WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid reactors final

  1. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  2. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  3. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  4. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  5. NCSU reactor sharing program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.B.

    1997-01-10

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities. This report is the Final Technical Report for the DOE award reference number DE-FG05-95NE38136 which covers the period September 30, 1995 through September 30, 1996.

  6. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes; Reactores biologico hibrido innovadores utilizando membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  7. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piera, Mireia [UNED, ETSII-Dp Ingenieria Energetica, c/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, Antonio; Abanades, Alberto; Martinez-Val, J.M. [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion-fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-eff) with the obvious and fundamental limitation that it cannot reach criticality under any event, particularly, in the case of a loss of coolant accident. This limitation will be very important in the selection of the coolant. Some general considerations will be proposed, as guidelines for assessing the hybrid potential in a given scenario. Those guidelines point out that hybrids can be of great interest for the future of nuclear energy in a framework of Sustainable Development, because they can contribute to the efficient exploitation of nuclear fuels, with very high safety features. Additionally, a proposal is presented on a blanket specially suited for fusion-fission hybrids, although this reactor concept is still under review, and new work is needed for identifying the most suitable blanket composition, which can vary depending on the main objective of the hybrid. (author)

  8. Reactor mixing angle from hybrid neutrino masses

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal

    2014-01-01

    In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure with small deviations, as demanded by data. If neutrino masses originate from at least two different mechanisms, referred to as "hybrid neutrino masses", the experimentally observed structure naturally emerges provided one mechanism accounts for the dominant tribimaximal structure while the other is responsible for the deviations. We demonstrate the feasibility of this picture in a fairly model-independent way by using lepton-number-violating effective operators, whose structure we assume becomes dictated by an underlying $A_4$ flavor symmetry. We show that if a second mechanism is at work, the requirement of generating a reactor angle within its experimental range always fixes the solar and atmospheric angles in agreement with data, in contrast to the case where the deviations are induced by next-to-leading ...

  9. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  10. Biodenitrification in Sequencing Batch Reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverstein, J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

    1996-01-23

    One plan for stabilization of the Solar Pond waters and sludges at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), is evaporation and cement solidification of the salts to stabilize heavy metals and radionuclides for land disposal as low-level mixed waste. It has been reported that nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sub {minus}}) salts may interfere with cement stabilization of heavy metals and radionuclides. Therefore, biological nitrate removal (denitrification) may be an important pretreatment for the Solar Pond wastewaters at RFP, improving the stability of the cement final waste form, reducing the requirement for cement (or pozzolan) additives and reducing the volume of cemented low-level mixed waste requiring ultimate disposal. A laboratory investigation of the performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) activated sludge process developed for nitrate removal from a synthetic brine typical of the high-nitrate and high-salinity wastewaters in the Solar Ponds at Rocky Flats Plant was carried out at the Environmental Engineering labs at the University of Colorado, Boulder, between May 1, 1994 and October 1, 1995.

  11. Reference mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.

    1977-06-08

    The status of the reference mirror hybrid reactor design being performed by LLL and General Atomic is summarized. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing fissile fuel for consumption in fission power reactors. The design draws on the experience developed at LLL in previous hybrid reactor conceptual designs and on GA expertise in gas-cooling technology and fission reactor mechanical design. As in the past, we have emphasized the use of existing technology where possible and a minimum extrapolation of technology otherwise. We consider our projections for the plasma physics parameters to be conservative, in that they are well-founded on the experiments in 2XIIB and the interpretation of these experiments.

  12. Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

    1983-08-15

    The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

  13. Wastewater Treatment in a Hybrid Biological Reactor (HBR) :Nitrification Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; LI-BO WU

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the nitrifying characteristics of both suspended- and attached- biomass in a hybrid bioreactor. Methods The hybrid biological reactor was developed by introducing porous ceramic particles into the reactor to provide the surface for biomass attachment. Microorganisms immobilized on the ceramics were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All chemical analyses were performed in accordance with standard methods. Results The suspended- and attached-biomass had approximately the same nitrification activity. The nitrifying kinetic was independent of the initial biomass concentration, and the attached-biomass had a stronger ability to resist the nitrification inhibitor. Conclusion The attached biomass is superior to suspended-biomass for nitrifying wastewater, especially that containing toxic organic compounds. The hybrid biological reactor consisting of suspended- and attached-biomass is advantageous in such cases.

  14. Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Frye, J. G.; Riley, Brian J.; Rappe, Kenneth G.

    2011-04-06

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed an assessment of a Hybrid Plasma/Filter system as an alternative to conventional methods for collective protection. The key premise of the hybrid system is to couple a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor with reactive adsorption to provide a broader envelope of protection than can be provided through a single-solution approach. The first step uses highly reactive species (e.g. oxygen radicals, hydroxyl radicals, etc.) created in a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor to destroy the majority (~75% - 90%) of an incoming threat. Following the NTP reactor an O3 reactor/filter uses the O3 created in the NTP reactor to further destroy the remaining organic materials. This report summarizes the laboratory development of the Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter to protect against a ‘worst-case’ simulant, methyl bromide (CH3Br), and presents a preliminary engineering assessment of the technology to Joint Expeditionary Collective Protection performance specifications for chemical vapor air purification technologies.

  15. Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-05-22

    This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel (/sup 239/Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket.

  16. Investigating the breeding capabilities of hybrid soliton reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catsaros, N., E-mail: nicos@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 27, Neapoleos Str., 15341 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Gaveau, B., E-mail: bernardgaveau@orange.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jaekel, M.-T., E-mail: jaekel@lpt.ens.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure (CNRS), 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jejcic, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure (CNRS), 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Maillard, J., E-mail: maillard@idris.fr [Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (CNRS), 3 rue Michel Ange, 75794 Paris Cedex 16 (France); Institut du Développement et des Ressources en Informatique Scientifique (CNRS), Campus Universitaire d’Orsay, rue John Von Neumann, Bat 506, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France); Maurel, G., E-mail: gerard.maurel@sat.aphp.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Savva, P., E-mail: savvapan@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 27, Neapoleos Str., 15341 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Silva, J., E-mail: jorge.silva@upmc.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • ANET code simulates innovative reactor designs including Accelerator Driven Systems. • Preliminary analysis of thermal hybrid soliton reactor examines breeding capabilities. • Subsequent studies will aim at optimizing parameters examined in this analysis. • Breeding capacity could be obtained while preserving efficiency and reactor stability. -- Abstract: Nuclear energy industry asks for an optimized exploitation of available natural resources and a safe operation of reactors. A closed fuel cycle requires the mass of fissile material depleted in a reactor to be equal to or less than the fissile mass produced in the same or in other reactors. In this work, a simple closed cycle scheme is investigated, grounded on the use of a conceptual thermal water-cooled and moderated subcritical hybrid soliton reactor (HSR). The concept is a specific Accelerator Driven System (ADS) operating at lower power than usual pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This type of reactor can be inherently safe, since shutdown is achieved by simply interrupting the accelerator's power supply. In this work a preliminary investigation is attempted concerning the existence of conditions under which the operation of a thermal HSR in breeding regime is possible. For this purpose, a conceptual encapsulated core has been defined by choosing the magnitude of a set of parameters which are important from the neutronic point of view, such as core geometry and fuel composition. Indications of breeding operation regime for thermal HSR systems are sought by performing preliminary simulations of this core. For this purpose, the Monte Carlo code ANET, which is being developed based on the high energy physics code GEANT is utilized, as being capable of simulating particles’ transport and interactions produced, including also simulation of low energy neutrons transport. A simple analytical model is also developed and presented in order to investigate the conditions under which

  17. Conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor fueling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matney, K.D.; Donnert, H.J.; Yang, T.F.

    1979-12-01

    A conceptual design of a fuel injection system for CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor) is discussed. Initially, relative merits of the cold-fueling concept are compared with those of the hot-fueling concept; that is, fueling where the electron is below 1 eV is compared with fueling where the electron temperature exceeds 100 eV. It is concluded that cold fueling seems to be somewhat more free of drawbacks than hot fueling. Possible implementation of the cold-fueling concept is exploited via frozen-pellet injection. Several methods of achieving frozen-pellet injection are discussed and the light-gas-gun approach is chosen from these possibilities. A modified version of the ORNL Neutral Gas Shielding Model is used to simulate the pellet injection process. From this simulation, the penetration-depth dependent velocity requirement is determined. Finally, with the velocity requirement known, a gas-pressure requirement for the proposed conceptual design is established. The cryogenic fuel-injection and fuel-handling systems are discussed. A possible way to implement the conceptual device is examined along with the attendant effects on the total system.

  18. Conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor fueling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matney, K D; Donnert, H J; Yang, T F

    1979-12-01

    A conceptual design of a fuel injection system for CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor) is discussed. Initially, relative merits of the cold-fueling concept are compared with those of the hot-fueling concept; that is, fueling where the electron temperature is below 1 eV is compared with fueling where the electron temperature exceeds 100 eV. It is concluded that cold fueling seems to be somewhat more free of drawbacks than hot fueling. Possible implementation of the cold-fueling concept is exploited via frozen-pellet injection. Several methods of achieving frozen-pellet injection are discussed and the light-gas-gun approach is chosen from these possibilities. A modified version of the ORNL Neutral Gas Shielding Model is used to simulate the pellet injection process. From this simulation, the penetration-depth dependent velocity requirement is determined. Finally, with the velocity requirement known, a gas-pressure requirement for the proposed conceptual design is established. The cryogenic fuel-injection and fuel-handling systems are discussed. A possible way to implement the conceptual device is examined along with the attendant effects on the total system.

  19. Preconceptual design and assessment of a Tokamak Hybrid Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Leonard, B.R. Jr.; Aase, D.T.

    1980-09-01

    The preconceptual design of a commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (THR) power plant has been performed. The tokamak fusion driver for this hybrid is operated in the ignition mode. The D-T fusion plasma, which produces 1140 MW of power, has a major radius of 5.4 m and a minor radius of 1.0 m with an elongation of 2.0. Double null poloidal divertors are assumed for impurity control. The confining toroidal field is maintained by D-shaped Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting magnets with a maximum field of 12T at the coil. Three blankets with four associated fuel cycle alternatives have been combined with the ignited tokamak fusion driver. The engineering, material, and balance of plant design requirements for the THR are briefly described. Estimates of the capital, operating and maintenance, and fuel cycle costs have been made for the various driver/blanket combinations and an assessment of the market penetrability of hybrid systems is presented. An analysis has been made of the nonproliferation aspects of the hybrid and its associated fuel cycles relative to fission reactors. The current and required level of technology for both the fusion and fission components of the hybrid system has been reviewed. Licensing hybrid systems is also considered.

  20. Strategies for reactor safety. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K

    1997-12-01

    The NKS/RAK-1 project formed part of a four-year nuclear research program (1994-1997) in the Nordic countries, the NKS Programme. The project aims were to investigate and evaluate the safety work, to increase realism and reliability of the safety analysis, and to give ideas for how safety can be improved in selected areas. An evaluation of the safety work in nuclear installations in Finland and Sweden was made, and a special effort was devoted to plant modernisation and to see how modern safety standards can be met up with. A combination of more resources and higher efficiency is recommended to meet requirements from plant modernisation and plant renovations. Both the utilities and the safety authorities are recommended to actively follow the evolving safety standards for new reactors. Various approaches to estimating LOCA frequencies have been explored. In particular, a probabilistic model for pipe ruptures due to intergranular stress corrosion has been developed. A survey has been done over methodologies for integrated sequence analysis (ISA), and different approaches have been developed and tested on four sequences. Structured frameworks for integration between PSA and behavioural sciences have been developed, which e.g. have improved PSA. The status of maintenance strategies in Finland and Sweden has been studied and a new maintenance data information system has been developed. (au) 41 refs.

  1. Wastewater treatment in a hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tizghadam, Mostafa [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Dagot, Christophe [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France)], E-mail: dagot@ensil.unilim.fr; Baudu, Michel [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Universite de Limoges, ENSIL, Parc ESTER, 16 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2008-06-15

    A novel hybrid activated sludge baffled reactor (HASBR), which contained both suspended and attached-growth biomass perfect mixing cells in series, was developed by installing standing and hanging baffles and introducing plastic brushes into a conventional activated sludge (CAS) reactor. It was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The effects on the operational performance of developing the suspended and attached-growth biomass and reactor configuration were investigated. The change of the flow regime from complete-mix to plug-flow, and the addition of plastic brushes as a support for biofilm, resulted in considerable improvements in the COD, nitrogen removal efficiency of domestic wastewater and sludge settling properties. In steady state, approximately 98 {+-} 2% of the total COD and 98 {+-} 2% of the ammonia of the influent were removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 593 {+-} 11 mg COD/L and 43 {+-} 5 mg N/L, respectively, at a HRT of 10 h. These results were 93 {+-} 3 and 6 {+-} 3% for the CAS reactor, respectively. Approximately 90 {+-} 7% of the total COD was removed in the HASBR, when the influent wastewater concentration was 654 {+-} 16 mg COD/L at a 3 h HRT, and in the organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.36 kg COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1}. The result for the CAS reactor was 60 {+-} 3%. Existing CAS plants can be upgraded by changing the reactor configuration and introducing biofilm support media into the aeration tank.

  2. Hybrid Adsorption-Membrane Biological Reactors for Improved Performance and Reliability of Perchlorate Removal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    carbon supply for the autotrophic perchlorate reducing bacteria. The membrane used in the reactor is a hollow-fiber microfiltration membrane made from...1 HYBRID ADSORPTION- MEMBRANE BIOLOGICAL REACTORS FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY OF PERCHLORATE REMOVAL PROCESSES L.C. Schideman...Center Champaign, IL 61826, USA ABSTRACT This study introduces the novel HAMBgR process (Hybrid Adsorption Membrane Biological Reactor) and

  3. Hybrid estimation technique for predicting butene concentration in polyethylene reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ali, Jarinah; Hussain, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    A component of artificial intelligence (AI), which is fuzzy logic, is combined with the so-called conventional sliding mode observer (SMO) to establish a hybrid type estimator to predict the butene concentration in the polyethylene production reactor. Butene or co-monomer concentration is another significant parameter in the polymerization process since it will affect the molecular weight distribution of the polymer produced. The hybrid estimator offers straightforward formulation of SMO and its combination with the fuzzy logic rules. The error resulted from the SMO estimation will be manipulated using the fuzzy rules to enhance the performance, thus improved on the convergence rate. This hybrid estimation is able to estimate the butene concentration satisfactorily despite the present of noise in the process.

  4. Final optics for laser-driven inertial fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, J. G.; Chase, L. L.; Guinan, M. W.; Krupke, W. F.; Sooy, W. R.

    1991-10-01

    If Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) power plus utilizing laser drivers are to be considered for electrical power generation, a method for delivering the driver energy into the reactor must be developed. This driver-reactor interface will necessarily employ 'final optics,' which must survive in the face of fast neutrons, x rays, hot vapors and condensates, and high speed droplets. The most difficult to protect against is fast neutron damage since no optically transmissive shielding material for 14 MeV neutrons is available. Multilayer dielectric mirrors are judged to be unsuitable because radiation induced chemical change, diffusion, and thickness changes will destroy their reflectivity within a few months of plant operation. Recently, grazing incidence metal mirrors were proposed, but optical damage issues are unresolved for this approach. In this study, we considered the use of refractive optics. A baseline design consists of two wedges of fused silica, which put a dogleg into the beam and thus remove optics further upstream from direct sight of the reactor. If the closest optic were located 40 m from the center of a 3 GW sub t reactor it would be subject to an average 14 MeV neutron flux of approx. 5 x 10(exp 12) n/sq cm with a peak flux of approx. 6 x 10(exp 18) n/sq cm. A major question to be answered is: 'what duration of reactor operation can this optic withstand'. To answer this question we have reviewed the literature bearing on radiation induced optical damage in fused silica and assessed its implications for reactor operation with the baseline final optics scheme. It appears possible to continuously anneal the neutron damage in the silica by keeping the wedge at a modestly elevated temperature.

  5. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  6. Final Physics Report for the Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, I. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    1956-06-25

    order to reduce as much as possible the cost of the physics analysis and in order to obtain information otherwise unavailable, considerable use was made of perturbation techniques. These perturbation computations were initially performed using the one-dimensional approximation and were extended to two dimensions in stages 3 and 4. To do this a method of obtaining adjoint fluxes; using available reactor computer codes, was developed. Only the physics which bears on the final design of the ETR is summarized. This volume, together with the Physics Progress Report, represents a complete account of the studies undertaken,. methods used, and results obtained in the physics work on the ETR.

  7. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  8. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  9. Hybrid microcircuit via development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, D.P.

    1980-06-01

    Manufacturing processes were developed for making holes in alumina substrates, metallizing substrates on both sides and through the holes (vias), dry film photolithographing 6-..mu..m-thick gold to 127-..mu..m line widths and spacings, determining via quality, and protecting vias during HMC assembly processes. The few problems encountered were solved, and via technology is now established as a reliable and repeatable production technology for hybrid microcircuits. Via resistance on product HMCs usually measures from 4 to 6 m..cap omega.. which is well below the 10 m..cap omega.. maximum limit.

  10. Final Report on Isotope Ratio Techniques for Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Meriwether, George H.; Reid, Bruce D.

    2009-07-01

    The Isotope Ratio Method (IRM) is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods.

  11. Investigation of (n,γ) reaction in hybrid reactor zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenay, Mehtap [Inoenue Univ., Malatya (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the fluids were composed with increased mole fractions of a mixture of molten salt: heavy metals 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80{sup -}}1-5 % SFG-Pu, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80{sup -}}1-5 % SFG-PuF{sub 4}, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80{sup -}}1-5 % SFG-PuO{sub 2}. In this study, the effect on conversion of each isotope ({sup 238-242}Pu) in spent fuel grade plutonium by (n,γ) reactions was investigated in liquid first wall, blanket and shield zones of the designed hybrid reactor system. Beryllium (Be) is the neutron multiplier by (n,2n) reactions. The Be zone used was 3 cm thick. 9Cr2WVT, a ferritic steel, is used as structural material. Three-dimensional nucleonic calculations were performed by using the most recent versions of the MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo code and the nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0.

  12. Status report on the conceptual design of a commercial tokamak hybrid reactor (CTHR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    A preliminary conceptual design is presented for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants. The study has been made in sufficient depth to indicate no insurmountable technical problems exist and has provided a basis for valid cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources.

  13. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems; La physique des reacteurs sous-critiques des systemes hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapira, J.P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS 91 - Orsay (France); Vergnes, J. [Electricite de France, EDF, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [and others

    1998-03-12

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  14. Optimization of the core configuration design using a hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayat, Afshin, E-mail: ahedayat@aut.ac.i [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor Research and Development School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), End of North Karegar Street, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davilu, Hadi [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barfrosh, Ahmad Abdollahzadeh [Department of Computer Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Avenue, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepanloo, Kamran [Reactor Research and Development School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), End of North Karegar Street, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To successfully carry out material irradiation experiments and radioisotope productions, a high thermal neutron flux at irradiation box over a desired life time of a core configuration is needed. On the other hand, reactor safety and operational constraints must be preserved during core configuration selection. Two main objectives and two safety and operational constraints are suggested to optimize reactor core configuration design. Suggested parameters and conditions are considered as two separate fitness functions composed of two main objectives and two penalty functions. This is a constrained and combinatorial type of a multi-objective optimization problem. In this paper, a fast and effective hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm is introduced and developed to reach a Pareto optimal set. The hybrid algorithm is composed of a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) and a fast fitness function evaluating system based on the cascade feed forward artificial neural networks (ANNs). A specific GA representation of core configuration and also special GA operators are introduced and used to overcome the combinatorial constraints of this optimization problem. A software package (Core Pattern Calculator 1) is developed to prepare and reform required data for ANNs training and also to revise the optimization results. Some practical test parameters and conditions are suggested to adjust main parameters of the hybrid algorithm. Results show that introduced ANNs can be trained and estimate selected core parameters of a research reactor very quickly. It improves effectively optimization process. Final optimization results show that a uniform and dense diversity of Pareto fronts are gained over a wide range of fitness function values. To take a more careful selection of Pareto optimal solutions, a revision system is introduced and used. The revision of gained Pareto optimal set is performed by using developed software package. Also some secondary operational

  15. Adaptive control using a hybrid-neural model: application to a polymerisation reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the use of a hybrid-neural model for predictive control of a plug flow polymerisation reactor. The hybrid-neural model (HNM is based on fundamental conservation laws associated with a neural network (NN used to model the uncertain parameters. By simulations, the performance of this approach was studied for a peroxide-initiated styrene tubular reactor. The HNM was synthesised for a CSTR reactor with a radial basis function neural net (RBFN used to estimate the reaction rates recursively. The adaptive HNM was incorporated in two model predictive control strategies, a direct synthesis scheme and an optimum steady state scheme. Tests for servo and regulator control showed excellent behaviour following different setpoint variations, and rejecting perturbations. The good generalisation and training capacities of hybrid models, associated with the simplicity and robustness characteristics of the MPC formulations, make an attractive combination for the control of a polymerisation reactor.

  16. Hybrid reactor safety study. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    A preliminary generic safety evaluation of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor concept has been performed and a hybrid reactor safety program plan for guiding future safety work has been proposed. The emphasis of the work was limited to accident analysis where the main concern is for the health and safety of the public. Major radioactive sources in the hybrid were identified and their inventories compared to those of fission reactors. The means for accidental release of radioactivity to the public were identified, as were the barriers which preclude such accidental releases. Consequence analyses of hypothetical bounding accidents potentially defining the upper bound envelope of risk/consequence to the population and environment surrounding the hybrid site were performed.

  17. COMPARING THE EFFICIENCY OF UAFF AND UASB WITH HYBRID REACTOR IN TREATING WOOD FIBER WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ayati, H. Ganjidoust

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several kinds of anaerobic systems that are widely used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. Upflow Anaerobic Fixed Film (UAFF, Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB and hybrid reactor (combination of UASB and UAFF are the mostly used in treating industrial wastewater. As several operational problems have normally been experienced in both UASB and UAFF systems such as long start-up periods and instability, a hybrid reactor has been conceptualized which addressed these problems but retained the positive aspects of these reactors, such as, high cell concentration, good mixing and tolerance to high loading rates. The wastewater has been obtained from Iran Wood Fiber Company which is located in Hassan Rood city, Gilan Province. After period of starting up the reactors and adaptation, the amount of influent COD was being increased stepwise. After the removal rate was reached to its maximum, the next period for increased load was started as after six months, the reactors could accept about 15 Kg/m3.d with high COD removal rate of about 58.5, 58.9 and 65 percent after 3 days detention time. After 5 and 6 months, maximum growth of granule and biofilm was observed. Diameter of 6 mm and mass to surface and COD removal of 0.25 g/cm2 were the highest measured parameters. The comparison of three studied systems showed that their efficiencies were close to each other. As the effective part of UAFF in hybrid reactor was only one third of the reactor, it acted as a separator of solidliquid-gas phases and UASB had the most effect on treatment. In each UAFF and UASB, all percent removal was resulted by each reactor. It can be concluded that hybrid reactor do have the advantages of both systems with at least half of the height of two reactors. Similar results could be obtained with each UAFF or UASB if higher height can be used.

  18. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  19. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  20. 105-H Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Ison

    2008-11-08

    The following information documents the decontamination and decommissioning of the 105-H Reactor facility, and placement of the reactor core into interim safe storage. The D&D of the facility included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and restoration of the site. The ISS work also included construction of the safe storage enclosure, which required the installation of a new roofing system, power and lighting, a remote monitoring system, and ventilation components.

  1. Dynamical Safety Analysis of the SABR Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Tyler; Stacey, Weston; Ghiaassian, Seyed

    2009-11-01

    A hybrid fusion-fission reactor for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is being developed at Georgia Tech. The Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) is a 3000 MWth sodium-cooled, metal TRU-Zr fueled fast reactor driven by a tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER physics and technology. We are investigating the accident dynamics of SABR's coupled fission, fusion and heat removal systems to explore the safety characteristics of a hybrid reactor. Possible accident scenarios such as loss of coolant mass flow (LOFA), of power (LOPA) and of heat sink (LOHSA), as well as inadvertent reactivity insertions and fusion source excursion are being analyzed using the RELAP5-3D code, the ATHENA version of which includes liquid metal coolants.

  2. SABR fusion-fission hybrid transmutation reactor design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Weston

    2009-11-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a sub-critical advanced burner reactor (SABR) consisting of i) a sodium cooled fast reactor fueled with the transuranics (TRU) from spent nuclear fuel, and ii) a D-T tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER physics and technology. Subcritical operation enables more efficient transmutation fuel cycles in TRU fueled reactors (without compromising safety), which may be essential for significant reduction in high-level waste repository requirements. ITER will serve as the prototype for the fusion neutron source, which means SABRs could be implemented to help close the nuclear fuel cycle during the 2^nd quarter of the century.

  3. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C

    2013-11-26

    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID FINAL ADDER FOR THE HIGH PERFORMANCE MULTIPLIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMKUMAR B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated arrival profile of the HPM based multiplier partial products reduction tree in two ways: 1.manual delay, area calculation through logical effort, 2.ASIC implementation. Based on the arrival profile, we worked with some recently proposed optimal adders and finally we proposed an optimal hybrid adder for the final addition in HPM based parallel multiplier. This work derives some mathematical expressions to find the size of different regions in the partial product arrival profile which helps to design optimal adder for each region. This work evaluates the performance of proposed hybrid adder in terms of area, power and delay using 90nm technology. This work deals with manual calculation for 8-b and ASIC simulation of different adder designs for 8-b, 16-b, 32-b and 64-b multiplier bit sizes.

  5. Decontamination and dismantlement of the JANUS Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory-East. Project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellhauer, C.R.; Clark, F.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Technology Development Div.; Garlock, G.A. [MOTA Corp., Cayce, SC (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The decontamination and dismantlement of the JANUS Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) was completed in October 1997. Descriptions and evaluations of the activities performed and analyses of the results obtained during the JANUS D and D Project are provided in this Final Report. The following information is included: objective of the JANUS D and D Project; history of the JANUS Reactor facility; description of the ANL-E site and the JANUS Reactor facility; overview of the D and D activities performed; description of the project planning and engineering; description of the D and D operations; summary of the final status of the JANUS Reactor facility based upon the final survey results; description of the health and safety aspects of the project, including personnel exposure and OSHA reporting; summary of the waste minimization techniques utilized and total waste generated by the project; and summary of the final cost and schedule for the JANUS D and D Project.

  6. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 Dye in Two Hybrid Plasma Discharge Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yongjun; LEI Lecheng; ZHANG Xingwang; DING Jiandong

    2014-01-01

    To get an optimized pulsed electrical plasma discharge reactor and to increase the energy utilization efficiency in the removal of pollutants,two hybrid plasma discharge reactors were designed and optimized.The reactors were compared via the discharge characteristics,energy transfer efficiency,the yields of the active species and the energy utilization in dye wastewater degradation.The results showed that under the same AC input power,the characteristics of the discharge waveform of the point-to-plate reactor were better.Under the same AC input power,the two reactors both had almost the same peak voltage of 22 kV.The peak current of the point-to-plate reactor was 146 A,while that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor was only 48.8 A.The peak powers of the point-to-plate reactor and the wire-to-cylinder reactor were 1.38 MW and 1.01 MW,respectively.The energy per pulse of the point-to-plate reactor was 0.2221 J,which was about 29.4% higher than that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor (0.1716 J).To remove 50% Acid Orange 7 (AO7),the energy utilizations of the point-to-plate reactor and the wireto-cylinder reactor were 1.02×10-9 mol/L and 0.61×10-9 mol/L,respectively.In the point-to-plate reactor,the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in pure water was 3.6 mmol/L after 40 min of discharge,which was higher than that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor (2.5 mmol/L).The concentration of liquid phase ozone in the point-to-plate reactor (5.7×10-2 mmol/L) was about 26.7% higher than that in the wire-to-cylinder reactor (4.5× 10-2 mmol/L).The analysis results of the variance showed that the type of reactor and reaction time had significant impacts on the yields of the hydrogen peroxide and ozone.The main degradation intermediates of AO7 identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS) were acetic acid,maleic anhydride,pbenzoquinone,phenol,benzoic acid,phthalic anhydride,coumarin and 2-naphthol.Proposed degradation pathways were elucidated in light of the analyzed

  7. Plutonium Consumption Program, CANDU Reactor Project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-31

    DOE is investigating methods for long term dispositioning of weapons grade plutonium. One such method would be to utilize the plutonium in Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel assemblies in existing CANDU reactors. CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors are designed, licensed, built, and supported by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and currently use natural uranium oxide as fuel. The MOX spent fuel assemblies removed from the reactor would be similar to the spent fuel currently produced using natural uranium fuel, thus rendering the plutonium as unattractive as that in the stockpiles of commercial spent fuel. This report presents the results of a study sponsored by the DOE for dispositioning the plutonium using CANDU technology. Ontario Hydro`s Bruce A was used as reference. The fuel design study defined the optimum parameters to disposition 50 tons of Pu in 25 years (or 100 tons). Two alternate fuel designs were studied. Safeguards, security, environment, safety, health, economics, etc. were considered. Options for complete destruction of the Pu were also studied briefly; CANDU has a superior ability for this. Alternative deployment options were explored and the potential impact on Pu dispositioning in the former Soviet Union was studied. An integrated system can be ready to begin Pu consumption in 4 years, with no changes required to the reactors other than for safe, secure storage of new fuel.

  8. Irradiation-Accelerated Corrosion of Reactor Core Materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhujie [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Was, Gary [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bartels, David [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2015-04-02

    This project aims to understand how radiation accelerates corrosion of reactor core materials. The combination of high temperature, chemically aggressive coolants, a high radiation flux and mechanical stress poses a major challenge for the life extension of current light water reactors, as well as the success of most all GenIV concepts. Of these four drivers, the combination of radiation and corrosion places the most severe demands on materials, for which an understanding of the fundamental science is simply absent. Only a few experiments have been conducted to understand how corrosion occurs under irradiation, yet the limited data indicates that the effect is large; irradiation causes order of magnitude increases in corrosion rates. Without a firm understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation and corrosion interact in film formation, growth, breakdown and repair, the extension of the current LWR fleet beyond 60 years and the success of advanced nuclear energy systems are questionable. The proposed work will address the process of irradiation-accelerated corrosion that is important to all current and advanced reactor designs, but remains very poorly understood. An improved understanding of the role of irradiation in the corrosion process will provide the community with the tools to develop predictive models for in-reactor corrosion, and to address specific, important forms of corrosion such as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  9. Final safeguards analysis, high temperature lattice test reactor. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanthorn, H.E.; Brown, W.W.; Clark, R.G.; Heineman, R.E.; Humes, R.M.

    1966-01-01

    The PMACS `reactor-normal` signal signifies that important process variables do not exceed their set points, that various interlocks are properly set, that functional tests of the computer operation are satisfactory, and that the reactor flux level and period derived from two additional, independent, and dissimilar channels are within set limits. This safety circuit combines the features of redundancy, dissimilar components, and frequent testing which are required for best reliability. The experimental equipment auxiliary to the reactor includes two oscillator mechanisms, one to move the test cell or the adjoining cell into and out of position, the other to move small specimens in the test cell or adjoining cells. They have cooling chambers for the removal of specimens from the test cell without the necessity of cooling the reactor. A neutron chopper and time-of-flight spectrometer are provided; the neutron detectors, at the end of a 25-meter flight tube, are in an adjoining small building. Test cores may be assembled on a core dolly have a load capacity of 14,000 lb. Two wire traverse mechanisms are provided for measurements of flux distribution.

  10. Multi-Applications Small Light Water Reactor - NERI Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Michale Modro; James E. Fisher; Kevan D. Weaver; Jose N. Reyes, Jr.; John T. Groome; Pierre Babka; Thomas M. Carlson

    2003-12-01

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle.

  11. Comparison of long-term performances and final microbial compositions of anaerobic reactors treating landfill leachate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calli, B.; Mertoglu, B.; Roest, C.; Inanc, B.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory scale anaerobic upflow filter, sludge blanket and hybrid bed reactors were operated for 860 days in the treatment of high ammonia landfill leachate. Organic loading was gradually increased from 1.3 to 23.5 kg COD/m3 day in the start-up period and then fluctuated according to the COD conce

  12. Repair welding of fusion reactor components. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, B.A.; Wang, C.A.

    1997-09-30

    The exposure of metallic materials, such as structural components of the first wall and blanket of a fusion reactor, to neutron irradiation will induce changes in both the material composition and microstructure. Along with these changes can come a corresponding deterioration in mechanical properties resulting in premature failure. It is, therefore, essential to expect that the repair and replacement of the degraded components will be necessary. Such repairs may require the joining of irradiated materials through the use of fusion welding processes. The present ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) conceptual design is anticipated to have about 5 km of longitudinal welds and ten thousand pipe butt welds in the blanket structure. A recent study by Buende et al. predict that a failure is most likely to occur in a weld. The study is based on data from other large structures, particularly nuclear reactors. The data used also appear to be consistent with the operating experience of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This reactor has a fuel pin area comparable with the area of the ITER first wall and has experienced one unanticipated fuel pin failure after two years of operation. The repair of irradiated structures using fusion welding will be difficult due to the entrapped helium. Due to its extremely low solubility in metals, helium will diffuse and agglomerate to form helium bubbles after being trapped at point defects, dislocations, and grain boundaries. Welding of neutron-irradiated type 304 stainless steels has been reported with varying degree of heat-affected zone cracking (HAZ). The objectives of this study were to determine the threshold helium concentrations required to cause HAZ cracking and to investigate techniques that might be used to eliminate the HAZ cracking in welding of helium-containing materials.

  13. Utility guidelines for reactor noise analysis: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, F.J.

    1987-02-01

    Noise analysis techniques have been extensively utilized to monitor the health and performance of nuclear power plant systems. However, few utilities have adequate programs to effectively utilize these techniques. These programs usually provide low-quality data, which can lead to misinterpretation and false alarms. The objective of this work is to provide utilities and noise analysts with guidelines for data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation of noise analysis results for surveillance and diagnosis of reactor systems.

  14. Fission-suppressed hybrid reactor: the fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    Results of a conceptual design study of a /sup 233/U-producing fusion breeder are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to conceptual design and evaluation of a fission-suppressed blanket and to fuel cycle issues such as fuel reprocessing, fuel handling, and fuel management. Studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, and economics were also performed.

  15. Hybrid Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor for the biodegradation of benzotriazoles and hydroxy-benzothiazole in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazioti, Aikaterini A.; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.; Psoma, Aikaterini K.;

    2017-01-01

    A laboratory scale Hybrid Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (HMBBR) was used to study the removal of five benzotriazoles and one benzothiazole from municipal wastewater. The HMBBR system consisted of two serially connected fully aerated bioreactors that contained activated sludge (AS) and K3-biocarriers...

  16. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution for a fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-Hua; GUO Hai-Ping; MOU Yun-Feng; ZHENG Pu; LIU Rong; YANG Xiao-Fei; YANG Jian

    2013-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor is established.It consists of a DT neutron source and a spherical shell of depleted uranium and hydrogen lithium.The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in the conceptual reactor was measured by DT neutrons using two sets of lithium glass detectors with different thicknesses in the hole in the vertical direction with respect to the D+ beam of the Cockcroft-Walton neutron generator in direct current mode.The measured TPR distribution is compared with the calculated results obtained by the threedimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and the ENDF/B-Ⅵ data file.The discrepancy between the measured and calculated values can be attributed to the neutron data library of the hydrogen lithium lack S(α,β) thermal scattering model,so we show that a special database of low-energy and thermal neutrons should be established in the physics design of fusion-fission hybrid reactors.

  17. Hybrid fusion–fission reactor with a thorium blanket: Its potential in the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmelev, A. N., E-mail: shmelan@mail.ru; Kulikov, G. G., E-mail: ggkulikov@mephi.ru; Kurnaev, V. A., E-mail: kurnaev@yandex.ru; Salahutdinov, G. H., E-mail: saip07@mail.ru; Kulikov, E. G., E-mail: egkulikov@mephi.ru; Apse, V. A., E-mail: apseva@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Discussions are currently going on as to whether it is suitable to employ thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle. This work demonstrates that the {sup 231}Pa–{sup 232}U–{sup 233}U–Th composition to be produced in the thorium blanket of a hybrid thermonuclear reactor (HTR) as a fuel for light-water reactors opens up the possibility of achieving high, up to 30% of heavy metals (HM), or even ultrahigh fuel burnup. This is because the above fuel composition is able to stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties in the process of high fuel burnup. In addition, it allows the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) to be better protected against unauthorized proliferation of fissile materials owing to an unprecedentedly large fraction of {sup 232}U (several percent!) in the uranium bred from the Th blanket, which will substantially hamper the use of fissile materials in a closed NFC for purposes other than power production.

  18. Hybrid fusion-fission reactor with a thorium blanket: Its potential in the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.; Kurnaev, V. A.; Salahutdinov, G. H.; Kulikov, E. G.; Apse, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Discussions are currently going on as to whether it is suitable to employ thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle. This work demonstrates that the 231Pa-232U-233U-Th composition to be produced in the thorium blanket of a hybrid thermonuclear reactor (HTR) as a fuel for light-water reactors opens up the possibility of achieving high, up to 30% of heavy metals (HM), or even ultrahigh fuel burnup. This is because the above fuel composition is able to stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties in the process of high fuel burnup. In addition, it allows the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) to be better protected against unauthorized proliferation of fissile materials owing to an unprecedentedly large fraction of 232U (several percent!) in the uranium bred from the Th blanket, which will substantially hamper the use of fissile materials in a closed NFC for purposes other than power production.

  19. Component failures at pressurized water reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisinger, M.F.

    1980-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to identify those systems having major impact on safety and availability (i.e. to identify those systems and components whose failures have historically caused the greatest number of challenges to the reactor protective systems and which have resulted in greatest loss of electric generation time). These problems were identified for engineering solutions and recommendations made for areas and programs where research and development should be concentrated. The program was conducted in three major phases: Data Analysis, Engineering Evaluation, Cost Benefit Analysis.

  20. Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    None From the ion chromatography results we can calculate the concentration of HNO3 in the gas leaving the plasma reactor. The small NO3- detected...resistant to decomposition by O3. Carbon and polymeric adsorbents were not considered because they would react with O3 and decompose . Potential...nor any ability to decompose ozone. A SAC-13 catalyst was obtained from Engelhard for testing also. This material is an H- Nafion Ion Exchange

  1. Technical and economic assessment of solar hybrid repowering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) has performed a Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Hybrid Repowering under funding by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Western Energy Supply and Transmission (WEST) Associates, and a number of southwestern utilities. Solar hybrid repowering involves placement of solar hardware adjacent to and connected to existing gas- and oil-fueled electric generation units to displace some of or all the fossil fuel normally used during daylight hours. The subject study assesses the technical economic viability of the solar hybrid repowering concept within the southwestern United States and the PNM system. This document is a final report on the study and its results. The study was divided into the six primary tasks to allow a systematic investigation of the concept: (1) market survey and cost/benefit analysis, (2) study unit selection, (3) conceptual design and cost estimates, (4) unit economic analysis, (5) program planning, future phases, and (6) program management. Reeves Station No. 2 at Albuquerque, New Mexico, was selected for repowering with a design goal of 50 percent (25 MWe). The solar system design is based on the 10 MW solar central receiver pilot plant preliminary design for Barstow, California. SAN--1608-4-2 contains the technical drawings. (WHK)

  2. Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modro, S.M.; Fisher, J.E.; Weaver, K.D.; Reyes, J.N.; Groome, J.T.; Babka, P.; Carlson, T.M.

    2003-12-01

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle. Development of the baseline design concept has been sufficiently completed to determine that it complies with the safety requirements and criteria, and satisfies the major goals already noted. The more significant features of the baseline single-unit design concept include: (1) Thermal Power--150 MWt; (2) Net Electrical Output--35 MWe; (3) Steam Generator Type--Vertical, helical tubes; (4) Fuel UO{sub 2}, 8% enriched; (5) Refueling Intervals--5 years; (6) Life-Cycle--60 years. The economic performance was assessed by designing a power plant with an electric generation capacity in the range of current and advanced evolutionary systems. This approach allows for direct comparison of economic performance and forms a basis for further evaluation, economic and technical, of the proposed design and for the design evolution towards a more cost competitive concept

  3. Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modro, S.M.; Fisher, J.E.; Weaver, K.D.; Reyes, J.N.; Groome, J.T.; Babka, P.; Carlson, T.M.

    2003-12-01

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle. Development of the baseline design concept has been sufficiently completed to determine that it complies with the safety requirements and criteria, and satisfies the major goals already noted. The more significant features of the baseline single-unit design concept include: (1) Thermal Power--150 MWt; (2) Net Electrical Output--35 MWe; (3) Steam Generator Type--Vertical, helical tubes; (4) Fuel UO{sub 2}, 8% enriched; (5) Refueling Intervals--5 years; (6) Life-Cycle--60 years. The economic performance was assessed by designing a power plant with an electric generation capacity in the range of current and advanced evolutionary systems. This approach allows for direct comparison of economic performance and forms a basis for further evaluation, economic and technical, of the proposed design and for the design evolution towards a more cost competitive concept

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF MIEX® RESIN FOR WATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCYIN A HYBRID MEMBRANE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Rajca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies related to the effectiveness of removal of natural organic matter (NOM from water using hybrid membrane reactor in which ion exchange and ultrafiltration processes were performed. MIEX® resin by Orica Watercare and immersed ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride capillary module ZeeWeed 1 (ZW 1 by GE Power&Water operated at negative pressure were used. The application of multifunctional reactor had a positive effect on the removal of contaminants and enabled the production of high quality water. Additionally, in refer to single stage ultrafiltration it minimalized the occurrence of membrane fouling.

  5. Effect of Different Structural Materials on Neutronic Performance of a Hybrid Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Übeyli, Mustafa; Tel, Eyyüp

    2003-06-01

    Selection of structural material for a fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor is very important by taking into account of neutronic performance of the blanket. Refractory metals and alloys have much higher operating temperatures and neutron wall load (NWL) capabilities than low activation materials (ferritic/martensitic steels, vanadium alloys and SiC/SiC composites) and austenitic stainless steels. In this study, effect of primary candidate refractory alloys, namely, W-5Re, T111, TZM and Nb-1Zr on neutronic performance of the hybrid reactor was investigated. Neutron transport calculations were conducted with the help of SCALE 4.3 System by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with code XSDRNPM. Among the investigated structural materials, tantalum had the worst performance due to the fact that it has higher neutron absorption cross section than others. And W-5Re and TZM having similar results showed the best performance.

  6. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  7. Design and implementation of a novel portable atomic layer deposition/chemical vapor deposition hybrid reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan; Jursich, Gregory; Takoudis, Christos G

    2013-09-01

    We report the development of a novel portable atomic layer deposition chemical vapor deposition (ALD/CVD) hybrid reactor setup. Unique feature of this reactor is the use of ALD/CVD mode in a single portable deposition system to fabricate multi-layer thin films over a broad range from "bulk-like" multi-micrometer to nanometer atomic dimensions. The precursor delivery system and control-architecture are designed so that continuous reactant flows for CVD and cyclic pulsating flows for ALD mode are facilitated. A custom-written LabVIEW program controls the valve sequencing to allow synthesis of different kinds of film structures under either ALD or CVD mode or both. The entire reactor setup weighs less than 40 lb and has a relatively small footprint of 8 × 9 in., making it compact and easy for transportation. The reactor is tested in the ALD mode with titanium oxide (TiO2) ALD using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and water vapor. The resulting growth rate of 0.04 nm/cycle and purity of the films are in good agreement with literature values. The ALD/CVD hybrid mode is demonstrated with ALD of TiO2 and CVD of tin oxide (SnOx). Transmission electron microscopy images of the resulting films confirm the formation of successive distinct TiO2-ALD and SnO(x)-CVD layers.

  8. Design and implementation of a novel portable atomic layer deposition/chemical vapor deposition hybrid reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan; Jursich, Gregory; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2013-09-01

    We report the development of a novel portable atomic layer deposition chemical vapor deposition (ALD/CVD) hybrid reactor setup. Unique feature of this reactor is the use of ALD/CVD mode in a single portable deposition system to fabricate multi-layer thin films over a broad range from "bulk-like" multi-micrometer to nanometer atomic dimensions. The precursor delivery system and control-architecture are designed so that continuous reactant flows for CVD and cyclic pulsating flows for ALD mode are facilitated. A custom-written LabVIEW program controls the valve sequencing to allow synthesis of different kinds of film structures under either ALD or CVD mode or both. The entire reactor setup weighs less than 40 lb and has a relatively small footprint of 8 × 9 in., making it compact and easy for transportation. The reactor is tested in the ALD mode with titanium oxide (TiO2) ALD using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and water vapor. The resulting growth rate of 0.04 nm/cycle and purity of the films are in good agreement with literature values. The ALD/CVD hybrid mode is demonstrated with ALD of TiO2 and CVD of tin oxide (SnOx). Transmission electron microscopy images of the resulting films confirm the formation of successive distinct TiO2-ALD and SnOx-CVD layers.

  9. Neutronic analysis of a high power density hybrid reactor using innovative coolants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Senay Yalçin; Mustafa Übeylı; Adem Acir

    2005-08-01

    In this study, neutronic investigation of a deuterium–tritium (DT) driven hybrid reactor using ceramic uranium fuels, namely UC, UO2 or UN under a high neutron wall load (NWL) of 10 MW/m2 at the first wall is conducted over a period of 24 months for fissile fuel breeding for light water reactors (LWRs). New substances, namely, Flinabe or Li20Sn80 are used as coolants in the fuel zone to facilitate heat transfer out of the blanket. Natural lithium is also utilized for comparison to these two innovative coolants. Neutron transport calculations are performed on a simple experimental hybrid blanket with cylindrical geometry with the help of the SCALE 4·3 System by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with the XSDRNPM code in 238 neutron groups and an S8-P3 approximation. The investigated blanket using Flinabe or Li20Sn80 shows better fissile fuel breeding and fuel enrichment characteristics compared to that with natural lithium which shows that these two innovative coolants can be used in hybrid reactors for higher fissile fuel breeding performance. Furthermore, using a high NWL of 10 MW/m2 at the first wall of the investigated blanket can decrease the time for fuel rods to reach the level for charging in LWRs.

