Hybrid high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole
N'gotta, P.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.
2016-12-01
This paper presents an innovative compact permanent magnet quadrupole with a strong gradient for potential use in future light source lattices. Its magnetic structure includes simple mechanical parts, rectangular permanent magnet blocks and soft iron poles. It has a wide aperture in the horizontal plane to accommodate an x-ray beam port, a common constraint in storage ring-based light sources. This specificity introduces field quality deterioration because of the resulting truncation of the poles; a suitable field quality can be restored with an optimized pole shape. A 82 T /m prototype with a bore radius of 12 mm and a 10 mm vertical gap between poles has been constructed and magnetically characterized. Gradient inhomogeneities better than 10-3 in the good field region were obtained after the installation of special shims.
Modular and orthogonal synthesis of hybrid polymers and networks.
Liu, Shuang; Dicker, Kevin T; Jia, Xinqiao
2015-03-28
Biomaterials scientists strive to develop polymeric materials with distinct chemical make-up, complex molecular architectures, robust mechanical properties and defined biological functions by drawing inspirations from biological systems. Salient features of biological designs include (1) repetitive presentation of basic motifs; and (2) efficient integration of diverse building blocks. Thus, an appealing approach to biomaterials synthesis is to combine synthetic and natural building blocks in a modular fashion employing novel chemical methods. Over the past decade, orthogonal chemistries have become powerful enabling tools for the modular synthesis of advanced biomaterials. These reactions require building blocks with complementary functionalities, occur under mild conditions in the presence of biological molecules and living cells and proceed with high yield and exceptional selectivity. These chemistries have facilitated the construction of complex polymers and networks in a step-growth fashion, allowing facile modulation of materials properties by simple variations of the building blocks. In this review, we first summarize features of several types of orthogonal chemistries. We then discuss recent progress in the synthesis of step growth linear polymers, dendrimers and networks that find application in drug delivery, 3D cell culture and tissue engineering. Overall, orthogonal reactions and modulular synthesis have not only minimized the steps needed for the desired chemical transformations but also maximized the diversity and functionality of the final products. The modular nature of the design, combined with the potential synergistic effect of the hybrid system, will likely result in novel hydrogel matrices with robust structures and defined functions.
Hybrid proper orthogonal decomposition formulation for linear structural dynamics
Placzek, A.; Tran, D.-M.; Ohayon, R.
2008-12-01
Hybrid proper orthogonal decomposition (PODh) formulation is a POD-based reduced-order modeling method where the continuous equation of the physical system is projected on the POD modes obtained from a discrete model of the system. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the hybrid POD formulation and to compare it with other POD formulations on the simple case of a linear elastic rod subject to prescribed displacements in the perspective of building reduced-order models for coupled fluid-structure systems in the future. In the first part of the paper, the hybrid POD is compared to two other formulations for the response to an initial condition: an approach based on the discrete finite elements equation of the rod called the discrete POD (PODd), and an analytical approach using the exact solution of the problem and consequently called the analytical POD (PODa). This first step is useful to ensure that the PODh performs well with respect to the other formulations. The PODh is therefore used afterwards for the forced motion response where a displacement is imposed at the free end of the rod. The main contribution of this paper lies in the comparison of three techniques used to take into account the non-homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition with the hybrid POD: the first method relies on control functions, the second on the penalty method and the third on Lagrange multipliers. Finally, the robustness of the hybrid POD is investigated on two examples involving firstly the introduction of structural damping and secondly a nonlinear force applied at the free end of the rod.
Bobeldijk, I; Vissers, J P; Kearney, G; Major, H; Van Leerdam, J A
2001-09-21
In order to assess and maintain the quality of surface waters, target compound monitoring is often not sufficient. Many unknown micro-contaminants are present in water, originating in municipal, industrial or agricultural effluents. Some of these might pose a risk to drinking water production and consequently to human health. The possibilities of screening surface water and identification of these non-target water pollutants with modern data acquisition possibilities of hybrid quadrupole-orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometers (Q-TOF), such as data-dependent MS to MS/MS switching were investigated. Using model compounds, a procedure for the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening of water extracts was developed, enabling the detection and identification of compounds at levels < or = 0.25 microg/l in surface water. Based on the accurate mass the elemental compositions for the precursor and product ions are calculated. The calculated chemical formulae are searched against the Merck index, the NIST library, an own database containing about 2,500 water pollutants (pesticides and other contaminants) as well as a CI-CID library containing tandem MS spectra of about 100 water contaminants. The developed approach was applied for the identification of unknown compounds, present in native surface water extract. For three of these compounds, structures were proposed. Confirmation of the proposed structures with standards was beyond the scope of this study.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
A spatial orthogonal allocation method is devised for multirobot tasks allocation.A 3D space model is adopted to describe exploration mission;meanwhile spatial orthogonal tentative technology is utilized to update the attractor position for load balance.Heterogeneous interactive cultural hybrid architecture is proposed to solve a robot route planning problem;it utilizes good-point-set to initialize population spaces,redefine novel evolution model and particle evolution ability,and introduce near-neighbor lo...
A Hybrid Demon Algorithm for the Two-Dimensional Orthogonal Strip Packing Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bili Chen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper develops a hybrid demon algorithm for a two-dimensional orthogonal strip packing problem. This algorithm combines a placement procedure based on an improved heuristic, local search, and demon algorithm involved in setting one parameter. The hybrid algorithm is tested on a wide set of benchmark instances taken from the literature and compared with other well-known algorithms. The computation results validate the quality of the solutions and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Performance analysis and code recognition for dual N-ary orthogonal hybrid modulation systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiao Xiaoqiang; Zhao Hangsheng; Cai Yueming
2008-01-01
A dual N-ary orthogonal hybrid modulation system is introduced in this paper, which can increase the data rate greatly compared with conventional N-ary orthogonal spread spectrum system, so it can be used for high rate data communication. Then, three code recognition algorithms are presented for dual N-ary orthogonal hybrid modulation system and the analytic bit error rate (BER) performance of the system in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and flat Rayleigh fading channel is derived. Finally, the computer simulation of the system with three code recognition algorithms is performed, which shows that the simplified maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm is the best for the system with a compromise between the performance and the complexity.
Design and Manufacture of a Hybrid Final Focus Quadrupole Model for CLIC
Modena, Michele; Vorozhtsov, Alexey
2012-01-01
A tunable hybrid quadrupole magnet design has been proposed for the final focus in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) that is currently under study. The proposed design is a combination of an iron dominated electromagnetic quadrupole with a bore diameter of 8.25 mm with permanent magnet blocks placed between the poles made of soft magnetic CoFe alloy "Permendur". The possibility of using Sm2Co17 and Nd2Fe14B as material for the permanent magnet blocks has been investigated. It is shown that a very high field gradient of 530 T/m (Sm2Co17) and 590 T/m (Nd2Fe14B) can be achieved.
Andrews, Genna L.; Simons, Brigitte L.; Young, J. Bryce; Hawkridge, Adam M.; Muddiman, David C.
2011-01-01
The TripleTOF 5600 System, a hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, was evaluated to explore the key figures of merit in generating peptide and protein identifications which included spectral acquisition rates, data quality, proteome coverage, and biological depth. Employing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tryptic digest, careful consideration of several performance features demonstrated that the speed of the TripleTOF contributed most to the resultant data. The TripleTOF system was operated with 8, 20, and 50 MS/MS events in an effort to compare to other MS technologies and to demonstrate the abilities of the instrument platform. PMID:21619048
Three-Dimensional Control of DNA Hybridization by Orthogonal Two-Color Two-Photon Uncaging.
Fichte, Manuela A H; Weyel, Xenia M M; Junek, Stephan; Schäfer, Florian; Herbivo, Cyril; Goeldner, Maurice; Specht, Alexandre; Wachtveitl, Josef; Heckel, Alexander
2016-07-25
We successfully introduced two-photon-sensitive photolabile groups ([7-(diethylamino)coumarin-4-yl]methyl and p-dialkylaminonitrobiphenyl) into DNA strands and demonstrated their suitability for three-dimensional photorelease. To visualize the uncaging, we used a fluorescence readout based on double-strand displacement in a hydrogel and in neurons. Orthogonal two-photon uncaging of the two cages is possible, thus enabling complex scenarios of three-dimensional control of hybridization with light.
Guan, Rui; Huang, Nuo; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Houyu; Chen, Ming
2016-05-01
This paper presents an enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (EHACO-OFDM) scheme, which benefits from the simultaneous transmission of ACO-OFDM, pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation, and direct-current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM). Since the entire available bandwidth is utilized for data modulation, this scheme can achieve higher spectral efficiency than HACO-OFDM and ACO-OFDM. Moreover, as a smaller DC bias is introduced in our scheme, it is more power efficient than asymmetrically clipped DC-biased optical OFDM (ADO-OFDM) and DCO-OFDM. A modified receiver is also designed for this system, taking advantage of an iterative algorithm and a pairwise averaging. It has been shown by simulation that our three-path simultaneous transmission scheme can surpass the existing mixed OFDM-based schemes at high data rates. In addition, compared with the noniterative receiver, the modified receiver exhibits significant gains.
An experimental investigation on orthogonal cutting of hybrid CFRP/Ti stacks
Xu, Jinyang; El Mansori, Mohamed
2016-10-01
Hybrid CFRP/Ti stack has been widely used in the modern aerospace industry owing to its superior mechanical/physical properties and excellent structural functions. Several applications require mechanical machining of these hybrid composite stacks in order to achieve dimensional accuracy and assembly performance. However, machining of such composite-to-metal alliance is usually an extremely challenging task in the manufacturing sectors due to the disparate natures of each stacked constituent and their respective poor machinability. Special issues may arise from the high force/heat generation, severe subsurface damage and rapid tool wear. To study the fundamental mechanisms controlling the bi-material machining, this paper presented an experimental study on orthogonal cutting of hybrid CFRP/Ti stack by using superior polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tipped tools. The utilized cutting parameters for hybrid CFRP/Ti machining were rigorously adopted through a compromise selection due to the disparate machinability behaviors of the CFRP laminate and Ti alloy. The key cutting responses in terms of cutting force generation, machined surface quality and tool wear mechanism were precisely addressed. The experimental results highlighted the involved five stages of CFRP/Ti cutting and the predominant crater wear and edge fracture failure governing the PCD cutting process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakesh K. Tekade
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Taguchi orthogonal array design is a statistical approach that helps to overcome limitations associated with time consuming full factorial experimental design. In this study, the Taguchi orthogonal array design was applied to establish the optimum conditions for bovine serum albumin (BSA nanocarrier (ANC preparation. Taguchi method with L9 type of robust orthogonal array design was adopted to optimize the experimental conditions. Three key dependent factors namely, BSA concentration (% w/v, volume of BSA solution to total ethanol ratio (v : v, and concentration of diluted ethanolic aqueous solution (% v/v, were studied at three levels 3%, 4%, and 5% w/v; 1 : 0.75, 1 : 0.90, and 1 : 1.05 v/v; 40%, 70%, and 100% v/v, respectively. The ethanolic aqueous solution was used to impart less harsh condition for desolvation and attain controlled nanoparticle formation. The interaction plot studies inferred the ethanolic aqueous solution concentration to be the most influential parameter that affects the particle size of nanoformulation. This method (BSA, 4% w/v; volume of BSA solution to total ethanol ratio, 1 : 0.90 v/v; concentration of diluted ethanolic solution, 70% v/v was able to successfully develop Gemcitabine (G loaded modified albumin nanocarrier (M-ANC-G of size 25.07±2.81 nm (ζ=-23.03±1.015 mV as against to 78.01±4.99 nm (ζ=-24.88±1.37 mV using conventional method albumin nanocarrier (C-ANC-G. Hybrid nanocarriers were generated by chitosan layering (solvent gelation technique of respective ANC to form C-HNC-G and M-HNC-G of sizes 125.29±5.62 nm (ζ=12.01±0.51 mV and 46.28±2.21 nm (ζ=15.05±0.39 mV, respectively. Zeta potential, entrapment, in vitro release, and pH-based stability studies were investigated and influence of formulation parameters are discussed. Cell-line-based cytotoxicity assay (A549 and H460 cells and cell internalization assay (H460 cell line were performed to assess the
Fernandez Carmona, P; Collette, C; Esposito, M; Guinchard, M; Janssens, S; Kuzmin, A; Moron Ballester, R
2011-01-01
In order to achieve the required levels of luminosity in the CLIC linear collider, mechanical stabilization of quadrupoles to the nanometre level is required. The paper describes a design of hybrid electronics combining an analogue controller and digital communication with the main machine controller. The choice of local analogue control ensures the required low latency while still keeping sufficiently low noise level. Furthermore, it reduces the power consumption, rack space and cost. Sensitivity to radiation single events upsets is reduced compared to a digital controller. The digital part is required for fine tuning and real time monitoring via digitization of critical parameters.
Cluster SIMS with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer
Carado, A.; Kozole, J.; Passarelli, M.; Winograd, N.; Loboda, A.; Wingate, J.
2008-12-01
The new physics associated with cluster SIMS, i.e. reduced chemical damage enabling 3D dynamic imaging, and increased ion yields from organics samples, suggests that cluster sources may be suitable for use on commercial MALDI/electrospray (ESI) instruments. In efforts to investigate this approach to secondary ion analysis, a 20 keV C 60+ primary ion source by Ionoptika Ltd. was fitted to a commercial LC/MS/MS instrument; the QSTAR ® XL system by Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex. This instrument is capable of MS/MS, ion trapping, chemical imaging, and utilizes an orthogonal ToF, enabling use of a DC primary ion beam for imaging and data collection. The system employs high nitrogen pressure, typically several millitorr, in the sample region, as opposed to large extraction voltages, to facilitate the transmission of the secondary ions to the ToF region. In these initial experiments, it was demonstrated that ion signal generated by C 60+ bombardment can be enhanced by trapping in the collision cell and that secondary ions can fragment via collision induced dissociation (CID) to yield MS/MS information. In ToF-MS mode, efficiencies are comparable with pulsed primary beam ToF-SIMS instruments. Mass resolution of over 12,000 is routinely observed with mass accuracy in the 2 ppm range, which has important implications in accurate ion mapping in imaging mode.
Cluster SIMS with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carado, A. [Pennsylvania State University, 104 Chemistry Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: ajc161@psu.edu; Kozole, J.; Passarelli, M.; Winograd, N. [Pennsylvania State University, 104 Chemistry Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Loboda, A.; Wingate, J. [Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, 71 Four Valley Drive, Concord, Ontario, CA (United States)
2008-12-15
The new physics associated with cluster SIMS, i.e. reduced chemical damage enabling 3D dynamic imaging, and increased ion yields from organics samples, suggests that cluster sources may be suitable for use on commercial MALDI/electrospray (ESI) instruments. In efforts to investigate this approach to secondary ion analysis, a 20 keV C{sub 60}{sup +} primary ion source by Ionoptika Ltd. was fitted to a commercial LC/MS/MS instrument; the QSTAR XL system by Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex. This instrument is capable of MS/MS, ion trapping, chemical imaging, and utilizes an orthogonal ToF, enabling use of a DC primary ion beam for imaging and data collection. The system employs high nitrogen pressure, typically several millitorr, in the sample region, as opposed to large extraction voltages, to facilitate the transmission of the secondary ions to the ToF region. In these initial experiments, it was demonstrated that ion signal generated by C{sub 60}{sup +} bombardment can be enhanced by trapping in the collision cell and that secondary ions can fragment via collision induced dissociation (CID) to yield MS/MS information. In ToF-MS mode, efficiencies are comparable with pulsed primary beam ToF-SIMS instruments. Mass resolution of over 12,000 is routinely observed with mass accuracy in the 2 ppm range, which has important implications in accurate ion mapping in imaging mode.
Biological tissue imaging with a hybrid cluster SIMS quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carado, A. [Pennsylvania State University, 104 Chemistry Building, University Park, PA (United States)], E-mail: ajc161@psu.edu; Kozole, J.; Passarelli, M.; Winograd, N. [Pennsylvania State University, 104 Chemistry Building, University Park, PA (United States); Loboda, A. [Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, 71 Four Valley Drive, Concord, Ontario, CA (United States); Bunch, J. [Centre for Analytical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom); Wingate, J. [Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, 71 Four Valley Drive, Concord, Ontario, CA (United States); Hankin, J.; Murphy, R. [University of Colorado at Denver and Health Science Center, 12801 East 17th Avenue, Aurora, CO (United States)
2008-12-15
A 20 keV C{sub 60}{sup +} ion source was mounted onto a commercial MALDI/electrospray orthogonal ToF mass spectrometer. Cross-sectional mouse brain and lung slices between 5 and 10 {mu}m prepared by cryostat sectioning were successfully imaged using a DC C{sub 60}{sup +} primary ion beam at a spot size of 100 {mu}m. Analysis was performed at room temperature following vacuum drying. An abundance of ions were mapped in all samples, many whose identity can only be found using the MS/MS functionality. We have successfully identified and imaged localizations of diacylglycerol (DAG) ions - 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (m/z{sup +} 577.5) and 1,2-dioleoyl-glycerol (m/z{sup +} 603.5) - in lung tissue. The mouse brain slice revealed strong, distinct localizations of many ions revealing the potential for this technique for biological imaging. Ions throughout the mass range of m/z{sup +} 50-800 were collected in sufficient quantities to permit unambiguous chemical mapping. Mass resolutions of 12,000 or greater were routinely obtained allowing for more accurate ion mapping than typically seen with ToF-SIMS image analysis.
Zacek, Petr; Bukowski, Michael; Rosenberger, Thad A; Picklo, Matthew
2016-12-01
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in human plasma are used as biomarkers of disease. PC biomarkers are often limited by the inability to separate isobaric PCs. In this work, we developed a targeted shotgun approach for analysis of isobaric and isomeric PCs. This approach is comprised of two MS methods: a precursor ion scanning (PIS) of mass m/z 184 in positive mode (PIS m/z +184) and MS(3) fragmentation in negative mode, both performed on the same instrument, a hybrid triple quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer. The MS(3) experiment identified the FA composition and the relative abundance of isobaric and sn-1, sn-2 positional isomeric PC species, which were subsequently combined with absolute quantitative data obtained by PIS m/z +184 scan. This approach was applied to the analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology human blood plasma standard reference material (SRM 1950). We quantified more than 70 PCs and confirmed that a majority are present in isobaric and isomeric mixtures. The FA content determined by this method was comparable to that obtained using GC with flame ionization detection, supporting the quantitative nature of this MS method. This methodology will provide more in-depth biomarker information for clinical and mechanistic studies.
Pozo, Oscar J; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen; Elbardissy, Hisham; Grimalt, Susana; Sancho, Juan V; Hernandez, Felix; Ventura, Rosa; Delbeke, Frans T
2011-01-17
Triple quadrupole (QqQ), time of flight (TOF) and quadrupole-time of flight (QTOF) analysers have been compared for the detection of anabolic steroids in human urine. Ten anabolic steroids were selected as model compounds based on their ionization and the presence of endogenous interferences. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were evaluated. QqQ allowed for the detection of all analytes at the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (between 2 and 10 ng mL(-1) in urine). TOF and QTOF approaches were not sensitive enough to detect some of the analytes (3'-hydroxy-stanozolol or the metabolites of boldenone and formebolone) at the established MRPL. Although a suitable accuracy was obtained, the precision was unsatisfactory (RSD typically higher than 20%) for quantitative purposes irrespective of the analyser used. The methods were applied to 30 real samples declared positives either for the misuse of boldenone, stanozolol and/or methandienone. Most of the compounds were detected by every technique, however QqQ was necessary for the detection of some metabolites in a few samples. Finally, the possibility to detect non-target steroids has been explored by the use of TOF and QTOF. The use of this approach revealed that the presence of boldenone and its metabolite in one sample was due to the intake of androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione. Additionally, the intake of methandienone was confirmed by the post-target detection of a long-term metabolite.
Cress, Brady F; Jones, J Andrew; Kim, Daniel C; Leitz, Quentin D; Englaender, Jacob A; Collins, Shannon M; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos A G
2016-05-19
Robust gene circuit construction requires use of promoters exhibiting low crosstalk. Orthogonal promoters have been engineered utilizing an assortment of natural and synthetic transcription factors, but design of large orthogonal promoter-repressor sets is complicated, labor-intensive, and often results in unanticipated crosstalk. The specificity and ease of targeting the RNA-guided DNA-binding protein dCas9 to any 20 bp user-defined DNA sequence makes it a promising candidate for orthogonal promoter regulation. Here, we rapidly construct orthogonal variants of the classic T7-lac promoter using site-directed mutagenesis, generating a panel of inducible hybrid promoters regulated by both LacI and dCas9. Remarkably, orthogonality is mediated by only two to three nucleotide mismatches in a narrow window of the RNA:DNA hybrid, neighboring the protospacer adjacent motif. We demonstrate that, contrary to many reports, one PAM-proximal mismatch is insufficient to abolish dCas9-mediated repression, and we show for the first time that mismatch tolerance is a function of target copy number. Finally, these promoters were incorporated into the branched violacein biosynthetic pathway as dCas9-dependent switches capable of throttling and selectively redirecting carbon flux in Escherichia coli We anticipate this strategy is relevant for any promoter and will be adopted for many applications at the interface of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.
Zhao, Xi; Wu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Chun; Liu, Mingshi; Jin, Yuanbao; Yang, Dongsheng
2014-11-01
To optimize the preparation factors for argan oil microcapsule using complex coacervation of chitosan cross-linked with gelatin based on hybrid-level orthogonal array design via SPSS modeling. Eight relatively significant factors were firstly investigated and selected as calculative factors for the orthogonal array design from the total of ten factors effecting the preparation of argan oil microcapsule by utilizing the single factor variable method. The modeling of hybrid-level orthogonal array design was built in these eight factors with the relevant levels (9, 9, 9, 9, 7, 6, 2 and 2 respectively). The preparation factors for argan oil microcapsule were investigated and optimized according to the results of hybrid-level orthogonal array design. The priorities order and relevant optimum levels of preparation factors standard to base on the percentage of microcapsule with the diameter of 30~40 μm via SPSS. Experimental data showed that the optimum factors were controlling the chitosan/gelatin ratio, the systemic concentration and the core/shell ratio at 1:2, 1.5% and 1:7 respectively, presetting complex coacervation pH at 6.4, setting cross-linking time and complex coacervation at 75 min and 30 min, using the glucose-delta lactone as the type of cross-linking agent, and selecting chitosan with the molecular weight of 2000～3000.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chih-Hong Lin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Because the V-belt continuously variable transmission (CVT system driven by permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has much unknown nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, the better control performance design for the linear control design is a time consuming procedure. In order to overcome difficulties for design of the linear controllers, the hybrid recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial neural network (NN control system which has online learning ability to respond to the system’s nonlinear and time-varying behaviors is proposed to control PMSM servo-driven V-belt CVT system under the occurrence of the lumped nonlinear load disturbances. The hybrid recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial NN control system consists of an inspector control, a recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial NN control with adaptive law, and a recouped control with estimated law. Moreover, the adaptive law of online parameters in the recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial NN is derived using the Lyapunov stability theorem. Furthermore, the optimal learning rate of the parameters by means of modified particle swarm optimization (PSO is proposed to achieve fast convergence. Finally, to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, comparative studies are demonstrated by experimental results.
Godfrey, B.; Majdalani, J.
2014-11-01
This study relies on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to analyse a possible method for creating a stable quadrupole vortex within a simulated, circular-port, cylindrical rocket chamber. A model of the vortex generator is created in a SolidWorks CAD program and then the grid is generated using the Pointwise mesh generation software. The non-reactive flowfield is simulated using an open source computational program, Stanford University Unstructured (SU2). Subsequent analysis and visualization are performed using ParaView. The vortex generation approach that we employ consists of four tangentially injected monopole vortex generators that are arranged symmetrically with respect to the center of the chamber in such a way to produce a quadrupole vortex with a common downwash. The present investigation focuses on characterizing the flow dynamics so that future investigations can be undertaken with increasing levels of complexity. Our CFD simulations help to elucidate the onset of vortex filaments within the monopole tubes, and the evolution of quadrupole vortices downstream of the injection faceplate. Our results indicate that the quadrupole vortices produced using the present injection pattern can become quickly unstable to the extent of dissipating soon after being introduced into simulated rocket chamber. We conclude that a change in the geometrical configuration will be necessary to produce more stable quadrupoles.
Sun, Zhi; Li, Zhuolun; Zuo, Lihua; Wang, Zhenhui; Zhou, Lin; Shi, Yingying; Kang, Jian; Zhu, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Xiaojian
2017-08-24
To clarify and quantify the chemical profile of YiXinShu Tablet rapidly, a feasible and accurate strategy was developed by applying ultra high performance liquid chromatography with Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry. A total of 105 components were identified, including 25 phenanthraquinones, 11 lactones, 19 lignans, 24 acids and 26 other compounds. Among them, 26 major compounds were unambiguously detected by comparing with reference standards. And 19 of these compounds in three batches of YiXinShu Tablet were selected for quantitative determination. (Z)-Ligustilide, salvianic acid A, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid were abundant in these three batches with contents over 1.000 mg/g. The established analysis methods were examined to be accurate and feasible. The results show that the ultra high performance liquid chromatography with Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry method has a powerful qualitative ability and promising quantitative application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Rousu, Timo; Herttuainen, Jukka; Tolonen, Ari
2010-04-15
Liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is a superior analytical technique for metabolite profiling and identification studies performed in drug discovery and development laboratories. In the early phase of drug discovery the analytical approach should be both time- and cost-effective, thus providing as much data as possible with only one visit to the laboratory, without the need for further experiments. Recent developments in mass spectrometers have created a situation where many different mass spectrometers are available for the task, each with their specific strengths and drawbacks. We compared the metabolite screening properties of four main types of mass spectrometers used in analytical laboratories, considering both the ability to detect the metabolites and provide structural information, as well as the issues related to time consumption in laboratory and thereafter in data processing. Human liver microsomal incubations with amitriptyline and verapamil were used as test samples, and early-phase 'one lab visit only' approaches were used with all instruments. In total, 28 amitriptyline and 69 verapamil metabolites were found and tentatively identified. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was the only approach detecting all of them, shown to be the most suitable instrument for elucidating as comprehensive metabolite profile as possible leading also to lowest overall time consumption together with the LTQ-Orbitrap approach. The latter however suffered from lower detection sensitivity and false negatives, and due to slow data acquisition rate required slower chromatography. Approaches with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ) and hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (Q-Trap) provided the highest amount of fragment ion data for structural elucidation, but, in addition to being unable to produce very high-important accurate mass data, they suffered from many false negatives, and especially with the Qq
Freud, Géza
1971-01-01
Orthogonal Polynomials contains an up-to-date survey of the general theory of orthogonal polynomials. It deals with the problem of polynomials and reveals that the sequence of these polynomials forms an orthogonal system with respect to a non-negative m-distribution defined on the real numerical axis. Comprised of five chapters, the book begins with the fundamental properties of orthogonal polynomials. After discussing the momentum problem, it then explains the quadrature procedure, the convergence theory, and G. Szegő's theory. This book is useful for those who intend to use it as referenc
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Almeida, Reinaldo; Pauling, Josch Konstantin; Sokol, Elena
2015-01-01
, including its high resolution power unsurpassed by any other contemporary Orbitrap instrumentation, its dynamic quantification range and its efficacy for in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species by quadrupole-based higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and ion trap...... of fragmentation analysis demonstrated that combined use of HCD and CID yields complementary fragment ions of molecular lipid species. To support global lipidome analysis, we designed a method, termed MS(ALL), featuring high resolution FTMS analysis for lipid quantification, and FTMS(2) analysis using both HCD...... and CID and ITMS(3) analysis utilizing dual CID for in-depth structural characterization of molecular glycerophospholipid species. The performance of the MS(ALL) method was benchmarked in a comparative analysis of mouse cerebellum and hippocampus. This analysis demonstrated extensive lipidome...
Ortori, Catharine A; Atkinson, Steve; Chhabra, Siri Ram; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Barrett, David A
2007-01-01
A method for the comprehensive profiling of the N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) family of bacterial quorum-sensing molecules is presented using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap (QqQLIT) mass spectrometry. Information-dependent acquisition (IDA), using triggered combinations of triple-quadrupole and linear ion trap modes in the same LC-MS/MS run, was used to simultaneously screen, quantify and identify multiple AHLs in a single sample. This MS method uses common AHL fragment ions attributed to the homoserine moiety and the 3-oxo-, 3-hydroxy- or unsubstituted acyl side chains, to identify unknown AHLs in cell-free culture supernatants in an unbiased manner. This LC-MS technique was applied to determine the relative molar ratios of AHLs produced by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and the consequences of inactivating by mutation either or both of the AHL synthase genes (ypsI and ytbI) on AHL profile and concentration. The Y. pseudotuberculosis wild type but not the ypsI ytbI double mutant produced at least 24 different AHLs with acyl chains ranging from C4 to C15 with or without 3-oxo or 3-hydroxy substituents. YtbI, in contrast to YpsI, could direct the synthesis of all of the AHLs identified. The most abundant and hence most biologically relevant Y. pseudotuberculosis AHLs were found to be the 3-oxo-substituted C6, C7 and C8 AHLs and the unsubstituted C6 and C8 compounds. The LC-QqQLIT methodology is broadly applicable to quorum-sensing signal molecule analysis and can provide comprehensive AHL profiles and concentrations from a single sample and simultaneously collect confirmatory spectra for each AHL identified.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brigitte Simons
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Shotgun lipidomics has evolved into a myriad of multi-dimensional strategies for molecular lipid characterization, including bioinformatics tools for mass spectrum interpretation and quantitative measurements to study systems-lipidomics in complex biological extracts. Taking advantage of spectral mass accuracy, scan speed and sensitivity of improved quadrupole linked time-of-flight mass analyzers, we developed a bias-free global lipid profiling acquisition technique of sequential precursor ion fragmentation called MS/MSALL. This generic information-independent tandem mass spectrometry (MS technique consists of a Q1 stepped mass isolation window through a set mass range in small increments, fragmenting and recording all product ions and neutral losses. Through the accurate MS and MS/MS information, the molecular lipid species are resolved, including distinction of isobaric and isomeric species, and composed into more precise lipidomic outputs. The method demonstrates good reproducibility and at least 3 orders of dynamic quantification range for isomeric ceramides in human plasma. More than 400 molecular lipids in human plasma were uncovered and quantified in less than 12 min, including acquisitions in both positive and negative polarity modes. We anticipate that the performance of sequential precursor ion fragmentation both in quality and throughput will lead to the uncovering of new avenues throughout the biomedical research community, enhance biomarker discovery and provide novel information target discovery programs as it will prospectively shed new insight into affected metabolic and signaling pathways.
Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda
2016-08-26
Emerging drugs of abuse, belonging to many different chemical classes, are attracting users with promises of "legal" highs and easy access via internet. Prevalence of their consumption and abuse through wastewater-based epidemiology can only be realized if a suitable analytical screening procedure exists to detect and quantify them in water. Solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS/MS) was applied for rapid suspect screening as well as for the quantitative determination of 42 illicit drugs and metabolites in water. Using this platform, we were able to identify amphetamines, tryptamines, piperazines, pyrrolidinophenones, arylcyclohexylamines, cocainics, opioids and cannabinoids. Additionally, paracetamol, carbamazepine, ibersartan, valsartan, sulfamethoxazole, terbumeton, diuron, etc. (including degradation products as 3-hydroxy carbamazepine or deethylterbuthylazine) were detected. This method encompasses easy sample preparation and rapid identification of psychoactive drugs against a database that cover more than 2000 compounds that ionized in positive mode, and possibility to identify metabolites and degradation products as well as unknown compounds. The method for river water, influent and effluents samples was fully validated for the target psychoactive substances including assessment of matrix effects (-88-67.8%), recovery (42-115%), precision (psychoactive drugs biomarkers and other water contaminants is demonstrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Krishnamoorthy
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new lossy to lossless image coding scheme combined with Orthogonal Polynomials Transform and Integer Wavelet Transform is proposed. The Lifting Scheme based Integer Wavelet Transform (LS-IWT is first applied on the image in order to reduce the blocking artifact and memory demand. The Embedded Zero tree Wavelet (EZW subband coding algorithm is used in this proposed work for progressive image coding which achieves efficient bit rate reduction. The computational complexity of lower subband coding of EZW algorithm is reduced in this proposed work with a new integer based Orthogonal Polynomials transform coding. The normalization and mapping are done on the subband of the image for exploiting the subjective redundancy and the zero tree structure is obtained for EZW coding and so the computation complexity is greatly reduced in this proposed work. The experimental results of the proposed technique also show that the efficient bit rate reduction is achieved for both lossy and lossless compression when compared with existing techniques.
Almeida, Reinaldo; Pauling, Josch Konstantin; Sokol, Elena; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Ejsing, Christer S
2015-01-01
Here we report on the application of a novel shotgun lipidomics platform featuring an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer equipped with an automated nanoelectrospray ion source. To assess the performance of the platform for in-depth lipidome analysis, we evaluated various instrument parameters, including its high resolution power unsurpassed by any other contemporary Orbitrap instrumentation, its dynamic quantification range and its efficacy for in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species by quadrupole-based higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and ion trap-based resonant-excitation collision-induced dissociation (CID). This evaluation demonstrated that FTMS analysis with a resolution setting of 450,000 allows distinguishing isotopes from different lipid species and features a linear dynamic quantification range of at least four orders of magnitude. Evaluation of fragmentation analysis demonstrated that combined use of HCD and CID yields complementary fragment ions of molecular lipid species. To support global lipidome analysis, we designed a method, termed MS(ALL), featuring high resolution FTMS analysis for lipid quantification, and FTMS(2) analysis using both HCD and CID and ITMS(3) analysis utilizing dual CID for in-depth structural characterization of molecular glycerophospholipid species. The performance of the MS(ALL) method was benchmarked in a comparative analysis of mouse cerebellum and hippocampus. This analysis demonstrated extensive lipidome quantification covering 311 lipid species encompassing 20 lipid classes, and identification of 202 distinct molecular glycerophospholipid species when applying a novel high confidence filtering strategy. The work presented here validates the performance of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer for in-depth lipidome analysis.
Deb, Anish; Sarkar, Gautam
2016-01-01
This book introduces a new set of orthogonal hybrid functions (HF) which approximates time functions in a piecewise linear manner which is very suitable for practical applications. The book presents an analysis of different systems namely, time-invariant system, time-varying system, multi-delay systems---both homogeneous and non-homogeneous type- and the solutions are obtained in the form of discrete samples. The book also investigates system identification problems for many of the above systems. The book is spread over 15 chapters and contains 180 black and white figures, 18 colour figures, 85 tables and 56 illustrative examples. MATLAB codes for many such examples are included at the end of the book.
Pugajeva, Iveta; Jaunbergs, Janis; Bartkevics, Vadims
2015-01-01
The emerging trend towards high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) alternatives was evaluated by the application of Orbitrap MS for the determination of acrylamide in coffee samples. The high resolving power of the Orbitrap MS provided the high selectivity and sensitivity that enabled quantitative analysis of acrylamide in complex matrices, such as coffee. Several sample preparation methods and scanning modes of the MS (full MS, t-SIM, t-MS2) were assessed in order to optimise parameters of the analytical method. The final procedure involved the extraction of acrylamide with acetonitrile, solid-phase extraction with dispersive primary secondary amine (PSA) and amino columns, and the detection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS (HPLC-Q-Orbitrap) operated in targeted MS2 scanning mode. The repeatability of the method at the lowest calibration level (10 μg kg(-1)), expressed as relative standard deviation, was 7.8% and the average recovery of acrylamide was 111%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of acrylamide in 22 samples of roasted coffee obtained from the Latvian retail market. Acrylamide concentration in coffee samples was in the range of 166-503 μg kg(-1).
Reinholds, Ingars; Pugajeva, Iveta; Radenkovs, Vitalijs; Rjabova, Jekaterina; Bartkevics, Vadims
2016-07-01
A new reliable analytical method based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of melatonin (MEL) in food products. In-house validation was performed using deuterated melatonin (MEL-d4) as an internal standard to ensure method selectivity and accuracy and to evaluate the efficiency of a robust ethyl acetate extraction technique used for sample preparation. The analysis of 18 tart cherry varieties and 28 tomato varieties was performed at optimized conditions. The method was linear (R(2)> 0.99) over the concentration range of 5-200 pg/g. A very low limit of quantification (10 pg/g) was provided for both analyzed matrices. The determined average recoveries (102 and 110%) and the values of intraday repeatability (6.30 and 10.9%) for cherry and tomato matrices, respectively, indicated a good accuracy and precision. The elaborated procedure proved the absence of MEL in any of tart cherries (Cherry," "Cherry Red" and "Rome" tomatoes grown in the Netherlands.
Calbiani, F; Careri, M; Elviri, L; Mangia, A; Zagnoni, I
2004-11-26
The potential of capillary liquid chromatography (microLC)-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS) for the confirmation of Sudan I, II, III and IV azo-dyes as contaminants in hot-chilli food products was demonstrated. Using the microLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-Q-TOF MS technique, accurate mass measurements of Sudan dyes were performed both on standard solutions and on matrices. Precision of exact mass measurements was calculated taking into account the ion statistics according to the number of ion sampled in the measurement. Accurate mass measurements by MS/MS experiments were performed to elucidate azo-dye fragmentation patterns. Selectivity of the microLC-Q-TOF MS method was assessed by evaluating matrix suppression effects by pre-column injection of blank hot chilli tomato sauce matrices. The results were compared with those obtained on a LC-triple quadrupole-MS system. Confirmation of Sudan I present in hot chill tomato sauce samples was obtained by accurate mass measurements. In real samples trueness of exact mass measurements was estimated to be 1.6 and 4.4 ppm when calculated for hot chilli tomato sauce and hot chilli tomato with cheese sauce samples, respectively; precision was calculated around 9.5 ppm.
Andres-Costa, M. Jesus; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda
2016-04-01
The presence of drugs of abuse in the aquatic environment has been recognized as an important issue for the ecosystem due their possible negative effect on it (Richardson, 2011). Incomplete removal of these substances during wastewater treatment could be one of the causes of their release in the environment (Zuccato and Castiglioni, 2009). Pollution by illicit drug residues at very low concentrations is generalized in populated areas, with potential risks for human health and the environment (Zuccato, 2008; Castiglioni et al 2007).The aim of this study was to screen and quantify 44 drugs of abuse and metabolites of wastewater samples using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and furthermore carry out a post-target screening to identify additional compounds present in the water samples. Wastewater samples were collected from the influent and effluent of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Valencia and river water samples form Turia River Basin. Illicit drugs were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The chromatography was performed with an Agilent 1260 Infinity ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The UHPLC system was coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight ABSciex Triple TOFTM 5600. All analytes were analyzed in positive mode. Acquiring full scan MS data was employed for quantification of drugs of abuse, and automatic data dependent information product ion spectra (IDA-MS/MS) was checked for identifying emerging illicit drugs and other compounds in water samples. The use of a database containing 1212 compounds achieved high confidence results for a wide number of contaminants. In the present study, the presence of compounds that belong to amphetamines group (amphetamine, methamphetamine, ephedrine, MDMA, MDA and MDEA), tryptamines (bufotenine), pirrolidinophenone group (α-PVP and 4'-MePHP), arylcyclohexylamines (ketamine), cocainics (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene and ecgonine methyl ester) and
Taylor, Kerry; Elliott, Simon
2009-05-30
A hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionisation ion source coupled to a HPLC system has been used to develop a method which can accurately measure morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in plasma, whole blood and post-mortem blood following solid-phase extraction. The method can also qualitatively detect various other opioids and related compounds including: codeine, dihydrocodeine (and metabolites), noscapine, papaverine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). The method has been favourably compared to an existing laboratory method using a now discontinued radio-immunoassay technique. The advantage of measuring the glucuronides directly rather than following deconjugation by beta-glucuronidase has also been shown. Detection and quantification of compounds was achieved using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) incorporating the use of deuterated morphine and M3G as internal standards. Precision and accuracy was determined to be less than 10% at both high and low levels for all analytes and the calibration curve was deemed linear over an acceptable range. Recovery in blood was greater than 90% and ion suppression/enhancement was shown to be less than 15%. This method was applied to over 130 post-mortem cases involving the use of heroin, prescribed morphine and codeine. The range of concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G was large (particularly in heroin and prescribed morphine cases), reflecting the many different factors involved with therapeutic use or fatal opiate poisonings, including tolerance associated with regular use, variable dose regimens and co-administration of other drugs. Detection of other constituents of the opium poppy such as noscapine and papaverine and metabolites of diacetylmorphine in the blood (6-AM) was useful in determining the source of the morphine (i.e. illicit heroin) and the rapidity of death after administration.
Rudashevskaya, Elena L; Breitwieser, Florian P; Huber, Marie L; Colinge, Jacques; Müller, André C; Bennett, Keiryn L
2013-02-05
The identification and validation of cross-linked peptides by mass spectrometry remains a daunting challenge for protein-protein cross-linking approaches when investigating protein interactions. This includes the fragmentation of cross-linked peptides in the mass spectrometer per se and following database searching, the matching of the molecular masses of the fragment ions to the correct cross-linked peptides. The hybrid linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) Orbitrap Velos combines the speed of the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) duty circle with high mass accuracy, and these features were utilized in the current study to substantially improve the confidence in the identification of cross-linked peptides. An MS/MS method termed multiple and sequential data acquisition method (MSDAM) was developed. Preliminary optimization of the MS/MS settings was performed with a synthetic peptide (TP1) cross-linked with bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate (BS(3)). On the basis of these results, MSDAM was created and assessed on the BS(3)-cross-linked bovine serum albumin (BSA) homodimer. MSDAM applies a series of multiple sequential fragmentation events with a range of different normalized collision energies (NCE) to the same precursor ion. The combination of a series of NCE enabled a considerable improvement in the quality of the fragmentation spectra for cross-linked peptides, and ultimately aided in the identification of the sequences of the cross-linked peptides. Concurrently, MSDAM provides confirmatory evidence from the formation of reporter ions fragments, which reduces the false positive rate of incorrectly assigned cross-linked peptides.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnaudguilhem, C.; Bierla, K.; Ouerdane, L.; Preud' homme, H. [CNRS/UPPA, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, UMR 5254, Helioparc, 2, Av. Pr. Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Yiannikouris, A. [Alltech Inc., 3031 Catnip Hill Pike, Nicholasville, KY (United States); Lobinski, R., E-mail: ryszard.lobinski@univ-pau.fr [CNRS/UPPA, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, UMR 5254, Helioparc, 2, Av. Pr. Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warszawa (Poland)
2012-12-13
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of bimodal chromatographic separation enlarged amount of compounds identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allowed the largest scale ever (>60 compounds) speciation analysis of selenium metabolites in Se-rich yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The estimated concentration of compounds was given. - Abstract: A high efficiency chromatographic separation on a porous graphitic carbon stationary phase was developed for a large-scale separation of selenium metabolites in Se-rich yeast prior to their identification by electrospray hybrid quadrupole trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap MS{sup n}). The reversed-phase (RP) separation mode offered distinctly higher separation efficiency than the hydrophilic ion interaction (HILIC) mode. The latter was nevertheless complementary and useful to validate the detection of several compounds. The method allowed the detection of 64 metabolites including 30 Se-Se or Se-S conjugates (3 triple S/Se/S ones) and 14 selenoethers. 21 previously unreported metabolites were detected on the basis of the selenium isotopic pattern usually matched with the sub-ppm mass accuracy. 9 of these metabolites were subsequently identified using the multi-stage high mass accuracy (<5 ppm) mass spectrometry. The identified metabolites (and their groups) were quantified on-line by ICP-MS fitted with a frequency-matching generator allowing a quasi-uniform response over the large (20-90%) acetonitrile mobile phase concentration range. The morphology of HPLC-ICP-MS chromatograms was remarkably similar to that of HPLC multi-ion extracted ESI-MS chromatograms. The detection limits obtained by ICP MS and ESI MS were 1 and 2 ppb, respectively.
Dowling, Geraldine; Regan, Liam; Tierney, Julie; Nangle, Michael
2010-10-29
A rapid method has been developed to analyse morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylegonine, buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine, cocaethylene, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, ketamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, lignocaine, benzylpiperazine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and methadone in human urine. Urine samples were diluted with methanol:water (1:1, v/v) and sample aliquots were analysed by hybrid linear ion trap-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with a runtime of 12.5 min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan were performed in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment. Finally, drug identification and confirmation was carried out by library search with a developed in-house MS/MS library based on EPI spectra at a collision energy spread of 35±15 in positive mode and MRM ratios. The method was validated in urine, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. At least two MRM transitions for each substance were monitored in addition to EPI spectra and deuterated analytes were used as internal standards for quantitation. The reporting level was 0.05 μg mL(-1) for the range of analytes tested. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (0-4 μg mL(-1)) in the study were ≥0.98. The method proved to be simple and time efficient and was implemented as an analytical strategy for the illicit drug monitoring of opioids, cocaines and amphetamines in criminal samples from crime offenders, abusers or victims in the Republic of Ireland. To the best of our knowledge there are no hybrid LC-MS applications using MRM mode and product ion spectra in the linear ion trap mode for opioids, cocaines or amphetamines with validation data in urine.
Liang, Yan; Guan, Tianye; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yanna; Xing, Lu; Zheng, Xiao; Dai, Chen; Du, Ping; Rao, Tai; Zhou, Lijun; Yu, Xiaoyi; Hao, Kun; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guangji
2013-07-05
This study was to systematically investigate the effect of mobile phase additives, including ammonia water, formic acid, acetic acid, ammonium chloride and water (as a control), on qualitative and quantitative analysis of fifteen representative ginsenosides based on liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS). To evaluate the influence of mobile phase additives on qualitative performance, the quality of the negative mode MS/MS spectra of ginsenosides produced by online LC-Q-TOF/MS analyses, particularly the numbers and intensities of fragment ions, were compared under different adduct ion states, and found to be strongly affected by the mobile phase additives. When 0.02% acetic acid was added in the mobile phase, the deprotonated ginsenosides ions produced the most abundant product ions, while almost no product ion was observed for the chlorinated ginsenoside ions when 0.1mM ammonium chloride was used as the mobile phase additive. On the other hand, sensitivity, linear range and precision were adopted to investigate the quantitative performance affected by different mobile phase additives. Validation results of the LC-Q-TOF/MS-based quantitative performance for ginsenosides showed that ammonium chloride not only provided the highest sensitivity for all the target analytes, but also dramatically improved the linear ranges, the intra-day and inter-day precisions comparing to the results obtained using other mobile phase additives. Importantly, the validated method, using 0.1mM ammonium chloride as the mobile phase additive, was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Ginsenoside Extract at 200mg/kg. In conclusion, 0.02% acetic acid was deemed to be the most suitable mobile phase additive for qualitative analysis of ginsenosides, and 0.1mM ammonium chloride in mobile phase could lead to the best quantitative performance. Our results reveal that
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooper, W.E.; Fisk, H.E.; Gross, D.A.; Lundy, R.A.; Schmidt, E.E.; Turkot, F.
1983-03-01
Details on the design, construction, and performance tests of Energy Saver/Doubler quadrupoles are presented along with recent data from the test of a special high gradient low beta prototype quadrupole.
Broecker, Sebastian; Herre, Sieglinde; Pragst, Fritz
2012-05-10
The retrospective investigation of the exposure to toxic substances by general unknown screening of hair is still a difficult task because of the large number of possible poisons, the low sample amount and the difficult sample matrix. In this study the use of liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was tested as a promising technique for this purpose. In the optimized procedure, 20mg hair were decontaminated with water and acetone and two times extracted by 18h incubation with 0.5ml of a mixture of methanol/acetonitrile/H(2)O/ammonium formate at 37°C. A mixture of deuterated standards from different drug groups was added for quantification and method control. The united extracts were evaporated to a residue of 0.5ml and 5μl were injected without clean-up for LC-QTOF-MS measurement (instrument Agilent 6530) with positive electrospray ionization and in data dependent acquisition mode. For peak identification the accurate mass data base and spectral library of the authors was used which contains accurate mass CID spectra of more than 2500 and theoretically calculated accurate mass data of more than 7500 toxicologically relevant substances. Validation at the example of 24 illegal drugs, their metabolites and benzodiazepines resulted in limits of detection of 0.003-0.015ng/mg, and limits of quantification of 0.006-0.021ng/mg with good accuracy and intra- and interday reproducibility. The matrix effect by ion suppression/enhancement was 72-107% for basic drugs and 42-75% for benzodiazepines. Yields of the hair extraction above 90% were determined for 59 drugs or metabolites. The method was applied to hair samples from 30 drug fatalities and from 60 death cases with known therapeutic drug intake at life time. Altogether 212 substances were identified with a frequency per drug of 1-40 (mean 4.2) and per case of 2-33 (mean 10.2), between them 35 illegal drug related substances and 154 therapeutic drugs. Comparison with the
Hunter, C.
2007-01-01
As the study of protein biomarkers increases in importance, technical limitations to the detection of low-abundance proteins and high-throughput, high-precision quantitation remain to be overcome. The complexity and dynamic range of the plasma proteome makes the task of specific, quantitative detection even more challenging. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) capabilities of triple quadrupole MS systems have been explored as solutions to this challenge due to their well-known sensitivity and ...
Gosetti, Fabio; Chiuminatto, Ugo; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Calabrese, Giorgio; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Marengo, Emilio
2013-01-15
The study deals with the identification of the degradation products formed by simulated sunlight photoirradiation in a commercial beverage that contains Allura Red AC dye. An UHPLC-MS/MS method, that makes use of hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap, was developed. In the identification step the software tool information dependent acquisition (IDA) was used to automatically obtain information about the species present and to build a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method with the MS/MS fragmentation pattern of the species considered. The results indicate that the identified degradation products are formed from side-reactions and/or interactions among the dye and other ingredients present in the beverage (ascorbic acid, citric acid, sucrose, aromas, strawberry juice, and extract of chamomile flowers). The presence of aromatic amine or amide functionalities in the chemical structures proposed for the degradation products might suggest potential hazards to consumer health.
Kim, Kwang Hoe; Ahn, Yeong Hee; Ji, Eun Sun; Lee, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jin Young; An, Hyun Joo; Yoo, Jong Shin
2015-07-02
Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is commonly used for the quantitative analysis of proteins during mass pectrometry (MS), and has excellent specificity and sensitivity for an analyte in a complex sample. In this study, a pseudo-MRM method for the quantitative analysis of low-abundance serological proteins was developed using hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (hybrid Q-TOF) MS and peptide affinity-based enrichment. First, a pseudo-MRM-based analysis using hybrid Q-TOF MS was performed for synthetic peptides selected as targets and spiked into tryptic digests of human serum. By integrating multiple transition signals corresponding to fragment ions in the full scan MS/MS spectrum of a precursor ion of the target peptide, a pseudo-MRM MS analysis of the target peptide showed an increased signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and sensitivity, as well as an improved reproducibility. The pseudo-MRM method was then used for the quantitative analysis of the tryptic peptides of two low-abundance serological proteins, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and tissue-type protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa (PTPκ), which were prepared with peptide affinity-based enrichment from human serum. Finally, this method was used to detect femtomolar amounts of target peptides derived from TIMP1 and PTPκ, with good coefficients of variation (CV 2.7% and 9.8%, respectively), using a few microliters of human serum from colorectal cancer patients. The results suggest that pseudo-MRM using hybrid Q-TOF MS, combined with peptide affinity-based enrichment, could become a promising alternative for the quantitative analysis of low-abundance target proteins of interest in complex serum samples that avoids protein depletion.
Petzenhauser, I.; Spiller, P.; Tenholt, C.
2016-01-01
In order to raise the focusing gradient in case of bunched beam lines, a pulsed quadrupole was designed. The transfer channels between synchrotrons as well as the final focusing for the target line are possible applications. The quadrupole is running in a pulsed mode, which means an immense saving of energy by avoiding standby operation. Still the high gradients demand high currents. Hence a circuit had to be developed which is able to recover a significant amount of the pulsing energy for following shots. The basic design of the electrical circuit of the quadrupole is introduced. Furthermore more energy efficient circuits are presented and the limits of adaptability are considered.
Superconducting magnetic quadrupole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.
1995-08-01
A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.
1974-01-01
A stack of SPS Quadrupole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a total of 216 laminated normal conducting lattice quadrupoles with a length of 3.13 m for the core, 3.3 m overall. The F and D quads. have identical characteristics: inscribed circle radius 44 mm, core height and width 800 mm, maximum gradient 20 Tesla/m.
García-Altares, María; Casanova, Alexis; Bane, Vaishali; Diogène, Jorge; Furey, Ambrose; de la Iglesia, Pablo
2014-06-01
Cyclic imines are lipophilic marine toxins that bioaccumulate in seafood. Their structure comprises a cyclic-imino moiety, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines have not been linked yet to human poisonings and are not regulated in Europe, although the European Food Safety Authority requires more data to perform a conclusive risk assessment for consumers. This work presents the first detection of pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) in Spain and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) in shellfish from Catalonia (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Cyclic imines were found at low concentrations (2 to 60 µg/kg) in 13 samples of mussels and oysters (22 samples analyzed). Pinnatoxin G has been also detected in 17 seawater samples (out of 34) using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking devices (0.3 to 0.9 µg/kg-resin). Pinnatoxin G and SPX-1 were confirmed with both low and high resolution (<2 ppm) mass spectrometry by comparison of the response with that from reference standards. For other analogs without reference standards, we applied a strategy combining low resolution MS with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer for a fast and reliable screening, and high resolution MS LTQ Orbitrap® for unambiguous confirmation. The advantages and limitations of using high resolution MS without reference standards were discussed.
Yassin, Ghada H; Grun, Christian; Koek, Jean H; Assaf, Khaleel I; Kuhnert, Nikolai
2014-11-01
Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) when coupled to ion mobility (IMS)/orthogonal acceleration time of flight mass spectrometry is a suitable technique for analyzing complex mixtures such as the black tea thearubigins. With the aid of this advanced instrumental analysis, we were able to separate and identify different isomeric components in the complex mixture which could previously not be differentiated by a conventional high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In this study, the difference between isomeric structures theasinensins, proanthocyanidins B-type and rutin (quercetin-3O-rutinoside) were studied, and these are present abundantly in many botanical sources. The differentiation between these structures was accomplished according to their acquired mobility drift times differing from the traditional investigations in mass spectrometry, where calculation of theoretical collisional cross sections allowed assignment of the individual isomeric structures. The present work demonstrates UPLC-IMS-MS as an efficient technology for isolating and separating isobaric and isomeric structures existing in complex mixtures discriminating between them according to their characteristic fragment ions and mobility drift times. Therefore, a rational assignment of isomeric structures in many phenolic secondary metabolites based on the ion mobility data might be useful in mass spectrometry-based structure analysis in the future.
Wissenbach, Dirk K; Meyer, Markus R; Weber, Armin A; Remane, Daniela; Ewald, Andreas H; Peters, Frank T; Maurer, Hans H
2012-01-01
In contrast to libraries with highly reproducible gas chromatography electron ionization mass spectra, current liquid chromatography (LC-MS) libraries are limited to specific instrument types. Therefore, the aim of the study was to prove whether a recently developed linear ion trap (LIT) LC-MS(n) screening approach and reference library can be transferred to an LC-MS/MS system with a quadrupole-LIT hybrid mass analyzer using SmileMS, a sophisticated search algorithm. The LIT reference library was built with MS² and MS³ wideband spectra recorded on a ThermoFisher LXQ LIT with electrospray ionization in positive mode and full-scan data-dependent acquisition (DDA). Collision parameter optimizations, including different scan types and energies, were performed on an Applied Biosystems QTRAP 4000 system using electrospray ionization in positive mode and full-scan DDA. Modified library sets were generated to improve the detection of a compound by the used search algorithm. Additionally, 100 authentic human urine samples were screened by both systems for proof of applicability. In the applicability study, 533 compounds were detected by the LXQ and 477 by the QTRAP system using enhanced product ion scan and a modified database. The presented data showed that the LIT screening approach and reference library could be used successfully on a QTRAP instrument with some limitations. These should be overcome by further optimizations regarding DDA settings for better sensitivity and further library modifications to reduce spectra mismatches.
Dušek, Martin; Jandovská, Vladimíra; Čermák, Pavel; Mikyška, Alexandr; Olšovská, Jana
2016-08-15
The phenolic compounds, secondary metabolites of hops represent a large family of compounds that could be subsequently divided into smaller groups based on the similarities between their chemical structures. The antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties of hops are well known, but there is a lack of information about antimicrobial activities of individual hop compounds. This study was carried out with an objective to identify compounds present in hops that have potential antibacterial activity. In the first stage of experiment, the active compounds with potential anti-microbial activity had to be extracted from hop cones. Therefore, minced hop cones were applied on solid growth medium inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. The active substances that migrated into the medium created an inhibition zone. In the second stage of experiment, the inhibition zones were cut out from Petri dishes, active compounds were extracted from these zones and consequently analyzed using LC-HRMS. These complex assays were developed and optimized. The data were acquired by using a quadrupole-orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer by targeted-MS2 experiment in both ionization modes. The MS method has been developed as a screening method with a subsequent fragmentation of compound of interest on the base of inclusion mass list. The unknown compounds extracted from inhibition zones have been identified either by searching against a database or their structure has been elucidated on the basis of their fragmentation spectra. On the basis of this experiment the list of active compounds with potential anti-microbial activities was enhanced.
Cherta, L; Portolés, T; Pitarch, E; Beltran, J; López, F J; Calatayud, C; Company, B; Hernández, F
2015-12-01
The potential of an advanced analytical strategy based on the use of gas chromatography (GC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with two different analyzers and ionization sources has been investigated and applied to the non-target analysis of food packaging contaminants. Initially, the approach based on GC-time-of-flight (TOF) MS with electron ionization (EI) source allowed performing a library search and mass accurate measurements of selected ions. Then, a second analysis was performed using hybrid quadrupole (Q) TOF MS with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in order to search for the molecular ion or the protonated molecule and study the fragmentation behavior. This analytical strategy was applied to the analysis of four polypropylene/ethylene vinyl alcohol/polypropylene (PP/EVOH/PP) multilayer trays and one PP/Al foil/PP film, each one subjected to migration assays with the food simulants isooctane and Tenax®, in order to investigate its potential on the determination of migrant substances.
1983-01-01
There were 48 of these Quadrupoles in the ISR. They were distributed around the rings according to the so-called Terwilliger scheme. Their aperture was 184 mm, their core length 300 mm, their gradient 5 T/m. Due to their small length as compared to the aperture, the end fringe field errors had to be compensated by suitably shaping the poles.
ISR Superconducting Quadrupoles
1977-01-01
Michel Bouvier is preparing for curing the 6-pole superconducting windings inbedded in the cylindrical wall separating liquid helium from vacuum in the quadrupole aperture. The heat for curing the epoxy glue was provided by a ramp of infrared lamps which can be seen above the slowly rotating cylinder. See also 7703512X, 7702690X.
