HyME). Unlike most of the existing supervised manifold learning algorithms that give linear explicit mapping functions, the HyME aims to provide a more general nonlinear explicit mapping function by performing a two-layer learning procedure. In the first layer, a new clustering strategy called geodesic clustering is proposed to divide the original data set into several subsets with minimum nonlinearity. In the second layer, a supervised dimensionality reduction scheme called locally conjugate discriminant projection is performed on each subset for maximizing the discriminant information and minimizing the dimension redundancy simultaneously in the reduced low-dimensional space. By integrating these two layers in a unified mapping function, a supervised manifold embedding framework is established to describe both global and local manifold structure as well as to preserve the discriminative ability in the learned subspace. Experiments on various data sets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  4. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  5. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  6. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  7. Hybridization in a warmer world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunco, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is profoundly affecting the evolutionary trajectory of individual species and ecological communities, in part through the creation of novel species assemblages. How climate change will influence competitive interactions has been an active area of research. Far less attention, however, has been given to altered reproductive interactions. Yet, reproductive interactions between formerly isolated species are inevitable as populations shift geographically and temporally as a result of climate change, potentially resulting in introgression, speciation, or even extinction. The susceptibility of hybridization rates to anthropogenic disturbance was first recognized in the 1930s. To date, work on anthropogenically mediated hybridization has focused primarily on either physical habitat disturbance or species invasion. Here, I review recent literature on hybridization to identify how ecological responses to climate change will increase the likelihood of hybridization via the dissolution of species barriers maintained by habitat, time, or behavior. Using this literature, I identify several cases where novel hybrid zones have recently formed, likely as a result of changing climate. Future research should focus on identifying areas and taxonomic groups where reproductive species interactions are most likely to be influenced by climate change. Furthermore, a better understanding of the evolutionary consequences of climate-mediated secondary contact is urgently needed. Paradoxically, hybridization is both a major conservation concern and an important source of novel genetic and phenotypic variation. Hybridization may therefore both contribute to increasing rates of extinction and stimulate the creation of novel phenotypes that will speed adaptation to novel climates. Predicting which result will occur following secondary contact will be an important contribution to conservation for many species.

  8. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Flor; Ghislain, Marc; Clausen, Andrea M; Jansky, Shelley H; Spooner, David M

    2010-10-01

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. Using DNA sequence data of the waxy gene, we here infer relationships among the four species of cultivated potatoes accepted in the latest taxonomic treatment (S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii and S. tuberosum, the latter divided into the Andigenum and Chilotanum Cultivar Groups). The data support prior ideas of hybrid origins of S. ajanhuiri from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. megistacrolobum; S. juzepczukii from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. acaule; and S. curtilobum from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (4x = S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum) × S. juzepczukii. For the tetraploid cultivar-groups of S. tuberosum, hybrid origins are suggested entirely within much more closely related species, except for two of three examined accessions of the S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group that appear to have hybridized with the wild species S. maglia. Hybrid origins of the crop/weed species S. sucrense are more difficult to support and S. vernei is not supported as a wild species progenitor of the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group.

  9. Somatic hybridization in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabel, F

    1976-11-01

    Somatic hybridization in higher plants has come into focus since methods have been established for protoplast fusion and uptake of foreign DNA and organelles by protoplasts. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was an effective agent for inducing fusion. Treatment of protoplasts with PEG resulted in 5 to 30% heterospecific fusion products. Protoplasts of different species, genera and even families were compatible when fused. A number of protoplast combinations (soybean + corn, soybean + pea, soybean + tobacco, carrot + barley, etc.) provided fusion products which underwent cell division and callus formation. Fusion products initially were heterokaryocytes. In dividing heterokaryocytes, random distribution of mitotic nuclei was observed to be accompanied by multiple wall formation and to result in chimeral callus. Juxtaposition of mitotic nuclei suggested nuclear fusion and hybrid formation. Fusion of heterospecific interphase nuclei was demonstrated in soybean + pea and carrot + barley heterokaryons. Provided parental protoplasts carry suitable markers, the fusion products can be recognized. For the isolation and cloning of hybrid cells, fusion experiments must be supplemented with a selective system. Complementation of two non-allelic genes that prevent or inhibit growth under special culture conditions appears as the principle on which to base the selection of somatic hybrids. As protoplasts of some species have been induced to regenerate entire plants, the development of hybrid plants from protoplast fusion products is feasible and has already been demonstrated for tobacco.

  10. Symbolic Algorithmic Analysis of Rectangular Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bin Zhang; Zhen-Hua Duan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems. To deal with the symbolic reachability problem, a restricted constraint system called hybrid zone is formalized for the representation and manipulation of rectangular automata state-spaces. Hybrid zones are proved to be closed over symbolic reachability operations of rectangular hybrid systems. They are also applied to model-checking procedures for verifying some important classes of timed computation tree logic formulas. To represent hybrid zones, a data structure called difference constraint matrix is defined.These enable us to deal with the symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems in an efficient way.

  11. DNA-based hybrid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphere interactions provided by the DNA are key to achieve high enantioselectivities and, often, additional rate accelerations in catalysis. Nowadays, current efforts are focused on improved designs, understanding the origin of the enantioselectivity and DNA-induced rate accelerations, expanding the catalytic scope of the concept and further increasing the practicality of the method for applications in synthesis. Herein, the recent developments will be reviewed and the perspectives for the emerging field of DNA-based hybrid catalysis will be discussed.

  12. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    systems are derived in this thesis. The results are used for output feedback control of switched nonlinear systems. Model reduction of piecewise affine systems is also studied in this thesis. The proposed method is based on the reduction of linear subsystems inside the polytopes. The methods which......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  13. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  14. Intercalated hybrid graphite fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is directed to a highly conductive lightweight hybrid material and methods of producing the same. The hybrid composite is obtained by weaving strands of a high strength carbon or graphite fiber into a fabric-like structure, depositing a layer of carbon onto the structure, heat treating the structure to graphitize the carbon layer, and intercalating the graphitic carbon layer structure. A laminate composite material useful for protection against lightning strikes comprises at least one layer of the hybrid material over at least one layer of high strength carbon or graphite fibers. The composite material of the present invention is compatible with matrix compounds, has a coefficient of thermal expansion which is the same as underlying fiber layers, and is resistant to galvanic corrosion in addition to being highly conductive. These materials are useful in the aerospace industry, in particular as lightning strike protection for airplanes.

  15. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Changwang; Cox, Ingemar J; Chain, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by \\textit{local spreading}, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and \\textit{global spreading}, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. In a metapopulation, made up of many weakly connected subpopulations, we show that one can calculate an optimal tradeoff between local and global spreading which will maximise the extent of the epidemic. As an example we analyse the 2008 outbreak of the Internet worm Conficker, which uses hybrid spreading to propagate through the internet. Our results suggests that the worm would have been eve...

  16. New Supercapacitors of Hybrid Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wako Naoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of the energydensity of nano-composite battery materials hasbeen object of great study. Hybridizing battery andcapacitor materials overcome the energy densitylimitation of existing generation-I capacitors withoutmuch sacrificing the cycling performances. Normalbattery-capacitor hybrids employ high-energy &sluggish redox electrode and low-energy & fastdouble-layer electrodes, possibly producing a largerworking voltage and higher over-all capacitance. Inorder to smoothly operate such asymmetric systems,however, the rates of the two different electrodes mustbe highly balanced. Especially, the redox rates of thebattery electrodes must be substantially increasedto the levels of double-layer process. In this report,we attempt to identify the essential issues for therealizable hybrids and suggest ways to overcomethe rate enhancement by exemplifying ultrafastperformance of the Li4Ti5O12 nanocrystal preparedvia a unique in-situ material processing technologyunder ultra-centrifuging.

  17. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  18. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  19. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    The economic importance of the ornamental plant industry requires constant development of novel and high quality varieties. Traits attractive for production of new ornamental plants may not be available within the commercial cultivars, but broad genetic variation is present within the plant genera...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...

  20. Essentialism, hybridism and cultural critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    to social and cultural critique. Through a critical discussion of the concept of hybridity, I argue that rather than expecting to find definite emancipating or suppressing capacities connected to constructions of the ‘hybrid' and the ‘pure', we should focus on how these two poles are invested with meaning...... assuming that certain social forms carry a critical, emancipating or suppressing potential per se....... and related to power. Hence, while insisting on Cultural Studies' commitment to social and cultural critique, I argue that this critique would benefit from an analytical sensitivity towards the uses and abuses of the discursive power to designate meaningful and legitimate subject positions, rather than...

  1. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four...... sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology...

  2. Hybrid Simulation of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jacob Herold

    Hybrid simulation is a substructural method combining a numerical simulation with a physical experiment. A structure is thereby simulated under the assumption that a substructure’s response is well known and easily modelled while a given substructure is studied more accurately in a physical...... of freedom. In this dissertation the main focus is to develop hybrid simulation for composite structures e.g. wind turbine blades where the boundary between the numerical model and the physical experiment is continues i.e. in principal infinite amount of degrees of freedom. This highly complicates...

  3. Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Deshui; Hufnagel, C; Kwek, L C; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a novel hybrid system of a superconducting charge qubit interacting directly with a single neutral atom via electric dipole coupling. Interfacing of the macroscopic superconducting circuit with the microscopic atomic system is accomplished by varying the gate capacitance of the charge qubit. To achieve strong interaction, we employ two Rydberg states with an electric-dipole-allowed transition, which alters the polarizability of the dielectric medium of the gate capacitor. Sweeping the gate voltage with different rates leads to a precise control of hybrid quantum states. Furthermore, we show a possible implementation of a universal two-qubit gate.

  4. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Compressed bitmap indexes are increasingly used for efficiently querying very large and complex databases. The Word Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression scheme is commonly recognized as the most efficient compression scheme in terms of CPU efficiency. However, WAH compressed bitmaps use a lot...... of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH...

  5. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    The economic importance of the ornamental plant industry requires constant development of novel and high quality varieties. Traits attractive for production of new ornamental plants may not be available within the commercial cultivars, but broad genetic variation is present within the plant genera...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...

  6. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold;

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid winding concept for toroids using the traces in a printed circuit board to make connection to bended copper foil cutouts. In a final product a number of strips with a certain thickness would be held by a former and the whole assembly could be placed by pick...... and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...

  7. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) ar...

  8. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  9. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  10. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  11. How to distinguish Hybrids from Radial Quarkonia

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Francis Edwin; Close, Frank E; Page, Philip R.

    1997-01-01

    We present arguments that reinforce the hybrid interpretation of pi(1800) and we establish that the rho(1450) and the omega(1420) can be interpreted as radial-hybrid mixtures. Some questions for future experiments are raised.

  12. Modeling and analysis using hybrid Petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    Ghomri, Latéfa

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the use of hybrid Petri nets (PNs) for modeling and control of hybrid dynamic systems (HDS). Modeling, analysis and control of HDS attract ever more of researchers' attention and several works have been devoted to these topics. We consider in this paper the extensions of the PN formalism (initially conceived for modeling and analysis of discrete event systems) in the direction of hybrid modeling. We present, first, the continuous PN models. These models are obtained from discrete PNs by the fluidification of the markings. They constitute the first steps in the extension of PNs toward hybrid modeling. Then, we present two hybrid PN models, which differ in the class of HDS they can deal with. The first one is used for deterministic HDS modeling, whereas the second one can deal with HDS with nondeterministic behavior. Keywords: Hybrid dynamic systems; D-elementary hybrid Petri nets; Hybrid automata; Controller synthesis

  13. Fundamentals of Hybrid Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides definitions and distinguishing characteristics of the various terms used in the context of hybrid education. The author also offers an overview of the recent literature on hybrid teaching and learning.

  14. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (♀)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (♂), and RCC (2n=100) (♀)×blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (♂) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×CC (♂), bisexual fertile F3–F18 allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×BSB (♂), different ploidy fishes were obtained, including

  15. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ShaoJun

    2010-04-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (male), and RCC (2n=100) (female) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (male) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (female) x CC (male), bisexual fertile F(3)-F(18) allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (female) x BSB (male), different ploidy fishes were

  16. Continuity and invariance in hybrid automata

    OpenAIRE

    Lygeros, John; Johansson, Karl H.; Simic, Slobodan; ZHANG, JUN; Sastry, Shankar

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid automata have been proposed as a language for modelling and analysing the interaction of digital and analogue dynamics in embedded computer systems. In the paper, hybrid automata are studied from a dynamical systems perspective. Extending earlier work on conditions for existence and uniqueness of executions of hybrid automata, we characterise a class of hybrid automata whose executions depend continuously on the initial state. The continuity conditions are subsequently used to derive a...

  17. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Technical 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advance Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar 6. AUTHOR(S) William D. Jemison 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...development of signed processing algorithms for hybrid lidar - radar designed to improve detection performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid Lidar - Radar 16...Award Number N000141110371 Title of Research Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar Principal Investigator William D. Jemison

  18. Hybrid Warfare: Implications for CAF Force Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    also McCulloh and Johnson who demonstrate throughout their study that context is critical . Indeed, their summary statement for “hybrid warfare theory ...Muhr, eds., Hybrid and Cyber War as Consequences of the Asymmetry, Frankfurt : Peter Lang, 2011, p.95. Interestingly, the CFD Hybrid Warfare Concept...the highest political and military levels. The study of hybrid-type case studies yields the critical lesson that: “leadership is essential to victory

  19. Contribution of interspecific hybridization to sunflower breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Christov M.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation is directed at improving sunflower using hybrid forms resulted from interspecific hybridization. The aim is to create new B/A and R lines from interspecific hybrid forms that are resistant to diseases, the parasite broomrape, herbicides, and other stress factors and are characterized with high combining ability and to obtain on this basis highly productive oilseed sunflower hybrids with varied fatty acid composition of oil. The investigat...

  20. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  1. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  2. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  3. Dynamical investigation of macromolecular hybridization bioassays

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, R; Wixforth, A

    2002-01-01

    A novel sensoric technique for the dynamical in situ investigation of a hybridization bio assay is presented, which utilizes a metal bead labeling method. Therein, hybridization results in an increased metal coverage on parts of a substrate, where it takes place. Our sensing principle relies on the measurement of the radio frequency impedance of the hybridization spots. We propose several examples for sensor devices.

  4. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  5. Hybrid Doctoral Program: Innovative Practices and Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvich, Dori; Manning, JoAnn; McCormick, Kathy; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how one mid-Atlantic University innovatively incorporated technology into the development of a hybrid doctoral program in educational leadership. The paper describes a hybrid doctoral degree program using a rigorous design; challenges of reworking a traditional syllabus of record to a hybrid doctoral program; the perceptions…

  6. Inference in hybrid Bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular for building statistical models of complex systems. This is particularly true for boolean systems, where BNs often prove to be a more efficient modelling framework than traditional reliability-techniques (like fault trees...... decade's research on inference in hybrid Bayesian networks. The discussions are linked to an example model for estimating human reliability....

  7. Hybrid Rice for Dry Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Luo Lijun, director of the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, recently announced that Hanyou No. 3 - a genetically modified rice capable of producing high yields in dry areas - has been developed at the center.The hybrid yields 7,571 kilograms per hectare, about the same as ordinary rice.

  8. Yeast two-hybrid screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Yeast two-hybrid is a method for screening large numbers of gene products (encoded by cDNA libraries) for their ability to interact with a protein of interest. This system can also be used for characterizing and manipulating candidate protein: protein interactions. Interactions between proteins are monitored by the growth of yeast plated on selective media.

  9. Comparative genomic hybridization: practical guidelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, J.W.M.; Sprenger, S.H.; Wesseling, P.

    2002-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a technique used to identify copy number changes throughout a genome. Until now, hundreds of CGH studies have been published reporting chromosomal imbalances in a large variety of human neoplasms. Additionally, technical improvements of specific steps in a

  10. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynen, I. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Quievy, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bailly, C. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bollen, P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Detrembleur, C. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and {approx}1 S/m electrical conductivity. > New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. > The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. > A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. > The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  11. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict signi...

  12. A HYBRID DYNAMIC PROGRAM SLICING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Tong; Wu Fangjun

    2005-01-01

    This letter proposes a hybrid method for computing dynamic program slicing. The key element is to construct a Coverage-Testing-based Dynamic Dependence Graph (CTDDG),which makes use of both dynamic and static information to get execution status. The approach overcomes the limitations of previous dynamic slicing methods, which have to redo slicing if slice criterion changes.

  13. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    A hybrid magnetic approach, merging two different magnetic core properites such as ferrite and iron powder cores, is an effective solution for power converter applications. It can offer similar magnetic properties to that of magnetic powder cores but showing less copper loss than powder cores...

  14. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold;

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid winding concept for toroids using the traces in a printed circuit board to make connection to bended copper foil cutouts. In a final product a number of strips with a certain thickness would be held by a former and the whole assembly could be placed by pick and placem...

  15. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  16. Organic and hybrid solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a comprehensive evaluation of organic and hybrid solar cells and identifies their fundamental principles and numerous applications. Great attention is given to the charge transport mechanism, donor and acceptor materials, interfacial materials, alternative electrodes, device engineering and physics, and device stability. The authors provide an industrial perspective on the future of photovoltaic technologies.

  17. Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-09-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

  18. 32 tesla hybrid magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupold, M.J.; Iwasa, Y.; Weggel, R.J. (MIT Cambridge (U.S.A.))

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the design and construction of a hybrid magnet system to generate 32T with 9MW of electrical power. The system consist of an 11T niobium-titanium superconducting magnet, a 1.8K/4.2K cryostat, and a high-performance, water-cooled Bitter magnet, all of which are discussed in the paper.

  19. Hybrid origin of Audubon's warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, Alan; Milá, Borja; Irwin, Darren E

    2011-06-01

    Several animal species have recently been shown to have hybrid origins, but no avian examples have been documented with molecular evidence. We investigate whether the Audubon's warbler (Dendroica auduboni), one of four visually distinct species in the yellow-rumped warbler complex, has originated through hybridization between two other species in this group, the myrtle warbler (D. coronata) and black-fronted warbler (D. nigrifrons). Analysis of nuclear amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and sequence markers shows that Audubon's warblers are genetically intermediate and carry a mixture of alleles otherwise found only in one or the other of their putative parental species. Audubon's warblers also carry two deeply divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages, each shared with only one putative parental form. Broad clines between Audubon's and black-fronted warblers in AFLP markers call into question the validity of these two forms as full species; nevertheless, our results suggest that the Audubon's warbler probably originated through hybridization between two long-diverged species. It is likely that more cases of avian species of hybrid origin will be revealed by surveys of variation in nuclear DNA and other traits. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Transgressive Hybrids as Hopeful Monsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich-Reed, Dylan R; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2013-06-01

    The origin of novelty is a critical subject for evolutionary biologists. Early geneticists speculated about the sudden appearance of new species via special macromutations, epitomized by Goldschmidt's infamous "hopeful monster". Although these ideas were easily dismissed by the insights of the Modern Synthesis, a lingering fascination with the possibility of sudden, dramatic change has persisted. Recent work on hybridization and gene exchange suggests an underappreciated mechanism for the sudden appearance of evolutionary novelty that is entirely consistent with the principles of modern population genetics. Genetic recombination in hybrids can produce transgressive phenotypes, "monstrous" phenotypes beyond the range of parental populations. Transgressive phenotypes can be products of epistatic interactions or additive effects of multiple recombined loci. We compare several epistatic and additive models of transgressive segregation in hybrids and find that they are special cases of a general, classic quantitative genetic model. The Dobzhansky-Muller model predicts "hopeless" monsters, sterile and inviable transgressive phenotypes. The Bateson model predicts "hopeful" monsters with fitness greater than either parental population. The complementation model predicts both. Transgressive segregation after hybridization can rapidly produce novel phenotypes by recombining multiple loci simultaneously. Admixed populations will also produce many similar recombinant phenotypes at the same time, increasing the probability that recombinant "hopeful monsters" will establish true-breeding evolutionary lineages. Recombination is not the only (or even most common) process generating evolutionary novelty, but might be the most credible mechanism for sudden appearance of new forms.