  10. Contributions of each isotope in structural material on radiation damage in a hybrid reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, Mehtap

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the fluids were used in the liquid first-wall, blanket and shield zones of the designed hybrid reactor system. In this study, salt-heavy metal mixtures consisting of 93-85% Li20Sn80 + 5% SFG-PuO2 and 2-10% UO2, 93-85% Li20Sn80 + 5% SFG-PuO2 and 2-10% NpO2, and 93-85% Li20Sn80 + 5% SFG-PuO2 and 2-10% UCO were used as fluids. In this study, the effect on the radiation damage of spent fuel-grade (SFG)-PuO2, UO2, NpO2 and UCO contents was investigated in the structural material of a designed fusion-fission hybrid reactor system. In the designed hybrid reactor system were investigated the effect on the radiation damage of the selected fluid according to each isotopes of structural material in the structural material for 30 full power years (FPYs). Three-dimensional analyses were performed using the most recent MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo radiation transport code and the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library.

  11. The hybrid reactor project based on the straight field line mirror concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Moiseenko, V. E.; Hagnestâl, A.; Källne, J.; Anglart, H.

    2012-06-01

    The straight field line mirror (SFLM) concept is aiming towards a steady-state compact fusion neutron source. Besides the possibility for steady state operation for a year or more, the geometry is chosen to avoid high loads on materials and plasma facing components. A comparatively small fusion hybrid device with "semi-poor" plasma confinement (with a low fusion Q factor) may be developed for industrial transmutation and energy production from spent nuclear fuel. This opportunity arises from a large fission to fusion energy multiplication ratio, Qr = Pfis/Pfus>>1. The upper bound on Qr is primarily determined by geometry and reactor safety. For the SFLM, the upper bound is Qr≈150, corresponding to a neutron multiplicity of keff=0.97. Power production in a mirror hybrid is predicted for a substantially lower electron temperature than the requirement Te≈10 keV for a fusion reactor. Power production in the SFLM seems possible with Q≈0.15, which is 10 times lower than typically anticipated for hybrids (and 100 times smaller than required for a fusion reactor). This relaxes plasma confinement demands, and broadens the range for use of plasmas with supra-thermal ions in hybrid reactors. The SFLM concept is based on a mirror machine stabilized by qudrupolar magnetic fields and large expander tanks beyond the confinement region. The purpose of the expander tanks is to distribute axial plasma loss flow over a sufficiently large area so that the receiving plates can withstand the heat. Plasma stability is not relying on a plasma flow into the expander regions. With a suppressed plasma flow into the expander tanks, a possibility arise for higher electron temperature. A brief presentation will be given on basic theory for the SFLM with plasma stability and electron temperature issues, RF heating computations with sloshing ion formation, neutron transport computations with reactor safety margins and material load estimates, magnetic coil designs as well as a discussion on

  12. Anaerobic treatment of a chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater in a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktem, Yalcin Askin; Ince, Orhan; Sallis, Paul; Donnelly, Tom; Ince, Bahar Kasapgil

    2008-03-01

    In this study, performance of a lab-scale hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, treating a chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater, was evaluated under different operating conditions. This study consisted of two experimental stages: first, acclimation to the pharmaceutical wastewater and second, determination of maximum loading capacity of the hybrid UASB reactor. Initially, the carbon source in the reactor feed came entirely from glucose, applied at an organic loading rate (OLR) 1 kg COD/m(3) d. The OLR was gradually step increased to 3 kg COD/m(3) d at which point the feed to the hybrid UASB reactor was progressively modified by introducing the pharmaceutical wastewater in blends with glucose, so that the wastewater contributed approximately 10%, 30%, 70%, and ultimately, 100% of the carbon (COD) to be treated. At the acclimation OLR of 3 kg COD/m(3) d the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 2 days. During this period of feed modification, the COD removal efficiencies of the anaerobic reactor were 99%, 96%, 91% and 85%, and specific methanogenic activities (SMA) were measured as 240, 230, 205 and 231 ml CH(4)/g TVS d, respectively. Following the acclimation period, the hybrid UASB reactor was fed with 100% (w/v) pharmaceutical wastewater up to an OLR of 9 kg COD/m(3) d in order to determine the maximum loading capacity achievable before reactor failure. At this OLR, the COD removal efficiency was 28%, and the SMA was measured as 170 ml CH(4)/g TVS d. The hybrid UASB reactor was found to be far more effective at an OLR of 8 kg COD/m(3) d with a COD removal efficiency of 72%. At this point, SMA value was 200 ml CH(4)/g TVS d. It was concluded that the hybrid UASB reactor could be a suitable alternative for the treatment of chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater.

  13. The synthesis of a copper/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid nanowire in a microfluidic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yitian; Chen, Quanfang

    2009-06-01

    Metallic nanowires are promising as components in nanoscale systems including nanoelectronics. However, the application of nanowires made of a single material is limited by the properties of the material used. We report here an effort to fabricate a hybrid copper-coated carbon nanotube (CNT)—Cu/CNT nanowire, using a microfluidic reactor. The fabrication of copper/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid nanowires was realized by an electroless copper deposition technique in which MWCNT templates and an electrolyte were introduced separately into the microfluidic reactor. The morphology and structure of the Cu/MWCNT hybrid nanowire were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), as well as XRD. Results reveal that the fabricated Cu/MWCNT hybrid nanowires are continuously covered by crystallized copper with a preferred crystal orientation along the (111) planes in the radial direction of the MWCNTs. These structural properties are attributed to the unique reaction environment including laminar flow and diffusion-controlled reaction.

  14. TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor facility. Final report, 1 July 1980--30 June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, B.C.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a final culmination of activities funded through the Department of Energy`s (DOE) University Reactor Sharing Program, Grant DE-FG02-80ER10273, during the period 1 July 1980 through 30 June 1995. Progress reports have been periodically issued to the DOE, namely the Reactor Facility Annual Reports C00-2082/2219-7 through C00-2082/10723-21, which are contained as an appendix to this report. Due to the extent of time covered by this grant, summary tables are presented. Table 1 lists the fiscal year financial obligations of the grant. As listed in the original grant proposals, the DOE grant financed 70% of project costs, namely the total amount spent of these projects minus materials costs and technical support. Thus the bulk of funds was spent directly on reactor operations. With the exception of a few years, spending was in excess of the grant amount. As shown in Tables 2 and 3, the Reactor Sharing grant funded a immense number of research projects in nuclear engineering, geology, animal science, chemistry, anthropology, veterinary medicine, and many other fields. A list of these users is provided. Out of the average 3000 visitors per year, some groups participated in classes involving the reactor such as Boy Scout Merit Badge classes, teacher`s workshops, and summer internships. A large number of these projects met the requirements for the Reactor Sharing grant, but were funded by the University instead.

  15. Hybrid reactor based on combined cavitation and ozonation: from concept to practical reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, P R; Mededovic-Thagard, S; McGuire, D; Chapas, G; Blackmon, J; Cathey, R

    2014-03-01

    The present work gives an in depth discussion related to the development of a hybrid advanced oxidation reactor, which can be effectively used for the treatment of various types of water. The reactor is based on the principle of intensifying degradation/disinfection using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation, acoustic cavitation, ozone injection and electrochemical oxidation/precipitation. Theoretical studies have been presented to highlight the uniform distribution of the cavitational activity and enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals in the cavitation zone, as well as higher turbulence in the main reactor zone. The combination of these different oxidation technologies have been shown to result in enhanced water treatment ability, which can be attributed to the enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals, enhanced contact of ozone and contaminants, and the elimination of mass transfer resistances during electrochemical oxidation/precipitation. Compared to the use of individual approaches, the hybrid reactor is expected to intensify the treatment process by 5-20 times, depending on the application in question, which can be confirmed based on the literature illustrations. Also, the use of Ozonix® has been successfully proven while processing recycled fluids at commercial sites on over 750 oil and natural gas wells during hydraulic operations around the United States. The superiority of the hybrid process over conventional chemical treatments in terms of bacteria and scale reduction as well as increased water flowability and better chemical compatibility, which is a key requirement for oil and gas applications, has been established. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Final qualification of an industrial wide range neutron instrumentation in the Osiris MTR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbot, L.; Normand, S. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteur et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Pasdeloup, P. [AREVA TA, Controle Commande and Mesures, F-13762 Les Milles (France); Lescop, B. [CEA, INSTN, UEIN, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    This work deals with the final qualification of the IRINA in-core neutron flux measurement system in the MTR Osiris reactor. A specific irradiation device has been set up to validate the last changes in the complete system (electronic, transmitting cable and monitor). Experimental results show the IRINA measurement system meet entirely the in-core reactor conditions requirements: a thermal neutron flux from 10{sup 7} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} up to 10{sup 14} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} and a temperature of 300 C degrees during a minimum operating time of 1000 hours. (authors)

  17. Degradation of Benzene by Using a Silent-Packed Bed Hybrid Discharge Plasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2012-02-01

    In this work, a novel gas phase silent-packed bed hybrid discharge plasma reactor has been proposed, and its ability to control a simulative gas stream containing 240 ppm benzene is experimentally investigated. In order to optimize the geometry of the reactor, the benzene conversion rate and energy yield (EY) were compared for various inner electrode diameters and quartz tube shapes and sizes. In addition, benzene removal efficiency in different discharge regions was qualitatively analyzed and the gas parameter (space velocity) was systematically studied. It has been found that silent-packed bed hybrid discharge plasma reactor can effectively decompose benzene. Benzene removal proved to achieve an optimum value of 60% with a characteristic energy density of 255 J/L in this paper with a 6 mm bolt high-voltage electrode and a 13 mm quartz tube. The optimal space velocity was 188.1 h-1, which resulted in moderate energy yield and removal efficiency. Reaction by-products such as hydroquinone, heptanoic acid, 4-nitrocatechol, phenol and 4-phenoxy-phenol were identified by mean of GC-MS. In addition, based on these organic by-products, a benzene destruction pathway was proposed.

  18. Advanced 3D Characterization and Reconstruction of Reactor Materials FY16 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromm, Bradley [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hauch, Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A coordinated effort to link advanced materials characterization methods and computational modeling approaches is critical to future success for understanding and predicting the behavior of reactor materials that operate at extreme conditions. The difficulty and expense of working with nuclear materials have inhibited the use of modern characterization techniques on this class of materials. Likewise, mesoscale simulation efforts have been impeded due to insufficient experimental data necessary for initialization and validation of the computer models. The objective of this research is to develop methods to integrate advanced materials characterization techniques developed for reactor materials with state-of-the-art mesoscale modeling and simulation tools. Research to develop broad-ion beam sample preparation, high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction, and digital microstructure reconstruction techniques; and methods for integration of these techniques into mesoscale modeling tools are detailed. Results for both irradiated and un-irradiated reactor materials are presented for FY14 - FY16 and final remarks are provided.

  19. Hybrid reactors: recent progress of a demonstration pilot; Reacteurs hybrides: avancees recentes pour un demonstrateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billebaud, Annick [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie IN2P3-CNRS/UJF/INPG, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2006-12-15

    Accelerator driven sub-critical reactors are subject of many research programmes since more than ten years, with the aim of testing the feasibility of the concept as well as their efficiency as a transmutation tool. Several key points like the accelerator, the spallation target, or neutronics in a subcritical medium were investigated extensively these last years, allowing for technological choices and the design of a low power European demonstration ADS (a few tens of MWth). Programmes dedicated to subcritical reactor piloting proposed a monitoring procedure to be validated in forthcoming experiments. Accelerator R and D provided the design of a LINAC for an ADS and research work on accelerator reliability is going on. A spallation target was operated at PSI and the design of a windowless target is in progress. All this research work converges to the design of a European demonstration ADS, the ETD/XT-ADS, which could be the Belgian MYRRHA project. (author)

  20. HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE FLOWSHEETS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M.

    2011-07-06

    Two hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle process flowsheets intended for use with high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are presented. The flowsheets were developed for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, and couple a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer for the SO2-depolarized electrolysis step with a silicon carbide bayonet reactor for the high-temperature decomposition step. One presumes an HTGR reactor outlet temperature (ROT) of 950 C, the other 750 C. Performance was improved (over earlier flowsheets) by assuming that use of a more acid-tolerant PEM, like acid-doped poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (PBI), instead of Nafion{reg_sign}, would allow higher anolyte acid concentrations. Lower ROT was accommodated by adding a direct contact exchange/quench column upstream from the bayonet reactor and dropping the decomposition pressure. Aspen Plus was used to develop material and energy balances. A net thermal efficiency of 44.0% to 47.6%, higher heating value basis is projected for the 950 C case, dropping to 39.9% for the 750 C case.

  1. Scoping and sensitivity analyses for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sink, D.A.; Gibson, G.

    1979-03-01

    The results of an extensive set of parametric studies are presented which provide analytical data of the effects of various tokamak parameters on the performance and cost of the DTHR (Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor). The studies were centered on a point design which is described in detail. Variations in the device size, neutron wall loading, and plasma aspect ratio are presented, and the effects on direct hardware costs, fissile fuel production (breeding), fusion power production, electrical power consumption, and thermal power production are shown graphically. The studies considered both ignition and beam-driven operations of DTHR and yielded results based on two empirical scaling laws presently used in reactor studies. Sensitivity studies were also made for variations in the following key parameters: the plasma elongation, the minor radius, the TF coil peak field, the neutral beam injection power, and the Z/sub eff/ of the plasma.

  2. Ion cyclotron and lower hybrid arrays applicable to current drive in fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, G.; Helou, W.; Goniche, M.; Hillaret, J.; Ragona, R.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents concepts for Ion Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid Current Drive arrays applicable to fusion reactors and based on periodically loaded line power division. It is shown that, in large arrays, such as the ones proposed for fusion reactor applications, these schemes can offer, in principle, a number of practical advantages, compared with currently adopted ones, such as in-blanket operation at significantly reduced power density, lay out suitable for water cooling, single ended or balanced power feed, simple and load independent impedance matching In addition, a remote and accurate real time measurement of the complex impedance of all array elements as well as detection, location, and measurement of the complex admittance of a single arc occurring anywhere in the structure is possible.

  3. Design and part-load performance of a hybrid system based on a solid oxide fuel cell reactor and a micro gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamagna, P.; Magistri, L.; Massardo, A. F.

    This paper addresses the design and off-design analysis of a hybrid system (HS) based on the coupling of a recuperated micro gas turbine (MGT) with a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) reactor. The SOFC reactor model is presented and discussed, taking into account the influence of the reactor lay-out, the current density, the air utilisation factor, the cell operating temperature, etc. The SOFC design and off-design performance is presented and discussed; the design and off-design models of a recuperated micro-gas turbine are also presented. The operating line, the influence of the micro gas turbine "variable speed" control, and the efficiency behaviour at part load are analysed in depth. Finally, the model of the hybrid system obtained by coupling the MGT and the SOFC reactor, considering the compatibility (technological constraints) of the two systems, is presented. The model allows the evaluation of the design and off-design behaviour of the hybrid system, particularly when the MGT variable speed control system is considered. The thermal efficiency of the hybrid system, taking into account its size (250/300 kW e), is noteworthy: higher than 60% at design point, and also very high at part load conditions. Such a result is mainly due to the simultaneous positive influence of SOFC off-design behaviour and MGT variable speed control. Moreover, it is possible to recover the waste heat from the gas at the MGT recuperator outlet ( Tgas is about 250°C) for cogeneration purposes.

  4. The new hybrid thermal neutron facility at TAPIRO reactor for BNCT radiobiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, J; Rosi, G; Agosteo, S

    2007-01-01

    A new thermal neutron irradiation facility, devoted to carry out both dosimetric and radiobiological studies on boron carriers, which are being developed in the framework of INFN BNCT project, has been installed at the ENEA Casaccia TAPIRO research fast reactor. The thermal column, based on an original, hybrid, neutron spectrum shifter configuration, has been recently become operative. In spite of its low power (5 kW), the new facility is able to provide a high thermal neutron flux level, uniformly distributed inside the irradiation cavity, with a quite low gamma background. The main features and preliminary benchmark measurements of the Beam-shaping assembly are here presented and discussed.

  5. Phosphorus removal by a fixed-bed hybrid polymer nanocomposite biofilm reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, M.; A.L. Rodrigues; Ribeiro, D.C.; Nogueira, R.; Machado, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication is one of the main challenges regarding the ecological quality of surface waters, phosphorus bioavailability being its main driver. In this context, a novel hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPN-Pr) biofilm reactor aimed at integrated chemical phosphorus adsorption and biological removal was conceived. The assays pointed to removal of 1.2 mg P/g of reactive phosphorus and 1.01 mg P/g of total phosphorus under steady-state conditions. A mathematical adsorption–biological model was a...

  6. Phosphorus removal by a fixed-bed hybrid polymer nanocomposite biofilm reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, M.; Rodrigues,A.L.; Ribeiro, D. C.; Nogueira, R.; Machado, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication is one of the main challenges regarding the ecological quality of surface waters, phosphorus bioavailability being its main driver. In this context, a novel hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPN-Pr) biofilm reactor aimed at integrated chemical phosphorus adsorption and biological removal was conceived. The assays pointed to removal of 1.2 mg P/g of reactive phosphorus and 1.01 mg P/g of total phosphorus under steady-state conditions. A mathematical adsorption–biological model was a...

  7. Cost estimates of operating onsite spent fuel pools after final reactor shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rod, S R

    1991-08-01

    This report presents estimates of the annual costs of operating spent fuel pools at nuclear power stations after the final shutdown of one or more onsite reactors. Its purpose is to provide basic spent fuel storage cost information for use in evaluating DOE's reference nuclear waste management system, as well as alternate systems. The basic model of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) used in this study was based on General Electric Corporation's Morris Operation and was modified to reflect mean storage capabilities at an unspecified, or generic,'' US reactor site. Cost data for the model came from several sources, including both operating and shutdown nuclear power stations and existing ISFSIs. Duke Power Company has estimated ISFSI costs based on existing spent fuel storage costs at its nuclear power stations. Similarly, nuclear material handling facilities such as the Morris Operation, the West Valley Demonstration Project, and the retired Humbolt Bay nuclear power station have compiled spent fuel storage cost data based on years of operating experience. Consideration was given to the following factors that would cause operating costs to vary among pools: (1) The number of spent fuel pools at a given reactor site; (2) the number of operating and shutdown reactors onsite; (3) geographic location; and (4) pool storage capacity. 10 ref., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Catalysis with Soluble Hybrids of Highly Branched Macromolecules with Palladium Nanoparticles in a Continuously Operated Membrane Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The continuous recovery and recycling of soluble metal nanoparticles by means of ultrafiltration is described, employing hybrids of palladium nanoparticles with highly branched amphiphilic polyglycerol as a catalyst for cyclohexene hydrogenation as a model reaction. In a continuously operated membrane reactor a productivity of 29000 TO over 30 exchanged reactor volumes was observed for nanoparticles of 2.2 nm size, with a maximum rate of 1200 TO h-1. Catalysis by soluble metal complexes can b...

  9. Numerical Research on Hybrid Fuel Locking Device for Upward Flow Core-Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Yoo, Yeon-Sik; Ryu, Jeong-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The assembly must be held firmly against these forces, but cannot be permanently attached to the support stand because periodic refueling of the reactor requires removal or relocation of each assembly. There are so many kinds of fuel locking device, but they are operated manually. As a part of a new project, we have investigated a hybrid fuel locking device (HFLD) for research reactor which is operated automatically. Prior method of holding down the fuel assembly includes a hybrid zero electromagnet consisting of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet. The role of an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by controlling the coil current. At this time, a HFLD is an unlocking state. On the contrary, it is locking state that only a permanent magnet works when the power of an electromagnet is off. The results of a FEM in this work lead to the following conclusions: (1) It is possible that an electromagnet is converged to zero power for overcoming the lifting power of a permanent magnet by remote controlling the coil current. (2) At this time, it is able to detect remotely using proximity sensor whether a HFLD is latched or not.

  10. Study of nitrogen and organics removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using hybrid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Tran-Hung; Chung, Yun-Chul; Ahn, Dae-Hee

    2003-03-01

    The removal of nitrogen and organics in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using hybrid media were investigated in this work. The hybrid media was made by the use of polyurethane foam (PU) cubes and powdered activated carbon (PAC). The function of activated carbon of hybrid media was to offer a suitable active site, which was able to absorb organic substances and ammonia, as well as that of PU was to provide an appropriated surface onto which biomass could be attached and grown. A laboratory-scale moving-bed sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for investigating the efficiency of hybrid media. The removal of nitrogen and organics for synthetic wastewater (COD; 490-1,627 mg/L, NH4(+)-N; 180-210 mg/L) were evaluated at different COD/N ratio and different anoxic phase conditions, respectively. The system was operated with the organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.1, 0.16, 0.24, and 0.28 kg COD/m3 day, respectively. Each mode based on OLR was divided as the periods of 45 days of operation time, except for third mode that was operated during 30 days. After acclimatization period, effluent total COD concentrations slightly decreased and the removal efficiency of organics increased to about 90% (COD; 70 mg/L) after 60 days and achieved 98% (COD; 30 mg/L) at the end of experiments. The organics reduction seemed to be less affected by shock loading since high organic loads did not affect the removal efficiency. The NIH4(+)-N concentrations in effluent showed almost lower than 1 mg/L and NO3(-)-N concentrations were high (150 mg/L) during a very low C/N ratio (C/N=2). Over 90% of T-N removal efficiency (T-N; 16 mg/L) was obtained during the last 20 days of the operation after controlling the COD/N ratio (C/N=7). The mixing condition and COD/N ratio at anoxic phase were determined as a main operating factors. In future, the optimal operating conditions of SBR system with hybrid media will be investigated from the view of maintaining a sufficient biomass to the hybrid media under

  11. Acclimatization process of tofu wastewater on hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor using polyvinyl chloride rings as a growth medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanqoritha, Nyimas; Turmuzi, Muhammad; Derlini

    2017-05-01

    The appropriate process to resolve sewage contamination which have a high organic using anaerobic technology. Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor is one of the anaerobic process which consists of a suspended growth media and attached growth media. The reactor has the ability to work at high load rate, sludge produced easily settles, high biomass and the separation of gas, solid and liquid excelent. The purpose of research is to study the acclimatization process in the reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket using a polyvinl chloride ring as the attached growth medium. Reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket use a working volume of 8.6 L. The operation consisting of 3 L suspended reactor and 5.6 L attached reactor. Acclimatization is conducted by providing the substrate from the smallest concentration of COD up to a concentration that will be processed. During the 50th day, acclimatization process assumed the bacteria begin to work, indicated by the dissolved COD and VSS decrease and biogas production. Due to the wastewater containing the high of protein in consequence operational parameters should be controlled and some precautions should be taken to prevent process partially or totally inhibited.

  12. SOFC/TEG hybrid mCHP system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-15

    The starting point for this project have been the challenge has been to develop a cost effective solution with long term stability. This is where a focused effort in a strong consortium covering material research, module development and manufacture as well as device design and optimization can make a real difference. In March 2010 the SOFTEG phase II project was initiated and a cooperation organization was established to implement the project as a development and demonstration project involving the staff from all project partners. The project is now completed with excellent and documented outcome. The final results by Alpcon have been demonstration as a TEG-based mCHP system calls CHP Dual Engine Power System, which will be applicable as both a standalone TEG-CHP hybrid system, but also as an auxiliary power unit and power booster for the SOFC system. However the SOFC system cannot cover the household's heat demand alone so it is necessary to combine a SOFC system together with a water heater/boiler system to cover the peak heat demand of a residential house or a complex building. The SOFTEG project partners achieved significant results that mainly can be outlined as following: 1) University of Aarhus has improved the thermal stability of ZnSb by optimizing the concentration of Nano composite material. 2) The grain size and its influence on the sintering process by spark plasma method are investigated by Aarhus University, but further work seems to be necessary. 3) The TE material is going to commercialization by Aarhus University. 4) Aalborg University has prepared simulation tools for complex thermoelectric simulation in non-steady state condition. 5) The new type DCDC interleaved converter using the MPPT system for optimal power tracing is designed, build and tested by Aalborg University in cooperation with Alpcon. This task is included overall system design, control system implementation and power electronic control design. 6) Full scale practical

  13. The final status of the decommissioning of research reactors in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. W.; Hong, S. B.; Park, J. H.; Chung, U. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A decommissioning project for the Korean Research Reactors (KRR-1 and 2) was started in 1997 and had been carried out with the goal of completion being by the end of 2008. All the facilities were dismantled and the building surfaces decontaminated. The radioactive waste was packed into 200 liter drums and 4 m{sup 3} containers and temporarily stored on site until their final disposal at the national repository facility. Some of the releasable waste was freely released and utilized for the non-nuclear industries. The assessment of the residual radioactivity was carried out according to Multi Agency Radiation Site Survey and Investigation Manual guidance, and accordingly, the safety of the site release was verified. The site and the buildings will be cleared for a reuse for non nuclear purposes after a review of the assessment. In this paper, the final status of the decommissioning of research reactors in Korea including dismantlement processes, waste management and a final assessment for unrestricted use of the site and buildings for the final goal of the decommissioning project that will be described. (Author)

  14. Analysis of Postulated Core Meltdown of an SRP Reactor - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, W.S.; Brown, R.J.

    1970-10-01

    An analysis was made to determine the consequences of a postulated accident in which the core of a Savannah River Plant reactor melts down following the loss of coolant. The study was made to determine (1) the potential damage to the reactor building that could impair its integrity for confining activity and (2) the need for additional facilities to prevent the activity confinement system from being overheated by the decay heat in the debris. A preliminary report on this analysis was issued previously. The sequence of events during and following the loss of coolant has now been studied in more detail, and a computer program has been written and used to investigate transient heating effects. This is the final report of the analysis and presents the conclusions.

  15. Flow-induced vibration for light water reactors. Final progress report, July 1981-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, M.R.

    1981-11-01

    Flow-Induced Vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, and general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and through the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program is managed by the General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department and has three major contributors: General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department (NPSED), General Electric Corporate Research and Development (CR and D) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The program commenced December 1, 1976. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the final period from July 1981 to September 1981. This is the last quarterly progress report to be issued for this program.

  16. Final Technical Report for Terabit-scale hybrid networking project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, Malathi [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-12-12

    This report describes our accomplishments and activities for the project titled Terabit-Scale Hybrid Networking. The key accomplishment is that we developed, tested and deployed an Alpha Flow Characterization System (AFCS) in ESnet. It is being run in production mode since Sept. 2015. Also, a new QoS class was added to ESnet5 to support alpha flows.

  17. Hybrid ventilation systems. Principles, design and calculation, case studies. Final report; Hybride Lueftungssysteme. Prinzipien, Planung und Berechnung, Beispiele. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, R.; Roloff, J. [and others

    2003-09-01

    This report contains the most important information achieved within the IEA-ECBCS project Annex 35 of the national and international level. The first chapters are a translation of the main parts of the international final report 'Principles of Hybrid Ventilation' (ed. Per Heiselberg). The international report including a CD-ROM is enclosed in this report. Based on a definition of hybrid ventilation it is motivated why to deal with hybrid ventilation. The explanations are underlined by precise data of the investigated case studies. The variety of solutions with hybrid ventilation is large, but there are three main principles, natural and mechanical ventilation, fan-assisted natural ventilation, stack- and wind-assisted mechanical ventilation. A hybrid ventilation systems is most suitable to implement if this idea is taken into account in the early design phases. Therefore decision tools are compiled to make it clear whether a hybrid ventilation concept could be successful under the given conditions or not. Moreover, important aspects of control strategies are summarized, which are crucial for an optimal operation of a hybrid ventilation system. If there is an option for installing a hybrid ventilation system it is necessary to carry out calculations and evaluations during the design phases. The available tools are presented and classified. Beside the substantial data of the case studies of the international project partners the national studies are presented in detail. These are the investigation of an existing hybrid ventilation system in the school building 'Bertolt-Brecht-Gymnasium', Dresden and the development of an innovative hybrid ventilation system at the Fraunhofer-Institute of Building Physics in Holzkirchen. (orig.)

  18. Sludge granulation in an UASB-moving bed biofilm hybrid reactor for efficient organic matter removal and nitrogen removal in biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M; Rao, Surampalli

    2017-03-15

    A hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-moving bed biofilm (MBB) and rope bed biofilm (RBB) reactor was designed for treatment of sewage. Possibility of enhancing granulation in an UASB reactor using moving media to improve sludge retention was explored while treating low-strength wastewater. The presence of moving media in the top portion of the UASB reactor allowed a high solid retention time even at very short hydraulic retention times and helped in maintaining selection pressure in the sludge bed to promote formation of different sized sludge granules with an average settling velocity of 67 m/h. These granules were also found to contain plenty of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) such as 58 mg of polysaccharides (PS) per gram of volatile suspended solids (VSS) and protein (PN) content of 37 mg/g VSS. Enriched sludge of nitrogen-removing bacteria forming a porous biofilm on the media in RBB was also observed in a concentration of around 894 g/m(2). The nitrogen removing sludge also had a high EPS content of around 22 mg PS/g VSS and 28 mg PN/g VSS. This hybrid UASB-MBB-RBB reactor with enhanced anaerobic granular sludge treating both carbonaceous and nitrogenous matter may be a sustainable solution for decentralized sewage treatment.

  19. Study of thorium-uranium based molten salt blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jing, E-mail: zhao_jing@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang Yongwei; Zhou Zhiwei [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A molten salt blanket has been designed for the fusion-fission hybrid reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of Thorium in the molten salt fuels has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molten salt was consisted of F-Li-Be and with the thickness of 40 cm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of {sup 6}Li was chosen to be the natural enrichment ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result shows that TBR is greater than 1, M is about 15-16. - Abstract: Not only solid fuels, but also liquid fuels can be used for the fusion-fission symbiotic reactor blanket. The operational record of the molten salt reactor with F-Li-Be was very successful, so the F-Li-Be blanket was chosen for research. The molten salt has several features which are suited for the fusion-fission applications. The fuel material uranium and thorium were dissolved in the F-Li-Be molten salt. A combined program, COUPLE, was used for neutronics analysis of the molten salt blanket. Several cases have been calculated and compared. Not only the influence of the different fuels have been studied, but also the thickness of the molten salt, and the concentration of the {sup 6}Li in the molten salt. Preliminary studies indicate that when thorium-uranium-plutonium fuels were added into a F-Li-Be molten salt blanket and with a component of 71% LiF-2% BeF{sub 2}-13.5% ThF{sub 4}-8.5% UF{sub 4}-5% PuF{sub 3}, and also with the molten salt thickness of 40 cm and natural concentration of {sup 6}Li, the appropriate blanket energy multiplication factor and TBR can be obtained. The result shows that thorium-uranium molten salt can be used in the blanket of a fusion-fission symbiotic reactor. The research on the molten salt blanket must be valuable for the design of fusion-fission symbiotic reactor.

  20. Novel Gas-liquid Hybrid Discharge Reactor for 4-CP Containing Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve 4-CP degradation efficiency, a novel gas-liquid hybrid discharge (HD) reactor was developed. Removal of 4-CP with spark-spark discharge (SSD) was higher than that with spark-corona discharge (SCD). Amount of H2O2 and O3 produced with SSD were larger than that with SCD. ·OH formation was increased by the combination of H2O2 and O3.The contribution of ·OH (38 % formed by O3 conversion) oxidation on removal of 4-CP accounted for nearly 60 %. The other effects of ultraviolet radiation, intense shock waves and pyrolysis,played partial roles in about 40 % of removal rate.

  1. Start-up of membrane bioreactor and hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor: kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; Poyatos, J M

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBR) system was studied as an alternative solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. This paper shows the results obtained from three laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants working in parallel in the start-up and steady states. The first wastewater treatment plant was a MBR, the second one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system containing carriers both in anoxic and aerobic zones of the bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBRa), and the last one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system which contained carriers only in the aerobic zone (hybrid MBBR-MBRb). The reactors operated with a hydraulic retention time of 30.40 h. A kinetic study for characterizing heterotrophic biomass was carried out and organic matter and nutrients removals were evaluated. The heterotrophic biomass of the hybrid MBBR-MBRb showed the best kinetic performance in the steady state, with yield coefficient for heterotrophic biomass=0.30246 mg volatile suspended solids per mg chemical oxygen demand, maximum specific growth rate for heterotrophic biomass=0.00308 h(-1) and half-saturation coefficient for organic matter=3.54908 mg O2 L(-1). The removal of organic matter was supported by the kinetic study of heterotrophic biomass.

  2. Novel Reactor Relevant RF Actuator Schemes for the Lower Hybrid and the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, Paul

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a fresh physics perspective on the onerous problem of coupling and successfully utilizing ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF) actuators in the harsh environment of a nuclear fusion reactor. The ICRF and LH launchers are essentially first wall components in a fusion reactor and as such will be subjected to high heat fluxes. The high field side (HFS) of the plasma offers a region of reduced heat flux together with a quiescent scrape off layer (SOL). Placement of the ICRF and LHRF launchers on the tokamak HFS also offers distinct physics advantages: The higher toroidal magnetic field makes it possible to couple faster phase velocity LH waves that can penetrate farther into the plasma core and be absorbed by higher energy electrons, thereby increasing the current drive efficiency. In addition, re-location of the LH launcher off the mid-plane (i.e., poloidal ``steering'') allows further control of the deposition location. Also ICRF waves coupled from the HFS couple strongly to mode converted ion Bernstein waves and ion cyclotron waves waves as the minority density is increased, thus opening the possibility of using this scheme for flow drive and pressure control. Finally the quiescent nature of the HFS scrape off layer should minimize the effects of RF wave scattering from density fluctuations. Ray tracing / Fokker Planck simulations will be presented for LHRF applications in devices such as the proposed Advanced Divertor Experiment (ADX) and extending to ITER and beyond. Full-wave simulations will also be presented which demonstrate the possible combinations of electron and ion heating via ICRF mode conversion. Work supported by the US DoE under Contract Numbers DE-FC02-01ER54648 and DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  3. Predictive functional control of temperature in a pharmaceutical hybrid nonlinear batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štampar Simon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, in times of recession, we are forced by competitiveness and the optimization of production to lower the costs of the temperature control in pharmaceutical batch reactors and increase the quantity and quality of the produced pharmaceutical product (active pharmaceutical substances. Therefore, a control algorithm is needed which provides us rapid and precise temperature control. This paper deals with the development of a control algorithm, where two predictive functional controllers are connected in a cascade for heating and cooling the content of the hybrid batch reactor. The algorithm has to be designed to cope with the constraints and the mixed discrete and continuous nature of the process of heating and cooling. The main goal of the control law is to achieve rapid and exact tracking of the reference temperature, good disturbance rejection and, in particular, a small number of heating and cooling medium switchings. The simulation results of the proposed algorithm give us much better performance compared to a conventional cascade PI algorithm.

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  5. NCSU Reactor Sharing Program. Final technical report, [September 1, 1980--August 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.B.

    1993-11-10

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities.

  6. Strengthening the fission reactor nuclear science and engineering program at UCLA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.

    1997-06-23

    This is the final report on DOE Award No. DE-FG03-92ER75838 A000, a three year matching grant program with Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) to support strengthening of the fission reactor nuclear science and engineering program at UCLA. The program began on September 30, 1992. The program has enabled UCLA to use its strong existing background to train students in technological problems which simultaneously are of interest to the industry and of specific interest to PG and E. The program included undergraduate scholarships, graduate traineeships and distinguished lecturers. Four topics were selected for research the first year, with the benefit of active collaboration with personnel from PG and E. These topics remained the same during the second year of this program. During the third year, two topics ended with the departure o the students involved (reflux cooling in a PWR during a shutdown and erosion/corrosion of carbon steel piping). Two new topics (long-term risk and fuel relocation within the reactor vessel) were added; hence, the topics during the third year award were the following: reflux condensation and the effect of non-condensable gases; erosion/corrosion of carbon steel piping; use of artificial intelligence in severe accident diagnosis for PWRs (diagnosis of plant status during a PWR station blackout scenario); the influence on risk of organization and management quality; considerations of long term risk from the disposal of hazardous wastes; and a probabilistic treatment of fuel motion and fuel relocation within the reactor vessel during a severe core damage accident.

  7. Final restoration of implants with a hybrid ceramic superstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbad, Andreas

    The use of materials with elastic properties for the fabrication of dental implant superstructures seems to be a promising way to reduce the functional occlusal forces on implants. Vita Enamic (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen), a hybrid ceramic material for CAD/CAM technology, is available in a special form that can be relatively easily combined with titanium (Ti) base connectors for the fabrication of abutment crowns and mesostructures. Thus, an easily manageable method is available for reducing peak loads on dental implant fixtures. Representative cases are presented to demonstrate the clinical workflows for a single- element solution (Ti base) and two-element solution (Ti base with mesostructure) for implant-supported crowns.

  8. New hybrid 1971 energy intensities. Final report, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, P S; Herendeen, R A; Milke, T

    1978-12-01

    The Energy Research Group at the University of Illinois has computed a set of 1971 hybrid energy intensities from 1971 direct energy-use data and 1967 economic input/output information from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). Energy intensities represent the total energy used through the economy to produce one unit of output from each of the 90 sectors defined by BEA as spanning the U.S. economy in 1967. The program creating the intensities marks one of the few applications of the comprehensive National Energy Accounts data base. This data base contains, among other items, data on the consumption of over 100 fuel types by 154 consuming sectors in the U.S. economy. The energy-intensity program automatically aggregates the number of consuming sectors to 90 and the number of fuel types to 5: coal, crude oil and gas extraction (called crude), refined petroleum, electricity, and utility gas.

  9. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Associate Directorate for Advanced Reactors and License Renewal

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC`s ``Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants`` (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC`s preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant`s research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified.

  10. Final Report. Novel Behavior of Ferromagnet/Superconductor Hybrid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birge, Norman [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-09-26

    Final report for grant DE-FG02-06ER46341. This work has produced a most convincing experimental demonstration that spin-triplet supercurrent can appear in Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials, even when the superconducting electrodes are conventional, spin-singlet superconductors.

  11. Evaluation of zinc addition on fuel cladding corrosion at the Halden test reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, E.; Symons, W.J.; Bryhn-Integrigtsen, K.; Oberlaender, B.C.

    1996-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that addition of zinc to a PWR environment reduces the general corrosion rates of materials in the primary system and delays the initiation of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 600. In order to provide an early warning of any potential adverse effects on the fuel cladding, corrosion studies were initiated at the Halden test reactor. These tests were carried out in a PWR rig inserted in the Halden reactor core. The rig simulated thermal hydraulic and coolant conditions typical of a MR. It had two flow channels where the fuel rod segments were exposed to the coolant under irradiation flux. Selected pre-characterized rodlets with fresh and pre-irradiated standard and low-tin Zircaloy-4 material were irradiated for three cycles. First cycle lasted for 110 effective full power days (EFPDs), the second for 95 EFPDs and the last 62 EFPDs. The cladding corrosion behavior was monitored by initial, interim and final oxide thickness measurements by eddy current lift-off probe. Crud sampling was performed in both channels after cycle 1 and 2. Destructive post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of two rodlets, irradiated during cycle 1 and 2, have also been completed at the conclusion of the in-pile testing. This report presents the results on oxide thickness measurements, irradiation history and water chemistry data, and the PIE.

  12. Lead-cooled hybrid reactors and fuel regeneration for energy production and incineration evolution of physical parameters and induced radiotoxicity; Capacites des reacteurs hybrides au plomb pour la production d'energie et l'incineration avec multirecyclage des combustibles evolution des parametres physiques radiotoxicites induites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, S

    1999-07-01

    The concept of accelerator driven subcritical reactors (hybrid reactors), as re-launched in the beginning of the 1990's by C. Rubbia and C.D. Bowman, allows to open new paths in the management of radioactive wastes. This work treats, first, of the study of the neutron multiplication characteristics in a subcritical reactor core and shows the fundamental differences with critical systems and the advantages that follow. This study is based on the series of measurements performed at Cadarache (Muse experiment), the first results of which are presented. The subcritical property of an hybrid reactor makes this system very flexible and allows to foresee different uses, like the energy production or the incineration of wastes. The second part of this work deals with the Monte Carlo simulation of the capacities of fast spectrum and lead-cooled hybrid systems to produce energy by using different fuel cycles (uranium and thorium), and in the same time regenerating the fissile matter and keeping the reactivity up without any external intervention. Different types of fuel multi-recycles are considered. The results allow to quantify the advantages linked with the use of the thorium cycle, in particular in terms of radiotoxicity abatement. The study of the intermediate steps necessary to develop this reactor technology with the present day fuels (plutonium from thermal reactors and enriched uranium) proposes an efficient management of the actinides produced by today's reactors which are used as auxiliary fissile materials. Finally, the incineration of actinides at the end of the cycle (shutdown scenario) is considered and allows to describe the advantage of lead-cooled hybrid systems for the abatement of the radiotoxicity of an inventory at the end of cycle. (J.S.)

  13. Evaluation of a hybrid anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks as biofilm carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Mohamed Ali; Habouzit, Frédéric; Bernet, Nicolas; Jedidi, Naceur; Escudié, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Wine production processes generate large amount of both winery wastewater and solid wastes. Furthermore, working periods, volumes and pollution loads greatly vary over the year. Therefore, it is recommended to develop a low-cost treatment technology for the treatment of winery effluents taking into account the variation of the organic loading rate (OLR). Accordingly, we have investigated the sequential operation of an anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks (GSs) as biofilm carrier with an OLR ranging from 0.65 to 27 gCOD/L/d. The result showed that, during the start-up with wastewater influent, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate ranged from 83% to 93% and was about 91% at the end of the start-up period that lasted for 40 days. After 3 months of inactivity period of the reactor (no influent feeding), we have succeeded in restarting-up the reactor in only 15 days with a COD removal of 82% and a low concentration of volatile fatty acids (1 g/L), which confirms the robustness of the reactor. As a consequence, GSs can be used as an efficient carrier support, allowing a fast reactor start-up, while the biofilm conserves its activity during a non-feeding period. The proposed hybrid reactor thus permits to treat both winery effluents and GSs.

  14. Conceptual studies of toroidal field magnets for the tokamak (fusion) experimental power reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    This report presents the results of ''Conceptual Studies of Toroidal Field Magnets for the Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor'' performed for the Energy Research and Development Administration, Oak Ridge Operations. Two conceptual coil designs are developed. One design approach to produce a specified 8 Tesla maximum field uses a novel NbTi superconductor design cooled by pool-boiling liquid helium. For a highest practicable field design, a unique NbSn/sub 3/ conductor is used with forced-flow, single-phase liquid helium cooling to achieve a 12 Tesla peak field. Fabrication requirements are also developed for these approximately 7 meter horizontal bore by 11 meter vertical bore coils. Cryostat design approaches are analyzed and a hybrid cryostat approach selected. Structural analyses are performed for approaches to support in-plane and out-of-plane loads and a structural approach selected. In addition to the conceptual design studies, cost estimates and schedules are prepared for each of the design approaches, major uncertainties and recommendations for research and development identified, and test coil size for demonstration recommended.

  15. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Cellulose degradation, volatile fatty acid formation and biological sulphate removal operating and anaerobic hybrid reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available and sulphide rich effluent of the biological reactor in a 1:1 ratio, to increase the pH and to precipitate the metals as metalsulphides. The feed water entered FR at the top to get into contact with the grass cuttings. A recycle stream (360 ℓ.../d) was installed from the fermentation part of the reactor to the top of the reactor for mixing purposes. The effluent left FR at the bottom. (Figure 2). Reactor System and Biomass A 20 ℓ perspex one stage anaerobic hybrid reactor system operating at 37...

  16. Design of an anaerobic hybrid reactor for industrial wastewater treatment; Diseno de reactores hibridos anaerobios para el tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroa del Campo, S.; Lopetegui Garnika, J.; Almandoz Peraita, A.; Garcia de las Heras, J. L.

    2005-07-01

    The application of the European legislation has promoted different strategies aimed at minimizing the biological sludge production during wastewater treatment. Anaerobic biological treatment is the clearest choice from a technical and economical point of view regarding industrial wastewater. In this context, a semi-industrial anaerobic hybrid reactor has been developed as an alternative technology to other anaerobic systems well-established in the market for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater. The The results have demonstrated that it is an effective, robust and easy to operate system. The sludge production has been reduced below 0.12 kg VS/kg COD removed, for COD removal efficiencies above 95%. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. Hybrid Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor for the biodegradation of benzotriazoles and hydroxy-benzothiazole in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazioti, Aikaterini A; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Psoma, Aikaterini K; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Andersen, Henrik R

    2017-02-05

    A laboratory scale Hybrid Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (HMBBR) was used to study the removal of five benzotriazoles and one benzothiazole from municipal wastewater. The HMBBR system consisted of two serially connected fully aerated bioreactors that contained activated sludge (AS) and K3-biocarriers and a settling tank. The average removal of target compounds ranged between 41% (4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole; 4TTR) and 88% (2-hydroxybenzothiazole; OHBTH). Except for 4TTR, degradation mainly occurred in the first bioreactor. Calculation of biodegradation constants in batch experiments and application of a model for describing micropollutants removal in the examined system showed that AS is mainly involved in biodegradation of OHBTH, 1H-benzotriazole (BTR) and xylytriazole (XTR), carriers contribute significantly on 4TTR biodegradation, while both types of biomass participate on elimination of 5-chlorobenzotriazole (CBTR) and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (5TTR). Comparison of the HMBBR system with MBBR or AS systems from literature showed that the HMBBR system was more efficient for the biodegradation of the investigated chemicals. Biotransformation products of target compounds were identified using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with a quadrupole-time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometer (UHPLC-QToF-MS). Twenty two biotransformation products were tentatively identified, while retention time denoted the formation of more polar transformation products than the parent compounds.

  18. Development of Subspace-based Hybrid Monte Carlo-Deterministric Algorithms for Reactor Physics Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Zhang, Qiong [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2014-05-20

    The development of hybrid Monte-Carlo-Deterministic (MC-DT) approaches, taking place over the past few decades, have primarily focused on shielding and detection applications where the analysis requires a small number of responses, i.e. at the detector locations(s). This work further develops a recently introduced global variance reduction approach, denoted by the SUBSPACE approach is designed to allow the use of MC simulation, currently limited to benchmarking calculations, for routine engineering calculations. By way of demonstration, the SUBSPACE approach is applied to assembly level calculations used to generate the few-group homogenized cross-sections. These models are typically expensive and need to be executed in the order of 103 - 105 times to properly characterize the few-group cross-sections for downstream core-wide calculations. Applicability to k-eigenvalue core-wide models is also demonstrated in this work. Given the favorable results obtained in this work, we believe the applicability of the MC method for reactor analysis calculations could be realized in the near future.