Yang, Shupeng; De Boevre, Marthe; Zhang, Huiyan; De Ruyck, Karl; Sun, Feifei; Wang, Zhanhui; Cao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianzhong; De Saeger, Sarah; Zhang, Suxia
2015-11-01
Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), a Fusarium mycotoxin belonging to the trichothecene type A mycotoxins, is able to contaminate food and feed worldwide. Only limited information is available regarding the metabolism of DAS. The present study used ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight hybrid mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF) to investigate the in vitro phase I and II metabolism of DAS by rat, chicken, swine, goat, cow, and human liver microsomes. An extensive metabolization profile of DAS has been observed. A total of seven phase I and three phase II metabolites of DAS were detected. Among the identified molecules, four phase I metabolites (8β-hydroxy-DAS, neosolaniol, 7-hydroxy-DAS, and its epimer) and two phase II metabolites (4-deacetyl-DAS-3-glucuronic acid and 4-deacetyl-DAS-4-glucuronic acid) were identified for the first time. These results indicate that the major metabolic pathways of DAS in vitro were hydrolyzation (M1-M3), hydroxylation (M4-M7), and conjugation (M8-M10). Qualitative differences in phase I and II metabolic profiles of DAS between the five animal species and human were observed. 4-Deacetyl-DAS was the primary metabolite from liver microsomes of all species, especially human. The in vivo metabolism of DAS in rats and chickens after oral administration of DAS was also investigated and compared. The major metabolites for rats and chickens were 4-deacetyl-DAS and 7-hydroxy-DAS. These results will help to gain a more detailed insight into the metabolism and toxicity of DAS among different animal species and human. Graphical Abstract The metabolism of diacetoxyscirpenol in farm animals and human.
Quadrupole collectivity with isospin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ginocchio, J.N.; Leviatan, A. (Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel))
1994-10-03
We study intrinsic aspects of quadrupole collectivity with conserved isospin in the framework of the interacting boson model (IBM-3) of nuclei. A geometric visualization is achieved by means of a novel type of intrinsic states which are deformed in angular momentum yet have well defined isospin. The energy surface of the general IBM-3 Hamiltonian is derived and normal modes are identified for prolate deformations.
Orthogonal and symplectic Yangians
Kirschner, R.
2017-01-01
We consider Yang-Baxter relations with orthogonal or symplectic symmetry, in particular L matrices defining the related Yangian algebra. We study the conditions resulting from the truncation of the expansion of L(u).
1980-01-01
Focusing magnet used for the AA (antiproton accumulator).Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 - three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. About focusing magnets (quadrupoles): Quadrupole magnets are needed to focus the particle beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams cross. Particle beams are stored for about 10 hours in the LHC. During this time, the particles make four hundred million revolutions around the machine, travelling a distance equivalent to the diameter of the solar system.
Comparison of conventional and novel quadrupole drift tube magnets inspired by Klaus Halbach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feinberg, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
1995-02-01
Quadrupole drift tube magnets for a heavy-ion linac provide a demanding application of magnet technology. A comparison is made of three different solutions to the problem of providing an adjustable high-field-strength quadrupole magnet in a small volume. A conventional tape-wound electromagnet quadrupole magnet (conventional) is compared with an adjustable permanent-magnet/iron quadrupole magnet (hybrid) and a laced permanent-magnet/iron/electromagnet (laced). Data is presented from magnets constructed for the SuperHILAC heavy-ion linear accelerator, and conclusions are drawn for various applications.
The first LHC insertion quadrupole
2004-01-01
An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.
High-throughput shotgun lipidomics by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ståhlman, Marcus; Ejsing, Christer S.; Tarasov, Kirill;
2009-01-01
Technological advances in mass spectrometry and meticulous method development have produced several shotgun lipidomic approaches capable of characterizing lipid species by direct analysis of total lipid extracts. Shotgun lipidomics by hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry allows...
MQXFS1 Quadrupole Design Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambrosio, Giorgio [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.
2016-04-14
This report presents the reference design of MQXFS1, the first 1.5 m prototype of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. The MQXF quadrupoles have 150 mm aperture, coil peak field of about 12 T, and use $Nb_{3}Sn$ conductor. The design is based on the LARP HQ quadrupoles, which had 120 mm aperture. MQXFS1 has 1st generation cable cross-section and magnetic design.
Consistent quadrupole-octupole collective model
Dobrowolski, A.; Mazurek, K.; Góźdź, A.
2016-11-01
Within this work we present a consistent approach to quadrupole-octupole collective vibrations coupled with the rotational motion. A realistic collective Hamiltonian with variable mass-parameter tensor and potential obtained through the macroscopic-microscopic Strutinsky-like method with particle-number-projected BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) approach in full vibrational and rotational, nine-dimensional collective space is diagonalized in the basis of projected harmonic oscillator eigensolutions. This orthogonal basis of zero-, one-, two-, and three-phonon oscillator-like functions in vibrational part, coupled with the corresponding Wigner function is, in addition, symmetrized with respect to the so-called symmetrization group, appropriate to the collective space of the model. In the present model it is D4 group acting in the body-fixed frame. This symmetrization procedure is applied in order to provide the uniqueness of the Hamiltonian eigensolutions with respect to the laboratory coordinate system. The symmetrization is obtained using the projection onto the irreducible representation technique. The model generates the quadrupole ground-state spectrum as well as the lowest negative-parity spectrum in 156Gd nucleus. The interband and intraband B (E 1 ) and B (E 2 ) reduced transition probabilities are also calculated within those bands and compared with the recent experimental results for this nucleus. Such a collective approach is helpful in searching for the fingerprints of the possible high-rank symmetries (e.g., octahedral and tetrahedral) in nuclear collective bands.
Broecker, Sebastian; Pragst, Fritz; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Herre, Sieglinde; Tsokos, Michael
2011-10-10
Time of flight mass spectrometry provides new possibilities of substance identification by determination of the molecular formula from accurate molecular mass and isotope pattern. However, the huge number of possible isomers requires additional evidence. As a suitable way for routine performance of systematic toxicological analysis, a method for combined use of liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed and applied to blood samples from 77 death cases. The blood samples were prepared by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2) and by protein precipitation with acetonitrile (1:4 (v/v)). The evaporated extracts were reconstituted in 35% acetonitril/0.1% formic acid/H(2)O and aliquots were injected for analysis by LC-QTOF-MS (Agilent 6530) and HPLC-DAD (Agilent 1200). A valve switching system enabled simultaneous operation of both separated chromatographic lines under their respective optimal conditions using the same autosampler. The ESI-QTOF-MS instrument was run in data dependent acquisition mode with switching between MS and MS/MS (cycle time 1.1s) and measuring the full mass spectra and the collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment spectra of all essential [M+H](+) ions. Libraries of accurate mass CID spectra (~2500 substances) and of DAD-UV spectra (~3300 substances) of the authors were used for substance identification. The application of this procedure is demonstrated in detail at four examples with multiple drug intake or administration. In the 77 cases altogether 198 substances were identified (87 by DAD and 195 by QTOF-MS) with a frequency between 1 and 20. In practical application, the sample preparation proved to be suitable for both techniques and for a wide variety of substances with different polarity. The automatic performance of the measurements was efficient and robust. Mutual confirmation, decrease of false positive and
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁德臣
2011-01-01
目前涉及遗传算法与支持向量机相结合的预测模型中,遗传算法基本上采用的是标准算法.但是在对全局函数的优化中,一般的遗传算法容易陷入局部最优,从而降低遗传算法收敛速度和搜索精度,进而影响财务风险预警模型的精度与速度.基于此,提出了基于混合全局优化正交遗传算法(HOGA)和支持向量机(SVM)的财务风险预警模型(HOGA-SVM),通过使用混合全局优化正交遗传算法连同支持向量机来改进支持向量机进行财务风险预警的效果.结果显示,提出的模型不仅提高了财务风险预警的准确率和速度,而且模型的两类分类错误率(尤其是第一类分类错误率)相对其他模型也有了明显下降.未来的工作可以把模型的应用扩大到多分类的财务风险预警问题中.%Financial risk premonition can exert a significant influence on a company's survival and growth. Many financial risk premonition models generally fall into two categories: the traditional statistics model and the Al model. A hybrid model that incorporates hybrid genetic algorithms and support vector machines ( SVM ) is becoming an important financial risk promotion model.The simple genetic algorithm is frequently used in the hybrid financial risk premonition model. However, convergence rate has a weak performance in the optimization of multi-objective functions. A financial risk premonition model based on the hybrid orthogonal genetic algorithm for global optimization and support vector machine (HOGA-SVM) is proposed to improve the effect of financial risk premonition.HOGA is used to optimize both subset features and SVM parameters simultaneously. The optimization process includes five steps" ( 1 ) encode subset features and SVM parameters. The chromosomes of SVM parameters are encoded as a 16-bit string that consists of 8 bits standing for C and the other 8 bits standing for. The chromosomes of subset features were further encoded as
CLIC Quadrupole Module final report
Artoos, K; Mainaud-Durand, H
2013-01-01
Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line. The CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole (MBQ) module has been defined and studied. It is meant as a test stand for stabilisation and pre-alignment with a MB Quadrupole. The main topic that has been tackled concerns the Quadrupole magnet stabilisation to 1nm at 1Hz. This is needed to obtain the desired CLIC luminosity of 2.1034 cm-2m-1. The deliverable was demonstrated by procuring a MBQ and by stabilising a powered and cooled CLIC MBQ quadrupole. In addition, the stabilisation system has to be compatible with the pre-alignment procedures. Pre-alignment movement resolution has been demonstrated to 1m. The last step is the combined test of stability with a quadrupole on a CLIC Module with the pre-alignment.
Anisotropic Orthogonal Procrustes Analysis
Bennani-Dosse, M.; Ten Berge, J.M.F.
2010-01-01
The aim of this paper is to analyze two scaling extensions of the Orthogonal Procrustes Problem (OPP) called the pre-scaling and the post-scaling approaches. We also discuss some problems related to these extensions and propose two new algorithms to find optimal solutions. These algorithms, which ar
Kim, Tae-Young; Schwartz, Jae C; Reilly, James P
2009-11-01
A hybrid linear ion trap/orthogonal time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer has been developed to observe time-dependent vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation product ions. In this apparatus, a reflectron TOF mass analyzer is orthogonally interfaced to an LTQ using rf-only octopole and dc quadrupole ion guides. Precursor ions are generated by electrospray ionization and isolated in the ion trap. Subsequently they are directed to the TOF source where photodissociation occurs and product ions are extracted for mass analysis. To detect photodissociation product ions having axially divergent trajectories, a large rectangular detector is utilized. With variation of the time between photodissociation and orthogonal extraction in the TOF source, product ions formed over a range of times after photoexcitation can be sampled. Time-dependent observation of product ions following 157 nm photodissociation of a singly charged tryptic peptide ion (NWDAGFGR) showed that prompt photofragment ions (x- and v-type ions) dominate the tandem mass spectrum up to 1 micros after the laser shot, but the intensities of low energy thermal fragment ions (y-type ions) become comparable several microseconds later. Different proton mobilization time scales were observed for arginine- and lysine-terminated tryptic peptides.
Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition
Sieber, Moritz; Paschereit, Christian Oliver
2015-01-01
The identification of coherent structures from experimental or numerical data is an essential task when conducting research in fluid dynamics. This typically involves the construction of an empirical mode base that appropriately captures the dominant flow structures. The most prominent candidates are the energy-ranked proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the frequency ranked Fourier decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). However, these methods fail when the relevant coherent structures occur at low energies or at multiple frequencies, which is often the case. To overcome the deficit of these "rigid" approaches, we propose a new method termed Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (SPOD). It is based on classical POD and it can be applied to spatially and temporally resolved data. The new method involves an additional temporal constraint that enables a clear separation of phenomena that occur at multiple frequencies and energies. SPOD allows for a continuous shifting from the energetically ...
Orthogonal factorizations of digraphs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guizhen LIU
2009-01-01
Let G be a digraph with vertex set V(G) and arc set E(G) and let g = (g-,g+) and f = (f-, f+) be pairs of positive integer-valued functions defined on V(G) such that g-(x) ≤ f-(x) and g+(x) ≤ f+(x) for each x ∈ V(G). A (g, f)-factor of G is a spanning subdigraph H of G such that g-(x) ≤ idH(x) ≤ f-(x) and g+(x) ≤ odu(x) ≤ f+(x) for each x ∈ V(H); a (g, f)-factorization of G is a partition of E(G) into arc-disjoint (g, f)-factors. Let = {F1,F2,...,Fm} and H be a factorization and a subdigraph of G, respectively, is called k-orthogonal to H if each FI, 1 ≤ I ≤ m, has exactly k arcs in common with H. In this paper it is proved that every (mg+m-1, mf-m+1)-digraph has a (g, f)-factorization k-orthogonal to any given subdigraph with km arcs if k ≤ min{g-(x),g+(x)} for any x ∈ V(G) and that every (mg, mf)-digraph has a (g, f)-factorization orthogonal to any given directed m-star if 0 ≤ g(x) ≤ f(x) for any x ∈ V(G). The results in this paper are in some sense best possible.
Generalized Orthogonal Matching Pursuit
Wang, Jian; Shim, Byonghyo
2011-01-01
As a greedy algorithm to recover sparse signals from compressed measurements, the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm has received much attention in recent years. In this paper, we introduce an extension of the orthogonal matching pursuit (gOMP) for pursuing efficiency in reconstructing sparse signals. Our approach, henceforth referred to as generalized OMP (gOMP), is literally a generalization of the OMP in the sense that multiple indices are identified per iteration. Owing to the selection of multiple "correct" indices, the gOMP algorithm is finished with much smaller number of iterations compared to the OMP. We show that the gOMP can perfectly reconstruct any $K$-sparse signals ($K > 1$), provided that the sensing matrix satisfies the RIP with $\\delta_{NK} < \\frac{\\sqrt{N}}{\\sqrt{K} + 2 \\sqrt{N}}$. We also demonstrate by empirical simulations that the gOMP has excellent recovery performance comparable to $\\ell_1$-minimization technique with fast processing speed and competitive computational com...
Quadrupole Induced Resonant Particle Transport
Gilson, Erik; Fajans, Joel
1999-11-01
We have performed experiments that explore the effects of a magnetic quadrupole field on a pure electron plasma confined in a Malmberg-Penning trap. A model that we have developed describes the shape of the plasma and shows that a certain class of resonant particles follows trajectories that take them out of the plasma. Even though the quadrupole field destroys the cylindrical symmetry of the system, our theory predicts that if the electrons are off resonance, then the lifetime of the plasma will not be greatly affected by the quadrupole field. Our preliminary experimental results show that the shape of the plasma and the plasma lifetime agree with our model. We are investigating the scaling of this behavior with various experimental parameters such as the plasma length, density, and strength of the quadrupole field. In addition to being an example of resonant particle transport, this effect may find practical applications in experiments that plan to use magnetic quadrupole neutral atom traps to confine anti-hydrogen created in double-well positron/anti-proton Malmberg-Penning traps. (ATHENA Collaboration.)
Some discrete multiple orthogonal polynomials
Arvesú, J.; Coussement, J.; van Assche, W.
2003-04-01
In this paper, we extend the theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (on a linear lattice) to polynomials satisfying orthogonality conditions with respect to r positive discrete measures. First we recall the known results of the classical orthogonal polynomials of Charlier, Meixner, Kravchuk and Hahn (T.S. Chihara, An Introduction to Orthogonal Polynomials, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1978; R. Koekoek and R.F. Swarttouw, Reports of the Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No. 98-17, Delft, 1998; A.F. Nikiforov et al., Classical Orthogonal Polynomials of a Discrete Variable, Springer, Berlin, 1991). These polynomials have a lowering and raising operator, which give rise to a Rodrigues formula, a second order difference equation, and an explicit expression from which the coefficients of the three-term recurrence relation can be obtained. Then we consider r positive discrete measures and define two types of multiple orthogonal polynomials. The continuous case (Jacobi, Laguerre, Hermite, etc.) was studied by Van Assche and Coussement (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 127 (2001) 317-347) and Aptekarev et al. (Multiple orthogonal polynomials for classical weights, manuscript). The families of multiple orthogonal polynomials (of type II) that we will study have a raising operator and hence a Rodrigues formula. This will give us an explicit formula for the polynomials. Finally, there also exists a recurrence relation of order r+1 for these multiple orthogonal polynomials of type II. We compute the coefficients of the recurrence relation explicitly when r=2.
Orthogonal NGS for High Throughput Clinical Diagnostics.
Chennagiri, Niru; White, Eric J; Frieden, Alexander; Lopez, Edgardo; Lieber, Daniel S; Nikiforov, Anastasia; Ross, Tristen; Batorsky, Rebecca; Hansen, Sherry; Lip, Va; Luquette, Lovelace J; Mauceli, Evan; Margulies, David; Milos, Patrice M; Napolitano, Nichole; Nizzari, Marcia M; Yu, Timothy; Thompson, John F
2016-04-19
Next generation sequencing is a transformative technology for discovering and diagnosing genetic disorders. However, high-throughput sequencing remains error-prone, necessitating variant confirmation in order to meet the exacting demands of clinical diagnostic sequencing. To address this, we devised an orthogonal, dual platform approach employing complementary target capture and sequencing chemistries to improve speed and accuracy of variant calls at a genomic scale. We combined DNA selection by bait-based hybridization followed by Illumina NextSeq reversible terminator sequencing with DNA selection by amplification followed by Ion Proton semiconductor sequencing. This approach yields genomic scale orthogonal confirmation of ~95% of exome variants. Overall variant sensitivity improves as each method covers thousands of coding exons missed by the other. We conclude that orthogonal NGS offers improvements in variant calling sensitivity when two platforms are used, better specificity for variants identified on both platforms, and greatly reduces the time and expense of Sanger follow-up, thus enabling physicians to act on genomic results more quickly.
Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure
Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.
1950-06-23
Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.
Accretion disks around a mass with quadrupole
Abishev, Medeu; Quevedo, Hernando; Toktarbay, Saken
2015-01-01
We consider the stability properties of test particles moving along circular orbits around a mass with quadrupole. We show that the quadrupole modifies drastically the properties of an accretion disk made of such test particles.
Accretion disks around a mass with quadrupole
Abishev, M.; Boshkayev, K.; Quevedo, H.; Toktarbay, S.
We consider the stability properties of circular orbits of test particles moving around a mass with quadrupole. We show that the quadrupole modifies drastically the properties of an accretion disk made of such test particles.
Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
De Chiffre, Leonardo
This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...
Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
De Chiffre, Leonardo
This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...
LCLS Undulator Quadrupole Fiducialization Plan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Michael; Lundahl, Eric; Reese, Ed; LeCocq, Catherine; Ruland, Robert; /SLAC
2010-11-24
This note presents the fiducialization plan for the LCLS undulator quadrupoles. The note begins by summarizing the requirements for the fiducialization. A discussion of the measurement equipment is presented, followed by the methods used to perform the fiducialization and check the results. This is followed by the detailed fiducialization plan in which each step is enumerated. Finally, the measurement results and data storage formats are presented. The LCLS is made up of 33 assemblies consisting of an undulator, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and other components mounted on a girder. The components must be mounted in such a way that the beam passes down the axis of each component. In this note, we describe how the ideal beam axis is related to tooling balls on the quadrupole. This step, called fiducialization, is necessary because the ideal beam axis is determined magnetically, whereas tangible objects must be used to locate the quadrupole. The note begins with the list of fiducialization requirements. The laboratory in which the work will be performed and the relevant equipment is then briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the methods used to perform the fiducialization and the methods used to check the results. A detailed fiducialization plan is presented in which all the steps of fiducialization are enumerated. A discussion of the resulting data files and directory structure concludes the note.
Ackerman, Margareta; Lopez-Ortiz, Alejandro
2011-01-01
Over the last fifteen years, web searching has seen tremendous improvements. Starting from a nearly random collection of matching pages in 1995, today, search engines tend to satisfy the user's informational need on well-formulated queries. One of the main remaining challenges is to satisfy the users' needs when they provide a poorly formulated query. When the pages matching the user's original keywords are judged to be unsatisfactory, query expansion techniques are used to alter the result set. These techniques find keywords that are similar to the keywords given by the user, which are then appended to the original query leading to a perturbation of the result set. However, when the original query is sufficiently ill-posed, the user's informational need is best met using entirely different keywords, and a small perturbation of the original result set is bound to fail. We propose a novel approach that is not based on the keywords of the original query. We intentionally seek out orthogonal queries, which are r...
Orthogonal apartments in Hilbert Grassmannians
Pankov, Mark
2015-01-01
Let $H$ be an infinite-dimensional complex Hilbert space and let ${\\mathcal L}(H)$ be the logic formed by all closed subspaces of $H$. For every natural $k$ we denote by ${\\mathcal G}_{k}(H)$ the Grassmannian consisting of $k$-dimensional subspaces. An orthogonal apartment of ${\\mathcal G}_{k}(H)$ is the set consisting of all $k$-dimensional subspaces spanned by subsets of a certain orthogonal base of $H$. Orthogonal apartments can be characterized as maximal sets of mutually compatible eleme...
Modelling Trends in Ordered Correspondence Analysis Using Orthogonal Polynomials.
Lombardo, Rosaria; Beh, Eric J; Kroonenberg, Pieter M
2016-06-01
The core of the paper consists of the treatment of two special decompositions for correspondence analysis of two-way ordered contingency tables: the bivariate moment decomposition and the hybrid decomposition, both using orthogonal polynomials rather than the commonly used singular vectors. To this end, we will detail and explain the basic characteristics of a particular set of orthogonal polynomials, called Emerson polynomials. It is shown that such polynomials, when used as bases for the row and/or column spaces, can enhance the interpretations via linear, quadratic and higher-order moments of the ordered categories. To aid such interpretations, we propose a new type of graphical display-the polynomial biplot.
Compact orthogonal NMR field sensor
Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL
2009-02-03
A Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor for emitting two orthogonal electro-magnetic fields in a common space. More particularly, a replacement inductor for existing NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) sensors to allow for NMR imaging. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor has a conductive coil and a central conductor electrically connected in series. The central conductor is at least partially surrounded by the coil. The coil and central conductor are electrically or electro-magnetically connected to a device having a means for producing or inducing a current through the coil and central conductor. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor can be used in NMR imaging applications to determine the position and the associated NMR spectrum of a sample within the electro-magnetic field of the central conductor.
"Orthogonality" in Learning and Assessment
Leslie, David
2014-01-01
This chapter proposes a simple framework, "orthogonality," to help clarify what stakeholders think about learning in college, how we assess outcomes, and how clear assessment methods might help increase confidence in returns on investment.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱育菁; 刘波; 郑梅霞; 陈峥
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT:Objective To analyze and test on active substance fromBacillus niacini FJAT-14202. MethodsExtracellular metabolites ofBacillus niacini FJAT-14202 were analyzed by liquid chromatography- hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Molecular feature extraction(MFE) and database retrieval were applied by Agilent Mass Hunter software, for the information overall metabolites.Results Totally 811 compounds were detected, and 165 of them were identified by library searching of Metlin database. The match score of phenyllactic acid was 96.52 and itsrelative content was 5.31%. The retention time of phenyllactic acid was about 2.1057 min, and its accurate mass was 166.0552.Conclusion The results provide the theory basis for development and utilization of phenyllactic acid fromBacillus niacini.%目的：对烟酸芽胞杆菌Bacillus niaciniFJAT-14202来源的苯乳酸成分进行分析与检测。方法采用液相色谱/四级杆飞行时间质谱(liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry)分析烟酸芽胞杆菌FJAT-14202发酵液中胞外代谢物的成分。利用 MassHunter软件,对原始数据进行分子特征提取,通过Metlin代谢物质谱数据库检索比对获得代谢物的信息。结果在烟酸芽胞杆菌FJAT-14202发酵液中检测到811种代谢物,通过Metlin谱库搜索获得初步鉴定的有165种。其中,发现了具有生物活性的物质苯乳酸,其匹配得分达到96.52,占发酵液总代谢物相对含量的5.31%,保留时间分别为2.1057 min,精确质量数为166.0552。结论苯乳酸的发现为烟酸芽胞杆菌的开发与利用提供理论依据。
Cool Down Analysis of a Cryocooler Based Quadrupole Magnet Cryostat
Choudhury, A.; Kar, S.; Chacko, J.; Kumar, M.; Babu, S.; Sahu, S.; Kumar, R.; Antony, J.; Datta, T. S.
A superconducting quadrupole doublet magnet with cold superferric iron cover for the Hybrid Recoil Mass Analyzer (HYRA) beam line has been commissioned. The total cold mass of the helium vessel with iron yoke and pole is 2 ton. A set of two Sumitomo cryocoolers take care of various heat loads to the cryostat. The first successful cool down of the cryostat has been completed recently, magnets have been powered and magnetic field profiling has been done inside theroom temperature beam tube. This paper will highlight the cryostat details along with the cool down and operational test results obtained from the first cool down.
The Orthogonalization of Magnetic Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Merayo, José M.G.; Primdahl, Fritz; Brauer, Peter
2001-01-01
The construction of an orthogonal reference frame based on a set of three skew axes for a magnetic coil system and a magnetic sensor is discussed and presented. For a skew system, it is possible to define the coil axes and the magnetic axes as a dual set of axes that are linked to the system...... for the magnetic sensors compact spherical coil (CSC) (Orsted satellite) and compact detector coil (CDC) (Astrid-2 satellite) are analyzed and identified. In principle, only the transformation matrix that orthogonalizes the sensor is needed, but it is customary to express this matrix as a function of some non....... Therefore, one orthogonal reference frame can be identified from the coil axes and another from the magnetic axes. Although this representation is not unique, it is the most intuitive visual representation as it is shown. The parametrizations based on the operation of the fluxgate transducer...
MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambrosio, G.; et al.
2017-07-16
This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.
Orthogonal Polynomials and their Applications
Dehesa, Jesús; Marcellan, Francisco; Francia, José; Vinuesa, Jaime
1988-01-01
The Segovia meeting set out to stimulate an intensive exchange of ideas between experts in the area of orthogonal polynomials and its applications, to present recent research results and to reinforce the scientific and human relations among the increasingly international community working in orthogonal polynomials. This volume contains original research papers as well as survey papers about fundamental questions in the field (Nevai, Rakhmanov & López) and its relationship with other fields such as group theory (Koornwinder), Padé approximation (Brezinski), differential equations (Krall, Littlejohn) and numerical methods (Rivlin).
Gentili, Alessandra; Cafolla, Arturo; Gasperi, Tecla; Bellante, Simona; Caretti, Fulvia; Curini, Roberta; Fernández, Virginia Pérez
2014-04-18
Unlike the other fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin K circulates in the human bloodstream at very low levels because of a low intake in the diet. Mammals have developed an efficient recycling system, known as vitamin K-epoxide cycle, which involve quinone, hydroquinone and epoxide forms of the vitamin. Phylloquinone (K(1)) is the main homologue, while menaquinone-4 (MK-4) is both a member of the vitamin K(2) family and metabolite of K(1) in extra-hepatic tissues. Notwithstanding the recent advances, many aspects of the complex vitamin K physiology still remain to be investigated. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop more reliable analytical methods for determining the vitamin K and its metabolites in biological fluids and tissues. Nevertheless, relatively low concentrations, unavailability of some authentic standards and occurrence of interfering lipids make this a challenging task. The method proposed in the present paper can directly and accurately estimate K(1), K(1) 2,3-epoxide (K(1)O), and MK-4 in human serum and plasma at concentrations in the ng/L-μg/L range, using labelled internal standards and a quadrupole linear ion trap instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. High sensitivity was achieved by removing signal "endogenous suppressors" and making the composition of the non-aqueous mobile phase suitable to support the positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the analytes. An excellent selectivity resulted from the combination of some factors: the MRM acquisition, the adoption of an identification point system, an extraction optimized to remove most of the lipids and a tandem-C18 column-system necessary to separate isobaric interferences from analytes. The method was validated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and its accuracy was assessed by analysing 9 samples from the Vitamin K External Quality Assessment Scheme (KEQAS). Its feasibility in evaluating vitamin K status in human serum was
The radio-frequency quadrupole
Vretenar, Maurizio
2013-01-01
Radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerators appeared on the accelerator scene in the late 1970s and have since revolutionized the domain of low-energy proton and ion acceleration. The RFQ makes the reliable production of unprecedented ion beam intensities possible within a compact radio-frequency (RF) resonator which concentrates the three main functions of the low-energy linac section: focusing, bunching and accelerating. Its sophisticated electrode structure and strict beam dynamics and RF requirements, however, impose severe constraints on the mechanical and RF layout, making the construction of RFQs particularly challenging. This lecture will introduce the main beam optics, RF and mechanical features of a RFQ emphasizing how these three aspects are interrelated and how they contribute to the final performance of the RFQ.
Fourier series and orthogonal functions
Davis, Harry F
1963-01-01
This incisive text deftly combines both theory and practical example to introduce and explore Fourier series and orthogonal functions and applications of the Fourier method to the solution of boundary-value problems. Directed to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics as well as in physics and engineering, the book requires no prior knowledge of partial differential equations or advanced vector analysis. Students familiar with partial derivatives, multiple integrals, vectors, and elementary differential equations will find the text both accessible and challenging.
VARIOUS NOTIONS OF ORTHOGONALITY IN NORMED SPACES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
N.B. OKELO; J.O. AGURE; P.O. OLECHE
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present various notions and aspects of orthogonality in normed spaces. Characterizations and generalizations of orthogonality are also consid-ered. Results on orthogonality of the range and the kernel of elementary operators and the operators implementing them also are given.
Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akın, Hasan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Zirve University, Gaziantep, 27260 (Turkey); Mukhamedov, Farrukh [Department of Computational & Theoretical Sciences Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia P.O. Box, 141, 25710, Kuantan Pahang (Malaysia)
2015-09-18
In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.
Orthogonality Relations for Multivariate Krawtchouk Polynomials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroshi Mizukawa
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The orthogonality relations of multivariate Krawtchouk polynomials are discussed. In case of two variables, the necessary and sufficient conditions of orthogonality is given by Grünbaum and Rahman in [SIGMA 6 (2010, 090, 12 pages]. In this study, a simple proof of the necessary and sufficient condition of orthogonality is given for a general case.