  1. Review of laser hybrid welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus

    2004-01-01

    In this artucle an overview og the hybrid welding process is given. After a short historic overview, a review of the fundamental phenomenon taking place when a laser (CO2 or Nd:YAG) interacts in the same molten pool as a more conventional source of energy, e.g. tungsten in-active gas, plasma...

  2. Review of laser hybrid welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus

    2004-01-01

    In this artucle an overview og the hybrid welding process is given. After a short historic overview, a review of the fundamental phenomenon taking place when a laser (CO2 or Nd:YAG) interacts in the same molten pool as a more conventional source of energy, e.g. tungsten in-active gas, plasma...

  3. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    . In order to prevent ferrite core saturation, placing an effective air gap within the ferrite core is a key method to obtain optimum hybrid magnetic performance. Furthermore, a relatively large inductance at low loading current is an excellent way to minimze power loss in order to achieve high efficiency...

  4. Accessibility Considerations for Hybrid Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the central questions and issues that faculty and administrators need to consider when designing and implementing hybrid courses to ensure that all students, including those with disabilities, have equal access. The author offers resources on faculty development programs, accessibility checklists, and online resources on…

  5. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  6. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are two conventional types of hinges for in-space deployment applications. The first type is mechanically deploying hinges. A typical mechanically deploying hinge is usually composed of several tens of components. It is complicated, heavy, and bulky. More components imply higher deployment failure probability. Due to the existence of relatively moving components among a mechanically deploying hinge, it unavoidably has microdynamic problems. The second type of conventional hinge relies on strain energy for deployment. A tape-spring hinge is a typical strain energy hinge. A fundamental problem of a strain energy hinge is that its deployment dynamic is uncontrollable. Usually, its deployment is associated with a large impact, which is unacceptable for many space applications. Some damping technologies have been experimented with to reduce the impact, but they increased the risks of an unsuccessful deployment. Coalescing strain energy components with shape memory composite (SMC) components to form a hybrid hinge is the solution. SMCs are well suited for deployable structures. A SMC is created from a high-performance fiber and a shape memory polymer resin. When the resin is heated to above its glass transition temperature, the composite becomes flexible and can be folded or packed. Once cooled to below the glass transition temperature, the composite remains in the packed state. When the structure is ready to be deployed, the SMC component is reheated to above the glass transition temperature, and it returns to its as-fabricated shape. A hybrid hinge is composed of two strain energy flanges (also called tape-springs) and one SMC tube. Two folding lines are placed on the SMC tube to avoid excessive strain on the SMC during folding. Two adapters are used to connect the hybrid hinge to its adjacent structural components. While the SMC tube is heated to above its glass transition temperature, a hybrid hinge can be folded and stays at folded status after the temperature

  7. Reproduction and hybrid load in all-hybrid populations of Rana esculenta water frogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ditte Guldager; Fog, Kåre; Pedersen, Bo Vest;

    2005-01-01

    All-hybrid populations of the water frog, Rana esculenta, are exceptional in consisting of independently and to some extent sexually reproducing interspecific hybrids. In most of its range R. esculenta reproduces hemiclonally with one of the parental species, R. lessonae or R. ridibunda, but viable...... gametogenesis and mating between frogs with incompatible gametes induce a significant hybrid load in all-hybrid populations of R. esculenta, and we discuss compensating advantages and potential evolutionary trajectories to reduce this hybrid load....

  8. SCAN-based hybrid and double-hybrid density functionals from models without fitted parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Kerwin; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2015-01-01

    By incorporating the nonempirical SCAN semilocal density functional [Sun, Ruzsinszky, and Perdew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015)] in the underlying expression of four existing hybrid and double-hybrid models, we propose one hybrid (SCAN0) and three double-hybrid (SCAN0-DH, SCAN-QIDH, and SCAN0-2) density functionals, which are free from any fitted parameters. The SCAN-based double-hybrid functionals consistently outperform their parent SCAN semilocal functional for self-interaction probl...

  9. Bounded hybrid superiority in an avian hybrid zone: effects of mate, diet, and habitat choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, T P; Ellis, J C; Annett, C A; Pierotti, R

    2000-10-01

    There has been considerable debate in the study of hybrid zones as to whether hybrids may be superior to parental types within the area of contact (bounded hybrid superiority). In birds, naturally occurring hybridization is relatively common, and hybridization within this group always involves mate choice. If hybrids are superior, females choosing heterospecific mates should be expected to show higher fitness under the conditions prevalent in the hybrid zone. Hybrid superiority under these circumstances would reduce reinforcement and thereby help to maintain the hybrid zone. To examine this issue, we studied reproductive performances of hybrids and parental species of gulls (Larus occidentalis and Larus glaucescens) at two colonies within a linear hybrid zone along the west coast of the United States. This hybrid zone contains predominantly gulls of intermediate phenotype. Previous studies indicated that hybrids were superior to one or both parental types, but provided no data on possible mechanisms that underlie this hybrid superiority. Using a hybrid index designed specifically for these species, we identified to phenotype more than 300 individuals associated with nests, including both individual males and females within 73 pairs in the central portion of the hybrid zone and 74 pairs in the northern portion of the hybrid zone. There was little evidence of assortative mating, and what little there was resulted solely because of pairings within intergrades. In the central hybrid zone, females paired with hybrid males produced larger clutches and hatched and fledged more chicks compared with females paired to western gull males. This was a result of heavy predation on eggs in sand habitat, where male western gulls established territories. In contrast, many hybrid males established territories in vegetated cover that was less vulnerable to predation. In the northern part of the hybrid zone, clutch size did not differ among pair categories, however, there were

  10. Gasoline hybrid pneumatic engine for efficient vehicle powertrain hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The largest applied convertors in passenger cars are the internal combustion engines – gasoline, diesel, adapted also for operating on alternative fuels and hybrid modes. The number of components that are necessary to realize modern future propulsion system is inexorably increasing. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the compressed air is investigated as an innovative solu...

  11. Towards stable silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W W; Wu, K J; Wang, K; Shi, T F; Wu, L; Li, S X; Teng, D Y; Ye, C H

    2014-01-16

    Silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells benefit from the ease of fabrication and the cost-effectiveness of the hybrid structure, and represent a new research focus towards the utilization of solar energy. However, hybrid solar cells composed of both inorganic and organic components suffer from the notorious stability issue, which has to be tackled before the hybrid solar cells could become a viable alternative for harvesting solar energy. Here we show that Si nanoarray/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with improved stability can be fabricated via eliminating the water inclusion in the initial formation of the heterojunction between Si nanoarray and PEDOT:PSS. The Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells are stable against rapid degradation in the atmosphere environment for several months without encapsulation. This finding paves the way towards the real-world applications of Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells.

  12. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  13. Clinical Role of Hybrid Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Edward M; Ali, Bilal; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2010-10-01

    Recent technological advances have fueled the growth in hybrid radionuclide and CT imaging of the heart. Noninvasive imaging studies are reliable means to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD), stratify risk, and guide clinical management. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a robust, widely available noninvasive modality for the evaluation of ischemia from known or suspected CAD. Cardiac CT (coronary artery calcium score and coronary CT angiography) has emerged as a clinically robust noninvasive anatomic imaging test, capable of rapidly diagnosing or excluding obstructive CAD. Both anatomic and functional modalities have strengths and weaknesses, and can complement each other by offering integrated structural and physiologic information. As we discuss below, in selected patients, hybrid imaging may facilitate more accurate diagnosis, risk stratification, and management in a "one-stop shop" setting.

  14. Photoelastic tomography as hybrid mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errapart A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Photoelastic tomography is a non-destructive method of 3D stress analysis. It permits determination of normal stress distribution in an arbitrary section of a 3D test object. In case of axial symmetry also the shear stress distribution can be determined directly from the measurement data. To determine also the other stress components one can use equations of the theory of elasticity. Such a combined application of experimental measurements and numerical handling of the equations of the theory of elasticity is named hybrid mechanics. It is shown that if stresses are due to external loads, the hybrid mechanics algorithm is based on the equations of equilibrium and compatibility. In the case of the measurement of the residual stress in glass the compatibility equation can not be applied. In this case a new relationship of axisymmetric thermoelasticity, the generalized sum rule can be applied.

  15. Photoelastic tomography as hybrid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aben, H.; Ainola, L.; Errapart, A.

    2010-06-01

    Photoelastic tomography is a non-destructive method of 3D stress analysis. It permits determination of normal stress distribution in an arbitrary section of a 3D test object. In case of axial symmetry also the shear stress distribution can be determined directly from the measurement data. To determine also the other stress components one can use equations of the theory of elasticity. Such a combined application of experimental measurements and numerical handling of the equations of the theory of elasticity is named hybrid mechanics. It is shown that if stresses are due to external loads, the hybrid mechanics algorithm is based on the equations of equilibrium and compatibility. In the case of the measurement of the residual stress in glass the compatibility equation can not be applied. In this case a new relationship of axisymmetric thermoelasticity, the generalized sum rule can be applied.

  16. Atom-Light Hybrid Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Qiu, Cheng; Chen, Shuying; Guo, Jinxian; Chen, L Q; Ou, Z Y; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-07-24

    A new type of hybrid atom-light interferometer is demonstrated with atomic Raman amplification processes replacing the beam splitting elements in a traditional interferometer. This nonconventional interferometer involves correlated optical and atomic waves in the two arms. The correlation between atoms and light developed with the Raman process makes this interferometer different from conventional interferometers with linear beam splitters. It is observed that the high-contrast interference fringes are sensitive to the optical phase via a path change as well as the atomic phase via a magnetic field change. This new atom-light correlated hybrid interferometer is a sensitive probe of the atomic internal state and should find wide applications in precision measurement and quantum control with atoms and photons.

  17. Hybrid metric-Palatini gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Koivisto, Tomi S; Lobo, Francisco S N; Olmo, Gonzalo J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the phenomenology of f(R) gravity has been scrutinized motivated by the possibility to account for the self-accelerated cosmic expansion without invoking dark energy sources. Besides, this kind of modified gravity is capable of addressing the dynamics of several self-gravitating systems alternatively to the presence of dark matter. It has been established that both metric and Palatini versions of these theories have interesting features but also manifest severe and different downsides. A hybrid combination of theories, containing elements from both these two formalisms, turns out to be also very successful accounting for the observed phenomenology and is able to avoid some drawbacks of the original approaches. This article reviews the formulation of this hybrid metric-Palatini approach and its main achievements in passing the local tests and in applications to astrophysical and cosmological scenarios, where it provides a unified approach to the problems of dark energy and dark matter.

  18. Segmented Hybrid Gasostatic Bearing Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodan Nikolay Vasilevich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research-development of methods of numerical optimization rotatable support pads gasostatic hybrid bearing. In the world‘s aerospace engineering the gas-dynamic bearings are currently most common. They are characterized by the supporting layer of different designs, which ensures the workability of the rotors during starts and stops. The main problem of this bearing type, apart from the construction complexity is the wear of this supporting layer. Gas-static bearing has no such defect, since there is no physical contact between solid surfaces. This study presents the results of the hybrid bearing’s calculation, combining both technologies. The slotted nozzle of non-conventional shape that mirrors the solution of Reynolds equation’s isoline is studied. The dependences of the main parameters on the speed of the shaft’s rotation are discussed. The aerodynamic resistance of pads for different regimes of operation is investigated.

  19. Hybrid power plants; Thermische Hybridkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschy, I. [ALSTOM Power Support, Mannheim (Germany). Bereiche Forschung und Entwicklung/Ingenieurdienstleistungen; Franke, U. [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany). Thermodynamik

    2002-07-01

    New German laws concerning the use of biomass and other renewable energy sources have improved the conditions for power generation with renewable energies. A promising alternative to common small-scale (combined-heat-and-) power plants could be found in so-called hybrid power plants which use renewable energies and fossil fuels in combination. A thermodynamic process analysis shows how to determine the renewable energies' portion of a hybrid power plant's total output. [German] Mit den veraenderten gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen erhoeht sich die Motivation, regenerative Energiequellen zur Stromerzeugung zu nutzen. Neben dem exklusiven Einsatz in kleineren (Heiz-) Kraftwerken bietet sich die gemeinsame Nutzung mit fossilen Energietraegern in sogenannten Hybridkraftwerken an. Hier stellt sich die Frage, wie der Anteil der regenerativen Energien an der Gesamt-Stromproduktion des Hybridkraftwerkes zu ermitteln ist. Eine thermodynamische Prozessanalyse kann darueber Aufschluss geben.

  20. Hybrid Maritime Satellite Communication Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst

    Hybrid antennas for a maritime satellite communication terminal with simultaneous operation at L- and Ka-band have been investigated. The frequency bands of interest are 1; 525:0 1; 660:5 MHz (RX+TX, RHCP), 19:7 20:2 (RX, LHCP) and 29:5 30:0 GHz (TX, RHCP), which are all part of the Inmarsat BGAN...

  1. Performance of hybrid photovoltaic collector

    OpenAIRE

    Garbisu Eugui, Josu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present project is the study of the performance of a combined photovoltaic-thermal plant, called also hybrid system, located in south Italy, evaluating the efficiency of the photovoltaic and thermal systems and the advantage respect to the two single plants (photovoltaic and thermal ). This research project has two objectives fundamentals of efficiency improvement energy from solar photovoltaic panels. On one hand, increase photovoltaic efficiency, at the same time an...

  2. Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    elbow) and a pinned first joint (shoul- der) (see Figure 2); it is termed an underactuated system since it is a mechanical system with fewer...Montreal, PQ, Canada, 1998. [10] M. W. Spong. Partial feedback linearization of underactuated mechanical systems . In Proceedings, IROS󈨢, pages 314-321...control mechanism and search for optimal combinations of control variables. Besides the nonlinear and hybrid nature of powertrain systems , hardware

  3. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  4. Hybrid optical acoustic seafloor mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gabrielle

    The oceanographic research and industrial communities have a persistent demand for detailed three dimensional sea floor maps which convey both shape and texture. Such data products are used for archeology, geology, ship inspection, biology, and habitat classification. There are a variety of sensing modalities and processing techniques available to produce these maps and each have their own potential benefits and related challenges. Multibeam sonar and stereo vision are such two sensors with complementary strengths making them ideally suited for data fusion. Data fusion approaches however, have seen only limited application to underwater mapping and there are no established methods for creating hybrid, 3D reconstructions from two underwater sensing modalities. This thesis develops a processing pipeline to synthesize hybrid maps from multi-modal survey data. It is helpful to think of this processing pipeline as having two distinct phases: Navigation Refinement and Map Construction. This thesis extends existing work in underwater navigation refinement by incorporating methods which increase measurement consistency between both multibeam and camera. The result is a self consistent 3D point cloud comprised of camera and multibeam measurements. In map construction phase, a subset of the multi-modal point cloud retaining the best characteristics of each sensor is selected to be part of the final map. To quantify the desired traits of a map several characteristics of a useful map are distilled into specific criteria. The different ways that hybrid maps can address these criteria provides justification for producing them as an alternative to current methodologies. The processing pipeline implements multi-modal data fusion and outlier rejection with emphasis on different aspects of map fidelity. The resulting point cloud is evaluated in terms of how well it addresses the map criteria. The final hybrid maps retain the strengths of both sensors and show significant improvement

  5. Complex hybrid inflation and baryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine, David; Martínez, Carlos; Ureña-López, L Arturo

    2007-04-20

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  6. Hybrid Tower, Designing Soft Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    predictions about the inherent interdependency and material dependent performance of the hybrid structure and (2) the inter-scalar design strategies for specification and fabrication. The first investigation focuses on the design pipelines developed between the implementation of realtime physics...... (membrane reinforcement strategy) and micro scale (design of bespoke textile membrane). The paper concludes with a post construction analysis. Comparing structural and environmental data, the predicted and the actual performance of tower are evaluated and discussed....

  7. CERN manufactured hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    These hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) produce an electric signal from a single photon. An electron is liberated from a photocathode and accelerated to a silicon pixel array allowing the location of the photon on the cathode to be recorded. The electronics and optics for these devices have been developed in close collaboration with industry. HPDs have potential for further use in astrophysics and medical imaging.

  8. Hybrid metric-Palatini stars

    CERN Document Server

    Danila, Bogdan; Lobo, Francisco S N; Mak, M K

    2016-01-01

    We consider the internal structure and the physical properties of specific classes of neutron, quark and Bose-Einstein Condensate stars in the hybrid metric-Palatini gravity theory, which is a combination of the metric and Palatini $f(R)$ formalisms. The theory is very successful in accounting for the observed phenomenology, since it unifies local constraints at the Solar System level and the late-time cosmic acceleration, even if the scalar field is very light. We derive the equilibrium equations for a spherically symmetric configuration (mass continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff) in the framework of hybrid metric-Palatini theory, and we investigate their solutions numerically for different equations of state of neutron and quark matter, by adopting for the scalar field potential a Higgs-type form. Stellar models, described by the stiff fluid, radiation-like, the bag model and the Bose-Einstein Condensate equations of state are explicitly constructed in both General Relativity and hybrid metric-Palatini...

  9. Electroactive functional hybrid layered nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destri, Giovanni Li; Torrisi, Vanna; Marletta, Giovanni [Laboratory for Molecular Surfaces and Nanotechnology (LAMSUN) - University of Catania and CSGI - Catania (Italy)

    2012-07-11

    Two methodologies to build new nanostructured hybrid layered nanocomposites are presented. The first one involves the preparation of hybrid metal/polymer nanolayers (NLs) by combining two monolayer preparation techniques: Horizontal Precipitation Langmuir Blodgett method (HP-ML), for copolymer monolayers and sputter deposition technique, for Au NLs deposition. The second methodology is aimed to prepare regular arrays of nanopores, with diameter ranging between 40-100 nm, in ultra-thin films of electroactive polymers, to obtain embedded regular arrays of nanopores filled by a further electroactive organic component. The produced hybrid MLs have been characterized by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GI-XRD). In the first case, current-voltage (I-V) measurements demonstrate that the multilayers exhibit a bipolar conduction behaviour (electrons and holes carriers), with a peculiar transition in the nature of the majority carriers (from holes to electrons) above a threshold number of bilayers. In the second case, it is found that the degree of pore filling, as well as the polymer crystallinity can be easily modulated, prompting the tuning of the photoresponse of the nanocomposites.

  10. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veras, D.F.S., E-mail: franklin@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Cruz, W.T., E-mail: wilamicruz@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará (IFCE), Campus Juazeiro do Norte, 63040-540 Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará (Brazil); Maluf, R.V., E-mail: r.v.maluf@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Almeida, C.A.S., E-mail: carlos@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)

    2016-03-10

    This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza–Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  11. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D. F. S.; Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-03-01

    This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza-Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  12. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  13. Hybrid metric-Palatini stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilǎ, Bogdan; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mak, M. K.