  19. HYBRID SULFUR FLOWSHEETS USING PEM ELECTROLYSIS AND A BAYONET DECOMPOSITION REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M; William Summers, W

    2008-05-30

    A conceptual design is presented for a Hybrid Sulfur process for the production of hydrogen using a high-temperature nuclear heat source to split water. The process combines proton exchange membrane-based SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer technology being developed at Savannah River National Laboratory with silicon carbide bayonet decomposition reactor technology being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Both are part of the US DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The flowsheet otherwise uses only proven chemical process components. Electrolyzer product is concentrated from 50 wt% sulfuric acid to 75 wt% via recuperative vacuum distillation. Pinch analysis is used to predict the high-temperature heat requirement for sulfuric acid decomposition. An Aspen Plus{trademark} model of the flowsheet indicates 340.3 kJ high-temperature heat, 75.5 kJ low-temperature heat, 1.31 kJ low-pressure steam, and 120.9 kJ electric power are consumed per mole of H{sub 2} product, giving an LHV efficiency of 35.3% (41.7% HHV efficiency) if electric power is available at a conversion efficiency of 45%.

  20. Strategies for reactor safety: Preventing loss of coolant accidents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydell, B.O.Y. [RSA Technoligies, Vista (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This final report on the NKS/RAK-1.2 summarizes the main features of the PIFRAP PC-program and its intended implementation. Regardless of the preferred technical approach to LOCA frequency estimation, the analysis approach must include recognition of the following technical issues: (a) Degradation and failure mechanisms potentially affecting piping systems within the reactor coolant pressure boundary (RCPB) and the potential consequences; (b) In-service inspection practices and how they influence piping reliability; and (c) The service experience with piping systems. The report consists of six sections and one appendix. A Nordic perspective on LOCA and nuclear safety is given. It includes summaries of results from research in material sciences and current regulatory philosophies regarding piping reliability. A summary of the LOCA concept is applied in Nordic PSA studies. It includes a discussion on deterministic and probabilistic views on LOCA. The R and D on piping reliability by SKI and the PIFRAP model is summarized. Next, Section 6 presents conclusion and recommendations. Finally, Appendix A contains a list of abbreviations and acronyms, together with a glossary of technical terms. (EG) 16 refs.

  1. Job task and functional analysis of the Division of Reactor Projects, office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzinski, J.A.; Gilmore, W.; Hahn, H.A.

    1998-07-10

    A job task and functional analysis was recently completed for the positions that make up the regional Divisions of Reactor Projects. Among the conclusions of that analysis was a recommendation to clarify roles and responsibilities among site, regional, and headquarters personnel. As that analysis did not cover headquarters personnel, a similar analysis was undertaken of three headquarters positions within the Division of Reactor Projects: Licensing Assistants, Project Managers, and Project Directors. The goals of this analysis were to systematically evaluate the tasks performed by these headquarters personnel to determine job training requirements, to account for variations due to division/regional assignment or differences in several experience categories, and to determine how, and by which positions, certain functions are best performed. The results of this analysis include recommendations for training and for job design. Data to support this analysis was collected by a survey instrument and through several sets of focus group meetings with representatives from each position.

  2. 76 FR 17160 - Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs... Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-021 titled ``Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs... Nuclear Power Plants,'' March 2007, Standard Review Plan (SRP), Section 8.3.1 and Sections 9.5.4 through...

  3. Large-scale synthesis of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles using a multi-inlet vortex reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ronnie H; Chen, Kevin N H; Aryal, Santosh; Hu, Che-Ming J; Zhang, Kang; Zhang, Liangfang

    2012-10-02

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles combine the advantages of both polymeric and liposomal drug carriers and have shown great promise as a controlled drug delivery platform. Herein, we demonstrate that it is possible to adapt a multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR) for use in the large-scale synthesis of these hybrid nanoparticles. Several parameters, including formulation, polymer concentration, and flow rate, are systematically varied, and the effects of each on nanoparticle properties are studied. Particles fabricated from this process display characteristics that are on par with those made on the lab-scale such as small size, low polydispersity, and excellent stability in both PBS and serum. Using this approach, production rates of greater than 10 g/h can readily be achieved, demonstrating that use of the MIVR is a viable method of producing hybrid nanoparticles in clinically relevant quantities.

  4. Final report. U.S. Department of Energy University Reactor Sharing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, John A

    2003-01-21

    Activities supported at the MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory under the U.S. DOE University Reactor Sharing Program are reported for Grant DE FG02-95NE38121 (September 16, 1995 through May 31, 2002). These activities fell under four subcategories: support for research at thesis and post-doctoral levels, support for college-level laboratory exercises, support for reactor tours/lectures on nuclear energy, and support for science fair participants.

  5. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  6. Study on the safety and on international developments of small modular reactors (SMR). Final report; Studie zur Sicherheit und zu internationalen Entwicklungen von Small Modular Reactors (SMR). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Sebastian; Kruessenberg, Anne; Schaffrath, Andreas; Zipper, Reinhard

    2015-05-15

    This report documents the work and results of the project RS1521 Study of Safety and International Development of Small Modular Reactors (SMR). The aims of this study can be summarized as - setting-up of a sound overview on SMR, - identification of essential issues of reactor safety research and future R and D projects, - identification of needs for adaption of system codes of GRS used in reactor safety research. The sound overview consists of the descriptions of in total 69 SMR (Small and Medium Sized Rector) concepts (32 light water reactors (LWR), 22 liquid metal cooled reactors (LMR), 2 heavy water reactors, 9 gas cooled reactors (GCR) and 4 molten salt reactors (MSR)). It provides information about the core, the cooling circuits and the safety systems. The quality of the given specifications depends on their availability and public accessibility. Using the safety requirements for nuclear power plants and the fundamental safety functions, the safety relevant issues of the described SMR concepts were identified. The systems and measures used in the safety requirements were summarized in table form. Finally it was evaluated whether these systems and measures can be already simulated with the nuclear simulation chain of GRS and where further code development and validation is necessary. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: Many of the current SMR concepts are based on integral design. Here the main components like steam generators, intermediate heat exchangers or - in case of forced convection core cooling - main cooling pumps are located within the reactor pressure vessel. Most of the SMR fulfil highest safety standards and their safety concepts are mainly based on passive safety systems. The safety of theses reactors is achieved indefinitely without energy supply or additional measures of the operators. Since SMR's aim is not only to produce electricity but also couple them with chemical or physical process plants, the safety aspects of

  7. Magnetic Fustion Reactor Design Studies Program final report, 1 July 1986--30 September 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-09-30

    This report presents progress reported during the period, 7/1/86 - 9/30/86 for the Technical Support Services (TSS) for the Magnetic Fusion Reactor Design Studies Program. Tasks reported include: systems studies work plan, normalization of reactor design studies, interpretation of design study activities, research and development plan, conference support, and reports generated.

  8. Studies on the properties of hard-spectrum, actinide fissioning reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.B.; Prichard, A.W.; Schofield, P.E.; Robinson, A.H.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1980-01-01

    It is technically feasible to construct an operable (e.g., safe and stable) reactor to burn waste actinides rapidly. The heart of the concept is a driver core of EBR-II type, with a central radial target zone in which fuel elements, made entirely of waste actinides are exposed. This target fuel undergoes fission, as a result of which actinides are rapidly destroyed. Although the same result could be achieved in more conventionally designed LWR or LMFBR systems, the fast spectrum reactor does a much more efficient job, by virtue of the fact that in both LWR and LMFBR reactors, actinide fission is preceded by several captures before a fissile nuclide is formed. In the fast spectrum reactor that is called ABR (actinide burning reactor), these neutron captures are short-circuited.

  9. Development of ceramic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.L.; Abraham, I.C.; Blum, Y.; Gottschlich, D.E.; Hirschon, A.; Way, J.D.; Collins, J.

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop high temperature, high pressure catalytic ceramic membrane reactors and to demonstrate the feasibility of using these membrane reactors to control gaseous contaminants (hydrogen sulfide and ammonia) in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. Our strategy was to first develop catalysts and membranes suitable for the IGCC application and then combine these two components as a complete membrane reactor system. We also developed a computer model of the membrane reactor and used it, along with experimental data, to perform an economic analysis of the IGCC application. Our results have demonstrated the concept of using a membrane reactor to remove trace contaminants from an IGCC process. Experiments showed that NH{sub 3} decomposition efficiencies of 95% can be achieved. Our economic evaluation predicts ammonia decomposition costs of less than 1% of the total cost of electricity; improved membranes would give even higher conversions and lower costs.

  10. Initial and final fruit set in some plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids under different pollination types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glišić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of two-year study (2009-2010 of initial and final fruit set in promising plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids developed at Fruit Research Institute - Čačak, under different pollination conditions. The following hybrids were studied: 38/62/70 (‘Hall’ x ‘California Blue’, 32/21/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’, IV/63/81 (‘Large Sugar Prune’ x ‘Scoldus’, 22/17/87 (‘Čačanska Najbolja’ x ‘Zh'lta Butilcovidna’, 29/29/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’ and 34/41/87 (‘Valjevka’ x ‘Čačanska Lepotica’. Each of the hybrids was studied both under self- pollination and open pollination. In vitro pollen germination was also performed as well as characteristics of flowering phenophase and flowering abundance. Generally, the results suggest lower flowering abundance in the second year of the study. Pollen germination ranged from averagely 25.31% (29/29/87 to 40.01% (38/62/70. With averagely 31.59% final fruit set under self-pollination and 29.38% under open pollination variants, respectively, hybrid 34/41/87 gave the best results. The lowest performance was observed in hybrid 32/21/87 with 1.61% and 7.69% final fruit set under self- and open pollination variants, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31064

  11. Transmutation performance analysis on coolant options in a hybrid reactor system design for high level waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong-Hee; Siddique, Muhammad Tariq; Kim, Myung Hyun, E-mail: mhkim@khu.ac.kr

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Waste transmutation performance was compared and analyzed for seven different coolant options. • Reactions of fission and capture showed big differences depending on coolant options. • Moderation effect significantly affects on energy multiplication, tritium breeding and waste transmutation. • Reduction of radio-toxicities of TRUs showed different trend to coolant choice from performance of waste transmutation. - Abstract: A fusion–fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) is one of the most attractive candidates for high level waste transmutation. The selection of coolant affects the transmutation performance of a FFHR. LiPb coolant, as a conventional coolant for a FFHR, has problems such as reduction in neutron economic and magneto-hydro dynamics (MHD) pressure drop. Therefore, in this work, transmutation performance is evaluated and compared for various coolant options such as LiPb, H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, Na, PbBi, LiF-BeF{sub 2} and NaF-BeF{sub 2} applicable to a hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT). Design parameters measuring performance of a hybrid reactor were evaluated by MCNPX. They are k{sub eff}, energy multiplication factor, neutron absorption ratio, tritium breeding ratio, waste transmutation ratio, support ratio and radiotoxicity reduction. Compared to LiPb, H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O are not suitable for waste transmutation because of neutron moderation effect. Waste transmutation performances with Na and PbBi are similar to each other and not different much from LiPb. Even though molten salt such as LiF-BeF{sub 2} and NaF-BeF{sub 2} is good for avoiding MHD pressure drop problem, waste transmutation performance is dropped compared with LiPb.

  12. Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Evaluations for Advanced Nuclear Fuel - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Anderson; James Tulenko; Bradley Rearden; Gary Harms

    2008-09-11

    The nuclear industry interest in advanced fuel and reactor design often drives towards fuel with uranium enrichments greater than 5 wt% 235U. Unfortunately, little data exists, in the form of reactor physics and criticality benchmarks, for uranium enrichments ranging between 5 and 10 wt% 235U. The primary purpose of this project is to provide benchmarks for fuel similar to what may be required for advanced light water reactors (LWRs). These experiments will ultimately provide additional information for application to the criticality-safety bases for commercial fuel facilities handling greater than 5 wt% 235U fuel.

  13. Annual Report for Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems—Phase 1B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Rappe, Kenneth G.; Frye, John G.

    2009-06-01

    Annual report covering the development of a hybrid nonthermal plasma single-pass filtration system for collective protection. This report covers NTP destruction testing on a high priority Toxic Industrial Material and an surrogate for a sulfur containing chemical agent (e.g. mustard), Effects of catalysts in the nonthermal plasma and catalyst poisoning by the sulfur are presented. Also presented are proof-of-principle data for utilizing ozone created in the NTP as a beneficial reactant to destroy adsorbed contaminants in-situ. Catalysts to decompose the ozone within the adsorbent bed are necessary to convert the adsorber into an ozone reactor.

  14. Strategy for nuclear wastes incineration in hybrid reactors; Strategies pour l'incineration de dechets nucleaires dans des reacteurs hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelievre, F

    1998-12-11

    The transmutation of nuclear wastes in accelerator-driven nuclear reactorsoffers undeniable advantages. But before going into the detailed study of a particular project, we should (i) examine the possible applications of such systems and (ii) compare the different configurations, in order to guide technological decisions. We propose an approach, answering both concerns, based on the complete description of hybrid reactors. It is possible, with only the transmutation objective and a few technological constraints chosen a posteriori, to determine precisely the essential parameters of such reactors: number of reactors, beam current, size of the core, sub-criticality... The approach also clearly pinpoints the strategic decisions, for which the scientist or engineer is not competent. This global scheme is applied to three distinct nuclear cycles: incineration of solid fuel without recycling, incineration of liquid fuel without recycling and incineration of liquid fuel with on-line recycling; and for two spectra, either thermal or fast. We show that the radiotoxicity reduction with a solid fuel is significant only with a fast spectrum, but the incineration times range from 20 to 30 years. The liquid fuel is appropriate only with on-line recycling, at equilibrium. The gain on the radiotoxicity can be considerable and we describe a number of such systems. The potential of ADS for the transmutation of nuclear wastes is confirmed, but we should continue the description of specific systems obtained through this approach. (author)

  15. New functional biocarriers for enhancing the performance of a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lijuan; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Xiaochang C; Zhang, Qionghua; Chen, Rong

    2016-05-01

    In this study, new sponge modified plastic carriers for moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was developed. The performance and membrane fouling behavior of a hybrid MBBR-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system were also evaluated. Comparing to the MBBR with plastic carriers (MBBR), the MBBR with sponge modified biocarriers (S-MBBR) showed better effluent quality and enhanced nutrient removal at HRTs of 12h and 6h. Regarding fouling issue of the hybrid systems, soluble microbial products (SMP) of the MBR unit greatly influenced membrane fouling. The sponge modified biocarriers could lower the levels of SMP in mixed liquor and extracellular polymeric substances in activated sludge, thereby mitigating cake layer and pore blocking resistances of the membrane. The reduced SMP and biopolymer clusters in membrane cake layer were also observed. The results demonstrated that the sponge modified biocarriers were capable of improving overall MBBR performance and substantially alleviated membrane fouling of the subsequent MBR unit.

  16. Freeze-casting as a Novel Manufacturing Process for Fast Reactor Fuels. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegst, Ulrike G.K. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering; Allen, Todd [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-04-07

    Advanced burner reactors are designed to reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive isotopes that need to be disposed of as waste. The input feedstock for creating advanced fuel forms comes from either recycle of used light water reactor fuel or recycle of fuel from a fast burner reactor. Fuel for burner reactors requires novel fuel types based on new materials and designs that can achieve higher performance requirements (higher burn up, higher power, and greater margins to fuel melting) then yet achieved. One promising strategy to improved fuel performance is the manufacture of metal or ceramic scaffolds which are designed to allow for a well-defined placement of the fuel into the host, and this in a manner that permits greater control than that possible in the production of typical CERMET fuels.

  17. Thermodynamic exergy analysis for small modular reactor in nuclear hybrid energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldon Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs provide a unique opportunity for future nuclear development with reduced financial risks, allowing the United States to meet growing energy demands through safe, reliable, clean air electricity generation while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the reliance on unstable fossil fuel prices. A nuclear power plant is comprised of several complex subsystems which utilize materials from other subsystems and their surroundings. The economic utility of resources, or thermoeconomics, is extremely difficult to analyze, particularly when trying to optimize resources and costs among individual subsystems and determine prices for products. Economics and thermodynamics cannot provide this information individually. Thermoeconomics, however, provides a method of coupling the quality of energy available based on exergy and the value of this available energy – “exergetic costs”. For an SMR exergy analysis, both the physical and economic environments must be considered. The physical environment incorporates the energy, raw materials, and reference environment, where the reference environment refers to natural resources available without limit and without cost, such as air input to a boiler. The economic environment includes market influences and prices in addition to installation, operation, and maintenance costs required for production to occur. The exergetic cost or the required exergy for production may be determined by analyzing the physical environment alone. However, to optimize the system economics, this environment must be coupled with the economic environment. A balance exists between enhancing systems to improve efficiency and optimizing costs. Prior research into SMR thermodynamics has not detailed methods on improving exergetic costs for an SMR coupled with storage technologies and renewable energy such as wind or solar in a hybrid energy system. This process requires balancing technological efficiencies and

  18. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  19. Inorganic membrane reactor technology CRADA {number_sign}1176; Final report and assessment of membrane technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, R.W.; Collins, J.P.; Ng, M.F. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This project focused on the fabrication and evaluation of supported inorganic membranes for hydrogen and oxygen separation in petrochemical processes. A variety of fabrication techniques, including CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition), electroless plating, solution deposition and conventional ceramic processing methods were used for membrane fabrication. For the oxygen separation membrane materials studied, the high surface roughness of the commercially available (and chemically compatible) MgO supports for high flux oxygen materials (SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} and SrCo{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub x}) hindered the development of supported membranes of these materials. More encouraging results were obtained for the supported hydrogen separation membranes. Both dense palladium (prepared by CVD and electroless plating) and ultramicroporous silica (prepared by solution deposition) membranes were fabricated onto porous alumina supports. Gas separation characteristics and reactor performance of the membranes were both studied. Of the two classes of membranes, when incorporated into a membrane reactor the silica membranes demonstrated the best performance. Propane and isobutane dehydrogenation processes were studied and the silica membrane reactors displayed modest improvements in performance compared to the conventional reactors. In propane dehydrogenation, an increase in propylene yield of 34% was obtained with the membrane reactor (compared to the conventional reactor); in isobutane dehydrogenation, an increase in isobutylene yield of 40% at 525 C was obtained. However, these performance gains decreased somewhat with time on stream, due to membrane instability. Further improvements in membrane stability and permselectivity, as well as catalyst stability are needed before membrane reactors can be considered as a realistic alternative to the existing conventional technology.

  20. Environmentally-assisted cracking in austenitic light water reactor structural materials. Final report of the KORA-I project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H.-P.; Ritter, S

    2009-03-15

    The following document is the final report of the KORA-I project, which was performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) between 2006 and 2008 and was funded by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). The three sub-projects of KORA-I covered the experimental characterisation of the effect of the reactor coolant environment on fatigue initiation and crack growth in austenitic stainless steels under boiling and pressurised water reactor conditions, the experimental evaluation of the potential and limits of the electrochemical noise measurement technique for the early detection of stress corrosion cracking initiation in austenitic stainless steels under boiling water reactor/normal water chemistry conditions, as well as the characterisation of the stress corrosion crack growth behaviour in the fusion line region of an Alloy 182-low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steel dissimilar metal weld. The main scientific results and major conclusions of the three sub-projects are discussed in three independent parts of this report. (author)

  1. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich

  2. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich

  3. The evaluation of the use of metal alloy fuels in pressurized water reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, D.

    1992-10-26

    The use of metal alloy fuels in a PWR was investigated. It was found that it would be feasible and competitive to design PWRs with metal alloy fuels but that there seemed to be no significant benefits. The new technology would carry with it added economic uncertainty and since no large benefits were found it was determined that metal alloy fuels are not recommended. Initially, a benefit was found for metal alloy fuels but when the oxide core was equally optimized the benefit faded. On review of the optimization of the current generation of ``advanced reactors,`` it became clear that reactor design optimization has been under emphasized. Current ``advanced reactors`` are severely constrained. The AP-600 required the use of a fuel design from the 1970`s. In order to find the best metal alloy fuel design, core optimization became a central effort. This work is ongoing.

  4. Critical review of the reactor-safety study radiological health effects model. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, D.W.; Evans, J.S.; Jacob, N.; Kase, K.R.; Maletskos, C.J.; Robertson, J.B.; Smith, D.G.

    1983-03-01

    This review of the radiological health effects models originally presented in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) and currently used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was undertaken to assist the NRC in determining whether or not to revise the models and to aid in the revision, if undertaken. The models as presented in the RSS and as implemented in the CRAC (Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences) Code are described and critiqued. The major elements analyzed are those concerning dosimetry, early effects, and late effects. The published comments on the models are summarized, as are the important findings since the publication of the RSS.

  5. Development of a thermionic-reactor space-power system. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-06-30

    Initial experimental work led to the award of the first AEC thermionic contract on May 1, 1962, for the development of fission heated thermionic cells with an operating life of 10,000 hours or more. Two types of converters were fabricated: (1) electrically heated, and (2) fission heated where the fuel was either uranium carbide or uranium oxide. Competition between GGA and GE was climaxed on July 1, 1970 by the award to GGA of a contract to develop an in-core thermionic reactor. This report is divided into the following: thermionic research, materials technology, thermionic fuel element development, reactor technology, and systems technology.

  6. Representativeness elements of an hybrid reactor demonstrator; Elements de representativite d'un demonstrateur de reacteur hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerdraon, D.; Billebaud, A.; Brissot, R.; David, S.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O

    2000-11-01

    This document deals with the quantification of the minimum thermal power level for a demonstrator and the definition of the physical criteria which define the representative character of a demonstrator towards a power reactor. Solutions allowing to keep an acceptable flow in an industrial core, have also been studied. The document is divided in three parts: the representativeness elements, the considered solutions and the characterization of the neutrons flows at the interfaces and the dose rates at the outer surface of the vessel. (A.L.B.)

  7. Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and Burn Fast Reactor Systems: Annual and Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevan D. Weaver; Theron Marshall; James Parry

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) contribution to the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project number 2002-005 was divided into reactor physics, and thermal-hydraulics and plant design. The research targeted credible physics and thermal-hydraulics models for a gas-cooled fast reactor, analyzing various fuel and in-core fuel cycle options to achieve a true breed and burn core, and performing a design basis Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis on that design. For the physics analysis, a 1/8 core model was created using different enrichments and simulated equilibrium fuel loadings. The model was used to locate the hot spot of the reactor, and the peak to average energy deposition at that location. The model was also used to create contour plots of the flux and energy deposition over the volume of the reactor. The eigenvalue over time was evaluated using three different fuel configurations with the same core geometry. The breeding capabilities of this configuration were excellent for a 7% U-235 model and good in both a plutonium model and a 14% U-235 model. Changing the fuel composition from the Pu fuel which provided about 78% U-238 for breeding to the 14% U-235 fuel with about 86% U-238 slowed the rate of decrease in the eigenvalue a noticeable amount. Switching to the 7% U-235 fuel with about 93% U-238 showed an increase in the eigenvalue over time. For the thermal-hydraulic analysis, the reactor design used was the one forwarded by the MIT team. This reactor design uses helium coolant, a Brayton cycle, and has a thermal power of 600 MW. The core design parameters were supplied by MIT; however, the other key reactor components that were necessary for a plausible simulation of a LOCA were not defined. The thermal-hydraulic and plant design research concentrated on determining reasonable values for those undefined components. The LOCA simulation was intended to provide insights on the influence of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS), the

  8. Study on the selection of nuclear fuel type for a hybrid power extraction reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Dong Han; Park, Won Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    The development of a subcritical transmutation reactor concept is emerging for reducing the amounts of actinides and long-lived nuclides in the spent fuel from nuclear power plants. This technology may make contribution to reduce the human risks associated with constructing radio-waste disposal facilities. One of the important issues for the design of the reactor is the selection of a suitable nuclear fuel type. Choosing the best nuclear fuel type for the reactor may not be easy since there exist several criteria associated with neutronic aspects, thermal performance, safety problem, cost problem, radiation damage in the reactor, etc. The best option should be chosen based on the maximization of our needs in this situation. This study presents a logical decision model for this issue using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Hierarchy is a representation of a system to study the functional relations of its components and its impact on the entire system. The study shows first how to construct hierarchy representing their relations and then measure the individual element's impact to the entire system for a quantitative decision making. Current four fuel types; metal, oxide, molten salt, and nitride, were selected and analyzed based on several characteristics with respect to overall comparison. Based on the decision model developed, the study concludes that the metal fuel type is the best choice for the transmutation reactor. The proposed approach is intended to help people be rational and logical in making decisions such complex task. 13 refs., 16 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  9. Reed Reactor Facility final report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report covers the period from September 1, 1995 to August 31, 1996. This report is intended to fulfill several purposes including the reporting requirements of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the US Department of Energy, and the Oregon Department of Energy. Highlights of the last year include: student participation in the program is very high; the facility continues its success in obtaining donated equipment from the Portland General Electric, US Department of Energy, and other sources; the facility is developing more paid work; progress is being made in a collaborative project with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on isotope production for medical purposes. There were over 1,500 individual visits to the Reactor Facility during the year. Most were students in classes at Reed College or area universities, colleges, and high schools. Including tours and research conducted at the facility, the Reed Reactor Facility contributed to the educational programs of six colleges and universities in addition to eighteen pre-college groups. During the year, the reactor was operated almost three hundred separate times. The total energy production was over 23 MW-hours. The reactor staff consists of a Director, an Associated Director, a contract Health Physicist, and approximately twenty Reed College undergraduate students as hourly employees. All radiation exposures to individuals during this year were well below 5% of the federal limits.

  10. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for Inertial Confinement reactor. This second of three volumes discussions is some detail the following: Objectives, requirements, and assumptions; rationale for design option selection; key technical issues and R&D requirements; and conceptual design selection and description.

  11. The development and application of advanced analytical methods to commercial ICF reactor chambers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousseau, P.; Engelstad, R.; Henderson, D.L. [and others

    1997-10-01

    Progress is summarized in this report for each of the following tasks: (1) multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics computer code development; (2) 2D radiation-hydrodynamic code development; (3) ALARA: analytic and Laplacian adaptive radioactivity analysis -- a complete package for analysis of induced activation; (4) structural dynamics modeling of ICF reactor chambers; and (5) analysis of self-consistent target chamber clearing.

  12. Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. Final conceptual design report. [Overall cost and scheduling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-02-01

    The TFTR is the first U.S. magnetic confinement device planned to demonstrate the fusion of D-T at reactor power levels. This report addresses the physics objectives and the engineering goals of the TFTR project. Technical, cost, and schedule aspects of the project are included. (MOW)

  13. Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.; Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

  14. Highly hydrophilic poly(vinylidene fluoride)/meso-titania hybrid mesoporous membrane for photocatalytic membrane reactor in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Guang; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The high hydrophobicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane remains an obstacle to be applied in some purification processes of water or wastewater. Herein, a highly hydrophilic hybrid mesoporous titania membrane composed of mesoporous anatase titania (meso-TiO2) materials inside the three-dimensional (3D) macropores of PVDF membrane was successfully prepared by using the dual-templated synthesis method combined with solvent extraction and applied as the photocatalytic membrane reactor for the photodegredation of organic dye in water. The structure and the properties of as-prepared hybrid membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption and contact angle measurements. It was found that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane can be significantly improved by filling mesoporous TiO2 inside the 3D macropores of PVDF membrane. Moreover, such a PVDF/meso-TiO2 hybrid membrane exhibits promising photocatalytic degradation of dye in water due to the existence of mesoporous anatase TiO2 materials inside PVDF membrane. This study provides a new strategy to simultaneously introduce hydrophilicity and some desirable properties into PVDF and other hydrophobic membranes.

  15. Study on the selection of nuclear fuel type for a hybrid power extration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, D. H.; Park, W. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    In order to solve the problem related to long-lived radioactive nuclides in spent fuel, development of a subcritical transmutation reactor concept is emerging. One of the important issues for the design of the reactor may be the selection of a suitable nuclear fuel type. This study presents a logical decision model for this issue using an analytic hierachy process (AHP). Hierarchy is a representation of a system to study the functional relations of its components and its impact on the entire system. The study shows first how to construct hierachy representing their relations and then measure the individual element's impact to the entire system for a quantitative decision making. Current four fuel types; metal, oxide, molten salt, and nitride, were selected and analyzed based on several characteristics with respect to overall comparison. Based on the decision model, the study concludes that the metal fuel type is the best choice for the transmutation reactor.

  16. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with purely electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid-vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential - in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid-Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: (1) Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies; (2) Design Tradeoff Studies; and (3) Preliminary Design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report and issued under separate cover; a fourth task, Sensitivity Studies, is also included in the report on the Design Tradeoff Studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and both interim and final results, the body of this report was prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.

  17. Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierow, Karen; Aldemir, Tunc

    2009-09-10

    The project entitled, “Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors”, was conducted as a DOE NERI project collaboration between Texas A&M University and The Ohio State University between March 2006 and June 2009. The overall goal of the proposed project was to develop practical approaches and tools by which dynamic reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used to augment the uncertainty quantification process in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and PRA applications for Generation IV reactors. This report is the Final Scientific/Technical Report summarizing the project.

  18. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

    2000-02-01

    One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required.

  19. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 2. Commercial fusion synfuels plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen. (MOW)

  20. Reed Reactor Facility final report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report covers the period from September 1, 1994 to August 31, 1995. Information contained in this report is intended to fulfill several purposes including the reporting requirements of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the US Department of Energy (USDOE), and the Oregon Department of Energy (ODOE). Highlights of the last year include: student participation in the program is very high; the facility has been extraordinarily successful in obtaining donated equipment from Portland General Electric, US Department of Energy, Precision Castparts, Tektronix, and other sources; the facility is developing more paid work. There were 1,115 visits of the Reactor Facility by individuals during the year. Most of these visitors were students in classes at Reed College or area universities, colleges, and high schools. During the year, the reactor was operated 225 separate times on 116 days. The total energy production was 24.6 MW-hours. The reactor staff consists of a Director, an Associate Director, a contract Health Physicist, and approximately fifteen Reed College undergraduate students as hourly employees. All radiation exposures to individuals during this year were well below 1% of the federal limits. There were no releases of liquid radioactive material from the facility and airborne releases (primarily {sup 41}Ar) were well within regulatory limits.

  1. Theoretical and experimental studies of fixed-bed coal gasification reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, B.; Bhattacharya, A.; Salam, L.; Dudukovic, M.P.

    1983-09-01

    A laboratory fixed-bed gasification reactor was designed and built with the objective of collecting operational data for model validation and parameter estimation. The reactor consists of a 4 inch stainless steel tube filled with coal or char. Air and steam is fed at one end of the reactor and the dynamic progress of gasification in the coal or char bed is observed through thermocouples mounted at various radial and axial locations. Product gas compositions are also monitored as a function of time. Results of gasification runs using Wyoming coal are included in this report. In parallel with the experimental study, a two-dimensional model of moving bed gasifiers was developed, coded into a computer program and tested. This model was used to study the laboratory gasifier by setting the coal feed rate equal to zero. The model is based on prior work on steady state and dynamic modeling done at Washington University and published elsewhere in the literature. Comparisons are made between model predictions and experimental results. These are also included in this report. 23 references, 18 figures, 6 tables.

  2. Hybrid C-nanotubes/Si 3D nanostructures by one-step growth in a dual-plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, Francesco; Orlanducci, Silvia; Guglielmotti, Valeria; Cianchetta, Ilaria; Magni, Corrado; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Pasquali, Matteo; Tamburri, Emanuela; Matassa, Roberto; Rossi, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Hybrid nanostructures consisting of Si polycrystalline nanocones, with an anemone-like termination coated with C-nanotubes bundles, have been generated on a (1 0 0) Si substrate in a dual mode microwave/radio-frequency plasma reactor. The substrate is both heated and bombarded by energetic H ions during the synthesis process. The nanocones growth is explained considering pull of the growing Si nanocrystalline phase along the lines of the electrical field, likely via a molten/recrystallization mechanism. The one-step building of the achieved complex 3D architectures is described in terms of dynamic competition between Si and C nanotubes growth under the peculiar conditions of kinetically driven processes.

  3. Final report-passive safety optimization in liquid sodium-cooled reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahalana, J. E.; Hahn, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    2007-08-13

    This report summarizes the results of a three-year collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to identify and quantify the performance of innovative design features in metallic-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor designs. The objective of the work was to establish the reliability and safety margin enhancements provided by design innovations offering significant potential for construction, maintenance, and operating cost reductions. The project goal was accomplished with a combination of advanced model development (Task 1), analysis of innovative design and safety features (Tasks 2 and 3), and planning of key safety experiments (Task 4). Task 1--Computational Methods for Analysis of Passive Safety Design Features: An advanced three-dimensional subassembly thermal-hydraulic model was developed jointly and implemented in ANL and KAERI computer codes. The objective of the model development effort was to provide a high-accuracy capability to predict fuel, cladding, coolant, and structural temperatures in reactor fuel subassemblies, and thereby reduce the uncertainties associated with lower fidelity models previously used for safety and design analysis. The project included model formulation, implementation, and verification by application to available reactor tests performed at EBR-II. Task 2--Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Innovative Design Features: Integrated safety assessments of innovative liquid metal reactor designs were performed to quantify the performance of inherent safety features. The objective of the analysis effort was to identify the potential safety margin enhancements possible in a sodium-cooled, metal-fueled reactor design by use of passive safety mechanisms to mitigate low-probability accident consequences. The project included baseline analyses using state-of-the-art computational models and advanced analyses using the new model developed in Task 1. Task 3--Safety

  4. Behind the Final Grade in Hybrid v. Traditional Courses: Comparing Student Performance by Assessment Type, Core Competency, and Course Objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Lisa Z.

    2012-01-01

    There are many different delivery methods used by institutions of higher education. These include traditional, hybrid, and online course offerings. The comparisons of these typically use final grade as the measure of student performance. This research study looks behind the final grade and compares student performance by assessment type, core…

  5. Performance of the Full-scale Loop Hybrid Reactor Treating Coal Gasification Wastewater under Different Recirculation Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Zhao; Hongjun Han; Fang Fang; Wang Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the simultaneous removal efficiencies of both COD and nitrogen in a single reactor treating coal gasification wastewater ( CGW ) . A novel loop hybrid reactor was developed and operated under different recirculation modes in order to achieve simultaneous removal of refractory compounds and total nitrogen ( TN) in a full⁃scale CGW treatment plant. Mid⁃ditch recirculation was superior to other operational modes in terms of the NH3⁃N and TN removal, resulting in a TN removal efficiency of 52. 3%. Although the system achieved equal COD removal rates under different recirculation modes, hydrophobic acid ( HPO⁃A) fraction of effluent dissolved organic matter ( DOMef) in mid⁃ditch recirculation mode accounted for 35.7%, compared to the proportions of 59. 2%, 45. 3% and 39. 4% for the other modes. The ultraviolet absorbance to dissolved organic carbon ratio test revealed that effluent under mid⁃ditch recirculation mode contained more non⁃aromatic hydrophilic components. Furthermore, appropriate recirculation and anoxic/oxic ( A/O) partitions were also demonstrated to remove some refractory metabolites ( phenols, alkanes, aniline, etc.), which reduced the chromaticity and improved the biodegradability.

  6. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  7. Characterization of the biomass of a hybrid anaerobic reactor (HAR with two types of support material during the treatment of the coffee wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Galdino da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbiology of a hybrid anaerobic reactor (HAR in the removal of pollutant loads. This reactor had the same physical structure of an UASB reactor, however with minifilters inside containing two types of support material: expanded clay and gravel. Two hydraulic retention times (HRT of 24h and 18h were evaluated at steady-state conditions, resulting in organic loading rates (OLR of 0.032 and 0.018 kgDBO5m-3d-1 and biological organic loading rates (BOLR of 0,0015 and 0.001 kgDBO5kgSVT- 1d¹, respectively. The decrease in concentration of organic matter in the influent resulted an endogenous state of the biomass in the reactor. The expanded clay was the best support material for biofilm attachment.

  8. Thermodynamic exergy analysis for small modular reactor in nuclear hybrid energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Boldon Lauren; Sabharwall Piyush; Rabiti Cristian; Bragg-Sitton Shannon M.; Liu Li

    2016-01-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) provide a unique opportunity for future nuclear development with reduced financial risks, allowing the United States to meet growing energy demands through safe, reliable, clean air electricity generation while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the reliance on unstable fossil fuel prices. A nuclear power plant is comprised of several complex subsystems which utilize materials from other subsystems and their surroundings. The economic utility of resources, or ...

  9. On the potential use of F{sub 2}Be-molten-salt for hybrid reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A., E-mail: anlafuente@etsii.upm.e [ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Breeder reactors are considered a unique tool for fully exploiting natural nuclear resources. In current Light Water Reactors (LWR), only 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from a mine is converted into useful heat. The rest remains in the depleted uranium or spent fuel. This evident need to improve resource-efficiency has stimulated interest in Fast-reactors, and with it, boosted the need to answer many of the remaining safety issues attached to such systems (i.e. coolant positive void coefficients). Among the existing candidates to overcome this fundamental drawback, the F{sub 2}Be-molten-salt, has proved to feature outstanding neutronic properties. In previous studies, in an analysis that took into account requirements for criticality, for breeding, and for safety, it was demonstrated that a design window could be found in the definition of an F{sub 2}Be-cooled system, where the safety requirement was met for a critical breeder reactor. In this paper we give a deeper insight on the neutronic features of F{sub 2}Be coolant by comparing it with the moderator par excellence; light water. Its potential use on a thorium-fuel based system will be completed by a resilience analysis of the design window along the burn-up cycle. The ultimate goal is to give a sound answer to how a F{sub 2}Be-cooled system could contribute to improve the resource-efficiency of nuclear systems without overlooking the main safety aspects. This is one of the main pending questions in the quest to sustainability.

  10. Conceptual studies of toroidal field magnets for the tokamak experimental power reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buncher, B.R.; Chi, J.W.H.; Fernandez, R.

    1976-10-26

    This report documents the principal results of a Conceptual Design Study for the Superconducting Toroidal Field System for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor. Two concepts are described for peak operating fields at the windings of 8 tesla, and 12 tesla, respectively. The design and manufacturing considerations are treated in sufficient detail that cost and schedule estimates could be developed. Major uncertainties in the design are identified and their potential impact discussed, along with recommendations for the necessary research and development programs to minimize these uncertainties. The minimum dimensions of a sub-size test coil for experimental qualification of the full size design are developed and a test program is recommended.

  11. Final Report for Monitoring of Reactor Antineutrinos with Compact Germanium Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, John L.; Collar, J. I.

    2009-07-01

    This 2008 NCMR project has pursued measurement of the antineutrino-nucleus coherent scattering interaction using a low-energy threshold germanium gamma-ray spectrometer of roughly one-half kilogram total mass. These efforts support development of a compact system for monitoring the antineutrino emission from nuclear reactor cores. Such a monitoring system is relevant to nuclear safeguards and nuclear non-proliferation in general by adding a strong method for assuring quantitative material balance of special nuclear material in the nuclear fuel cycle used in electricity generation.

  12. Remote servicing considerations for near term tokamak power reactors (TNS). Final summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1977-01-01

    Next generation Tokamaks require special consideration for remote servicing. Three major problems are highlighted: (1) movement of heavy components, (2) remote connection/disconnection of joints, and (3) remote cutting, welding, and leak detection. The first problem is assumed to be handled with existing expertise and is not considered. The remaining problems are thought to be minimized by considering two engineering departures from conventional tokamak design; locating the field shaping coils outside of the toroidal coils and enclosing the total device within an evacuated reactor cell. Five topics under this vacuum building concept are discussed: incremental cost, vacuum pumping, tritium containment, activation topology, and first year operations.

  13. Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Publishable Final Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, J.C., E-mail: kuijper@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Somers, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Chauvet, V.; Cerullo, N.; Cetnar, J.; Abram, T.; Bakker, K.; Bomboni, E.; Bernnat, W.; Domanska, J.G.; Girardi, E.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Hesketh, K.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Hossain, K.; Jonnet, J.; Kim, Y.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Kopec, M.; Murgatroyd, J.; Millington, D.; Lecarpentier, D.; Lomonaco, G.; McEachern, D.; Meier, A.; Mignanelli, M.; Nabielek, H.; Oppe, J.; Petrov, B.Y.; Pohl, C.; Ruetten, H.J.; Schihab, S.; Toury, G.; Trakas, C.; Venneri, F.; Verfondern, K.; Werner, H.; Wiss, T.; Zakova, J.

    2010-11-15

    The PUMA project -the acronym stands for 'Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors'- was a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the EURATOM 6th Framework Program (EU FP6). The PUMA project ran from September 1, 2006, until August 31, 2009, and was executed by a consortium of 14 European partner organisations and one from the USA. This report serves 2 purposes. It is both the 'Publishable Final Activity Report' and the 'Final (Summary) Report', describing, per Work Package, the specific objectives, research activities, main conclusions, recommendations and supporting documents. PUMA's main objective was to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO{sub 2}-free energy generation. The PUMA project has assessed the impact of the introduction of Pu/MA-burning HTRs at three levels: fuel and fuel performance (modelling), reactor (transmutation performance and safety) and reactor/fuel cycle facility park. Earlier projects already indicated favourable characteristics of HTRs with respect to Pu burning. So, core physics of Pu/MA fuel cycles for HTRs has been investigated to study the CP fuel and reactor characteristics and to assure nuclear stability of a Pu/MA HTR core, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The starting point of this investigation comprised the two main contemporary HTR designs, viz. the pebble-bed type HTR, represented by the South-African PBMR, and hexagonal block type HTR, represented by the GT-MHR. The results (once again) demonstrate the flexibility of the contemporary (and near future) HTR

  14. Evaluation of micropollutant removal and fouling reduction in a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunlong; Jiang, Qi; Ngo, Huu H; Nghiem, Long D; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Wang, Jie; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-09-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) system and a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) were compared in terms of micropollutant removal efficiency and membrane fouling propensity. The results show that the hybrid MBBR-MBR system could effectively remove most of the selected micropollutants. By contrast, the CMBR system showed lower removals of ketoprofen, carbamazepine, primidone, bisphenol A and estriol by 16.2%, 30.1%, 31.9%, 34.5%, and 39.9%, respectively. Mass balance calculations suggest that biological degradation was the primary removal mechanism in the MBBR-MBR system. During operation, the MBBR-MBR system exhibited significantly slower fouling development as compared to the CMBR system, which could be ascribed to the wide disparity in the soluble microbial products (SMP) levels between MBBR-MBR (4.02-6.32 mg/L) and CMBR (21.78 and 33.04 mg/L). It is evident that adding an MBBR process prior to MBR treatment can not only enhance micropollutant elimination but also mitigate membrane fouling.

  15. Optimization and implementation study of plutonium disposition using existing CANDU Reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Since early 1994, the Department of Energy has been sponsoring studies aimed at evaluating the merits of disposing of surplus US weapons plutonium as Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in existing commercial Canadian Pressurized Heavy Water reactors, known as CANDU`s. The first report, submitted to DOE in July, 1994 (the 1994 Executive Summary is attached), identified practical and safe options for the consumption of 50 to 100 tons of plutonium in 25 years in some of the existing CANDU reactors operating the Bruce A generating station, on Lake Huron, about 300 km north east of Detroit. By designing the fuel and nuclear performance to operate within existing experience and operating/performance envelope, and by utilizing existing fuel fabrication and transportation facilities and methods, a low cost, low risk method for long term plutonium disposition was developed. In December, 1995, in response to evolving Mission Requirements, the DOE requested a further study of the CANDU option with emphasis on more rapid disposition of the plutonium, and retaining the early start and low risk features of the earlier work. This report is the result of that additional work.

  16. A Dual-Stage Hydrothermal Flow Reactor for Green and Sustainable Synthesis of Advanced Hybrid Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian Lund

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposites are a group of materials of growing scientific interest. The combination of two different materials into a single hybrid particle on the nanoscale can result in multifunctional materials or be used to enhance existing properties through synergistic interactions. Such novel material...

  17. Instrumentation Needs for Integral Primary System Reactors (IPSRs) - Task 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic; Luca Oriani; Lawrence E. Conway; Diego Conti

    2005-09-30

    This report presents the results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 1 of this Financial Assistance Award and satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. While most of the signals required for control of IPSRs are typical of other PWRs, the integral configuration poses some new challenges in the design or deployment of the sensors/instrumentation and, in some cases, requires completely new approaches. In response to this consideration, the overall objective of Task 1 was to establish the instrumentation needs for integral reactors, provide a review of the existing solutions where available, and, identify research and development needs to be addressed to enable successful deployment of IPSRs. The starting point for this study was to review and synthesize general characteristics of integral reactors, and then to focus on a specific design. Due to the maturity of its design and availability of design information to Westinghouse, IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) was selected for this purpose. The report is organized as follows. Section 1 is an overview. Section 2 provides background information on several representative IPSRs, including IRIS. A review of the IRIS safety features and its protection and control systems is used as a mechanism to ensure that all critical safety-related instrumentation needs are addressed in this study. Additionally, IRIS systems are compared against those of current advanced PWRs. The scope of this study is then limited to those systems where differences exist, since, otherwise, the current technology already provides an acceptable solution. Section 3 provides a detailed discussion on instrumentation needs for the representative IPSR (IRIS) with detailed qualitative and quantitative requirements summarized in the exhaustive table included as Appendix A. Section 3 also provides an evaluation of the current technology and the instrumentation used for measurement of required parameters in current PWRs. Section 4

  18. Design and Manufacture of a Hybrid Final Focus Quadrupole Model for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Modena, Michele; Vorozhtsov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    A tunable hybrid quadrupole magnet design has been proposed for the final focus in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) that is currently under study. The proposed design is a combination of an iron dominated electromagnetic quadrupole with a bore diameter of 8.25 mm with permanent magnet blocks placed between the poles made of soft magnetic CoFe alloy "Permendur". The possibility of using Sm2Co17 and Nd2Fe14B as material for the permanent magnet blocks has been investigated. It is shown that a very high field gradient of 530 T/m (Sm2Co17) and 590 T/m (Nd2Fe14B) can be achieved.

  19. Development of an ultrasonic imaging system for the inspection of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, F.L.; Crow, V.L.; Davis, T.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Lemon, D.K.; Posakony, G.J.