Orthogonal Multiwavelet Frames in L2Rd
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Zhanwei
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We characterize the orthogonal frames and orthogonal multiwavelet frames in L2Rd with matrix dilations of the form (Df(x=detAf(Ax, where A is an arbitrary expanding d×d matrix with integer coefficients. Firstly, through two arbitrarily multiwavelet frames, we give a simple construction of a pair of orthogonal multiwavelet frames. Then, by using the unitary extension principle, we present an algorithm for the construction of arbitrarily many orthogonal multiwavelet tight frames. Finally, we give a general construction algorithm for orthogonal multiwavelet tight frames from a scaling function.
AA, shims and washers on quadrupole ends
CERN PhotoLab
1981-01-01
Due to the fact that much of the field of the quadrupoles was outside the iron (in particular with the wide quadrupoles) and that thus the fields of quadrupoles and bending magnets interacted, the lattice properties of the AA could not be predicted with the required accuracy. After a first running period in 1980, during which detailed measurements were made with proton test beams, corrections to the quadrupoles were made in 1981, in the form of laminated shims at the ends of the poles, and with steel washers. With the latter ones, further refinements were made in an iterative procedure with measurements on the circulating beam. This eventually resulted, amongst other things, in a very low chromaticity, with the Q-values being constant to within +- 0.001 over the total momentum range of 6 %. Here we see the shims and washers on a narrow qudrupole (QFN, QDN). See also 8103203, 8103204, 8103205, 8103206.
ISR Superconducting Quadrupole in its cryostat
1978-01-01
The picture shows a superconducting quadrupole for the ISR high luminosity (low beta) insertion in its cryostat during final tests before installation in the ISR.The person is W.Burgess. See also photo 7702690X.
Zuo, Lihua; Sun, Zhi; Hu, Yurong; Sun, Ya; Xue, Wenhua; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Jun; Bao, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Zhenfeng; Suo, Guanglu; Zhang, Xiaojian
2017-04-15
Xuebijing injection (XBJ) is a traditional Chinese herbal prescription widely used in the treatment of sepsis. Extensive chemical studies revealed that XBJ injection contains amino acids, phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, terpeneglycosides and phthalides. In this study, the applicability of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution hybrid quadruple-orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS) for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of 30 bioactive constituents in XueBiJing injection (XBJ) was investigated. The mass spectrometer was operated in full MS scan mode. The use of 70,000FWHM mass resolution and narrow mass windows (5ppm) could effectively improve the selectivity of the method. Separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC(®) HSS C18 column (2.1mm×100mm, 1.8μm) with a gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water (containing 10mM ammonium acetate) at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. Satisfactory linearity was achieved within wide linear range and all correlation coefficients (r) of analytes were more than 0.9996. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.1180-27.82ng/mL for different analytes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of inter- and intra-day precisions were less than 3.0% and the recoveries of the assay were in the range of 98.5%-101.5%. The validated method was successfully applied for simultaneous determination of 30 bioactive compounds in XueBiJing injection from 10 batches samples by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS within 10min. Moreover, the results were evaluated principal component analysis and two compounds might be the most important chemical markers for chemical quality control of XBJ injection. The novel Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry has been proved to be a very promising and powerful tool for routine screening of bioactive compounds in traditional Chinese medicine injection, ensuring drug safety and public health.
AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand
CERN PhotoLab
1981-01-01
Please look up 8101024 first. Shims and washers on the wide quadrupoles (QFW, QDW; located in the lattice where dispersion was large) served mostly for corrections of those lattice parameters which were a function of momentum. After mounting shims and washers, the quadrupoles were measured to determine their magnetic centre and to catalogue the effect of washer constellations. Raymond Brown is busy measuring a wide quad.
Uniruledness of orthogonal modular varieties
Gritsenko, Valery
2012-01-01
A strongly reflective modular form with respect to an orthogonal group of signature (2,n) determines a Lorentzian Kac--Moody algebra. We find a new geometric application of such modular forms: we prove that if the weight is larger than n then the corresponding modular variety is uniruled. We also construct new reflective modular forms and thus provide new examples of uniruled moduli spaces of lattice polarised K3 surfaces. Finally we prove that the moduli space of Kummer surfaces associated to (1,21)-polarised abelian surfaces is uniruled.
Orthogonal polynomials and random matrices
Deift, Percy
2000-01-01
This volume expands on a set of lectures held at the Courant Institute on Riemann-Hilbert problems, orthogonal polynomials, and random matrix theory. The goal of the course was to prove universality for a variety of statistical quantities arising in the theory of random matrix models. The central question was the following: Why do very general ensembles of random n {\\times} n matrices exhibit universal behavior as n {\\rightarrow} {\\infty}? The main ingredient in the proof is the steepest descent method for oscillatory Riemann-Hilbert problems.
Towards orthogonal Haskell data serialisation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berthold, Jost
2010-01-01
This paper investigates a novel approach to serialisation of Haskell data structures with a high degree of flexibility, based on runtime support for parallel Haskell on distributed memory platforms. This serialisation has highly desirable and so-far unrivalled properties: it is truly orthogonal...... to evaluation and does not require any type class mechanisms. Especially, (almost) any kind of value can be serialised, including functions and IO actions. We outline the runtime support on which our serialisation is based, and present different versions of the wrapper code in Haskell which can ensure type...
SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rainer Meinke
2003-10-01
The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of low-cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet R&D construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed
CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole Eigen Mode computation
Deleglise, Guillaume
2010-01-01
In this report, we summarise the work done on the CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole. There are about 4000 MB quadrupoles of 4 types with lengths ranging from 420mm to 1900mm. In order to obtain the desired CLIC luminosity, the MB quadrupoles have to be stable to 1nm above 1Hz. The region of interest for the study is between 0.5Hz and about 100Hz. In order to achieve the specifications, the magnet should not have any resonance peaks in this region of Interest. In addition, the magnet on its support shouldn’t have any resonance peak in the same frequency range. The first step is to determine if the designed magnet has its first resonance peak above 100Hz. We are studying the longest quadrupole more susceptible to internal resonances. In a second step, the magnet on ideal supporting points has been evaluated. The current magnet design can be seen on following figure. One can see that it is composed of 4 quadrants assembled so as to have a quadrupole magnetic field. As a last step, the mechanical model has been used to...
Focusing properties of discrete RF quadrupoles
Li, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Jun
2017-08-01
The particle motion equation for a Radio Frequency (RF) quadrupole is derived. The motion equation shows that the general transform matrix of a RF quadrupole with length less than or equal to 0.5βλ (β is the relativistic velocity of particles and λ is wavelength of radio frequency electromagnetic field) can describe the particle motion in an arbitrarily long RF quadrupole. By iterative integration, the general transform matrix of a discrete RF quadrupole is derived from the motion equation. The transform matrix is in form of a power series of focusing parameter B. It shows that for length less than βλ, the series up to the 2nd order of B agrees well with the direct integration results for B up to 30, while for length less than 0.5βλ, the series up to 1st order is already a good approximation of the real solution for B less than 30. The formula of the transform matrix can be integrated into linac or beam line design code to deal with the focusing of discrete RF quadrupoles. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375122, 11511140277) and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA03020705)
Iris Recognition using Orthogonal Transforms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.Mani Roja
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Iris Recognition is a biometric recognition technique in which features of the iris are used to uniquely identify individuals. Iris recognition has over the years emerged as one of the most accuratebiometric techniques as opposed to other biometric techniques like face, signature and fingerprint. First, the iris image is pre processed using canny edge detector using a Gaussian filter. The iris edge and the pupil edge are extracted using image morphological operation, image opening. After normalization of red, green and blue components of the colour iris using Euclidean distance method, they are combined to form the localized colour iris. For feature vectors extraction, orthogonal transforms like discrete cosine transform, discrete sine transform and discrete Fourier transform have been considered. The proposed iris recognition system is very time efficient and it takes less than 1 second to grant authentication.
Orthogonal coding of object location.
Knutsen, Per Magne; Ahissar, Ehud
2009-02-01
It has been argued whether internal representations are encoded using a universal ('the neural code') or multiple codes. Here, we review a series of experiments that demonstrate that tactile encoding of object location via whisking employs an orthogonal, triple-code scheme. Rats, and other rodents, actively move the whiskers back and forth to localize and identify objects. Neural recordings from primary sensory afferents, along with behavioral observations, demonstrate that vertical coordinates of contacted objects are encoded by the identity of activated afferents, horizontal coordinates by the timing of activation and radial coordinates by the intensity of activation. Because these codes are mutually independent, the three-dimensional location of an object could, in principle, be encoded by individual afferents during single whisker-object contacts. One advantage of such a same-neuron-different-codes scheme over the traditionally assumed same-code-different-neurons scheme is a reduction of code ambiguity that, in turn, simplifies decoding circuits.
Moseley, M Arthur; Hughes, Christopher J; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Soderblom, Erik J; Lennon, Sarah; Perkins, Simon R; Thompson, J Will; Steinbach, William J; Geromanos, Scott J; Wildgoose, Jason; Langridge, James I; Richardson, Keith; Vissers, Johannes P C
2017-09-13
A novel data independent acquisition (DIA) method incorporating a scanning quadrupole in front of a collision cell and orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass analyzer is described. The method has been characterized for the qualitative and quantitative label-free proteomic analysis of typical complex biological samples. The principle of the scanning quadrupole DIA method is discussed and analytical instrument characteristics, such as the quadrupole transmission width, scan/integration time, and chromatographic separation, have been optimized in relation to sample complexity for a number of different model proteomes of varying complexity and dynamic range including human plasma, cell lines, and bacteria. In addition, the technological merits over existing DIA approaches are described and contrasted. The qualitative and semi-quantitative performance of the method is illustrated for the analysis of relatively simple protein digest mixtures and a well-characterised human cell line sample using untargeted and targeted search strategies. Finally, the results from a human cell line were compared against publically available data that used similar chromatographic conditions, but were acquired with DDA technology and alternative mass analyzer systems. Qualitative comparison showed excellent concordance of results with over 90% overlap of the detected proteins.
Resonance methods in quadrupole ion traps
Snyder, Dalton T.; Peng, Wen-Ping; Cooks, R. Graham
2017-01-01
The quadrupole ion trap is widely used in the chemical physics community for making measurements on dynamical systems, both intramolecular (e.g. ion fragmentation reactions) and intermolecular (e.g. ion/molecule reactions). In this review, we discuss linear and nonlinear resonances in quadrupole ion traps, an understanding of which is critical for operation of these devices and interpretation of the data which they provide. The effect of quadrupole field nonlinearity is addressed, with important implications for promoting fragmentation and achieving unique methods of mass scanning. Methods that depend on ion resonances (i.e. matching an external perturbation with an ion's induced frequency of motion) are discussed, including ion isolation, ion activation, and ion ejection.
Analytical transfer matrix of a quadrupole fringe
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENG Yue-Mei; XU Gang
2011-01-01
The analytical linear transfer matrices for different quadrupole fringes including quadratic,high order power and exponential models are deduced in this paper.As an example,the transfer matrices of the quadrupole BEPC Ⅱ 105Q are computed for the above three models and compared with hard edge and sliceby-slice models in cases of near 60° and 90° FODO cells.These models' results are much better than the hard edge model's,and can meet the requirement of accurate calculation.
Tunable high-gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles
Shepherd, B J A; Marks, N; Collomb, N A; Stokes, D G; Modena, M; Struik, M; Bartalesi, A
2014-01-01
A novel type of highly tunable permanent magnet (PM) based quadrupole has been designed by the ZEPTO collaboration. A prototype of the design (ZEPTO-Q1), intended to match the specification for the CLIC Drive Beam Decelerator, was built and magnetically measured at Daresbury Laboratory and CERN. The prototype utilises two pairs of PMs which move in opposite directions along a single vertical axis to produce a quadrupole gradient variable between 15 and 60 T/m. The prototype meets CLIC's challenging specification in terms of the strength and tunability of the magnet.
Non-orthogonal subband/transform coder
Glover, Daniel R. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
The present invention is directed to a simplified digital subband coder/decoder. In the present invention a signal is fed into a coder. The coder uses a non-orthogonal algorithm that is simply implemented in the coder hardware. The simple non-orthogonal design is then used in the implementation of the decoder to decode the signal.
Orthogonality preserving property, Wigner equation, and stability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chmieliński Jacek
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We deal with the stability of the orthogonality preserving property in the class of mappings phase-equivalent to linear or conjugate-linear ones. We give a characterization of approximately orthogonality preserving mappings in this class and we show some connections between the considered stability and the stability of the Wigner equation.
Cosmology with orthogonal nilpotent superfields
Ferrara, Sergio; Kallosh, Renata; Thaler, Jesse
2016-02-01
We study the application of a supersymmetric model with two constrained supermultiplets to inflationary cosmology. The first superfield S is a stabilizer chiral superfield satisfying a nilpotency condition of degree 2, S2=0 . The second superfield Φ is the inflaton chiral superfield, which can be combined into a real superfield B ≡1/2 i (Φ -Φ ¯ ) . The real superfield B is orthogonal to S , S B =0 , and satisfies a nilpotency condition of degree 3, B3=0 . We show that these constraints remove from the spectrum the complex scalar sgoldstino, the real scalar inflaton partner (i.e. the "sinflaton"), and the fermionic inflatino. The corresponding supergravity model with de Sitter vacua describes a graviton, a massive gravitino, and one real scalar inflaton, with both the goldstino and inflatino being absent in unitary gauge. We also discuss relaxed superfield constraints where S2=0 and S Φ ¯ is chiral, which removes the sgoldstino and inflatino, but leaves the sinflaton in the spectrum. The cosmological model building in both of these inflatino-less models offers some advantages over existing constructions.
Orthogonal Matching Pursuit with Replacement
Jain, Prateek; Dhillon, Inderjit S
2011-01-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of compressed sensing where the goal is to recover almost all the sparse vectors using a small number of fixed linear measurements. For this problem, we propose a novel partial hard-thresholding operator that leads to a general family of iterative algorithms. While one extreme of the family yields well known hard thresholding algorithms like ITI (Iterative Thresholding with Inversion) and HTP (Hard Thresholding Pursuit), the other end of the spectrum leads to a novel algorithm that we call Orthogonal Matching Pursuit with Replacement (OMPR). OMPR, like the classic greedy algorithm OMP, adds exactly one coordinate to the support at each iteration, based on the correlation with the current residual. However, unlike OMP, OMPR also removes one coordinate from the support. This simple change allows us to prove that OMPR has the best known guarantees for sparse recovery in terms of the Restricted Isometry Property (a condition on the measurement matrix). In contrast, OMP is kn...
AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand
CERN PhotoLab
1981-01-01
Please look up 8101024 and 8103203 first. Wide quadrupole (QFW, QDW) with end-shims and shimming washers on the measurement stand. With the measurement coil one measured the harmonics of the magnetic field, determined the magnetic centre, and catalogued the effect of washer constellations.
General quadrupole nuclear shapes. An algebraic perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leviatan, A. (Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), NM (USA). Theoretical Div.); Shao Bin (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). Sloane Physics Lab.)
1990-07-05
Spherical, axial and non-axial quadrupole shapes are investigated within the algebraic interacting boson model. For each shape the hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic and collective parts, normal modes are identified and intrinsic states are constructed. Special emphasis is paid to new features (e.g. rigid triaxiality and coexisting deformed shapes) that emerge in the presence of three-body interactions. (orig.).
All systems go for LHC quadrupoles
2003-01-01
The series fabrication of the Main Quadrupole cold masses for the LHC has begun with the delivery of the first unit on February 12th. The superconducting dipole magnets required to bend the proton beams around the LHC are often in the news. Less famous, perhaps, but equally important are the 360 main quadrupole (MQ) magnets, which will perform the principal focusing around the 27 km ring. CERN and CEA-Saclay began collaborating on the development and prototyping of these magnets in 1989. This resulted in five highly successful quadrupole units - also known as short straight sections - one of which was integrated for testing in String 1, and two others of the final design in String 2. Once the tests had confirmed the validity of the design and realization, the fabrication of the 360 cold masses had to be transferred to industry. After highly competitive tendering, the German firm ACCEL Instruments was entrusted both with the construction of the quadrupole magnets themselves, and with their assembly into the co...
Closed orbit response to quadrupole strength variation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank
2004-01-20
We derive two formulae relating the variation in closed orbit in a storage ring to variations in quadrupole strength, neglecting nonlinear and dispersive effects. These formulae correct results previously reported [1,2,3]. We compare the results of the formulae applied to the ATF with simulations using MAD, and consider their application to beam-based alignment.
Model of an LHC superconducting quadrupole magnet
Laurent Guiraud
2000-01-01
Model of a superconducting quadrupole magnet for the LHC project. These magnets are used to focus the beam by squeezing it into a smaller cross-section, a similar effect to a lens focusing light. However, each magnet only focuses the beam in one direction so alternating magnet arrangements are required to produce a fully focused beam.
Which are more accurate, orthogonal or non-orthogonal sonic anemometers?
Massman, W. J.; Frank, J. M.; Swiatek, E.; Zimmerman, H.; Ewers, B. E.
2013-12-01
Sonic anemometry is fundamental to all eddy-covariance studies of surface energy, ecosystem carbon, and water balance. Recent studies have shown the potential underestimation of the vertical wind fluctuations among the most commonly encountered anemometer models, but thus far testing has been focused on non-orthogonal sonic anemometer designs. We hypothesize that these underestimates are systematic to the non-orthogonal design and not attributable to a single manufacturer. If so, orthogonal measurements of vertical wind should be more accurate. We tested this by conducting an experiment to measure the relative consistency between vertical and horizontal wind measurements for three sonic anemometer designs: orthogonal, non-orthogonal, and quasi-orthogonal. Both the orthogonal and non-orthogonal models were from a single manufacturer (K-probe and A-probe, Applied Technologies, Inc.) while the quasi-orthogonal design featured non-orthogonal u- and v-axes but with an orthogonal w-axis (CSAT3V, Campbell Scientific, Inc.). We conducted a 12-week experiment, testing four sonic anemometers relative to a control (CSAT3, Campbell Scientific, Inc.), each week randomly selecting at least one of each model from a pool of twelve instruments (three of each model) and randomly locating the test anemometers around the control. Half-way through the week the test anemometers were re-mounted in a horizontal position. Work was done at the GLEES AmeriFlux site (southeastern Wyoming, USA) which experiences large, uni-directional wind and turbulence. Results are discussed.
Laser-induced quadrupole-quadrupole collisional energy transfer in Xe-Kr
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Zhen-Zhong; Chen De-Ying; Fan Rong-Wei; Xia Yuan-Qin
2011-01-01
By considering the relative velocity distribution function and multipole expansion interaction Hamiltonian, a three-state model for calculating the cross section of laser-induced quadrupole-quadrupole collisional energy transfer is presented. Calculated results in Xe-Kr system show that in the present system, the laser-induced collision process occurs for ～4 ps, which is much shorter than the dipole-dipole laser-induced collisional energy transfer (LICET) process.The spectrum of laser-induced quadrupole-quadrupole collisional energy transfer in Xe-Kr system has wider tunable range in an order of magnitude than the dipole-dipole LICET spectra. The peak cross section decreases and moves to the quasi-static wing with increasing temperature and the full width at half peak of the profile becomes larger as the system temperature increases.
Chan, Eric C Y; New, Lee Sun; Yap, Chun Wei; Goh, Lin Tang
2009-02-01
The use of hybrid quadrupole ion mobility spectrometry time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/IMS/TOFMS) in the metabolite profiling of leflunomide (LEF) and acetaminophen (APAP) is presented. The IMS drift times (T(d)) of the drugs and their metabolites were determined in the IMS/TOFMS experiments and correlated with their exact monoisotopic masses and other in silico generated structural properties, such as connolly molecular area (CMA), connolly solvent-excluded volume (CSEV), principal moments of inertia along the X, Y and Z Cartesian coordinates (MI-X, MI-Y and MI-Z), inverse mobility and collision cross-section (CCS). The correlation of T(d) with these parameters is presented and discussed. IMS/TOF tandem mass spectrometry experiments (MS(2) and MS(3)) were successfully performed on the N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine glutathione (NAPQI-GSH) adduct derived from the in vitro microsomal metabolism of APAP. As comparison, similar experiments were also performed using hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QTRAPMS) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The abilities to resolve the product ions of the metabolite within the drift tube and fragment the ion mobility resolved product ions in the transfer travelling wave-enabled stacked ring ion guide (TWIG) demonstrated the potential applicability of the Q/IMS/TOFMS technique in pharmaceutical metabolite profiling.
Orthogonal schemes for bidirectional associative memories.
Haryono, H; Sadananda, R; Phien, H N
1997-01-01
Two issues are addressed in this paper. Firstly, it investigates some important properties of bidirectional associative memories (BAM) and proposes an improved capacity estimate. Those properties are the encoding form of the input pattern pairs as sell as their decoding, the orthogonality of the pattern pairs, the similarity of associated patterns, and the density of the pattern pairs. Secondly, it proposes an implementation approach to improve the storage capacity. The approach embraces three proposed methods, i.e., the bipolar-orthogonal augmentation, the set partition, and the combined method. Along with those methods is the construction of the set of bipolar orthogonal patterns.
Modifying Orthogonal Drawings for Label Placement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantinos G. Kakoulis
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate how one can modify an orthogonal graph drawing to accommodate the placement of overlap-free labels with the minimum cost (i.e., minimum increase of the area and preservation of the quality of the drawing. We investigate computational complexity issues of variations of that problem, and we present polynomial time algorithms that find the minimum increase of space in one direction, needed to resolve overlaps, while preserving the orthogonal representation of the orthogonal drawing when objects have a predefined partial order.
On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd [Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Faculty of Science International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 141, 25710 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia (Malaysia)
2015-05-15
A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.
CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW CLASS OF ORTHOGONAL ARRAYS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shanqi PANG
2007-01-01
By using the generalized Hadamard product, difference matrix and projection matrices, we present a class of orthogonal projection matrices and related orthogonal arrays of strength two. A new class of orthogonal arrays are constructed.
Production of rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate in an optically-plugged magnetic quadrupole trap
Zhang, Dong-Fang; Kong, Ling-Ran; Li, Kai; Jiang, Kai-Jun
2016-01-01
We have experimentally produced rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate in an optically-plugged magnetic quadrupole (OPQ) trap. A far blue-detuned focused laser beam with a wavelength of 532 nm is plugged in the center of the magnetic quadrupole trap to increase the number of trapped atoms and suppress the heating. A radio frequency (RF) evaporative cooling in the magneto-optical hybrid trap is applied to decrease the atom temperature into degeneracy. The atom number of the condensate is $1.2(0.4)\\times10^5$ and the temperature is below 100 nK. We have also studied characteristic behaviors of the condensate, such as phase space density (PSD), condensate fraction and anisotropic expansion.
Orthogonal photoswitching in a multifunctional molecular system
Lerch, Michael M.; Hansen, Mickel J.; Velema, Willem A.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L.
2016-01-01
The wavelength-selective, reversible photocontrol over various molecular processes in parallel remains an unsolved challenge. Overlapping ultraviolet-visible spectra of frequently employed photoswitches have prevented the development of orthogonally responsive systems, analogous to those that rely o
Orthogonal two-direction multiscaling functions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIE Changzhen; YANG Shouzhi
2006-01-01
The concept of a two-direction multiscaling functions is introduced.We investigate the existence of solutions of the two-direction matrix refinable equationΦ(x)=Σk∈ZP+kΦ(2x-k) +Σk∈ZP-kΦ&(k- 2x),where r×r matrices {P+k} and {P-k} are called the positive-direction and negative-direction masks,respectively.Necessary and sufficient conditions that the above two-direction matrix refinable equation has a compactly supported distributional solution are established.The definition of orthogonal two-direction multiscaling function is presented,and the orthogonality criteria for two-direction multiscaling function is established.An algorithm for constructing a class of two-direction multiscaling functions is obtained.In addition,the relation of both orthogonal two-direction multiscaling function and orthogonal multiscaling function is discussed.Finally,construction examples are given.
Steinitz theorems for simple orthogonal polyhedra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Eppstein
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We define a simple orthogonal polyhedron to be a three-dimensional polyhedron with the topology of a sphere in which three mutually-perpendicular edges meet at each vertex.By analogy to Steinitz's theorem characterizing the graphs of convex polyhedra, we find graph-theoretic characterizations of three classes of simple orthogonal polyhedra: corner polyhedra, which can be drawn by isometric projection in the plane with only one hidden vertex, xyz polyhedra, in which each axis-parallel line through a vertex contains exactly one other vertex, and arbitrary simple orthogonal polyhedra. In particular, the graphs of xyz polyhedra are exactly the bipartite cubic polyhedral graphs, and every bipartite cubic polyhedral graph with a 4-connected dual graph is the graph of a corner polyhedron. Based on our characterizations we find efficient algorithms for constructing orthogonal polyhedra from their graphs.
Characterisation of orthogonal perfect fluid cosmological spacetimes
Dadhich, N K; Govinder, K S; Leach, P G L; Dadhich, Naresh; Patel, L K; Govinder, K S; Leach, P G L
1994-01-01
We consider the general orthogonal metric separable in space and time variables in comoving coordinates. We then characterise perfect fluid models admitted by such a metric. It turns out that the homogeneous models can only be either FLRW or Bianchi I while the inhomogeneous ones can only admit G_2 (two mutually as well as hypersurface orthogonal spacelike Killing vectors) isometry. The latter can possess singularities of various kinds or none. The non-singular family is however unique and cylindrically symmetric.
LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambrosio,G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Chlachidize, G.; Dietderich, D.; Feher, S.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kerby, J.; Lamm, M.; Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitsky, I.; Sabbi, G.L.; Schmalzle, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Wanderer, P.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.V.
2007-08-27
A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb{sub 3}Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure.
Exterior and interior metrics with quadrupole moment
Quevedo, Hernando
2010-01-01
We present the Ernst potential and the line element of an exact solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations that contains as arbitrary parameters the total mass, the angular momentum, and the quadrupole moment of a rotating mass distribution. We show that in the limiting case of slowly rotating and slightly deformed configuration, there exists a coordinate transformation that relates the exact solution with the approximate Hartle solution. It is shown that this approximate solution can be smoothly matched with an interior perfect fluid solution with physically reasonable properties. This opens the possibility of considering the quadrupole moment as an additional physical degree of freedom that could be used to search for a realistic exact solution, representing both the interior and exterior gravitational field generated by a self-gravitating axisymmetric distribution of mass of perfect fluid in stationary rotation.
Splice testing for LHC quadrupole magnets
Barzi, E; Fehér, S; Kashikhin, V V; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Orris, D; Ray, G; Tartaglia, M; Zlobin, A V
2003-01-01
Electrical splices between NbTi Rutherford type cables need to be made for the LHC IR inner triplet quadrupoles. Splices between magnets as well as internal to the magnets are necessary. Various splice configurations, solders, and fluxes have been considered. Testing of these splices at cryogenic temperatures and at various currents has been completed. The results were satisfactory; Fermilab is capable of making excellent low resistance (<1n Omega ) solder joints for the LHC project. (4 refs).
Electrostatic quadrupole DC accelerators for BNCT applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwan, J.W.; Anderson, O.A.; Reginato, L.L.; Vella, M.C.; Yu, S.S.
1994-04-01
A dc electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator is capable of producing a 2.5 MeV, 100 mA proton beam for the purpose of generating neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The ESQ accelerator is better than the conventional aperture column in high beam current application due to the presence of stronger transverse field for beam focusing and for suppressing secondary electrons. The major challenge in this type of accelerator is in developing the proper power supply system.
Quadrupole transitions revealed by Borrmann spectroscopy.
Pettifer, Robert F; Collins, Stephen P; Laundy, David
2008-07-10
The Borrmann effect-a dramatic increase in transparency to X-ray beams-is observed when X-rays satisfying Bragg's law diffract through a perfect crystal. The minimization of absorption seen in the Borrmann effect has been explained by noting that the electric field of the X-ray beam approaches zero amplitude at the crystal planes, thus avoiding the atoms. Here we show experimentally that under conditions of absorption suppression, the weaker electric quadrupole absorption transitions are effectively enhanced to such a degree that they can dominate the absorption spectrum. This effect can be exploited as an atomic spectroscopy technique; we show that quadrupole transitions give rise to additional structure at the L(1), L(2) and L(3) absorption edges of gadolinium in gadolinium gallium garnet, which mark the onset of excitations from 2s, 2p(1/2) and 2p(3/2) atomic core levels, respectively. Although the Borrmann effect served to underpin the development of the theory of X-ray diffraction, this is potentially the most important experimental application of the phenomenon since its first observation seven decades ago. Identifying quadrupole features in X-ray absorption spectroscopy is central to the interpretation of 'pre-edge' spectra, which are often taken to be indicators of local symmetry, valence and atomic environment. Quadrupolar absorption isolates states of different symmetries to that of the dominant dipole spectrum, and typically reveals orbitals that dominate the electronic ground-state properties of lanthanides and 3d transition metals, including magnetism. Results from our Borrmann spectroscopy technique feed into contemporary discussions regarding resonant X-ray diffraction and the nature of pre-edge lines identified by inelastic X-ray scattering. Furthermore, because the Borrmann effect has been observed in photonic materials, it seems likely that the quadrupole enhancement reported here will play an important role in modern optics.
TOUTATIS: A radio frequency quadrupole code
Romuald Duperrier
2000-01-01
A cw high power linear accelerator can only work with very low particle losses and structure activation. At low energy, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is an accelerator element that is very sensitive to losses. To design this structure, a good understanding of the beam dynamics is required. Generally, the reference code PARMTEQM is enough to design the accelerator. TOUTATIS has been written with the goals of cross-checking results and obtaining more reliable dynamics. This paper relates...