    2017-02-01

    We consider the internal structure and the physical properties of specific classes of neutron, quark and Bose-Einstein condensate stars in the recently proposed hybrid metric-Palatini gravity theory, which is a combination of the metric and Palatini f (R ) formalisms. It turns out that the theory is very successful in accounting for the observed phenomenology, since it unifies local constraints at the Solar System level and the late-time cosmic acceleration, even if the scalar field is very light. In this paper, we derive the equilibrium equations for a spherically symmetric configuration (mass continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff) in the framework of the scalar-tensor representation of the hybrid metric-Palatini theory, and we investigate their solutions numerically for different equations of state of neutron and quark matter, by adopting for the scalar field potential a Higgs-type form. It turns out that the scalar-tensor definition of the potential can be represented as an Clairaut differential equation, and provides an explicit form for f (R ) given by f (R )˜R +Λeff, where Λeff is an effective cosmological constant. Furthermore, stellar models, described by the stiff fluid, radiation-like, bag model and the Bose-Einstein condensate equations of state are explicitly constructed in both general relativity and hybrid metric-Palatini gravity, thus allowing an in-depth comparison between the predictions of these two gravitational theories. As a general result it turns out that for all the considered equations of state, hybrid gravity stars are more massive than their general relativistic counterparts. Furthermore, two classes of stellar models corresponding to two particular choices of the functional form of the scalar field (constant value, and logarithmic form, respectively) are also investigated. Interestingly enough, in the case of a constant scalar field the equation of state of the matter takes the form of the bag model equation of state describing

  14. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to reduce the optimal controller synthesis problem of hybrid systems to quantifier elimination; furthermore, we also show how to combine quantifier elimination with numerical computation in order to make it more scalable but at the same time, keep arising errors due...... to discretization manageable and within bounds. A major advantage of our approach is not only that it avoids errors due to numerical computation, but it also gives a better optimal controller. In order to illustrate our approach, we use the real industrial example of an oil pump provided by the German company HYDAC...

  15. Hybrid Airy Plasmons with Dynamically Steerable Trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rujiang; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Huaping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    With the intriguing properties of diffraction-free, self-accelerating, and self-healing, Airy plasmons are promising to be used in the trapping, transporting, and sorting of micro-objects, imaging, and chip scale signal processing. However, the high dissipative loss and the lack of dynamical steerability restrict the implementation of Airy plasmons in these applications. Here we reveal the hybrid Airy plasmons for the first time by taking a hybrid graphene-based plasmonic waveguide in the terahertz (THz) domain as an example. Due to the coupling between an optical mode and a plasmonic mode, the hybrid Airy plasmons can have large propagation lengths and effective transverse deflections, where the transverse waveguide confinements are governed by the hybrid modes with moderate quality factors. Meanwhile, the propagation trajectories of hybrid Airy plasmons are dynamically steerable by changing the chemical potential of graphene. These hybrid Airy plasmons may promote the further discovery of non-diffracting be...

  16. Hybrid Airy plasmons with dynamically steerable trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rujiang; Imran, Muhammad; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Huaping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2017-01-26

    With their intriguing diffraction-free, self-accelerating, and self-healing properties, Airy plasmons show promise for use in the trapping, transporting, and sorting of micro-objects, imaging, and chip scale signal processing. However, high dissipative loss and lack of dynamical steerability restrict the implementation of Airy plasmons in these applications. Here we reveal hybrid Airy plasmons for the first time by taking a hybrid graphene-based plasmonic waveguide in the terahertz (THz) domain as an example. Due to coupling between optical modes and plasmonic modes, the hybrid Airy plasmons can have large propagation lengths and effective transverse deflections, where the transverse waveguide confinements are governed by the hybrid modes with moderate quality factors. Meanwhile, the propagation trajectories of the hybrid Airy plasmons are dynamically steerable by changing the chemical potential of graphene. These hybrid Airy plasmons may promote the further discovery of non-diffracting beams along with the emerging developments of optical tweezers and tractor beams.

  17. A Hybrid Architecture Approach for Quantum Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R.S. Aghaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, a general plan of hybrid architecture for quantum algorithms is proposed. Approach: Analysis of the quantum algorithms shows that these algorithms were hybrid with two parts. First, the relationship of classical and quantum parts of the hybrid algorithms was extracted. Then a general plan of hybrid structure was designed. Results: This plan was illustrated the hybrid architecture and the relationship of classical and quantum parts of the algorithms. This general plan was used to increase implementation performance of quantum algorithms. Conclusion/Recommendations: Moreover, simulation results of quantum algorithms on the hybrid architecture proved that quantum algorithms can be implemented on the general plan as well.

  18. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  19. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  20. [Hybridization of crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758), in Ukrainian reservoirs and genetic structure of hybrids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzheryn, S V; Kokodyĭĭ, S V; Kulysh, A V; Verlat'iĭĭ, D B; Fedorenko, L V

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization of crucian carps Carassius carassius in polyspecific crucian populations of reservoirs of Ukraine and genetic structure of the hybrids were investigated using biochemical gene marking and cytometric procedure. The fact of wide hybridization between C. auratus and C. carassius was proved to be true by large number of hybrids which can form populations consisting only from hybrid individuals. Hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius were diploid, tryploid and in exceptional cases tetraploid; females and males which most likely breed by hybridogenesis. Besides, some clonal hybrids C. carassius x C. gibelio-1 appearing as tetraploid females, and one triploid female C. carassius x Tinca tinca were revealed. It is supported that hybridization of alien C. auratus with endemic C. carassius became one of mechanisms of replacement and depressions of populations of the last.

  1. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  2. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  3. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  4. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sebastian Sudheer; M Sabir

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid synchronization between drive and response systems using the sum and difference of relevant variables of the chaotic systems. Numerical simulations are presented to evaluate the analysis and effectiveness of the controllers.

  5. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    include utility boom trucks and beverage haulers. Eaton Corp. manufactures a parallel hybrid-electric drivetrain that is used by many of the truck...Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). Most of the hybrid buses use series hybrid-electric drivetrains , and key manufacturers are BAE Systems, ISE...Competing Alternatives to Diesel-Electric Hybrid Powertrains ............................................ 153 6.1 Hydraulic Hybrid Drivetrains

  6. Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weickert, Jonas; Dunbar, Ricky B.; Hesse, Holger C.; Wiedemann, Wolfgang; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas [Department of Physics and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians University (LMU) Munich, Amalienstr. 54, 80799 Munich (Germany)

    2011-04-26

    This progress report highlights recent developments in nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells. The authors discuss novel approaches to control the film morphology in fully organic solar cells and the design of nanostructured hybrid solar cells. The motivation and recent results concerning fabrication and effects on device physics are emphasized. The aim of this review is not to give a summary of all recent results in organic and hybrid solar cells, but rather to focus on the fabrication, device physics, and light trapping properties of nanostructured organic and hybrid devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Cluster Tree Based Hybrid Document Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varshana Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available hybrid similarity measure is established to measure the hybrid similarity. In cluster tree, the hybrid similarity measure can be calculated for the random data even it may not be the co-occurred and generate different views. Different views of tree can be combined and choose the one which is significant in cost. A method is proposed to combine the multiple views. Multiple views are represented by different distance measures into a single cluster. Comparing the cluster tree based hybrid similarity with the traditional statistical methods it gives the better feasibility for intelligent based search. It helps in improving the dimensionality reduction and semantic analysis.

  8. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  9. Trends in the Development of Hybrid Drives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Josef Morkus

    2016-01-01

    .... This paper deals with the growth in sales of vehicles with hybrid propulsion, the directions of their technological development, new solutions for transmission systems, the capacity and location...

  10. Consensus of Hybrid Multi-Agent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanshi; Ma, Jingying; Wang, Long

    2017-01-27

    In this brief, we consider the consensus problem of hybrid multiagent systems. First, the hybrid multiagent system is proposed, which is composed of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamic agents. Then, three kinds of consensus protocols are presented for the hybrid multiagent system. The analysis tool developed in this brief is based on the matrix theory and graph theory. With different restrictions of the sampling period, some necessary and sufficient conditions are established for solving the consensus of the hybrid multiagent system. The consensus states are also obtained under different protocols. Finally, simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  11. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Joseph W.; Carrano, Anthony V.; Davidson, James C.; Koo, Jackson C.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate.

  12. Development of a Hybrid Photopolymer for Stereolithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    New liquid free radical-cationic hybrid photopolymer, consisting of acrylate-based photocurable resin and epoxy-based photosensitive resin for stereolithography by UV laser was developed.The experiment results indicated that the hybrid photopolymer exhibits advantages of both the acrylate- based photosensitive resin and the epoxy- based photosensitive polymer contained in the hybrid system with relatively high photospeed and low linear shrinkage.Stereolithography parts without obvious distortion were built on the stereolithography apparatus HRPLAI from this hybrid resin successfully and efficiently.

  13. On Hybrid and mixed finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Three versions of the assumed stress hybrid model in finite element methods and the corresponding variational principles for the formulation are presented. Examples of rank deficiency for stiffness matrices by the hybrid stress model are given and their corresponding kinematic deformation modes are identified. A discussion of the derivation of general semi-Loof elements for plates and shells by the hybrid stress method is given. It is shown that the equilibrium model by Fraeijs de Veubeke can be derived by the approach of the hybrid stress model as a special case of semi-Loof elements.

  14. Hybrid Dynamical Systems Modeling, Stability, and Robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Rafal; Teel, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid dynamical systems exhibit continuous and instantaneous changes, having features of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamical systems. Filled with a wealth of examples to illustrate concepts, this book presents a complete theory of robust asymptotic stability for hybrid dynamical systems that is applicable to the design of hybrid control algorithms--algorithms that feature logic, timers, or combinations of digital and analog components. With the tools of modern mathematical analysis, Hybrid Dynamical Systems unifies and generalizes earlier developments in continuous-time and discret

  15. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288519361; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416355; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  16. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  17. Hybrid-Source Impedance Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ding; Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2010-01-01

    the cascaded networks would have a higher output voltage gain and other unique advantages that currently have not been investigated yet. It is anticipated that these advantages would help the formed inverters find applications in photovoltaic and other renewable systems, where a high voltage gain is usually......Hybrid-source impedance networks have attracted attention among researchers because of their flexibility in performing buck-boost energy conversion. To date, three distinct types of impedance networks can be summarized for implementing voltage-type inverters with another three types summarized...

  18. Essentialism, hybridism and cultural critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Transgression concepts - such as ‘hybridity', ‘diaspora', ‘creolization', ‘transculturalization' and ‘syncretism' - have to an increasing extent become key concepts in various attempts at escaping the problems of suppression and exclusion involved in notions of purity - be it the purity of race......, culture or whatever. The purpose of focusing on concepts of transgression is usually to try to develop conceptual spaces within which it is possible to grasp and to study cultural identity without resorting to cultural essentialism. These attempts open up new possibilities but also new problems - e...

  19. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...... implementation is simulated using finite element modeling and the DC and AC resistance of the inductors are verified with experimental measurements on prototypes. It is found that commercial available layer thickness of printed circuit boards is a bottleneck for high power applications. Furthermore, the winding...

  20. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  1. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  2. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  3. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... model outperformed other existing content extraction models. We present a browser based implementation of the proposed model as proof of concept and compare the implementation strategy with various state of art implementations. We also discuss various applications of the proposed model with special...

  4. Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2014-01-06

    Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks among many others. In this work we present a novel hybrid algorithm for simulating individual trajectories which adaptively switches between the SSA and the Chernoff tauleap methods. This allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.

  5. Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2015-01-07

    Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks among many others. In this work we present a novel hybrid algorithm for simulating individual trajectories which adaptively switches between the SSA and the Chernoff tauleap methods. This allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.

  6. Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2016-01-06

    Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks among many others. In this work we present a novel hybrid algorithm for simulating individual trajectories which adaptively switches between the SSA and the Chernoff tauleap methods. This allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.

  7. Nanofabrication of Hybrid Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibos, Alan Michael

    The material requirements for optoelectronic devices can vary dramatically depending on the application. Often disparate material systems need to be combined to allow for full device functionality. At the nanometer scale, this can often be challenging because of the inherent chemical and structural incompatibilities of nanofabrication. This dissertation concerns the integration of seemingly dissimilar materials into hybrid optoelectronic devices for photovoltaic, plasmonic, and photonic applications. First, we show that combining a single strip of conjugated polymer and inorganic nanowire can yield a nanoscale solar cell, and modeling of optical absorption and exciton diffusion in this device can provide insight into the efficiency of charge separation. Second, we use an on-chip nanowire light emitting diode to pump a colloidal quantum dot coupled to a silver waveguide. The resulting device is an electro-optic single plasmon source. Finally, we transfer diamond waveguides onto near-field avalanche photodiodes fabricated from GaAs. Embedded in the diamond waveguides are nitrogen vacancy color centers, and the mapping of emission from these single-photon sources is demonstrated using our on-chip detectors, eliminating the need for external photodetectors on an optical table. These studies show the promise of hybrid optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale with applications in alternative energy, optical communication, and quantum optics.

  8. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-31

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  9. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  10. Hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Shaghasi, Tarana

    2016-11-01

    The present invention provides hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity. The present invention also provides polynucleotides encoding the hybrid polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and processes of using the hybrid polypeptides.

  11. Control for a class of hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA hybrid control system is a control theoretic model for a computer controlled engineering system. A definition of a hybrid control system is formulated that consists of a product of a finite state automaton and of a family of continuous control systems. An example of a transportation

  12. Hybrid Therapy Regimen for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Song

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Hybrid therapy showed wide differences in the efficacy but consistently good compliance and safety across different regions. Dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were the key factor to efficacy. Hybrid therapy was similar to sequential or concomitant therapy in the efficacy, safety, and compliance.

  13. Hybrid Compounding in New Zealand English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Marta; Onysko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates hybrid compound formation of Maori and English terms in present day New Zealand English (NZE). On the background of Maori and English language contact, the phenomenon of hybrid compounding emerges as a process that, on the one hand, symbolizes the vitality of the Maori element in NZE and, on the other hand, marks the…

  14. DSP Control of Line Hybrid Active Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.;

    2005-01-01

    Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter ...

  15. (Hybrid) Baryons Quantum Numbers and Adiabatic Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1999-01-01

    We construct (hybrid) baryons in the flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. In the limit of adiabatic quark motion, we build proper eigenstates of orbital angular momentum and indicate the flavour, spin, chirality and J^P of (hybrid) baryons. The adiabatic potential is calculated as a function of the quark positions.

  16. Symmetry reduction for stochastic hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Katoen, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is focused on adapting symmetry reduction, a technique that is highly successful in traditional model checking, to stochastic hybrid systems. We first show that performability analysis of stochastic hybrid systems can be reduced to a stochastic reachability analysis (SRA). Then, we genera

  17. Symmetry Reduction For Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Katoen, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on adapting symmetry reduction, a technique that is highly successful in traditional model checking, to stochastic hybrid systems. To that end, we first show that performability analysis of stochastic hybrid systems can be reduced to a stochastic reachability analysis (SRA). Th

  18. Hybrid Composite of Polyaniline Containing Carbon Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-polyaniline hybrid material was synthesized by emulsion polymerization in-situ. The morphology of hybrid material was studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction. The conductivity of nanocomposite increases with the increasing of carbon nanotube content because of the new conductivity passageways formed by carbon nanotubes.

  19. Computer code for intraply hybrid composite design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program has been developed and is described herein for intraply hybrid composite design (INHYD). The program includes several composite micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories and a hygrothermomechanical theory. These theories provide INHYD with considerable flexibility and capability which the user can exercise through several available options. Key features and capabilities of INHYD are illustrated through selected samples.

  20. Next-generation hybridization and introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, A D; Ennos, R A

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization has a major role in evolution—from the introgression of important phenotypic traits between species, to the creation of new species through hybrid speciation. Molecular studies of hybridization aim to understand the class of hybrids and the frequency of introgression, detect the signature of ancient hybridization, and understand the behaviour of introgressed loci in their new genomic background. This often involves a large investment in the design and application of molecular markers, leading to a compromise between the depth and breadth of genomic data. New techniques designed to assay a large sub-section of the genome, in association with next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, will allow genome-wide hybridization and introgression studies in organisms with no prior sequence data. These detailed genotypic data will unite the breadth of sampling of loci characteristic of population genetics with the depth of sequence information associated with molecular phylogenetics. In this review, we assess the theoretical and methodological constraints that limit our understanding of natural hybridization, and promote the use of NGS for detecting hybridization and introgression between non-model organisms. We also make recommendations for the ways in which emerging techniques, such as pooled barcoded amplicon sequencing and restriction site-associated DNA tags, should be used to overcome current limitations, and enhance our understanding of this evolutionary significant process. PMID:21897439

  1. Hybrid logics with infinitary proof systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2006-01-01

    We provide a strongly complete infinitary proof system for hybrid logic. This proof system can be extended with countably many sequents. Thus, although these logics may be non-compact, strong completeness proofs are provided for infinitary hybrid versions of non-compact logics like ancestral logic a

  2. Evaluating the Pedagogical Potential of Hybrid Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Tzur; Levin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines how the use of hybrid models--that consist of the interacting continuous and discrete processes--may assist in teaching system thinking. We report an experiment in which undergraduate students were asked to choose between a hybrid and a continuous solution for a number of control problems. A correlation has been found between…

  3. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piera, Mireia [UNED, ETSII-Dp Ingenieria Energetica, c/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, Antonio; Abanades, Alberto; Martinez-Val, J.M. [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion-fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-eff) with the obvious and fundamental limitation that it cannot reach criticality under any event, particularly, in the case of a loss of coolant accident. This limitation will be very important in the selection of the coolant. Some general considerations will be proposed, as guidelines for assessing the hybrid potential in a given scenario. Those guidelines point out that hybrids can be of great interest for the future of nuclear energy in a framework of Sustainable Development, because they can contribute to the efficient exploitation of nuclear fuels, with very high safety features. Additionally, a proposal is presented on a blanket specially suited for fusion-fission hybrids, although this reactor concept is still under review, and new work is needed for identifying the most suitable blanket composition, which can vary depending on the main objective of the hybrid. (author)

  4. Turbo Codes with Hybrid Interleaving Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the investigation of turbo codes, either random interleavers or structured interleavers are used. Combined two kinds of interleavers in one turbo encoder, a hybrid interleaving mode is proposed in this paper. Computer simulations show that the performance of turbo codes with the hybrid interleaving mode is better than that with the typical interleaving mode.

  5. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  6. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  7. Species hybridization in the genus Pinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    Results of a breeding program in which a large number of pine species were tested indicate that a number of species and hybrids may be useful in the northeastern United States. Austrian black pine x Japanese black pine and hybrids containing Japanese red pine all had good growth rates. While none of the soft pines grew faster than eastern white pine, a number of...

  8. The Federal electric and hybrid vehicle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The commercial development and use of electric and hybrid vehicles is discussed with respect to its application as a possible alternative transportation system. A market demonstration is described that seeks to place 10,000 electric hybrid vehicles into public and private sector demonstrations.

  9. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  10. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique ap...

  11. Creating an Online Presence for Hybrid Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerke, Darin; Mosterd, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the web presence needed for instructors, students, administrators, and staff as hybrid courses are implemented at the institutional level and discusses the physical presence (office(s) and staff) needed to effectively provide and sustain online support for hybrid education.

  12. Hybrid Learning at the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snart, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses how the community college represents a potentially ideal educational setting for hybrid learning to thrive. The multimodal nature of hybrids, combining both online and face-to-face learning, affords the opportunity to engage students in a variety of ways. Further, many community college students can benefit from the…

  13. Training Faculty to Teach in Hybrid Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the author's experiences developing and implementing a multi-week hybrid course design institute, this chapter outlines the components of training--both andragogical and technological--most helpful for faculty who are planning to teach a hybrid course.

  14. On Fractional Order Hybrid Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. E. Herzallah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of fractional hybrid differential equations with linear and nonlinear perturbations involving the Caputo fractional derivative of order 0<α<1. Using some fixed point theorems we prove the existence of mild solutions for two types of hybrid equations. Examples are given to illustrate the obtained results.