    1979-10-01

    The development of an experimental model of an ultrasonic linear array system for the inspection of weldments in nuclear reactor pressure vessels is described. The imaging system is designed to operate in both pulse echo and holographic modes of operation. The system utilizes a sequentially pulsed, phase steered linear array to develop pulse echo images and a line focused illumination transducer in conjunction with a linear receiver array to develop holographic reconstructed images. The results recorded from the computer-based system demonstrate the capability of array technology. Excellent results from both the pulse echo and holographic modes of operation have been achieved. Pulse echo images of flaws in weldments are displayed in B-scan, C-scan, or isometric presentations. Reconstruction of the phase or holographic images are compared with pulse echo results and demonstrate the enhancement potential for the holographic procedure.

  20. Cavitation and two-phase flow characteristics of SRPR (Savannah River Plant Reactor) pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    The possible head degradation of the SRPR pumps may be attributable to two independent phenomena, one due to the inception of cavitation and the other due to the two-phase flow phenomena. The head degradation due to the appearance of cavitation on the pump blade is hardly likely in the conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR) since the coolant circulating line is highly pressurized so that the cavitation is difficult to occur even at LOCA (loss of coolant accident) conditions. On the other hand, the suction pressure of SRPR pump is order-of-magnitude smaller than that of PWR so that the cavitation phenomena, may prevail, should LOCA occur, depending on the extent of LOCA condition. In this study, therefore, both cavitation phenomena and two-phase flow phenomena were investigated for the SRPR pump by using various analytical tools and the numerical results are presented herein.

  1. Final report for the Light Water Breeder Reactor proof-of-breeding analytical support project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graczyk, D.G.; Hoh, J.C.; Martino, F.J.; Nelson, R.E.; Osudar, J.; Levitz, N.M.

    1987-05-01

    The technology of breeding /sup 233/U from /sup 232/Th in a light water reactor is being developed and evaluated by the Westinghouse Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL) through operation and examination of the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). Bettis is determining the end-of-life (EOL) inventory of fissile uranium in the LWBR core by nondestructive assay of a statistical sample comprising approximately 500 EOL fuel rods. This determination is being made with an irradiated-fuel assay gauge based on neutron interrogation and detection of delayed neutrons from each rod. The EOL fissile inventory will be compared with the beginning-of-life fissile loading of the LWBR to determine the extent of breeding. In support of the BAPL proof-of-breeding (POB) effort, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) carried out destructive physical, chemical, and radiometric analyses on 17 EOL LWBR fuel rods that were previously assayed with the nondestructive gauge. The ANL work included measurements on the intact rods; shearing of the rods into pre-designated contiguous segments; separate dissolution of each of the more than 150 segments; and analysis of the dissolver solutions to determine each segment's uranium content, uranium isotopic composition, and loading of selected fission products. This report describes the facilities in which this work was carried out, details operations involved in processing each rod, and presents a comprehensive discussion of uncertainties associated with each result of the ANL measurements. Most operations were carried out remotely in shielded cells. Automated equipment and procedures, controlled by a computer system, provided error-free data acquisition and processing, as well as full replication of operations with each rod. Despite difficulties that arose during processing of a few rod segments, the ANL destructive-assay results satisfied the demanding needs of the parent LWBR-POB program.

  2. Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlizzi, Stefano; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero

    2015-12-01

    A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry.

  3. Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terlizzi, Stefano; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 10129, Torino (Italy); Rahnema, Farzad, E-mail: farzad@gatech.edu [Nuclear & Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street NW, Atlanta, Ga, 30332-0745 (United States); Nuclear & Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street NW, Atlanta, Ga, 30332-0745 (United States); Zhang, Dingkang [Nuclear & Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street NW, Atlanta, Ga, 30332-0745 (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry.

  4. Hydrodynamics of a hybrid circulating fluidized bed reactor with a partitioned loop seal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Dal-Hee; Moon, Jong-Ho; Jin, Gyoung Tae; Shun, Dowon [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Minyoung; Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph M. [University of California, Riverside (United States)

    2015-07-15

    A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) with a hybrid design has been developed and optimized for steam hydrogasification. The hybrid CFB is composed of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) type combustor and a fast fluidized bed (FB) type gasifier. Char is burnt in the combustor and the generated heat is supplied to the gasifier along with the bed materials. Two different types of fluidized beds are connected to each other with a newly developed partitioned loop seal to avoid direct contact between two separate gas streams flowing in each fluidized bed. Gas mixing tests were carried out with Air and Argon in a cold model hybrid CFB to test the loop seal efficiency. Increase in solid inventory in the loop seal can improve the gas separation efficiency. It can be realized at higher gas velocity in fast bed and with higher solid inventory in the loop seal system. In addition, bed hydrodynamics was investigated with varying gas flow conditions and particle sizes in order to obtain a full understanding of changes of solid holdup in the FB. The solid holdup in the FB increased with increasing gas velocity in the BFB. Conversely, increase in gas velocity in the FB contributed to reducing the solid holdup in the FB. It was observed that changing the particle size of bed material does not have a big impact on hydrodynamic parameters.

  5. Hybrid parallel code acceleration methods in full-core reactor physics calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courau, T.; Plagne, L.; Ponicot, A. [EDF R and D, 1, Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart Cedex (France); Sjoden, G. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    When dealing with nuclear reactor calculation schemes, the need for three dimensional (3D) transport-based reference solutions is essential for both validation and optimization purposes. Considering a benchmark problem, this work investigates the potential of discrete ordinates (Sn) transport methods applied to 3D pressurized water reactor (PWR) full-core calculations. First, the benchmark problem is described. It involves a pin-by-pin description of a 3D PWR first core, and uses a 8-group cross-section library prepared with the DRAGON cell code. Then, a convergence analysis is performed using the PENTRAN parallel Sn Cartesian code. It discusses the spatial refinement and the associated angular quadrature required to properly describe the problem physics. It also shows that initializing the Sn solution with the EDF SPN solver COCAGNE reduces the number of iterations required to converge by nearly a factor of 6. Using a best estimate model, PENTRAN results are then compared to multigroup Monte Carlo results obtained with the MCNP5 code. Good consistency is observed between the two methods (Sn and Monte Carlo), with discrepancies that are less than 25 pcm for the k{sub eff}, and less than 2.1% and 1.6% for the flux at the pin-cell level and for the pin-power distribution, respectively. (authors)

  6. Comparison of two mathematical models for correlating the organic matter removal efficiency with hydraulic retention time in a hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor treating molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaniyari-Benis, Saeid; Martín, Antonio; Borja Padilla, Rafael; M. A. Martín; Hedayat, N.

    2012-01-01

    A modelling of the anaerobic digestion process of molasses was conducted in a 70-L multistage anaerobic biofilm reactor or hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor with six compartments at an operating temperature of 26 °C. Five hydraulic retention times (6, 16, 24, 72 and 120 h) were studied at a constant influent COD concentration of 10,000 mg/L. Two different kinetic models (one was based on a dispersion model with first-order kinetics for substrate consumption and the other based on a modificati...

  7. Decommissioning of eight surplus production reactors at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Addendum (Final Environmental Impact Statement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The first section of this volume summarizes the content of the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) and this Addendum, which together constitute the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) prepared on the decommissioning of eight surplus plutonium production reactors at Hanford. The FEIS consists of two volumes. The first volume is the DEIS as written. The second volume (this Addendum) consists of a summary; Chapter 9, which contains comments on the DEIS and provides DOE`s responses to the comments; Appendix F, which provides additional health effects information; Appendix K, which contains costs of decommissioning in 1990 dollars; Appendix L, which contains additional graphite leaching data; Appendix M, which contains a discussion of accident scenarios; Appendix N, which contains errata; and Appendix 0, which contains reproductions of the letters, transcripts, and exhibits that constitute the record for the public comment period.

  8. Physics modeling support for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-30

    There are two major sections to this report. The first section of the report is an executive summary of the work done this year. For each task, the major results are condensed for the reader's convenience. The major result of each memo, report or presentation is summarized briefly in this section. The second section of the report is a collection of appendices containing reports, memos, and presentations written this year. Here, the interested reader can investigate any topic discussed in the summary in more detail. The documentation is presented in chronological order, and we would like to note that the content of later documents may supercede that of earlier ones. The summaries are divided into sections, corresponding to the tasks outlined in the original proposal for the work. These sections are: MUMAK code development and application; Alfven wave stability problem; TETRA systems code development and application; lower hybrid heating and current drive; and advanced blanket modeling.

  9. A Study on the Electromagnet Thrust force Characteristics of Newly Proposed Hybrid Bottom-mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong Garp; Choi, Myoung Hwan; Yu, Je Yong; Kim, Ji Ho; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is the part of reactor regulating system (RRS), which is located in the reactor pool top (Top-mounted) or the room below the reactor pool (Bottom-mounted). The function of the CRDM is to insert, withdraw or maintain neutron absorbing material at any required position within the reactor core, in order to the reactivity control of the core. There are so many kinds of CRDM, such as magneticjack type, hydraulic type, rack and pinion type, chain type and linear or rotary step motor and so on. As a part of a new project, we have investigated the movable coil electromagnetic drive mechanism (MCEDM) which is new scheme for the reactor control rod adopted by China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) as shown in Fig.1. To improve a better function of the electromagnetic and magnetic characteristics, new model CRDM, which is named a hybrid bottommounted CRDM (HBCRDM), is proposed. Especially in order to achieve improved thrust force, numerical magnetic field calculations between MCEDM and HBCRDM have been carried out and the HBCRDM FEM results have been compared with the MCEDM FEM results, and FEM results are summarized in the following sections

  10. Utilization of high-strength wastewater for the production of biogas as a renewable energy source using hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivayogimath, C.B.; Ramanujam, T.K.

    1998-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of distillery spentwash, a high-strength wastewater, was studied using a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor for 240 days under ambient conditions. The HUASB reactor combined an open volume in the bottom two-thirds of the reactor for sludge blanket and polypropylene pall rings packing in the upper one-third of the reactor. The aim of the study was to achieve optimum biogas production and waste treatment. Using non-granular anaerobic sewage sludge as seed, the start-up of the HUASB reactor was successfully completed, with the production of active bacterial granules of 1--2 mm size, within 90 days. Examination of the bacterial granules under scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that Methanothrix like microorganisms were the dominant species besides Methanosarcina. An organic loading of 24 kg COD/m{sup 3}d at a low hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours was achieved with 82% reduction in COD. Biogas with high methane content (80%) was produced at these loadings. The specific biogas yield was 0.36 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD. Packing in the upper third of the reactor was very efficient as a gas-solid separator (GSS); and in addition it retained the biomass.

  11. Gas-cooled fast reactor fuel-cost assessment. Final report, October 1978-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    This program, contracted to provide a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) fuel assembly fabrication cost assessment, comprised the following basic activities: establish agreement on the ground rules for cost assessment, prepare a fuel factory flow sheet, and prepare a cost assessment for fuel assembly fabrication. Two factory sizes, 250 and 25 MTHM/year, were considered for fuel assembly fabrication cost assessment. The work on this program involved utilizing GE LMFBR cost assessment and fuel factory studies experience to provide a cost assessment of GCFR fuel assembly fabrication. The recent impact of highly sensitive safety and safeguards environment policies on fuel factory containment, safety, quality assurance and safeguards costs are significantly higher than might have been expected just a few years ago. Fuel assembly fabrication costs are significant because they represent an estimated 30 to 60% of the total fuel cycle costs. In light of the relative high cost of fabrication, changes in the core and assembly design may be necessary in order to enhance the overall fuel cycle economics. Fabrication costs are based on similar operations and experience used in other fuel cycle studies. Because of extrapolation of present technology (e.g., remote fuel fabrication versus present contact fabrication) and regulatory requirements, conservative cost estimates were made.

  12. Reactor cover system improvements. Final report FY 1978. [Seal, bearing, support, deck, vessel support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEdwards, J.A.; Matteras, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effort in the reactor cover study area resulted in design recommendations for the vessel support, the deck, and the bearing and seals. Sixteen configurations of bearings and seals were examined as part of this study. The selected concepts use a double inflatable seal plus a sodium dip seal. Six different deck configurations were considered as part of this study. The most attractive of these concepts is the conical deck. Five different vessel support concepts were considered. Of these, the U ring appears to be the most attractive. Significant findings are the following: (1) verified that passive cooling of the deck and support lead to acceptable temperatures; (2) the assembly tolerances can be loosened for lower fabrication cost and easier operation while meeting positional and sealing requirements; (3) determined that the conical deck is the most effective deck configuration; (4) determined that the U ring is the most effective vessel support configuration; (5) selected a bearing and seal approach that gives effective gas sealing, adequate control of sodium frost, and easy maintenance.

  13. GoAmazon2014/15. Oxidation Flow Reactor Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J. L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Day, D. A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Hu, W. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Palm, B. B. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Campuzano-Jost, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The primary goal of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign was to measure and mechanistically understand the formation of particle number and mass in a region affected by large tropical rainforest biogenic emissions and sometimes anthropogenic influence from a large urban center. As part of the two intensive operational periods (IOPs) and in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Harvard, the Jimenez Group proposed to deploy a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), Thermal Denuder (TD), Scanning Mobility Particle Size (SMPS), two oxidation flow reactors (OFR; including supporting O3, CO/CO2/CH4, RH analyzers), and a high volume filter sampler (MCV) for the measurement of gas and aerosol chemical, physicochemical, and volatility properties. The two IOPs were conducted during the wet season (February to March, 2014) and dry season (August to October, 2014). This proposal was part of a collaborative proposal involving other university and government laboratories.

  14. Effect of passive ultrasonic agitation during final irrigation on cleaning capacity of hybrid instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilene Coelho Vinhorte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate the effect of passive ultrasonic agitation on the cleaning capacity of a hybrid instrumentation technique. Materials and Methods Twenty mandibular incisors with mesiodistal-flattened root shape had their crowns sectioned at 1 mm from the cementoenamel junction. Instrumentation was initiated by catheterization with K-type files (Denstply Maillefer #10, #15, and #20 at 3 mm from the working length. Cervical preparation was performed with Largo bur #1 (Dentsply Maillefer followed by apical instrumentation with K-type files #15, #20 and #25, and finishing with ProTaper F2 file (Denstply Maillefer. All files were used up to the working length under irrigation with 1 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (Biodynâmica at each instrument change. At the end of instrumentation, the roots were randomly separated into 2 groups (n = 10. All specimens received final irrigation with 1 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. The solution remained in the root canals in Group 1 for one minute; and ultrasonic agitation was performed in Group 2 for one minute using a straight tip inserted at 1 mm from working length. The specimens were processed histologically and the sections were analyzed under optic microscope (×64 to quantify debris present in the root canal. Results The samples submitted to ultrasonic agitation (Group 2 presented significant decrease in the amount of debris in comparison with those of Group 1 (p < 0.05. Conclusions The hybrid instrumentation technique associated with passive ultrasonic agitation promoted greater debris removal in the apical third of the root canals.

  15. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology: Final quarterly technical progress no. 2, 1 July - 30 September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toseland, B.A.; Tischer, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  16. Evaluation of anaerobic sludge volume for improving azo dye decolorization in a hybrid anaerobic reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min-Hua; Cui, Dan; Gao, Lei; Wang, Ai-Jie; Cheng, Hao-Yi

    2017-02-01

    A hybrid anaerobic reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system (BES) has been verified for efficiently treating mixed azo dye wastewater, yet still facing many challenges, such as uncertain reactor construction and insufficient electron donors. In this study, an up-flow hybrid anaerobic reactor with built-in BES was developed for acid orange 7 (AO7) containing wastewater treatment. Cathode and real domestic wastewater both served as electron donor for driving azo dye decolorization. The decolorization efficiency (DE) of AO7 (200 mg/L) in the hybrid reactor was 80.34 ± 2.11% with volume ratio between anaerobic sludge and cathode (VRslu:cat) of 0.5:1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 h, which was 15.79% higher than that in BES without sludge zone. DE was improved to 86.02 ± 1.49% with VRslu:cat increased to 1:1. Further increase in the VRslu:cat to 1.5:1 and 2:1, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was continuously improved to 28.78 ± 1.96 and 32.19 ± 0.62%, but there was no obvious DE elevation (slightly increased to 87.62 ± 2.50 and 90.13 ± 3.10%). BES presented efficient electron utilization, the electron usage ratios (EURs) in which fluctuated between 11.02 and 13.06 mol e(-)/mol AO7. It was less than half of that in sludge zone of 24.73-32.06 mol e(-)/mol AO7. The present work optimized the volume ratio between anaerobic sludge and cathode that would be meaningful for the practical application of this hybrid system.

  17. Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. Publishable Final Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, J.C., E-mail: kuijper@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Somers, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Chauvet, V.; Cerullo, N.; Cetnar, J.; Abram, T.; Bakker, K.; Bomboni, E.; Bernnat, W.; Domanska, J.G.; Girardi, E.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Hesketh, K.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Hossain, K.; Jonnet, J.; Kim, Y.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Kopec, M.; Murgatroyd, J.; Millington, D.; Lecarpentier, D.; Lomonaco, G.; McEachern, D.; Meier, A.; Mignanelli, M.; Nabielek, H.; Oppe, J.; Petrov, B.Y.; Pohl, C.; Ruetten, H.J.; Schihab, S.; Toury, G.; Trakas, C.; Venneri, F.; Verfondern, K.; Werner, H.; Wiss, T.; Zakova, J.

    2010-11-15

    The PUMA project -the acronym stands for 'Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Thermal High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors'- was a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) within the EURATOM 6th Framework Program (EU FP6). The PUMA project ran from September 1, 2006, until August 31, 2009, and was executed by a consortium of 14 European partner organisations and one from the USA. This report serves 2 purposes. It is both the 'Publishable Final Activity Report' and the 'Final (Summary) Report', describing, per Work Package, the specific objectives, research activities, main conclusions, recommendations and supporting documents. PUMA's main objective was to investigate the possibilities for the utilisation and transmutation of plutonium and especially minor actinides in contemporary and future (high temperature) gas-cooled reactor designs, which are promising tools for improving the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle. This contributes to the reduction of Pu and MA stockpiles, and also to the development of safe and sustainable reactors for CO{sub 2}-free energy generation. The PUMA project has assessed the impact of the introduction of Pu/MA-burning HTRs at three levels: fuel and fuel performance (modelling), reactor (transmutation performance and safety) and reactor/fuel cycle facility park. Earlier projects already indicated favourable characteristics of HTRs with respect to Pu burning. So, core physics of Pu/MA fuel cycles for HTRs has been investigated to study the CP fuel and reactor characteristics and to assure nuclear stability of a Pu/MA HTR core, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The starting point of this investigation comprised the two main contemporary HTR designs, viz. the pebble-bed type HTR, represented by the South-African PBMR, and hexagonal block type HTR, represented by the GT-MHR. The results (once again) demonstrate the flexibility of the contemporary (and near future) HTR

  18. Upgrading of a wastewater treatment plant with a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Falletti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater treatment plant of Porto Tolle (RO, Italy was originally projected for 2200 person equivalent (p.e. and it was made of a pumping station, an activated sludge oxidation tank (395 m3, a settler (315 m3, and two sludge drying beds. Other units were not yet in use in 2008: a fine screen, a sand and grit removal unit, a new settler (570 m3, a disinfection tank and a sludge thickener. Effective hydraulic load was 245% higher, organic load was 46% lower and nitrogen load was 39% higher than project values. Moreover, higher pollutant loads and more strict emission limits for nitrogen were expected. So the plant was upgraded: the old settler was divided into a sector of 180 m3 that was converted into a predenitrification tank, and a sector of 100 m3 that was converted into a hybrid MBBR tank filled with 50% AnoxKaldnesTM K3 carriers; the new settler was connected to the hybrid MBBR, and the other units were started. Biofilm growth was observed two months after plant restarting, its concentration reached 1.1 gTS/m2 (0.26 kgTS/m3, while activated sludge concentration was 2.0–2.8 kgTSS/m3 in all the period of study. The upgraded plant treats 1587 m3/d wastewater with 57 kgCOD/d, 23 kgBOD/d and 13.3 kgN/d, and has a significant residual capacity; the effluent respects all emission limits.

  19. Scientific-technical cooperation with Russia. Transient analyses for alternative types of water-cooled reactors. Final report; WTZ mit Russland. Transientenanalysen fuer wassergekuehlte Kernreaktoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Ulrich [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung; Kozmenkov, Yaroslav [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung; Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Pivovarov, Valeri; Matveev, Yurij [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    The recently developed multi-group version DYN3D-MG of the reactor dynamics code DYN3D has been qualified for applications to water-cooled reactor concepts different from industrial PWR and BWR. An extended DYN3D version was applied to the graphite-moderated pressure tube reactor EGP-6 (NPP Bilibino) and conceptual design studies of an advanced Boiling Water Reactor with reduced moderation (RMWR) as well as the RUTA-70 reactor for low temperature heat supply. Concerning the RUTA reactor, safe heat removal by natural circulation of the coolant at low pressure has to be shown. For the corresponding validation of thermo-hydraulic system codes like ATHLET and RELAP5, experiments on flashing-induced natural circulation instabilities performed at the CIRCUS test facility at the TU Delft were simulated using the RELAP5 code. For the application to alternative water-cooled reactors, DYN3D model extensions and modifications were implemented, in particular adaptations of heat conduction and heat transfer models. Performing code-to-code comparisons with the Russian fine-mesh neutron diffusion code ACADEM contributed to the verification of DYN3D-MG. Validation has been performed by calculating reactor dynamics experiments at the NPP Bilibino. For the reactors EGP-6, RMWR and RUTA, analyses of various protected and unprotected control rod withdrawal and ejection transients were performed. The beyond design basis accident (BDBA) scenario ''Coast-down of all main coolant pumps at nominal power without scram'' for the RUTA reactor was analyzed using the code complexes DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5. It was shown, that the reactor passes over to a save asymptotic state at reduced power with coolant natural circulation. Analyzing the BDBA ''Unprotected withdrawal of a control rod group'' for the RMWR, the safety against Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) could not be shown with the necessary confidence. Finally, conclusions have been drawn

  20. Preliminary conceptual design of a Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR). Status report, January 1978--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.L. (ed.)

    1978-03-01

    The DTHR preliminary conceptual design consists of a magnetically confined fusion reactor fitted with a fertile thorium blanket. The fusion driver concept is based on a beam driven plasma, but at sufficiently high plasma densities that neutrons originating from the interactions of bulk plasma ions contribute significantly to the wall loading. The tokamak has a major radius of 5.2 m, a minor radius of 1.2 m, and the elongation is 1.6. All of the magnetic coil systems are superconducting Nb/sub 3/Sn based on the Large Coil Project (LCP) technology. The toroidal field (TF) coils employ an innovative concept, the ''compact D'' configuration. An engineered bundle divertor concept has been developed based on the bundle divertor design techniques developed for TNS and ISX-B. A thermal power of 150MW of 200 keV deuterium is injected into the plasma through six ducts of a positive ion, neutral beam injection system (NBIS). A water cooled, 316 stainless steel vacuum vessel concept was developed and initial scoping analyses look encouraging. The fusile fuel handling system was evaluated and defined. Details of the tritium injection system remain to be developed. Tritium breeding will be assessed in subsequent phases of the DTHR operation. The fusion driver provides a neutron first wall loading of 2MW/m/sup 2/ for fissile production in the blanket.

  1. Analysis of methanogenic activity in a thermophilic-dry anaerobic reactor: use of fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, B; García-Morales, J L; Sales, D; Solera, R

    2009-03-01

    Methanogenic activity in a thermophilic-dry anaerobic reactor was determined by comparing the amount of methane generated for each of the organic loading rates with the size of the total and specific methanogenic population, as determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. A high correlation was evident between the total methanogenic activity and retention time [-0.6988Ln(x)+2.667] (R(2) 0.8866). The total methanogenic activity increased from 0.04x10(-8) mLCH(4) cell(-1)day(-1) to 0.38x10(-8) mLCH(4) cell(-1)day(-1) while the retention time decreased, augmenting the organic loading rates. The specific methanogenic activities of H(2)-utilizing methanogens and acetate-utilizing methanogens increased until they stabilised at 0.64x10(-8) mLCH(4) cell(-1)day(-1) and 0.33x10(-8) mLCH(4) cell(-1)day(-1), respectively. The methanogenic activity of H(2)-utilizing methanogens was higher than acetate-utilizing methanogens, indicating that maintaining a low partial pressure of hydrogen does not inhibit the acetoclastic methanogenesis or the anaerobic process.

  2. Validation of coupled neutronic / thermal-hydraulic codes for VVER reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittag, S.; Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.; Kozmenkov, Y.; Rindelhardt, U.; Rohde, U.; Weiss, F.-P.; Langenbuch, S.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Schmidt, K.-D.; Vanttola, T.; Haemaelaeinen, A.; Kaloinen, E.; Kereszturi, A.; Hegyi, G.; Panka, I.; Hadek, J.; Strmensky, C.; Darilek, P.; Petkov, P.; Stefanova, S.; Kuchin, A.; Khalimonchuk, V.; Hlbocky, P.; Sico, D.; Danilin, S.; Ionov, V.; Nikonov, S.; Powney, D.

    2004-08-01

    In recent years, the simulation methods for the safety analysis of nuclear power plants have been continuously improved to perform realistic calculations. Therefore in VALCO work package 2 (WP 2), the usual application of coupled neutron-kinetic / thermal-hydraulic codes to VVER has been supplemented by systematic uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis has been carried out. The GRS uncertainty and sensitivity method based on the statistical code package SUSA was applied to the two transients studied earlier in SRR-1/95: A load drop of one turbo-generator in Loviisa-1 (VVER-440), and a switch-off of one feed water pump in Balakovo-4 (VVER-1000). The main steps of these analyses and the results obtained by applying different coupled code systems (SMABRE - HEXTRAN, ATHLET - DYN3D, ATHLET - KIKO3D, ATHLET - BIPR-8) are described in this report. The application of this method is only based on variations of input parameter values. No internal code adjustments are needed. An essential result of the analysis using the GRS SUSA methodology is the identification of the input parameters, such as the secondary-circuit pressure, the control-assembly position (as a function of time), and the control-assembly efficiency, that most sensitively affect safety-relevant output parameters, like reactor power, coolant heat-up, and primary pressure. Uncertainty bands for these output parameters have been derived. The variation of potentially uncertain input parameter values as a consequence of uncertain knowledge can activate system actions causing quite different transient evolutions. This gives indications about possible plant conditions that might be reached from the initiating event assuming only small disturbances. In this way, the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis reveals the spectrum of possible transient evolutions. Deviations of SRR-1/95 coupled code calculations from measurements also led to the objective to separate neutron kinetics from

  3. Development status and operational features of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1976-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the maturity of HTR-technology and to look out for possible technical problems, concerning introduction of large HTR power plants into the market. Further state and problems of introducing and closing the thorium fuel cycle is presented and judged. Finally, the state of development of advanced HTR-concepts for electricity production, the direct cycle HTR with helium turbine, and the gas-cooled fast breeder is discussed. In preparing the study, both HTR concepts with spherical and block-type fuel elements have been considered.

  4. Code development incorporating environmental, safety, and economic aspects of fusion reactors (FY 92--94). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, S.K.; Fowler, T.K.; Holdren, J.P. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    This is the Final Report for a three-year (FY 92--94) study of the Environmental, Safety, and Economic (ESE) aspects of fusion energy systems, emphasizing development of computerized approaches suitable for incorporation as modules in fusion system design codes. First, as is reported in Section 2, the authors now have operating a simplified but complete environment and safety evaluation code, BESAFE. The first tests of BESAFE as a module of the SUPERCODE, a design optimization systems code at LLNL, are reported in Section 3. Secondly, as reported in Section 4, the authors have maintained a strong effort in developing fast calculational schemes for activation inventory evaluation. In addition to these major accomplishments, considerable progress has been made on research on specific topics as follows. A tritium modeling code TRIDYN was developed in collaboration with the TSTA group at LANL and the Fusion Nuclear Technology group at UCLA. A simplified algorithm has been derived to calculate the transient temperature profiles in the blanket during accidents. The scheme solves iteratively a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations describing about 10 regions of the blanket by preserving energy balance. The authors have studied the physics and engineering aspects of divertor modeling for safety applications. Several modifications in the automation and characterization of environmental and safety indices have been made. They have applied this work to the environmental and safety comparisons of stainless steel with alternative structural materials for fusion reactors. A methodology in decision analysis utilizing influence and decision diagrams has been developed to model fusion reactor design problems. Most of the work during this funding period has been reported in 26 publications including theses, journal publications, conference papers, and technical reports, as listed in Section 11.

  5. Membrane/distillation hybrid process research and development. Final report, phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazanec, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report covers work conducted under the grant awarded to BP by DOE in late 1991 entitled {open_quotes}Membrane/Distillation Hybrid Process Research and Development.{close_quotes} The program was directed towards development and commercialization of the BP process for separation of vapor phase olefins from non-olefins via facilitated transport using an aqueous facilitator. The program has come to a very successful conclusion, with formation of a partnership between BP and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) to market and commercialize the technology. The focus of this report is the final portion of the program, during which engineering re-design, facilitator optimization, economic analysis, and marketing have been the primary activities. At the end of Phase II BP was looking to partner with an engineering firm to advance the selective olefin recovery (SOR) technology from the lab/demo stage to full commercialization. In August 1995 BP and SWEC reached an agreement to advance the technology by completing additional Phase III work with DOE and beginning marketing activities.

  6. Final construction of the C.R.E.O.L. 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesch, P.; Gallagher, J.; Elias, L. [Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The construction of an 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator for the C.R.E.O.L. high power far-infared free electron laser has just been completed. This FEL is expected to come on-line in the fall of 1995 and produce close to a kilowatt of continuous power at wavelengths of 225 - 800 microns. The undulator has extremely precise mechanical tolerances and high field uniformity allowing for high electron beam recovery rates. Almost complete beam recovery is required for DC operation at high currents. A novel method for measuring the magnetic properties of individual magnets and sorting the magnets to reduce magnetic field errors will be reported. The peak field and phase errors of the undulator without the pole pieces are reduced through a magnet ordering procedure. These errors are further reduced by inserting and tuning adjustable pole pieces. The reduction of field errors through these two techniques will be presented. An analysis of the final undulator errors and the results of measurements of the mechanical tolerances will be presented.

  7. Total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by hybrid electrobiochemical reactor in oilfield produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Ibrahim E

    2016-08-15

    The crude oil drilling and extraction operations are aimed to maximize the production may be counterbalanced by the huge production of contaminated produced water (PW). PW is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological technologies. The efficiency of suggested hybrid electrobiochemical (EBC) methods for the simultaneous removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and sulfate from PW generated by petroleum industry is studied. Also, the factors that affect the stability of PW quality are investigated. The results indicated that the effect of biological treatment is very important to keep control of the electrochemical by-products and more TPH removal in the EBC system. The maximum TPH and sulfate removal efficiency was achieved 75% and 25.3%, respectively when the detention time was about 5.1min and the energy consumption was 32.6mA/cm(2). However, a slight increasing in total bacterial count was observed when the EBC compact unit worked at a flow rate of average 20L/h. Pseudo steady state was achieved after 30min of current application in the solution. Also, the results of the study indicate that when the current intensity was increased above optimum level, no significant results occurred due to the release of gases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced computational methods for the assessment of reactor core behaviour during reactivity initiated accidents. Final report; Fortschrittliche Rechenmethoden zum Kernverhalten bei Reaktivitaetsstoerfaellen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, A.; Perin, Y.; Pasichnyk, I.; Velkov, K.; Zwermann, W.; Seubert, A.; Klein, M.; Gallner, L.; Krzycacz-Hausmann, B.

    2012-05-15

    The document at hand serves as the final report for the reactor safety research project RS1183 ''Advanced Computational Methods for the Assessment of Reactor Core Behavior During Reactivity-Initiated Accidents''. The work performed in the framework of this project was dedicated to the development, validation and application of advanced computational methods for the simulation of transients and accidents of nuclear installations. These simulation tools describe in particular the behavior of the reactor core (with respect to neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and thermal mechanics) at a very high level of detail. The overall goal of this project was the deployment of a modern nuclear computational chain which provides, besides advanced 3D tools for coupled neutronics/ thermal-hydraulics full core calculations, also appropriate tools for the generation of multi-group cross sections and Monte Carlo models for the verification of the individual calculational steps. This computational chain shall primarily be deployed for light water reactors (LWR), but should beyond that also be applicable for innovative reactor concepts. Thus, validation on computational benchmarks and critical experiments was of paramount importance. Finally, appropriate methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were to be integrated into the computational framework, in order to assess and quantify the uncertainties due to insufficient knowledge of data, as well as due to methodological aspects.

  9. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  10. U.S. Department of Energy University Reactor Instrumentation Program Final Report for 1992-94 Grant for the University of Florida Training Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernetson, William G.

    1999-04-01

    Overall, the instrumentation obtained under the first year 1992-93 University Reactor Instrumentation Program grant assured that the goals of the program were well understood and met as well as possible at the level of support provided for the University of Florida Training Reactor facility. Though the initial grant support of $21,000 provided toward the purchase of $23,865 of proposed instrumentation certainly did not meet many of the facility's needs, the instrumentation items obtained and implemented did meet some critical needs and hence the goals of the Program to support modernization and improvement of reactor facilities such as the UFTR within the academic community. Similarly, the instrumentation obtained under the second year 1993-94 University Reactor Instrumentation Program grant again met some of the critical needs for instrumentation support at the UFTR facility. Again, though the grant support of $32,799 for proposed instrumentation at the same cost projection does not need all of the facility's needs, it does assure continued facility viability and improvement in operations. Certainly, reduction of forced unavailability of the reactor is the most obvious achievement of the University Reactor Instrumentation Program to date at the UFTR. Nevertheless, the ability to close out several expressed-inspection concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with acquisition of the low level survey meter and the area radiation monitoring system is also very important. Most importantly, with modest cost sharing the facility has been able to continue and even accelerate the improvement and modernization of a facility, especially in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, that is used by nearly every post-secondary school in the State of Florida and several in other states, by dozens of departments within the University of Florida, and by several dozen high schools around the State of Florida on a regular basis. Better, more reliable service to such

  11. Participation in the US Department of Energy reactor sharing program. Final progress report, October 1996--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, R.U.; Benneche, P.E.; Hosticka, B.

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the DOE supported Reactor Sharing Program is to increase the availability of university nuclear reactor facilities to non-reactor-owning educational institutions. The educational and research programs of these user institutions is enhanced by the use of the nuclear facilities. Several methods have been used by the UVA Reactor Facility to achieve this objective. First, many college and secondary school groups toured the Reactor Facility and viewed the UVAR reactor and associated experimental facilities. Second, advanced undergraduate and graduate classes from area colleges and universities visited the facility to perform experiments in nuclear engineering and physics which would not be possible at the user institution. Third, irradiation and analysis services at the Facility have been made available for research by faculty and students from user institutions. Fourth, some institutions have received activated material from UVA from use at their institutions. These areas are discussed in this report.

  12. Sequencing of megabase plus DNA by hybridization: Method development ENT. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-01-31

    Sequencing by hybridization (SBH) is the only sequencing method based on the experimental determination of the content of oligonucleotide sequences. The data acquisition relies on the natural process of base pairing. It is possible to determine the content of complementary oligosequences in the target DNA by the process of hybridization with oligonucleotide probes of known sequences.

  13. Hybrid Monte Carlo deterministic and probabilistic core assessment for flaws and leak-before break for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, P.; Mok, D.H.B. [AMEC NSS, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Even though pressure tubes are major components of a CANDU reactor, only small proportions of pressure tubes are sampled for in-service inspections due to execution cost, outage duration, and site cumulative radiation exposure limits. In general, a realistic core assessment was not carried out based on all known information related to in-service degradation mechanisms. Recently, a hybrid deterministic and probabilistic core assessment (HDPCA) has been introduced to address the uncertainties associated with uninspected pressure tubes and diverse degradation mechanisms. In the present paper, the HDPCA was carried out for a CANDU unit based on cumulative operating experience and history in order to satisfy the requirements of Clause 7 of CSA Standard N285.8 by considering the uncertainties associated with the estimated distribution parameters, the limited inspected data, and pressure tube properties. The HDPCA is composed of two parts: a simulation part and a deterministic evaluation part. The outcome of the core assessment is the expected pressure tube failure frequency due to pressure tube flaws. In the simulations, pressure tube material properties were sampled from distributions derived from material surveillance and testing programs. The flaw dimensions and intensities were sampled from distributions fitted to in-service inspection data. The pressure tubes were then populated with flaws. Each simulated flaw was evaluated for DHC initiation under constant loading conditions. When Delayed Hydride Cracking initiation from a flaw was predicted, the pressure tube was evaluated for rupture in the Leak-Before-Break evaluation. Based on all the predicted pressure tube ruptures from simulations, the failure frequency was calculated on an annual basis. The largest expected mean and the 95% upper bound of the mean failure frequencies for any evaluation subinterval to the end of pressure tube design life of 210,000 EFPH are significantly below the allowable failure frequency

  14. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor design. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report supplements the final safety evaluation report (FSER) for the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design. The FSER was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff as NUREG-1503 in July 1994 to document the NRC staff`s review of the US ABWR design. The US ABWR design was submitted by GE Nuclear Energy (GE) in accordance with the procedures of Subpart B to Part 52 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. This supplement documents the NRC staff`s review of the changes to the US ABWR design documentation since the issuance of the FSER. GE made these changes primarily as a result of first-of-a-kind-engineering (FOAKE) and as a result of the design certification rulemaking for the ABWR design. On the basis of its evaluations, the NRC staff concludes that the confirmatory issues in NUREG-1503 are resolved, that the changes to the ABWR design documentation are acceptable, and that GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B to 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR design.

  15. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  16. Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

    1993-08-04

    Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients.

  17. The features of neutronic calculations for fast reactors with hybrid cores on the basis of BFS-62-3A critical assembly experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitenkova, E. F.; Novikov, N. V. [Nuclear Safety Inst. of Russian Academy of Sciences, B. Tulskaya 52, Moscow, 115119 (Russian Federation); Blokhin, A. I. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering Named after A.I. Leypunsky, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249030 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    The different (U-Pu) fuel compositions are considered for next generation of sodium fast breeder reactors. The considerable discrepancies in axial and radial neutron spectra for hybrid reactor systems compared to the cores with UO{sub 2} fuel cause increasing uncertainty of generating the group nuclear constants in those reactor systems. The calculation results of BFS-62-3A critical assembly which is considered as full-scale model of BN-600 hybrid core with steel reflector specify quite different spectra in local areas. For those systems the MCNP 5 calculations demonstrate significant sensitivity of effective multiplication factor K{sub eff} and spectral indices to nuclear data libraries. For {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu the results of calculated radial fission rate distributions against the reconstructed ones are analyzed. Comparative analysis of spectral indices, neutron spectra and radial fission rate distributions are performed using the different versions of ENDF/B, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, JEFF-3.1.1 libraries and BROND-3 for Fe, Cr isotopes. For analyzing the fission rate sensitivity to the plutonium presence in the fuel {sup 239}Pu is substituted for {sup 235}U (enrichment 90%) in the FA areas containing the plutonium. For {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu radial fission rate distributions the explanation of pick values discrepancies is based on the group fission constants analyses and possible underestimation of some features at the experimental data recovery method (Westcott factors, temperature dependence). (authors)

  18. Final report on the Blisk- and Composite-Hybrid Technology project. Final report; Schlussbericht zum Blisk- und Composite-Hybrid-Technologie Vorhaben. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, U.; Schoth, U.

    2000-04-01

    Blade Integrated Disks (BLISK) have been developed and tested in Rolls-Royce GmbH as part of the German government funded aviation technology program 'Engine 3E' (Environment, Economy and Efficiency). Blisk technology offers up to 30% weight saving potential for compressor rotors. Using modern manufacturing strategies Blisks also offer the opportunity for cost savings of up to 10%. Part life cycle costs are not only manufacturing costs but include also maintenance and repair. Blisks can therefore only be introduced into civil engines if damage can be repaired economically. Therefore, weld repair of Blisks has been investigated during the program. Composite-Hybrid unison rings for variable stator vanes have been found to be another innovative technology for compressors of modern Aero engines. Composite-Hybrid Technology has been adopted for unison rings and demonstrated in rig tests. The weight and cost reductions have been demonstrated. Both technologies have been demonstrated successfully in a core demonstrator. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Luftfahrtforschungs- und -technologieprogramms 'Engine 3E' (Environment, Economy and Efficiency) der Bundesregierung wurde bei der Rolls Royce Deutschland GmbH auf dem Gebiet der Verdichterbauweisen die Technologie zur Auslegung und Herstellung integraler Schaufel-Scheiben (BLade Integrated DiSK - BLISK-) entwickelt und getestet. Diese Technologie bietet das Potential, das Gewicht der Scheiben um bis zu 30% zu reduzieren. Unter Einsatz moderner Fertigungsstrategien bieten integrale Schaufel-Scheiben in ausgewaehlten Einsatzbereichen zusaetzlich Potential fuer bis zu 10% Kostenreduktion. Bei der Betrachtung der Kosten muessen neben den Herstellungskosten auch die gesamten waehrend des Einsatzes des Triebwerkes entstehenden Kosten beruecksichtigt werden. Die Blisktechnologie kann deshalb nur erfolgreich in zivilen Triebwerken eingesetzt werden, wenn Schaeden oekonomisch repariert werden koennen. Als weiterer

  19. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  20. Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program are summarized. This phase of the program ws a study leading to the preliminary design of a 5-passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis. This report presents the following: overall summary of the Phase I activity; summary of the individual tasks; summary of the hybrid vehicle design; summary of the alternative design options; summary of the computer simulations; summary of the economic analysis; summary of the maintenance and reliability considerations; summary of the design for crash safety; and bibliography.

  1. Final report on in-reactor uniaxial tensile deformation of pure iron and Fe-Cr alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Huang, X.; Tähtinen, S.

    of materials used in the structural components of a fission or fusion reactor where the materials will be exposed concurrently to displacement damage and external and/or internal stresses. In an effort to evaluate and understand the dynamic response of materials under these conditions, we have recently...... performed a series of uniaxial tensile tests on Fe-Cr and pure iron specimens in the BR-2 reactor at Mol (Belgium). The present report first provides a brief description of the test facilities and the procedure used for performing the in-reactor tests. The results on the mechanical response of materials...... and deformed, irradiated and undeformed, post-irradiation deformed and the in-reactor deformed specimens are also described. During the in-reactor tests the specimens of both Fe-Cr alloy and pure iron deform in a homogeneous manner and do not exhibit the phenomenon of yield drop. An increase in the pre...

  2. TOKOPS: Tokamak Reactor Operations Study: The influence of reactor operations on the design and performance of tokamaks with solid-breeder blankets: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, R.W.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Firestone, M.A. (eds.)

    1986-09-01

    Reactor system operation and procedures have a profound impact on the conception and design of power plants. These issues are studied here using a model tokamak system employing a solid-breeder blanket. The model blanket is one which has evolved from the STARFIRE and BCSS studies. The reactor parameters are similar to those characterizing near-term fusion engineering reactors such as INTOR or NET (Next European Tokamak). Plasma startup, burn analysis, and methods for operation at various levels of output power are studied. A critical, and complicating, element is found to be the self-consistent electromagnetic response of the system, including the presence of the blanket and the resulting forces and loadings. Fractional power operation, and the strategy for burn control, is found to vary depending on the scaling law for energy confinement, and an extensive study is reported. Full-power reactor operation is at a neutron wall loading pf 5 MW/m/sup 2/ and a surface heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. The blanket is a pressurized steel module with bare beryllium rods and low-activation HT-9-(9-C-) clad LiAlO/sub 2/ rods. The helium coolant pressure is 5 MPa, entering the module at 297/sup 0/C and exiting at 550/sup 0/C. The system power output is rated at 1000 MW(e). In this report, we present our findings on various operational scenarios and their impact on system design. We first start with the salient aspects of operational physics. Time-dependent analyses of the blanket and balance of plant are then presented. Separate abstracts are included for each chapter.

  3. Investigating the role of co-substrate-substrate ratio and filter media on the performance of anammox hybrid reactor treating nitrogen rich wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Swati; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using the anammox hybrid reactor (AHR), which combines suspended and attached growth media, for the biodegradation of ammonical nitrogen in wastewater. The study was performed in four laboratory-scale AHRs, inoculated with mixed seed culture (1:1). The anammox process was established by feeding the AHR with synthetic wastewater, containing NH(4)-N and NO(2)-N (1:1), at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. The reactors were gradually acclimated to a higher ammonium concentration (1200 mg/l) until the pseudo-steady state was attained. Subsequently, the reactors were operated at various HRTs (0.25-3.0 days) to optimize the HRT and nitrogen loading rate (NLR). The study demonstrated that HRT of 1 day, corresponding to 95.1% of nitrogen removal was optimal. Pearson correlation analysis indicated the strong and positive correlation of HRT and sludge retention time (SRT), whereas the NLR and biomass yield correlated negatively with the nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE). The mass balance of nitrogen showed that a major fraction (79.1%) of the input nitrogen was converted into N2 gas, and 11.25% was utilized in synthesizing the biomass. The filter media in the AHR contributed to an additional 15.4% of ammonium removal and a reduction of 29% in the sludge washout rate. The nitrogen removal kinetics in the AHR followed the modified Stover-Kincannon model, whereas the Lawrence-McCarty model best described the bacterial growth kinetics. The study concludes that the hybrid configuration of the reactor demonstrated promising results and could be suitably applied for industrial applications. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne Thermal Source Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory - East project final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellhauer, C.; Garlock, G.; Mathiesen, J.

    1998-12-02

    The ATSR D&D Project was directed toward the following goals: (1) Removal of radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the ATSR Reactor facility; (2) Decontamination of the ATSR Reactor facility to unrestricted use levels; and (3)Documentation of all project activities affecting quality (i.e., waste packaging, instrument calibration, audit results, and personnel exposure). These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the ATSR Reactor facility and to allow, upon completion of the project, unescorted and unmonitored access to the area. The reactor aluminum, reactor lead, graphite piles in room E-111, and the contaminated concrete in room E-102 were the primary areas of concern. NES, Incorporated (Danbury, CT) characterized the ATSR Reactor facility from January to March 1998. The characterization identified a total of thirteen radionuclides, with a total activity of 64.84 mCi (2.4 GBq). The primary radionuclides of concern were Co{sup 60}, Eu{sup 152}, Cs{sup 137}, and U{sup 238}. No additional radionuclides were identified during the D&D of the facility. The highest dose rates observed during the project were associated with the reactor tank and shield tank. Contact radiation levels of 30 mrem/hr (0.3 mSv/hr) were measured on reactor internals during dismantlement of the reactor. A level of 3 mrem/hr (0.03 mSv/hr) was observed in a small area (hot spot) in room E-102. DOE Order 5480.2A establishes the maximum whole body exposure for occupational workers at 5 rem/yr (50 mSv/yr); the administrative limit at ANL-E is 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr).