CLIC quadrupole stabilization and nano-positioning
Collette, C; Artoos, K; Fernandez Carmona, P; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C
2010-01-01
In the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) currently under study, electrons and positrons will be accelerated in two linear accelerators to collide at the interaction point with an energy of 0.5- 3 TeV. This machine is constituted of a succession of accelerating structures, used to accelerate the beams of particles, and electromagnets (quadrupoles) used to focus the beams. In order to ensure good performances, the quadrupoles have to be extremely stable. Additionally, they should also have the capability to move by steps of some tens of nanometers every 20 ms with a precision of +/- 1nm. This paper proposes a holistic approach to fulfill alternatively both requirements using the same device. The concept is based on piezoelectric hard mounts to isolate the quadrupoles from the ground vibrations in the sensitive range between 1 and 20 Hz, and to provide nano-positioning capabilities. It is also shown that this strategy ensures robustness to external forces (acoustic noise, water flow for the cooling, air flow for th...
Table of nuclear electric quadrupole moments
Stone, N. J.
2016-09-01
This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended moment value is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary EFG/moment reference is required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2015.
Gerrard, Simon R.
2012-10-23
Thermodynamic instability is a problem when assembling and purifying complex DNA nanostructures formed by hybridization alone. To address this issue, we have used photochemical fixation and orthogonal copper-free, ring-strain-promoted, click chemistry for the synthesis of dimeric, trimeric, and oligomeric modular DNA scaffolds from cyclic, double-stranded, 80-mer DNA nanoconstructs. This particular combination of orthogonal click reactions was more effective for nanoassembly than others explored. The complex nanostructures are stable to heat and denaturation agents and can therefore be purified and characterized. They are addressable in a sequence-specific manner by triplex formation, and they can be reversibly and selectively deconstructed. Nanostructures utilizing this orthogonal, chemical fixation methodology can be used as building blocks for nanomachines and functional DNA nanoarchitectures. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Adaptive PID control based on orthogonal endocrine neural networks.
Milovanović, Miroslav B; Antić, Dragan S; Milojković, Marko T; Nikolić, Saša S; Perić, Staniša Lj; Spasić, Miodrag D
2016-12-01
A new intelligent hybrid structure used for online tuning of a PID controller is proposed in this paper. The structure is based on two adaptive neural networks, both with built-in Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials. First substructure network is a regular orthogonal neural network with implemented artificial endocrine factor (OENN), in the form of environmental stimuli, to its weights. It is used for approximation of control signals and for processing system deviation/disturbance signals which are introduced in the form of environmental stimuli. The output values of OENN are used to calculate artificial environmental stimuli (AES), which represent required adaptation measure of a second network-orthogonal endocrine adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (OEANFIS). OEANFIS is used to process control, output and error signals of a system and to generate adjustable values of proportional, derivative, and integral parameters, used for online tuning of a PID controller. The developed structure is experimentally tested on a laboratory model of the 3D crane system in terms of analysing tracking performances and deviation signals (error signals) of a payload. OENN-OEANFIS performances are compared with traditional PID and 6 intelligent PID type controllers. Tracking performance comparisons (in transient and steady-state period) showed that the proposed adaptive controller possesses performances within the range of other tested controllers. The main contribution of OENN-OEANFIS structure is significant minimization of deviation signals (17%-79%) compared to other controllers. It is recommended to exploit it when dealing with a highly nonlinear system which operates in the presence of undesirable disturbances.
Singh, P.; Kharb, S.; Singh, M.
2014-02-01
The effects of electric quadrupole ( E2) and dipole-quadrupole interference ( E1- E2) terms in the Coulomb breakup of 15C have been investigated within the framework of eikonal approximation. The sensitivity of Coulomb breakup cross section, differential in relative energy and Longitudinal Momentum Distribution (LMD) of core fragments, towards these terms have been examined. A very small (1% of E1) contribution of E2 transition has been predicted in integrated Coulomb breakup cross section. Further it is also found that the inclusion of E2 and E1- E2 terms introduces a small asymmetry in the peak of relative energy spectrum and also increases the peak height of the spectrum. The contribution of dipole-quadrupole interference terms is clearly shown in LMD, as it introduces an asymmetry in the shape of LMD and enhances the matching between the data and predictions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴海燕; 曹柳林; 王晶; 孙娅苹
2009-01-01
聚合物分子量分布(MWD)是反映产品性能最重要的指标之一,它是典型的二元建模对象,采用组合神经网络对MWD的空间和时间变量进行分解建模.首先利用离散正交多项式神经网络在链长空间上建立分布与链长的模型,然后将MWD与时间变量的关系转换为网络权向量与输入变量之间的函数,利用递归神经网络建立两者之间的模型,最后组合两个网络达到建模目标.分布函数的模型表达式可写成状态方程形式,为进一步设计控制策略提供了基础.在链长空间上建立模型时,实现了神经网络的权向量与MWD相应阶次矩值之间的等价关系,网络权向量由单纯的拟合数据转变为有意义的物理量,实现了神经网络模型的灰箱化,为精确预测网络隐层节点数问题提供了解决途径.提出的方法应用于实验室规模的苯乙烯聚合过程,证明了建模方法的可行性,同时网络权值与矩值的等价关系也得到验证.%The molecular weight distribution ( MWD) of polymer is one of the most important performance indexes, which is a kind of typical binary modeling. A method based on hybrid discrete orthogonal polynomial neural network (DOPNN) was proposed to model the MWD of polymers. First, the space and time variables were decomposed by the hybrid neural network. The DOPNN was used to obtain the space model of MWD, and the relationship between MWD and input variables (namely the time variables) was converted into the function between weight vector of space model and input variables. Second, the recurrent neural network was used to obtain the time model. Last, the modeling destination was reached by combining the two NN models mentioned above. The mathematical expression of the model was similar with the traditional discrete state-space expression. Based on the model, an easy way to design the control strategy could be achieved. In space modeling, the weight vector of NN was equivalent to
Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis
Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man
2016-05-01
A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.
Nuclear electric quadrupole interactions in liquids entrapped in cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furman, Gregory B., E-mail: gregoryf@bgu.ac.il; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Physics Department (Israel)
2016-12-15
Liquids entrapped in cavities and containing quadrupole nuclei are considered. The interaction of the quadrupole moment of a nucleus with the electric field gradient is studied. In such a system, molecules are in both rotational and translational Brownian motions which are described by the diffusion equation. Solving this equation, we show that the intra- and intermolecular nuclear quadrupole interactions are averaged to zero in cavities with the size larger than several angstroms.
Portoles, T.; Mol, J.G.J.; Sancho, J.V.; Lopez, F.J.; Hernandez, F.
2014-01-01
A wide-scope screening method was developed for the detection of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The method was based on gas chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (GC-(APCI)QTOF MS). A non-target acq
Negreira, Noelia; Erratico, Claudio; Nuijs, van, Alexander L.N.; Covaci, Adrian
2016-01-01
Abstract: Ethylphenidate is a new potent synthetic psychoactive drug, structurally related to methylphenidate. Using human liver microsomes and cytosol, we have investigated for the first time the Phase-I and Phase-II in vitro metabolism of ethylphenidate. The structure of the metabolites was elucidated by hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Overall, seven Phase-I, but no Phase-II metabolites were detected. Ethylphenidate underwent hydroxylation forming two primary mono-hydrox...
Orthogonal Coupling in Cavity BPM with Slots
Lipka, D; Siemens, M; Vilcins, S; Caspers, Friedhelm; Stadler, M; Treyer, DM; Maesaka, H; Shintake, T
2009-01-01
XFELs require high precision orbit control in their long undulator sections. Due to the pulsed operation of drive linacs the high precision has to be reached by single bunch measurements. So far only cavity BPMs achieve the required performance and will be used at the European XFEL, one between each of the up to 116 undulators. Coupling between the orthogonal planes limits the performance of beam position measurements. A first prototype build at DESY shows a coupling between orthogonal planes of about -20 dB, but the requirement is lower than -40 dB (1%). The next generation cavity BPM was build with tighter tolerances and mechanical changes, the orthogonal coupling is measured to be lower than -43 dB. This report discusses the various observations, measurements and improvements which were done.
Weak lensing tomography with orthogonal polynomials
Schaefer, Bjoern Malte
2011-01-01
The topic of this article is weak cosmic shear tomography where the line of sight-weighting is carried out with a set of specifically constructed orthogonal polynomials, dubbed TaRDiS (Tomography with orthogonAl Radial Distance polynomIal Systems). We investigate the properties of these polynomials and employ weak convergence spectra, which have been obtained by weighting with these polynomials, for the estimation of cosmological parameters. We quantify their power in constraining parameters in a Fisher-matrix technique and demonstrate how each polynomial projects out statistically independent information, and how the combination of multiple polynomials lifts degeneracies. The assumption of a reference cosmology is needed for the construction of the polynomials, and as a last point we investigate how errors in the construction with a wrong cosmological model propagate to misestimates in cosmological parameters. TaRDiS performs on a similar level as traditional tomographic methods and some key features of tomo...
The stable computation of formal orthogonal polynomials
Beckermann, Bernhard
1996-12-01
For many applications - such as the look-ahead variants of the Lanczos algorithm - a sequence of formal (block-)orthogonal polynomials is required. Usually, one generates such a sequence by taking suitable polynomial combinations of a pair of basis polynomials. These basis polynomials are determined by a look-ahead generalization of the classical three term recurrence, where the polynomial coefficients are obtained by solving a small system of linear equations. In finite precision arithmetic, the numerical orthogonality of the polynomials depends on a good choice of the size of the small systems; this size is usually controlled by a heuristic argument such as the condition number of the small matrix of coefficients. However, quite often it happens that orthogonality gets lost.
Sobolev orthogonal polynomials on a simplex
Aktas, Rabia
2011-01-01
The Jacobi polynomials on the simplex are orthogonal polynomials with respect to the weight function $W_\\bg(x) = x_1^{\\g_1} ... x_d^{\\g_d} (1- |x|)^{\\g_{d+1}}$ when all $\\g_i > -1$ and they are eigenfunctions of a second order partial differential operator $L_\\bg$. The singular cases that some, or all, $\\g_1,...,\\g_{d+1}$ are -1 are studied in this paper. Firstly a complete basis of polynomials that are eigenfunctions of $L_\\bg$ in each singular case is found. Secondly, these polynomials are shown to be orthogonal with respect to an inner product which is explicitly determined. This inner product involves derivatives of the functions, hence the name Sobolev orthogonal polynomials.
Magnetic mirror structure for testing shell-type quadrupole coils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, N.; Turrioni, D.; /Fermilab
2009-10-01
This paper presents magnetic and mechanical designs and analyses of the quadrupole mirror structure to test single shell-type quadrupole coils. Several quadrupole coils made of different Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, cable insulation and pole materials were tested using this structure at 4.5 and 1.9 K. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, spot heaters, temperature sensors and strain gauges to study their mechanical and thermal properties and quench performance. The results of the quadrupole mirror model assembly and test are reported and discussed.
Magnetic mirror structure for testing shell-type quadrupole coils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, N.; Turrioni, D.; /Fermilab
2009-10-01
This paper presents magnetic and mechanical designs and analyses of the quadrupole mirror structure to test single shell-type quadrupole coils. Several quadrupole coils made of different Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, cable insulation and pole materials were tested using this structure at 4.5 and 1.9 K. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, spot heaters, temperature sensors and strain gauges to study their mechanical and thermal properties and quench performance. The results of the quadrupole mirror model assembly and test are reported and discussed.
Trainor, Thomas A
2016-01-01
According to the flow narrative commonly applied to high-energy nuclear collisions a 1D cylindrical-quadrupole component of 2D angular correlations conventionally denoted by quantity $v_2$ is interpreted to represent elliptic flow: azimuth modulation of transverse or radial flow in noncentral nucleus-nucleus (A-A) collisions. The nonjet (NJ) quadrupole component exhibits various properties inconsistent with a flow or hydro interpretation, including the observation that NJ-quadrupole centrality variation in $A$-$A$ collisions has no relation to strongly-varying jet modification ("jet quenching") in those collisions commonly attributed to jet interaction with a dense flowing medium. In the present study I report isolation of quadrupole spectra from $p_t$-differential $v_2(p_t)$ data obtained at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and large hadron collider (LHCr). I demonstrate that NJ quadrupole spectra have characteristics very different from the single-particle spectra for most hadrons, that quadrupole...
Riemannian geometry in an orthogonal frame
Cartan, Elie Joseph
2001-01-01
Foreword by S S Chern. In 1926-27, Cartan gave a series of lectures in which he introduced exterior forms at the very beginning and used extensively orthogonal frames throughout to investigate the geometry of Riemannian manifolds. In this course he solved a series of problems in Euclidean and non-Euclidean spaces, as well as a series of variational problems on geodesics. In 1960, Sergei P Finikov translated from French into Russian his notes of these Cartan's lectures and published them as a book entitled Riemannian Geometry in an Orthogonal Frame. This book has many innovations, such as the n
Orthogonal control of antibacterial activity with light.
Velema, Willem A; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J M; Feringa, Ben L
2014-09-19
Selection of a single bacterial strain out of a mixture of microorganisms is of crucial importance in healthcare and microbiology research. Novel approaches that can externally control bacterial selection are a valuable addition to the microbiology toolbox. In this proof-of-concept, two complementary antibiotics are protected with photocleavable groups that can be orthogonally addressed with different wavelengths of light. This allows for the light-triggered selection of a single bacterial strain out of a mixture of multiple strains, by choosing the right wavelength. Further improvement toward additional orthogonally addressable antibiotics might ultimately lead to a novel methodology for bacterial selection in complex populations.
Quadrupole Transfer Function for Emittance Measurement
Cameron, Peter; Jansson, Andreas; Tan, Cheng-Yang
2008-01-01
Historically the use of the quadrupole moment measurement has been impeded by the requirement for large dynamic range, as well as measurement sensitivity to beam position. We investigate the use of the transfer function technique [1-3] in combination with the sensitivity and 160dB revolution line rejection of the direct diode detection analog front end [4] to open the possibility of an emittance diagnostic that may be implemented without operational complication, quasi- parasitic to the operation of existing tune measurement systems. Such a diagnostic would be particularly useful as an emittance monitor during acceleration ramp development in machines like RHIC and the LHC.
A Compact High Gradient Pulsed Magnetic Quadrupole
Shuman, Derek; Kireeff Covo, Michel; Ritchie, Gary; Seidl, Peter
2005-01-01
A design for a high gradient, low inductance pulsed quadrupole magnet is presented. The magnet is a circular current dominated design with a circular iron return yoke. Features include a five turn eddy current compensated solid conductor coil design which theoretically eliminates the first four higher order multipole field components, a single layer "non-spiral bedstead" coil design which both minimizes utilization of radial space and maximizes utilization of axial space, and allows incorporation of steering and correction coils within existing radial space. The coils are wound and stretched straight in a special winder, then bent in simple fixtures to form the upturned ends, simplifying fabrication and assembly.
Multi-Pass Quadrupole Mass Analyzer
Prestage, John D.
2013-01-01
Analysis of the composition of planetary atmospheres is one of the most important and fundamental measurements in planetary robotic exploration. Quadrupole mass analyzers (QMAs) are the primary tool used to execute these investigations, but reductions in size of these instruments has sacrificed mass resolving power so that the best present-day QMA devices are still large, expensive, and do not deliver performance of laboratory instruments. An ultra-high-resolution QMA was developed to resolve N2 +/CO+ by trapping ions in a linear trap quadrupole filter. Because N2 and CO are resolved, gas chromatography columns used to separate species before analysis are eliminated, greatly simplifying gas analysis instrumentation. For highest performance, the ion trap mode is used. High-resolution (or narrow-band) mass selection is carried out in the central region, but near the DC electrodes at each end, RF/DC field settings are adjusted to allow broadband ion passage. This is to prevent ion loss during ion reflection at each end. Ions are created inside the trap so that low-energy particles are selected by low-voltage settings on the end electrodes. This is beneficial to good mass resolution since low-energy particles traverse many cycles of the RF filtering fields. Through Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that ions are reflected at each end many tens of times, each time being sent back through the central section of the quadrupole where ultrahigh mass filtering is carried out. An analyzer was produced with electrical length orders of magnitude longer than its physical length. Since the selector fields are sized as in conventional devices, the loss of sensitivity inherent in miniaturizing quadrupole instruments is avoided. The no-loss, multi-pass QMA architecture will improve mass resolution of planetary QMA instruments while reducing demands on the RF electronics for high-voltage/high-frequency production since ion transit time is no longer limited to a single pass. The
Nuclear quadrupole resonance echoes from hexamethylenetetramine.
Ota, Go; Itozaki, Hideo
2006-10-01
We investigated the echo phenomenon of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) from hexamethylenetetramine (HMT). We detected the pure NQR echo signal of HMT with a short pulse interval. The intensity of the echo signal increased as the pulse interval time was decreased. We observed that a clean echo signal was generated even when the pulse interval was shorter than the decay time constant T(2)(*). Since the short interval time gives a strong echo, our result insists that shorter interval time is preferred for the NQR detection.
Precise calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-06-01
Recently, two calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment have have given predictions that agree with the measured value to within 1%, resolving a long-standing discrepancy. One of these uses the covariant spectator theory (CST) and the other chiral effective field theory (cEFT). In this talk I will first briefly review the foundations and history of the CST, and then compare these two calculations with emphasis on how the same physical processes are being described using very different language. The comparison of the two methods gives new insights into the dynamics of the low energy NN interaction.
Transfinite reductions in orthogonal term rewriting systems
J.R. Kennaway (Richard); J.W. Klop (Jan Willem); M.R. Sleep (Ronan); F.-J. de Vries (Fer-Jan)
1991-01-01
textabstractStrongly convergent reduction is the fundamental notion of reduction in infinitary orthogonal term rewriting systems (OTRSs). For these we prove the Transfinite Parallel Moves Lemma and the Compressing Lemma. Strongness is necessary as shown by counterexamples. Normal forms, which we
BIVARIATE REAL-VALUED ORTHOGONAL PERIODIC WAVELETS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiang Li; Xuezhang Liang
2005-01-01
In this paper, we construct a kind of bivariate real-valued orthogonal periodic wavelets. The corresponding decomposition and reconstruction algorithms involve only 8 terms respectively which are very simple in practical computation. Moreover, the relation between periodic wavelets and Fourier series is also discussed.
On multipartite invariant states II. Orthogonal symmetry
Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej
2006-01-01
We construct a new class of multipartite states possessing orthogonal symmetry. This new class defines a convex hull of multipartite states which are invariant under the action of local unitary operations introduced in our previous paper "On multipartite invariant states I. Unitary symmetry". We study basic properties of multipartite symmetric states: separability criteria and multi-PPT conditions.
Multipartite invariant states. II. Orthogonal symmetry
Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej
2006-06-01
We construct a class of multipartite states possessing orthogonal symmetry. This new class contains multipartite states which are invariant under the action of local unitary operations introduced in our preceding paper [Phys. Rev. A 73, 062314 (2006)]. We study basic properties of multipartite symmetric states: separability criteria and multi-PPT conditions.
On multipartite invariant states II. Orthogonal symmetry
Chruscinski, D; Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej
2006-01-01
We construct a new class of multipartite states possessing orthogonal symmetry. This new class defines a convex hull of multipartite states which are invariant under the action of local unitary operations introduced in our previous paper "On multipartite invariant states I. Unitary symmetry". We study basic properties of multipartite symmetric states: separability criteria and multi-PPT conditions.
Hodograph method in MHD orthogonal fluid flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. V. Nguyen
1992-01-01
Full Text Available Equations for steady plane MHD orthogonal flows of a viscous incompressible fluid of finite electrical conductivity are recast in the hodograph plane by using the Legendre transform function of the streamfunction. Three examples are studied to illustrate the developed theory. Solutions and geometries for these examples are determined.
New data structures for orthogonal range searching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alstrup, Stephen; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rauhe, Theis
2000-01-01
We present new general techniques for static orthogonal range searching problems in two and higher dimensions. For the general range reporting problem in R3, we achieve query time O(log n+k) using space O(n log1+ε n), where n denotes the number of stored points and k the number of points to be re...
The rigid orthogonal Procrustes rotation problem
Ten Berge, JMF
2006-01-01
The problem of rotating a matrix orthogonally to a best least squares fit with another matrix of the same order has a closed-form solution based on a singular value decomposition. The optimal rotation matrix is not necessarily rigid, but may also involve a reflection. In some applications, only rigi
All Orthogonal Arrays with 18 Runs
Schoen, E.D.
2009-01-01
All combinatorially inequivalent orthogonal arrays with 18 runs and eight or less factors are generated. Their potential as practical experimental designs is evaluated by a classification using generalized word-length patterns of the original arrays and those of their projections into less factors.
Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization by Gauss Elimination.
Pursell, Lyle; Trimble, S. Y.
1991-01-01
Described is the hand-calculation method for the orthogonalization of a given set of vectors through the integration of Gaussian elimination with existing algorithms. Although not numerically preferable, this method adds increased precision as well as organization to the solution process. (JJK)
Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas
2013-01-01
, we consider the 1-D range selection problem, where a query in an array involves finding the kth least element in a given subarray. This problem is closely related to 2-D 3-sided orthogonal range counting. Recently, Jørgensen and Larsen [SODA 2011] presented a linear-space adaptive data structure...
A new description of orthogonal bases
Coecke, Bob; Pavlovic, Dusko; Vicary, Jamie
2012-01-01
We show that an orthogonal basis for a finite-dimensional Hilbert space can be equivalently characterised as a commutative †-Frobenius monoid in the category FdHilb, which has finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces as objects and continuous linear maps as morphisms, and tensor product for the monoidal st
Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures.
Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H; Suzuki, Y; Sliz, R; Fabritius, T; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G A J
2015-12-01
Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics.
Orthogonal antenna architecture for MIMO handsets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Alrabadi, Osama; Pedersen, Gert Frølund
2012-01-01
The paper presents a method for decorrelating the antenna elements of a MIMO system in a compact handheld terminal at low bands. The architecture of the antenna system induces orthogonal currents over the closely spaced antennas resulting in a correlation free system. Nevertheless, due to the small...
Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas
2013-01-01
, we consider the 1-D range selection problem, where a query in an array involves finding the kth least element in a given subarray. This problem is closely related to 2-D 3-sided orthogonal range counting. Recently, Jørgensen and Larsen [SODA 2011] presented a linear-space adaptive data structure...
ABJM amplitudes and the positive orthogonal Grassmannian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Yu-tin [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Wen, CongKao [Centre for Research in String Theory, Department of Physics,Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2014-02-25
A remarkable connection between perturbative scattering amplitudes of four dimensional planar SYM, and the stratification of the positive Grassmannian, was revealed in the seminal work of Arkani-Hamed et al. Similar extension for three-dimensional ABJM theory was proposed. Here we establish a direct connection between planar scattering amplitudes of ABJM theory, and singularities thereof, to the stratification of the positive orthogonal Grassmannian. In particular, scattering processes are constructed through on-shell diagrams, which are simply iterative gluing of the fundamental four-point amplitude. Each diagram is then equivalent to the merging of fundamental OG{sub 2} orthogonal Grassmannian to form a larger OG{sub k}, where 2k is the number of external particles. The invariant information that is encoded in each diagram is precisely this stratification. This information can be easily read off via permutation paths of the on-shell diagram, which also can be used to derive a canonical representation of OG{sub k} that manifests the vanishing of consecutive minors as the singularity of all on-shell diagrams. Quite remarkably, for the BCFW recursion representation of the tree-level amplitudes, the on-shell diagram manifests the presence of all physical factorization poles, as well as the cancellation of the spurious poles. After analytically continuing the orthogonal Grassmannian to split signature, we reveal that each on-shell diagram in fact resides in the positive cell of the orthogonal Grassmannian, where all minors are positive. In this language, the amplitudes of ABJM theory is simply an integral of a product of dlog forms, over the positive orthogonal Grassmannian.
Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer
Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.
2015-10-20
The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.
Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer
Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.
2016-11-15
The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.
Intrinsic Third Order Aberrations in Electrostatic and Magnetic Quadrupoles
Baartman, R
2015-01-01
Intrinsic aberrations are those which occur due to the finite length of the desired field configuration. They are often loosely ascribed to the fringing field. This is misleading as it implies that the effects can be minimized by shaping the fields. In fact, there is an irreducible component related to the broken symmetry. It is present even in the hard-edge limit, and moreover, the other (soft-edge) effects can be simply ascribed to the intrinsic aberration spread over a finite length. We rederive the aberration formulas for quadrupoles using a Hamiltonian formalism. This allows for an easy comparison of electrostatic and magnetic quadrupoles. For different combinations of large and small emittances in the two transverse planes, it is found that in some situations electrostatic quadrupoles have lower aberrations, while in others, magnetic quadrupoles are better. As well, we discuss the ways in which existing transport codes handle quadrupole fringe fields. Pitfalls are pointed out and improvements proposed.
Rescuing the nonjet (NJ) azimuth quadrupole from the flow narrative
Trainor, Thomas A
2016-01-01
According to the flow narrative commonly applied to high-energy nuclear collisions a cylindrical-quadrupole component of 1D azimuth angular correlations is conventionally denoted by quantity $v_2$ and interpreted to represent elliptic flow. Jet angular correlations may also contribute to $v_2$ data as "nonflow" depending on the method used to calculate $v_2$, but 2D graphical methods are available to insure accurate separation. The nonjet (NJ) quadrupole has various properties inconsistent with a flow interpretation, including the observation that NJ quadrupole centrality variation in A-A collisions has no relation to strongly-varying jet modification ("jet quenching") in those collisions commonly attributed to jet interaction with a flowing dense medium. In this presentation I describe isolation of quadrupole spectra from pt-differential $v_2(p_t)$ data from the RHIC and LHC. I demonstrate that quadrupole spectra have characteristics very different from the single-particle spectra for most hadrons, that quad...
Excited-State Dipole and Quadrupole Moments: TD-DFT versus CC2.
Jacquemin, Denis
2016-08-09
The accuracies of the excited-state dipole and quadrupole moments obtained by TD-DFT are assessed by considering 16 different exchange-correlation functionals and more than 30 medium and large molecules. Except for excited-state presenting a significant charge-transfer character, a relatively limited dependency on the nature of the functional is found. It also turns out that while DFT ground-state dipole moments tend to be too large, the reverse trend is obtained for their excited-state counterparts, at least when hybrid functionals are used. Consequently, the TD-DFT excess dipole moments are often too small, an error that can be fortuitously corrected for charge-transfer transition by selecting a pure or a hybrid functional containing a small share of exact exchange. This error-cancelation phenomena explains the contradictory conclusions obtained in previous investigations. Overall, the largest correlation between CC2 and TD-DFT excess dipoles is obtained with M06-2X, but at the price of a nearly systematic underestimation of this property by ca. 1 D. For the excess quadrupole moments, the average errors are of the order of 0.2-0.6 D·Å for the set of small aromatic systems treated.
Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2015-05-03
Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.
Quench Protection of the LHC Quadrupole Magnets
Kurfuerst, Christoph; Dehning, Bernd; Sapoinski, Mariusz
2010-01-01
CERNs Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a new high energy proton accelerator and storage ring. Its design allows to reach unprecedented beam energies and beam intensities, resulting in a largely increased particle physics discovery potential. The combination of its high beam energy and intensity may lead to beam losses which can have a severe impact on the LHC equipment and damage sensitive elements. To protect those and to measure operational losses, a Beam Loss Monitoring system has been installed all along the ring. The protection is achieved by extracting the beam from the ring in case thresholds imposed on measured radiation levels are exceeded. The thresholds are estimated through particle shower simulations. The simulated geometry and physic processes need to be precise in order to determine an optimum value, which therefore assures a high availability of the LHC for operation. This study is focused on the interconnection region between the main dipole and the main quadrupole magnet of the LHC. Six monito...
Atomic Quadrupole Moment Measurement Using Dynamic Decoupling.
Shaniv, R; Akerman, N; Ozeri, R
2016-04-01
We present a method that uses dynamic decoupling of a multilevel quantum probe to distinguish small frequency shifts that depend on m_{j}^{2}, where m_{j}^{2} is the angular momentum of level |j⟩ along the quantization axis, from large noisy shifts that are linear in m_{j}, such as those due to magnetic field noise. Using this method we measured the electric-quadrupole moment of the 4D_{5/2} level in ^{88}Sr^{+} to be 2.973_{-0.033}^{+0.026}ea_{0}^{2}. Our measurement improves the uncertainty of this value by an order of magnitude and thus helps mitigate an important systematic uncertainty in ^{88}Sr^{+} based optical atomic clocks and verifies complicated many-body quantum calculations.
TOUTATIS: A radio frequency quadrupole code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romuald Duperrier
2000-12-01
Full Text Available A cw high power linear accelerator can only work with very low particle losses and structure activation. At low energy, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ is an accelerator element that is very sensitive to losses. To design this structure, a good understanding of the beam dynamics is required. Generally, the reference code PARMTEQM is enough to design the accelerator. TOUTATIS has been written with the goals of cross-checking results and obtaining more reliable dynamics. This paper relates the different numerical methods used in the code. It is time based, using multigrids methods and adaptive mesh for a fine description of the forces without being time consuming. The field is calculated through a Poisson solver and the vanes are fully described, allowing it to properly simulate the coupling gaps and the RFQs extremities. Theoretical and experimental tests are also described and show a good agreement between simulations and reference cases.
HOLA: Human-like Orthogonal Network Layout.