  15. Harmonious Unifying Hybrid Preferential Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    The basic concepts and methods for harmonious unifying hybrid preferential model(HUHPM)are based on random preferential attachment(RPA)mixed with deterministic preferential attachment(DPA),so there is only one unified hybrid ratio dr,which is defined as:

  16. Dynamical systems revisited : Hybrid systems with Zeno executions

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, JUN; Johansson, Karl Henrik; Lygeros, John; Sastry, Shankar

    2000-01-01

    Results from classical dynamical systems are generalized to hybrid dynamical systems. The concept of omega limit set is introduced for hybrid systems and is used to prove new results on invariant sets and stability, where Zeno and non-Zeno hybrid systems can be treated within the same framework. As an example, LaSalle's Invariance Principle is extended to hybrid systems. Zeno hybrid systems are discussed in detail. The omega limit set of a Zeno execution is characterized for classes of hybrid...

  17. Hybrid2: The hybrid system simulation model, Version 1.0, user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    In light of the large scale desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world, the need for a detailed long term performance prediction model for hybrid power systems was seen. To meet these ends, engineers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) have spent the last three years developing the Hybrid2 software. The Hybrid2 code provides a means to conduct long term, detailed simulations of the performance of a large array of hybrid power systems. This work acts as an introduction and users manual to the Hybrid2 software. The manual describes the Hybrid2 code, what is included with the software and instructs the user on the structure of the code. The manual also describes some of the major features of the Hybrid2 code as well as how to create projects and run hybrid system simulations. The Hybrid2 code test program is also discussed. Although every attempt has been made to make the Hybrid2 code easy to understand and use, this manual will allow many organizations to consider the long term advantages of using hybrid power systems instead of conventional petroleum based systems for remote power generation.

  18. SCAN-based hybrid and double-hybrid density functionals from parameter-free models

    CERN Document Server

    Hui, Kerwin

    2015-01-01

    By incorporating the nonempirical SCAN semilocal density functional [Sun, Ruzsinszky, and Perdew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015)] in the underlying expression, we propose one hybrid (SCAN0) and three double-hybrid (SCAN0-DH, SCAN-QIDH, and SCAN0-2) density functionals, which are free of any empirical parameter. The SCAN-based hybrid and double-hybrid functionals consistently outperform their parent SCAN semilocal functional for a wide range of applications. The SCAN-based semilocal, hybrid, and double-hybrid functionals generally perform better than the corresponding PBE-based functionals. In addition, the SCAN0-2 and SCAN-QIDH double-hybrid functionals significantly reduce the qualitative failures of the SCAN semilocal functional, such as the self-interaction error and noncovalent interaction error, extending the applicability of the SCAN-based functionals to a very diverse range of systems.

  19. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  20. Mechanical property characterization of intraply hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation of the mechanical properties of intraply hybrids made from graphite fiber/epoxy matrix hybridized with secondary S-glass or Kevlar 49 fiber composites is presented. The specimen stress-strain behavior was determined, showing that mechanical properties of intraply hybrid composites can be measured with available methods such as the ten-degree off-axis test for intralaminar shear, and conventional tests for tensile, flexure, and Izod impact properties. The results also showed that combinations of high modulus graphite/S-glass/epoxy matrix composites exist which yield intraply hybrid laminates with the best 'balanced' properties, and that the translation efficiency of mechanical properties from the constituent composites to intraply hybrids may be assessed with a simple equation.

  1. A comprehensive overview of hybrid construction machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing attention of energy saving and emission reduction technology, the recent application of hybrid powertrain technology affects the development of construction machinery industry. This article reviews these publications and provides comprehensive references. This article reviews the state-of-art for the hybrid wheel loader and excavator, which focuses on powertrain configuration, energy storage devices, and energy management strategies. The basis of classification and characteristic of each powertrain configuration are described. Advantages and disadvantages of batteries, supercapacitors, hydraulic accumulators, and flywheel used in hybrid construction machinery are summarized. The existing energy management strategies for hybrid construction machinery are also elaborated. The technological challenges and developing trends in the near future for hybrid construction machinery are discussed.

  2. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  3. Flexural performance of woven hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslinda, A. B.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Dan-mallam, Y.; Mazawati, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the flexural performance of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. Hybrid composites consist of interwoven kenaf/jute and kenaf/hemp fibers was prepared by infusion process using epoxy as polymer matrix. Woven kenaf, jute and hemp composites were also prepared for comparison. Both woven and hybrid composites were subjected to three point flexural test. From the result, bending resistance of hybrid kenaf/jute and kenaf/hemp composites was higher compared to their individual fiber. Hybridization with high strength fiber such as kenaf enhanced the capability of jute and hemp fibers to withstand bending load. Interlocking between yarns in woven fabric make pull out fibers nearly impossible and increase the flexural performance of the hybrid composites.

  4. Hybrid percolation transition in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Byungnam

    Percolation has been one of the most applied statistical models. Percolation transition is one of the most robust continuous transitions known thus far. However, recent extensive researches reveal that it exhibits diverse types of phase transitions such as discontinuous and hybrid phase transitions. Here hybrid phase transition means the phase transition exhibiting natures of both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions simultaneously. Examples include k-core percolation, cascading failures in interdependent networks, synchronization, etc. Thus far, it is not manifest if the critical behavior of hybrid percolation transitions conforms to the conventional scaling laws of second-order phase transition. Here, we investigate the critical behaviors of hybrid percolation transitions in the cascading failure model in inter-dependent networks and the restricted Erdos-Renyi model. We find that the critical behaviors of the hybrid percolation transitions contain some features that cannot be described by the conventional theory of second-order percolation transitions.

  5. The role of epigenetics in hybrid vigour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Greaves, Ian K; Fujimoto, Ryo; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2013-12-01

    Hybrid vigour, or heterosis, refers to the increased yield and biomass of hybrid offspring relative to the parents. Although this has been exploited in plants for agriculture and horticulture, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying hybrid vigour are largely unknown. Genetic analyses show that there are a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to the heterotic phenotype, indicating that it is a complex phenomenon. Gene expression in hybrids is regulated by the interactions of the two parental epigenetic systems and the underlying genomes. Increasing understanding of the interplay of small RNA (sRNA) molecules, DNA methylation, and histone marks provides new opportunities to define the basis of hybrid vigour and to understand why F1 heterosis is not passed on to subsequent generations. We discuss recent findings that suggest the existence of several pathways that alter DNA methylation patterns, which may lead to transcriptional changes resulting in the heterotic phenotype.

  6. Programmed cell death and hybrid incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A; Barr, C M

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new theory to explain developmental aberrations in plant hybrids. In our theory, hybrid incompatibilities arise from imbalances in the mechanisms that cause male sterility in hermaphroditic plants. Mitochondria often cause male sterility by killing the tapetal tissue that nurtures pollen mother cells. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria destroy the tapetum by triggering standard pathways of programmed cell death. Some nuclear genotypes repress mitochondrial male sterility and restore pollen fertility. Normal regulation of tapetal development therefore arises from a delicate balance between the disruptive effects of mitochondria and the defensive countermeasures of the nuclear genes. In hybrids, incompatibilities between male-sterile mitochondria and nuclear restorers may frequently upset the regulatory control of programmed cell death, causing tapetal abnormalities and male sterility. We propose that hybrid misregulation of programmed cell death may also spill over into other tissues, explaining various developmental aberrations observed in hybrids.

  7. Hybrid sterility in plant: stories from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yidan; Liu, Yao-Guang; Zhang, Qifa

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic reproductive isolation in plants. The best-known example is perhaps the hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Major progress has been reported recently in rice in identifying and cloning hybrid sterility genes at two loci regulating female and male fertility, respectively. Genetic analyses and molecular characterization of these genes, together with the results from other model organisms especially Drosophila, have advanced the understanding of the processes underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. These findings also have significant implications for crop genetic improvement, by providing the feasibility and strategies for overcoming intersubspecific hybrid sterility thus allowing the development of intersubspecific hybrids.

  8. Hybrid Laminates for Application in North Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, V. V.; Oreshko, E. I.; Erasov, V. S.; Serebrennikova, N. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A hybrid aluminum-lithium alloy/SIAL laminate as a possible material for application in structures operated in North conditions is considered. The finite-element method is used for a buckling stability analysis of hybrid panels, bars, and plates. A technique allowing one to compare the buckling stability of multilayered hybrid plates is offered. Compression tests were run on a hybrid laminate wing panel as a prototype of the top panel of TU-204SM airplane made from a high-strength B95T2 aluminum alloy. It turned out that the lighter composite panel had a higher load-carrying capacity than the aluminum one. Results of investigation into the properties the hybrid aluminum-lithium alloy/SIAL laminate and an analysis of scientific-technical data on this subject showed that this composite material could be used in the elements of airframes, including those operated in north conditions.

  9. Hybridization and Selective Release of DNA Microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, N R; Baker, B; Piggott, T; Maberry, S; Hara, C M; DeOtte, J; Benett, W; Mukerjee, E; Dzenitis, J; Wheeler, E K

    2011-11-29

    DNA microarrays contain sequence specific probes arrayed in distinct spots numbering from 10,000 to over 1,000,000, depending on the platform. This tremendous degree of multiplexing gives microarrays great potential for environmental background sampling, broad-spectrum clinical monitoring, and continuous biological threat detection. In practice, their use in these applications is not common due to limited information content, long processing times, and high cost. The work focused on characterizing the phenomena of microarray hybridization and selective release that will allow these limitations to be addressed. This will revolutionize the ways that microarrays can be used for LLNL's Global Security missions. The goals of this project were two-fold: automated faster hybridizations and selective release of hybridized features. The first study area involves hybridization kinetics and mass-transfer effects. the standard hybridization protocol uses an overnight incubation to achieve the best possible signal for any sample type, as well as for convenience in manual processing. There is potential to significantly shorten this time based on better understanding and control of the rate-limiting processes and knowledge of the progress of the hybridization. In the hybridization work, a custom microarray flow cell was used to manipulate the chemical and thermal environment of the array and autonomously image the changes over time during hybridization. The second study area is selective release. Microarrays easily generate hybridization patterns and signatures, but there is still an unmet need for methodologies enabling rapid and selective analysis of these patterns and signatures. Detailed analysis of individual spots by subsequent sequencing could potentially yield significant information for rapidly mutating and emerging (or deliberately engineered) pathogens. In the selective release work, optical energy deposition with coherent light quickly provides the thermal energy

  10. Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic

  11. Engineering semiconductor hybrids for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Huang, Danhong

    2016-06-01

    The effect of screening of the coulomb interaction between two layers of two-dimensional electrons, such as in graphene, by a highly doped semiconducting substrate is investigated. We employ the random-phase approximation to calculate the dispersion equation of this hybrid structure in order to determine the plasmon excitation spectrum. When an electric current is passed through a layer, the low-frequency plasmons in the layer may bifurcate into separate streams due to the current-driving effect. At a critical wave vector, determined by the separation between layers and their distance from the surface, their phase velocities may be in opposite directions and a surface plasmon instability leads to the emission of radiation. Applications to detectors and other electromagnetic devices exploiting nano-plasmonics are discussed.

  12. Heterogeneous fuel for hybrid rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, David B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Heterogeneous fuel compositions suitable for use in hybrid rocket engines and solid-fuel ramjet engines, The compositions include mixtures of a continuous phase, which forms a solid matrix, and a dispersed phase permanently distributed therein. The dispersed phase or the matrix vaporizes (or melts) and disperses into the gas flow much more rapidly than the other, creating depressions, voids and bumps within and on the surface of the remaining bulk material that continuously roughen its surface, This effect substantially enhances heat transfer from the combusting gas flow to the fuel surface, producing a correspondingly high burning rate, The dispersed phase may include solid particles, entrained liquid droplets, or gas-phase voids having dimensions roughly similar to the displacement scale height of the gas-flow boundary layer generated during combustion.

  13. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  14. Hybrid Shielding for Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, David; Royal, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Precision symmetry measurements such as the search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron require magnetic shielding rooms to reduce the ambient field to the pT scale. The massive mu-metal sheets and large separation between layers make these shield rooms bulky and expensive. Active field cancellation systems used to reduce the surrounding field are limited in uniformity of cancellation. A novel approach to reducing the space between shield layers and increasing the effectiveness of active cancellation is to combine the two systems into a hybrid system, with active and passive layers interspersed. We demonstrate this idea in a prototype with an active layer sandwiched between two passive layers of shielding.

  15. An IIR median hybrid filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter H.; Sartori, Michael A.; Bryden, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of nonlinear filters, the so-called class of multidirectional infinite impulse response median hybrid filters, is presented and analyzed. The input signal is processed twice using a linear shift-invariant infinite impulse response filtering module: once with normal causality and a second time with inverted causality. The final output of the MIMH filter is the median of the two-directional outputs and the original input signal. Thus, the MIMH filter is a concatenation of linear filtering and nonlinear filtering (a median filtering module). Because of this unique scheme, the MIMH filter possesses many desirable properties which are both proven and analyzed (including impulse removal, step preservation, and noise suppression). A comparison to other existing median type filters is also provided.

  16. through the Hybrid Ideation Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Dorta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evalúa un innovador modelo inmersivo para realizar bocetos y crear sistemas: la Hybrid Ideation Space(HIS. El sistema permite a los diseñadores hacer croquis y modelos en torno a todos ellos en tiempo y a escala real utilizando una tableta digital (boceto, la captura de la imagen (modelos físicos y un dispositivo de proyección esférica (inmersión. Se efectuó un experimento para evaluarlo utilizando el concepto de Diseño de flujo y el volumen de trabajo con los estudiantes de diseño industrial en equipos de trabajo durante la etapa de ideación del diseño de un coche. Este HIS se comparó con instrumentos analógicos y técnicas híbridas

  17. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...... to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well....

  18. A Theory of Hybrid Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yidong

    1999-01-01

    This paper establishes a formal modelfor hybrid diagnosis, novel features including: (1) It provides aunified theoretical framework for utilizing device models and heuristicsin diagnosis, which naturally integrates all the important components ofdiagnosis --- the structural and behavioral description of devices,fault modes, the lower and upper fault bounds, fault possibilities andheuristic rules --- into a diagnostic system. Device models predictoutputs from inputs, heuristic rules infer the possibilities of certaincomponents being faulty from symptoms, and yet the combination of bothconstrains each other for us to reduce the hypothesis space. (2) Itpresents a typical way of modeling behavior of devices, to which the keyis the introduction of I-O functions with indefinite inputs/outputs. (3)It can easily be implemented over a forward-chaining inference engine.

  19. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2016-06-16

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  20. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Eoin; Meany, Thomas; Flother, Frederick F; Lee, James P; Griffiths, Jonathan P; Jones, Geb A C; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A; Bennet, Anthony J; Shields, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to an SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO2 cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single photon nature of the emission was veri?ed by an on-chip Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  1. Solar-geothermal hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Alvaro; Almanza, Rafael [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Edificio 12, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant is located in the northwest of Mexico, lat. 32{sup o}39', long. 115{sup o}21' in the northern hemisphere. A solar-geothermal hybrid system is proposed in order to increase the steam flow during the present geothermal cycle, adding a solar field of parabolic trough concentrators. Energy is supplied to the geothermal flow from wells in order to increase the steam generation rate. This configuration will increase the capacity factor of the system by generating additional steam during the peak demand hours. The parabolic trough solar field is evaluated in North-South and East-West orientation collector alignments. A proposal to obtain an increase of 10% in steam flow is evaluated, as the increase in flow is limited by the content of dissolved salts, so as to avoid a liquid phase with high salt concentrations. The size of the parabolic troughs field was obtained. (author)

  2. Hybrid Exotic Meson Decay Width

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, M S

    2005-01-01

    We present results of a decay width calculation for a hybrid exotic meson(h, JPC=1-+) in the decay channel h to pi+a1. This calculation uses quenched lattice QCD and Luescher's finite box method. Operators for the h and pi+a1 states are used in a correlation matrix which was expanded by varying the smearing and fuzzing levels at source and sink points. Scattering phase shifts for a discrete set of relative pi+a1 momenta are determined using eigenvalues of the correlation matrix and formulae derived by Luescher. The phase shift data is very sparse, but fits to a Breit-Wigner model are made, resulting in a decay width of about 80 MeV.

  3. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, E.; Floether, F. F. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Bennett, A. J., E-mail: anthony.bennet@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Shields, A. J. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Lee, J. P. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-26

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO{sub 2} cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  4. Coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert H.; Freund, Henry P.; Pershing, Dean E.; Taccetti, J. M.

    1993-11-01

    A magnetic wiggler design has been developed for applications in free-electron lasers which is scalable to small periods with high field amplitude, high beam current acceptance, and excellent transverse focusing and beam propagation properties. The Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler design consists of a coaxial arrangement of alternating ferromagnetic and non- ferromagnetic rings with the central portion of the coax shifted by one half period. The entire arrangement is immersed in a solenoidal field which results in a cylindrically symmetric periodic field. A key advantage of this wiggler configuration is its capacity to handle very high beam currents with excellent focusing and transport properties. FEL configuration using the CHI wiggler design have the potential for high power, high frequency coherent generation in relatively compact systems. Analytic and simulated characteristics of the CHI wiggler are presented.

  5. Hybrid chernoff tau-leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Markovian pure jump processes model a wide range of phenomena, including chemical reactions at the molecular level, dynamics of wireless communication networks, and the spread of epidemic diseases in small populations. There exist algorithms such as Gillespie\\'s stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and Anderson\\'s modified next reaction method (MNRM) that simulate a single path with the exact distribution of the process, but this can be time consuming when many reactions take place during a short time interval. Gillespie\\'s approximated tau-leap method, on the other hand, can be used to reduce computational time, but it may lead to nonphysical values due to a positive one-step exit probability, and it also introduces a time discretization error. Here, we present a novel hybrid algorithm for simulating individual paths which adaptively switches between the SSA and the tau-leap method. The switching strategy is based on a comparison of the expected interarrival time of the SSA and an adaptive time step derived from a Chernoff-type bound for the one-step exit probability. Because this bound is nonasymptotic, we do not need to make any distributional approximation for the tau-leap increments. This hybrid method allows us (i) to control the global exit probability of any simulated path and (ii) to obtain accurate and computable estimates of the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work. We present numerical examples that illustrate the performance of the proposed method. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  6. Modeling hybrid perovskites by molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoni, Alessandro; Filippetti, Alessio; Caddeo, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    The topical review describes the recent progress in the modeling of hybrid perovskites by molecular dynamics simulations. Hybrid perovskites and in particular methylammonium lead halide (MAPI) have a tremendous technological relevance representing the fastest-advancing solar material to date. They also represent the paradigm of an organic-inorganic crystalline material with some conceptual peculiarities: an inorganic semiconductor for what concerns the electronic and absorption properties with a hybrid and solution processable organic-inorganic body. After briefly explaining the basic concepts of ab initio and classical molecular dynamics, the model potential recently developed for hybrid perovskites is described together with its physical motivation as a simple ionic model able to reproduce the main dynamical properties of the material. Advantages and limits of the two strategies (either ab initio or classical) are discussed in comparison with the time and length scales (from pico to microsecond scale) necessary to comprehensively study the relevant properties of hybrid perovskites from molecular reorientations to electrocaloric effects. The state-of-the-art of the molecular dynamics modeling of hybrid perovskites is reviewed by focusing on a selection of showcase applications of methylammonium lead halide: molecular cations disorder; temperature evolution of vibrations; thermally activated defects diffusion; thermal transport. We finally discuss the perspectives in the modeling of hybrid perovskites by molecular dynamics.