  6. Code development incorporating environmental, safety, and economic aspects of fusion reactors (FY 89--91). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, S.K.; Fowler, T.K.; Holdren, J.P. [eds.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the following aspects of Fusion reactors.: Activation Analysis; Tritium Inventory; Environmental and Safety Indices and Their Graphical Representation; Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Decision Analysis; Plasma Burn Control -- Application to ITER; and Other Applications.

  7. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods. Stage 11 and 12. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunde, C.; Pazsit, I.; Demaziere, C.; Dahl, O.; Mileshina, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2006-06-15

    This report describes the results obtained during Stage 11 and 12 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. The long-term goals are elaborated in more detail in e.g. the Final Reports of stage 1 and 2 (SKI Report 95:14 and 96:50). Higher order eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the diffusion equation, describing a static core, have lost their significance when doing calculations in realistic systems, since there are usually made by nodal methods or other direct numerical techniques. However, there are situations when knowledge of the higher order modes is still useful. Such case is the separation of the global and regional flux oscillations in the case of BWR instability. Another case is the investigation of the stability properties of large inhomogeneous cores, which is usually quantified with the so-called eigenvalue separation, ES=1/k{sub 1} - 1/k{sub 0} where k{sub 0} and k{sub 1}, are the fundamental and first higher order eigenvalues, respectively. Numerical codes used for ICMF calculations usually do not have the option of calculating the higher order eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. In idealised systems, these can be calculated with semi-analytical methods. In order to get insight into the characteristics of the higher order eigenmodes of the neutron flux and the adjoint, these were calculated in a reflected homogeneous system with two-group theory. The adjoint eigenmodes are necessary if an orthogonality property needs to be used, such as the separation of the modes from a flux shape which is a sum of several eigenmodes. At the same time, the so-called numerical noise simulator, developed at the Dept., was extended such that it became suitable for the calculation of the higher order eigenmodes, both direct and adjoint ones. This simulator can treat real inhomogeneous cores, with an input deck compatible with that of SIMULATE. The simulator was used to calculate the

  8. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  9. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  10. Final Report Nucleic Acid System - Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay Project Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, R P; Langlois, R G; Nasarabadi, S; Benett, W J; Colston, B W; Johnson, D C; Brown, S B; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-04-17

    This report covers phase 2 (year 2) of the Nucleic Acid System--Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay project. The objective of the project is to reduce to practice the detection and identification of biological warfare pathogens by the nucleic acid recognition technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in a multiplex mode using flow cytometry. The Hybrid instrument consists of a flow-through PCR module capable of handling a multiplexed PCR assay, a hybridizing module capable of hybridizing multiplexed PCR amplicons and beads, and a flow cytometer module for bead-based identification, all controlled by a single computer. Multiplex immunoassay using bead-based Luminex flow cytometry is available, allowing rapid screening for many agents. PCR is highly specific and complements and verifies immunoassay. It can also be multiplexed and detection provided using the bead-based Luminex flow cytometer. This approach allows full access to the speed and 100-fold multiplex capability of flow cytometry for rapid screening as well as the accuracy and specificity of PCR. This project has two principal activities: (1) Design, build and test a prototype hybrid PCR/flow cytometer with the basic capabilities for rapid, broad spectrum detection and identification, and (2) Develop and evaluate multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products. This project requires not only building operationally functional instrumentation but also developing the chemical assays for detection of priority pathogens. This involves development and evaluation of multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products.

  11. Study of a Multi-phase Hybrid Heat Exchanger-Reaction (HEX Reactor): Part 1 - Experimental Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    scalability, and mixing capability compared to more traditional shell - in- tube heat exchangers or stirred tank batch reactors. This study explores the... tube heat exchangers or stirred tank batch reactors. This study explores the hydrodynamic behavior of gas-evolving reacting flows in chevron plate heat ...thermal performance and ease of maintenance. PHEs can be easily disassembled for inspection andmaintenance (in con- trast, shell -and- tube heat

  12. Back propagation neural network modelling of biodegradation and fermentative biohydrogen production using distillery wastewater in a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridevi, K; Sivaraman, E; Mullai, P

    2014-08-01

    In a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor, biodegradation in association with biohydrogen production was studied using distillery wastewater as substrate. The experiments were carried out at ambient temperature (34±1°C) and acidophilic pH of 6.5 with constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24h at various organic loading rates (OLRs) (1-10.2kgCODm(-3)d(-1)) in continuous mode. A maximum hydrogen production rate of 1300mLd(-1) was achieved. A back propagation neural network (BPNN) model with network topology of 4-20-1 using Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm was developed and validated. A total of 231 data points were studied to examine the performance of the HUASB reactor in acclimatisation and operation phase. The statistical qualities of BPNN models were significant due to the high correlation coefficient, R(2), and lower mean absolute error (MAE) between experimental and simulated data. From the results, it was concluded that BPNN modelling could be applied in HUASB reactor for predicting the biodegradation and biohydrogen production using distillery wastewater.

  13. Development of hollow fiber catalytic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup. Final report, September 1989--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yi Hua; Moser, W.R.; Pien, S.; Shelekhin, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The objective of this project was to develop economically and technically viable catalytic membrane reactors for high temperature, high pressure gaseous contaminant control in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. These catalytic membrane reactors decompose H{sub 2}S and separate the reaction products. The reactors were designed to operate in the hostile process environment of the IGCC systems, and at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000{degrees}C. Severe conditions encountered in the IGCC process (e.g., 900{degrees}C, containing of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) make it impossible to use polymeric membranes in the process. A list of inorganic membranes that can be employed in the membrane reactor includes Pd metallic membranes, molecular-sieve glass membranes (PPG Industries), porous Vycor glass membranes and porous sol-gel derived membranes such as alumina, zirconia. Alumina and zirconia membranes, however, cannot withstand for a long time at high temperatures in the presence of water vapors. Palladium membranes are a very promising class of inorganic membranes for gas separations that is currently under development. In this project two different types of membranes were used in the design of the membrane reactor -- molecular-sieve glass membrane and Vycor glass porous membrane.

  14. 10-75-kWe-reactor-powered organic Rankine-cycle electric power systems (ORCEPS) study. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-30

    This 10-75 kW(e) Reactor-ORCEPS study was concerned with the evaluation of several organic Rankine cycle energy conversion systems which utilized a /sup 235/U-ZrH reactor as a heat source. A liquid metal (NaK) loop employing a thermoelectric converter-powered EM pump was used to transfer the reactor energy to the organic working fluid. At moderate peak cycle temperatures (750/sup 0/F), power conversion unit cycle efficiencies of up to 25% and overall efficiencies of 20% can be obtained. The required operating life of seven years should be readily achievable. The CP-25 (toluene) working fluid cycle was found to provide the highest performance levels at the lowest system weights. Specific weights varies from 100 to 50 lb/kW(e) over the power level range 10 to 75 kW(e). (DLC)

  15. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices A and B. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    In this report vehicle use patterns or missions are defined and studied. The three most promising missions were found to be: all-purpose city driving which has the maximum potential market penetration; commuting which requires mainly a two-passenger car; and family and civic business driving which have minimal range requirements. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, DC origin-destination studies data presented by General Research Corporation in Volume II of this report. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  16. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  17. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-10

    Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with pure electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential, in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: mission analysis and performance specification studies; design tradeoff studies; and preliminary design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report. A fourth task, sensitivity studies, is also included in the report on the design tradeoff studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and results, the body of this report has been prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.

  18. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Final report on in-reactor tensile tests on OFHC - Copper and CuCrZr alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N; Edwards, D.J.; Tähtinen, S.

    2004-01-01

    of uniaxial tensile tests on pure copper and a CuCrZr alloy in a fission reactor at 363 and 393K. In the following, we first describe the experiments and then present results illustrating the build up ofstress as a function of concurrently increasing strain and displacement dose level. Results on both pre...

  20. Final report on in-reactor creep-fatigue deformation behaviour of a CuCrZr alloy: COFAT 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Johansen, Bjørn Sejr; Tähtinen, S.

    The main objective of the present work was to determine experimentally the mechanical response and resulting microstructural changes in CuCrZr (HT1) alloy exposed concurrently to flux of neutrons and creep-fatigue cyclic loading directly in a fission reactor. Using specially designed test...

  1. Reactor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Juan M.; López, Carmen; Eibes, Gemma; Taboada-Puig, Roberto; Moreira, M. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    In this chapter, the engineering aspects of processes catalyzed by peroxidases will be presented. In particular, a discussion of the existing technologies that utilize peroxidases for different purposes, such as the removal of recalcitrant compounds or the synthesis of polymers, is analyzed. In the first section, the essential variables controlling the process will be investigated, not only those that are common in any enzymatic system but also those specific to peroxidative reactions. Next, different reactor configurations and operational modes will be proposed, emphasizing their suitability and unsuitability for different systems. Finally, two specific reactors will be described in detail: enzymatic membrane reactors and biphasic reactors. These configurations are especially valuable for the treatment of xenobiotics with high and poor water solubility, respectively.

  2. Development of safety analysis codes and experimental validation for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh

    2006-03-01

    The very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is envisioned as a single- or dual-purpose reactor for electricity and hydrogen generation. The concept has average coolant temperatures above 9000C and operational fuel temperatures above 12500C. The concept provides the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperature to support process heat applications, such as coal gasification, desalination or cogenerative processes, the VHTR’s higher temperatures allow broader applications, including thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the very high temperatures of this reactor concept can be detrimental to safety if a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurs. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air will enter the core through the break by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heatup of the reactor core and the release of toxic gasses (CO and CO2) and fission products. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. Prior to the start of this Korean/United States collaboration, no computer codes were available that had been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably simulate a LOCA in the VHTR. Therefore, we have worked for the past three years on developing and validating advanced computational methods for simulating LOCAs in a VHTR. Research Objectives As described above, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release in the VHTR. The objectives of this Korean/United States collaboration were to develop and validate advanced computational methods for VHTR safety analysis. The methods that have been developed are now

  3. Improved Advanced Actuated Hybrid Mirrors Final Report CRADA No. TC02130.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ealey, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    This was a collaborative effort to develop and demonstrate an improved Advanced Actuated Hybrid Mirrors (AAHM) for commercial or Government purposes. The AAHM consists of a nanolaminate film replicating a precision optical surface bonded to a Silicon Carbide (SiC) substrate with active figure control capability. The goal of this project was to further the development of specific AAHM technologies. The intent of the CRADA was to combine the expertise of LLNL and NG Xinetics in the manufacture and test of a very high quality AAHM, incorporating lessons learned from earlier joint efforts.

  4. Final Report on in-reactor creep-fatigue deformation behaviour of a CuCrZr alloy: COFAT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.N. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU, Materials Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Taehtinen, S.; Moilanen, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Jacquet, P.; Dekeyser, J. [SCK-CEN, Reactor Technology Design Dept., Mol (Belgium); Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Reactor Technology Design Dept., Richland (United States); Li, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Materials Science and Technology Div., Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Stubbins, J.F. [Univ. of Illinois, Dept. of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, Urbane, Illinois (United States)

    2007-08-15

    At present, practically nothing is known about the deformation behaviour of materials subjected simultaneously to external cyclic force and neutron irradiation. The main objective of the present work is to determine experimentally the mechanical response and resulting microstructural changes in CuCrZr(HT1) alloy exposed concurrently to flux of neutrons and creep-fatigue cyclic loading directly in a fission reactor. Special experimental facilities were designed and fabricated for this purpose. A number of in-reactor creep-fatigue experiments were successfully carried out in the BR-2 reactor at Mol (Belgium). In the present report we first describe the experimental facilities and the details of the in-reactor creep-fatigue experiments carried out at 363 and 343K at a strain amplitude of 0.5% with hold-times of 10 and 100s, respectively. For comparison purposes, similar creep-fatigue tests were performed outside of the reactor. (i.e. in the absence of neutron irradiation). During in-reactor tests, the mechanical response was continuously registered throughout the whole test. The results are first presented in the form of hysteresis loops confirming that the nature of deformation during these tests was truly cyclic. The temporal evolution of the stress response in the specimens is presented in the form of the average maximum stress amplitude as a function of the number of cycles as well as a function of displacement dose accumulated during the tests. The results illustrate the nature and magnitude of cyclic hardening as well as softening as a function of the number of cycles and displacement dose. Details of the microstructure were investigated using TEM and STEM techniques. The fracture surface morphology was investigated using SEM technique. Both mechanical and microstructural results are briefly discussed. The main conclusion emerging from the limited amount of present results is that neither the irradiation nor the duration of the hold-time have any significant

  5. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  6. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mines, Greg [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Guangdong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods of high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal resources

  7. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  8. Development and validation of three-dimensional CFD techniques for reactor safety applications. Final report; Entwicklung und Validierung dreidimensionaler CFD Verfahren fuer Anwendungen in der Reaktorsicherheit. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Sebastian; Palazzo, Simone; Papukchiev, Angel; Scheurer Martina

    2016-12-15

    The overall goal of the project RS 1506 ''Development and Validation of Three Dimensional CFD Methods for Reactor Safety Applications'' is the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software for the simulation of three -dimensional thermo-hydraulic heat and fluid flow phenomena in nuclear reactors. For this purpose a wide spectrum of validation and test cases was selected covering fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in the downcomer and in the core of pressurized water reactors. In addition, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the CFD code ANSYS CFX was further developed and validated. The first choice were UPTF experiments where turbulent single- and two-phase flows were investigated in a 1:1 scaled model of a German KONVOI reactor. The scope of the CFD calculations covers thermal mixing and stratification including condensation in single- and two-phase flows. In the complex core region, the flow in a fuel assembly with spacer grid was simulated as defined in the OECD/NEA Benchmark MATIS-H. Good agreement are achieved when the geometrical and physical boundary conditions were reproduced as realistic as possible. This includes, in particular, the consideration of heat transfer to walls. The influence of wall modelling on CFD results was investigated on the TALL-3D T01 experiment. In this case, the dynamic three dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena were simulated in a Generation IV liquid metal cooled reactor. Concurrently to the validation work, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the ANSYS CFX software was optimized and expanded for two-phase flows. Different coupling approaches were investigated, in order to overcome the large difference between CPU-time requirements of system and CFD codes. Finally, the coupled simulation system was validated by applying it to the simulation of the PSI double T-junction experiment, the LBE-flow in the MYRRA Spallation experiment and a demonstration test case

  9. Monochromosomal hybrids for the analysis of the human genome. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athwal, R.S. [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Fels Inst. for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project is to produce panels of mouse/human and/or Chinese hamster/human hybrid cell lines each harboring a single different human chromosome. The human chromosome present in rodent cell will be marked with a dominant selectable marker and maintained by selection. In these experiments human chromosomes first ``tagged`` with a selectable marker in human cells are subsequently transferred to rodent cells by microcell fusion method. Several different experimental schemes have been developed to ``tag`` human chromosomes with a selectable marker. Amphotropic retroviral vectors provide a highly efficient system to introduce selectable markers into normal diploid human cells. The integration of retroviral vector into the cell genome occurs at random by recombination at a defined nucleotide sequence in the LTRs and only a single copy of the vector integrates in a cell. This property of retroviral vectors allows to isolate a segment of the chromosomal DNA flanking the vector integration site by PCR amplification. In these studies the amphotropic retroviral vector pZIPgpt that carries a dominant selectable marker gpt, is used to tag the human chromosomes in normal diploid cells. Human DNA flanking the integrated vector is rescued by PCR amplification and cloned into a plasmid vector. Cloned human DNA is then used to probe Southern blots of DNAs from a panel of hybrid cell lines to identify the chromosome of its origin. This allows them to identify clonal human cell lines, each carrying the marker integrated into a different chromosome. Marked chromosomes are then transferred to rodent cells by MMCT.

  10. Final Report on Developing Microstructure-Property Correlation in Reactor Materials using in situ High-Energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meimei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Almer, Jonathan D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yang, Yong [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a summary of research activities on understanding microstructure – property correlation in reactor materials using in situ high-energy X-rays. The report is a Level 2 deliverable in FY16 (M2CA-13-IL-AN_-0403-0111), under the Work Package CA-13-IL-AN_- 0403-01, “Microstructure-Property Correlation in Reactor Materials using in situ High Energy Xrays”, as part of the DOE-NE NEET Program. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the application of in situ high energy X-ray measurements of nuclear reactor materials under thermal-mechanical loading, to understand their microstructure-property relationships. The gained knowledge is expected to enable accurate predictions of mechanical performance of these materials subjected to extreme environments, and to further facilitate development of advanced reactor materials. The report provides detailed description of the in situ X-ray Radiated Materials (iRadMat) apparatus designed to interface with a servo-hydraulic load frame at beamline 1-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. This new capability allows in situ studies of radioactive specimens subject to thermal-mechanical loading using a suite of high-energy X-ray scattering and imaging techniques. We conducted several case studies using the iRadMat to obtain a better understanding of deformation and fracture mechanisms of irradiated materials. In situ X-ray measurements on neutron-irradiated pure metal and model alloy and several representative reactor materials, e.g. pure Fe, Fe-9Cr model alloy, 316 SS, HT-UPS, and duplex cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) CF-8 were performed under tensile loading at temperatures of 20-400°C in vacuum. A combination of wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and imaging techniques were utilized to interrogate microstructure at different length scales in real time while the specimen was subject to thermal-mechanical loading. In addition, in situ X-ray studies were

  11. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part I: Pebble Bed Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    The Deep-Burn (DB) concept [ ] focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor (LWR) fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into tri-isotopic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400) [ ]. Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (FY) (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking, and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a standard, UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. Regarding the coated particle performance, the FY 2009 investigations showed that no

  12. A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB) Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeeb, S.A.; Latiff, AB. Aziz Abdul; Daud, Zawawi; Ahmad, Zulkifli [Faculty of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB). Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28{+-}2 C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37{+-}1 C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

  13. A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Habeeb, AB. Aziz Abdul Latiff, Zawawi Daud, Zulkifli Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME. This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB. Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR and hydraulic retention time (HRT of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28±2°C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37±1°C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

  14. Analysis of dpa Rates in the HFIR Reactor Vessel using a Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Method*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risner J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Oak Ridge High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR, which began full-power operation in 1966, provides one of the highest steady-state neutron flux levels of any research reactor in the world. An ongoing vessel integrity analysis program to assess radiation-induced embrittlement of the HFIR reactor vessel requires the calculation of neutron and gamma displacements per atom (dpa, particularly at locations near the beam tube nozzles, where radiation streaming effects are most pronounced. In this study we apply the Forward-Weighted Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (FW-CADIS technique in the ADVANTG code to develop variance reduction parameters for use in the MCNP radiation transport code. We initially evaluated dpa rates for dosimetry capsule locations, regions in the vicinity of the HB-2 beamline, and the vessel beltline region. We then extended the study to provide dpa rate maps using three-dimensional cylindrical mesh tallies that extend from approximately 12 in. below to approximately 12 in. above the height of the core. The mesh tally structures contain over 15,000 mesh cells, providing a detailed spatial map of neutron and photon dpa rates at all locations of interest. Relative errors in the mesh tally cells are typically less than 1%.

  15. Analysis of dpa rates in the HFIR reactor vessel using a hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakeman, Edward [Retired

    2016-01-01

    The Oak Ridge High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), which began full-power operation in 1966, provides one of the highest steady-state neutron flux levels of any research reactor in the world. An ongoing vessel integrity analysis program to assess radiation-induced embrittlement of the HFIR reactor vessel requires the calculation of neutron and gamma displacements per atom (dpa), particularly at locations near the beam tube nozzles, where radiation streaming effects are most pronounced. In this study we apply the Forward-Weighted Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (FW-CADIS) technique in the ADVANTG code to develop variance reduction parameters for use in the MCNP radiation transport code. We initially evaluated dpa rates for dosimetry capsule locations, regions in the vicinity of the HB-2 beamline, and the vessel beltline region. We then extended the study to provide dpa rate maps using three-dimensional cylindrical mesh tallies that extend from approximately 12 below to approximately 12 above the axial extent of the core. The mesh tally structures contain over 15,000 mesh cells, providing a detailed spatial map of neutron and photon dpa rates at all locations of interest. Relative errors in the mesh tally cells are typically less than 1%.

  16. High temperature ceramic membrane reactors for coal liquid upgrading. Final report, September 21, 1989--November 20, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsotsis, T.T. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Liu, P.K.T. [Aluminum Co. of America, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Webster, I.A. [Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Membrane reactors are today finding extensive applications for gas and vapor phase catalytic reactions (see discussion in the introduction and recent reviews by Armor [92], Hsieh [93] and Tsotsis et al. [941]). There have not been any published reports, however, of their use in high pressure and temperature liquid-phase applications. The idea to apply membrane reactor technology to coal liquid upgrading has resulted from a series of experimental investigations by our group of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model membranes. Coal liquids contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which not only present potential difficulties in upgrading, storage and coprocessing, but are also bioactive. Direct coal liquefaction is perceived today as a two-stage process, which involves a first stage of thermal (or catalytic) dissolution of coal, followed by a second stage, in which the resulting products of the first stage are catalytically upgraded. Even in the presence of hydrogen, the oil products of the second stage are thought to equilibrate with the heavier (asphaltenic and preasphaltenic) components found in the feedstream. The possibility exists for this smaller molecular fraction to recondense with the unreacted heavy components and form even heavier undesirable components like char and coke. One way to diminish these regressive reactions is to selectively remove these smaller molecular weight fractions once they are formed and prior to recondensation. This can, at least in principle, be accomplished through the use of high temperature membrane reactors, using ceramic membranes which are permselective for the desired products of the coal liquid upgrading process. An additional incentive to do so is in order to eliminate the further hydrogenation and hydrocracking of liquid products to undesirable light gases.

  17. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  18. LDRD final report : managing shared memory data distribution in hybrid HPC applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, Alexander M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke

    2010-09-01

    MPI is the dominant programming model for distributed memory parallel computers, and is often used as the intra-node programming model on multi-core compute nodes. However, application developers are increasingly turning to hybrid models that use threading within a node and MPI between nodes. In contrast to MPI, most current threaded models do not require application developers to deal explicitly with data locality. With increasing core counts and deeper NUMA hierarchies seen in the upcoming LANL/SNL 'Cielo' capability supercomputer, data distribution poses an upper boundary on intra-node scalability within threaded applications. Data locality therefore has to be identified at runtime using static memory allocation policies such as first-touch or next-touch, or specified by the application user at launch time. We evaluate several existing techniques for managing data distribution using micro-benchmarks on an AMD 'Magny-Cours' system with 24 cores among 4 NUMA domains and argue for the adoption of a dynamic runtime system implemented at the kernel level, employing a novel page table replication scheme to gather per-NUMA domain memory access traces.

  19. Final design of a 24 MW radially-cooled insert for a 45 T hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weggel, R.J.; Stejskal, V.; Bobrov, E.; Holowinski, M.; Williams, J.E.C. [M.I.T., Cambridge, MA (United States). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.

    1996-07-01

    For the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory the Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory has designed and is fabricating a 24 MW radially-cooled insert magnet. It is to add 31 teslas or more to the 14 T of the 616 mm bore superconducting magnet of Hybrid V, a system to generate at least 45 T in a 32 mm bore. The insert embodies many innovations for the sake of housing component commonality, unobstructed access for users, quick installation, efficiency, longevity and burnout isolation, while coping with power densities up to 7 W/mm{sup 3}, heat flux densities to 9 W/mm{sup 2}, water pressures to 40 bars, and fault loads to 3.5 MN. The upper surface of the housing is free of all electrical and hydraulic clutter. The compact coil package plugs in from above. Its three coils are electrically and hydraulically in series-parallel, with inward flow through the outer two coils. High water pressure and short passages give water velocities up to 40 m/s, despite depths of only 0.10 to 0.15 mm, thus achieving outstanding cooling efficiency and a peak temperature of only 68C. Conductors, with strengths to match local stresses, are two thicknesses of copper, three of Be-Cu and two of 24% Ag-Cu. All have excellent combinations of strength and electrical conductivity.

  20. Final LDRD report human interaction with complex systems: advances in hybrid reachability and control.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Meeko M.

    2006-08-01

    This document describes new advances in hybrid reachability techniques accomplished during the course of a one-year Truman Postdoctoral Fellowship. These techniques provide guarantees of safety in complex systems, which is especially important in high-risk, expensive, or safety-critical systems. My work focused on new approaches to two specific problems motivated by real-world issues in complex systems: (1) multi-objective controller synthesis, and (2) control for recovery from error. Regarding the first problem, a novel application of reachability analysis allowed controller synthesis in a single step to achieve (a) safety, (b) stability, and (c) prevent input saturation. By extending the state to include the input parameters, constraints for stability, saturation, and envelope protection are incorporated into a single reachability analysis. Regarding the second problem, a new approach to the problem of recovery provides (a) states from which recovery is possible, and (b) controllers to guide the system during a recovery maneuver from an error state to a safe state in minimal time. Results are computed in both problems on nonlinear models of single longitudinal aircraft dynamics and two-aircraft lateral collision avoidance dynamics.

  1. Environmental impact analysis of electric and hybrid vehicle batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-16

    This environmental impact analysis of electric and hybrid vehicle batteries is intended to identify principal environmental impacts resulting directly or indirectly from the development of electric vehicle batteries. Thus, the result of this study could be used to determine the appropriate following step in the U.S. DOE's EIA process. The environmental impacts considered in this document are the incremental impacts generated during the various phases in the battery life cycle. The processes investigated include mining, milling, smelting, and refining of metallic materials for electrode components; manufacturing processes of inorganic chemicals and other materials for electrolytes and other hardware components; battery assembly processes; operation and maintenance of batteries; and recycling and disposal of used batteries. The severity of the incremental impacts is quantified to the extent consistent with the state-of-knowledge. Many of the industrial processes involve proprietary or patent information; thus, in many cases, the associated environmental impacts could not be determined. In addition, most candidate battery systems are still in the development phase. Thus, the manufacturing and recycling processes for most battery systems either have not been developed by industry, or the information is not available. For these cases, the associated environmental impact evaluations could only be qualitative, and the need for further investigations is indicated. 26 figures, 27 tables. (RWR)

  2. Formation of hybrid gold nanoparticle network aggregates by specific host-guest interactions in a turbulent flow reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinhart-Mejia, R.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2014-01-01

    A multi-inlet vortex mixer (MIVM) was used to investigate the formation of hybrid gold nanoparticle network aggregates under highly turbulent flow conditions. To form aggregates, gold nanoparticles were functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (CD) and mixed with adamantyl (Ad)-terminated

  3. Formation of hybrid gold nanoparticle network aggregates by specific host-guest interactions in a turbulent flow reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mejia Ariza, Raquel; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2014-01-01

    A multi-inlet vortex mixer (MIVM) was used to investigate the formation of hybrid gold nanoparticle network aggregates under highly turbulent flow conditions. To form aggregates, gold nanoparticles were functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (CD) and mixed with adamantyl (Ad)-terminated poly(propyleneim

  4. Research on the HYLIFE liquid-first-wall concept for future laser-fusion reactors. Final report No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1980-09-01

    It has been proposed to protect the structural walls of a future laser fusion reactor with a curtain or fluid-wall of liquid lithium jets. As part of the investigation of this concept, experiments have been performed on planar sheet water jets issuing vertically downward from slit nozzles. The nozzles were subjected to transverse forced harmonic excitation to simulate the vibrational environment of the laser fusion reactor, and experiments were run at both 1 atm and at lower ambient pressures. Linear temporal stability theory is shown to predict the onset of the unstable regime and the initial spatial growth rates quite well for the cases where the amplitudes of the nozzle vibration are not too large and the waveform is nearly sinusoidal. In addition, both the linear theory and a simplified trajectory theory are shown to predict the initial wave envelope amplitudes very well. For larger amplitude nozzle excitation, the waveform becomes highly nonlinear and non-sinusoidal and can resemble a sawtooth waveform in some cases; these latter experimental results can only be partially explained by existing theories at the present time.

  5. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design.

  6. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design.

  7. Fusion breeder studies program: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berwald, D.H.

    1986-10-17

    This report is an assessment of technology related to hybrid reactors, especially the Fission-suppressed hybrid. A description of a typical fission-suppressed reactor is given. The economic advantages of the use of a hybrid reactor as part of a fuel cycle center are discussed at length. The inherent safety advantages of the hybrid reactor are analyzed. The report concludes with a proposed timetable for research and development. (JDH)

  8. Current generation by helicons and lower hybrid waves in modern tokamaks and reactors ITER and DEMO. Scenarios, modeling and antennae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vdovin, V. L., E-mail: vdov@nfi.kiae.ru [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute,' (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    The innovative concept and 3D full-wave code modeling the off-axis current drive by radio-frequency (RF) waves in large-scale tokamaks, ITER and DEMO, for steady-state operation with high efficiency is proposed. The scheme uses the helicon radiation (fast magnetosonic waves at high (20-40) ion cyclotron frequency harmonics) at frequencies of 500-700 MHz propagating in the outer regions of the plasmas with a rotational transform. It is expected that the current generated by helicons, in conjunction with the bootstrap current, ensure the maintenance of a given value of the total current in the stability margin q(0) {>=} 2 and q(a) {>=} 4, and will help to have regimes with a negative magnetic shear and internal transport barrier to ensure stability at high normalized plasma pressure {beta}{sub N} > 3 (the so-called advanced scenarios) of interest for the commercial reactor. Modeling with full-wave three-dimensional codes PSTELION and STELEC showed flexible control of the current profile in the reactor plasmas of ITER and DEMO, using multiple frequencies, the positions of the antennae and toroidal wave slow down. Also presented are the results of simulations of current generation by helicons in the DIII-D, T-15MD, and JT-60AS tokamaks. Commercially available continuous-wave klystrons of the MW/tube range are promising for commercial stationary fusion reactors. The compact antennae of the waveguide type are proposed, and an example of a possible RF system for today's tokamaks is given. The advantages of the scheme (partially tested at lower frequencies in tokamaks) are a significant decline in the role of parametric instabilities in the plasma periphery, the use of electrically strong resonator-waveguide type antennae, and substantially greater antenna-plasma coupling.

  9. Current generation by helicons and lower hybrid waves in modern tokamaks and reactors ITER and DEMO. Scenarios, modeling and antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, V. L.

    2013-02-01

    The innovative concept and 3D full-wave code modeling the off-axis current drive by radio-frequency (RF) waves in large-scale tokamaks, ITER and DEMO, for steady-state operation with high efficiency is proposed. The scheme uses the helicon radiation (fast magnetosonic waves at high (20-40) ion cyclotron frequency harmonics) at frequencies of 500-700 MHz propagating in the outer regions of the plasmas with a rotational transform. It is expected that the current generated by helicons, in conjunction with the bootstrap current, ensure the maintenance of a given value of the total current in the stability margin q(0) ≥ 2 and q( a) ≥ 4, and will help to have regimes with a negative magnetic shear and internal transport barrier to ensure stability at high normalized plasma pressure β N > 3 (the so-called advanced scenarios) of interest for the commercial reactor. Modeling with full-wave three-dimensional codes PSTELION and STELEC showed flexible control of the current profile in the reactor plasmas of ITER and DEMO, using multiple frequencies, the positions of the antennae and toroidal wave slow down. Also presented are the results of simulations of current generation by helicons in the DIII-D, T-15MD, and JT-60AS tokamaks. Commercially available continuous-wave klystrons of the MW/tube range are promising for commercial stationary fusion reactors. The compact antennae of the waveguide type are proposed, and an example of a possible RF system for today's tokamaks is given. The advantages of the scheme (partially tested at lower frequencies in tokamaks) are a significant decline in the role of parametric instabilities in the plasma periphery, the use of electrically strong resonator-waveguide type antennae, and substantially greater antenna-plasma coupling.

  10. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part II: Prismatic Reactor Cross Section Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent Descotes

    2011-03-01

    The deep-burn prismatic high temperature reactor is made up of an annular core loaded with transuranic isotopes and surrounded in the center and in the periphery by reflector blocks in graphite. This disposition creates challenges for the neutronics compared to usual light water reactor calculation schemes. The longer mean free path of neutrons in graphite affects the neutron spectrum deep inside the blocks located next to the reflector. The neutron thermalisation in the graphite leads to two characteristic fission peaks at the inner and outer interfaces as a result of the increased thermal flux seen in those assemblies. Spectral changes are seen at least on half of the fuel blocks adjacent to the reflector. This spectral effect of the reflector may prevent us from successfully using the two step scheme -lattice then core calculation- typically used for light water reactors. We have been studying the core without control mechanisms to provide input for the development of a complete calculation scheme. To correct the spectrum at the lattice level, we have tried to generate cross-sections from supercell calculations at the lattice level, thus taking into account part of the graphite surrounding the blocks of interest for generating the homogenised cross-sections for the full-core calculation. This one has been done with 2 to 295 groups to assess if increasing the number of groups leads to more accurate results. A comparison with a classical single block model has been done. Both paths were compared to a reference calculation done with MCNP. It is concluded that the agreement with MCNP is better with supercells, but that the single block model remains quite close if enough groups are kept for the core calculation. 26 groups seems to be a good compromise between time and accu- racy. However, some trials with depletion have shown huge variations of the isotopic composition across a block next to the reflector. It may imply that at least an in- core depletion for the

  11. ACCELERATING FUSION REACTOR NEUTRONICS MODELING BY AUTOMATIC COUPLING OF HYBRID MONTE CARLO/DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT ON CAD GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondo, Elliott D [ORNL; Ibrahim, Ahmad M [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL; Grove, Robert E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Detailed radiation transport calculations are necessary for many aspects of the design of fusion energy systems (FES) such as ensuring occupational safety, assessing the activation of system components for waste disposal, and maintaining cryogenic temperatures within superconducting magnets. Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques are necessary for this analysis because FES are large, heavily shielded, and contain streaming paths that can only be resolved with MC. The tremendous complexity of FES necessitates the use of CAD geometry for design and analysis. Previous ITER analysis has required the translation of CAD geometry to MCNP5 form in order to use the AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) for hybrid MC/deterministic transport. In this work, ADVANTG was modified to support CAD geometry, allowing hybrid (MC)/deterministic transport to be done automatically and eliminating the need for this translation step. This was done by adding a new ray tracing routine to ADVANTG for CAD geometries using the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) software library. This new capability is demonstrated with a prompt dose rate calculation for an ITER computational benchmark problem using both the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method an the Forward Weighted (FW)-CADIS method. The variance reduction parameters produced by ADVANTG are shown to be the same using CAD geometry and standard MCNP5 geometry. Significant speedups were observed for both neutrons (as high as a factor of 7.1) and photons (as high as a factor of 59.6).

  12. LDRD project final report : hybrid AI/cognitive tactical behavior framework for LVC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevich, Donna D.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Brannon, Nathan Gregory; Hart, Brian E.; Hart, Derek H.; Little, Charles Quentin; Oppel, Fred John III; Linebarger, John Michael; Parker, Eric Paul

    2012-01-01

    This Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) sought to develop technology that enhances scenario construction speed, entity behavior robustness, and scalability in Live-Virtual-Constructive (LVC) simulation. We investigated issues in both simulation architecture and behavior modeling. We developed path-planning technology that improves the ability to express intent in the planning task while still permitting an efficient search algorithm. An LVC simulation demonstrated how this enables 'one-click' layout of squad tactical paths, as well as dynamic re-planning for simulated squads and for real and simulated mobile robots. We identified human response latencies that can be exploited in parallel/distributed architectures. We did an experimental study to determine where parallelization would be productive in Umbra-based force-on-force (FOF) simulations. We developed and implemented a data-driven simulation composition approach that solves entity class hierarchy issues and supports assurance of simulation fairness. Finally, we proposed a flexible framework to enable integration of multiple behavior modeling components that model working memory phenomena with different degrees of sophistication.

  13. 324 Building B-Cell Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Packaging & Shipment RL Readiness Assessment Final Report [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUMPHREYS, D C

    2002-08-01

    A parallel readiness assessment (RA) was conducted by independent Fluor Hanford (FH) and U. S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) team to verify that an adequate state of readiness had been achieved for activities associated with the packaging and shipping of pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies from B-Cell in the 324 Building to the interim storage area at the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The RL review was conducted in parallel with the FH review in accordance with the Joint RL/FH Implementation Plan (Appendix B). The RL RA Team members were assigned a FH RA Team counterpart for the review. With this one-on-one approach, the RL RA Team was able to assess the FH Team's performance, competence, and adherence to the implementation plan and evaluate the level of facility readiness. The RL RA Team agrees with the FH determination that startup of the 324 Building B-Cell pressurized water reactor spent nuclear fuel packaging and shipping operations can safely proceed, pending completion of the identified pre-start items in the FH final report (see Appendix A), completion of the manageable list of open items included in the facility's declaration of readiness, and execution of the startup plan to operations.

  14. Final Report, NERI Project: ''An Innovative Reactor Analysis Methodology Based on a Quasidiffusion Nodal Core Model''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Marvin L. Adams; Todd S. Palmer; Kord S. Smith; Kevin Clarno; Hikaru Hiruta; Razvan Nes

    2003-08-04

    OAK (B204) Final Report, NERI Project: ''An Innovative Reactor Analysis Methodology Based on a Quasidiffusion Nodal Core Model'' The present generation of reactor analysis methods uses few-group nodal diffusion approximations to calculate full-core eigenvalues and power distributions. The cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and discontinuity factors (collectively called ''group constants'') in the nodal diffusion equations are parameterized as functions of many variables, ranging from the obvious (temperature, boron concentration, etc.) to the more obscure (spectral index, moderator temperature history, etc.). These group constants, and their variations as functions of the many variables, are calculated by assembly-level transport codes. The current methodology has two main weaknesses that this project addressed. The first weakness is the diffusion approximation in the full-core calculation; this can be significantly inaccurate at interfaces between different assemblies. This project used the nodal diffusion framework to implement nodal quasidiffusion equations, which can capture transport effects to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The second weakness is in the parameterization of the group constants; current models do not always perform well, especially at interfaces between unlike assemblies. The project developed a theoretical foundation for parameterization and homogenization models and used that theory to devise improved models. The new models were extended to tabulate information that the nodal quasidiffusion equations can use to capture transport effects in full-core calculations.

  15. A new mathematical model for nitrogen gas production with special emphasis on the role of attached growth media in anammox hybrid reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Swati; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The present study emphasised on the development of new mathematical models based on mass balance and stoichiometry of nitrogen removal in anammox hybrid reactor (AHR). The performance of AHR at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and nitrogen loading rates (NLRs) revealed that nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) increases with increase in HRT and was found optimal (89 %) at HRT of 2 days. Mass balance of nitrogen revealed that major fraction (74.1 %) of input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2 % utilised in biomass synthesis. Attached growth media (AGM) in AHR contributed to an additional 15.4 % ammonium removal and reduced the sludge washout rate by 29 %. This also enhanced the sludge retention capacity of AHR and thus minimised the formation of nitrate in the treated effluent, which is one of the bottlenecks of anammox process. Process kinetics was also studied using various mathematical models. The mass balance model derived from total nitrogen was found most precise and predicted N2 gas with least error (1.68 ± 4.44 %). Model validation for substrate removal kinetics dictated comparatively higher correlation for Grau second-order model (0.952) than modified Stover-Kincannon model (0.920). The study concluded that owing to features of high biomass retention, less nitrate formation and consistently higher nitrogen removal efficiency, this reactor configuration is techno-economically most efficient and viable. The study opens the door for researchers and scientists for pilot-scale testing of AHR leading to its wide industrial application.

  16. Removal of metal from acid mine drainage using a hybrid system including a pipes inserted microalgae reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Tae; Lee, Hongkyun; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Song, Kyung-Guen; Yeom, Sung-Ho; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the microalgae culture system to combined active treatment system and pipe inserted microalgae reactor (PIMR) was investigated. After pretreated AMD in active treatment system, the effluent load to PIMR in order to Nephroselmis sp. KGE 8 culture. In experiment, effect of iron on growth and lipid accumulation in microalgae were inspected. The 2nd pretreatment effluent was economic feasibility of microalgae culture and lipid accumulation. The growth kinetics of the microalgae are modeled using logistic growth model and the model is primarily parameterized from data obtained through an experimental study where PIMR were dosed with BBM, BBM added 10 mg L(-1) iron and 2nd pretreatment effluent. Moreover, the continuous of microalgae culture in PIMR can be available. Overall, this study indicated that the use of pretreated AMD is a viable method for culture microalgae and lipid accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II): upgrading of plant protection system. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, N. L.; Keeton, J. M.; Sackett, J. I. [comps.

    1980-06-01

    This report is the second in a series of compilations of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA`s) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum. Sections 2 and 3 are edited versions of the original FSAA`s prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant-protection system. Section 4 is an edited version of the original FSAA prepared in support of certain modifications to a system classified as an engineered safety feature. These sections describe the pre- and postmodification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis. Section 5 provides an updated description and analysis of the EBR-II emergency power system. Section 6 summarizes all significant modifications to the EBR-II plant-protection system to date.

  18. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 3. Appendices. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    A design study for a central receiver/fossil fuel hybrid power system using molten salts for heat transfer and heat storage is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (A) parametric salt piping data; (B) sample heat exchanger calculations; (C) salt chemistry and salt/materials compatibility evaluation; (D) heliostat field coordinates; (E) data lists; (F) STEAEC program input data; (G) hybrid receiver design drawings; (H) hybrid receiver absorber tube thermal math model; (I) piping stress analysis; (J) 100-MWe 18-hour storage solar central receiver hybrid power system capital cost worksheets; and (K) 500-MWe 18-hour solar central receiver hybrid power system cost breakdown. (WHK)

  19. 76 FR 17159 - Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on Standard Review Plan, Section 17.4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    .... SUMMARY: The NRC staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-018 (Agencywide... of ] the design certification (DC) and combined license (COL) applications. The NRC staff issues DC/COL-ISGs to facilitate timely implementation of current staff guidance and to facilitate...

  20. Optimization of radial dimension and electricity cost for compact hybrid reactor%紧凑型混合堆径向几何尺寸与发电成本的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美霞; 刘成岳; 吴斌

    2011-01-01

    紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆是一种新的概念设计,文章通过改变聚变系统径向几何尺寸上的等离子体大小半径,分析了紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆的发电成本并进行优化,模拟结果表明紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆较传统的标准混合堆具有更大的经济优势.%Compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor(CFFHR) is a new kind of conceptual design. In this paper, the electricity cost of CFFHR is optimized by changing the radial dimensions of plasma major radius and minor radius of the fusion system. The simulation results show that the CFFHR is more economic than the traditional hybrid reactor.

  1. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  2. 1D Burnup Calculation of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Energy Reactor%聚变-裂变混合能源堆一维计算模型燃耗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂生; 师学明; 伊炜伟

    2012-01-01

    Fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor is driven by Tokamak fusion source for energy production. Its subcritical zone uses the natural uranium as fuel and water as coolant. The neutron multiplication constant keff, energy multiplication factor M and tritium breeding ratio TBR of the ID hybrid energy reactor model were calculated by transport burnup code MCORGS. The neutron spectrum and nuclear density changing as a function of time show the characteristics of the hybrid energy reactors, which differs from the hybrid reactor for breed nuclear fuel and for spent fuel transmutation. The definition and results may be a reference to the other conceptual analysis.%聚变-裂变混合能源堆包括聚变中子源和以天然铀为燃料、水为冷却剂的次临界包层,主要目标是生产电力.利用输运燃耗耦合程序系统MCORGS计算了混合能源堆一维模型的燃耗,给出了中子有效增殖因数keff、能量放大倍数M、氚增殖比TBR等物理量随时间的变化.通过分析能谱和重要核素随燃耗时间的变化,说明混合能源堆与核燃料增殖、核废料嬗变混合堆的不同特点.本文给出的结果可作为混合堆中子输运、燃耗分析程序校验的参考数据,为混合堆概念研究提供了基础数据.

  3. Final report for U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-95NE38118-5 University Reactor Sharing Program [Purdue University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, R.S.

    2001-06-01

    Under the Reactor Sharing Program, a total of 350 high school students participated in the neutron activation experiment and 484 high school and university students and members of the general public participated in reactor tours.

  4. Quantification of syntrophic fatty acid-beta-oxidizing bacteria in a mesophilic biogas reactor by oligonucleotide probe hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.W.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Raskin, L.

    1999-01-01

    Small-subunit rRNA sequences were obtained for two saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, Syntrophomonas sapovorans and Syntrophomonas wolfei LYE, and sequence analysis confirmed their classification as members of the family Syntrophomonadaceae. S, wolfei LYE was closely related...... to S. wolfei subsp. wolfei, but S. sapovorans did not cluster with the other members of the genus Syntrophomonas, Five oligonucleotide probes targeting the small-subunit rRNA of different groups within the family Syntrophomonadaceae, which contains all currently known saturated fatty acid...... fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria in methanogenic environments, the microbial community structure of a sample from a full-scale biogas plant was determined. Hybridization results with probes for syntrophic bacteria-and methanogens were compared to specific methanogenic activities...

  5. Quantification of syntrophic fatty acid-beta-oxidizing bacteria in a mesophilic biogas reactor by oligonucleotide probe hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.W.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Raskin, L.

    1999-01-01

    -beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, were developed and characterized. The probes were designed to be specific at the family, genus, and species levels and were characterized by temperature of-dissociation and specificity studies, To demonstrate the usefulness of the probes for the detection and quantification of saturated......Small-subunit rRNA sequences were obtained for two saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, Syntrophomonas sapovorans and Syntrophomonas wolfei LYE, and sequence analysis confirmed their classification as members of the family Syntrophomonadaceae. S, wolfei LYE was closely related...... fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria in methanogenic environments, the microbial community structure of a sample from a full-scale biogas plant was determined. Hybridization results with probes for syntrophic bacteria-and methanogens were compared to specific methanogenic activities...