Kieffer, Steve; Dwyer, Tim; Marriott, Kim; Wybrow, Michael
2016-01-01
Over the last 50 years a wide variety of automatic network layout algorithms have been developed. Some are fast heuristic techniques suitable for networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes while others are multi-stage frameworks for higher-quality layout of smaller networks. However, despite decades of research currently no algorithm produces layout of comparable quality to that of a human. We give a new "human-centred" methodology for automatic network layout algorithm design that is intended to overcome this deficiency. User studies are first used to identify the aesthetic criteria algorithms should encode, then an algorithm is developed that is informed by these criteria and finally, a follow-up study evaluates the algorithm output. We have used this new methodology to develop an automatic orthogonal network layout method, HOLA, that achieves measurably better (by user study) layout than the best available orthogonal layout algorithm and which produces layouts of comparable quality to those produced by hand.
Weak lensing tomography with orthogonal polynomials
Schäfer, Björn Malte; Heisenberg, Lavinia
2012-07-01
The topic of this paper is weak cosmic shear tomography where the line-of-sight weighting is carried out with a set of specifically constructed orthogonal polynomials, dubbed Tomography with Orthogonal Radial Distance Polynomial Systems (TaRDiS). We investigate the properties of these polynomials and employ weak convergence spectra, which have been obtained by weighting with these polynomials, for the estimation of cosmological parameters. We quantify their power in constraining parameters in a Fisher matrix technique and demonstrate how each polynomial projects out statistically independent information, and how the combination of multiple polynomials lifts degeneracies. The assumption of a reference cosmology is needed for the construction of the polynomials, and as a last point we investigate how errors in the construction with a wrong cosmological model propagate to misestimates in cosmological parameters. TaRDiS performs on a similar level as traditional tomographic methods and some key features of tomography are made easier to understand.
Orthogonal Polynomials from Hermitian Matrices II
Odake, Satoru
2016-01-01
This is the second part of the project `unified theory of classical orthogonal polynomials of a discrete variable derived from the eigenvalue problems of hermitian matrices.' In a previous paper, orthogonal polynomials having Jackson integral measures were not included, since such measures cannot be obtained from single infinite dimensional hermitian matrices. Here we show that Jackson integral measures for the polynomials of the big $q$-Jacobi family are the consequence of the recovery of self-adjointness of the unbounded Jacobi matrices governing the difference equations of these polynomials. The recovery of self-adjointness is achieved in an extended $\\ell^2$ Hilbert space on which a direct sum of two unbounded Jacobi matrices acts as a Hamiltonian or a difference Schr\\"odinger operator for an infinite dimensional eigenvalue problem. The polynomial appearing in the upper/lower end of Jackson integral constitutes the eigenvector of each of the two unbounded Jacobi matrix of the direct sum. We also point out...
An efficient quantum key distribution protocol with orthogonal product states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan
2007-01-01
An efficient quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol with orthogonal product states in the 3(×)3 Hilbert space is presented. The sender, Alice, disorders the orthogonal product state sequence and sends it to Bob. After Alice has published the matching information of the particle sequence, Bob recovers the correct correspondences and makes an orthogonal measurement on the orthogonal product states to obtain the information sent by Alice. Finally, security analysis is also made.
Expression of strain tensor in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuyan Liu
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Based on an analysis of connotation and extension of the concept of the orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, we have deduced a platform of strain tensor expression of Cartesian coordinates, which turns out to be a function of Lame coefficient and unit vector. By using transform matrix between Cartesian coordinates and orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, we have deduced a mathematical expression for correcting displacement vector differential in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, and given a general expression of strain tensor in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates.
Orthogonal Matrix-Valued Wavelet Packets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qingjiang Chen; Cuiling Wang; Zhengxing Cheng
2007-01-01
In this paper,we introduce matrix-valued multiresolution analysis and matrixvalued wavelet packets. A procedure for the construction of the orthogonal matrix-valued wavelet packets is presented. The properties of the matrix-valued wavelet packets are investigated. In particular,a new orthonormal basis of L2(R,Cs×s) is obtained from the matrix-valued wavelet packets.
Orthogonal Nilpotent Superfields from Linear Models
Kallosh, Renata; Mosk, Benjamin; Murli, Divyanshu
2016-01-01
We derive supersymmetry/supergravity models with constrained orthogonal nilpotent superfields from the linear models in the formal limit when the masses of the sgoldstino, inflatino and sinflaton tend to infinity. The case when the sinflaton mass remains finite leads to a model with a `relaxed' constraint, where the sinflaton remains an independent field. Our procedure is equivalent to a requirement that some of the components of the curvature of the moduli space tend to infinity.
Some Orthogonal Polynomials in Four Variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles F. Dunkl
2008-11-01
Full Text Available The symmetric group on 4 letters has the reflection group $D_3$ as an isomorphic image. This fact follows from the coincidence of the root systems $A_3$ and $D_3$. The isomorphism is used to construct an orthogonal basis of polynomials of 4 variables with 2 parameters. There is an associated quantum Calogero-Sutherland model of 4 identical particles on the line.
Orthogonal Range Searching on the RAM, Revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chan, Timothy M.; Larsen, Kasper Green; Patrascu, Mihai
2011-01-01
. This improves the previous results by Afshani (ESA'08), Karpinski and Nekrich (COCOON'09), and Chan (SODA'11), with O(n lg3 n) space and O(lg lg n + k) query time, or with O(n lg1+εn) space and O(lg2lg n + k) query time. Consequently, we obtain improved upper bounds for orthogonal range reporting in all...
Orthogonal Range Searching on the RAM, Revisited
Chan, Timothy M; Patrascu, Mihai
2011-01-01
We present several new results on one of the most extensively studied topics in computational geometry, orthogonal range searching. All our results are in the standard word RAM model for points in rank space: ** We present two data structures for 2-d orthogonal range emptiness. The first achieves O(n lglg n) space and O(lglg n) query time. This improves the previous results by Alstrup, Brodal, and Rauhe(FOCS'00), with O(n lg^eps n) space and O(lglg n) query time, or with O(nlglg n) space and O(lg^2 lg n) query time. Our second data structure uses O(n) space and answers queries in O(lg^eps n) time. The best previous O(n)-space data structure, due to Nekrich (WADS'07), answers queries in O(lg n/lglg n) time. ** For 3-d orthogonal range reporting, we obtain space O(n lg^{1+eps} n) and query time O(lglg n + k), for any constant eps>0. This improves previous results by Afshani (ESA'08), Karpinski and Nekrich (COCOON'09), and Chan (SODA'11), with O(n lg^3 n) space and O(lglg n + k) query time, or with O(n lg^{1+eps...
Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process
Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E
2014-04-15
An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.
A Dual Orthogonality Procedure for Nonlinear Finite Element Equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, S.; Hededal, O.
In the orthogonal residual procedure for solution of nonlinear finite element equations the load is adjusted in each equilibrium iteration to satisfy an orthogonality condition to the current displacement increment. It is here shown that the quasi-newton formulation of the orthogonal residual...
Hu, Zhiwei; Wang, Ziming; Liu, Yong; Wu, Yan; Han, Xuejiao; Zheng, Jian; Yan, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang
2015-10-21
In the present work, the salidroside metabolite profile in rat urine was investigated, and subsequently the metabolic pathways of salidroside were proposed. After administrations of salidroside at an oral dose of 100 or 500 mg/kg, rat urine samples were collected and pretreated with methanol to precipitate the proteins. The pretreated samples were analyzed by an Acquity ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with an HSS T3 column and detected by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/Q-trap-MS). A total of eight metabolites were detected and identified on the basis of the characteristics of their protonated ions in the urine samples. The results elucidated that salidroside was metabolized via glucuronidation, sulfation, deglycosylation, hydroxylation, methylation, and dehydroxylation pathways in vivo.
Sacui, Iulia; Hsieh, Wei-Che; Manna, Arunava; Sahu, Bichismita; Ly, Danith H
2015-07-08
Nucleic acids are an attractive platform for organizing molecular self-assembly because of their specific nucleobase interactions and defined length scale. Routinely employed in the organization and assembly of materials in vitro, however, they have rarely been exploited in vivo, due to the concerns for enzymatic degradation and cross-hybridization with the host's genetic materials. Herein we report the development of a tight-binding, orthogonal, synthetically versatile, and informationally interfaced nucleic acid platform for programming molecular interactions, with implications for in vivo molecular assembly and computing. The system consists of three molecular entities: the right-handed and left-handed conformers and a nonhelical domain. The first two are orthogonal to each other in recognition, while the third is capable of binding to both, providing a means for interfacing the two conformers as well as the natural nucleic acid biopolymers (i.e., DNA and RNA). The three molecular entities are prepared from the same monomeric chemical scaffold, with the exception of the stereochemistry or lack thereof at the γ-backbone that determines if the corresponding oligo adopts a right-handed or left-handed helix, or a nonhelical motif. These conformers hybridize to each other with exquisite affinity, sequence selectivity, and level of orthogonality. Recognition modules as short as five nucleotides in length are capable of organizing molecular assembly.
Development of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for Heavy Ion Drivers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martovetsky, N; Manahan, R; Lietzke, A F
2001-09-10
Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is exploring a promising path to a practical inertial-confinement fusion reactor. The associated heavy ion driver will require a large number of focusing quadrupole magnets. A concept for a superconducting quadrupole array, using many simple racetrack coils, was developed at LLNL. Two, single-bore quadrupole prototypes of the same design, with distinctly different conductor, were designed, built, and tested. Both prototypes reached their short sample currents with little or no training. Magnet design, and test results, are presented and discussed.
Emission of nuclear quadrupole resonance from polycrystalline hexamethylenetetramine.
Ota, G; Itozaki, H
2008-03-01
The angular dependence of the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signal intensity emitted from polycrystalline hexamethylenetetramine has been analytically investigated for all directions for non-contact detection of chemicals by nuclear quadrupole resonance. The field pattern of the NQR signal from a column sample was measured. The emitted patterns were the same as that from a united single magnetic dipole, which fitted well to the estimation based on quadrupole principle axis system. This result is helpful to design an antenna for NQR remote detection.
The lifting scheme of 4-channel orthogonal wavelet transforms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PENG Lizhong; CHU Xiaoyong
2006-01-01
The 4-channel smooth wavelets with linear phase and orthogonality are designed from the 2-channel orthogonal wavelets with high transfer vanishing moments. Reversely, for simple lifting scheme of such 4-channel orthogonal wavelet transforms, a new 2-channel orthogonal wavelet associated with this 4-channel wavelet is constructed. The new 2-channel wavelet has at least the same number of vanishing moments as the associated 4-channel one. Finally, by combining the two such 2-channel wavelet systems, the lifting scheme of 4-channel orthogonal wavelet transform, which has simple structure and is easy to apply, is presented.
Mixing of orthogonal and skew-orthogonal polynomials and its relation to Wilson RMT
Kieburg, Mario
2012-01-01
The unitary Wilson random matrix theory is an interpolation between the chiral Gaussian unitary ensemble and the Gaussian unitary ensemble. This new way of interpolation is also reflected in the orthogonal polynomials corresponding to such a random matrix ensemble. Although the chiral Gaussian unitary ensemble as well as the Gaussian unitary ensemble are associated to the Dyson index $\\beta=2$ the intermediate ensembles exhibit a mixing of orthogonal polynomials and skew-orthogonal polynomials. We consider the Hermitian as well as the non-Hermitian Wilson random matrix and derive the corresponding polynomials, their recursion relations, Christoffel-Darboux-like formulas, Rodrigues formulas and representations as random matrix averages in a unifying way. With help of these results we derive the unquenched $k$-point correlation function of the Hermitian and then non-Hermitian Wilson random matrix in terms of two flavour partition functions only. This representation is due to a Pfaffian factorization drastically...
Spin and quadrupole contributions to the motion of astrophysical binaries
Steinhoff, Jan
2014-01-01
Compact objects in general relativity approximately move along geodesics of spacetime. It is shown that the corrections to geodesic motion due to spin (dipole), quadrupole, and higher multipoles can be modeled by an extension of the point mass action. The quadrupole contributions are discussed in detail for astrophysical objects like neutron stars or black holes. Implications for binaries are analyzed for a small mass ratio situation. There quadrupole effects can encode information about the internal structure of the compact object, e.g., in principle they allow a distinction between black holes and neutron stars, and also different equations of state for the latter. Furthermore, a connection between the relativistic oscillation modes of the object and a dynamical quadrupole evolution is established.
ISR Superconducting Quadrupole under test in its cryostat
1979-01-01
One of the Superconducting Quadrupoles for the ISR high luminosity (low-beta) insertion is seen here during final test in building 230 before installation in the ISR. See also photos 7812609X and 7702690X.
End view of ISR Superconducting Quadrupole in its cryostat
1977-01-01
This view shows the cold mass of the prototype ISR Superconducting Quadrupole suspended to the outer vacuum tank by means of titanium alloy rods.The heat shield wrapped with superinsulation can also be seen. See also photo 7702690X.
Electro-Magnetic Quadrupole Magnets in the LCLS FEL Undulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emma, P.
2005-01-31
We discuss various aspects of electro-magnetic quadrupole (EMQ) magnets for the LCLS FEL undulator, including their utility in beam-based alignment (BBA), magnet design issues, and impact on tunnel environment, reliability, and cost.
PRINCIPLE OF SKEW QUADRUPOLE MODULATION TO MEASURE BETATRON COUPLING.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LUO.Y.PILAT,F.ROSER,T.ET AL.
2004-07-05
The measurement of the residual betatron coupling via skew quadrupole modulation is a new diagnostics technique that has been developed and tested at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as a very promising method for the linear decoupling on the ramp. By modulating the strengths of different skew quadrupole families the two eigentunes are precisely measured with the phase lock loop system. The projections of the residual coupling coefficient onto the skew quadrupole coupling modulation directions are determined. The residual linear coupling could be corrected according to the measurement. An analytical solution for skew quadrupole modulation based on Hamiltonian perturbation approximation is given, and simulation code using smooth accelerator model is also developed. Some issues concerning the practical applications of this technique are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Zhan; Wei, Shaoqing; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Kim, Do Gyun; Kim, Jong Won [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
In recent years, the iron-dominated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) quadrupole magnets are being developed for heavy ion accelerators. Field analyses for iron-dominated quadrupole magnets were based on the normal-conducting (NC) quadrupole magnet early in the development for accelerators. Some conclusions are still in use today. However, the magnetic field of iron-dominated HTS quadrupole magnets cannot fully follow these conclusions. This study established an HTS quadrupole magnet model and an NC quadrupole magnet model, respectively. The harmonic characteristics of two magnets were analyzed and compared. According to the comparison, the conventional iron-dominated quadrupole magnets can be designed for maximum field gradient; the HTS quadrupole magnet, however, should be considered with varying field gradient. Finally, the HTS quadrupole magnet was designed for the changing field gradient. The field quality of the design was improved comparing with the result of the previous study. The new design for the HTS quadrupole magnet has been suggested.
Relaxation of quadrupole orientation in an optically pumped alkali vapour
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernabeu, E.; Tornos, J.
1985-04-01
The relaxation of quadrupole orientation (alignment) in an optically pumped alkali vapour is theoretically studied by taking into account the relaxation processes by alkali-buffer gas, alkali-alkali with spin exchange and alkali-cell wall (diffusion process) collisions. The relaxation transients of the quadrupole orientation are obtained by introducing a first-order weak-pumping approximation (intermediate pumping) less restrictive than the usually considered (zeroth order) one.
Quadrupole collectivity in {sup 128}Cd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boenig, Esther Sabine
2014-07-07
The regions around shell closures, especially around doubly magic nuclei, are of major interest in nuclear structure physics, as they provide a perfect test for nuclear structure theory. The neutron-rich Cd isotopes in the region of {sup 132}Sn are only two protons away from the shell closure at Z=50 and in close proximity to the N=82 magic number. Nevertheless they show an irregular behaviour regarding the excitation energy of the first excited 2{sup +} state. This is not reproduced by shell model calculations, which is astonishing due to the proximity of the shell closures. In order to shed light on the much discussed region around doubly magic {sup 132}Sn, a Coulomb excitation experiment of {sup 128}Cd has been performed at REX-ISOLDE, CERN. The reduced transition strength B(E2;0{sup +}{sub gs} → 2{sup +}{sub 1}), which is a measure of collectivity, and the spectroscopic quadrupole moment Q{sub s}(2{sup +}{sub 1}) as a measure of deformation could be determined for the first time. The results are shown as the continuation of already measured neutron-rich Cd isotopes and are compared to both beyond mean field and shell model calculations, which give different predictions for these observables.
Nuclear spin squeezing via electric quadrupole interaction
Aksu Korkmaz, Yaǧmur; Bulutay, Ceyhun
2016-01-01
Control over nuclear-spin fluctuations is essential for processes that rely on preserving the quantum state of an embedded system. For this purpose, squeezing is a viable alternative, so far that has not been properly exploited for the nuclear spins. Of particular relevance in solids is the electric quadrupole interaction (QI), which operates on nuclei having spin higher than 1/2. In its general form, QI involves an electric-field gradient (EFG) biaxiality term. Here, we show that as this EFG biaxiality increases, it enables continuous tuning of single-particle squeezing from the one-axis twisting to the two-axis countertwisting limits. A detailed analysis of QI squeezing is provided, exhibiting the intricate consequences of EFG biaxiality. The initial states over the Bloch sphere are mapped out to identify those favorable for fast initial squeezing, or for prolonged squeezings. Furthermore, the evolution of squeezing in the presence of a phase-damping channel and an external magnetic field are investigated. We observe that dephasing drives toward an antisqueezed terminal state, the degree of which increases with the spin angular momentum. Finally, QI squeezing in the limiting case of a two-dimensional EFG with a perpendicular magnetic field is discussed, which is of importance for two-dimensional materials, and the associated beat patterns in squeezing are revealed.
Quadrupole Focusing Lenses for Charged Particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cork, Bruce; Zajec, Emery
1953-04-15
A set of four strong focusing magnetic quadrupole lenses has been constructed and operated. Each lens consists of four air cooled electromagnets with pole tips having a hyperbolic cross section. Each lens is 4 in. long and has an aperture 2 in. in diameter. Measurements of the magnetic field demonstrate that the hyperbolic cross section satisfies the requirements of a constant magnetic field gradient very well. The technique of deflecting a current carrying flexible wire has been used to measure the trajectory of charged particles through the system of lenses. It has been observed that the strong focusing requirements are satisfied. The system of lenses was then used to focus 0.5 Mev protons, 20 Mev deuterons, and 40 Mev alpha particles. The parallel beam of 0.5 Mev protons was detected by observing the incandescence of a quartz plate while the protons were bombarding it. The focused beam was less than 1 mm in diameter. The astigmatic 20 Mev deuteron beam from the 60 in. cyclotron was increased in current density by a factor greater than 30.
Orthogonal separable Hamiltonian systems on T2
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In this paper we characterize the Liouvillian integrable orthogonal separable Hamiltonian systems on T2 for a given metric, and prove that the Hamiltonian flow on any compact level hypersurface has zero topological entropy. Furthermore, by examples we show that the integrable Hamiltonian systems on T2 can have complicated dynamical phenomena. For instance they can have several families of invariant tori, each family is bounded by the homoclinic-loop-like cylinders and heteroclinic-loop-like cylinders. As we know, it is the first concrete example to present the families of invariant tori at the same time appearing in such a complicated way.
Noncommutative Pfaffians associated with the orthogonal algebra
Artamonov, Dmitrii V.; Golubeva, Valentina A.
2012-12-01
Commutators of Pfaffians associated with the orthogonal algebra are found in skew-symmetric and root realizations of \\mathfrak{o}_N. A generating function of Pfaffians is proved to satisfy the reflection equation. A relation between Pfaffians in skew-symmetric and root realizations of \\mathfrak{o}_N is established. Using these results we construct an integrable equation of Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type using the Capelli central elements in U(\\mathfrak{o}_N), which are sums of squares of the considered Pfaffians. A classical limit of the obtained Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type equation turns out to be a very specific system of equations of isomonodromic deformations. Bibliography: 18 titles.
Sulfoform Generation from an Orthogonally Protected Disaccharide
Liu, Runhui; Morales-Collazo, Oscar; Wei, Alexander
2012-01-01
An orthogonally protected disaccharide (GlcN(α1→4)Glc) with a β-linked 2′-aminoethyl linker was used to generate a series of sulfated derivatives (sulfoforms), with a 6-O-sulfate on the glucose residue and one or more sulfate esters on the terminal glucosamine. Deprotection and sulfonation steps were performed in solution and in variable order, with isolated yields of 36–54% (85–90% per operation) after HPLC purification. The modular deprotection–sulfonation sequences can be performed with efficient recovery of the polysulfate products, and avoids complications associated with heterogeneous reactivity in solid-phase synthesis. PMID:22624867
Sulfoform Generation from an Orthogonally Protected Disaccharide
2012-01-01
An orthogonally protected disaccharide (GlcN(α1→4)Glc) with a β-linked 2′-aminoethyl linker was used to generate a series of sulfated derivatives (sulfoforms), with a 6-O-sulfate on the glucose residue and one or more sulfate esters on the terminal glucosamine. Deprotection and sulfonation steps were performed in solution and in variable order, with isolated yields of 36–54% (85–90% per operation) after HPLC purification. The modular deprotection–sulfonation sequences can be performed with ef...
Discriminating orthogonal single-photon images
Broadbent, Curtis J.; Zerom, Petros; Shin, Heedeuk; Howell, John C.; Boyd, Robert W.
2009-03-01
We can encode an image from an orthogonal basis set onto a single photon from a downconverted pair via the use of an amplitude mask. We can then discriminate the image imprinted on the photon from other images in the set using holographic-matched filtering techniques. We demonstrate this procedure experimentally for an image space of two objects, and we discuss the possibility of applying this method to a much larger image space. This process could have important implications for the manipulation of images at the quantum level.
Noncommutative Pfaffians associated with the orthogonal algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Artamonov, Dmitrii V; Golubeva, Valentina A
2012-12-31
Commutators of Pfaffians associated with the orthogonal algebra are found in skew-symmetric and root realizations of o{sub N}. A generating function of Pfaffians is proved to satisfy the reflection equation. A relation between Pfaffians in skew-symmetric and root realizations of o{sub N} is established. Using these results we construct an integrable equation of Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type using the Capelli central elements in U(o{sub N}), which are sums of squares of the considered Pfaffians. A classical limit of the obtained Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type equation turns out to be a very specific system of equations of isomonodromic deformations. Bibliography: 18 titles.
Exact exchange with non-orthogonal generalized Wannier functions
Mountjoy, Jeff; Todd, Michelle; Mosey, Nicholas J.
2017-03-01
The evaluation of exact exchange (EXX) is an important component of quantum chemical calculations performed with ab initio and hybrid density functional methods. While evaluating exact exchange is routine in molecular quantum chemical calculations performed with localized basis sets, the non-local nature of the exchange operator presents a major impediment to the efficient use of exact exchange in calculations that employ planewave basis sets. Non-orthogonal generalized Wannier functions (NGWFs) corresponding to planewave expansions of localized basis functions are an alternative form of basis set that can be used in quantum chemical calculations. The periodic nature of these functions renders them suitable for calculations of periodic systems, while the contraction of sets of planewaves into individual basis functions reduces the number of variational parameters, permitting the construction and direct diagonalization of the Fock matrix. The present study examines how NGWFs corresponding to Fourier series representations of conventional atom-centered basis sets can be used to evaluate exact exchange in periodic systems. Specifically, an approach for constructing the exchange operator with NGWFs is presented and used to perform Hartree-Fock calculations with a series of molecules in periodically repeated simulation cells. The results demonstrate that the NGWF approach is significantly faster than the EXX method, which is a standard approach for evaluating exact exchange in periodic systems.
Orthogonally-oriented nanotube arrays: experiment I.
Sheehan, D P; Webster, J T; Baird, L M
2007-10-01
Recently a new type of self-assembling surface has been proposed that, in theory, possesses a number of desirable tribological, electrical, and thermal characterstics. The surface consists of arrays of carbon nanotubes partially embedded lengthwise in a substrate such that when two arrayed surfaces are brought together orthogonally, the areal contact between them is small, limited to a lattice of nearly point-like contacts. These orthogonally-oriented nanotube arrays (ONAs) are predicted to exhibit: (i) surface adhesion (stiction) 10-100 times less than for Teflon or other advanced perfluorocarbons; (ii) frictional coefficients up to 1000 times less than for conventional solids; (iii) ultra-low wear; and (iv) superior thermal and electrical conductivity. In this paper, laboratory methods are described for embedding nanotubes in trenched substrates. Using microscopically trenched substrates and a custom ultrasonic atomization source, experiments show that individual nanotubes can spontaneously and controllably entrench themselves via interfacial forces (capillary and surface tension). Results indicate ONAs might be relatively simply and inexpensively fabricated. More decisive experiments are proposed.
A Generalization of Orthogonal Factorizations in Graphs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guo Jun LI; Gui Zhen LIU
2001-01-01
Let G be a graph with vertex set V(G) and edge set E(G), and let g and f be two integer-valued functions defined on V(G) such that g(x) ≤ f(x) for all x ∈ V(G). Then a (g, f)-factor of G is a spanning subgraph H of G such that g(x) ≤ dH(x) ≤ f(x) for all x ∈ V(G). A (g, f)-factorization of G G, and H be a subgraph of G with mr edges. If Fi, 1 ≤ i ≤ m, has exactly r edges in common with H,then F is said to be r-orthogonal to H. In this paper it is proved that every (mg + kr, mf - kr)-graph,where m, k and r are positive integers with k ＜ m and g ≥ r, contains a subgraph R such that R has a (g, f)-factorization which is r-orthogonal to a given subgraph H with kr edges.
Heavy-Fermion Superconductivity in the Quadrupole Ordered State of PrV2Al20
Tsujimoto, Masaki; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Tomita, Takahiro; Sakai, Akito; Nakatsuji, Satoru
2014-12-01
PrV2Al20 is a rare example of a heavy-fermion system based on strong hybridization between conduction electrons and nonmagnetic quadrupolar moments of the cubic Γ3 ground doublet. Here, we report that a high-quality single crystal of PrV2Al20 exhibits superconductivity at Tc=50 mK in the antiferroquadrupole-ordered state under ambient pressure. The heavy-fermion character of the superconductivity is evident from the specific heat jump of Δ C /T ˜0.3 J /mol K2 and the effective mass m*/m0˜140 estimated from the temperature dependence of the upper critical field. Furthermore, the high-quality single crystals exhibit double transitions at TQ=0.75 K and T*=0.65 K associated with quadrupole and octupole degrees of freedom of the Γ3 doublet. In the ordered state, the specific heat C /T shows a T3 dependence, indicating the gapless mode associated with the quadrupole order, the octupole order, or both. The strong sensitivity to impurity of the superconductivity suggests unconventional character due to significant quadrupolar fluctuations.
Asymptotic bound on binary self-orthogonal codes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING Yang
2009-01-01
We present two constructions for binary self-orthogonal codes. It turns out that our constructions yield a constructive bound on binary self-orthogonal codes. In particular, when the in-formation rate R = 1/2, by our constructive lower bound, the relative minimum distance δ≈ 0.0595 (for GV bound, δ≈0.110). Moreover, we have proved that the binary self-orthogonal codes asymptotically achieve the Gilbert-Varshamov bound.
Asymptotic bound on binary self-orthogonal codes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
We present two constructions for binary self-orthogonal codes. It turns out that our constructions yield a constructive bound on binary self-orthogonal codes. In particular, when the in-formation rate R = 1/2, by our constructive lower bound, the relative minimum distance δ≈ 0.0595 (for GV bound, δ≈ 0.110). Moreover, we have proved that the binary self-orthogonal codes asymptotically achieve the Gilbert-Varshamov bound.
Orthogonal fast spherical Bessel transform on uniform grid
Serov, Vladislav V.
2017-07-01
We propose an algorithm for the orthogonal fast discrete spherical Bessel transform on a uniform grid. Our approach is based upon the spherical Bessel transform factorization into the two subsequent orthogonal transforms, namely the fast Fourier transform and the orthogonal transform founded on the derivatives of the discrete Legendre orthogonal polynomials. The method utility is illustrated by its implementation for the problem of a two-atomic molecule in a time-dependent external field simulating the one utilized in the attosecond streaking technique.
Gallien, Sebastien; Domon, Bruno
2014-08-01
High resolution/accurate mass hybrid mass spectrometers have considerably advanced shotgun proteomics and the recent introduction of fast sequencing capabilities has expanded its use for targeted approaches. More specifically, the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument has a unique configuration and its new features enable a wide range of experiments. An overview of the analytical capabilities of this instrument is presented, with a focus on its application to quantitative analyses. The high resolution, the trapping capability and the versatility of the instrument have allowed quantitative proteomic workflows to be redefined and new data acquisition schemes to be developed. The initial proteomic applications have shown an improvement of the analytical performance. However, as quantification relies on ion trapping, instead of ion beam, further refinement of the technique can be expected.
Kernel versions of some orthogonal transformations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
Kernel versions of orthogonal transformations such as principal components are based on a dual formulation also termed Q-mode analysis in which the data enter into the analysis via inner products in the Gram matrix only. In the kernel version the inner products of the original data are replaced...... by inner products between nonlinear mappings into higher dimensional feature space. Via kernel substitution also known as the kernel trick these inner products between the mappings are in turn replaced by a kernel function and all quantities needed in the analysis are expressed in terms of this kernel...... function. This means that we need not know the nonlinear mappings explicitly. Kernel principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel minimum noise fraction (MNF) analyses handle nonlinearities by implicitly transforming data into high (even infinite) dimensional feature space via the kernel function...
Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging
Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.
2017-02-01
Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.
Optimal Planar Orthogonal Skyline Counting Queries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Larsen, Kasper Green
2014-01-01
The skyline of a set of points in the plane is the subset of maximal points, where a point (x,y) is maximal if no other point (x',y') satisfies x'≥ x and y'≥ x. We consider the problem of preprocessing a set P of n points into a space efficient static data structure supporting orthogonal skyline...... counting queries, i.e. given a query rectangle R to report the size of the skyline of P\\cap R. We present a data structure for storing n points with integer coordinates having query time O(lg n/lglg n) and space usage O(n). The model of computation is a unit cost RAM with logarithmic word size. We prove...