  7. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among inve- stigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the dif- ference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereas Merak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in 2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  8. Novel brewing yeast hybrids: creation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The natural interspecies Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid yeast is responsible for global lager beer production and is one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Its success in the lager brewing environment is due to a combination of traits not commonly found in pure yeast species, principally low-temperature tolerance, and maltotriose utilization. Parental transgression is typical of hybrid organisms and has been exploited previously for, e.g., the production of wine yeast with beneficial properties. The parental strain S. eubayanus has only been discovered recently and newly created lager yeast strains have not yet been applied industrially. A number of reports attest to the feasibility of this approach and artificially created hybrids are likely to have a significant impact on the future of lager brewing. De novo S. cerevisiae × S. eubayanus hybrids outperform their parent strains in a number of respects, including, but not restricted to, fermentation rate, sugar utilization, stress tolerance, and aroma formation. Hybrid genome function and stability, as well as different techniques for generating hybrids and their relative merits are discussed. Hybridization not only offers the possibility of generating novel non-GM brewing yeast strains with unique properties, but is expected to aid in unraveling the complex evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  9. Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste).

  10. Modeling hybrid perovskites by molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoni, Alessandro; Filippetti, Alessio; Caddeo, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    The topical review describes the recent progress in the modeling of hybrid perovskites by molecular dynamics simulations. Hybrid perovskites and in particular methylammonium lead halide (MAPI) have a tremendous technological relevance representing the fastest-advancing solar material to date. They also represent the paradigm of an organic-inorganic crystalline material with some conceptual peculiarities: an inorganic semiconductor for what concerns the electronic and absorption properties with a hybrid and solution processable organic-inorganic body. After briefly explaining the basic concepts of ab initio and classical molecular dynamics, the model potential recently developed for hybrid perovskites is described together with its physical motivation as a simple ionic model able to reproduce the main dynamical properties of the material. Advantages and limits of the two strategies (either ab initio or classical) are discussed in comparison with the time and length scales (from pico to microsecond scale) necessary to comprehensively study the relevant properties of hybrid perovskites from molecular reorientations to electrocaloric effects. The state-of-the-art of the molecular dynamics modeling of hybrid perovskites is reviewed by focusing on a selection of showcase applications of methylammonium lead halide: molecular cations disorder; temperature evolution of vibrations; thermally activated defects diffusion; thermal transport. We finally discuss the perspectives in the modeling of hybrid perovskites by molecular dynamics.

  11. HYBRID CONTROL APPROACH FOR CONTAINER CRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaojun; Shao Huihe

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid control approach is proposed to achieve the desired performance. Firstly a robust input shaper is designed to reduce the transient vibration and residual vibration of the container efficiently. Then a simple fuzzy logic controller is designed to eliminate the residual vibration completely in order to guarantee the positioning precision. Such a hybrid approach is simple in structure and readily realizable. Simulation results verify the fine performance of this hybrid control approach. It can achieve perfect elimination of residual vibration and concise positioning of the container load, and it is robust to parameter variations (mainly for cable length) and external disturbances.

  12. Hybrid ion, atom and light trap

    CERN Document Server

    Jyothi, S; Ram, N Bhargava; Rangwala, S A

    2013-01-01

    We present an unique experimental arrangement which permits the simultaneous trapping and cooling of ions and neutral atoms, within a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The versatility of this hybrid trap experiment enables a variety of studies with trapped mixtures. The motivations behind the production of such a hybrid trap system are explained, followed by details of how the experiment is put together. Several experiments that have been performed with this system are presented and some opportunities with this system are discussed. However the primary emphasis is focussed on the aspects that pertain to the trapped ions, in this hybrid system.

  13. Fault tolerant control design for hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Cocquempot, Vincent [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book intends to provide the readers a good understanding on how to achieve Fault Tolerant Control goal of Hybrid Systems. The book can be used as a reference for the academic research on Fault Tolerant Control and Hybrid Systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering. The knowledge background for this monograph would be some undergraduate and graduate courses on Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control theory, linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, Hybrid Systems theory and Discrete Event System theory. (orig.)

  14. Graphite and Hybrid Nanomaterials as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu J. Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lubricant additives, based on inorganic nanoparticles coated with organic outer layer, can reduce wear and increase load-carrying capacity of base oil remarkably, indicating the great potential of hybrid nanoparticles as anti-wear and extreme-pressure additives with excellent levels of performance. The organic part in the hybrid materials improves their flexibility and stability, while the inorganic part is responsible for hardness. The relationship between the design parameters of the organic coatings, such as molecular architecture and the lubrication performance, however, remains to be fully elucidated. A survey of current understanding of hybrid nanoparticles as lubricant additives is presented in this review.

  15. A hybrid piezoelectric structure for wearable nanogenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minbaek; Wang, Sihong; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Chen, Chih-Yen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 (China); Cha, Seung Nam; Park, Yong Jun; Kim, Jong Min [Frontier Research Lab, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, Gyeonggi-Do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Chou, Li-Jen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 (China)

    2012-04-03

    A hybrid-fiber nanogenerator comprising a ZnO nanowire array, PVDF polymer and two electrodes is presented. Depending on the bending or spreading action of the human arm, at an angle of {proportional_to}90 , the hybrid fiber reaches electrical outputs of {proportional_to}0.1 V and {proportional_to}10 nA cm{sup -2}. The unique structure of the hybrid fiber may inspire future research in wearable energy-harvesting technology. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Hybrid Ceramic Matrix Fibrous Composites: an Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naslain, R, E-mail: naslain@lcts.u-bordeaux1.fr [University of Bordeaux 3, Allee de La Boetie, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2011-10-29

    Ceramic-Matrix Composites (CMCs) consist of a ceramic fiber architecture in a ceramic matrix, bonded together through a thin interphase. The present contribution is limited to non-oxide CMCs. Their constituents being oxidation-prone, they are protected by external coatings. We state here that CMCs display a hybrid feature, when at least one of their components is not homogeneous from a chemical or microstructural standpoint. Hybrid fiber architectures are used to tailor the mechanical or thermal CMC-properties whereas hybrid interphases, matrices and coatings to improve CMC resistance to aggressive environments.

  17. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...

  18. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  19. Hadron rapidity spectra within a hybrid model

    CERN Document Server

    Khvorostukhin, A S

    2016-01-01

    A 2-stage hybrid model is proposed that joins the fast initial state of interaction, described by the hadron string dynamics (HSD) model, to subsequent evolution of the expanding system at the second stage, treated within ideal hydrodynamics. The developed hybrid model is assigned to describe heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of the NICA collider under construction in Dubna. Generally, the model is in reasonable agreement with the available data on proton rapidity spectra. However, reproducing proton rapidity spectra, our hybrid model cannot describe the rapidity distributions of pions. The model should be improved by taking into consideration viscosity effects at the hydrodynamical stage of system evolution.

  20. Chromosome doubling in vine cacti hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Zur, N; Abbo, S; Bar-Zvi, D; Mizrahi, Y

    2003-01-01

    We performed reciprocal crosses between the tetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus and the diploid Hylocereus species, H. undatus and H. polyrhizus. S. megalanthus x H. undatus gave rise to viable hexaploids and 6x-aneuploid hybrids rather than to the expected triploids. No genuine hybrids were obtained in the reciprocal cross. The pollen diameter of the tetraploid S. megalanthus varied widely, indicating the occurrence of unreduced gametes, while that of H. undatus pollen was very uniform, indicating an extremely low frequency of unreduced gametes. This finding suggests that the hexaploids were formed by chromosome doubling after the formation of the hybrid triploid zygote rather than by fusion of unreduced gametes of the two species.

  1. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  2. Fuzzy Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Paradigm (FHDRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Hengameth

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to introduce a new concept for incorporating fuzzy sets in hybrid deliberative/reactive paradigm. After a brief review on basic issues of hybrid paradigm the definition of agent-based fuzzy hybrid paradigm, which enables the agents to proceed and extract their behavior through quantitative numerical and qualitative knowledge and to impose their decision making procedure via fuzzy rule bank, is discussed. Next an example performs a more applied platform for the developed approach and finally an overview of the corresponding agents architecture enhances agents logical framework.

  3. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  4. Localized lower hybrid acceleration of ionospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, P. M.; Vago, J.; Chesney, S.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Lynch, K. A.; Pollock, C. J.; Moore, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the transverse acceleration of ions in localized regions of intense lower hybrid waves at altitudes near 1000 km in the auroral ionosphere are reported. The acceleration regions are thin filaments with dimensions across geomagnetic field lines of about 50-100 m corresponding to 5-10 thermal ion gyroradii or one hot ion gyroradius. Within the acceleration region lower hybrid waves reach peak-to-peak amplitudes of 100-300 mV/m and ions are accelerated transversely with characteristic energies of the order of 10 eV. These observations are consistent with theories of lower hybrid wave collapse.

  5. An overview on hybrid active filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libano, Fausto B.; Uceda, Javier [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Division de Ingenieria Electronica; Simonetti, Domingos S.L. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes the main hybrid filter methods. A special attention is given to series active filter associations. Nowadays, an hybrid filtering is the preferred choice to improve line performance when feeding high-power non-linear loads. In addition, the use of an independent reference frame leads to a better response comparing to the initial proposition of p-q theory. A comparison of possible filter associations is given, presenting the expected function of each one. The work represents an interesting overview on the state-of-the-art of hybrid filters. (author) 16 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Exploring Human Capital and Hybrid Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyver, Kim; Lomberg, Carina; Steffens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    An individual’s human capital affects their choice to become and entrepreneur and also their likely success as a nascent entrepreneur. This paper explores how hybrid employment—entrepreneur opportunities impact these dynamics. Drawing on insights from decision theory, we argue that an individual...... longitudinal dataset of individuals facing career transition as nascent entrepreneurs, job seekers or both, we find that while hybrid nascent entrepreneurship (trying to start a business while being employed) has a positive influence on outcomes, hybrid search (concurrent job search while trying to start...

  7. Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

    2014-12-24

    Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach.

  8. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  9. Hybrid lipid-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayani, Yasaman

    Biological membranes serve several important roles, such as structural support of cells and organelles, regulation of ionic and molecular transport, barriers to non-mediated transport, contact between cells within tissues, and accommodation of membrane proteins. Membrane proteins and other vital biomolecules incorporated into the membrane need a lipid membrane to function. Due to importance of lipid bilayers and their vital function in governing many processes in the cell, the development of various models as artificial lipid membranes that can mimic cell membranes has become a subject of great interest. Using different models of artificial lipid membranes, such as liposomes, planar lipid bilayers and supported or tethered lipid bilayers, we are able to study many biophysical processes in biological membranes. The ability of different molecules to interact with and change the structure of lipid membranes can be also investigated in artificial lipid membranes. An important application of lipid bilayer-containing interfaces is characterization of novel membrane proteins for high throughput drug screening studies to investigate receptor-drug interactions and develop biosensor systems. Membrane proteins need a lipid bilayer environment to preserve their stability and functionality. Fabrication of materials that can interact with biomolecules like proteins necessitates the use of lipid bilayers as a mimic of cell membranes. The objective of this research is to develop novel hybrid lipid-based nanostructures mimicking biological membranes. Toward this aim, two hybrid biocompatible structures are introduced: lipid bilayer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and hydrogel-anchored liposomes with double-stranded DNA anchors. These structures have potential applications in biosensing, drug targeting, drug delivery, and biophysical studies of cell membranes. In the first developed nanostructure, lipid molecules are covalently attached to the surfaces of MWCNTs, and

  10. Analysis of Non-binary Hybrid LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Sassatelli, Lucile

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse asymptotically a new class of LDPC codes called Non-binary Hybrid LDPC codes, which has been recently introduced. We use density evolution techniques to derive a stability condition for hybrid LDPC codes, and prove their threshold behavior. We study this stability condition to conclude on asymptotic advantages of hybrid LDPC codes compared to their non-hybrid counterparts.

  11. The powertrain of the Jetta Hybrid from Volkswagen; Der Antriebsstrang des Jetta Hybrid von Volkswagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neusser, Heinz-Jakob; Jelden, Hanno; Buehring, Kai; Philipp, Kai [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    The Jetta Hybrid is the second full hybrid vehicle from Volkswagen. The parallel hybrid includes a modern direct-injection turbocharged 1.4-l gasoline engine, a seven-speed dual-clutch transmission and a 20 kW electric motor. The components are part of a scalable modular matrix and can also be used in other projects within the Volkswagen Group. (orig.)

  12. Recombination in interpopulation hybrids of the copepod Tigriopus californicus: release of beneficial variation despite hybrid breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmands, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Crosses between divergent populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus typically result in fitness reductions for both F2 and backcross hybrids. Because females in this species lack chiasmatic meiosis, both recombinant and nonrecombinant backcross hybrids can be created. Recombinant hybrids were found to have significantly faster development time for both males and females in 2 pairs of crosses, indicating the creation of favorable gene combinations by disrupting parental linkage groups.

  13. Hybrid zone and its genetic analysis: implication for conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGDong; LIUXue-dong; MAJian-zhang

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid zone is a very critical concept within the evolutionary biology, because it would offer us a better insight to understand the evolutionary role of gene flow and hybridization based on the cline model. This minireview presents an expatia-tion of history perspectives and research developments upon basic concepts including hybrid zones, hybridization, hybrid and its the genetic cline model. Moreover, by figuring out the existing problem around the hybrids within conservative theory and prac-tices, it suggests that the theory of hybrid zone be introduced into conservation biology and it would be provide a broader and more open theoretical background for conservative research and practices.

  14. Hybrid Models in Loop Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Navascués, B Elizaga; Marugán, G A Mena

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of Loop Quantum Cosmology, inhomogeneous models are usually quantized by means of a hybrid approach that combines loop quantization techniques with standard quantum field theory methods. This approach is based on a splitting of the phase space in a homogeneous sector, formed by global, zero-modes, and an inhomogeneous sector, formed by the remaining, infinite number of modes, that describe the local degrees of freedom. Then, the hybrid quantization is attained by adopting a loop representation for the homogeneous gravitational sector, while a Fock representation is used for the inhomogeneities. The zero-mode of the Hamiltonian constraint operator couples the homogeneous and inhomogeneous sectors. The hybrid approach, therefore, is expected to provide a suitable quantum theory in regimes where the main quantum effects of the geometry are those affecting the zero-modes, while the inhomogeneities, still being quantum, can be treated in a more conventional way. This hybrid strategy was first prop...

  15. Hybrid Ocean Wind Sensor (HOWS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed Phase I effort will investigate and develop the necessary innovations to realize the Hybrid Ocean Wind Sensor system that will provide critical...

  16. Photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Rosario; Zayat, Marcos; Levy, David

    2011-02-01

    Photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials have attracted considerable attention owing to their potential application in photoactive devices, such as optical memories, windows, photochromic decorations, optical switches, filters or non-linear optics materials. The growing interest in this field has largely expanded the use of photochromic materials for the purpose of improving existing materials and exploring new photochromic hybrid systems. This tutorial review summarizes the design and preparation of photochromic hybrid materials, and particularly those based on the incorporation of organic molecules in organic-inorganic matrices by the sol-gel method. This is the most commonly used method for the preparation of these materials as it allows vitreous hybrid materials to be obtained at low temperatures, and controls the interaction between the organic molecule and its embedding matrix, and hence allows tailoring of the performance of the resulting devices.

  17. Formes coopératives hybrides

    OpenAIRE

    Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    On constate avec un intérêt croissant la transformation d’organisations du tiers secteur en organisations hybrides. Les chercheurs se sont penchés sur les processus d’« hybridation » ayant mené au développement de l’entreprise sociale, dont l’incarnation la plus remarquable est le modèle italien de la coopérative sociale. Il s’agit d’un modèle doublement « hybride », tant par son mode de gouvernance que par la diversité de ses pourvoyeurs de ressources. D’autres formes hybrides de coopérative...

  18. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systems – systems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  19. Pulse detonation assembly and hybrid engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Adam (Inventor); Dean, Anthony John (Inventor); Vandervort, Christian Lee (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A pulse detonation (PD) assembly includes a number of PD chambers adapted to expel respective detonation product streams and a number of barriers disposed between respective pairs of PD chambers. The barriers define, at least in part, a number of sectors that contain at least one PD chamber. A hybrid engine includes a number of PD chambers and barriers. The hybrid engine further includes a turbine assembly having at least one turbine stage, being in flow communication with the PD chambers and being configured to be at least partially driven by the detonation product streams. A segmented hybrid engine includes a number of PD chambers and segments configured to receive and direct the detonation product streams from respective PD chambers. The segmented hybrid engine further includes a turbine assembly configured to be at least partially driven by the detonation product streams.

  20. Travelling waves in hybrid chemotaxis models

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Benjamin; Painter, Kevin J; Erban, Radek

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant) which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybr...

  1. Integrated approach for hybrid rocket technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Francesco; Bellomo, Nicolas; Pavarin, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid rocket motors tend generally to be simple from a mechanical point of view but difficult to optimize because of their complex and still not well understood cross-coupled physics. This paper addresses the previous issue presenting the integrated approach established at University of Padua to develop hybrid rocket based systems. The methodology tightly combines together system analysis and design, numerical modeling from elementary to sophisticated CFD, and experimental testing done with incremental philosophy. As an example of the approach, the paper presents the experience done in the successful development of a hybrid rocket booster designed for rocket assisted take off operations. It is thought that following the proposed approach and selecting carefully the most promising applications it is possible to finally exploit the major advantages of hybrid rocket motors as safety, simplicity, low cost and reliability.

  2. Recent progress in hybrid materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Clément; Shea, Kenneth J; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2011-02-01

    This themed issue of Chemical Society Reviews reviews recent progress made in hybrid materials science. Guest editors Clément Sanchez, Susumu Kitagawa and Ken Shea introduce the issue and the academic and industrial importance of the field.

  3. The path exchange method for hybrid LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Crawford, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid techniques for Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provide a way of combining the accuracy of process analysis and the completeness of input-output analysis. A number of methods have been suggested to implement a hybrid LCA in practice, with the main challenge being the integration of specific process data with an overarching input-output system. In this work we present a new hybrid LCA method which works at the finest input-output level of detail: structural paths. This new Path Exchange method avoids double-counting and system disturbance just as previous hybrid LCA methods, but instead of a large LCA database it requires only a minimum of external information on those structural paths that are to be represented by process data.

  4. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  5. Hybrid Pulsators -- Pulsating Stars with Multiple Identities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, A -Y

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a statistic survey on the pulsating variable stars with multiple identities. These stars were identified to exhibit two types of pulsation or multiple light variability types in the literature, and are usually called hybrid pulsators. We extracted the hybrid information based on the Simbad database. Actually, all the variables with multiple identities are retrieved. The survey covers various pulsating stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We aim at giving a clue in selecting interesting targets for further observation. Hybrid pulsators are excellent targets for asteroseismology. An important implication of such stars is their potential in advancing the theories of both stellar evolution and pulsation. By presenting the statistics, we address the open questions and prospects regarding current status of hybrid pulsation studies.

  6. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and...

  7. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a safe, highly-reliable, low-cost and uniquely versatile propulsion...

  8. Two Photon Couplings of Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    A new formalism is developed for the two photon production of hybrid mesons via intermediate hadronic decays. In an adiabatic and non--relativistic context with spin 1 pair creation we obtain the first absolute estimates of unmixed hybrid production strengths to be small (0.03 - 3 eV) in relation to experimental meson widths (0.1 - 5 keV). Within this context, two photon collisions therefore strongly discriminate between hybrid and conventional meson wave function components at BaBar, Cleo II, LEP2 and LHC, filtering out non--gluonic components. Decay widths of unmixed hybrids are tiny. The formalism also induces conventional meson two photon widths roughly in agreement with experiment.