  6. Fuel enrichment and temperature distribution in nuclear fuel rod in (D-T) driven hybrid reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Ypek [Suleyman Demirel Universitesi Muhendislik-Mimarlyk Fakultesi, Isparta (Turkey)

    2001-07-01

    In this study, melting point of the fuel rod and temperature distribution in nuclear fuel rod are investigated for different coolants under various first wall loads (P{sub w}, =5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 MWm{sup -2}) in Fusion-Fission reactor fueled with 50%LWR +50%CANDU. The fusion source of neutrons of 14.1 MeV is simulated by a movable target along the main axis of cylindrical geometry as a line source. In addition, the fusion chamber was thought as a cylindrical cavity with a diameter of 300 cm that is comparatively small value. The fissile fuel zone is considered to be cooled with four different coolants, gas, flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}), natural lithium (Li), and eutectic lithium (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}). Investigations are observed during 4 years for discrete time intervals of{delta}t= 0.5 month and by a plant factor (PF) of 75%. Volumetric ratio of coolant-to fuel is 1:1, 45.515% coolant, 45.515% fuel, 8.971% clad, in fuel zone. (author)

  7. The production of {sup 238-242}Pu(n,γ){sup 239-243}Pu fissionable fluids in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenay, Mehtap [Inoenue Univ., Malatya (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2014-03-15

    In this study, the effect of spent fuel grade plutonium content on {sup 239-243}Pu was investigated in a designed hybrid reactor system. In this system, the fluids were composed of a molten salt, heavy metal mixture with increased mole fractions 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80}-1-5 % SFG-Pu, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80}-1-5 % SFG-PuF{sub 4}, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80}-1-5 % SFG-PuO{sub 2}. Beryllium (Be) is a neutron multiplier by (n,2n) reactions. Thence, a Be zone of 3 cm thickness was used in order to contribute to fissile fuel breeding between the liquid first wall and a 9Cr2WVTa ferritic steel blanket which is used as structural material. The production of {sup 238-242}Pu(n,γ){sup 239-243}Pu was calculated in liquid first wall, blanket and shielding zones. Three-dimensional nucleonic calculations were performed by using the most recent version MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo code and nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0. (orig.)

  8. Data Collection, Testing, and Analysis of Hybrid Electric Trucks and Buses Operating in California Fleets. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duran, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cosgrove, Jon [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sindler, Petr [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Russell, Robert [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Johnson, Kent [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The objective of this project was to evaluate and quantify the emission impacts of commercially available hybrid medium- and heavy-duty vehicles relative to their non-hybrid counterparts. This effort will allow the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and other agencies to more effectively encourage development and commercial deployment of the most efficient, lowest emitting hybrid technologies needed to meet air quality and climate goals.

  9. Research and development program in reactor diagnostics and monitoring with neutron noise methods. Stage 7. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazsit, I.; Demaziere, C.; Arzhanov, V. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Reactor Physics; Garis, N.S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    This report constitutes stage 7 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. A proposal for the continuation of this program in stage 8 is also given at the end of the report. In stage 6, the basic principles of a 3-D fully coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic simulator in the frequency domain were presented. The neutronic model relied on the two-group diffusion approximation, whereas the thermal-hydraulic algorithms relied on the so called 'lumped' model. The key element of this simulator was that only the static data were required which could be obtained from the Studsvik Scandpower CASMO-4/TABLES-3/ SIMULATE-3 code package. The simulator was developed with this underlying idea, which means that the calculation of the static fluxes and the eigenvalue were avoided. Depending on what kind of spatial discretization scheme which is used in the noise simulator to calculate the 'leakage' noise, it is not granted that the system remains critical by using the group constants supplied by SIMULATE. Nevertheless, when the system is critical, the balance equations should be fulfilled in all nodes with respect to the discretization scheme used. In concrete terms, the calculation of the static fluxes and eigenvalue can be avoided if the system is brought back to criticality by modifying the cross-sections so that the balance equations are always fulfilled with the chosen spatial discretization scheme. This approach was used in this study with the finite difference scheme. As pointed out in stage 6, the finite difference scheme is relatively inefficient compared to finite elements or nodal methods, but on the other hand it is rather easy to implement. These two more sophisticated schemes are planned to be investigated at a later stage, but for the time being the simulator relying on the finite difference scheme was improved as much as possible so that a 2-D entirely

  10. DOE plutonium disposition study: Analysis of existing ABB-CE Light Water Reactors for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Core reactivity and basic fuel management calculations were conducted on the selected reactors (with emphasis on the System 80 units as being the most desirable choice). Methods used were identical to those reported in the Evolutionary Reactor Report. From these calculations, the basic mission capability was assessed. The selected reactors were studied for modification, such as the addition of control rod nozzles to increase rod worth, and internals and control system modifications that might also be needed. Other system modifications studied included the use of enriched boric acid as soluble poison, and examination of the fuel pool capacities. The basic geometry and mechanical characteristics, materials and fabrication techniques of the fuel assemblies for the selected existing reactors are the same as for System 80+. There will be some differences in plutonium loading, according to the ability of the reactors to load MOX fuel. These differences are not expected to affect licensability or EPA requirements. Therefore, the fuel technology and fuel qualification sections provided in the Evolutionary Reactor Report apply to the existing reactors. An additional factor, in that the existing reactor availability presupposes the use of that reactor for the irradiation of Lead Test Assemblies, is discussed. The reactor operating and facility licenses for the operating plants were reviewed. Licensing strategies for each selected reactor were identified. The spent fuel pool for the selected reactors (Palo Verde) was reviewed for capacity and upgrade requirements. Reactor waste streams were identified and assessed in comparison to uranium fuel operations. Cost assessments and schedules for converting to plutonium disposition were estimated for some of the major modification items. Economic factors (incremental costs associated with using weapons plutonium) were listed and where possible under the scope of work, estimates were made.

  11. Progress in physics design of fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor%次临界能源堆物理设计进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂生; 贾建平; 程和平; 蒋洁琼; 栗再新; 杨永伟; 吴宏春; 师学明; 刘荣; 鹿心鑫; 朱通华; 王新华; 余泳; 严钧; 唐涛

    2014-01-01

    聚变-裂变混合能源堆包括聚变中子源和次临界能源堆,主要目标是生产电能。回顾了国内外混合堆的发展历史,给出混合能源堆设计的边界条件和约束条件,说明次临界能源堆以铀锆合金为燃料、水为冷却剂的设计思想。利用输运燃耗耦合程序 MCORGS 计算了混合能源的燃耗,给出了中子有效增殖因数、能量放大倍数和氚增殖比等物理量随时间的变化。通过分析能谱和重要核素随燃耗时间的变化,说明混合能源堆与核燃料增殖、核废料嬗变混合堆的不同特点。论述了混合堆的热工设计并进行了安全分析。对于燃耗数值模拟程序,通过多家对算,保证其计算结果的可信性。针对次临界能源堆的特点,利用贫铀球壳建立了贫铀聚乙烯装置和贫铀 LiH 装置,并且专门设计加工了天然铀装置,开展铀裂变率、造钚率、产氚率等中子学积分实验,验证了数值模拟的可靠性。%In this paper,we propose a preliminary design for a fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor (FFHER),based on cur-rent fusion science and technology and well-developed fission technology.Design rules are listed and a primary concept blanket with uranium alloy as fuel and water as coolant is put forward.The uranium fuel can be natural uranium,LWR spent fuel,or de-pleted uranium.The FFHER design can increase the utilization rate of uranium in a comparatively simple way to sustain the de-velopment of nuclear energy.The interaction between the fusion neutron and the uranium fuel with the aim of achieving greater energy multiplication and tritium sustainability is studied.Other concept hybrid reactor designs are also reviewed.Integral neu-tron experiments were carried out to verify the credibility of our proposed physical design.The combination of the physical design with the related thermal hydraulic design,alloy fuel manufacture,and nuclear fuel cycle programs provides the

  12. Microbial Communities and Their Performances in Anaerobic Hybrid Sludge Bed-Fixed Film Reactor for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent under Various Organic Pollutant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanlayanee Meesap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic hybrid reactor consisting of sludge and packed zones was operated with organic pollutant loading rates from 6.2 to 8.2 g COD/L day, composed mainly of suspended solids (SS and oil and grease (O&G concentrations between 5.2 to 10.2 and 0.9 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. The overall process performance in terms of chemical oxygen demands (COD, SS, and O&G removals was 73, 63, and 56%, respectively. When the organic pollutant concentrations were increased, the resultant methane potentials were higher, and the methane yield increased to 0.30 L CH4/g CODremoved. It was observed these effects on the microbial population and activity in the sludge and packed zones. The eubacterial population and activity in the sludge zone increased to 6.4 × 109 copies rDNA/g VSS and 1.65 g COD/g VSS day, respectively, whereas those in the packed zone were lower. The predominant hydrolytic and fermentative bacteria were Pseudomonas, Clostridium, and Bacteroidetes. In addition, the archaeal population and activity in the packed zone were increased from to 9.1 × 107 copies rDNA/g VSS and 0.34 g COD-CH4/g VSS day, respectively, whereas those in the sludge zone were not much changed. The most represented species of methanogens were the acetoclastic Methanosaeta, the hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium sp., and the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiaceae.

  13. In-vessel Retention Strategy for High Power Reactors - K-INERI Final Report (includes SBLB Test Results for Task 3 on External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) Boiling Data and CHF Enhancement Correlations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. B. Cheung; J. Yang; M. B. Dizon; J. Rempe

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe PWR (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a collaborative, three-year, U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was completed in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) investigated the performance of ERVC and an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) to determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe.

  14. Development of computational methods for the safety assessment of gas-cooled high-temperature and supercritical light-water reactors. Final report; Rechenmethoden zur Bewertung der Sicherheit von gasgekuehlten Hochtemperaturreaktoren und superkritischen Leichtwasserreaktoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, S.; Cron, D. von der; Hristov, H.; Lerchl, G.; Papukchiev, A.; Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Weis, J.; Weyermann, F.

    2012-12-15

    . Performed test and validation calculations for short and long term transients like withdrawal and ejection of all or single control rods, cold helium ingress or depressurized loss of forced cooling (DLOFC) demonstrate the applicability of TORT-TD/ATTICA3D to 3-D analyses of pebble bed HTR. Chapter 6 documents the extension made in ATHLET regarding application to supercritical water reactors. This includes the implementation of supercritical water as a working fluid and extensions of the model equations for the physics of heat transfer and pressure drop at supercritical water pressure as well as the extension of the material properties package to pressures above the critical point and the modeling of supercritical discharge. The extensions in ATHLET to simulate pebble-bed HTR are described in chapter 7. In ATHLET, the coolant helium has been implemented both as gas component and a working fluid. The material properties package has been properly extended. For the thermal hydraulic modeling of the reactor pressure vessel, a generic parallel channel model including cross connections has been developed for the PBMR-400 design. The HECU model in ATHLET has been extended to spherical geometries in order to simulate the heat transfer processes in HTR fuel pebbles with detailed representation of the TRISO particle fuel. In addition, ATHLET models of gas turbine and compressor have been developed and tested. Finally, chapter 8 documents the development and validation of ANSYS CFX for application to alternative reactor concepts. This includes extensions and applications of the CFX code regarding HPLWR requirements. Accuracy demonstrations of ANSYS CFX models for heat transfer and wall interfaces of gas cooled systems have been performed for several turbulence models by comparing with experimental data. Finally, the development and validation of the coupled code system ATHLET/ANSYS CFX for alternative reactor concepts is described and first coupled steam and helium simulations are

  15. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  16. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix B: trade-off studies. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-06-11

    Trade-off studies of Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) design elements were performed to identify the most promising design concept in terms of achievable petroleum savings. The activities in these studies are described. The results are presented as preliminary NTHV body design, expected fuel consumption as a function of vehicle speed, engine requirements, battery requirements, and vehicle reliability and cost. (LCL)

  17. Preliminary three-dimensional neutronics design and analysis of helium-cooled blanket for a multi-functional experimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor%多功能聚变裂变混合实验堆FDS-MFX氦冷包层三维中子学初步设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金超; FDS团队; 金鸣; 王明煌; 蒋洁琼; 王国忠; 邱岳峰; 宋婧; 邹俊; 吴宜灿

    2011-01-01

    FDS-MFX(Multi-Functional eXperimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor)是一个基于现实可行技术的多功能聚变裂变混合实验堆概念,分3个阶段相继开展实验研究,分别采用纯氚增殖包层、铀燃料包层和乏燃料包层.本文重点对其中铀燃料包层后期阶段中高浓缩铀模块的摆放方式和尺寸进行优化,给出一个区平均最大功率密度约为100 MW/m3,235U装料量约为1 t,氚增殖率为1.05的三维初步中子学方案.%A multi-functional experimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor concept named FDS-MFX , which is based on viable fusion and fission technologies, has been proposed. Three-stage tests will be carried out successively, in which the tritium breeding blanket, uranium-fueled blanket and spent-fuel-fueled blanket will be utilized respectively. In this paper,the design optimization for the layout and the size of high enriched uranium modules inlater stage of uranium-fueled blanket has been performed.Finally,proposing a preliminarythree-dimension neutronies design with maximum average Power Density(Pdmax)100 MW/m3,loaded mass of the 235U 1 000 kg and TBR(Tritium Breeding Ratio)1.05.

  18. Simulations of fusion chamber dynamics and first wall response in a Z-pinch driven fusion–fission hybrid power reactor (Z-FFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, J.M., E-mail: qjm06@sina.com [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Wang, Z., E-mail: wangz_es@caep.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Chu, Y.Y., E-mail: chuyanyun@caep.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology (CFEST), China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China); Li, Z.H., E-mail: lee_march@sina.com [Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Energy (LANE), Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Z-FFR utilizes DT neutrons to drive a sub-critical fission blanket to produce energy. • A metal shell and Ar gas are employed in the fusion chamber for shock mitigation. • Massive materials can effectively mitigate the thermal heats on the chamber wall. • The W-coated Zr-alloy first wall exhibits good viability as a long-lived component. - Abstract: In a Z-pinch driven fusion–fission hybrid power reactor (Z-FFR), the fusion target will produce enormous energy of ∼1.5 GJ per pulse at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Almost 20% of the fusion energy yield, approximately 300 MJ, is released in forms of pulsed X-rays. To prevent the first wall from fatal damages by the intense X-rays, a thin spherical metal shell and rare Ar buffer gas are introduced to mitigate the transient X-ray bursts. Radiation hydrodynamics in the fusion chamber were investigated by MULTI-1D simulations, and the corresponding thermal and mechanical loads on the first wall were also obtained. The simulations indicated that by optimizing the design parameters of the metal shell and Ar buffer gas, peak power flux of the thermal heats on the first wall could be mitigated to less than 10{sup 4} W/cm{sup 2} within a time scale of several milliseconds, while peak overpressures of the mechanical loads varying from 0.6 to 0.7 MPa. In addition, the thermomechanical response in a W–coated Zr-alloy first wall was performed by FWDR1D calculations using the derived thermal and mechanical loads as inputs. The temperature and stress fields were analyzed, and the corresponding elastic strains were conducted for primary lifetime estimations by using the Coffin–Manson relationships of both W and Zr-alloy. It was shown that the maximum temperature rises and stresses in the first wall were less than 50 K and 130 MPa respectively, and lifetime of the first wall would be in excess of 10{sup 9} cycles. The chamber exhibits good viability as a long-lived component to sustain the Z-FFR conceptual

  19. Development of Improved Models and Designs for Coated-Particle Gas Reactor Fuels -- Final Report under the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Martin, Philippe [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Phelip, Mayeul [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ballinger, Ronald [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this INERI project was to develop improved fuel behavior models for gas reactor coated-particle fuels and to explore improved coated-particle fuel designs that could be used reliably at very high burnups and potentially in gas-cooled fast reactors. Project participants included the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL), Centre Étude Atomique (CEA), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). To accomplish the project objectives, work was organized into five tasks.

  20. Optimization of main factors associated with nitrogen removal in hybrid sludge sequencing batch reactor with step-feeding of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiying; Wu, Weixiang; Ding, Ying; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Yingxu

    2008-02-01

    To attain a high nitrogen removal efficiency and good sludge settleability in a step-fed sequencing batch reactor (SFSBR) treating swine wastewater, L(9)(3(4)) orthogonal experiments were carried out to optimize main factors associated with nitrogen removal, namely, the influent C/N ratio, feeding volume ratio, nitrogen loading rate and aeration intensity. Results showed that nitrogen loading rate contributed most for the build-up of NO(2)(-)-N, NO(3)(-)-N and NH(4)(+)-N in the effluent, while aeration intensity was the most important factor for net nitrogen removal efficiency based on the initial and final nitrogen concentrations in the SFSBR cycle. Additionally, the periodic starvation created by stepwise feeding was the major inducing force for granulation in the SFBSR process and the influent C/N ratio had a profound influence on sludge settleability and granular sludge stability in terms of sludge volume index (SVI) and the fraction of granular sludge with diameter over 0.5 mm (f(0.5 mm)), respectively. Considering the most and secondary important control factor for individual response index, the optimal operating condition for nitrogen removal of SFSBR treating swine wastewater was determined as A(3)B(3)C(1)D(2), i.e., influent C/N ratio 7.0 mg COD/mg NH(4)(+)-N, feeding volume ratio 3:1, nitrogen loading rate 0.026 g NH(4)(+)-N/gVSS . d and aeration intensity 4.2 L/m(3) . s, respectively. Under the optimal operating conditions, inorganic nitrogen concentration in the effluent, net nitrogen removal efficiency, SVI and f(0.5 mm) reached 21 mg/L, 72 %, 40.7 mL/g and 4.3 %, respectively.

  1. Development of distribution and subtransmission SF/sub 6/ circuit breaker and hybrid transmission interrupter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votta, G.A.

    1978-06-01

    This project covered the development of a new generation of SF/sub 6/ arc spinner interrupters, a 15-kV circuit breaker (distribution) using this interrupter, and investigated the feasibility of a high voltage (transmission) hybrid interrupter using the arc-spinner and a vacuum interrupter in series. The arc spinner interrupter concept uses a self-generated magnetic field to drive an arc, on a circular path in an atmosphere of SF/sub 6/ gas, to achieve interruption. Test models of the arc spinner interrupter were built and tested to determine the component requirements and arrangements necessary for the desired performance. A single-phase laboratory model of this interrupter was successfully tested up through 25 kA at 13.5 kV. Interruption of 40 kA at 13.5 kV was demonstrated; however, satisfactory performance was not obtained at significant current levels during this program when tested at higher voltages. A full-scale model of a three-phase outdoor distribution power circuit breaker rated 18 kA at 15.5 kV was built and successfully tested to standards. The hybrid interrupter concept (transmission) uses an arc spinner and a vacuum interrupter in series. The vacuum interrupter handles the high initial rate of rise of recovery voltage associated with short line faults, and the arc spinner interrupter handles the high peak transient recovery voltage. The hybrid interrupter demonstrated an ability to handle the initial high rate of rise recovery voltage but encountered dielectric failures at relatively low current levels. This feasibility investigation was limited by the unavailability of a suitable rating of vacuum interrupters and by limitations inherent to an early model arc spinner interrupter for the tests. The investigation of the hybrid was discontinued until further development of a higher voltage arc spinner interrupter could be accomplished.

  2. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix C: preliminary design data package. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-07-31

    The assumptions made, analysis methods used, and preliminary results of research to determine the design specifications for a hybrid electric-powered and internal combustion engine-powered vehicle that would optimize the fuel economy of passenger automobiles are described. Information is included on body and component design, selection of spark-ignition engine and Ni-Zn batteries, life-cycle costs and life-cycle fuel consumption. (LCL)

  3. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 2. Conceptual design. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a hybrid power system design that (1) produces minimum cost electric power, (2) minimizes the capital investment and operating cost, (3) permits capacity displacement, (4) and achieves utility acceptance for market penetration. We have met the first three of these objectives and therefore believe that the fourth, utility acceptance, will become a reality. These objectives have been met by utilizing the Martin Marietta concept that combines the alternate central receiver power system design and a high-temperature salt primary heat transfer fluid and thermal storage media system with a fossil-fired nonsolar energy source. Task 1 reviewed the requirements definition document and comments and recommendations were provided to DOE/San Francisco. Task 2 consisted of a market analysis to evaluate the potential market of solar hybrid power plants. Twenty-two utilities were selected within nine regions of the country. Both written and verbal correspondence was used to assess solar hybrid power plants with respect to the utilities' future requirements and plans. The parametric analysis of Task 3 evaluated a wide range of subsystem configurations and sizes. These analyses included subsystems from the solar standalone alternate central receiver power system using high-temperature molten salt and from fossil fuel nonsolar subsystems. Task 4, selection of the preferred commerical system configuration, utilized the parametric analyses developed in Task 3 to select system and subsystem configurations for the commercial plant design. Task 5 developed a conceptual design of the selected commercial plant configuration and assessed the related cost and performance. Task 6 assessed the economics and performance of the selected configuration as well as future potential improvements or limitations of the hybrid power plants.

  4. 快Z箍缩中子源混合堆界面研究进展%Development of interface options of hybrid reactor driven with fast Z-pinch neutron source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敬平; 王雄

    2011-01-01

    评述了快Z箍缩中子产生及诊断的最新进展,介绍了聚变裂变混合堆原理与结构.概述了混合堆界面的磁绝缘传输线(MITL)和碎片防护罩设计,提出了MITL电流压力建模思路,提出了PTS装置上MITL翻转柱孔汇流结构(PHC)及同轴延伸方式,这两种配置方式简便、易行.%The recent development of neutron generation and diagnostics of fast Z-pinch are reviewed. The principle and con-figuration of fusion and fission hybrid reactor are briefly introduced. Current and magnetic impulse modeling and the debris shield design are examined for the interface between Z-pinch driver and hybrid reactor. The conclusion of this work is that the interface of post hole convolute and extended coaxial magnetically insulated transmission line is feasible and easily operated at primary test stand(PTS).

  5. 聚变-裂变混合能源堆球模型参数敏感性分析%Sensitivity Analysis on Parameters of Spherical Model of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Energy Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国明; 程和平; 邵增

    2012-01-01

    在聚变-裂变混合能源堆球模型基础上,使用蒙特卡罗方法中子学程序对中子源、铀水体积比、产氚区等相关参数进行了中子学的敏感性计算.分析了各参数对混合能源堆能量放大倍数M和氚增殖比TBR的影响,并总结其基本规律,为开展进一步的混合能源堆概念设计提供了重要参考.%The sensitivity analysis on neutronics parameters related to neutron source, uranium-water ratio and tritium breeding layers for spherical blanket model of fusion-fission hybrid reactor were presented. By using a Monte-Carlo method based neutron transport code, the effects of the parameters on energy multiplication factor M and tritium breeding ratio TBR were analyzed, and the general various laws of M and TBR were summarized, which were significant for the further conceptual design of fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor.

  6. Integration of thermal photovoltaic hybrid sensors to the building. Final report july 2004. Integrated research project 6.2; Integration de capteurs hybrides photovoltaiques thermiques au bati. Rapport final juillet 2004. Projet de recherche integre 6.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The electricity and the heat are two complementary energies necessary for the accommodation. A thermal solar installation needs the electric power for the coolant fluid flow. This research project concerns the optimization of integrated solutions to the building, providing simultaneously these two energies. This document presents the proposed researches programs: analysis of the socio-economic aspects, the physical phenomena knowledge, simulation of the behavior, experimentation, hybrid components integration, simulation of the photovoltaic modules operating and thermal simulation of an electric converter. (A.L.B.)

  7. Final Report for the 1st Surveillance Test of the Reactor Pressure Vessel Material (CAPSULE 2) of Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai (and others)

    2006-12-15

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 1st surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejon after the capsule was transported from Ulchin site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Ulchin unit 3 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsule 2 is 4.674E 18n/cm{sup 2}. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.920 for the 1st testing and the calculational uncertainty,7.0% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 3.913E 18n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 6th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 16 and 32EFPY would reach 9.249E 18 and 1.834E 19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Ulchin unit 3 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life.

  8. Final Report for the 1st Surveillance Test of the Reactor Pressure Vessel Material (Capsule 2) of Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 1st surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Daejon after the capsule was transported from Ulchin site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Ulchin Unit 4 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsule 2 is 4.306E+18n/cm{sup 2}. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.918 for the 1st testing and the calculational uncertainty,7.0% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 3.615E+18n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 6th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 16 and 32EFPY would reach 8.478E+18 and 1.673E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Ulchin Unit 4 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life.

  9. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Final report (Part I). Pulverized coal combustion and gasification in a cyclone reactor: experiment and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, J. S.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1979-05-01

    A unified experimental and analytical study of pulverized coal combustion and low-BTU gasification in an atmospheric cyclone reactor was performed. Experimental results include several series of coal combustion tests and a coal gasification test carried out via fuel-rich combustion without steam addition. Reactor stability was excellent over a range of equivalence ratios from .67 to 2.4 and air flowrates from 60 to 220 lb/hr. Typical carbon efficiencies were 95% for air-rich and stoichiometric tests and 80% for gasification tests. The best gasification results were achieved at an equivalence ratio of 2.0, where the carbon, cold gas and hot gas efficiencies were 83, 45 and 75%, respectively. The corresponding product gas heating value was 70 BTU/scf. A macroscopic model of coal combustion in the cyclone has been developed. Fuel-rich gasification can also be modeled through a gas-phase equilibrium treatment. Fluid mechanics are modeled by a particle force balance and a series combination of a perfectly stirred reactor and a plug flow reactor. Kinetic treatments of coal pyrolysis, char oxidation and carbon monoxide oxidation are included. Gas composition and temperature are checked against equilibrium values. The model predicts carbon efficiency, gas composition and temperature and reactor heat loss; gasification parameters, such as cold and hot gas efficiency and make gas heating value, are calculated for fuel-rich conditions. Good agreement exists between experiment and theory for conditions of this investigation.

  10. U.S. Department of Energy University Reactor Sharing Program at the University of Florida. Final report for period August 15, 2000 - May 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernetson, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG02-96NE38152 was supplied to the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) facility through the U.S. Department of Energy's University Reactor Sharing Program. The renewal proposal submitted in January 2000 originally requested over $73,000 to support various external educational institutions using the UFTR facilities in academic year 2000-01. The actual Reactor Sharing Grant was only in the amount of $40,000, all of which has been well used by the University of Florida as host institution to support various educational institutions in the use of our reactor and associated facilities as indicated in the proposal. These various educational institutions are located primarily within the State of Florida. However, when the 600-mile distance from Pensacola to Miami is considered, it is obvious that this Grant provides access to reactor utilization for a broad geographical region and a diverse set of user institutions serving over fourteen million inhabitants throughout the State of Florida and still others throughout the Southeast.

  11. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  12. Modular fabrication and characterization of complex silicon carbide composite structures Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Research Final Report (Feb 2015 – May 2017)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, Hesham [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Advanced ceramic materials exhibit properties that enable safety and fuel cycle efficiency improvements in advanced nuclear reactors. In order to fully exploit these desirable properties, new processing techniques are required to produce the complex geometries inherent to nuclear fuel assemblies and support structures. Through this project, the state of complex SiC-SiC composite fabrication for nuclear components has advanced significantly. New methods to produce complex SiC-SiC composite structures have been demonstrated in the form factors needed for in-core structural components in advanced high temperature nuclear reactors. Advanced characterization techniques have been employed to demonstrate that these complex SiC-SiC composite structures provide the strength, toughness and hermeticity required for service in harsh reactor conditions. The complex structures produced in this project represent a significant step forward in leveraging the excellent high temperature strength, resistance to neutron induced damage, and low neutron cross section of silicon carbide in nuclear applications.

  13. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  14. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  15. Preliminary Neutronics Design of Breed Blanket for Fusion-fission Hybrid Reactor%聚变-裂变增殖堆包层的初步中子学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵奉超; 栗再新

    2012-01-01

    基于国际热核实验堆ITER的堆芯参数和套管结构,对聚变-裂变增殖堆包层进行了初步中子学设计.基于国际热核实验堆的堆芯参数提出了采用套管结构,以天然金属铀为燃料和硅酸锂为氚增殖剂的快裂变-增殖堆包层的初步中子学设计方案.使用FENDL 2.1核数据库及MCNP程序自带的核数据库,用MCNP程序对套管结构快裂变-增殖堆包层进行一维的方案筛选及三维中子学的计算分析.计算分析包层内的一维功率密度分布、产氚率、钚增殖率分布,通过优化设计分析给出合理的包层设计方案,并计算氚增殖率TBR、能量放大倍数M、有效增值系数(Keff)、裂变增殖比等参数.%A preliminary neutronics design of breed blanket for fusion-fission hybrid reactor has been carried out based on the plasma parameters of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and casing structure. In the design of fast-fission breed blanket, the natural Uranium pebble bed is used as fuel and neutron multiplication and the Lithium silicate pebble bed is used as tritium breed material. By using FENDL2.1 nuclear database cross section library with native cross section library of MCNP nuclear database, the calculation and analysis are carried out with MCNP program. Through one-dimension calculation and analysis on different design proposals, a proper design proposal has been screened and then the three-dimension calculation and analysis have been implemented with the parameters of ITER. The calculation shows that the TBR of fusion-fission hybrid reactor is 1.13, it indicates that the design of breed blanket is able to meet self-sustaining of tritium and the calculation also indicates that the energy enlargement of fusion-ission hybrid reactor is 6.5 and Polonium breeding rate is 1.35, it means that the reactor is able to also product large quantities energy and Polonium and they could be used by light water reactor. Meanwhile, fission

  16. Gas-cooled reactor commercialization study: introduction scenario and commercialization analyses for process heat applications. Final report, July 8, 1977--November 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This report identifies and presents an introduction scenario which can lead to the operation of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor demonstration plants for combined process heat and electric power generation applications, and presents a commercialization analysis relevant to the organizational and management plans which could implement a development program.

  17. Studies and research concerning BNFP: life of project operating expenses for away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel storage facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallo, F. A.

    1979-09-01

    Life of Project operating expenses for a licensed Away-From-Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Storage Facility are developed in this report. A comprehensive business management structure is established and the functions and responsibilities for the facility organization are described. Contractual provisions for spent fuel storage services are evaluated.

  18. Final report for the 5th surveillance test of the reactor pressure vessel material (capsule Y) of Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sam Lai; Kim, ByoungChul; Chang, Kee Ok (and others)

    2006-02-15

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 5th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Daejeon after the capsule was transported from Yonggwang site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Yonggwang unit 2 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules U, V, X, W and Y are 5.777E+18, 1.5371E+19, 3.7634E+19, 4.3045E+19, and 4.8662E+19n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.953 for the 1st through 5th testing and the calculational uncertainty,7.2% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide 1.190, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.659E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 13th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 48, 56 and 64EFPY would reach 3.625E+19, 5.293E+19, 6.127E+19 and 6.960E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Yonggwang unit 2 showed that there would be no problem for the Pressurized Thermal Shock(PTS) during the operation until design life.

  19. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  20. BOILING REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  1. Final Report for "Solid State Voltammetry and Other Experiments in Molecular Melts" Semi-Solid Nanoparticles, and Biomolecule Polyether Hybrids"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royce W. Murray

    2005-07-27

    Since the technical progress report of the previous renewal proposal, my students and I have published or have in press 13 papers (5 in JACS). Another is under review; several others are in draft form. This Final Report is an updated version of the Performance Report submitted with the renewal proposal for this project.

  2. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fezzler, Raymond [BIZTEK Consulting, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  3. Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, several configurational approaches and concept improvement schemes were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These configurations include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator-snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each of these configurations have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties. Results indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.

  4. Increasing the productivity of biomass plantations of Populus species and hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Final report, September 14, 1981--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBell, D.S.; Harrington, C.A.; Clendenen, G.W. [USDA Forest Service, Olympia, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This final report represents the culmination of eight years of biological research devoted to increasing the productivity of short rotation plantations of Populus trichocarpa and Populus hybrids in the Pacific Northwest. Studies described herein provide an understanding of tree growth, stand development and biomass yield at various spacings, and how patterns thereof differ by Populus clone in monoclonal and polyclonal plantings. Also included is some information about factors related to wind damage in Populus plantings, use of leaf size as a predictor of growth potential, and approaches for estimating tree and stand biomass and biomass growth. The work was accomplished in three research plantations, all established cooperatively with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and located at the DNR Tree Improvement Center near Olympia. The first plantation was established in Spring 1986 to evaluate the highly touted {open_quotes}woodgrass{close_quotes} concept and compare it with more conventional short-rotation management regimes, using two Populus hybrid clones planted at five spacings. Besides providing scientific data to resolve the politicized {open_quotes}wood-grass{close_quotes} dispute, this plantation has furnished excellent data on stand dynamics and woody biomass yield. A second plantation was established at the same time; groups of trees therein received two levels of irrigation and different amounts of four fertilizer amendments, resulting in microsites with diverse moisture and nutrient conditions.

  5. Final Report of the 2nd Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Installation And Evaluations for Yonggwang Unit 1 Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai; Chang, Kee Ok; Gong, Un Sik; Choi, Kwon Jae; Chang, Jong Hwa; Li, Nam Jin; Hong, Joon Wha

    2007-01-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Yonggwang Unit 1 pressure vessel belt line region based on the guidance specified in Regulatory Guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the belt line region of the pressure vessel. During Cycle 16 of reactor operation, 2nd Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program was instituted at Yonggwang Unit 1 to provide continuous monitoring of the belt line region of the reactor vessel. The use of the Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of Cycle 16.

  6. Final report for the 1st ex-vessel neutron dosimetry installation and evaluations for Kori unit 4 reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai; Chang, Kee Ok; Gong, Un Sik; Choi, Kwon Jae; Chang, Jong Hwa; Lim, Nam Jin; Hong, Joon Wha; Cheon, Byeong Jin

    2006-11-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Kori unit 4 pressure vessel belt line region based on the guidance specified in regulatory guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the belt line region of the pressure vessel. During cycle 16 of reactor operation, an ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program was instituted at Kori unit 4 to provide continuous monitoring of the belt line region of the reactor vessel. The use of the ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-vessel neutron dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of cycle 16.

  7. Final report of the 1st ex-vessel neutron dosimetry installation and evaluations for Yonggwang unit 2 reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai; Chang, Kee Ok; Gong, Un Sik; Choi, Kwon Jae; Chang, Jong Hwa; Lim, Nam Jin; Hong, Joon Wha; Cheon, Byeong Jin

    2006-09-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Yonggwang unit 2 pressure vessel beltline region based on the guidance specified in regulatory guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the beltline region of the pressure vessel. During cycle 15 of reactor operation, an ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program was instituted at Yonggwang unit 2 to provide continuous monitoring of the beltline region of the reactor vessel. The use of the ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-vessel neutron dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of cycle 15.

  8. Final report for the 1st ex-vessel neutron dosimetry installations and evaluations for Kori unit 2 reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai; Chang, Kee Ok; Gong, Un Sik; Choi, Kwon Jae; Chang, Jong Hwa; Lim, Nam Jin; Hong, Joon Wha; Cheon, Byeong Jin

    2006-11-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Kori unit 2 pressure vessel belt line region based on the guidance specified in regulatory guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the belt line region of the pressure vessel. During cycle 20 of reactor operation, an ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program was instituted at Kori unit 2 to provide continuous monitoring of the belt line region of the reactor vessel. The use of the ex-vessel neutron dosimetry program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-vessel neutron dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of cycle 20.

  9. Final Report of the 2nd Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Installation And Evaluations for Kori Unit 1 Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai; Chang, Kee Ok; Gong, Un Sik; Choi, Kwon Jae; Chang, Jong Hwa; Kim, Kwan Hyun; Hong, Joon Wha

    2007-02-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Kori Unit 1 pressure vessel beltline region based on the guidance specified in Regulatory Guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the beltline region of the pressure vessel. After Cycle 22 of reactor operation, 2nd Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program was instituted at Kori Unit 1 to provide continuous monitoring of the beltline region of the reactor vessel. The use of the Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of Cycle 23.

  10. Final report for the 3rd Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Installations and Evaluations for Kori Unit 1 Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Kori Unit 1 pressure vessel belt line region based on the guidance specified in Regulatory Guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the belt line region of the pressure vessel. After Cycle 23 of reactor operation, 3rd Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program was instituted at Kori Unit 1 to provide continuous monitoring of the belt line region of the reactor vessel. The use of the Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of Cycle 24.

  11. Final report for the 2nd Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Installations and Evaluations for Yonggwang Unit 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai; Gong, Un Sik; Choi, Kwon Jae; Chung, Kyoung Ki; Kim, Kwan Hyun; Chang, Jong Hwa; Ha, Jea Ju

    2008-01-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Yonggwang Unit 2 pressure vessel beltline region based on the guidance specified in Regulatory Guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the beltline region of the pressure vessel. During Cycle 16 of reactor operation, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program was instituted at Yonggwang Unit 2 to provide continuous monitoring of the beltline region of the reactor vessel. The use of the Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of Cycle 16.

  12. Final Report of the 2nd Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Installation And Evaluations for Yonggwang Unit 1 Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Lee, Sam Lai; Gong, Un Sik; Choi, Kwon Jae; Chung, Kyoung Ki; Kim, Kwan Hyun; Chang, Jong Hwa; Ha, Jea Ju

    2008-01-15

    This report describes a neutron fluence assessment performed for the Kori Unit 2 pressure vessel belt line region based on the guidance specified in Regulatory Guide 1.190. In this assessment, maximum fast neutron exposures expressed in terms of fast neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) and iron atom displacements (dpa) were established for the belt line region of the pressure vessel. During Cycle 21 of reactor operation, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program was instituted at Kori Unit 2 to provide continuous monitoring of the belt line region of the reactor vessel. The use of the Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry Program coupled with available surveillance capsule measurements provides a plant specific data base that enables the evaluation of the vessel exposure and the uncertainty associated with that exposure over the service life of the unit. Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry has been evaluated at the conclusion of Cycle 21.

  13. Membrane reactor. Membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y.; Wakabayashi, K. (National Chemical Laboratory for Industry, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    Many reaction examples were introduced of membrane reactor, to be on the point of forming a new region in the field of chemical technology. It is a reactor to exhibit excellent function, by its being installed with membrane therein, and is generally classified into catalyst function type and reaction promotion type. What firstly belongs to the former is stabilized zirconia, where oxygen, supplied to the cathodic side of membrane with voltage, impressed thereon, becomes O {sup 2 {minus}} to be diffused through the membrane and supplied, as variously activated oxygenous species, on the anodic side. Examples with many advantages can be given such as methane coupling, propylene oxidation, methanating reaction of carbon dioxide, etc. Apart, palladium film and naphion film also belong to the former. While examples of the latter comprise, among others, decomposition of hydrogen sulfide by porous glass film and dehydrogenation of cyclohexane or palladium alloy film, which are expected to be developed and materialized in the industry. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  14. The final power calibration of the IPEN/MB-01 nuclear reactor for various configurations obtained from the measurements of the absolute average neutron flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alexandre Fonseca Povoa da, E-mail: alexandre.povoa@mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bitelli, Ulysses d' Utra; Mura, Luiz Ernesto Credidio; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Betti, Flavio; Santos, Diogo Feliciano dos, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of neutron activation foils is a widely spread technique applied to obtain nuclear parameters then comparing the results with those calculated using specific methodologies and available nuclear data. By irradiation of activation foils and subsequent measurement of its induced activity, it is possible to determine the neutron flux at the position of irradiation. The power level during operation of the reactor is a parameter which is directly proportional to the average neutron flux throughout the core. The objective of this work is to gather data from irradiation of gold foils symmetrically placed along a cylindrically configured core which presents only a small excess reactivity in order to derive the power generated throughout the spatial thermal and epithermal neutron flux distribution over the core of the IPEN/MB-01 Nuclear Reactor, eventually lending to a proper calibration of its nuclear channels. The foils are fixed in a Lucite plate then irradiated with and without cadmium sheaths so as to obtain the absolute thermal and epithermal neutron flux. The correlation between the average power neutron flux resulting from the gold foils irradiation, and the average power digitally indicated by the nuclear channel number 6, allows for the calibration of the nuclear channels of the reactor. The reactor power level obtained by thermal neutron flux mapping was (74.65 ± 2.45) watts to a mean counting per seconds of 37881 cps to nuclear channel number 10 a pulse detector, and 0.719.10{sup -5} ampere to nuclear linear channel number 6 (a non-compensated ionization chamber). (author)

  15. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  16. Simulation on advanced operation mode for the compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor%紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆先进运行模式的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美霞; 刘成岳; 吴斌

    2012-01-01

    Reversed shear (RS) operation mode is simulated with Jsolver and TSC codes on some important issues, such as RS Plasma configuration, bootstrap current fraction and RS operation mode discharge simulation etc.. To some degree, the modeling results show that the RS operation mode is advanced and feasible for the compact Fusion-fission hybrid reactor.%使用Jsolver程序及托卡马克模拟程序TSC对紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆系统的反剪切平衡位形、自举电流份额及放电模拟进行数值模拟研究,以此探讨该混合堆的可行性和先进性.

  17. Cross section measurements of the yield of spallation reactions related to the study of hybrid reactor systems; Measures de sections efficaces de production de produits de reactions en rapport avec l`etude de systemes de reacteurs hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, M.; Mustapha, B.; Stephan, C. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others

    1999-11-01

    Studies presently developed on the design of hybrid systems need the knowledge of spallation products and their production rate. To obtain this information we have performed cross-section measurements using the inverse kinematical method. (authors) 2 figs.

  18. A new MTR fuel for a new MTR reactor: UMo for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guigon, B. [CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Vacelet, H. [CERCA, Romans (France); Dornbusch, D. [Technicatome, Aix en Provence (France)

    2000-07-01

    Within some years, the Jules Horowitz Reactor will be the only working experimental reactor (material and fuel testing reactor) in France. It will have to provide facilities for a wide range of needs from activation analysis to power reactor fuel qualification. In this paper the main characteristics of the Jules Horowitz Reactor are presented. Safety criteria are explained. Finally, merits and disadvantages of UMo compared to the standard U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel are discussed. (author)

  19. Conceptual design of Z-pinch driven fusion-fission hybrid power reactor%Z箍缩驱动聚变-裂变混合堆总体概念研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正宏; 周林; 黄洪文; 王真; 陈晓军; 祁建敏; 郭海兵; 马纪敏; 肖成建; 褚衍运

    2014-01-01

    Z箍缩驱动聚变-裂变混合能源堆(Z-FFR)在核安全、经济、持久和环境友好等方面具有优良的品质,有望成为有效应对未来能源危机和环境、气候问题的新能源。从 Z箍缩驱动聚变方案与聚变靶设计、重复频率驱动器、次临界包层及产氚包层设计、燃料循环等关键问题方面,对Z-FFR工程概念总体研究情况进行了介绍。%The Z-pinch driven fusion-fission hybrid power reactor(Z-FFR)has remarkable advantages in nuclear security,e-conomy,permanence and environment-friendliness,it can promisingly be millennial energy source dealing effectively with future energy crisis and climate problem.This article introduces the status quo of the conceptual research on Z-FFR from aspects of fu-sion-target physics,low-repetitive Z-pinch driver development,sub-critical fission reactor design and fuel cycle analysis.

  20. 复合生物反应器亚硝酸型同步硝化反硝化脱氮%Nitrogen Removal by Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification via Nitrite in a Sequence Hybrid Biological Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建龙; 彭永臻; 王淑莹; 高永青

    2008-01-01

    Sequence hybrid biological reactor(SHBR)was proposed,and some key control parameters were in-vestigated for nitrogen removal from wastewater by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification(SND)via nitrite.sND via nitrite was achieved in SHBR by controlling demand oxygen(DO)concentration.There was a pro-did not destroy the partial nitrification to nitrite.The results showed that limited air flow rate to cause oxygen defi-ciency in the reactor would eventually induce only nitrification to nitrite and not further to nitrate.Nitrogen removal efficiency was increased with the increase in NAR,that iS,NAR was increased from 60%to 90%,and total nitrogen removal efficiency was increased from 68%t0 85%.The SHBR could tolerate high organic loading rate(OLR),COD and ammonia-nitrogen removal efficiency were greater than92%and 93.5%respectively and it even oper-biofilm positively affected the activated sludge settling capability,and sludge volume index(svi)of activated sludge in SHBR never hit more than 90 ml.g-1 throughout the experiments.

  1. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  2. Power Flattening and Rejuvenation of PWR Spent Fuel Blanket for Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor%功率展平的压水堆乏燃料发电包层中子学初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马续波; 陈义学; 王继亮; 王悦; 韩静茹; 陆道纲

    2011-01-01

    The hybrid fusion-fission reactor has advantages of breeding of the nuclear fuel and transmutation of the long-life nuclear waste and having inherent safety. Meanwhile, the engineering and technological demand of hybrid reactor is significantly reduced comparing with that of pure fusion reactor. A generating electricity blanket concept using the PWR spent fuel directly was proposed, which was based on ITER parameter level achieved. Different volume fractions of the fuel in blanket enabled to realize a power flattening in the fissile zone. The results show that the peak-to-average power factor becomes less than no power flattening, and the output power of the fuel zone raises more than 21. 7%. At the end of the operation, the maximum fuel enrichment is 5. 23%. The blanket is feasible from the neutronics viewpoint.%聚变裂变混合堆在增殖核燃料、嬗变长寿命核废料及固有安全性等方面具有较大优势,同时,它比纯聚变堆在工程及技术方面要求低,因此较聚变堆更易实现.本工作基于目前国际聚变实验堆(ITER)所能达到的技术水平,提出一种直接利用乏燃料进行发电的聚变裂变混合堆包层概念,利用在不同位置放置不同乏燃料体积分数的方法对燃料增殖区实现了功率展平.计算结果表明:功率展平后的包层功率不均匀系数更小,且包层中燃料区的能量输出要比不展平情况下的能量输出高约21.7%.燃料富集度到运行末期最大可达5.23%.从中子学角度初步论证了该包层的可行性.