Measuring the orthogonality error of coil systems
Heilig, B.; Csontos, A.; Pajunpää, K.; White, Tim; St. Louis, B.; Calp, D.
2012-01-01
Recently, a simple method was proposed for the determination of pitch angle between two coil axes by means of a total field magnetometer. The method is applicable when the homogeneous volume in the centre of the coil system is large enough to accommodate the total field sensor. Orthogonality of calibration coil systems used for calibrating vector magnetometers can be attained by this procedure. In addition, the method can be easily automated and applied to the calibration of delta inclination–delta declination (dIdD) magnetometers. The method was tested by several independent research groups, having a variety of test equipment, and located at differing geomagnetic observatories, including: Nurmijärvi, Finland; Hermanus, South Africa; Ottawa, Canada; Tihany, Hungary. This paper summarizes the test results, and discusses the advantages and limitations of the method.
LOCC indistinguishable orthogonal product quantum states
Zhang, Xiaoqian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Weng, Jian; Li, Yongjun
2016-07-01
We construct two families of orthogonal product quantum states that cannot be exactly distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC) in the quantum system of 2k+i ⊗ 2l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1} and i ≥ j ) and 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1, 2}). And we also give the tiling structure of these two families of quantum product states where the quantum states are unextendible in the first family but are extendible in the second family. Our construction in the quantum system of 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j is more generalized than the other construction such as Wang et al.’s construction and Zhang et al.’s construction, because it contains the quantum system of not only 2k ⊗ 2l and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l but also 2k ⊗ 2l+1 and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l+1. We calculate the non-commutativity to quantify the quantumness of a quantum ensemble for judging the local indistinguishability. We give a general method to judge the indistinguishability of orthogonal product states for our two constructions in this paper. We also extend the dimension of the quantum system of 2k ⊗ 2l in Wang et al.’s paper. Our work is a necessary complement to understand the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality without entanglement.
Alvarez-Fernandez, Carlos; Manas, Manuel
2009-01-01
We consider the relation of the multi-component 2D Toda hierarchy with matrix orthogonal and biorthogonal polynomials. The multi-graded Hankel reduction of this hierarchy is considered and the corresponding generalized matrix orthogonal polynomials are studied. In particular for these polynomials we consider the recursion relations, and for rank one weights its relation with multiple orthogonal polynomials of mixed type with a type II normalization and the corresponding link with a Riemann--Hilbert problem.
Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Study of Potassium - - Chloride.
Ramia, Maximo Elias
Fast Fourier transform nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) was used to study the cubic antifluorite crystal potassium hexacloro-osmate, K(,2)OsCl(,6). The study of the ('35)Cl and ('37)Cl resonances were performed on three samples of K(,2)OsCl(,6), a powder sample, a powder sample recrystallized from D(,2)O and a single crystal sample. The studies were carried out in the temperature range 300 to 6K. A detailed study of the ('35)Cl and ('37)Cl NQR lineshapes, in the temperature range 70 to 300K, showed that the lineshapes reflect the strain fields produced by lattice dislocations and point defects. The temperature evolution of these strain fields give rise to a satellite line which previously was attributed to H('+) ion impurities present in the samples. A comprehensive study of the temperature evolution of the NQR spectrum in the vicinity of the phase transition revealed a drop of line intensity and the progressive appearance of an extra broad resonance component. Both effects are associated with the existence of precursor dynamic clusters at temperatures higher than T(,C). Qualitatively similar but quantitatively different behaviour was observed in the powder and single crystal samples. Although the precursor clusters are an intrinsic property of the phrase transition, their detailed dynamics is sample independent. A NQR study of the tetragonal phase showed that at the lowest temperature the ratio of line intensities is 2:1. The phase shift effect previously observed in the tetragonal phase of K(,2)ReCl(,6) was also observed in K(,2)OsCl(,6). The effect has been explained as an experimental artifact introduced by the truncation of the FID due to the spectrometer dead time. Spin-lattice relaxation measurements in the cubic phase show two component relaxation in the vicinity of T(,C). The behaviour is quantitatively different in the powder and single crystal samples. The short relaxation time is associated with dynamic clusters. Spin-lattice relaxation time
van Pelt, Stijn; Derks, Roy; Matteucci, Marco; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Dietzel, Andreas
2011-04-01
A new concept for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads inside a microfluidic chip is presented in this paper. The concept allows for bead actuation orthogonal to the flow direction inside a microchannel. Basic manipulation functionalities were studied by means of finite element simulations and results were oval-shaped steady state oscillations with bead velocities up to 500 μm/s. The width of the trajectory could be controlled by prescribing external field rotation. Successful verification experiments were performed on a prototype chip fabricated with excimer laser ablation in polycarbonate and electroforming of nickel flux-guides. Bead velocities up to 450 μm/s were measured in a 75 μm wide channel. By prescribing the currents in the external quadrupole magnet, the shape of the bead trajectory could be controlled.
Babaee, Hessam; Choi, Minseok; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Karniadakis, George Em
2017-09-01
We develop a new robust methodology for the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations based on the dynamically-orthogonal (DO) and bi-orthogonal (BO) methods [1-3]. Both approaches are variants of a generalized Karhunen-Loève (KL) expansion in which both the stochastic coefficients and the spatial basis evolve according to system dynamics, hence, capturing the low-dimensional structure of the solution. The DO and BO formulations are mathematically equivalent [3], but they exhibit computationally complimentary properties. Specifically, the BO formulation may fail due to crossing of the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix, while both BO and DO become unstable when there is a high condition number of the covariance matrix or zero eigenvalues. To this end, we combine the two methods into a robust hybrid framework and in addition we employ a pseudo-inverse technique to invert the covariance matrix. The robustness of the proposed method stems from addressing the following issues in the DO/BO formulation: (i) eigenvalue crossing: we resolve the issue of eigenvalue crossing in the BO formulation by switching to the DO near eigenvalue crossing using the equivalence theorem and switching back to BO when the distance between eigenvalues is larger than a threshold value; (ii) ill-conditioned covariance matrix: we utilize a pseudo-inverse strategy to invert the covariance matrix; (iii) adaptivity: we utilize an adaptive strategy to add/remove modes to resolve the covariance matrix up to a threshold value. In particular, we introduce a soft-threshold criterion to allow the system to adapt to the newly added/removed mode and therefore avoid repetitive and unnecessary mode addition/removal. When the total variance approaches zero, we show that the DO/BO formulation becomes equivalent to the evolution equation of the Optimally Time-Dependent modes [4]. We demonstrate the capability of the proposed methodology with several numerical examples, namely (i) stochastic Burgers equation: we
Linear Quadrupole Cooling Channel for a Neutrino Factory
Johnstone, Carol; Makino, Kyoko
2005-01-01
The staging and optimization in the design of a Neutrino Factory are critically dependent on the choice and format of accelerator. Possibly the simplest, lowest-cost scenario is a nonscaling FFAG machine coupled to a linear (no bending) transverse cooling channel constructed from the simplest quadrupole lens system, a FODO cell. In such a scenario, transverse cooling demands are reduced by a factor of 4 and no longitudinal cooling is required relative to acceleration using a Recirculating Linac (RLA). Detailed simulations further show that a quadrupole-based channel cools efficiently and over a momentum range which is well-matched to FFAG acceleration. Details and cooling performance for a quadrupole channel are summarized in this work.
Processing of dual-orthogonal cw polarimetric radar signals
Babur, G.
2009-01-01
The thesis consists of two parts. The first part is devoted to the theory of dual-orthogonal polarimetric radar signals with continuous waveforms. The thesis presents a comparison of the signal compression techniques, namely correlation and de-ramping methods, for the dual-orthogonal sophisticated
On the orthogonality of the MacDonald s functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Passian, Ali [ORNL; Simpson, Henry [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Koucheckian, Sherwin [University of South Florida, Tampa; Yakubovich, Semyon [University of Porto, Portugal
2009-01-01
A proof of an orthogonality relation for the MacDonald's functions with identical arguments but unequal complex lower indices is presented. The orthogonality is derived first via a heuristic approach based on the Mehler-Fock integral transform of the MacDonald's functions, and then proved rigorously using a polynomial approximation procedure.
Level density for deformations of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble
Bertuola, A C; Hussein, M S; Pato, M P; Sargeant, A J
2004-01-01
Formulas are derived for the average level density of deformed, or transition, Gaussian orthogonal random matrix ensembles. After some general considerations about Gaussian ensembles we derive formulas for the average level density for (i) the transition from the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) to the Poisson ensemble and (ii) the transition from the GOE to $m$ GOEs.
Frequency dependence of orthogonal polarisation modes in pulsars
Smits, J.M.; Stappers, B.W.; Edwards, R.T.; Kuijpers, J.; Ramachandran, R.
2006-01-01
We have carried out a study of the orthogonal polarisation mode behaviour as afunction of frequency of 18pulsars, using average pulsar data from the European Pulsar Network(EPN). Assuming that the radiation consists of two100% polarised completely orthogonal superposed modes we separated these
Conceptual design of a quadrupole magnet for eRHIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2015-05-03
eRHIC is a proposed upgrade to the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which would allow collisions of up to 21 GeV polarized electrons with a variety of species from the existing RHIC accelerator. eRHIC employs an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) and an FFAG lattice for the arcs. The arcs require open-midplane quadrupole magnets of up to 30 T/m gradient of good field quality. In this paper we explore initial quadrupole magnet design concepts based on permanent magnetic material which allow to modify the gradient during operation.
Characterization and tuning of ultrahigh gradient permanent magnet quadrupoles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Becker
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The application of quadrupole devices with high field gradients and small apertures requires precise control over higher order multipole field components. We present a new scheme for performance control and tuning, which allows the illumination of most of the quadrupole device aperture because of the reduction of higher order field components. Consequently, the size of the aperture can be minimized to match the beam size achieving field gradients of up to 500 T m^{-1} at good imaging quality. The characterization method based on a Hall probe measurement and a Fourier analysis was confirmed using the high quality electron beam at the Mainz Microtron MAMI.
Quadrupole collectivity in silicon isotopes approaching neutron number N=28
Campbell, C. M.; Aoi, N.; Bazin, D.; Bowen, M. D.; Brown, B. A.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Horoi, M.; Kanno, S.; Motobayashi, T.; Riley, L. A.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, H.; Starosta, K.; Suzuki, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Terry, J. R.; Yoneda, K.; Zwahlen, H.
2007-08-01
Quadrupole deformation parameters, |β|, have been deduced for 36,38,40Si from measured inelastic proton-scattering cross sections. Due to the strong Z=14 subshell gap, low-lying quadrupole collectivity in these nuclei is attributed to the excitation of valence neutrons. Enhanced collectivity at N=26 indicates a reduced N=28 shell gap at large neutron excess in this chain of isotopes. Data are compared to large-scale shell-model calculations and prior Coulomb excitation measurements on 36,38Si.
Low-frequency quadrupole impedance of undulators and wigglers
Blednykh, A.; Bassi, G.; Hidaka, Y.; Smaluk, V.; Stupakov, G.
2016-10-01
An analytical expression of the low-frequency quadrupole impedance for undulators and wigglers is derived and benchmarked against beam-based impedance measurements done at the 3 GeV NSLS-II storage ring. The adopted theoretical model, valid for an arbitrary number of electromagnetic layers with parallel geometry, allows to calculate the quadrupole impedance for arbitrary values of the magnetic permeability μr . In the comparison of the analytical results with the measurements for variable magnet gaps, two limit cases of the permeability have been studied: the case of perfect magnets (μr→∞ ), and the case in which the magnets are fully saturated (μr=1 ).
Extension of the Measurement Capabilities of the Quadrupole Resonator
Junginger, Tobias; Welsch, Carsten
2012-01-01
The Quadrupole Resonator, designed to measure the surface resistance of superconducting samples at 400 MHz has been refurbished. The accuracy of its RF-DC compensation measurement technique is tested by an independent method. It is shown that the device enables also measurements at 800 and 1200 MHz and is capable to probe the critical RF magnetic field. The electric and magnetic field configuration of the Quadrupole Resonator are dependent on the excited mode. It is shown how this can be used to distinguish between electric and magnetic losses.
MODEL AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF FMT SYSTEM AND ORTHOGONAL FILTERBANKS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Xiaorong; Zheng Baoyu; Wang Lei
2009-01-01
An orthogonal multi-carrier modulation-Filtered Multi-Tone (FMT) modulation, is evaluated in this paper. The objective of this paper is to model the FMT system with polyphase filterbank network, design its synthesis/analysis orthogonal filterbanks and analyze their performance. Oversampled and critically sampled cases of FMT system are discussed in detail. Perfect Reconstruction (PR) properties of parallel orthogonal subchannels in the case of critically sampled is derived from filterbank polyphase decomposition. Diverse types of prototype filters which include Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) and Finite Impulse Response (FIR) are designed and analyzed. Performance analysis of orthogonal filterbanks which are implemented by these prototype filters are proposed and compared respectively. Simulation results of FMT orthogonal filterbanks are presented. In the end, the application prospect of FMT is discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin;
2014-01-01
Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. Different FWM processes are observed, phasematching between fiber modes of orthogonal polarization, intermodal phasematching across bandgaps, and intramodal...
Analytical modeling of orthogonal spiral structures
Santos, Auteliano A.; Hobeck, Jared D.; Inman, Daniel J.
2016-11-01
This paper presents the analytical modeling of orthogonal spiral structures (OSS), a promising option for small-scale energy harvesting applications. This unique multi-beam structure is analyzed using a distributed parameter approach with Euler-Bernoulli assumptions. First, an aluminum substrate is evaluated to determine if the proposed design can be used to capture vibration energy in the desired frequency range using a twelve beam OSS. Finite element calculations are used to validate the analytical model. This model is then modified to include the electromechanical effects of a piezoelectric layer added to the aluminum substrate. Lastly, the effects of the beam width and the number of beams is analyzed for a particular surface area of the OSS. Results show that increasing the number of beams causes a reduction in the first natural frequency. From those results, it is possible to conclude that OSS can be used as an alternative to current energy harvesting systems for MEMS applications, allowing the capture of environmental energy in the frequency range of common mechanical systems.
Orthogonal Polynomials and $S$-curves
Rakhmanov, E A
2011-01-01
This paper is devoted to a study of $S$-curves, that is systems of curves in the complex plane whose equilibrium potential in a harmonic external field satisfies a special symmetry property ($S$-property). Such curves have many applications. In particular, they play a fundamental role in the theory of complex (non-hermitian) orthogonal polynomials. One of the main theorems on zero distribution of such polynomials asserts that the limit zero distribution is presented by an equilibrium measure of an $S$-curve associated with the problem if such a curve exists. These curves are also the starting point of the matrix Riemann-Hilbert approach to srtong asymptotics. Other approaches to the problem of strong asymptotics (differential equations, Riemann surfaces) are also related to $S$-curves or may be interpreted this way. Existence problem $S$-curve in a given class of curves in presence of a nontrivial external field presents certain challenge. We formulate and prove a version of existence theorem for the case whe...
Anatomy of lithosphere necking during orthogonal rifting
Nestola, Yago; Cavozzi, Cristian; Storti, Fabrizio
2013-04-01
The evolution of lithosphere necking is a fundamental parameter controlling the structural architecture and thermal-state of rifted margin. The necking shape depends on several parameters, including the extensional strain-rate and thermal layering of the lithosphere. Despite a large number of analogue and numerical modelling studies on lithosphere extension, a quantitative description of the evolution of necking through time is still lacking. We used analogue modelling to simulate in three-dimension the progression of lithosphere thinning and necking during orthogonal rifting. In our models we simulated a typical "cold and young" 4-layer lithosphere stratigraphy: brittle upper crust (loose quartz sand), ductile lower crust (silicon-barite mixture), brittle upper mantle (loose quartz sand), and ductile lower mantle (silicon-barite mixture). The experimental lithosphere rested on a glucose syrup asthenosphere. We monitored model evolution by periodic and coeval laser scanning of both the surface topography and the lithosphere base. After model completion, each of the four layers was removed and the top of the underlying layer was scanned. This technical approach allowed us to quantify the evolution in space and time of the thinning factors for both the whole lithosphere (βz) and the crust (γ). The area of incremental effective stretching (βy) parallel to the extensional direction was obtained from the βz maps.
Aeroservoelastic modeling with proper orthogonal decomposition
Carlson, Henry A.; Verberg, Rolf; Harris, Charles A.
2017-02-01
A physics-based, reduced-order, aeroservoelastic model of an F-18 aircraft has been developed using the method of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), introduced to the field of fluid mechanics by Lumley. The model is constructed with data from high-dimensional, high-fidelity aeroservoelastic computational fluid dynamics (CFD-ASE) simulations that couple equations of motion of the flow to a modal model of the aircraft structure. Through POD modes, the reduced-order model (ROM) predicts both the structural dynamics and the coupled flow dynamics, offering much more information than typically employed, low-dimensional models based on system identification are capable of providing. ROM accuracy is evaluated through direct comparisons between predictions of the flow and structural dynamics with predictions from the parent, the CFD-ASE model. The computational overhead of the ROM is six orders of magnitude lower than that of the CFD-ASE model—accurately predicting the coupled dynamics from simulations of an F-18 fighter aircraft undergoing flutter testing over a wide range of transonic and supersonic flight speeds on a single processor in 1.073 s.
Comparison between covariant and orthogonal Lyapunov vectors.
Yang, Hong-liu; Radons, Günter
2010-10-01
Two sets of vectors, covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs) and orthogonal Lyapunov vectors (OLVs), are currently used to characterize the linear stability of chaotic systems. A comparison is made to show their similarity and difference, especially with respect to the influence on hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes (HLMs). Our numerical simulations show that in both Hamiltonian and dissipative systems HLMs formerly detected via OLVs survive if CLVs are used instead. Moreover, the previous classification of two universality classes works for CLVs as well, i.e., the dispersion relation is linear for Hamiltonian systems and quadratic for dissipative systems, respectively. The significance of HLMs changes in different ways for Hamiltonian and dissipative systems with the replacement of OLVs with CLVs. For general dissipative systems with nonhyperbolic dynamics the long-wavelength structure in Lyapunov vectors corresponding to near-zero Lyapunov exponents is strongly reduced if CLVs are used instead, whereas for highly hyperbolic dissipative systems the significance of HLMs is nearly identical for CLVs and OLVs. In contrast the HLM significance of Hamiltonian systems is always comparable for CLVs and OLVs irrespective of hyperbolicity. We also find that in Hamiltonian systems different symmetry relations between conjugate pairs are observed for CLVs and OLVs. Especially, CLVs in a conjugate pair are statistically indistinguishable in consequence of the microreversibility of Hamiltonian systems. Transformation properties of Lyapunov exponents, CLVs, and hyperbolicity under changes of coordinate are discussed in appendices.
TEXTURE PRESERVING IMAGE CODING USING ORTHOGONAL POLYNOMIALS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Krishnamoorthi
2010-08-01
Full Text Available In order to replace the artifacts in the textured background, a new texture preserving image coder using the set of orthogonal polynomials is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is based on the model that represents textures using points spread operator relating to a linear system. In the proposed texture based image coding scheme, the encoder first identifies textured regions, which are then analyzed to produce the model features. Then these features are later transmitted to decoder which decodes to form a synthetic texture and results into synthetic stage. The proposed modeling delivers to attain high compression ratio by maintaining constantly excellent visual quality. 92.31% with a PSNR value of 31.93dB when the quality factor is 5 for D96 image is achieved by the proposed scheme. By keeping up the quality factor as a constant constrained, we obtain 91.11% of compression ratio with a PSNR value of 33.26dB for different set of image that is, D38 image.
A 3D analytical model for orthogonal blade-vortex interaction noise
Quaglia, Michael E.; Léonard, Thomas; Moreau, Stéphane; Roger, Michel
2017-07-01
A 3D analytical model of an Orthogonal Blade-Vortex Interaction (OBVI) for Counter-Rotating Open Rotor (CROR) tonal noise is investigated. The specific influence of two parameters taking into account the three-dimensionality of both the vortex velocity and the convection velocity within the rotor-rotor volume is addressed. The first step is to extract the vortex parameters from a recent unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes computation and validate different vortex models. Lamb-Oseen and Scully vortices reproduce the behavior of the tip-vortex tangential velocity fairly well. Regarding the vortex axial velocity modeling, a Gaussian profile fits well with numerical results. On the one hand, the impact of the stream-tube contraction unbalances the lobes of the unsteady pressure with opposite phases produced by the OBVI event. This effect is larger than that of an equivalent blade sweep. On the other hand, adding the axial velocity deficit to the tangential one also unbalances the pressure lobes. Finally, from an acoustic point of view using Curle's acoustic analogy, both the stream-tube contraction and the axial velocity deficit have the same effect: they turn an acoustically-low efficient quadrupole into a strong dipole making these parameters fundamental for future CROR OBVI investigations.
Measurement of an atomic quadrupole moment using dynamic decoupling
Akerman, Nitzan; Shaniv, Ravid; Ozeri, Roee
2016-05-01
Some of the best clocks today are ion-based optical clocks. These clocks are referenced to a narrow optical transition in a trapped ion. An example for such a narrow transition is the electric quadrupole E 2 transition between states with identical parity. An important systematic shift of such a transition is the quadrupole shift resulting from the electric field gradient inherent to the ion trap. We present a new dynamic decoupling method that rejects magnetic field noise while measuring the small quadrupole shift of the optical clock transition. Using our sequence we measured the quadrupole moment of the 4D5/2 level in a trapped 88 Sr+ ion to be 2 .973-0 . 033 + 0 . 026 ea02 , where e is the electron charge and a0 is the Bohr radius. Our measurement improves the uncertainty of this value by an order of magnitude and thus helps mitigate an important systematic uncertainty in 88 Sr+ based optical atomic clocks and verifies complicated many-body quantum calculations.
Third-Order Apochromatic Drift-Quadrupole Beamline
Balandin, V; Decking, W; Golubeva, N
2012-01-01
In this paper we present the design of a straight drift-quadrupole system which can transport certain beam ellipses (apochromatic beam ellipses) without influence of the second and of the third order chromatic and geometric aberrations of the beamline transfer map.
Prototype Superconducting Quadrupole for the ISR low-beta insertion
CERN PhotoLab
1977-01-01
The picture shows the cold mass of the Quadrupole with its outer aluminium alloy rings pre-compressing the superconducting coils via the magnetic yoke split in 4 parts.The end of the inner vacuum chamber,supporting the 6-pole correction windings, can also be seen as well as the electrical connections. See also photos 7702690X, 7702307.
Quadrupole moment of superdeformed bands in Tb-151
Finck, C; Stezowski, O; Beck, FA; Appelbe, DE; Byrski, T; Courtin, S; Cullen, DM; Curien, D; de France, G; Duchene, G; Erturk, S; Gall, BJP; Garg, U; Haas, B; Khadiri, N; Kharraja, B; Kintz, N; Nourreddine, A; Prevost, D; Rigollet, C; Savajols, H; Twin, PJ; Vivien, JP; Zuber, K
1998-01-01
The quadrupole moments of the first two superdeformed (SD) bands in the nucleus Tb-151 have been measured with the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) using the EUROGAM gamma-ray spectrometer, The first excited band (B2) is identical to the yrast SD band of Dy-152 in terms of dynamical moments o
ISR Superconducting Quadrupole Prototype:preparing the first test
1976-01-01
The photo shows the first prototype quadrupole (still with an adjustable stainless steel shrinking cylinder) being lifted to be inserted in a vertical cryostat for testing. It attained the design field gradient without any quench.The persons are Pierre Rey and Michel Bouvier. See also 7702690X.
Detection of quadrupole relaxation in an optically pumped cesium vapour
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernabeu, E.; Tornos, J.
1985-10-01
The relaxation of quadrupole orientation induced by means of optical pumping in a cesium vapour is experimentally studied, and the results are compared to the theoretical predictions. The optical detection process of this type of orientation is also discussed as a function of the polarization and spectral profile of the detection light.
Alignment-to-orientation conversion and nuclear quadrupole resonance
Budker, D; Rochester, S M; Urban, J T
2003-01-01
The role of alignment-to-orientation conversion (AOC) in nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is discussed. AOC is shown to be the mechanism responsible for the appearance of macroscopic orientation in a sample originally lacking any global polarization. Parallels are drawn between NQR and AOC in atomic physics.
Quadrupole moment of superdeformed bands in Tb-151
Finck, C; Stezowski, O; Beck, FA; Appelbe, DE; Byrski, T; Courtin, S; Cullen, DM; Curien, D; de France, G; Duchene, G; Erturk, S; Gall, BJP; Garg, U; Haas, B; Khadiri, N; Kharraja, B; Kintz, N; Nourreddine, A; Prevost, D; Rigollet, C; Savajols, H; Twin, PJ; Vivien, JP; Zuber, K
The quadrupole moments of the first two superdeformed (SD) bands in the nucleus Tb-151 have been measured with the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) using the EUROGAM gamma-ray spectrometer, The first excited band (B2) is identical to the yrast SD band of Dy-152 in terms of dynamical moments
Targeted proteomic quantification on quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer.
Gallien, Sebastien; Duriez, Elodie; Crone, Catharina; Kellmann, Markus; Moehring, Thomas; Domon, Bruno
2012-12-01
There is an immediate need for improved methods to systematically and precisely quantify large sets of peptides in complex biological samples. To date protein quantification in biological samples has been routinely performed on triple quadrupole instruments operated in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM), and two major challenges remain. Firstly, the number of peptides to be included in one survey experiment needs to be increased to routinely reach several hundreds, and secondly, the degree of selectivity should be improved so as to reliably discriminate the targeted analytes from background interferences. High resolution and accurate mass (HR/AM) analysis on the recently developed Q-Exactive mass spectrometer can potentially address these issues. This instrument presents a unique configuration: it is constituted of an orbitrap mass analyzer equipped with a quadrupole mass filter as the front-end for precursor ion mass selection. This configuration enables new quantitative methods based on HR/AM measurements, including targeted analysis in MS mode (single ion monitoring) and in MS/MS mode (parallel reaction monitoring). The ability of the quadrupole to select a restricted m/z range allows one to overcome the dynamic range limitations associated with trapping devices, and the MS/MS mode provides an additional stage of selectivity. When applied to targeted protein quantification in urine samples and benchmarked with the reference SRM technique, the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument exhibits similar or better performance in terms of selectivity, dynamic range, and sensitivity. This high performance is further enhanced by leveraging the multiplexing capability of the instrument to design novel acquisition methods and apply them to large targeted proteomic studies for the first time, as demonstrated on 770 tryptic yeast peptides analyzed in one 60-min experiment. The increased quality of quadrupole-orbitrap data has the potential to improve existing protein
Strength Properties of 3D Solid Orthogonal Panel Fabrics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Cai-yun; LI Jia-lu
2004-01-01
This paper investigates the related strength properties of 3D solid orthogonal panel fabrics under the condition of low strain, then analyses the response of these fabrics to low tensile loads, as well as presents how it is possible to deduce the tensile properties of 3D solid orthogonal panel fabrics from the known properties of their constituent yarns and the fabric structural geometry while fabrics suffer from low strain (less than 10%). The experiments indicate that the relationship between stress and strain for 3D solid orthogonal panel fabrics is parabolic, and the relationship between fabric strain and yarn strain is linear. In addition, yarn strain is much less than fabric strain.
Perturbations around the zeros of classical orthogonal polynomials
Sasaki, Ryu
2014-01-01
Starting from degree N solutions of a time dependent Schroedinger-like equation for classical orthogonal polynomials, a linear matrix equation describing perturbations around the N zeros of the polynomial is derived. The matrix has remarkable Diophantine properties. Its eigenvalues are independent of the zeros. The corresponding eigenvectors provide the representations of the lower degree (0,1,...,N-1) polynomials in terms of the zeros of the degree N polynomial. The results are valid universally for all the classical orthogonal polynomials, including the Askey scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials and its q-analogues.
An efficient quantum secret sharing protocol with orthogonal product states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG YuGuang; WEN QiaoYan; ZHU FuChen
2007-01-01
An efficient quantum secret sharing protocol with orthogonal product states in the 3(×)3 Hilbert space is presented. The particles in the orthogonal product states form two particle sequences. One sequence is sent to Bob and the other is sent to Charlie after rearranging the particle orders. With the help of Alice, Bob and Charlie make the corresponding local measurement to obtain the information of the orthogonal product states prepared. This protocol has many distinct features such as great capacity and high efficiency.
Hermitian Self-Orthogonal Constacyclic Codes over Finite Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amita Sahni
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of Hermitian self-orthogonal constacyclic codes of length n over a finite field Fq2, n coprime to q, are found. The defining sets and corresponding generator polynomials of these codes are also characterised. A formula for the number of Hermitian self-orthogonal constacyclic codes of length n over a finite field Fq2 is obtained. Conditions for the existence of numerous MDS Hermitian self-orthogonal constacyclic codes are obtained. The defining set and the number of such MDS codes are also found.
A weighting orthogonal method for constant beamwidth beamforming matrices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DU Jinxiang; YAN Shenggang; LI Zhishun
2007-01-01
A weighting orthogonal method for constant beamwidth beamforming matrices is proposed. This method multiplies weighting factors to each orthogonal beamforming matrix corresponding to different frequency bins. The method proposed doesn't cause waveform aberration, and doesn't cause additional loss of array signal-to-noise ratio when the sources have uniform spectrum. The waveform aberration and additional loss of array signal-to-noise ratio can not be avoided simultaneously by ordinary orthogonal method. So we can get good detection and estimation performances at the same time by the weighting method. Simulation results and water tank experiments are presented to confirm the conclusion above.