  9. Control system for a hybrid powertrain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Ali K.; Demirovic, Besim; Gupta, Pinaki; Kaminsky, Lawrence A.

    2014-09-09

    A vehicle includes a powertrain with an engine, first and second torque machines, and a hybrid transmission. A method for operating the vehicle includes operating the engine in an unfueled state, releasing an off-going clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a first continuously variable mode, and applying a friction braking torque to a wheel of the vehicle to compensate for an increase in an output torque of the hybrid transmission resulting from releasing the off-going clutch. Subsequent to releasing the off-going clutch, an oncoming clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a second continuously variable mode is synchronized. Subsequent to synchronization of the oncoming clutch, the oncoming clutch is engaged.

  10. Design of Digital Hybrid Chaotic Sequence Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Nini; ZENG Dong

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of the hybrid chaotic sequences as the spreading codes in code divided multiple access(CDMA) system is analyzed.The design and realization of the digital hybrid chaotic sequence generator by very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language(VHDL) are described.A valid hazard canceledl method is presented.Computer simulations show that the stable digital sequence waveforms can be produced.The correlations of the digital hybrid chaotic sequences are compared with those of m-sequences.The results show that the correlations of the digital hybrid chaotic sequences are almost as good as those of m-sequences.The works in this paper explored a road for the practical applications of chaos.

  11. Twin Cities Metro Hybrid Landcover 2000 (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Hybrid Landcover is an attempt to clean up the University of Minnesota Remote Sensing Lab's 2000 LandSat Land Cover for the Twin Cities 7-county metropolitan...

  12. Ultra-Lightweight Hybrid Structured Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MMCC is proposing herewith a hybrid structured mirror that combines the advantages of SiC membrane and magnesium graphite composite. The significance of magnesium...

  13. HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) 3-day, daily forecast at approximately 9-km (1/12-degree)...

  14. Semiconductor quantum dot-inorganic nanotube hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizman, Ronen; Schwartz, Osip; Deutsch, Zvicka; Itzhakov, Stella; Zak, Alla; Cohen, Sidney R; Tenne, Reshef; Oron, Dan

    2012-03-28

    A synthetic route for preparation of inorganic WS(2) nanotube (INT)-colloidal semiconductor quantum dot (QD) hybrid structures is developed, and transient carrier dynamics on these hybrids are studied via transient photoluminescence spectroscopy utilizing several different types of QDs. Measurements reveal efficient resonant energy transfer from the QDs to the INT upon photoexcitation, provided that the QD emission is at a higher energy than the INT direct gap. Charge transfer in the hybrid system, characterized using QDs with band gaps below the INT direct gap, is found to be absent. This is attributed to the presence of an organic barrier layer due to the relatively long-chain organic ligands of the QDs under study. This system, analogous to carbon nanotube-QD hybrids, holds potential for a variety of applications, including photovoltaics, luminescence tagging and optoelectronics.

  15. Thermal stability of PMMA–clay hybrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tanushree Choudhury; Nirendra M Misra

    2010-04-01

    Materials with small particle size are being extensively used in composites and hybrid materials. Exfoliated clay–polymer hybrids show enhanced properties. Exfoliation of clay platelets can be affected by selecting dispersing agents. In the present work, clay dispersed by natural dispersant (soap stone powder), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) dispersed clay and acid clay (amorphous clay) are taken. They are then polymerized with poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) by solution intercalation method. The thermal stability of these different clay–PMMA hybrids have been studied and compared with that of pure PMMA by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The bonding of clay with PMMA has been studied by IR. Morphology of clay–PMMA hybrids has been shown by SEM and XRD which indicate partially exfoliated structure in T606-4 and intercalated structures in T606-6 and T606-2.

  16. Hybrid High-Fidelity Auscultation Scope Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Johnson Space Center's need for a space auscultation capability, Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a Hybrid High-Fidelity...

  17. Hybrid neural network models of transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shilin; Zhang, Xinong; Chen, Shenglai; Zhu, Changchun

    2011-10-01

    A hybrid neural network (NN) approach is proposed and applied to modeling of transducers in the paper. The modeling procedures are also presented in detail. First, the simulated studies on the modeling of single input-single output and multi input-multi output transducers are conducted respectively by use of the developed hybrid NN scheme. Secondly, the hybrid NN modeling approach is utilized to characterize a six-axis force sensor prototype based on the measured data. The results show that the hybrid NN approach can significantly improve modeling precision in comparison with the conventional modeling method. In addition, the method is superior to NN black-box modeling because the former possesses smaller network scale, higher convergence speed, higher model precision and better generalization performance.

  18. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous real-time control deserves increased attention for instance in wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variations of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems-without resorting to point...... of classical hybrid systems we are interested in whether a certain set of unsafe system states can be reached from a set of initial states. In the probabilistic setting, we may ask instead whether the probability of reaching unsafe states is below some given threshold. In this paper, we consider probabilistic...

  19. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous dynamics deserves increased attention, especially in the context of wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variants of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems. Moreover, being based...... of classical hybrid systems, we are interested in whether a certain set of unsafe system states can be reached from a set of initial states. In the probabilistic setting, we may ask instead whether the probability of reaching unsafe states is below some given threshold. In this paper, we consider probabilistic...

  20. The City's new hybrid experience spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse; Kiib, Hans

    2007-01-01

    .  We argue that " hybrid economy" and "hybrid space" can be understood as a linkage of "a traditional economy" to a new "experience economy", as well as  a merging of  "traditional private urban spaces" with "new types of public domains". This coupling is the departure point for the mental movement...... from an industrial mindset towards a new pragmatic philosophy in the development of our cities, cities based on knowledge and culture. The term "hybrid urban spaces" breaks down the traditional division between public and private and seeks to choreograph the city as the space of experience which both...... is to understand the notion of creative alliances between cultural institutions and business life as a basis for new urban development - the city's new hybrid experience spaces....

  1. Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain groups of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for control and robotics, which are basically state of the art papers that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control and mobile robotics. The second part contains papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for pattern recognition and time series prediction, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques, like evolutionary algo...

  2. Organic - Inorganic Hybrids made from Polymerizable Precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uricanu, V.I.; Donescu, D.; Banu, A.G.; Serban, S.; Olteanu, M.; Dudau, M.

    2004-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid films were prepared based on a recipe using organoalkoxysilanes’ ability to create an inorganic network combined with polymer network formation via radical polymerization of the organic groups. The starting mixtures included different triethoxysilanes (RTES), where the

  3. A multiconfigurational hybrid density-functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sharkas, Kamal; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa; Toulouse, Julien; 10.1063/1.4733672

    2012-01-01

    We propose a multiconfigurational hybrid density-functional theory which rigorously combines a multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculation with a density-functional approximation based on a linear decomposition of the electron-electron interaction. This gives a straightforward extension of the usual hybrid approximations by essentially adding a fraction \\lambda of exact static correlation in addition to the fraction \\lambda of exact exchange. Test calculations on the cycloaddition reactions of ozone with ethylene or acetylene and the dissociation of diatomic molecules with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functionals show that a good value of \\lambda is 0.25, as in the usual hybrid approximations. The results suggest that the proposed multiconfigurational hybrid approximations can improve over usual density-functional calculations for situations with strong static correlation effects.

  4. Hybrids of sugar pine by embryo culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. C. Stone; J. W. Duffield

    1950-01-01

    A modified embryo culture technique was used to facilitate germination of seed obtained after pollinating sugar pine with pollen from blister rust- resistant Armand and Korean pines. Resulting seedlings appear to be hybrids.

  5. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  6. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods......, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... and MS for the two bioenergy grass species, and discuss how molecular tools and synteny can be used to transfer relevant information for genes controlling these biological mechanisms across grass species...

  7. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Oscar P. R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, André P. C.

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost €5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO 2 km -1 compared to reference petrol (163 g km -1) and diesel cars (156 g km -1). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO 2 km -1.

  8. The interrelation between plus-hybrid effect on grain yield and genetic distance of studied hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia is referred to as the Plus-Hybrid effect. A mixture of hybrids, in which one is a sterile female component and the other is a fertile pollinator, was sown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the increase of a hybrid genetic distance would result in the increased gain from Plus-hybrid effects on grain yield. Two ZP hybrids (ZP 1 and ZP 2, i.e. their sterile and fertile counterparts, as well as, five hybrid pollinators (ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4 and ZP 5 were selected for the studies. The three-replicate trail was set up according to the randomized split-plot design at Zemun Polje in 2009. SSR markers were used to determine the genetic distance between hybrids. Ten out of total 12 applied primers gave results. Coefficients of similarity were estimated according to Dice and Jaccard. The greatest (0.37, i.e. smallest genetic distance (0.08, according to Dice, was obtained between hybrids ZP 1 and ZP 5, i.e. ZP 1 and ZP 4, respectively. Values of genetic distance according to Jaccard were between 0.14 (ZP 1 and ZP 4 and 0.54 (ZP 1 i ZP 5 . By using the cluster analysis, four hybrids (ZP 1, ZP 4, ZP 3 and ZP 2 were grouped into one sub-cluster that was loosely linked to ZP 5. The Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield of the hybrid ZP 1 was negative. The greatest gain was detected in the ZP 2st ' ZP 1 combination, between two hybrids that were genetically very similar and belonged to the same sub-cluster, and then in ZP 2st x ZP 3 and ZP 2st x ZP 4 combinations, between hybrids that also belonged to the same sub-cluster. It can be concluded that the Plus-hybrid effect, after all, depends not on the hybrid genetic distance but on the hybrid genotype.

  9. Development and characterization of interspecific hybrids between Oryza sativa and O. latifolia by in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI ChuanDeng; TANG ShuZhu; ZHOU Yong; LIANG GuoHua; GONG ZhiYun; GU MingHong

    2008-01-01

    Oryza sativa and O. latifolia belong to the AA and CCDD genomes of Oryza, respectively. In this study, interspecific hybrids of these species were obtained using the embryo rescue technique. Hybrid pani-cle traits, such as long awns, small grain, exoteric large purple stigma, grain shattering and dispersed panicles, resemble that of the paternal parent, O. latifolia, whereas there is obvious heterosis in such respects as plant height, tillering ability and vegetative vigor. Chromosome pairing and the genomic components of the hybrid were subsequently investigated using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Based on the mitotic metaphase chromosome numbers of the root tips investigated, the hybrid is a triploid with 36 chromosomes. The genomic con-stitution of the hybrid is ACD. In the meiotic metaphase I of the hybrid pollen mother cell, poor chro-mosome pairing was identified and most of the chromosomes were univalent, which resulted in com-plete male sterility in the hybrid.

  10. Silicon nanocrystal-noble metal hybrid nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, H.; Fujii, M.; Imakita, K.

    2016-05-01

    We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion.We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TEM images and extinction spectra of Si-metal hybrid NPs are shown in Fig. S1

  11. Ductility Performance of Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    S. Eswari; P.N. Raghunath; Suguna, K

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a study on the ductility performance of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete. The influence of fibre content on the ductility performance of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete specimens having different fibre volume fractions was investigated. The parameters of investigation included modulus of rupture, ultimate load, service load, ultimate and service load deflection, crack width, energy ductility and deflection ductility. A total of 27 specimens, 100×100×500 mm, were tested to...

  12. VLSI Hybrid DC-DC Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Cosp Vilella, Jordi; Martínez García, Herminio

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid DC-DC regulators are structures that combine both a linear voltage regulator and a switching DC-DC converter. The main objective of this hybrid topology is to converge, in a single circuit topology, the best of both alternatives: a small voltage output ripple, which is a common characteristic of linear regulator circuits, and good energy efficiency, as in switching alternatives. While the linear regulator fixes the required output voltage to a fixed value with negligible steady-state r...

  13. Power Quality Application of Hybrid Drivetrain

    OpenAIRE

    Rassõlkin, Anton; Hõimoja, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the power conditioning features of hybrid powertrain, especially regarding diesel-electric locomotives. Equipped with an embarked energy buffer for diesel generator support and utility grid interface, such a locomotive can be considered as a plug-in series hybrid vehicle. The driveline inductive components, like generator and motor windings, and capacitive components like dc link capacitors can be used to provide STATCOM functions, and the energy buffer can be u...

  14. Boltzmann Transport in Hybrid PIC HET Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Boltzmann transport in hybrid PIC HET modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In...produced a variety of self-consistent electron swarm codes, such as the Magboltz code, focused on directly solving the steady Boltzmann trans-port...Std. 239.18 Boltzmann transport in hybrid PIC HET modeling IEPC-2015- /ISTS-2015-b- Presented at Joint Conference of 30th International

  15. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique...... applied for implementing this semantics in the UPPAAL-SMC simulation engine. We report on two applications of the resulting tool-set coming from systems biology and energy aware buildings....

  16. Hybrid Airy Plasmons with Dynamically Steerable Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rujiang; Imran, Muhammad; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Huaping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    With the intriguing properties of diffraction-free, self-accelerating, and self-healing, Airy plasmons are promising to be used in the trapping, transporting, and sorting of micro-objects, imaging, and chip scale signal processing. However, the high dissipative loss and the lack of dynamical steerability restrict the implementation of Airy plasmons in these applications. Here we reveal the hybrid Airy plasmons for the first time by taking a hybrid graphene-based plasmonic waveguide in the ter...

  17. Collective identity formation in hybrid organizations.

    OpenAIRE

    Boulongne, Romain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The present article examines the process of collective identity formation in the context of hybrid organizing. Empirically, we investigate hybrid organizing in a collaborative structure at the interface of two heterogeneous organizations in the domain of new renewable energies. We draw on the literature on knowledge sharing across organizational boundaries, particularly the notions of transfer, translation and transformation, to examine in real time how knowledge shari...

  18. Highly stretchable piezoelectric-pyroelectric hybrid nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Keun Young; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Dae-Yeong; Oh, Junho; Ryu, Changkook; Yoo, Won Jong; Kang, Chong-Yun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-02-01

    A highly stretchable hybrid nanogenerator has been developed using a micro-patterned piezoelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE), PDMS-CNT composite, and graphene nanosheets. Mechanical and thermal energies are simultaneously harvested from a single cell of the device. The hybrid nanogenerator exhibits high robustness behavior even after 30% stretching and generates very stable piezoelectric and pyroelectric power outputs due to micro-pattern designing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Graphene Hybrid Materials in Gas Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Latif

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphene, a two dimensional structure of carbon atoms, has been widely used as a material for gas sensing applications because of its large surface area, excellent conductivity, and ease of functionalization. This article reviews the most recent advances in graphene hybrid materials developed for gas sensing applications. In this review, synthetic approaches to fabricate graphene sensors, the nano structures of hybrid materials, and their sensing mechanism are presented. Future perspectives of this rapidly growing field are also discussed.

  20. A Mathematical Model for Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) is frequently used to unearth differentially expressed genes on a whole-genome scale. Its versatility is based on combining cDNA library subtraction and normalization, which allows the isolation of sequences of varying degrees of abundance and differential expression. SSH is a complex process with many adjustable parameters that affect the outcome of gene isolation.We present a mathematical model of SSH based on DNA hybridization kinetics for assess...

  1. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  2. Cryopreservation of Bituminaria bituminosa varieties and hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Dabauza, Mercedes; Correal, Enrique; Swennen, Rony; Panis, Bart

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C.H. Stirton is a drought tolerant, perennial legume pasture species and a source of pharmaceutical compounds. Bituminaria breeding programs aim to develop and conserve hybrids with desirable traits such as high forage quality, tolerance to biotic or abiotic stresses, and high contents of furanocoumarins. In this work we present a cryopreservation study of different B. bituminosa accessions: two varieties and eight intervarietal hybrids resulting f...

  3. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  4. Intraply Hybrid Composites Would Contain Control Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Shiao, Chi-Yu

    1996-01-01

    "Smart" structural components with sensors and/or actuators distributed throughout their volumes made of intraply hybrid composite materials, according to proposal. Strips of hybrid control material interspersed with strips of ordinary (passive) composite material in some layers, providing distributed control capability. For example, near and far edges of plate bent upward by commanding bottom control strips to expand and simultaneously commanding upper control strips to contract.

  5. IRRI/ADB Project on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Jiming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hybrid rice technology has made a significant progress in recent years in more than twenty rice-growing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided funds for International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to support the project of Sustaining Food Security in Asia through Development of Hybrid Rice Technology 2002-2004 mainly practiced in nine countries, such as Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  6. Hybrid Odontogenic Lesion: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Imani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid tumors are very rare tumors composed of two different tumor entities, each of which conforms to an exactly defined tumor category. A 14-year-old boy was referred for an intraosseous painless lesion with a histopathological feature of multiple odontogenic lesions including calcifying odontogenic cyst, complex odontoma and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. The final diagnosis considered to be a hybrid odontogenic lesion.

  7. Formes coopératives hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    On constate avec un intérêt croissant la transformation d’organisations du tiers secteur en organisations hybrides. Les chercheurs se sont penchés sur les processus d’« hybridation » ayant mené au développement de l’entreprise sociale, dont l’incarnation la plus remarquable est le modèle italien ...

  8. HOPSPACK: Hybrid Optimization Parallel Search Package.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Genetha Anne.; Kolda, Tamara G.; Griffin, Joshua; Taddy, Matt; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the technical details of HOPSPACK (Hybrid Optimization Parallel SearchPackage), a new software platform which facilitates combining multiple optimization routines into asingle, tightly-coupled, hybrid algorithm that supports parallel function evaluations. The frameworkis designed such that existing optimization source code can be easily incorporated with minimalcode modification. By maintaining the integrity of each individual solver, the strengths and codesophistication of the original optimization package are retained and exploited.4

  9. Formes coopératives hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    la coopérative sociale. Il s’agit d’un modèle doublement « hybride », tant par son mode de gouvernance que par la diversité de ses pourvoyeurs de ressources. D’autres formes hybrides de coopératives se sont développées au cours de ces dernières années, en particulier dans le secteur des coopératives...

  10. Photovoltaik Hybrid-Solarzellen mit Nanopartikeln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leute, Angelika

    2004-09-01

    Die organische Photovoltaik auf der Basis halbleitender Polymere bietet eine kostengünstige Alternative zu Solarzellen aus Silizium. Allerdings weisen die organischen Materialien relativ schlechte Ladungstransporteigenschaften auf. Hybrid-Solarzellen, in denen Polymere mit geeigneten anorganischen Halbleitern kombiniert sind, besitzen einerseits die praktischen Vorteile der Organik und andererseits die hohe Elektronenbeweglichkeit der anorganischen Materialien. Wissenschaftler der Technischen Universität Eindhoven haben kürzlich Hybrid-Solarzellen vorgestellt, die aus einem halbleitenden Polymer mit Zinkoxid-Nanopartikeln bestehen.

  11. 7 CFR 201.11a - Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hybrid. 201.11a Section 201.11a Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11a Hybrid. If any one kind or kind and variety of seed present in excess of 5 percent is “hybrid” seed, it shall be designated “hybrid” on the label. The...

  12. Optical Orientation in Ferromagnet/Semiconductor Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2008-01-01

    The physics of optical pumping of semiconductor electrons in the ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids is discussed. Optically oriented semiconductor electrons detect the magnetic state of the ferromagnetic film. In turn, the ferromagnetism of the hybrid can be controlled optically with the help of the semiconductor. Spin-spin interactions near the interface ferromagnet/semiconductor play crucial role in the optical readout and the manipulation of ferromagnetism.