  3. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  4. Desiccant-Based Combined Systems: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid System Development and Testing Final Report- Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2005-05-06

    This report summarizes the results of a research and development (R&D) program to design and optimize an active desiccant-vapor compression hybrid rooftop system. The primary objective was to combine the strengths of both technologies to produce a compact, high-performing, energy-efficient system that could accommodate any percentage of outdoor air and deliver essentially any required combination of temperature and humidity, or sensible heat ratio (SHR). In doing so, such a product would address the significant challenges imposed on the performance capabilities of conventional packaged rooftop equipment by standards 62 and 90.1 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. The body of work completed as part of this program built upon previous R&D efforts supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and summarized by the Phase 3b report ''Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC Units'' (Fischer and Sand 2002), in addition to Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000; and Fischer and Sand 2004. All initial design objectives established for this development program were successfully achieved. The performance flexibility desired was accomplished by a down-sized active desiccant wheel that processes only a portion of the supply airflow, which is pre-conditioned by a novel vapor compression cycle. Variable-speed compressors are used to deliver the capacity control required by a system handling a high percentage of outdoor air. An integrated direct digital control system allows for control capabilities not generally offered by conventional packaged rooftop systems. A 3000-cfm prototype system was constructed and tested in the SEMCO engineering test laboratory in Columbia, MO, and was found to operate in an energy-efficient fashion relative to more conventional systems. Most important, the system offered the capability to independently control the supply air temperature and

  5. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loferski, J.J. (ed.)

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  6. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  7. Research on the wetted first wall concept for future laser fusion reactors. Final report No. 1, October 1, 1974--January 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Munir, Z.A.

    1976-01-01

    Research is in progress to determine the feasibility of the wetted first wall concept for a future laser fusion reactor. The basic idea involves the use of a thin coating of lithium on the inner wall of the laser fusion containment vessel to protect it from the micro-explosion blast debris. This report contains a review of the available information on contact angles and wettability of alkali metals on various metal substrates as well as a review of literature on thin falling liquid films. A proposed experiment to measure the contact angles of lithium on stainless steel and niobium is described. The requirements for a second experiment to measure certain key characteristics of thin falling films are also included.

  8. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs: A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschbach, M.C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review their decommissioning cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning boiling water reactor (BWR) power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  9. Final safety analysis addendum to hazard summary report, experimental breeder reactor No. II (EBR-II): the EBR-II cover-gas cleanup system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, R M; Monson, L R; Price, C C; Hooker, D W

    1979-04-01

    This report evaluates abnormal and accident conditions postulated for the EBR-II cover-gas cleanup system (CGCS). Major considerations include loss of CGCS function with a high level of cover-gas activity, loss of the liquid-nitrogen coolant required for removing fission products from the cover gas, contamination of the cover gas from sources other than the reactor, and loss of system pressure boundary. Calculated exposures resulting from the maximum hypothetical accident (MHA) are less than 2% of the 25-Rem limit stipulated in U.S. Regulation 10 CFR 100; i.e., a person standing at any point on an exclusion boundary (area radius of 600 m) for 2 h following onset of the postulated release would receive less than 0.45 Rem whole-body dose. The on-site whole-body dose (10 m from the source) would be less than 16 Rem.

  10. Effect of electrode position on azo dye removal in an up-flow hybrid anaerobic digestion reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min-Hua; Cui, Dan; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Liang, Bin; Wang, Ai-Jie; Cheng, Hao-Yi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two modes of hybrid anaerobic digestion (AD) bioreactor with built-in BESs (electrodes installed in liquid phase (R1) and sludge phase (R2)) were tested for identifying the effect of electrodes position on azo dye wastewater treatment. Alizarin yellow R (AYR) was used as a model dye. Decolorization efficiency of R1 was 90.41 ± 6.20% at influent loading rate of 800 g-AYR/ m3·d, which was 39% higher than that of R2. The contribution of bioelectrochemical reduction to AYR decolorization (16.23 ± 1.86% for R1 versus 22.24 ± 2.14% for R2) implied that although azo dye was mainly removed in sludge zone, BES further improved the effluent quality, especially for R1 where electrodes were installed in liquid phase. The microbial communities in the electrode biofilms (dominant by Enterobacter) and sludge (dominant by Enterococcus) were well distinguished in R1, but they were similar in R2. These results suggest that electrodes installed in liquid phase in the anaerobic hybrid system are more efficient than that in sludge phase for azo dye removal, which give great inspirations for the application of AD-BES hybrid process for various refractory wastewaters treatment.

  11. Systematic analysis of biomass characteristics associated membrane fouling during start-up of a hybrid membrane bioreactor using worm reactor for sludge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Yu; Ding, Yi; Lu, Yaobin

    2013-05-01

    This study focused on the effect of predated sludge recycle on microbial community development in MBR coupled with Static Sequencing Batch Worm Reactor (SSBWR-MBR). The microbial activities and community were evaluated. The results indicated that the SSBWR-MBR fed with the predated sludge obtained excellent wastewater treatment performance and membrane permeability. In addition, the LIVE/DEAD staining analyses clearly showed that the viability of sludge in SSBWR-MBR was slightly lower than that in Control-MBR, indicating that SSBWR-MBR had a good ability to digest predated sludge. Changed EPS and SMP characteristics and low EPS production, as the major contributors for the mitigated membrane fouling, were closely associated with microbial community development. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in the two reactors were different. Further identification of the bacterial populations suggested that decrease of Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria and change in Alphaproteobacteria might be responsible for membrane fouling mitigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  13. Evaluation of Alternate Materials for Coated Particle Fuels for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2006 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Karen Wright; Jian Gan; David Petti; Todd Allen; Jake Blanchard

    2006-09-01

    Candidate ceramic materials were studied to determine their suitability as Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor particle fuel coatings. The ceramics examined in this work were: TiC, TiN, ZrC, ZrN, AlN, and SiC. The studies focused on (i) chemical reactivity of the ceramics with fission products palladium and rhodium, (ii) the thermomechanical stresses that develop in the fuel coatings from a variety of causes during burnup, and (iii) the radiation resiliency of the materials. The chemical reactivity of TiC, TiN, ZrC, and ZrN with Pd and Rh were all found to be much lower than that of SiC. A number of important chemical behaviors were observed at the ceramic-metal interfaces, including the formation of specific intermetallic phases and a variation in reaction rates for the different ceramics investigated. Based on the data collected in this work, the nitride ceramics (TiN and ZrN) exhibit chemical behavior that is characterized by lower reaction rates with Pd and Rh than the carbides TiC and ZrC. The thermomechanical stresses in spherical fuel particle ceramic coatings were modeled using finite element analysis, and included contributions from differential thermal expansion, fission gas pressure, fuel kernel swelling, and thermal creep. In general the tangential stresses in the coatings during full reactor operation are tensile, with ZrC showing the lowest values among TiC, ZrC, and SiC (TiN and ZrN were excluded from the comprehensive calculations due to a lack of available materials data). The work has highlighted the fact that thermal creep plays a critical role in the development of the stress state of the coatings by relaxing many of the stresses at high temperatures. To perform ion irradiations of sample materials, an irradiation beamline and high-temperature sample irradiation stage was constructed at the University of Wisconsin’s 1.7MV Tandem Accelerator Facility. This facility is now capable of irradiating of materials to high dose while controlling sample temperature

  14. Suspension membrane reactor for biological elimination of non-degradable materials from mixed effluents. Final report; Suspensionsmembranreaktor zur biologischen Eliminierung schwer abbaubarer Stoffe aus Abwassergemischen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raebiger, N.; Schierenbeck, A.

    2002-07-01

    An earlier research project had shown that a combined process involving membrane filtration and a bioreactor ensure substrate-specific times of residue inside the reactor, i.e. high selective conversation at low discharge rates. The second project aimed at higher flexibility. For this purpose, a two-stage suspension membrane reactor was developed in which the filtration stage and the bioreactor were decoupled. The liquid effluents are concentrated first in a nanofiltration stage, and the permeate, which should be free of non-degradable materials, is discharged. The concentrate is treated in the biological reaction stage and recirculated into the nanofiltration stage in order to ensure complete degradation during a substrate-specific time of residue. An intermediate microfiltration stage serves to retain biomass and prevent the growth of a biofilm in the nanofiltration stage. The method was tested with the practically relevant model pollutant 4-chlorophenol and a real industrial effluent from the antifelting stage of a Bremen woollen mill (Bremer Wollkaemmerei), with a high AOX concentration. [German] Im vorhergehenden Teil des Forschungsvorhabens konnte gezeigt werden, dass durch eine kombinierte Anwendung der Membranfiltration mit einem Bioreaktor eine substratspezifische Verweilzeitverteilung im Reaktor und damit eine hohe selektive Umsatzleistung bei gleichzeitig niedrigen Ablaufwerten realisierbar ist. Um eine groessere Flexibilitaet bei dem Einsatz verschiedener Membranmodule zu realisieren, wurde in dem zweiten Abschnitt des Forschungsvorhabens eine zweistufige Anlage vom Typ des Suspensions-Membranreaktors entwickelt, bei der Filtration und Bioreaktor entkoppelt werden. Das zu reinigende Abwasser wird zunaechst in einer Nanofiltrationsstufe aufkonzentriert, das moeglichst an schwer abbaubaren Stoffen freie Permeat bildet den Ablauf der Anlage. Der Konzentratstrom wird in der nachfolgenden Reaktionsstufe biologisch behandelt und in die Nanofiltrationsstufe

  15. Reactor vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  16. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  17. Inertial-confinement fusion-reactor dry-wall study. Final report, 13 August 1981-31 March 1983. Report WAESD-TR-83-0010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucov, E.W.

    1983-04-01

    The Westinghouse ICF Dry Wall Study was undertaken (1) to explore the practical implications of using a Ta coating to protect the steel first wall of an ICF reactor against the power pulses from the explosions of a pellet containing Ta as the heavy element and (2) to determine if a feasible design for improved safety and lower cost in a blanket could be developed using solid lithium compound in place of liquid lithium as the tritium breeder. Three coating techniques were examined; plasma spray, chemical vapor deposition and explosive bonding. An evaporation code and a sputtering code which were developed at LANL, were used to calculate the loss rate of Ta due to these processes after each pellet explosion. A simulation experiment to verify the CHART D calculations was investigated. Sources of pulsed x-rays and ions to simulate the debris from each pellet explosion were identified. The CANDID code was developed to permit evaluation of candidate metals for coating the steel based on criteria such as surface and bulk temperature rise, thermal stress in the creating layer and evaporation rate. Material properties were stored in the memory and were called upon to calculate evaluation algorithms. Of twenty original candidates, six remain: Re, Ir, Mo, Cr, W, Ta and Nb. Further evaluation would include parameters such as cost, manufacturability, radioactive decay rate, etc.

  18. Final Report for the Demonstration of Plasma In-situ Vitrification at the 904-65G K-Reactor Seepage Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundy, R.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Zionkowki, P.G.

    1997-12-22

    The In-situ Vitrification (ISV) process potentially offers the most stable waste-form for containment of radiologically contaminated soils while minimizing personnel contamination. This is a problem that is extensive, and at the same time unique, to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Complex. An earlier ISV process utilized joule heating of the soil to generate the subsurface molten glass product. However previous test work has indicated that the Savannah river Site soils (SRS) may not be entirely suitable for vitrification by joule heating due to their highly refractory nature. The concept of utilizing a plasma torch for soil remediation by in-situ vitrification has recently been developed, and laboratory test work on a 100 kW unit has indicated a potentially successful application with SRS soils. The Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) conducted the first field scale demonstration of this process at the (904-65G) K-Reactor Seepage Basin in October 1996 with the intention of determining the applicability and economics of the process for remediation of a SRS radioactive seepage basin. The demonstration was successful in completing three vitrification runs, including two consecutive runs that fused together adjacent columns of glass to form a continuous monolith. This report describes the demonstration, documents the engineering data that was obtained, summarizes the process economics and makes recommendations for future development of the process and equipment.

  19. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  20. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  2. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  3. Hot Isostatic Press Can Optimization for Aluminum Cladding of U-10Mo Reactor Fuel Plates: FY12 Final Report and FY13 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crapps, Justin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scott, Jeffrey E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aikin, Beverly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vargas, Victor D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duffield, Andrew N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weinberg, Richard Y. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alexander, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montalvo, Joel D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hudson, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Liu, Cheng [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lovato, Manuel L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dombrowski, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-08-26

    Currently, the proposed processing path for low enriched uranium – 10 wt. pct. molybdenum alloy (LEU-10Mo) monolithic fuel plates for high power research and test reactors includes hot isostatic pressing (HIP) to bond the aluminum cladding that encapsulates the fuel foil. Initial HIP experiments were performed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on approximately ¼ scale “mini” fuel plate samples using a HIP can design intended for these smaller experimental trials. These experiments showed that, with the addition of a co-rolled zirconium diffusion barrier on the LEU-10Mo alloy fuel foil, the HIP bonding process is a viable method for producing monolithic fuel plates. Further experimental trials at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) effectively scaled-up the “mini” can design to produce full-size fuel prototypic plates. This report summarizes current efforts at LANL to produce a HIP can design that is further optimized for higher volume production runs. The production-optimized HIP can design goals were determined by LANL and Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to include maintaining or improving the quality of the fuel plates produced with the baseline scaled-up mini can design, while minimizing material usage, improving dimensional stability, easing assembly and disassembly, eliminating machining, and significantly reducing welding. The initial small-scale experiments described in this report show that a formed-can approach can achieve the goals described above. Future work includes scaling the formed-can approach to full-size fuel plates, and current progress toward this goal is also summarized here.

  4. Fouling potential evaluation of soluble microbial products (SMP) with different membrane surfaces in a hybrid membrane bioreactor using worm reactor for sludge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Yu; Ding, Yi; Chen, Lin; Wang, Haoyu

    2013-07-01

    The fouling characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) in the membrane bioreactor coupled with Static Sequencing Batch Worm Reactor (SSBWR-MBR) were tested with different types of membranes. It was noted that the flux decrements of S-SMP (SMP in SSBWR-MBR) with cellulose acetate (CA), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyether sulfones (PES) membranes were respectively 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.5% lower compared to those of C-SMP (SMP in Control-MBR) with corresponding membranes. However, for both the filtration of the C-SMP and S-SMP, the CA membrane exhibited the fastest diminishing rate of flux among the three types of membranes. The surface morphology analysis showed that the CA membrane exhibited more but smaller protuberances compared to the PVDF and PES. The second minimums surrounding each protruding asperity on CA membrane were more than those on the PVDF and PES membranes, enhancing the attachment of SMP onto the membrane surface. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental evaluation of the production of the poisons Xe-135 and Sm-149 of the TRIGA Mark III reactor with mixed core, configuration No. 16 (Final report of the project); Evaluacion experimental de la produccion de los venenos Xe-135 y Sm-149 del reactor TRIGA Mark III con nucleo mixto, config. No. 16 (Informe final del proyecto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.C

    1991-11-15

    It was generated the concentration curve of the Xe{sup 135} (t) during the TRIGA Mark III reactor operation cycle, for a continuous irradiation of 72 h to 1 MW of thermal power, as well as the accumulation curve of the isotope after the shutdown, for the fuel configuration No. 16 in the thermal column. The maximum negative reactivities generated by the Xe{sup 135} for operation times greater than 60 h to 1 MW and after the reactor shutdown its were of 1.968 {+-} 0.15 dollars and 2.30 {+-} 0.15 dollars respectively. When comparing these results with those theoretically calculated we find differences of the order of 3.6% and 5.34% which are understood inside the experimental error that on the average was of 7.6%. The results before mentioned have an important application during the start up process of the Reactor, when analyzing the value of the weekly reactivity excess of the core and when is choice the pattern of bars to use for experiments of but of 2 h, where is required to minimize the temporary and space interferences of the neutron flux. (Author)

  6. JAERI's contribution to the IAEA coordinated research programme on assuring structural integrity of reactor pressure vessels' (CRP-IV). Final report (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onizawa, Kunio; Suzuki, Masahide [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-05-01

    According to the Research Agreement No. 9736 between the IAEA and the JAERI, we commenced the test program for the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on 'Assuring Structural Integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessels' at JAERI in September 1997. For the program, we received one block of the IAEA reference material JRQ from the IAEA CRP coordinator in June 1997. The test program has been conducted using the JRQ block and additional materials (Steels A and B) from our own program having a similar object with the CRP. The CRP consists of two parts; a mandatory part and an optional part. For the mandatory part of the JAERI program, instrumented Charpy impact tests and fracture toughness tests using precracked Charpy-v (PCCv) specimens were performed. As the optional part, neutron irradiation to specimens of JRQ was conducted at JMTR by using two capsules. In this report, the results of the mandatory part and irradiated Charpy and PCCv specimens of JRQ from capsule No.1 as well as those of Steel A and Steel B were described. The following conclusions were drawn; (1) the data form Charpy impact and fracture toughness tests of JRQ agreed well with the data in the CRP-3, (2) the scatter of fracture toughness of JRQ is relatively large, i. e., the Weibull slope 'b' is less than 3, (3) the reference temperature T{sub 0} from PCCv is in good agreement with T{sub 0} from 1T-Compact Tension (CT) when the tests are performed at the recommended temperature or the data has no invalid data, (4) the reference temperature T{sub 0} after neutron irradiation can be determined with six to eight specimens at the recommended temperature and (5) the shift of the reference temperature T{sub 0} is almost equivalent to the shift of Charpy transition temperature, but affected by the treatment of the highest data and testing temperature. Further studies on the fracture toughness evaluation are necessary concerning the treatment of outlier, temperature dependence after

  7. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  8. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure - main report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1996-07-01

    The NRC staff is in need of updated bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2), which is a boiling water reactor (BWR), located at Richland, Washington, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low- level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities. Sensitivity of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances is also examined.

  9. Hydrogen production from starch by co-culture of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Rhodobacter sphaeroides in one step hybrid dark- and photofermentation in repeated fed-batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrodnik, R; Łaniecki, M

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen production from starch by a co-culture hybrid dark and photofermentation under repeated fed-batch conditions at different organic loading rates (OLR) was studied. Effective cooperation between bacteria in co-culture during initial days was observed at controlled pH 7.0. However, at pH above 6.5 dark fermentation phase was redirected from H2 formation towards production of formic acid, lactic acid and ethanol (which are not coupled with hydrogen production) with simultaneous lower starch removal efficiency. This resulted in decrease in the hydrogen production rate. The highest H2 production in co-culture process (3.23LH2/Lmedium - after 11days) was achieved at OLR of 1.5gstarch/L/day, and it was twofold higher than for dark fermentation process (1.59LH2/Lmedium). The highest H2 yield in the co-culture (2.62molH2/molhexose) was obtained at the OLR of 0.375gstarch/L/day. Different pH requirements of bacteria were proven to be a key limitation in co-culture system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  11. Bioconversion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  12. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix A: mission analysis and performance specification studies. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, M.; Barbarek, L.A.C.

    1979-04-20

    Studies are described which were performed for the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle program to determine passenger car usage patterns and to correlate these trip mission characteristics with vehicle design and performance specifications. (LCL)

  13. Optimised utilisation of existing incinerators by installation of upstream reactors for treatment of waste with high calorifica value - HYBRID waste treatment plants; Optimierte Nutzung bestehender Abfallverbrennungsanlagen durch Errichtung vorgeschalteter Reaktoren zur Behandlung heizwertreicher Abfaelle - HYBRID-Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Labani, M.

    2000-07-01

    Waste incineration plants are based on the process of thermal waste treatment, i.e. the generation of power from the controlled conversion of organic reactive residue waste. Statutory requirements forced operators to install powerful flue gas cleaning systems into their existing waste incineration plants. This led to a tremendous increase in cost and treatment prices generating pressure to optimize the process. Currently, markets demand additional capacities for the treatment of waste of elevated heating value ({proportional_to}5,0 MWh/Mg). It is possible to treat this type of waste in a conventional waste incineration plant. However, the elevated heating value dictates a reduction in throughput with ever increasing pressure on costs. This is why current concepts consider the treatment of waste of elevated heating value in specific, so called de-centralized plants. These plants are usually of low throughput with accordingly high specific cost of developing the infrastructure. The capacity of existing waste incineration plants has been investigated in order to assess the potential for optimization. Extensive test runs at the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Plant (MSW) Darmstadt revealed a capacity gap in the flue gas cleaning system even with the incineration unit running at full capacity. This gap could be filled with an additional incineration plant for waste of elevated heating value, whose capacity is matched accordingly. Such additional incineration plant defines in conjunction with the existing waste incineration plant a so called HYBRID Waste Treatment Plant. It is the aim of this treatise to develop an instrument to support the decision making process related to the planning of such plants. (orig.) [German] Abfallverbrennungsanlagen basieren auf dem Verfahren der thermischen Abfallbehandlung; das ist die Energieerzeugung aus der kontrollierten Umwandlung organischer, reaktionsfaehiger Restabfaelle. Aufgrund gesetzlicher Vorgaben mussten bestehende

  14. 聚变-裂变混合能源堆球模型中子学对算研究%Comparative Study on Spherical Model of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Energy Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵增; 程和平; 刘国明

    2012-01-01

    利用蒙特卡罗程序和自主开发的蒙特卡罗-燃耗耦合程序MOCouple-s,对北京应用物理与计算数学研究所提出的聚变-裂变混合能源堆球模型进行了对算研究.对初始时刻及各燃耗时刻下的有效增殖因数、能量倍增因子、氚增殖比、中子源强度等堆芯参数进行了比较,结果总体符合较好.对寿期末重要核素的成分进行了详细比较,除个别核素外,偏差很小,表明所采用的计算程序与核参数库一致性良好.对核参数库的选择、铀水体积比等对燃耗计算结果的影响进行敏感性分析,并对外中子源驱动的次临界堆芯的燃耗计算进行详细讨论,提出可行的燃耗计算基准.%The comparative study on fusion-fission hybrid spherical model proposed by the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics was performed with Monte-Carlo code and MOCouple-s code. Comparisons of reactor parameters, such as neutron effective multiplication factor, energy multiplication factor, tritium breeding ratio and neutron source intensity, were made. The results agree well with the reference as a whole. The concentrations of important isotopes were also compared in detail. Most of the biases are very small except a tiny fraction of the iotopes. It proves that both codes and nuclear data library have very good consistency. In calculation of the model used, the burnup sensitivity of nuclear data and uranium-water ratio employed in the simulation model were analyzed. For such a fixed external source driven subcritical reactor core, detailed discussion was made about the burnup calculation method, and a feasible burnup calculation benchmark was proposed.

  15. Design requirements to magnetic bearings for primary circuit blowers of high-temperature reactors. Final report; Auslegungsanforderungen an Magnetlager fuer Primaerkuehlgasgeblaese von Hochtemperaturreaktoren. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-12

    To study the operational behaviour of blower shafts with magnetic bearings, a modular computer model was set up based on model laws, which permits to simulate shaft behaviour during dynamic loads acting on the blower shaft. During simulation runs, essential properties of position regulation (guide behaviour, secondary behaviour, and fault behaviour), and the behaviour of the blower shaft in the event of failure of a final stage of magnetic bearing electronics, with not-single-failure-proof and with failure-tolerant design of the final stages, as well as the effects of mechanical vibrations, e.g. as a result of earthquakes, on the behaviour of blower shafts were investigated. In order to transfer the results of the catch bearing tests to other designs of blowers with a vertical blower shaft, transmission laws and procedures were derived from theoretical considerations and from a dimension analysis which, however, could not be verified by means of tests. Application of the test results to horizontally placed blower shafts is possible only in part. The computer simulation model set up for the behaviour of the blower shafts is applicable without significant limitations to other blower shaft arrangements. (orig.). [Deutsch] Zur Untersuchung des Betriebsverhaltens magnetisch gelagerter Geblaesewellen wurde anhand von Modellgesetzen ein modulares Rechenmodell aufgebaut, das die Simulation des Wellenverhaltens bei auf die Geblaesewelle wirkenden dynamischen Belastungen erlaubt. In Simulationslaeufen wurden wesentliche Eigenschaften der Lageregelung (Fuehrungsverhalten, Folgeverhalten und Stoerungsverhalten) und das Verhalten der Geblaesewellen bei Ausfall einer Endstufe der Magnetlagerelektronik bei nicht einzelfehlersicherer und bei fehlertoleranter Ausfuehrung der Endstufen sowie die Auswirkungen mechanischer Erschuetterungen z.B. infolge von Erdbeben auf das Verhalten der Geblaesewelle untersucht. Zur Uebertragung der Ergebnisse der Fanglagerversuche auf andere

  16. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  17. A new MTR fuel for a new MTR reactor: UMo for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guigon, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, Reacteur Jules Horowitz, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vacelet, H. [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, CERCA, Etablissement de Romans, 26 (France); Dornbusch, D. [Technicatome, Service d' Architecture Generale, 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2003-07-01

    Within some years, the Jules Horowitz Reactor will be the only working experimental reactor (material and fuel testing reactor) in France. It will have to provide facilities for a wide range of needs: from activation analysis to power reactor fuel qualification. In this paper will be presented the main characteristics of the Jules Horowitz Reactor: its total power, neutron flux, fuel element... Safety criteria will be explained. Finally merits and disadvantages of UMo compared to the standard U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel will be discussed. (authors)

  18. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference pressurized Water Reactor Power Station. Volume 2, Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure: Appendices, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1995-11-01

    With the issuance of the final Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1998), owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to provide some of the needed bases documentation. This report contains the results of a review and reevaluation of the 1978 PNL decommissioning study of the Trojan nuclear power plant (NUREG/CR-0130), including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the nuclear power plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5--7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool, prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a ``green field`` condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities.

  19. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference pressurized Water Reactor Power Station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure, Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; McDuffie, P.N. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With the issuance of the final Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to provide some of the needed bases documentation. This report contains the results of a review and reevaluation of the {prime}978 PNL decommissioning study of the Trojan nuclear power plant (NUREG/CR-0130), including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the nuclear power plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5--7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool, prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a ``green field`` condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities.

  20. Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Recently, several innovative approaches were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator - snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each approach have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties deduced from provisional configurations that implement the approach but are not necessarily optimized. Further optimization is needed in all cases to evaluate the full potential of each approach. Results of these studies indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.

  1. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  2. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix B: trade-off studies. Volume II. Appendices. [SPEC-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-06-15

    These appendices to the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle Trade-off Studies reports present data on the SPEC-78 computer model for simulating vehicle performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions; propulsion system alternatives; lead-acid and sodium-sulfur batteries; and production cost estimates. (LCL)

  3. Environmental, genetic, and ecophysiological variation of western and Utah juniper and their hybrids: A model system for vegetation response to climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, R.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Environmental and Resource Sciences; Tausch, R.J. [Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

    1998-11-01

    This report focuses on the following two research projects relating to the biological effects of climate change: Hybridization and genetic diversity populations of Utah (Juniperus osteosperma) and western (Juniperus occidentalis) juniper: Evidence from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA; and Ecophysiological patterns of pinyon and juniper.

  4. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  5. Investigation into environmentally friendly alternative cleaning processes for hybrid microcircuits to replace vapor degreasing with 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B.E.

    1997-02-01

    Two cleaning processes, one aqueous and one nonaqueous, were investigated as potential replacements for the vapor degreasing process using 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) for hybrid microcircuit assemblies. The aqueous process was based upon saponification chemistry. A 10% solution of either Kester 5768 or Armakleen 2001, heated to 140 F, was sprayed on the hybrid at 450 psig and a flow rate of 5 gpm through a specially designed nozzle which created microdroplets. The nonaqueous process was based upon dissolution chemistry and used d-limonene as the solvent in an immersion and spray process. The d-limonene solvent was followed by an isopropyl alcohol spray rinse to remove the excess d-limonene. The aqueous microdroplet process was found to be successful only for solder reflow profiles that did not exceed 210 C. Furthermore, removal of component marking was a problem and the spray pressure had to be reduced to 130 psig to eliminate damage to capacitor end caps. The d-limonene cleaning was found to be successful for solder reflow temperature up to 250 C when using a four-step cleaning process. The four steps included refluxing the hybrid at 80 C, followed by soaking the hybrid in d-limonene which is heated to 80 C, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature d-limonene, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature IPA was developed to remove residual flux from the hybrid microcircuits. This process was the most robust and most closely matched the cleaning ability of TCA.

  6. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarino, Eduardo Anibal [INVAP S.E., San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  7. Functional Imaging of Hybrid Nanostructures. Visualization of Mechanisms for Solar Energy Utilization. Northwestern FG-02-07ER46401 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauhon, Lincoln J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-20

    The report describes advances in understanding the interaction of light with hybrid nanostructured materials, and the influence of physical and electronic structure on the flow of excess energetic charge carriers to support the design and optimization of new materials for photoelectrical and photoelectrochemical energy conversion. Raman scattering, multi-wavelength optical excitation, and numerical modeling are combined with electrical transport measurements on model hybrid materials structures and devices to resolve, in energy and space, the absorption of light, the generation of excess energetic charge carriers, and the efficiency of their separation to generate electrical and chemical energy. Appropriate combinations of spatially-resolved, time-resolved, and spectrally-resolved measurements are used to isolate and quantify various steps in the energy conversion process, including geometrically and plasmonically enhanced absorption, the generation of carriers with excess energy, and the efficiency with which the carriers can move to and perform useful chemistry at interfaces.

  8. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure - appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1996-07-01

    The NRC staff is in need of decommissioning bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2) located at Richland, Washington, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clear structures on the site and to restore the site to a {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities. Sensitivity of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances is also examined.

  9. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  10. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  11. State-of-the-art review and report on critical aspects and scale-up considerations in the design of fluidized-bed reactors. Final report on Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Information is given on the design of distributor plates and opening geometry to provide uniform flow over the reactor area. The design of granular bed filters is also considered. Pressure drops and particle size in the bed are discussed. (LTN)

  12. Final Report DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER83817 Integrated Reactor Design for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Sourced Reactants Streams Using the Aqueous-Phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy D. Cortright

    2005-05-04

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation research project Virent Energy Systems (Virent) attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of generating high yields of hydrogen by developing the appropriate reactor system for the novel liquid-phase reforming of aqueous-phase carbohydrate streams derived from biomass. In this project platinum-based catalysts were initially utilized to establish the technical feasibility of reactor design for reforming carbohydrates found in biomass to hydrogen.

  13. Fundamental Thermal Fluid Physics of High Temperature Flows in Advanced Reactor Systems - Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program Interoffice Work Order (IWO) MSF99-0254 Final Report for Period 1 August 1999 to 31 December 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; Condie, K.G.; Foust, T.D.; McCreery, G.E.; Pink, R.J.; Stacey, D.E. (INEEL); Shenoy, A.; Baccaglini, G. (General Atomics); Pletcher, R.H. (Iowa State U.); Wallace, J.M.; Vukoslavcevic, P. (U. Maryland); Jackson, J.D. (U. Manchester, UK); Kunugi, T. (Kyoto U., Japan); Satake, S.-i. (Tokyo U. Science, Japan)

    2002-12-31

    The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of advanced reactors for higher efficiency and enhanced safety and for deployable reactors for electrical power generation, process heat utilization and hydrogen generation. While key applications would be advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGCRs) using the closed Brayton cycle (CBC) for higher efficiency (such as the proposed Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) of General Atomics [Neylan and Simon, 1996]), results of the proposed research should also be valuable in reactor systems with supercritical flow or superheated vapors, e.g., steam. Higher efficiency leads to lower cost/kwh and reduces life-cycle impacts of radioactive waste (by reducing waters/kwh). The outcome will also be useful for some space power and propulsion concepts and for some fusion reactor concepts as side benefits, but they are not the thrusts of the investigation. The objective of the project is to provide fundamental thermal fluid physics knowledge and measurements necessary for the development of the improved methods for the applications.

  14. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  15. Start-up and steady-state conditions of an Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor (AHR) using mini-filters composed with two types of support medium operating under low loading rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Vivian Galdino da; Campos, Cláudio Milton Montenegro; Pereira, Erlon Lopes; Silva, Júlia Ferreira da

    2011-01-01

    ...) removing organic matter of coffee wastewater with low concentration. The AHR was built similar to an UASB reactor, however the interior was filled with mini-filters composed by two types of support materials...

  16. Reactor and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  17. Plug and Play Solar Power: Simplifying the Integration of Solar Energy in Hybrid Applications; Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-523

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, Blake R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-05

    The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is Australia's national science agency. CSIRO received funding from the Australian Solar Institute (ASI) for the United States-Australia Solar Energy Collaboration (USASEC) project 1-USO032 Plug and Play Solar Power: Simplifying the Integration of Solar Energy in Hybrid Applications (Broader Project). The Australian Solar Institute (ASI) operated from August 2009 to December 2012 before being merged into the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA). The Broader Project sought to simplify the integration, accelerate the deployment, and lower the cost of solar energy in hybrid distributed generation applications by creating plug and play solar technology. CSIRO worked with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as set out in a Joint Work Statement to review communications protocols relevant to plug-and-play technology and perform prototype testing in its Energy System Integration Facility (ESIF). For the avoidance of doubt, this CRADA did not cover the whole of the Broader Project and only related to the work described in the Joint Work Statement, which was carried out by NREL.

  18. A compact Tokamak transmutation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuLi-Jian; XiaoBing-Jia

    1997-01-01

    The low aspect ration tokamak is proposed for the driver of a transmutation reactor.The main parameters of the reactor core,neutronic analysis of the blanket are given>the neutron wall loading can be lowered from the magnitude order of 1 MW/m2 to 0.5MW/m2 which is much easier to reach in the near future,and the transmutation efficiency (fission/absorption ratio)is raised further.The blanket power density is about 200MW/m3 which is not difficult to deal with.The key components such as diverter and center conductor post are also designed and compared with conventional TOkamak,Finally,by comparison with the other drivers such as FBR,PWR and accelerator,it can be anticipated that the low aspect ratio transmutation reactor would be one way of fusion energy applications in the near future.

  19. Advanced Hybrid Computer Systems. Software Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This software technology final report evaluates advances made in Advanced Hybrid Computer System software technology . The report describes what...automatic patching software is available as well as which analog/hybrid programming languages would be most feasible for the Advanced Hybrid Computer...compiler software . The problem of how software would interface with the hybrid system is also presented.

  20. Continuous steroid biotransformations in microchannel reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marco P C; Fernandes, Pedro; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Znidaršič-Plazl, Polona; Plazl, Igor

    2012-01-15

    The use of microchannel reactor based technologies within the scope of bioprocesses as process intensification and production platforms is gaining momentum. Such trend can be ascribed a particular set of characteristics of microchannel reactors, namely the enhanced mass and heat transfer, combined with easier handling and smaller volumes required, as compared to traditional reactors. In the present work, a continuous production process of 4-cholesten-3-one by the enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol without the formation of any by-product was assessed. The production was carried out within Y-shaped microchannel reactors in an aqueous-organic two-phase system. Substrate was delivered from the organic phase to aqueous phase containing cholesterol oxidase and the product formed partitions back to the organic phase. The aqueous phase was then forced through a plug-flow reactor, containing immobilized catalase. This step aimed at the reduction of hydrogen peroxide formed as a by-product during cholesterol oxidation, to avoid cholesterol oxidase deactivation due to said by-product. This setup was compared with traditional reactors and modes of operation. The results showed that microchannel reactor geometry outperformed traditional stirred tank and plug-flow reactors reaching similar conversion yields at reduced residence time. Coupling the plug-flow reactor containing catalase enabled aqueous phase reuse with maintenance of 30% catalytic activity of cholesterol oxidase while eliminating hydrogen peroxide. A final production of 36 m of cholestenone was reached after 300 hours of operation.

  1. Entropy Production in Chemical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Diego; Razzitte, Adrián C.

    2017-06-01

    We have analyzed entropy production in chemically reacting systems and extended previous results to the two limiting cases of ideal reactors, namely continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow reactor (PFR). We have found upper and lower bounds for the entropy production in isothermal systems and given expressions for non-isothermal operation and analyzed the influence of pressure and temperature in entropy generation minimization in reactors with a fixed volume and production. We also give a graphical picture of entropy production in chemical reactions subject to constant volume, which allows us to easily assess different options. We show that by dividing a reactor into two smaller ones, operating at different temperatures, the entropy production is lowered, going as near as 48 % less in the case of a CSTR and PFR in series, and reaching 58 % with two CSTR. Finally, we study the optimal pressure and temperature for a single isothermal PFR, taking into account the irreversibility introduced by a compressor and a heat exchanger, decreasing the entropy generation by as much as 30 %.

  2. Precision spectroscopy with reactor anti-neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, P; Huber, Patrick; Schwetz, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In this work we present an accurate parameterization of the anti-neutrino flux produced by the isotopes 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu in nuclear reactors. We determine the coefficients of this parameterization, as well as their covariance matrix, by performing a fit to spectra inferred from experimentally measured beta spectra. Subsequently we show that flux shape uncertainties play only a minor role in the KamLAND experiment, however, we find that future reactor neutrino experiments to measure the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ are sensitive to the fine details of the reactor neutrino spectra. Finally, we investigate the possibility to determine the isotopic composition in nuclear reactors through an anti-neutrino measurement. We find that with a 3 month exposure of a one ton detector the isotope fractions and the thermal reactor power can be determined at a few percent accuracy, which may open the possibility of an application for safeguard or non-proliferation objectives.

  3. Accelerator based fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chao, Alexander Wu

    2017-08-01

    A feasibility study of fusion reactors based on accelerators is carried out. We consider a novel scheme where a beam from the accelerator hits the target plasma on the resonance of the fusion reaction and establish characteristic criteria for a workable reactor. We consider the reactions d+t\\to n+α,d+{{}3}{{H}\\text{e}}\\to p+α , and p+{{}11}B\\to 3α in this study. The critical temperature of the plasma is determined from overcoming the stopping power of the beam with the fusion energy gain. The needed plasma lifetime is determined from the width of the resonance, the beam velocity and the plasma density. We estimate the critical beam flux by balancing the energy of fusion production against the plasma thermo-energy and the loss due to stopping power for the case of an inert plasma. The product of critical flux and plasma lifetime is independent of plasma density and has a weak dependence on temperature. Even though the critical temperatures for these reactions are lower than those for the thermonuclear reactors, the critical flux is in the range of {{10}22}-{{10}24}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2}~{{\\text{s}}-1} for the plasma density {ρt}={{10}15}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} in the case of an inert plasma. Several approaches to control the growth of the two-stream instability are discussed. We have also considered several scenarios for practical implementation which will require further studies. Finally, we consider the case where the injected beam at the resonance energy maintains the plasma temperature and prolongs its lifetime to reach a steady state. The equations for power balance and particle number conservation are given for this case.

  4. A Course in Chemical Reactor Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takoudis, Christos G.

    1983-01-01

    Presents course outline, topics covered, and final project (doubling as a take home final exam) for a one-semester, interdisciplinary course on the design and behavior of chemical reactors. Interplay of chemical and physical rate processes is stressed in the course. (JM)

  5. Catalyst dynamics: consequences for classical kinetic descriptions of reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Larsen, Jane Hvolbæk; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2001-01-01

    The modelling of catalytic reactions/reactors has undergone great improvements since the introduction of empirical power-law kinetics in chemical reaction engineering and micro-kinetic models based on insight into the nature of elementary steps have appeared for many reactions. However, recent...... of the dynamical behaviour of some catalytic systems and discuss the corresponding Limitations in existing models for catalytic reactions and reactors. Catalytic reactors operated in non-steady-state are becoming more frequent in industry. The additional efforts needed to accurately simulate these types...... of reactors are discussed. Finally, we discuss the role of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool for detailed simulation of catalytic reactors....

  6. Methods and strategies for future reactor safety goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Steven Andrew

    There have been significant discussions over the past few years by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and others as to the adequacy of the NRC safety goals for use with the next generation of nuclear power reactors to be built in the United States. The NRC, in its safety goals policy statement, has provided general qualitative safety goals and basic quantitative health objectives (QHOs) for nuclear reactors in the United States. Risk metrics such as core damage frequency (CDF) and large early release frequency (LERF) have been used as surrogates for the QHOs. In its review of the new plant licensing policy the ACRS has looked at the safety goals, as has the NRC. A number of issues have been raised including what the Commission had in mind when it drafted the safety goals and QHOs, how risk from multiple reactors at a site should be combined for evaluation, how the combination of a new and old reactor at the same site should be evaluated, what the criteria for evaluating new reactors should be, and whether new reactors should be required to be safer than current generation reactors. As part of the development and application of the NRC safety goal policy statement the Commissioners laid out the expectations for the safety of a nuclear power plant but did not address the risk associated with current multi-unit sites, potential modular reactor sites, and hybrid sites that could contain current generation reactors, new passive reactors, and/or modular reactors. The NRC safety goals and the QHOs refer to a "nuclear power plant," but do not discuss whether a "plant" refers to only a single unit or all of the units on a site. There has been much discussion on this issue recently due to the development of modular reactors. Additionally, the risk of multiple reactor accidents on the same site has been largely ignored in the probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) done to date, and in most risk

  7. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  8. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001, Westinghouse Electric Co. Grant Number: DE-FG07-02SF22533, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% versus about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors [LWRs]) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus, the need for a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators, and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies: LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which are also in use around the world. The reference SCWR design for the U.S. program is a direct cycle system operating at 25.0 MPa, with core inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 500 C, respectively. The coolant density decreases from about 760 kg/m3 at the core inlet to about 90 kg/m3 at the core outlet. The inlet flow splits with about 10% of the inlet flow going down the space between the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (the downcomer) and about 90% of the inlet flow going to the plenum at the top of the rector pressure vessel, to then flow down through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. Here it mixes with the feedwater from the downcomer and flows upward to remove the heat in the fuel channels. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core. The coolant is heated to about 500 C and delivered to the turbine. The purpose of this NERI project was to assess the reference U.S. Generation IV SCWR design and explore alternatives to determine feasibility. The project was

  9. The PHENIX final texts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasile, A.; Fontaine, B.; Vanier, M.; Gauthe, P.; Pascal, V.; Prulhiere, G.; Jaecki, P.; Martin, L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Tenchine, D. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France); Sauvage, J.F. [Electricite de France (EDF/SEPTEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Dupraz, R.; Woaye Hune, A. [AREVA NP, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-11-15

    The 250 MWe (140 MWe since 1993) PHENIX sodium cooled fast reactor was shut down on March 6, 2009. Before decommissioning, a final set of tests was performed during May 2009 - January 2010. These tests covered core physics, fuel behaviour and thermal-hydraulics areas. Detailed analysis of the tests results is ongoing. It will be used for the extension of the validation of ERANOS and DARWIN codes for core physics, TRIO{sub U} and CATHARE for thermal-hydraulics and GERMINAL for fuel behaviour. In addition, the program included 2 tests related to the comprehension of the four negative reactivity transients (AURN) experienced during the reactor operation in 1989 and 1990 and not yet fully explained. This was also a great opportunity to involve young engineers in the different processes like the design of the tests, their carrying out and the analysis of the results. The standard instrumentation of the reactor was completed by specifically designed devices. (authors)

  10. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2003-01-01

    measurements are reviewed in detail. In the sequel, possible manipulated variables, such as the hydraulic retention time, the organic loading rate, the sludge retention time, temperature, pH and alkalinity are evaluated with respect to the two main reactor types: high-rate and low-rate. Finally, the different......The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...

  11. ADVANCED CONTROL FOR A ETHYLENE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru POPESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of control solutions for petrochemical processes, namely the control and optimization of a pyrolysis reactor, the key-installation in the petrochemical industry. We present the technological characteristics of this petrochemical process and some aspects about the proposed control system solution for the ethylene plant. Finally, an optimal operating point for the reactor is found, considering that the process has a nonlinear multi-variable structure. The results have been implemented on an assembly of pyrolysis reactors on a petrochemical platform from Romania.

  12. Current status of fast reactor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented.

  13. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  14. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  15. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater by staged Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escola Casas, Monica; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Ooi, Gordon Tze Hoong

    2015-01-01

    for hospital wastewater treatment. To investigate the potential of such a hybrid system for the removal of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater a pilot plant consisting of a series of one activated sludge reactor, two Hybas™ reactors and one moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) has been established and adapted......Hospital wastewater contributes a significant input of pharmaceuticals into municipal wastewater. The combination of suspended activated sludge and biofilm processes, as stand-alone or as hybrid process (hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas™)) has been suggested as a possible solution...

  16. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  17. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  18. A Preliminary Analysis of Reactor Performance Test (LOEP) for a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeonil; Park, Su-Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The final phase of commissioning is reactor performance test, which is to prove the integrated performance and safety of the research reactor at full power with fuel loaded such as neutron power calibration, Control Absorber Rod/Second Shutdown Rod drop time, InC function test, Criticality, Rod worth, Core heat removal with natural mechanism, and so forth. The last test will be safety-related one to assure the result of the safety analysis of the research reactor is marginal enough to be sure about the nuclear safety by showing the reactor satisfies the acceptance criteria of the safety functions such as for reactivity control, maintenance of auxiliaries, reactor pool water inventory control, core heat removal, and confinement isolation. After all, the fuel integrity will be ensured by verifying there is no meaningful change in the radiation levels. To confirm the performance of safety equipment, loss of normal electric power (LOEP), possibly categorized as Anticipated Operational Occurrence (AOO), is selected as a key experiment to figure out how safe the research reactor is before turning over the research reactor to the owner. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the reactor performance test (LOEP) for a research reactor. The results showed how different the transient between conservative estimate and best estimate will look. Preliminary analyses have shown all probable thermal-hydraulic transient behavior of importance as to opening of flap valve, minimum critical heat flux ratio, the change of flow direction, and important values of thermal-hydraulic parameters.

  19. Attrition reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Davison, Brian H.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  20. MAPPING FLOW LOCALIZATION PROCESSES IN DEFORMATION OF IRRADIATED REACTOR STRUCTURAL ALLOYS - FINAL REPORT. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program No. MSF99-0072. Period: August 1999 through September 2002. (ORNL/TM-2003/63)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, K.