  13. DNA hybridization on silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shalini, E-mail: shalinsin@gmail.co [Electronic Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Faculty of Life Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202001 (India); Zack, Jyoti [Dr. B.R Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Kumar, Dinesh; Srivastava, S.K.; Govind [Electronic Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Saluja, Daman [Dr. B.R Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Khan, M.A. [Faculty of Life Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202001 (India); Singh, P.K. [Electronic Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2010-11-30

    Nanowire-based detection strategies provide promising new routes to bioanalysis and indeed are attractive to conventional systems because of their small size, high surface-to-volume ratios, electronic, and optical properties. A sequence-specific detection of single-stranded oligonucleotides using silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is demonstrated. The surface of the SiNWs is functionalized with densely packed organic monolayer via hydrosilylation for covalent attachment. Subsequently, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is immobilized to recognize the complementary target DNA. The biomolecular recognition properties of the nanowires are tested via hybridization with {sup {gamma}P32} tagged complementary and non-complementary DNA oligonucleotides, showing good selectivity and reversibility. No significant non-specific binding to the incorrect sequences is observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence imaging, and nanodrop techniques are used to characterize the modified SiNWs and covalent attachment with DNA. The results show that SiNWs are excellent substrates for the absorption, stabilization and detection of DNA sequences and could be used for DNA microarrays and micro fabricated SiNWs DNA sensors.

  14. Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andan, Amelda Dianne; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of a numerical study of the aerodynamic parameters of a wingless and a winged-hull airship. The total forces and moment coefficients of the airships have been computed over a range of angles. The results obtained show that addition of a wing to a conventional airship increases the lift has three times the lifting force at positive angle of attack as compared to a wingless airship whereas the drag increases in the range of 19% to 58%. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically stable, however, both the conventional airship and the hybrid or winged airships were found to have poor rolling stability. Wingless airship has slightly higher longitudinal stability than a winged airship. The winged airship has better directional stability than the wingless airship. The wingless airship only possesses static rolling stability in the range of yaw angles of -5° to 5°. On the contrary, the winged airship initially tested does not possess rolling stability at all. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations show that modifications to the wing placement and its dihedral have strong positive effect on the rolling stability. Raising the wings to the center of gravity and introducing a dihedral angle of 5° stabilizes the rolling motion of the winged airship.

  15. Hybrid k -Nearest Neighbor Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Hantao; Liuxs, Jiming; You, Jane; Leung, Hareton; Han, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    Conventional k -nearest neighbor (KNN) classification approaches have several limitations when dealing with some problems caused by the special datasets, such as the sparse problem, the imbalance problem, and the noise problem. In this paper, we first perform a brief survey on the recent progress of the KNN classification approaches. Then, the hybrid KNN (HBKNN) classification approach, which takes into account the local and global information of the query sample, is designed to address the problems raised from the special datasets. In the following, the random subspace ensemble framework based on HBKNN (RS-HBKNN) classifier is proposed to perform classification on the datasets with noisy attributes in the high-dimensional space. Finally, the nonparametric tests are proposed to be adopted to compare the proposed method with other classification approaches over multiple datasets. The experiments on the real-world datasets from the Knowledge Extraction based on Evolutionary Learning dataset repository demonstrate that RS-HBKNN works well on real datasets, and outperforms most of the state-of-the-art classification approaches.

  16. Test of DEP hybrid photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumbaugh, A.; Binkley, M.; Elias, J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The goal of the measurement was to study some parameters of DEP HYBRID PHOTODIODES (HPD), and the check its performance for CMS calorimetry at LHC. The principal of the HPD operation is described. The schematic view of the HPD. The HPD is vacuum photo device composed of photocathode (PC) and a silicon PIN diode (Si) as multiplication system in a very close proximity geometry. The distance between PC and Si is of the order of several mm and has an electric field < 10 kV. The photoelectron emited by the photocathode multiply by a factor of several thousand in the silicon and the charge is collected on the HPD`s anode. Several types of HPD`s were tested. There was a single channel HPD, called {open_quotes}E-type{close_quotes} with p-side of the silicon facing the HPD`s photocathode and two multipixel HPD (DEP) namely a 25 pixel HPD and a 7 pixel HPD. Both were of {open_quotes}T-type{close_quotes} structure with n-side of silicon facing the photocathode.

  17. Postcolonial Hybrids in The Lowland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Ghoreishi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper delves into Jhumpa Lahiri’s 2013 novel, The Lowland, to analyze the diasporic experience of the Indian-born characters. Homi Bhabha’s postcolonial approach is utilized to demonstrate the ways in which the characters perceive the immigration experience, and to unravel the causes of their despair, the disintegration of their family, and the underlying reasons behind the decisions that they make to compensate for their marginal status in the adopted land. It is attempted to shed light on the characters’ insecurities and mental challenges brought forth by their ‘liminal’ condition, in which they find themselves caught in a dilemma between the Indian lifestyle on the one hand, and the American dominant culture, on the other. Furthermore, ‘hybridity’ is discussed, which entails the characters’ partial adoption of the foreign culture that gives birth to mixed identities in the ‘third space.’ This research concludes that in spite of the disturbing aspects of diasporic life including uncertainty, marginality, and unbelonging over which the characters possess no control, they are capable of surviving and even flourishing in the foreign social milieu. Keywords: Adopted Land; Diaspora; Liminality; Hybridity; Third Space

  18. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  19. Hybrid robot climbing system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purna Irawan, Agustinus; Halim, Agus; Kurniawan, Hengky

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to develop a climbing hybrid robot, especially to design the structure of robot that quite strong and how to build an optimal mechanism for transmitting the motor’s rotation and torque to generate movement up the pole. In this research we use analytical methods using analysis software, simulation, a prototype, and robot trial. The result showed that robot could climb a pole by with maximum velocity 0.33m/s with a 20 kg load. Based on a weight diversity trial between 10 kg and 20 kg we obtained climb up load factor with value 0.970 ± 0.0223 and climb down load factor with value 0.910 ± 0.0163. Displacement of the frame structure was 7.58 mm. To minimize this displacement, the gate system was used so as to optimize the gripper while gripping the pole. The von Misses stress in the roller was 48.49 MPa, with 0.12 mm of displacement. This result could be a reference for robot development in further research.

  20. Hybrid beams in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The first proton-ion beams were successfully circulated in the LHC a couple of weeks ago. Everything went so smoothly that the LHC teams had planned the first p-Pb collisions for Wednesday, 16 November. Unfortunately, a last-minute problem with a component of the PS required for proton acceleration prevented the LHC teams from making these new collisions. However, the way is open for a possible physics run with proton-lead collisions in 2012.   Members of the LHC team photographed when the first hybrid beams got to full energy. The proton and lead beams are visible on the leftmost screen up on the wall (click to enlarge the photo). The technical challenge of making different beams circulate in the LHC is by no means trivial. Even if the machine is the same, there are a number of differences when it is operated with beams of protons, beams of lead or beams of proton and lead. Provided that the beams are equal, irrespective of whether they consist of protons or lead nuclei, they revolve at the...

  1. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  2. Advances in the study of hybrid finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some new concepts and research progress in hybrid finite elements advanced in recent years are in troduced. On the basis of incompatible energy consistency analysis, the optimal condition of hybrid elements is derived and the formulation for fulfilling this condition is given. A post-processing penalty equilibrium optimization technique of hybrid element is presented to create high quality hybrid model. For incompressible problems, a method of deviatoric hybrid element is proposed and unification of computation between compressible and incompressible media is achieved.

  3. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Na Zhu

    2016-01-01

    An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid veh...

  4. Contribution of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization to sunflower breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Christov M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation was directed to sunflower improvement using hybrid forms resulted from wide hybridization. The aim was to create new B/A and R lines from interspecific and intergeneric hybrids resistant to diseases, parasite broomrape, herbicides, other stress factors and with high combining ability in highly productive oil-type sunflower hybrids with varied fatty acid contents. The confectionary hybrids should have a high kernel protein content and amin...

  5. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  6. A Research on Airborne Squint Hybrid SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIANYong; ZHOUYinqing; LIChunsheng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the squint mode hybrid SAR (Synthetic aperture radar) geometry. Based on the squint mode SAR geometry, the hybrid SAR signal model in squint case is derived. Based on this signal model, the hybrid SAR imaging process parameter is discussed. Aimed at the squint case, we analyze not only the relationship between the resolution and SAR system parameters, but also the relation between the time extension of the maximum azimuth signal and SAR system parameters. This research establishes the theoretical foundation for the design of squint hybrid SAR and serves as a good guide for the future work of improving the resolution of squint hybrid SAR. Based on the two-step algorithm, by considering the squint angle and cubic phase term, we are going to use the deramp SC-Chirp Scaling algorithm for squint hybrid SAR imaging. This algorithm uses the deramp method for the first step processing, and the SC-Chirp Scaling algorithm for the second step processing. The process procedure of this algorithm includes the squint angle, has the explicit physical meaning, therefore is convenient for analysis. The computer simulation result proves the validity of the analysis.

  7. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  8. A Generic Hybrid Encryption System (HES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ali Shoukat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a Generic Hybrid Encryption System (HES under mutual committee of symmetric and asymmetric cryptosystems. Asymmetric (public key Cryptosystems associates several performance issues like computational incompetence, memory wastages, energy consumptions and employment limitations on bulky data sets but they are quite secure and reliable in key exchange over insecure remote communication channels. Symmetric (private key cryptosystems are 100 times out performed, having no such issues but they cannot fulfill non-repudiation, false modifications in secret key, fake modifications in cipher text and origin authentication of both parties while exchanging information. These contradictory issues can be omitted by utilizing hybrid encryption mechanisms (symmetric+asymmetric to get optimal benefits of both schemes. Several hybrid mechanisms are available with different logics but our logic differs in infrastructural design, simplicity, computational efficiency and security as compared to prior hybrid encryption schemes. Some prior schemes are either diversified in performance aspects, customer satisfaction, memory utilization or energy consumptions and some are vulnerable against forgery and password guessing (session key recovery attacks. We have done some functional and design related changes in existing Public Key Infrastructure (PKI to achieve simplicity, optimal privacy and more customer satisfaction by providing Hybrid Encryption System (HES that is able to fulfill all set of standardized security constraints. No such PKI based generic hybrid encryption scheme persists as we have provided in order to manage all these kinds of discussed issues.

  9. Mechanisms of Surface-Mediated DNA Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy was employed in conjunction with resonance energy transfer (RET) to observe the dynamic behavior of donor-labeled ssDNA at the interface between aqueous solution and a solid surface decorated with complementary acceptor-labeled ssDNA. At least 100 000 molecular trajectories were determined for both complementary strands and negative control ssDNA. RET was used to identify trajectory segments corresponding to the hybridized state. The vast majority of molecules from solution adsorbed nonspecifically to the surface, where a brief two-dimensional search was performed with a 7% chance of hybridization. Successful hybridization events occurred with a characteristic search time of ∼0.1 s, and unsuccessful searches resulted in desorption from the surface, ultimately repeating the adsorption and search process. Hybridization was reversible, and two distinct modes of melting (i.e., dehybridization) were observed, corresponding to long-lived (∼15 s) and short-lived (∼1.4 s) hybridized time intervals. A strand that melted back onto the surface could rehybridize after a brief search or desorb from the interface. These mechanistic observations provide guidance for technologies that involve DNA interactions in the near-surface region, suggesting a need to design surfaces that both enhance the complex multidimensional search process and stabilize the hybridized state. PMID:24708278

  10. Hybrid Data Assimilation without Ensemble Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office is preparing to upgrade its three-dimensional variational system to a hybrid approach in which the ensemble is generated using a square-root ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the variational problem is solved using the Grid-point Statistical Interpolation system. As in most EnKF applications, we found it necessary to employ a combination of multiplicative and additive inflations, to compensate for sampling and modeling errors, respectively and, to maintain the small-member ensemble solution close to the variational solution; we also found it necessary to re-center the members of the ensemble about the variational analysis. During tuning of the filter we have found re-centering and additive inflation to play a considerably larger role than expected, particularly in a dual-resolution context when the variational analysis is ran at larger resolution than the ensemble. This led us to consider a hybrid strategy in which the members of the ensemble are generated by simply converting the variational analysis to the resolution of the ensemble and applying additive inflation, thus bypassing the EnKF. Comparisons of this, so-called, filter-free hybrid procedure with an EnKF-based hybrid procedure and a control non-hybrid, traditional, scheme show both hybrid strategies to provide equally significant improvement over the control; more interestingly, the filter-free procedure was found to give qualitatively similar results to the EnKF-based procedure.

  11. Original Framework for Optimizing Hybrid Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amevi Acakpovi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an original framework for optimizing hybrid energy systems. The recent growth of hybrid energy systems in remote areas across the world added to the increasing cost of renewable energy has triggered the inevitable development of hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems always pose a problem of optimization of cost which has been approached with different perspectives in the recent past. This paper proposes a framework to guide the techniques of optimizing hybrid energy systems in general. The proposed framework comprises four stages including identification of input variables for energy generation, establishment of models of energy generation by individual sources, development of artificial intelligence, and finally summation of selected sources. A case study of a solar, wind, and hydro hybrid system was undertaken with a linear programming approach. Substantial results were obtained with regard to how load requests were constantly satisfied while minimizing the cost of electricity. The developed framework gained its originality from the fact that it has included models of individual sources of energy that even make the optimization problem more complex. This paper also has impacts on the development of policies which will encourage the integration and development of renewable energies.

  12. Various challenging aspects of hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, O.; Theil, D.; Saramago, J.; Amand, P. G.; Dauch, F.; Gautier, P.

    2011-10-01

    The hybrid technology appears as an innovative, high performance, and promising propulsion technique in a number of space missions. By combining functions and advantages taken from both solid and liquid propulsion, this technology is expected to provide mainly high performance with throttleability and stop-restart capabilities. The safety conditions of engine operation and design reliability almost similar to solid propulsion increase the interest to this technology. However, the standard fuels (mainly based on a carbon polymer) exhibit low regression rates that require complex grain shapes and low loading ratio. Thanks to a dedicated study supported by the European Space Agency (ESA), SNPE in collaboration with Avio and University of Naples (DIAS department) performed an exhaustive state-of-the-art and a market survey of accomplishments in hybrid propulsion. Based on the resulting tradeoff study on potential future launchers and spacecraft applications, the most promising applications are selected to conduct preliminary designs. These applications can also be seen as the vector of hybrid propulsion development. This study concentrates on hybrid propulsion systems with advanced hybrid fuels for Lander platform and Upper Stage. High throttleability and high propulsive performance associated with stop and restart capability are needed to meet mission requirements for Lander and Upper Stage, respectively. Preliminary design shows the advantages provided by hybrid propulsion: a significant payload mass increase for the upper stage case and a soft landing for the Lander case.

  13. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein Beitrag zur Theorie der Wörterbuchform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: In diesem Beitrag wird die Bildung, Darstellung und Leistung von hybriden textuellen Strukturen, die akzessive Einträge aufweisen, am Beispiel von Wörterbuchartikeln behandelt sowie erklärt, welche Eigenschaften hybride textuelle Einheiten haben. Ein Wörterbuchartikel eines Printwörterbuchs weist immer dann neben einer hierarchischen reinen eine hierarchische hybride Textkonstituentenstruktur auf, wenn in ihm mindestens ein funktionaler Angabezusatz auftritt, z.B. ein oben oder unten erweiternder oder ein binnenerweiternder. Da funktionale Angabezusätze Textsegmente mit Angabefunktion aber ohne Textkonstituentenstatus sind, werden sie durch nichtfunktionale Segmentation ermittelt, so dass neben funktionalen auch nichtfunktionale Textsegmente gegeben sind, die dann bei der Strukturbildung in die Trägermengen eingehen, so dass die Trägermengen aller hybriden hierarchischen Strukturen elementenheterogen, während die Trägermengen aller hierarchischen reinen Strukturen elementenhomogen sind. In den Strukturgraphen für hierarchische hybride Artikelstrukturen sind dann die Knoten für diejenigen Textsegmente, die den Hybridstatus der Strukturen bewirken, entweder durch Pfeilkanten für die textarchitektonischen oberhalb/unterhalb-Relationen mit den Knoten für die Textkonstituenten verbunden, so dass die Strukturgraphen architektonisch angereichert sind, oder durch besonders markierte Kanten, die die Knoten für die nichtfunktionalen Textsegmente und die für die binnenerweiternden funktionalen Angabezusätze mit den Knoten für die Textkonstituenten verbinden. Zu jedem Typ von hierarchischer reiner Artikelstruktur gehören mehrere Typen von hybriden Artikelstrukturen; entsprechendes gilt für hierarchische reine Angabestrukturen. Nur eine Auswahl aus den Typologien der hybriden Artikel- und Angabestrukturen wird behandelt sowie eine kleine Auswahl von hybriden textuellen Einheiten, die kriteriale Eigenschaften von zwei

  14. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  15. Genetic structure in a dynamic baboon hybrid zone corroborates behavioural observations in a hybrid population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charpentier, M J E; Fontaine, M C; Cherel, E; Renoult, J P; Jenkins, T; Benoit, L; Barthès, N; Alberts, S C; Tung, J

    2012-01-01

    Behaviour and genetic structure are intimately related: mating patterns and patterns of movement between groups or populations influence the movement of genetic variation across the landscape and from one generation to the next. In hybrid zones, the behaviour of the hybridizing taxa can also impact

  16. Hybridization and genome evolution I: The role of contingency during hybrid speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice EROUKHMANOFF, Richard I. BAILEY, Glenn-Peter SæTRE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS involves the recombination of two differentiated genomes into a novel, functional one without a change in chromosome number. Theoretically, there are numerous ways for two parental genomes to recombine. Hence, chance may play a large role in the formation of a hybrid species. If these genome combinations can evolve rapidly following hybridization and sympatric situations are numerous, recurrent homoploid hybrid speciation is a possibility. We argue that three different, but not mutually exclusive, types of contingencies could influence this process. First, many of these “hopeful monsters” of recombinant parent genotypes would likely have low fitness. Only specific combinations of parental genomic contributions may produce viable, intra-fertile hybrid species able to accommodate potential constraints arising from intragenomic conflict. Second, ecological conditions (competition, geography of the contact zones or the initial frequency of both parent species might favor different outcomes ranging from sympatric coexistence to the formation of hybrid swarms and ultimately hybrid speciation. Finally, history may also play an important role in promoting or constraining recurrent HHS if multiple hybridization events occur sequentially and parental divergence or isolation differs along this continuum. We discuss under which conditions HHS may occur multiple times in parallel and to what extent recombination and selection may fuse the parent genomes in the same or different ways. We conclude by examining different approaches that might help to solve this intriguing evolutionary puzzle [Current Zoology 59 (5: 667-674, 2013]. 

  17. Gonad morphogenesis defects drive hybrid male sterility in asymmetric hybrid breakdown of Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Alivia; Jin, Qi; Chen, Yen-Chu; Cutter, Asher D

    2014-01-01

    Determining the causes and evolution of reproductive barriers to gene flow between populations, speciation, is the key to understanding the origin of diversity in nature. Many species manifest hybrid breakdown when they intercross, characterized by increasingly exacerbated problems in later generations of hybrids. Recently, Caenorhabditis nematodes have emerged as a genetic model for studying speciation, and here we investigate the nature and causes of hybrid breakdown between Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens. We quantify partial F1 hybrid inviability and extensive F2 hybrid inviability; the ~75% F2 embryonic arrest occurs primarily during gastrulation or embryonic elongation. Moreover, F1 hybrid males exhibit Haldane's rule asymmetrically for both sterility and inviability, being strongest when C. remanei serves as maternal parent. We show that the mechanism by which sterile hybrid males are incapable of transferring sperm or a copulatory plug involves defective gonad morphogenesis, which we hypothesize results from linker cell defects in migration and/or cell death during development. This first documented case of partial hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis follows expectations of Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule for asymmetric male fitness, providing a powerful foundation for molecular dissection of intrinsic reproductive barriers and divergence of genetic pathways controlling organ morphogenesis.