    2003-09-26

    Metals that can sustain plastic deformation homogeneously throughout their bulk tend to be tough and malleable. Often, however, if a metal has been hardened it will no longer deform uniformly. Instead, the deformation occurs in narrow bands on a microscopic scale wherein stresses and strains become concentrated in localized zones. This strain localization degrades the mechanical properties of the metal by causing premature plastic instability failure or by inducing the formation of cracks. Irradiation with neutrons hardens a metal and makes it more prone to deformation by strain localization. Although this has been known since the earliest days of radiation damage studies, a full measure of the connection between neutron irradiation hardening and strain localization is wanting, particularly in commercial alloys used in the construction of nuclear reactors. Therefore, the goal of this project is to systematically map the extent of involvement of strain localization processes in plastic deformation of three reactor alloys that have been neutron irradiated. The deformation processes are to be identified and related to changes in the tensile properties of the alloys as functions of neutron fluence (dose) and degree of plastic strain. The intent is to define the role of strain localization in radiation embrittlement phenomena. The three test materials are a tempered bainitic A533B steel, representing reactor pressure vessel steel, an annealed 316 stainless steel and annealed Zircaloy-4 representing reactor internal components. These three alloys cover the range of crystal structures usually encountered in structural alloys, i.e. body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and close-packed hexagonal (cph), respectively. The experiments were conducted in three Phases, corresponding to the three years duration of the project. Phases 1 and 2 addressed irradiations and tensile tests made at near-ambient temperatures, and covered a wide range of neutron fluences

  1. Development of a flow-fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol for the analysis of microbial communities in anaerobic fermentation liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettmann, Edith; Fröhling, Antje; Heeg, Kathrin; Klocke, Michael; Schlüter, Oliver; Mumme, Jan

    2013-12-04

    The production of bio-methane from renewable raw material is of high interest because of the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The process of biomethanation is based on the inter- and intraspecific metabolic activity of a highly diverse and dynamic microbial community. The community structure of the microbial biocenosis varies between different biogas reactors and the knowledge about these microbial communities is still fragmentary. However, up to now no approaches are available allowing a fast and reliable access to the microbial community structure. Hence, the aim of this study was to originate a Flow-FISH protocol, namely a combination of flow cytometry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, for the analysis of the metabolically active microorganisms in biogas reactor samples. With respect to the heterogenic texture of biogas reactor samples and to collect all cells including those of cell aggregates and biofilms the development of a preceding purification procedure was indispensable. Six different purification procedures with in total 29 modifications were tested. The optimized purification procedure combines the use of the detergent sodium hexametaphosphate with ultrasonic treatment and a final filtration step. By this treatment, the detachment of microbial cells from particles as well as the disbandment of cell aggregates was obtained at minimized cell loss. A Flow-FISH protocol was developed avoiding dehydration and minimizing centrifugation steps. In the exemplary application of this protocol on pure cultures as well as biogas reactor samples high hybridization rates were achieved for commonly established domain specific oligonucleotide probes enabling the specific detection of metabolically active bacteria and archaea. Cross hybridization and autofluorescence effects could be excluded by the use of a nonsense probe and negative controls, respectively. The approach described in this study enables for the first time the analysis of the metabolically

  2. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto

    1995-02-07

    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  3. Conduction heat transfer in a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat, H. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)], E-mail: hamou.sadat@univ-poitiers.fr; Dubus, N. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France); Pinard, L.; Tatibouet, J.M.; Barrault, J. [Laboratoire en catalyse et chimie organique, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)

    2009-04-15

    The thermal behaviour of a dielectric barrier discharge reactor is studied. The experimental tests are performed on a laboratory reactor with two working fluids: helium and air. A simple heat conduction model for calculating the heat loss is developed. By using temperature measurements in the internal and external electrodes, a thermal resistance of the reactor is defined. Finally, the percentage of the input power that is dissipated to the environment is given.

  4. Design of Multiregional Supervisory Fuzzy PID Control of pH Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebel AlSabbah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns designing multiregional supervisory fuzzy PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative control for pH reactors. The proposed work focuses, mainly, on two themes. The first one is to propose a multiregional supervisory fuzzy-based cascade control structure. It would enable modifying dynamics and enhance system’s stability. The fuzzy system (master loop has been chosen as a tuner for PID controller (slave loop. It takes into consideration parameters uncertainties and reference tracking. The second theme concerns designing a hybrid neural network-based pH estimator. The proposed estimator would overcome the industrial drawbacks, that is, cost and size, found with conventional methods for pH measurement. The final end-user-interface (EUI front panel and the results that evaluate the performance of the supervisory fuzzy PID-based control system and hybrid NN-based estimator have been presented using the compatibility found between LabView and MatLab. They lead to conclude that the proposed algorithms are appropriate to systems nonlinearities encountered with pH reactors.

  5. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  6. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  7. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  8. A Novel Dual-Stage Hydrothermal Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian; Becker, Jacob; Hald, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The dual-stage reactor is a novel continuous flow reactor with two reactors connected in series. It is designed for hydrothermal flow synthesis of nanocomposites, in which a single particle consists of multiple materials. The secondary material may protect the core nanoparticle from oxidation...... and agglomeration, enhance catalytic or optical properties or combine properties into a multifunctional material. Such hybrids form the frontier of materials science, but the methods that provide strong synthesis control typically only yields minute quantitites which prohibits any real application of the materials...

  9. Two Hybrid wastewater treatment plants case studies in Catalonia: The Gava-Viladecans WWTP and the Terrassa WWTP; Experiencias de explotacion en Cataluna en estaciones depuradoras con procesos de tratamiento biologico hibridos: los casos de la EDAR Gava-Viladecans y la EDAR Terrassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moragas Bouyat, L.; Garcia Fernandez, E. B.; Robuste Cartro, J.; Aguilo Martos, P.; Gasso Barque, J.; Fernandez Junquera, S.; Cesar Galobardes, E.; Garcia del Campo, I.

    2012-07-01

    The recent regulatory requirements issued from European Directives applying to the treatment of urban wastewater, require reviewing treatment processes at wastewater treatment plants. Often, sanitation facilities have already undergone through process adjustments regarding the original configuration to finally set up biological nutrient removal processes. This article describes the case studies of the Gava-Viladecans and the Terrasa wastewater treatment plants (Barcelona), in which the biological processes have been resigned to adopt a new biological nutrient removal configuration. Because of the singular aspects of every facility, with limited surface availability to carry out a conventional process upgrade, a highly compact solution was chosen: the hybrid treatment processes that combine attached biomass (based on fix or mobile supports) and suspended biomass. Hybrid systems allows increasing the final biomass concentration using the original volume of the biological reactor. The case study description examines the design of the treatment process works execution and facilities operation taking specially in account maintenance. In the Gava-Viladecans WWTP case, a hybrid system based on a mobile support, the Hybrid biological activated sludge (Hybas) biological reactor was chosen, adopting a combination of aerobic and anoxic reactors. In this case, the aerobic biological area incorporates a plastic support packing besides a new aeration system. In the Terrassa WWTP case, a hybrid system based on a fixed support biological Integrated fixed film activated sludge (Ifas) reactor was chosen. Existing biological reactors were transformed to a Bardenpho configuration on the basis of taking the most advantage of the limited carbon available in the incoming raw water. (Author)

  10. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  11. Conversion of Biomass Syngas to DME Using a Microchannel Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianli; Wang, Yong; Cao, Chunshe; Elliott, Douglas C.; Stevens, Don J.; White, James F.

    2005-03-01

    The capability of a microchannel reactor for direct synthesis of dimethylether (DME) from biomass syngas was explored. The reactor was operated in conjunction with a hybrid catalyst system consisting of methanol synthesis and dehydration catalysts, and the influence of reaction parameters on syngas conversion was investigated. The activities of different dehydration catalysts were compared under DME synthesis conditions. Reaction temperature and pressure exhibited similar positive effects on DME formation. A catalytic stability test of the hybrid catalyst system was performed for 880 hours, during which CO conversion only decreased from 88% to 81%. In the microchannel reactor, the catalyst deactivation rate appeared to be much slower than in a tubular fixed-bed reactor tested for comparison. Test results also indicated that the dehydration reaction rate and the water depletion rate via a water-gas-shift reaction should be compatible in order to achieve high selectivity to DME. Using the microchannel reactor, it was possible to achieve a space time yield almost three times higher than commercially demonstrated performance results. A side-by-side comparison indicated that the heat removal capability of the microchannel reactor was at least six times greater than that of a commercial slurry reactor under similar reaction conditions.

  12. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  13. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  14. Development of a decommissioning strategy for the MR research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylkin, Boris; Gorlinsky, Yury; Kolyadin, Vyacheslav; Pavlenko, Vitaly [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Craig, David; Fecitt, Lorna [NUKEM Limited, Dounreay (United Kingdom); Harman, Neil; Jackson, Roger [Serco Technical and Assurance Services, Warrington (United Kingdom); Lobach, Yury [Inst. for Nuclear Research of NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2010-03-15

    A description of the selected decommissioning strategy for the research reactor MR at the site of the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow is presented. The MR reactor hall is planned to be used as a temporary fuel store for the other research reactors on the site. On the basis of the site-specific conditions and over-all decommissioning goals, it was identified that phased immediate decommissioning is the preferable option. The current status of the reactor, expected final conditions and the sequence of decommissioning works are shown. (orig.)

  15. Design of the 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz ultra-wideband 3 dB high power hybrid coupler for Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating in fusion grade reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Rana Pratap, E-mail: ranayadav97@gmail.com; Kumar, Sunil; Kulkarni, S. V. [Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab 147004, India and Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. In designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.

  16. SNTP program reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Sapyta, Joseph J.

    1993-06-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is evaluating the feasibility of a particle bed reactor for a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. Reactors operating between 500 MW and 2,000 MW will produce engine thrusts ranging from 20,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds. The optimum reactor arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the reactor have been developed and are being tested. Flow-to-power matching considerations dominate the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor. Optimal propellant management during decay heat cooling requires a three-pronged approach. Adequate computational methods exist to perform the neutronics analysis of the reactor core. These methods have been benchmarked to critical experiment data.

  17. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  18. Assessing Pretreatment Reactor Scaling Through Empirical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischeske, James J.; Crawford, Nathan C.; Kuhn, Erik; Nagle, Nicholas J.; Schell, Daniel J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McMillan, James D.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2016-12-01

    within the near-optimal space for total sugar yield for the LHR. This indicates that the ASE is a good tool for cost effectively finding near-optimal conditions for operating pilot-scale systems, which may be used as starting points for further optimization. Additionally, using a severity-factor approach to optimization was found to be inadequate compared to a multivariate optimization method. Finally, the ASE and the LHR were able to enable significantly higher total sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis relative to the ZCR, despite having similar optimal conditions and total xylose yields. This underscores the importance of incorporating mechanical disruption into pretreatment reactor designs to achieve high enzymatic digestibilities.

  19. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1997-04-04

    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  20. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villarino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  1. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: vkrain@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  2. Exploring new coolants for nuclear breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A., E-mail: anlafuente@etsii.upm.e [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Piera, M. [ETSII:UNED, c/Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Breeder reactors are considered a unique tool for fully exploiting natural nuclear resources. In current Light Water Reactors (LWR), only 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from a mine is converted into useful heat. The rest remains in the depleted uranium or spent fuel. The need to improve resource-efficiency has stimulated interest in Fast-Reactor-based fuel cycles, which can exploit a much higher fraction of the energy content of mined uranium by burning U-238, mainly after conversion into Pu-239. Thorium fuel cycles also offer several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle. The coolant initially selected for most of the FBR programs launched in the 1960s was sodium, which is still considered the best candidate for these reactors. However, Na-cooled FBRs have a positive void reactivity coefficient. Among other factors, this fundamental drawback has resulted in the canceled deployment of these reactors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to explore new options for breeder coolants. In this paper, a proposal is presented for a new molten salt (F{sub 2}Be) coolant that could overcome the safety issues related to the positive void reactivity coefficient of molten metal coolants. Although it is a very innovative proposal that would require an extensive R and D program, this paper presents the very appealing properties of this salt when using a specific type of fuel that is similar to that of pebble bed reactors. The F{sub 2}Be concept was studied over a typical MOX composition and extended to a thorium-based cycle. The general analysis took into account the requirements for criticality (opening the option of hybrid subcritical systems); the requirements for breeding; and the safety requirement of having a negative coolant void reactivity coefficient. A design window was found in the definition of a F{sub 2}Be cooled reactor where the safety requirement was met, unlike for molten metal-cooled reactors, which always have positive void

  3. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  4. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  5. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  6. Tratamento de esgoto sanitário em reator híbrido em bateladas sequenciais: eficiência e estabilidade na remoção de matéria orgânica e nutrientes (N, P Sewage treatment in a sequencing batch hybrid reactor: efficiency and stability in organic matter and nutrient (N, P removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Lamego Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de estudo sobre o comportamento de um reator híbrido, operado em bateladas sequenciais, na remoção conjunta de matéria carbonácea, nitrogênio e fósforo de esgoto sanitário. Operado em ciclos de 8 horas de duração, o reator possuía em seu interior um suporte fixo com rede de nylon. Foram testadas cargas compreendidas entre 0,39 e 1,35 kgDQO.m-3.dia-1, 42 e 60 gN-NH4-.m-3.dia e 51 e 70 gP-PO4-.m-3.dia. O reator funcionou como um sistema estável e apresentou boas condições de depuração. A remoção da matéria carbonácea mostrou-se elevada, com eficiências médias de 92% de DBO5 e 80% de DQO. A remoção de nutrientes variou entre 59 e 71% para nitrogênio total e entre 45 e 67% para fósforo total. Tanto no lodo em suspensão, quanto no biofilme, foi observada a ocorrência de bactérias oxidadoras de amônio e micro-organismos responsáveis pela desnitrificação e remoção biológica de fósforo.This paper presents the results about the behavior of a sequencing batch hybrid reactor on combined removal of carbonaceous matter, nitrogen and phosphorus from sewage. Operated in 8-hour cycles, the reactor had a nylon net fixed inside. Loads between 0.39 and 1.35 kg COD.m-3.day-1, 42 and 60 gN-NH4-m-3.day-1 and 51 and 70 gP-PO4-m-3.day-1 were tested. The reactor operated as a stable system and showed good depuration conditions. The carbonaceous matter removal was high, with 92 and 80% efficiencies average to BOD5 and COD, respectively. The nutrients removal varied between 59 and 71% for total nitrogen and between 45 and 67% for total phosphorus. In both, sludge in suspension and the biofilm, occurrence of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and microorganisms responsible for denitrification and biological phosphorus removal was observed.

  7. Pebble bed reactors simulation using MCNP: The Chinese HTR-10 reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Hosseini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Given the role of Gas-Graphite reactors as the fourth generation reactors and their recently renewed importance, in 2002 the IAEA proposed a set of Benchmarking problems. In this work, we propose a model both efficient in time and resources and exact to simulate the HTR-10 reactor using MCNP-4C code. During the present work, all of the pressing factors in PBM reactor design such as the inter-pebble leakage, fuel particle distribution and fuel pebble packing fraction effects have been taken into account to obtain an exact and easy to run model. Finally, the comparison between the results of the present work and other calculations made at INEEL proves the exactness of the proposed model.

  8. Complete dismantling of the research reactor DIORIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Hans-Frieder [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-08-01

    The research reactor DIORIT at the Paul Scherrer Institute was a natural uranium reactor moderated by D{sub 2}O. It was put into operation in August 1960 and finally shut down in August 1977. The original dismantling plan, developed in 1980, comprised 3 phases and 13 steps. The dismantling started in 1982. It was interrupted for several times due to financial restrictions and during the last dismantling step due to the unexpected occurrence of asbestos. The dismantling could be successfully finished on September 11{sup th}, 2012. (orig.)

  9. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  10. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  11. Mirror reactor surface study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  12. Qualification of the nuclear reactor core model DYN3D coupled to the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET, applied as an advanced tool for accident analysis of VVER-type reactors. Final report; Qualifizierung des Kernmodells DYN3D im Komplex mit dem Stoerfallcode ATHLET als fortgeschrittenes Werkzeug fuer die Stoerfallanalyse von WWER-Reaktoren. T. 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.; Krepper, E.; Mittag, S; Rohde, U.; Schaefer, F.; Seidel, A.

    1998-03-01

    The nuclear reactor core model DYN3D with 3D neutron kinetics has been coupled to the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET. In the report, activities on qualification of the coupled code complex ATHLET-DYN3D as a validated tool for the accident analysis of russian VVER type reactors are described. That includes: - Contributions to the validation of the single codes ATHLET and DYN3D by the analysis of experiments on natural circulation behaviour in thermohydraulic test facilities and solution of benchmark tasks on reactivity initiated transients, - the acquisition and evaluation of measurement data on transients in nuclear power plants, the validation of ATHLET-DYN3D by calculating an accident with delayed scram and a pump trip in VVER plants, - the complementary improvement of the code DYN3D by extension of the neutron physical data base, implementation of an improved coolant mixing model, consideration of decay heat release and xenon transients, - the analysis of steam leak scenarios for VVER-440 type reactors with failure of different safety systems, investigation of different model options. The analyses showed, that with realistic coolant mixing modelling in the downcomer and the lower plenum, recriticality of the scramed reactor due to overcooling can be reached. The application of the code complex ATHLET-DYN3D in Czech Republic, Bulgaria and the Ukraine has been started. Future work comprises the verification of ATHLET-DYN3D with a DYN3D version for the square fuel element geometry of western PWR. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Reaktorkernmodell DYN3D mit 3D Neutronenkinetik wurde an den Thermohydraulik-Systemcode ATHLET angekoppelt. Im vorliegenden Bericht werden Arbeiten zur Qualifizierung des gekoppelten Codekomplexes zu einem validierten Hilfsmittel fuer Stoerfallablaufanalysen zu Reaktoren des russischen Typs WWER dargestellt. Diese umfassten im einzelnen: - Beitraege zur Validierung der Einzelcodes ATHLET und DYN3D anhand der Nachrechnung von Experimenten zum

  13. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  14. Final LDRD report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Andrea; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Ermanoski, Ivan; Hogan, Roy E.,; McDaniel, Anthony H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapid progress, solar thermochemistry remains high risk; improvements in both active materials and reactor systems are needed. This claim is supported by studies conducted both prior to and as part of this project. Materials offer a particular large opportunity space as, until recently, very little effort apart from basic thermodynamic analysis was extended towards understanding this most fundamental component of a metal oxide thermochemical cycle. Without this knowledge, system design was hampered, but more importantly, advances in these crucial materials were rare and resulted more from intuition rather than detailed insight. As a result, only two basic families of potentially viable solid materials have been widely considered, each of which has significant challenges. Recent efforts towards applying an increased level of scientific rigor to the study of thermochemical materials have provided a much needed framework and insights toward developing the next generation of highly improved thermochemically active materials. The primary goal of this project was to apply this hard-won knowledge to rapidly advance the field of thermochemistry to produce a material within 2 years that is capable of yielding CO from CO2 at a 12.5 % reactor efficiency. Three principal approaches spanning a range of risk and potential rewards were pursued: modification of known materials, structuring known materials, and identifying/developing new materials for the application. A newly developed best-of-class material produces more fuel (9x more H2, 6x more CO) under milder conditions than the previous state of the art. Analyses of thermochemical reactor and system efficiencies and economics were performed and a new hybrid concept was reported. The larger case for solar fuels was also further refined and documented.

  15. In-situ Condition Monitoring of Components in Small Modular Reactors Using Process and Electrical Signature Analysis. Final report, volume 1. Development of experimental flow control loop, data analysis and plant monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Belle [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hines, J. Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Damiano, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehta, Chaitanya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Collins, Price [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lish, Matthew [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cady, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lollar, Victor [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); de Wet, Dane [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bayram, Duygu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The research and development under this project was focused on the following three major objectives: Objective 1: Identification of critical in-vessel SMR components for remote monitoring and development of their low-order dynamic models, along with a simulation model of an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR). Objective 2: Development of an experimental flow control loop with motor-driven valves and pumps, incorporating data acquisition and on-line monitoring interface. Objective 3: Development of stationary and transient signal processing methods for electrical signatures, machinery vibration, and for characterizing process variables for equipment monitoring. This objective includes the development of a data analysis toolbox. The following is a summary of the technical accomplishments under this project: - A detailed literature review of various SMR types and electrical signature analysis of motor-driven systems was completed. A bibliography of literature is provided at the end of this report. Assistance was provided by ORNL in identifying some key references. - A review of literature on pump-motor modeling and digital signal processing methods was performed. - An existing flow control loop was upgraded with new instrumentation, data acquisition hardware and software. The upgrading of the experimental loop included the installation of a new submersible pump driven by a three-phase induction motor. All the sensors were calibrated before full-scale experimental runs were performed. - MATLAB-Simulink model of a three-phase induction motor and pump system was completed. The model was used to simulate normal operation and fault conditions in the motor-pump system, and to identify changes in the electrical signatures. - A simulation model of an integral PWR (iPWR) was updated and the MATLAB-Simulink model was validated for known transients. The pump-motor model was interfaced with the iPWR model for testing the impact of primary flow perturbations (upsets) on

  16. 紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆自举电流的数值模拟研究%Simulation on bootstrap current for the compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美霞; 刘成岳; 舒双宝

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the equilibrium code Jsolver, the compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor’s advanced equilibrium configuration design is carried out, especially for the reversed shear operation mode. And the calculation, distribution and fraction of bootstrap current are also simulated.%以平衡程序Jsolver为基础开展了紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆先进等离子体平衡位形设计,重点研究了反剪切运行模式,并在此位形下研究了自举电流的计算、分布及份额。

  17. 基于MLD模型的CSTR建模和控制%Modeling and Control of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor Based on a Mixed Logical Dynamical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜静静; 宋春跃; 李平

    2007-01-01

    A novel control strategy for a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system, which has the typical characteristic of strongly pronounced nonlinearity, multiple operating points, and a wide operating range, is initiated from the point of hybrid systems. The proposed scheme makes full use of the modeling power of mixed logical dynamical (MLD) systems to describe the highly nonlinear dynamics and multiple operating points in a unified framework as a hybrid system, and takes advantage of the good control quality of model predictive control (MPC)to design a controller. Thus, this approach avoids oscillation during switching between sub-systems, helps to relieve shaking in transition, and augments the stability robustness of the whole system, and finally achieves optimal (i.e.fast and smooth) transition between operating points. The simulation results demonstrate that the presented approach has a satisfactory performance.

  18. The Phenix final tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasile, A.; Fontaine, B.; Vanier, M.; Gauthe, P.; Pascal, V.; Prulhiere, G.; Jaecki, P. [CEA Cadarache, BP 1, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Tenchine, D. [CEA Grenoble (France); Martin, L. [Centrale Phenix - CEA Marcoule (France); Sauvage, J.F. [EDF / SEPTEN - 12 av. Dutrievoz 69628 Villeurbanne (France); Dupraz, R.; Woaye-Hune, A. [AREVA NP - 10 rue Juliette Recamier 69456 LYON Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    The 250 MWe (140 MWe since 1993) Phenix sodium cooled fast reactor was shut down on March 6, 2009. Before decommissioning, a final set of tests were performed during the May 2009 - January 2010 period covering core physics, fuel behaviour and thermal-hydraulics areas. Detailed analysis of the tests results is ongoing. It will be used for the extension of the validation of ERANOS and DARWIN codes for core physics, TRIO-U and CATHARE for Thermal-hydraulics and GERMINAL for fuel behaviour. In addition, the program included two tests related to the comprehension of the four negative reactivity transients (AURN in French acronym) experienced during the reactor operation in '89 and '90 and not yet fully explained. This was also a great opportunity to involve young engineers in the different processes like the design of the tests, their carrying out, and the analysis of the results. The standard instrumentation of the reactor was completed by specifically designed devises. (authors)

  19. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Gas core reactors for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, H.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of using a gas core reactor to produce hydrogen directly from coal and water is presented. It is shown that the chemical equilibrium of the process is strongly in favor of the production of H2 and CO in the reactor cavity, indicating a 98% conversion of water and coal at only 1500 K. At lower temperatures in the moderator-reflector cooling channels the equilibrium strongly favors the conversion of CO and additional H2O to CO2 and H2. Furthermore, it is shown the H2 obtained per pound of carbon has 23% greater heating value than the carbon so that some nuclear energy is also fixed. Finally, a gas core reactor plant floating in the ocean is conceptualized which produces H2, fresh water and sea salts from coal.

  1. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  2. Generic small modular reactor plant design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Baum, Gregory A.

    2012-12-01

    This report gives an overview of expected design characteristics, concepts, and procedures for small modular reactors. The purpose of this report is to provide those who are interested in reducing the cost and improving the safety of advanced nuclear power plants with a generic design that possesses enough detail in a non-sensitive manner to give merit to their conclusions. The report is focused on light water reactor technology, but does add details on what could be different in a more advanced design (see Appendix). Numerous reactor and facility concepts were used for inspiration (documented in the bibliography). The final design described here is conceptual and does not reflect any proposed concept or sub-systems, thus any details given here are only relevant within this report. This report does not include any design or engineering calculations.

  3. Gas core reactors for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, H.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of using a gas core reactor to produce hydrogen directly from coal and water is presented. It is shown that the chemical equilibrium of the process is strongly in favor of the production of H2 and CO in the reactor cavity, indicating a 98% conversion of water and coal at only 1500 K. At lower temperatures in the moderator-reflector cooling channels the equilibrium strongly favors the conversion of CO and additional H2O to CO2 and H2. Furthermore, it is shown the H2 obtained per pound of carbon has 23% greater heating value than the carbon so that some nuclear energy is also fixed. Finally, a gas core reactor plant floating in the ocean is conceptualized which produces H2, fresh water and sea salts from coal.

  4. Carbon-14 production in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.

    1976-09-01

    Calculations based on existing composition data were performed to estimate the order of magnitude and the final location of /sup 14/C in fusion reactors. These calculations indicate that approximately 8 Ci/day, formed principally by /sup 14/N activation, will be produced in the UWMAK-II reference reactor (5,000 MWth). If Nb-1 percent Zr is used as the structural material instead of stainless steel 316 this quantity will be more than doubled. No information is available on the form of the /sup 14/C produced, but reduced forms such as carbides, hydrocarbons and perhaps CO may be produced. Most of the /sup 14/C may remain fixed in structural and other reactor materials until the material is reclaimed. Activation of air in the plasma chamber would be an immediate concern.

  5. ADM1 applications for a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge-filter bed reactor performance and for a batch thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thermally pretreated waste activated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lván Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de la digestión anaerobia comprenden una red completa de reacciones bioquimicas y fisicoquímicas, secuenciales y paralelas. Los digestores anaerobios a menudo exhiben importantes problemas de estabilidad que sólo pueden ser evitados a través de apropiadas estrategias de control. Tales estrategias requieren, en general, para su implementación, del desarrollo de modelos matemáticos cuya finalidad es el de permitirnos mejor comprensión y optimización de los procesos de la digestión anaerobia, describiendo estas reacciones de una manera estructurada. Este trabajo revisa el modelo ADMI de la IWAy discute dos aplicaciones del modelo: la digestión anaerobia de las aguas residuales vinazas de las destilerias de vino corno sustrato en un reactor hibrido (UASFB y la digestión anaerobia termófila en batch de lodos activados con pre-tratamiento térmico. Las predicciones del modelo, usando los parámetros establecidos en este estudio, concuerdan bien con los resultados de las mediciones en las diferentes condiciones ensayadas. Los modelos resultantes explicaron la evolución dinámica de las principales variables, tanto en la fase liquida corno la fase gaseosa.

  6. Small Modular Reactor: First of a Kind (FOAK) and Nth of a Kind (NOAK) Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauren M. Boldon; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-08-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) refer to any reactor design in which the electricity generated is less than 300 MWe. Often medium sized reactors with power less than 700 MWe are also grouped into this category. Internationally, the development of a variety of designs for SMRs is booming with many designs approaching maturity and even in or nearing the licensing stage. It is for this reason that a generalized yet comprehensive economic model for first of a kind (FOAK) through nth of a kind (NOAK) SMRs based upon rated power, plant configuration, and the fiscal environment was developed. In the model, a particular project’s feasibility is assessed with regards to market conditions and by commonly utilized capital budgeting techniques, such as the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), Payback, and more importantly, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for comparison to other energy production technologies. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of changing debt, equity, interest rate, and conditions on the LCOE. The economic model is primarily applied to the near future water cooled SMR designs in the United States. Other gas cooled and liquid metal cooled SMR designs have been briefly outlined in terms of how the economic model would change. FOAK and NOAK SMR costs were determined for a site containing seven 180 MWe water cooled SMRs and compared to a site containing one 1260 MWe reactor. With an equal share of debt and equity and a 10% cost of debt and equity, the LCOE was determined to be $79 $84/MWh and $80/MWh for the SMR and large reactor sites, respectively. With a cost of equity of 15%, the SMR LCOE increased substantially to $103 $109/MWh. Finally, an increase in the equity share to 70% at the 15% cost of equity resulted in an even higher LCOE, demonstrating the large variation in results due to financial and market factors. The NPV and IRR both decreased with increasing LCOE. Unless the price of electricity

  7. Experimental Results and Model Calculations of a Hybrid Adsorption-Compression Heat Pump Based on a Roots Compressor and Silica Gel-Water Sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Wemmers, A.K.; Smeding, S.F.; Veldhuis, J.B.J.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, J.A.

    2013-10-15

    Thermally driven sorption systems can provide significant energy savings, especially in industrial applications. The driving temperature for operation of such systems limits the operating window and can be a barrier for market-introduction. By adding a compressor, the sorption cycle can be run using lower waste heat temperatures. ECN has recently started the development of such a hybrid heat pump. The final goal is to develop a hybrid heat pump for upgrading lower (<100C) temperature industrial waste heat to above pinch temperatures. The paper presents the first measurements and model calculations of a hybrid heat pump system using a water-silica gel system combined with a Roots type compressor. From the measurements can be seen that the effect of the compressor is dependent on where in the cycle it is placed. When placed between the evaporator and the sorption reactor, it has a considerable larger effect compared to the compressor placed between the sorption reactor and the condenser. The latter hardly improves the performance compared to purely heat-driven operation. This shows the importance of studying the interaction between all components of the system. The model, which shows reasonable correlation with the measurements, could proof to be a valuable tool to determine the optimal hybrid heat pump configuration.

  8. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  9. Gas cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-06-01

    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  10. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Mitrovski, Svetlana M [Urbana, IL

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  11. Increasing the accuracy of the determination of the neutron load of WER reactor components to get additional information for a safer operation of WER reactors. Final report; Erhoehung der Zuverlaessigkeit der Bestimmung der Neutronenbelastung von WWER-Reaktorkomponenten zwecks Ableitung von Vorschlaegen fuer eine sicherere Betriebsfuehrung von WWER-Reaktoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, B. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany); Borodkin, G.I.; Gorbunov, V.P. [Scientific and Engineering Centre of Russian GOSATOMNADZOR (SEC), Moscow (Russian Federation); Brodkin, E.B.; Zaritsky, S.M. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Manturov, G.N.; Tsiboulia, A.M. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-07-01

    The project aims to improve the safety against embrittlement of WER-1000 type reactors by a more reliable and accurate determination of the neutron load reactor pressure vessels. Therefore, six scientist from three Russian research institutions were sponsored to support with their work another BMBF project of the FZR aimed at the same goal. By providing reliable data for the evaluation of ex-vessel neutron activation experiments at two WER-1000 and formulating the corresponding reactor models a basis has been established for further investigations as well in the FZR as well as in several Russian and Western research institutions. The leading Russian nuclear data library ABBN/MULTIC has been improved and tested. The uncertainties affecting the calculations of the fluence spectrum at the outer boundary of the pressure vessel have been analysed and a spectrum covariance matrix has been derived. The methodologies for the experimental determination of activation rates and for calculations of fluence spectra and activation rates have been further developed and tested by interlaboratory comparisons. Measurements of different laboratories were compared with each other, as well as the corresponding calculations. Moreover, measurements and calculations were compared against each other, partly with participation for further Russian, Czech and Western institutes. The results of the intercomparisons have been evaluated by the `International workshop on the Balakovo-3 interlaboratory dosimetry experiment` in September 1997 in Rossendorf. As a result of these works a better evaluation of the reached accuracies was possible and proposals for an improvement of the used methods could be derived. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Vorhaben zielte auf die Erhoehung der Sproedbruchsicherheit von Reaktoren des Typs WWER-1000 durch Beitraege zur zuverlaessigeren und genaueren Bestimmung der Neutronenbelastung der Reaktordruckbehaelter. Dazu wurden sechs Wissenschaftler aus 3 russischen

  12. Exploring new coolants for nuclear breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A. [ETSI Industriales-Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Breeder reactors are considered the unique tool for fully exploiting the natural nuclear resources. In current LWR, only a 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from the mine is converted into useful heat, with the rest remaining in the depleted uranium or in the spent fuel. The objective of resource-efficiency stimulated the interest in Fast- Reactor-based fuel cycles which can exploit a much higher fraction of the energy content of the mined uranium by burning U-238, mainly after conversion into Pu-239. Thorium fuel cycles would also offers several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle. The coolant initially chosen for most of the FBR programs launched in the 60's was sodium, which still is considered the best candidate for these reactors. However, Na-cooled FBR have a positive void reactivity coefficient, which has been among others, a fundamental drawback that has cancelled the deployment of these reactors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to explore totally new options on coolants for breeders. In this paper, a proposal is presented on a new molten salt (F{sub 2}Be) coolant that could overcome the safety issues related to the positive void reactivity coefficient of molten metal coolants. Although it is a very innovative proposal that would need an extensive R and D programme, this paper presents the very appealing properties of this salt, in the case of using a specific type of fuel, similar to that of pebble bed reactors. The concept will be studied over a typical MOX composition and extended to a Thorium-based cycle. The general analysis takes into account requirements for criticality (opening the option of hybrid subcritical systems); requirements for breeding; and the safety requirement of having a negative coolant void reactivity coefficient. A design window is found in the definition of a F{sub 2}Be cooled reactor where the safety requirement is met, unlike for molten metal cooled reactors which always have positive void

  13. Management of research reactor; dynamic characteristics analysis for reactor structures related with vibration of HANARO fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chang Kee; Shim, Joo Sup [Shinwa Technology Information, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study is to deduce the dynamic correlation between the fuel assembly and the reactor structure. Dynamic characteristics analyses for reactor structure related with vibration of HANARO fuel assembly have been performed For the dynamic characteristic analysis, the in-air models of the round and hexagonal flow tubes, 18-element and 36-element fuel assemblies, and reactor structure were developed. By calculating the hydrodynamic mass and distributing it on the in-air models, the in-water models of the flow tubes, the fuel assemblies, and the reactor structure were developed. Then, modal analyses for developed in-air and in-water models have been performed. Especially, two 18-element fuel assemblies and three 36-element fuel assemblies were included in the in-water reactor models. For the verification of the modal analysis results, the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the fuel assembly were compared with those obtained from the experiment. Finally the analysis results of the reactor structure were compared with them performed by AECL Based on the reactor model without PCS piping, the in-water reactor model including the fuel assemblies was developed, and its modal analysis was performed. The analysis results demonstrate that there are no resonance between the fuel assembly and the reactor structures. 26 refs., 419 figs., 85 tabs. (Author)

  14. The Development of an INL Capability for High Temperature Flow, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Energy Storage with Applications in Advanced Small Modular Reactors, High Temperature Heat Exchangers, Hybrid Energy Systems, and Dynamic Grid Energy Storage C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhang, Xiaoqin [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Kim, Inhun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); O' Brien, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to support Idaho National Laboratory in developing a new advanced high temperature multi fluid multi loop test facility that is aimed at investigating fluid flow and heat transfer, material corrosion, heat exchanger characteristics and instrumentation performance, among others, for nuclear applications. Specifically, preliminary research has been performed at The Ohio State University in the following areas: 1. A review of fluoride molten salts’ characteristics in thermal, corrosive, and compatibility performances. A recommendation for a salt selection is provided. Material candidates for both molten salt and helium flow loop have been identified. 2. A conceptual facility design that satisfies the multi loop (two coolant loops [i.e., fluoride molten salts and helium]) multi purpose (two operation modes [i.e., forced and natural circulation]) requirements. Schematic models are presented. The thermal hydraulic performances in a preliminary printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) design have been estimated. 3. An introduction of computational methods and models for pipe heat loss analysis and cases studies. Recommendations on insulation material selection have been provided. 4. An analysis of pipe pressure rating and sizing. Preliminary recommendations on pipe size selection have been provided. 5. A review of molten fluoride salt preparation and chemistry control. An introduction to the experience from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been provided. 6. A review of some instruments and components to be used in the facility. Flowmeters and Grayloc connectors have been included. This report primarily presents the conclusions drawn from the extensive review of literatures in material selections and the facility design progress at the current stage. It provides some useful guidelines in insulation material and pipe size selection, as well as an introductory review of facility process and components.

  15. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  16. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  17. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  18. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  19. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  20. Future Reactor Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    He, Miao

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ opens a gateway for the next generation experiments to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and the leptonic CP-violating phase. Future reactor experiments will focus on mass hierarchy determination and the precision measurement of mixing parameters. Mass hierarchy can be determined from the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos based on the interference effect of two separated oscillation modes. Relative and absolute measure...

  1. Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Precisely measuring $\\theta_{13}$ is one of the highest priority in neutrino oscillation study. Reactor experiments can cleanly determine $\\theta_{13}$. Past reactor neutrino experiments are reviewed and status of next precision $\\theta_{13}$ experiments are presented. Daya Bay is designed to measure $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to better than 0.01 and Double Chooz and RENO are designed to measure it to 0.02-0.03. All are heading to full operation in 2010. Recent improvements in neutrino moment measu...

  2. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  3. Helias reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Grieger, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Harmeyer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kisslinger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Karulin, N. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maurer, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Nuehrenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rau, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Sapper, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Wobig, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The present status of Helias reactor studies is characterised by the identification and investigation of specific issues which result from the particular properties of this type of stellarator. On the technical side these are issues related to the coil system, while physics studies have concentrated on confinement, alpha-particle behaviour and ignition conditions. The usual assumptions have been made in those fields which are common to all toroidal fusion reactors: blanket and shield, refuelling and exhaust, safety and economic aspects. For blanket and shield sufficient space has been provided, a detailed concept will be developed in future. To date more emphasis has been placed on scoping and parameter studies as opposed to fixing a specific set of parameters and providing a detailed point study. One result of the Helias reactor studies is that physical dimensions are on the same order as those of tokamak reactors. However, it should be noticed that this comparison is difficult in view of the large spectrum of tokamak reactors ranging from a small reactor like Aries, to a large device such as SEAFP. The notion that the large aspect ratio of 10 or more in Helias configurations also leads to large reactors is misleading, since the large major radius of 22 m is compensated by the average plasma radius of 1.8 m and the average coil radius of 5 m. The plasma volume of 1400 m{sup 3} is about the same as the ITER reactor and the magnetic energy of the coil system is about the same or even slightly smaller than envisaged in ITER. (orig.)

  4. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Villarino; Alicia Doval

    2011-01-01

    INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper ...

  5. Design for the WWR-M reactor vessel removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobach, Yu.N., E-mail: lobach@kinr.kiev.ua [Institute for Nuclear Research of NASU, Prospekt Nauki 47, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Toth, G., E-mail: gtoth@aeki.kfki.hu [Centre for Energy Research of HAS, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33, Budapest 1121 (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The current status of the decommissioning planning for the WWR-M reactor is outlined. ► The general dismantling strategy consists of the dismantling and removal of the separate bulky elements as whole pieces without preliminary segmentation. ► The design for the reactor vessel extraction was selected and developed. -- Abstract: The final decommissioning planning for the Kiev's research reactor WWR-M is in progress now. The general dismantling strategy consists of the dismantling and removal of the separate bulky elements as whole pieces without preliminary segmentation. The reactor vessel removal is considered as the key element in the sequence of dismantling works; a separate design for the reactor vessel extraction was developed. The extensive analysis focused on the optimization of this technical task has been performed. The outline of the design is presented in this paper.

  6. The reactor antineutrino anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haser, Julia; Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Major discoveries were made in the past few years in the field of neutrino flavour oscillation. Nuclear reactors produce a clean and intense flux of electron antineutrinos and are thus an essential neutrino source for the determination of oscillation parameters. Most currently the reactor antineutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO have accomplished to measure θ{sub 13}, the smallest of the three-flavour mixing angles. In the course of these experiments two anomalies emerged: (1) the reanalysis of the reactor predictions revealed a deficit in experimentally observed antineutrino flux, known as the ''reactor antineutrino anomaly''. (2) The high precision of the latest generation of neutrino experiments resolved a spectral shape distortion relative to the expected energy spectra. Both puzzles are yet to be solved and triggered new experimental as well as theoretical studies, with the search for light sterile neutrinos as most popular explanation for the flux anomaly. This talk outlines the two reactor antineutrino anomalies. Discussing possible explanations for their occurrence, recent and upcoming efforts to solve the reactor puzzles are highlighted.

  7. Moon base reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  8. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  9. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  10. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials.

  11. Intelligent controller of a flexible hybrid robot machine for ITER assembly and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-saedi, Mazin I., E-mail: mazin.al-saedi@lut.fi; Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Studying flexible multibody dynamic of hybrid parallel robot. • Investigating fuzzy-PD controller to control a hybrid flexible hydraulically driven robot. • Investigating ANFIS-PD controller to control a hybrid flexible robot. Compare to traditional PID this method gives better performance. • Using the equilibrium of reaction forces between the parallel and serial parts of hybrid robot to control the serial part hydraulically driven. - Abstract: The assembly and maintenance of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) vacuum vessel (VV) is highly challenging since the tasks performed by the robot involve welding, material handling, and machine cutting from inside the VV. To fulfill the tasks in ITER application, this paper presents a hybrid redundant manipulator with four DOFs provided by serial kinematic axes and six DOFs by parallel mechanism. Thus, in machining, to achieve greater end-effector trajectory tracking accuracy for surface quality, a robust control of the actuators for the flexible link has to be deduced. In this paper, the intelligent control of a hydraulically driven parallel robot part based on the dynamic model and two control schemes have been investigated: (1) fuzzy-PID self tuning controller composed of the conventional PID control and with fuzzy logic; (2) adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-PID (ANFIS-PID) self tuning of the gains of the PID controller, which are implemented independently to control each hydraulic cylinder of the parallel robot based on rod position predictions. The obtained results of the fuzzy-PID and ANFIS-PID self tuning controller can reduce more tracking errors than the conventional PID controller. Subsequently, the serial component of the hybrid robot can be analyzed using the equilibrium of reaction forces at the universal joint connections of the hexa-element. To achieve precise positional control of the end effector for maximum precision machining, the hydraulic cylinder should

  12. Action Memorandum for the Engineering Test Reactor under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Culp

    2007-01-26

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative for decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Idaho Cleanup Project. Since the missions of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex have been completed, an engineering evaluation/cost analysis that evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex was prepared adn released for public comment. The scope of this Action Memorandum is to encompass the final end state of the Complex and disposal of the Engineering Test Reactor vessol. The selected removal action includes removing and disposing of the vessel at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility and demolishing the reactor building to ground surface.

  13. Research on plasma core reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, G.A.; Barton, D.M.; Helmick, H.H.; Bernard, W.; White, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical studies are being conducted for NASA on critical assemblies with 1-m-diam by 1-m-long low-density cores surrounded by a thick beryllium reflector. These assemblies make extensive use of existing nuclear propulsion reactor components, facilities, and instrumentation. Due to excessive porosity in the reflector, the initial critical mass was 19 kg U(93.2). Addition of a 17-cm-thick by 89-cm-diam beryllium flux trap in the cavity reduced the critical mass to 7 kg when all the uranium was in the zone just outside the flux trap. A mockup aluminum UF/sub 6/ container was placed inside the flux trap and fueled with uranium-graphite elements. Fission distributions and reactivity worths of fuel and structural materials were measured. Finally, an 85,000-cm/sup 3/ aluminum canister in the central region was fueled with UF/sub 6/ gas and fission density distributions determined. These results will be used to guide the design of a prototype plasma core reactor which will test energy removal by optical radiation.

  14. Molten salt reactor: Deterministic safety evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle-Lucotte, Elsa; Heuer, Daniel; Mathieu, Ludovic; Le Brun, Christian [Laboratory for Subatomic Physics and Cosmology (LPSC), 53, Avenue des Marthyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) are one of the systems retained by Generation IV as a candidate for the next generation of nuclear reactors. This type of reactor is particularly well adapted to the thorium fuel cycle (Th- {sup 233}U) which has the advantage of producing less minor actinides than the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle ({sup 238}U- {sup 239}Pu). In the frame of a major re-evaluation of the MSR concept and concentrating on some major constraints such as feasibility, breeding capability and, above all, safety, we have considered a particular reactor configuration that we call the 'unique channel' configuration in which there is no moderator in the core, leading to a quasi fast neutron spectrum. This reactor is presented in the first section. MSRs benefit from several specific advantages which are listed in a second part of this work. Beyond these advantages of the MSR, the level of the deterministic safety in such a reactor has to be assessed precisely. In a third section, we first draw up a list of the reactivity margins in our reactor configuration. We then define and quantify the parameters characterizing the deterministic safety of any reactor: the fraction of delayed neutrons, and the system's feedback coefficients that are here negative. Finally, using a simple point-kinetic evaluation, we analyze how these safety parameters impact the system when the total reactivity margins are introduced in the MSR. The results of this last study are discussed, emphasizing the satisfactory behavior of the MSR and the excellent level of deterministic safety which can be achieved. This work is based on the coupling of a neutron transport code called MCNP with a materials evolution code. The former calculates the neutron flux and the reaction rates in all the cells while the latter solves the Bateman equations for the evolution of the materials composition within the cells. These calculations take into account the input parameters (power released

  15. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  16. Final Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workspace

    2003-01-01

    The challenges involved in designing appropriate and desirable hybrid spatial computing environments are considerable. Two aspects highlighted through our own  experience and in the communities’ literatures are particularly demanding: 1.  The situated and social nature of human activities. 2...

  17. Scaleable, High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) consisting of cross connected arrays of isothermal or graded temperature reactors is proposed. The reactor array...

  18. Coupling of α-channeling to |k∥| upshift in lower hybrid current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochs, I. E. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Department of Physics.; Bertelli, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Fisch, N. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-26

    Although lower hybrid waves have been shown to be effective in driving plasma current in present-day tokamaks, they are predicted to strongly interact with the energetic α particles born from fusion reactions in eventual tokamak reactors.

  19. Researches on a reactor core in heavy ion inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, S; Iinuma, T; Kubo, K; Kato, H; Kawata, S; Ogoyski, A I

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a study on a fusion reactor core is presented in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF), including the heavy ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, a HIB interaction with a background gas, reactor cavity gas dynamics, the reactor gas backflow to the beam lines, and a HIB fusion reactor design. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of ~30-40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50 to operate a HIF fusion reactor with a standard energy output of 1GW of electricity. In a fusion reactor the HIB charge neutralization is needed for a ballistic HIB transport. Multiple mechanical shutters would be installed at each HIB port at the reactor wall to stop the blast waves and the chamber gas backflow, so that the accelerator final elements would be protected from the ...

  20. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki

    1994-10-18

    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).