  18. Hybrid Dislocated Control and General Hybrid Projective Dislocated Synchronization for Memristor Chaotic Oscillator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some important dynamical properties of the memristor chaotic oscillator system have been studied in the paper. A novel hybrid dislocated control method and a general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization scheme have been realized for memristor chaotic oscillator system. The paper firstly presents hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to the unstable equilibrium point. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization has been studied for the drive memristor chaotic oscillator system and the same response memristor chaotic oscillator system. For the different dimensions, the memristor chaotic oscillator system and the other chaotic system have realized general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  19. Evaluation of tensile strength of hybrid fiber (jute/gongura) reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Vijay, Kumar V.; Chandan, Byral R.; Prabaharan, G. P.; Raghav, Dasarath

    2015-07-01

    The polymer matrix composites attract many industrial applications due to its light weight, less cost and easy for manufacturing. In this paper, an attempt is made to prepare and study of the tensile strength of hybrid (two natural) fibers reinforced hybrid (Natural + Synthetic) polymer matrix composites. The samples were prepared with hybrid reinforcement consists of two different fibers such as jute and Gongura and hybrid polymer consists of polyester and cashew nut shell resins. The hybrid composites tensile strength is evaluated to study the influence of various fiber parameters on mechanical strength. The parameters considered here are the duration of fiber treatment, the concentration of alkali in fiber treatment and nature of fiber content in the composites.

  20. Control approach for comfortable power shifting in hybrid transmissions - ML 450 hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger Zetina, Siegfried; Neiss, Konstantin [Daimler AG, Hybrid Development Center, Troy, MI (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The comfortable shifting control in a luxury class vehicle is extremely important, due to competitive automatic transmissions with torque converters; clutch automated manual transmissions and dual clutch transmissions. Hybrid transmissions play a key role in comfort and performance enhancement while at the same time being fuel efficient with the aid of electric machines and battery packs. Here, the alternative to conventional add-on hybrid power head transmissions: the power split hybrid transmission is studied. As a practical example, the Two Mode of the Hybrid Development Center is used within the ML450 Hybrid. For achieving a smooth shifting, there are model based algorithms needed. As objective measure to evaluate the shifting the VDV (Vibration Dose Value) is used. (orig.)

  1. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 1. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, F.T.

    1979-09-30

    The results of investigations conducted under Ce Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task are reported in 10 volumes. This volume contains an overview of the study and its results. The purpose of the overall study was to determine if the petroleum fuel savings achievable through the use of hybrid electric vehicles is worth the R and D expenditures needed to develop the hybrid vehicles and to determine R and D priorities. It was concluded that by the year 2010 hybrid vehicles could replace 80% of the automotive power that would otherwise be produced from petroleum fuels; the public should not suffer any mobility loss through the use of hybrid vehicles; high initial and life-cycle costs are a limiting factor; and R and D funds should be spent for systems design and the development of low-cost batteries and controllers. (LCL)

  2. Status and Prospects of Hybrid Rice Breeding in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cai-lin

    2005-01-01

    Research on hybrid rice in Jiangsu Province, China began in 1970. Great progress has been made since then, which can be divided into three stages according to the development of hybrid rice breeding and production in Jiangsu Province. The first stage was beginning stage from 1970 to 1980, when progress was mainly made in cytoplasmic male sterile line breeding. The second stage could be described as developing stage, from 1980 to 1995, when indica hybrid rice was rapidly popularized, and japonica hybrid rice became popular later. From 1996, hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province entered the third stage, when both indica and japonica hybrid rice breeding in the three-line system or intersubspecific hybrid rice breeding in the two-line system made a great breakthrough with the successful breeding of the hybrids Teyou 559, 9 You 138 and Liangyoupeijiu. The developing trend of hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province is also discussed.

  3. Behavioral and spermatogenic hybrid male breakdown in Nasonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M E; O'Hara, F P; Chawla, A; Werren, J H

    2010-03-01

    Several reproductive barriers exist within the Nasonia species complex, including allopatry, premating behavioral isolation, postzygotic inviability and Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility. Here we show that hybrid males suffer two additional reproductive disadvantages, an inability to properly court females and decreased sperm production. Hybrid behavioral sterility, characterized by a reduced ability of hybrids to perform necessary courtship behaviors, occurs in hybrids between two species of Nasonia. Hybrid males produced in crosses between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti courted females at a reduced frequency (23-69%), compared with wild-type N. vitripennis and N. giraulti males (>93%). Reduced courtship frequency was not a simple function of inactivity among hybrids. A strong effect of cytoplasmic (mitochondrial) background was also found in N. vitripennis and N. giraulti crosses; F2 hybrids with giraulti cytoplasm showing reduced ability at most stages of courtship. Hybrids produced between a younger species pair, N. giraulti and N. longicornis, were behaviorally fertile. All males possessed motile sperm, but sperm production is greatly reduced in hybrids between the older species pair, N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. This effect on hybrid males, lowered sperm counts rather than nonfunctional sperm, is different from most described cases of hybrid male sterility, and may represent an earlier stage of hybrid sperm breakdown. The results add to previous studies of F2 hybrid inviability and behavioral sterility, and indicate that Wolbachia-induced hybrid incompatibility has arisen early in species divergence, relative to behavioral sterility and spermatogenic infertility.

  4. Kinetics and dynamics of DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yandong; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2011-11-15

    DNA hybridization, wherein strands of DNA form duplex or larger hybrids through noncovalent, sequence-specific interactions, is one of the most fundamental processes in biology. Developing a better understanding of the kinetic and dynamic properties of DNA hybridization will thus help in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms involved in numerous biochemical processes. Moreover, because DNA hybridization has been widely adapted in biotechnology, its study is invaluable to the development of a range of commercially important processes. In this Account, we examine recent studies of the kinetics and dynamics of DNA hybridization, including (i) intramolecular collision of random coil, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), (ii) nucleic acid hairpin folding, and (iii) considerations of DNA hybridization from both a global view and a detailed base-by-base view. We also examine the spontaneous single-base-pair flipping in duplex DNA because of its importance to both DNA hybridization and repair. Intramolecular collision of random coil ssDNA, with chemical relaxation times ranging from hundreds of nanoseconds to a few microseconds, is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The first passage time theory of Szabo, Schulten, and Schulten, which determines the average reaction time of the intrachain collision, was tested. Although it was found to provide an acceptable approximation, a more sophisticated theoretical treatment is desirable. Nucleic acid hairpin folding has been extensively investigated as an important model system of DNA hybridization. The relaxation time of hairpin folding and unfolding strongly depends on the stem length, and it may range from hundreds of microseconds to hundreds of milliseconds. The traditional two-state model has been revised to a multistate model as a result of new experimental observations and theoretical study, and partially folded intermediate states have been introduced to the folding energy landscape. On the other hand, new

  5. Hybrid Therapy Regimen for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Song; Jian Liu; Li-Ya Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Helicobacterpylori (H.pylori) eradication remains a challenge with increasing antibiotic resistance.Hybrid therapy has attracted widespread attention because of initial report with good efficacy and safety.However,many issues on hybrid therapy are still unclear such as the eradication efficacy,safety,compliance,influencing factors,correlation with antibiotic resistance,and comparison with other regimens.Therefore,a comprehensive review on the evidence of hybrid therapy for H.pylori infection was conducted.Data Sources:The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English up to September 30,2015,searching by the terms of"Helicobacterpylori" or "H.pylori",and "hybrid".Study Selection:Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic.Results:Totally,1871 patients of 12 studies received hybrid therapy.The eradication rates were 77.6-97.4% in intention-to-treat and 82.6-99.1% in per-protocol analyses.Compliance was 93.3-100.0%,overall adverse effects rate was 14.5-67.5%,and discontinued medication rate due to adverse effects was 0-6.7%.H.pylori culture and sensitivity test were performed only in 13.3% patients.Pooled analysis showed that the eradication rates with dual clarithromycin and metronidazole susceptible,isolated metronidazole or clarithromycin resistance,and dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were 98.5%,97.6%,92.9%,and 80.0%,respectively.Overall,the efficacy,compliance,and safety of hybrid therapy were similar with sequential or concomitant therapy.However,hybrid therapy might be superior to sequential therapy in Asians.Conclusions:Hybrid therapy showed wide differences in the efficacy but consistently good compliance and safety across different regions.Dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were the key factor to efficacy.Hybrid therapy was similar to sequential or concomitant therapy in the efficacy,safety,and compliance.

  6. Multitarget Molecular Hybrids of Cinnamic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to synthesize potential new multitarget agents, 11 novel hybrids incorporating cinnamic acids and paracetamol, 4-/7-hydroxycoumarin, benzocaine, p-aminophenol and m-aminophenol were synthesized. Three hybrids—2e, 2a, 2g—and 3b were found to be multifunctional agents. The hybrid 2e derived from the phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and m-acetamidophenol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition and analgesic activity (IC50 = 0.34 μΜ and 98.1%, whereas the hybrid 3b of bromobenzyloxycinnamic acid and hymechromone exhibited simultaneously good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 50 μΜ and the highest anti-proteolytic activity (IC50= 5 μΜ. The hybrid 2a of phenyloxyphenyl acid with paracetamol showed a high analgesic activity (91% and appears to be a promising agent for treating peripheral nerve injuries. Hybrid 2g which has an ester and an amide bond presents an interesting combination of anti-LOX and anti-proteolytic activity. The esters were found very potent and especially those derived from paracetamol and m-acetamidophenol. The amides follow. Based on 2D-structure–activity relationships it was observed that both steric and electronic parameters play major roles in the activity of these compounds. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that allosteric interactions might govern the LOX-inhibitor binding.

  7. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Travelling Waves in Hybrid Chemotaxis Models

    KAUST Repository

    Franz, Benjamin

    2013-12-18

    Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant), which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybrid models shows good agreement in the case of weak chemotaxis and qualitative agreement for the strong chemotaxis case. In the case of slow cell adaptation, we detect oscillating behaviour of the wave, which cannot be explained by mean-field approximations. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  9. Destination bonding: Hybrid cognition using Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Baksi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research has identified the phenomenon of destination bonding as a result of summated physical and emotional values associated with the destination. Physical values, namely natural landscape & other physical settings and emotional values, namely the enculturation processes, have a significant role to play in portraying visitors’ cognitive framework for destination preference. The physical values seemed to be the stimulator for bonding that embodies action or behavior tendencies in imagery. The emotional values were the conditions that lead to affective bonding and are reflected in attitudes for a place which were evident in text narratives. Social networking on virtual platforms offers the scope for hybrid cognitive expression using imagery and text to the visitors. Instagram has emerged as an application-window to capture these hybrid cognitions of visitors. This study focuses on assessing the relationship between hybrid cognition of visitors expressed via Instagram and their bond with the destination. Further to this, the study attempts to examine the impact of hybrid cognition of visitors on the behavioral pattern of prospective visitors to the destination. The study revealed that sharing of visual imageries and related text by the visitors is an expression of the physico-emotional bonding with the destination. It was further established that hybrid cognition strongly asserts destination bonding and has been also found to have moderating impact on the link between destination bonding and electronic-word-of-mouth.

  10. Weather forecasting based on hybrid neural model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad; AlGhamdi, Jarallah S.

    2017-02-01

    Making deductions and expectations about climate has been a challenge all through mankind's history. Challenges with exact meteorological directions assist to foresee and handle problems well in time. Different strategies have been investigated using various machine learning techniques in reported forecasting systems. Current research investigates climate as a major challenge for machine information mining and deduction. Accordingly, this paper presents a hybrid neural model (MLP and RBF) to enhance the accuracy of weather forecasting. Proposed hybrid model ensure precise forecasting due to the specialty of climate anticipating frameworks. The study concentrates on the data representing Saudi Arabia weather forecasting. The main input features employed to train individual and hybrid neural networks that include average dew point, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean temperature, average relative moistness, precipitation, normal wind speed, high wind speed and average cloudiness. The output layer composed of two neurons to represent rainy and dry weathers. Moreover, trial and error approach is adopted to select an appropriate number of inputs to the hybrid neural network. Correlation coefficient, RMSE and scatter index are the standard yard sticks adopted for forecast accuracy measurement. On individual standing MLP forecasting results are better than RBF, however, the proposed simplified hybrid neural model comes out with better forecasting accuracy as compared to both individual networks. Additionally, results are better than reported in the state of art, using a simple neural structure that reduces training time and complexity.

  11. Hybrid staging of geothermal energy conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steidel, R.F.

    1978-09-01

    A hybrid system consists of two or more energy conversion processes. This study examines the use of three energy conversion machines in hybrid systems: the conventional single-phase turbine, and the two-phase expanders known as the Lysholm engine and the radial outflow reaction turbine. Two hybrid systems are presented. The first is a two-stage, single-flash system with the Lysholm engine as the first stage, and a separator and conventional turbine as the second stage. The second system adds a radial outflow reaction turbine to recover a part of the energy rejected in the second stage. A theoretical specific power of 41.3 kW.s/lb is predicted for the two-stage, single-flash hybrid system. The addition of the radial outflow rotary turbine increases performance to 44.8 kW.s/lb. Both are superior to the double-flash system, with a specific power of 37.8 kW.s/lb. In addition, the hybrid system offers operating flexibility.

  12. Hybridization promotes speciation in Coenonympha butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capblancq, Thibaut; Després, Laurence; Rioux, Delphine; Mavárez, Jesús

    2015-12-01

    Hybridization has become a central element in theories of animal evolution during the last decade. New methods in population genomics and statistical model testing now allow the disentangling of the complexity that hybridization brings into key evolutionary processes such as local adaptation, colonization of new environments, species diversification and extinction. We evaluated the consequences of hybridization in a complex of three alpine butterflies in the genus Coenonympha, by combining morphological, genetic and ecological analyses. A series of approximate Bayesian computation procedures based on a large SNP data set strongly suggest that the Darwin's Heath (Coenonympha darwiniana) originated through hybridization between the Pearly Heath (Coenonympha arcania) and the Alpine Heath (Coenonympha gardetta) with different parental contributions. As a result of hybridization, the Darwin's Heath presents an intermediate morphology between the parental species, while its climatic niche seems more similar to the Alpine Heath. Our results also reveal a substantial genetic and morphologic differentiation between the two geographically disjoint Darwin's Heath lineages leading us to propose the splitting of this taxon into two different species.

  13. Hybrid discourse practice and science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamberelis, George; Wehunt, Mary D.

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we report on a study of how creative linguistic practices (which we call hybrid discourse practices) were enacted by students in a fifth-grade science unit on barn owls and how these practices helped to produce a synergistic micro-community of scientific practice in the classroom that constituted a fertile space for students (and the teacher) to construct emergent but increasingly legitimate and dynamic disciplinary knowledges and identities. Our findings are important for the ways in which they demonstrate (a) how students use hybrid discourse practices to self-scaffold their work within complex curricular tasks and when they are not completely sure about how to enact these tasks (b) how hybrid discourse practices can promote inquiry orientations to science, (c) how hybrid discourse practices index new and powerful forms of science pedagogy, and (d) how hybrid discourse practices are relevant to more global issues such as the crucial roles of language fluency and creativity, which are known prerequisites for advanced science learning and which aid students in developing skills that are necessary for entry into science and technology careers.

  14. Hybrid models in loop quantum cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.

    2016-06-01

    In the framework of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC), inhomogeneous models are usually quantized by means of a hybrid approach that combines loop quantization techniques with standard quantum field theory methods. This approach is based on a splitting of the phase space in a homogeneous sector, formed by global, zero-modes and an inhomogeneous sector, formed by the remaining, infinite number of modes, that describe the local degrees of freedom. Then, the hybrid quantization is attained by adopting a loop representation for the homogeneous gravitational sector, while a Fock representation is used for the inhomogeneities. The zero-mode of the Hamiltonian constraint operator couples the homogeneous and inhomogeneous sectors. The hybrid approach, therefore, is expected to provide a suitable quantum theory in regimes where the main quantum effects of the geometry are those affecting the zero-modes, while the inhomogeneities, still being quantum, can be treated in a more conventional way. This hybrid strategy was first proposed for the simplest cosmological midisuperspaces: the Gowdy models, and it has been later applied to the case of cosmological perturbations. This paper reviews the construction and main applications of hybrid LQC.

  15. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-05-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems.

  16. Vaccine engineering improved by hybrid technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2004-08-01

    The term 'vaccination' describes the induction of protective immune responses against infectious diseases, but is also used to define antigen-specific forms of immunotherapy for allergy, cancer and autoimmunity. Successful vaccination requires either immune modulation or the induction of robust specific immunity to several disease-causing antigens. However, natural antigen sources may contain greatly varying amounts of these antigens and some of them may exhibit low immunogenicity. An approach for overcoming the latter problems has been developed for allergy vaccines recently. This approach is based on the genetic engineering of hybrid molecules, consisting of several major disease-eliciting antigens/epitopes. Such hybrid molecules can be built to include the most relevant epitopes of complex antigen sources. Moreover, fusion of different antigens in the form of hybrid molecules strongly increases their immunogenicity. The hybrid approach can also be used for the generation of mosaic antigens with altered immunological properties, which consist of re-shuffled antigen pieces. We exemplify the use of hybrid technology for the generation of new allergy vaccines and discuss its potential applicability for the development of vaccines for infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmunity.

  17. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc (eds.)

    2016-08-01

    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?.

  18. Evolution of a Laser Hybrid Welding Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alexander F. H.; Frostevarg, Jan; Ilar, Torbjörn; Bang, Hee-Seon; Bang, Han-Sur

    Laser arc hybrid welding combines the advantages but also the complex physical mechanisms of gas metal arc welding and laser keyhole welding. From manifold mainly experimental but also theoretical research results a map with versatile functions was initiated for the first time. The purpose is to survey the overall context and to facilitate navigation to the various phenomena that are shown through case studies accompanied by theoretical explanations and guidelines for optimization. Though not complete, the map enables systematic and graphical navigation to relevant publications. Based on a fundamental structure of the map, which was decided early, it is inherently extendable in the future by adding existing and new knowledge, also from other research groups, enabling evolution. The fundament of the map structure comprises gouge thickness, joint type and metal grade, in coherence with product and weld designers' starting points. The next hierarchy level of the map offers options in the joint type as well as in hybrid welding techniques. The latter contains techniques like double-sided welding, pulse shaping management of the arc or laser, CMT arcs, tandem arcs, or remelting of undercuts. In addition to laser-arc hybrid welding, other hybrid laser techniques like multilayer hot-wire laser welding of narrow gaps or hybrid laser friction stir welding can be taken into account. At the other end of the hierarchy, the map offers via a database-like archive electronic navigation to research results like weld macrographs, high speed imaging or numerical simulation results of the welding process.

  19. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzik G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

  20. A Hybrid Chaotic Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Y.; Zhang, M.; Cai, H.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid chaotic quantum evolutionary algorithm is proposed to reduce amount of computation, speed up convergence and restrain premature phenomena of quantum evolutionary algorithm. The proposed algorithm adopts the chaotic initialization method to generate initial population which will form...... and enhance the global search ability. A large number of tests show that the proposed algorithm has higher convergence speed and better optimizing ability than quantum evolutionary algorithm, real-coded quantum evolutionary algorithm and hybrid quantum genetic algorithm. Tests also show that when chaos...... is introduced to quantum evolutionary algorithm, the hybrid chaotic search strategy is superior to the carrier chaotic strategy, and has better comprehensive performance than the chaotic mutation strategy in most of cases. Especially, the proposed algorithm is the only one that has 100% convergence rate in all...