Orthogonal Algorithm of Logic Probability and Syndrome-Testable Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1990-01-01
A new method,orthogonal algoritm,is presented to compute the logic probabilities(i.e.signal probabilities)accurately,The transfer properties of logic probabilities are studied first,which are useful for the calculation of logic probability of the circuit with random independent inputs.Then the orthogonal algoritm is described to compute the logic probability of Boolean function realized by a combinational circuit.This algorithm can make Boolean function “ORTHOGONAL”so that the logic probabilities can be easily calculated by summing up the logic probabilities of all orthogonal terms of the Booleam function.
Skew-orthogonal polynomials, differential systems and random matrix theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Saugata [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34100, Trieste (Italy)
2007-01-26
We study skew-orthogonal polynomials with respect to the weight function exp [ - 2V(x)], with V(x) = {sigma}{sup 2d}{sub K=1}(u{sub K}/K)x{sup K}, u{sub 2d} > 0, d > 0. A finite subsequence of such skew-orthogonal polynomials arising in the study of orthogonal and symplectic ensembles of random matrices satisfies a system of differential-difference-deformation equation. The vectors formed by such subsequence have the rank equal to the degree of the potential in the quaternion sense. These solutions satisfy certain compatibility condition and hence admit a simultaneous fundamental system of solutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dimitropoulos, C.; Maglione, M.; Borsa, F.
1988-03-01
The nuclear-magnetic-resonance and nuclear-quadrupole-resonance (NQR-NMR) spectra of /sup 187/Re and /sup 185/Re in a powder of rhenium metal were measured in the temperature range 5--10 K both in zero field and with an external magnetic field. The zero-field NQR spectrum is severely broadened by a nonuniform distribution of quadrupole interactions. The average quadrupole coupling frequencies measured at 5 K are, for the two isotopes, ..nu../sub Q/ = 39 +- 0.2 MHz (/sup 187/Re) and ..nu../sub Q/ = 40.8 +- 0.3 MHz (/sup 185/Re). The spectra obtained in the presence of an external magnetic field can be interpreted satisfactorily in terms of transitions among the eigenstates of the full Hamiltonian (Zeeman plus quadrupolar). Measurements of relaxation rates yield T/sub 1/T = 0.03 sK, indicating a relaxation mechanism driven by the hyperfine interaction with the conduction electrons. The feasibility of NQR-NMR studies in small metal particles in the presence of strong inhomogeneous quadrupole interactions is assessed
Improving the transfer of near infrared prediction models by orthogonal methods
Igne, B.; Roger, J.M.; Roussel, S.; Bellon-Maurel, V.; Hurburgh, C.R.
2009-01-01
Eight calibration transfer methods based on the removal of orthogonal signal were compared for the standardization of whole soybean protein and oil models. Dynamic orthogonal projection (DOP), transfer by orthogonal projection (TOP), error removal by orthogonal subtraction (EROS), orthogonal signal correction (OSC), and orthogonal projections to latent structures (O-PLS) as well as the modification and extension of some of these methods were compared in the transfer of models in intra and int...
Stability considerations of permanent magnet quadrupoles for CESR phase-III upgrade
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Lou
1998-06-01
Full Text Available The Cornell electron storage ring (CESR phase-III upgrade plan includes very strong permanent magnet quadrupoles in front of the cryostat for the superconducting quadrupoles and physically as close as possible to the interaction point. Together with the superconducting quadrupoles, they provide tighter vertical focusing at the interaction point. The quadrupoles are built with neodymium iron boron (NdFeB material and operate inside the 15 kG solenoid field. Requirements on the field quality and stability of these quadrupoles are discussed and test results are presented.
Electron scale nested quadrupole Hall field in Cluster observations of magnetic reconnection
Jain, Neeraj
2014-01-01
This Letter presents the first evidence of a new and unique feature of spontaneous reconnection at multiple sites in electron current sheet, viz. nested quadrupole structure of Hall field at electron scales, in Cluster observations. The new nested quadrupole is a consequence of electron scale processes in reconnection. Whistler response of the upstream plasma to the interaction of electron flows from neighboring reconnection sites produces a large scale quadrupole Hall field enclosing the quadrupole fields of the multiple sites, thus forming a nested structure. Electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of an electron current sheet yields mechanism of the formation of nested quadrupole.
Wireless Magnetic Sensor with Orthogonal Frequency Coding Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this SBIR Phase I research project is to develop batteryless, wireless magnetic sensors with orthogonal frequency coding (OFC). These sensors will be...
Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices
Glaister, P.
2008-01-01
The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.
Generalized Rayleigh and Jacobi Processes and Exceptional Orthogonal Polynomials
Chou, C.-I.; Ho, C.-L.
2013-09-01
We present four types of infinitely many exactly solvable Fokker-Planck equations, which are related to the newly discovered exceptional orthogonal polynomials. They represent the deformed versions of the Rayleigh process and the Jacobi process.
d-Orthogonal Charlier Polynomials and the Weyl Algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vinet, Luc [Centre de recherches mathematiques, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Qc, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Zhedanov, Alexei, E-mail: luc.vinet@umontreal.ca, E-mail: zhedanov@yahoo.com [Department of Electronic and Kinetic Properties, Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology R.Luxemburg str. 72, Donetsk, 83114 (Ukraine)
2011-03-01
It is shown that d-orthogonal Charlier polynomials arise as matrix elements of non unitary automorphisms of the Weyl algebra. The structural formulas that these polynomials obey are derived from this algebraic setting.
Self-mixing interferometry with mutual independent orthogonal polarized light.
Zhang, Shaohui; Zhang, Shulian; Tan, Yidong; Sun, Liqun
2016-02-15
A self-mixing interferometry with mutual independent orthogonal polarized light is introduced. Its most important feature is that two mutual independent orthogonal lights are used as measuring and reference light. Frequency shifting and polarization multiplexing technologies are used in the proposed optical system. Phase variation of the two orthogonal polarized beams is simultaneously measured through heterodyne demodulation with a lock-in amplifier. The phase difference of the orthogonal polarized light accurately reflects the target displacement. The target in this system is a non-cooperative object which is different from a traditional Michelson interferometer. The primary experimental results show that this kind of self-mixing interferometry is very feasible. Under typical room conditions, the system's short-term resolution is better than 2 nm.
Four-band compactly supported orthogonal symmetric interpolating scaling function
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
水鹏朗; 保铮
2001-01-01
An efficient method is proposed to design 4-band scaling functions w ith the following five advantages: compact support, orthogonality, symmetry, regularity, and interpolation; and a family of such scaling functions with the shortest support is given.
Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices
Glaister, P.
2008-01-01
The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.
Skew-orthogonal polynomials and random matrix theory
Ghosh, Saugata
2009-01-01
Orthogonal polynomials satisfy a three-term recursion relation irrespective of the weight function with respect to which they are defined. This gives a simple formula for the kernel function, known in the literature as the Christoffel-Darboux sum. The availability of asymptotic results of orthogonal polynomials and the simple structure of the Christoffel-Darboux sum make the study of unitary ensembles of random matrices relatively straightforward. In this book, the author develops the theory of skew-orthogonal polynomials and obtains recursion relations which, unlike orthogonal polynomials, depend on weight functions. After deriving reduced expressions, called the generalized Christoffel-Darboux formulas (GCD), he obtains universal correlation functions and non-universal level densities for a wide class of random matrix ensembles using the GCD. The author also shows that once questions about higher order effects are considered (questions that are relevant in different branches of physics and mathematics) the ...
Orthogonal M-band compactly supported interpolating wavelet theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张建康; 保铮
1999-01-01
Recently, 2-band interpolating wavelet transform has attracted much attention. It has the following several features: (ⅰ)The wavelet series transform coefficients of a signal in the multiresolution subspace are exactly consistent with its discrete wavelet transform coefficints; (ⅱ)good approximation performance; (ⅲ)efficiency in computation.However orthogonal 2-band compactly supported interpolating wavelet transform is only the first order. In order to overcome this shortcoming, the orthogonal M-band compactly supported interpolating wavelet basis is established. First, the unitary interpolating scaling filters of the length L=MK are characterized. Second, a scheme is given to design highorder unitary interpolating scaling filters. Third, a parameterization of the unitary interpolating scaling filters of the length L=4M is made. Fourth, the orthogonal 2-order and 3-order three-band compactly supported interpolating scaling functions are constructed. Finally, the properties of the orthogonal M-band c
COMPUTER GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION, IN TREBLE ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION, OF A POINT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SLONOVSCHI Andrei
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In the stages of understanding and study, by students, of descriptive geometry, the treble orthogonal projection of a point, creates problems in the situations in that one or more descriptive coordinates are zero. Starting from these considerations the authors have created an original computer program which offers to the students the possibility to easily understanding of the way in which a point is represented, in draught, in the treble orthogonal projection whatever which are its values of the descriptive coordinates.
Properties of Orthogonal Gaussian-Hermite Moments and Their Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Shen
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Moments are widely used in pattern recognition, image processing, and computer vision and multiresolution analysis. In this paper, we first point out some properties of the orthogonal Gaussian-Hermite moments, and propose a new method to detect the moving objects by using the orthogonal Gaussian-Hermite moments. The experiment results are reported, which show the good performance of our method.
Orthogonal apartments in Hilbert Grassmannians. Finite-dimensional case
Pankov, Mark
2015-01-01
Let $H$ be a complex Hilbert space of finite dimension $n\\ge 3$. Denote by ${\\mathcal G}_{k}(H)$ the Grassmannian consisting of $k$-dimensional subspaces of $H$. Every orthogonal apartment of ${\\mathcal G}_{k}(H)$ is defined by a certain orthogonal base of $H$ and consists of all $k$-dimensional subspaces spanned by subsets of this base. For $n\
Complex Hadamard matrices from Sylvester inverse orthogonal matrices
Dita, Petre
2009-01-01
A novel method to obtain parametrizations of complex inverse orthogonal matrices is provided. These matrices are natural generalizations of complex Hadamard matrices which depend on non zero complex parameters. The method we use is via doubling the size of inverse complex conference matrices. When the free parameters take values on the unit circle the inverse orthogonal matrices transform into complex Hadamard matrices, and in this way we find new parametrizations of Hadamard matrices for dim...
Computerized tomography using a modified orthogonal tangent correction algorithm.
Hsia, T C; Smith, S C; Lantz, B M
1976-10-01
A modified orthogonal tangent correction algorithm is presented for computerized tomography. The algorithm uses four X-rays scans spaced 45 degrees apart, to reconstruct a transverse axial image. The reconstruction procedure is interative in which image matrix elements are corrected by alternately matching the two sets of orthogonal scan data. The algorithm has been applied to phantom data as well as to video recorded fluoroscopic data.
Representations of the Schroedinger group and matrix orthogonal polynomials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vinet, Luc [Centre de recherches mathematiques, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Zhedanov, Alexei, E-mail: luc.vinet@umontreal.ca, E-mail: zhedanov@fti.dn.ua [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk 83114 (Ukraine)
2011-09-02
The representations of the Schroedinger group in one space dimension are explicitly constructed in the basis of the harmonic oscillator states. These representations are seen to involve matrix orthogonal polynomials in a discrete variable that have Charlier and Meixner polynomials as building blocks. The underlying Lie-theoretic framework allows for a systematic derivation of the structural formulas (recurrence relations, difference equations, Rodrigues' formula, etc) that these matrix orthogonal polynomials satisfy. (paper)
Non-Orthogonal Opportunistic Beamforming: Performance Analysis and Implementation
Xia, Minghua
2012-04-01
Aiming to achieve the sum-rate capacity in multi-user multi-antenna systems where $N_t$ antennas are implemented at the transmitter, opportunistic beamforming (OBF) generates~$N_t$ orthonormal beams and serves $N_t$ users during each channel use, which results in high scheduling delay over the users, especially in densely populated networks. Non-orthogonal OBF with more than~$N_t$ transmit beams can be exploited to serve more users simultaneously and further decrease scheduling delay. However, the inter-beam interference will inevitably deteriorate the sum-rate. Therefore, there is a tradeoff between sum-rate and scheduling delay for non-orthogonal OBF. In this context, system performance and implementation of non-orthogonal OBF with $N>N_t$ beams are investigated in this paper. Specifically, it is analytically shown that non-orthogonal OBF is an interference-limited system as the number of users $K \\\\to \\\\infty$. When the inter-beam interference reaches its minimum for fixed $N_t$ and~$N$, the sum-rate scales as $N\\\\ln\\\\left(\\\\frac{N}{N-N_t}\\ ight)$ and it degrades monotonically with the number of beams $N$ for fixed $N_t$. On the contrary, the average scheduling delay is shown to scale as $\\\\frac{1}{N}K\\\\ln{K}$ channel uses and it improves monotonically with $N$. Furthermore, two practical non-orthogonal beamforming schemes are explicitly constructed and they are demonstrated to yield the minimum inter-beam interference for fixed $N_t$ and $N$. This study reveals that, if user traffic is light and one user can be successfully served within a single transmission, non-orthogonal OBF can be applied to obtain lower worst-case delay among the users. On the other hand, if user traffic is heavy, non-orthogonal OBF is inferior to orthogonal OBF in terms of sum-rate and packet delay.
Dynamically orthogonal field equations for stochastic flows and particle dynamics
2011-02-01
turbulence. Cambridge University Press, 1959. [10] G.K. Batchelor . An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics . Cambridge University Press, 2000. [11] D. Bau III... Dynamically orthogonal field equations for stochastic fluid flows and particle dynamics by Themistoklis P. Sapsis Dipl., National Technical...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Dynamically orthogonal field equations for stochastic fluid flows and particle
Matrix Expression of the Orthogonal Wavelet(Packets)Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杜红彬; 姚平经; 等
2002-01-01
Matrix expression of finite orthogonal wavelet transform of finite impulse response signal is nmore valuable for theoretical analysis and understanding.However,clear deduction for matrix expression has not been provided yet.In this paper,the formulation to generate the related matrix is put forware and the theorem on the orthogonality of this matrix proved.This effort deploys a basis for more deeper and wider applications in chemical processes.
MULTIPLE TRELLIS CODED ORTHOGONAL TRANSMIT SCHEME FOR MULTIPLE ANTENNA SYSTEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this paper, a novel multiple trellis coded orthogonal transmit scheme is proposed to exploit transmit diversity in fading channels. In this scheme, a unique vector from a set of orthogonal vectors is assigned to each transmit antenna. Each of the output symbols from the multiple trellis encoder is multiplied with one of these orthogonal vectors and transmitted from corresponding transmit antennas. By correlating with corresponding orthogonal vectors, the receiver separates symbols transmitted from different transmit antennas.This scheme can be adopted in coherent/differential systems with any number of transmit antennas. It is shown that the proposed scheme encompasses the conventional trellis coded unitary space-time modulation based on the optimal cyclic group codes as a special case. We also propose two better designs over the conventional trellis coded unitary space-time modulation. The first design uses 8 Phase Shift Keying (8-PSK) constellations instead of 16 Phase Shift Keying (16-PSK) constellations in the conventional trellis coded unitary space-time modulation. As a result, the product distance of this new design is much larger than that of the conventional trellis coded unitary space-time modulation. The second design introduces constellations with multiple levels of amplitudes into the design of the multiple trellis coded orthogonal transmit scheme. For both designs, simulations show that multiple trellis coded orthogonal transmit schemes can achieve better performance than the conventional trellis coded unitary space-time schemes.
Orthogonally linear polarized lasers(Ⅰ)--principle and devices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Shulian; XU Ting
2005-01-01
Two kinds of orthogonally polarized lasers, i.e. Zeeman dual-frequency lasers and four-frequency ring lasers (laser gyros) have been developed since the invention of lasers, in which circularly polarized lights oscillate. This paper summarizes recent progress of the study on orthogonally linear polarized lasers with the standing wave cavity. Firstly, the expression of producing orthogonally linear polarized lights in standing wave cavity, i.e. laser frequency splitting, is given. Almost all the birefringence effects made in laser cavity are used to produce orthogonally linear polarized lights. The effect includes quartz crystal birefringence effect, calcite birefringence effect,stress (photo-elastic) birefringence effect and electro-optical birefringence effect. Secondly, several physical phenomena of orthogonally linear polarized lasers are discovered such as aberrance of frequency splitting curves caused by optical activity of quartz crystal, order-passing of longitudinal modes with frequency splitting and strong modes competition. Finally, because the traditional Zeeman dual frequency laser cannot output frequency difference larger than 3 MHz, the approaches of obtaining larger frequency difference are studied. The sequential results, several kinds of orthogonally polarized lasers, are described, such as birefringence dual frequency lasers outputting a frequency difference from 40 MHz to hundreds of megahertz, birefringence-Zeeman dual frequency lasers outputting a frequency difference from 1 MHz to hundreds of megahertz, the LD pumped YAG birefringence dual frequency laser outputting frequency difference of several gigahertz, and the lasers whose longitudinal mode spacing is c/4L instead of c/2L.
A twin aperture resistive quadrupole for the LHC
Clark, G S; de Rijk, G; Racine, M
2000-01-01
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC's cleaning insertions require 48 twin aperture resistive quadrupoles. These 3.1 m long magnets have a gradient of 35 T/m for an inscribed circle of 46 mm diameter and an aperture separation distance of 224 mm. This magnet project is part of the Canadian contribution to the LHC. A prototype magnet was delivered in May 1998 and measured at CERN. Design changes were made based on the results. Due to the small apertures and the complicated geometry, the mechanical precision of the laminations and stacks is the main issue in the production of these quadrupoles. Series production will start in October 1999. The design and the measurement results are described in this paper. (1 refs).
Performance of an Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole
Gottschalk, Stephen C; Kangas, Kenneth; Spencer, Cherrill M; Volk, James T
2005-01-01
An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic centerline and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic centerline stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic centerline. Calibration procedures as well as centerline measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.
Low-frequency quadrupole impedance of undulators and wigglers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Blednykh
2016-10-01
Full Text Available An analytical expression of the low-frequency quadrupole impedance for undulators and wigglers is derived and benchmarked against beam-based impedance measurements done at the 3 GeV NSLS-II storage ring. The adopted theoretical model, valid for an arbitrary number of electromagnetic layers with parallel geometry, allows to calculate the quadrupole impedance for arbitrary values of the magnetic permeability μ_{r}. In the comparison of the analytical results with the measurements for variable magnet gaps, two limit cases of the permeability have been studied: the case of perfect magnets (μ_{r}→∞, and the case in which the magnets are fully saturated (μ_{r}=1.
Nuclear quadrupole coupling interactions in the rotational spectrum of tryptamine
Alonso, J. L.; Cortijo, V.; Mata, S.; Pérez, C.; Cabezas, C.; López, J. C.; Caminati, W.
2011-09-01
Four conformers of tryptamine have been detected in a supersonic expansion and characterized by laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy LA-MB-FTMW in the 5-10 GHz frequency range. The quadrupole hyperfine structure originated by two 14N nuclei has been completely resolved for all conformers and used for their unambiguous identification. Nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of the nitrogen atom of the side chain have been used to determine the orientation of the amino group involved in N-H⋯π interactions: to the π electronic system of the pyrrole unit in the Gauche-Pyrrole conformers (GPy) or to the phenyl unit in the Gauche-Phenyl ones.
120-mm superconducting quadrupole for interaction regions of hadron colliders
Zlobin, A V; Mokhov, N V; Novitski, I
2012-01-01
Magnetic and mechanical designs of a Nb3Sn quadrupole magnet with 120-mm aperture suitable for interaction regions of hadron colliders are presented. The magnet is based on a two-layer shell-type coil and a cold iron yoke. Special spacers made of a low-Z material are implemented in the coil mid-planes to reduce the level of radiation heat deposition and radiation dose in the coil. The quadrupole mechanical structure is based on aluminum collars supported by an iron yoke and a stainless steel skin. Magnet parameters including maximum field gradient and field harmonics, Nb3Sn coil pre-stress and protection at the operating temperatures of 4.5 and 1.9 K are reported. The level and distribution of radiation heat deposition in the coil and other magnet components are discussed.
Chlorine Nuclear Quadrupole Hyperfine Structure in the Vinyl - Chloride Complex
Leung, Helen O.; Marshall, Mark D.; Messinger, Joseph P.
2015-06-01
The microwave spectrum of the vinyl chloride--hydrogen chloride complex, presented at last year's symposium, is greatly complicated by the presence of two chlorine nuclei as well as an observed, but not fully explained tunneling motion. Indeed, although it was possible at that time to demonstrate conclusively that the complex is nonplanar, the chlorine nuclear quadrupole hyperfine splitting in the rotational spectrum resisted analysis. With higher resolution, Balle-Flygare Fourier transform microwave spectra, the hyperfine structure has been more fully resolved, but appears to be perturbed for some rotational transitions. It appears that knowledge of the quadrupole coupling constants will provide essential information regarding the structure of the complex, specifically the location of the hydrogen atom in HCl. Our progress towards obtaining values for these constants will be presented.
Beta Function Measurement in the Tevatron Using Quadrupole Gradient Modulation
Jansson, Andreas; Volk, James T
2005-01-01
Early in Run2, there was an effort to compare the different emittance measurements in the Tevatron (flying wires and synchtotron light) and understand the origin of the observed differences. To measure the beta function at a few key locations near the instruments, air-core quadrupoles were installed. By modulating the gradient of these magents and measuring the effect on the tune, the lattice parameters can be extracted. Initially, the results seem to disagree with with other methods. At the time, the lattice was strongly coupled due to a skew component in the main dipoles, caused by sagging of the cryostat. After a large fraction of the superconducting magnets were shimmed to remove a strong skew quadrupole component, the results now agree with expectations, confirming that the beta function is not the major error source of discrepancy in the emittance measurement.
Quadrupole association and dissociation of hydrogen in the early Universe
Forrey, Robert C.
2016-10-01
Radiative association and photodissociation rates are calculated for quadrupole transitions of H2. A complete set of bound and unbound states are included in a self-consistent master equation to obtain steady-state concentrations for a dilute system of hydrogen atoms and molecules. Phenomenological rate constants computed from the steady-state concentrations satisfy detailed balance for any combination of matter and radiation temperature. Simple formulas are derived for expressing the steady-state distributions in terms of equilibrium distributions. The rate constant for radiative association is found to be generally small for all temperature combinations. The photodissociation rate constant for quadrupole transitions is found to dominate the rate constants for other H2 photodestruction mechanisms for {T}{{R}} ≤slant 3000 K. Implications for the formation and destruction of H2 in the early Universe are discussed.
Quadrupole association and dissociation of hydrogen in the early Universe
Forrey, Robert C
2016-01-01
Radiative association and photodissociation rates are calculated for quadrupole transitions of H2. A complete set of bound and unbound states are included in a self-consistent master equation to obtain steady-state concentrations for a dilute system of hydrogen atoms and molecules. Phenomenological rate constants computed from the steady-state concentrations satisfy detailed balance for any combination of matter and radiation temperature. Simple formulas are derived for expressing the steady-state distributions in terms of equilibrium distributions. The rate constant for radiative association is found to be generally small for all temperature combinations. The photodissociation rate constant for quadrupole transitions is found to dominate the rate constants for other H2 photodestruction mechanisms for radiation temperatures less than or equal to 3000 K. Implications for the formation and destruction of H2 in the early universe are discussed.
Prototype of Superconducting Quadrupole for ISR Low-Beta Insertion
1977-01-01
In colliders, smaller beam cross-section means higher luminosity. Beam-size being proportional to the square-root of the "beta function" value, a small beta means small beam size, hence high luminosity. The first p-p collision in the ISR occurred in January 1971 and in 1973 a study was launched on low-beta insertions, which focus beams to even smaller sizes at the beam crossing points. In 1976 the first prototype of a superconducting quadrupole was tested. Here we see Theodor Tortschanoff with a prototype of 1.25 m magnetic length. Manufacture of 8 quadrupoles (4 of L=1.15 m, 4 of L=0.65 m) began at Alsthom in 1978. They were installed at point 8 of the ISR, enhancing luminosity there until final low-beta operation in December 1983. For details see "Yellow Report" CERN 76-16.
Generating Low Beta Regions with Quadrupoles for Final Muon Cooling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab
2017-05-01
Muon beams and colliders are rich sources of new physics, if muons can be cooled. A normalized rms transverse muon emittance of 280 microns has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL, G4beamline, and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to approach a normalized transverse emittance of 100 microns and finish 6D muon cooling. The low beta regions produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the beta function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 microns at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Work remains to be done on chromaticity correction.
High Gradient $Nb_3Sn$ Quadrupole Demonstrator MKQXF Engineering Design
Kokkinos, C; Karppinen, Mikko; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2016-01-01
A new mechanical design concept for the $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupoles has been developed with a goal of an accelerator quality magnet that can be industrially produced in large series. This concept can easily be extended to any length and applied on both 1-in-1 and 2-in-1 configurations. It is based on the pole-loading concept and collared coils using dipole-type collars. Detailed design optimisation of a demonstrator magnet based on present base-line HL-LHC IR quadrupole QXF coil geometry has been carried out including the end regions. This report describes the design concept and the fully parametric multi-physics finite element (FE) models that were used to determine the optimal assembly parameters including the effects of the manufacturing tolerances.
Wooden models of an AA quadrupole between bending magnets
1978-01-01
At two points in the AA lattice, a quadrupole (QDN, defocusing, narrow) was tightly wedged between two bending magnets (BST, short, wide). This picture of wooden models lets one imagine the strong interaction between their magnetic fields. There was no way one could calculate with the necessary accuracy the magnetic effects and their consequences for the machine optics. The necessary corrections were made after measurements with a circulating beam, in a tedious iterative procedure, with corrrection coils and shims.
Testing the Dipole and Quadrupole Moments of Galactic Models
Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Horack, John M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Hakkila, Jon
1996-01-01
If gamma-ray bursts originate in the Galaxy, at some level there should be a galactic pattern in their distribution on the sky. We test published galactic models by comparing their dipole and quadrupole moments with the moments of the BATSE 3B catalog. While many models have moments that are too large, several models are in acceptable or good agreement with the data.
Electrostatic quadrupole focusing in the AGS g-2 storage ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennett, G.; Larsen, R.; Morse, W.; Semertzidis, Y.; Yelk, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Liu, Z. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1993-06-01
Electrostatic quadrupole focusing is to be used in the high precision measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, AGS Experiment 821. The final design uses planar rather than hyperbolic electrodes, and the field is pulsed to minimize the effect of trapped electrons. The mechanical design is described. Performance in a 1.5T magnetic field at less than 10{sup {minus}6} Torr is reviewed.
Electrostatic quadrupole focusing in the AGS g-2 storage ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennett, G.; Larsen, R.; Morse, W.; Semertzidis, Y.; Yelk, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Liu, Z. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics)
1993-01-01
Electrostatic quadrupole focusing is to be used in the high precision measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, AGS Experiment 821. The final design uses planar rather than hyperbolic electrodes, and the field is pulsed to minimize the effect of trapped electrons. The mechanical design is described. Performance in a 1.5T magnetic field at less than 10[sup [minus]6] Torr is reviewed.
Active quadrupole stabilization for future linear particle colliders
Collette, Christophe; Kuzmin, Andrey; Janssens, Stef; Sylte, Magnus; Guinchard, Michael; Hauviller, Claude
2010-01-01
The future Compact LInear particle Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN will require to stabilize heavy electromagnets, and also to provide them some positioning capabilities. Firstly, this paper presents the concept adopted to address both requirements. Secondly, the control strategy adopted for the stabilization is studied numerically, showing that the quadrupole can be stabilized in both lateral and vertical direction. Finally, the strategy is validated experimentally on a single degree of freedom scaled test bench.
Permanent magnet quadrupoles for the CLIC Drive Beam decelerator
Shepherd, Ben; Collomb, Norbert
2012-01-01
STFC in collaboration with CERN has developed a new type of adjustable permanent magnet based quadrupole for the CLIC Drive Beam Decelerator. It uses vertical movement of the permanent magnets to achieve an integrated gradient range of 3.6-14.6T, which will allow it to be used for the first 60% of the decelerator line. Construction of a prototype of this magnet has begun; following this, it will be measured magnetically at CERN and Daresbury Laboratory.
Short quadrupole, first at the SC, then at LEAR
1982-01-01
Quadrupoles of this type were built for the beam lines of the 600 MeV Synchro-Cylclotron. Surplus ones were installed in the LEAR injection line. The particularity of these quads is that they are very short and that a special design, resembling the "Lambertson magnet", limits and linearizes their stray field. This was achieved by the iron between the poles extending beyond the poles.
General quadrupole shapes in the Interacting Boson Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leviatan, A.
1990-01-01
Characteristic attributes of nuclear quadrupole shapes are investigated within the algebraic framework of the Interacting Boson Model. For each shape the Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic and collective parts, normal modes are identified and intrinsic states are constructed and used to estimate transition matrix elements. Special emphasis is paid to new features (e.g. rigid triaxiality and coexisting deformed shapes) that emerge in the presence of the three-body interactions. 27 refs.
Determining gaseous composition of fluid inclusions with quadrupole mass spectrometer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱和平; 王莉娟
2002-01-01
Quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is an instrument for effectively determining gaseous composition of fluid inclusion. The gaseous component is extracted from inclusions with thermal decrepitation method and then determined with the sensitive QMS instrument. The method is characterized by high sensitivity and high accuracy with the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 6) of less than 3%. It has been successfully used for analyzing fluid inclusions. The analytical re-sults meet the requirement of geological study.
Targeted Proteomic Quantification on Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer*
Gallien, Sebastien; Duriez, Elodie; Crone, Catharina; Kellmann, Markus; Moehring, Thomas; Domon, Bruno
2012-01-01
There is an immediate need for improved methods to systematically and precisely quantify large sets of peptides in complex biological samples. To date protein quantification in biological samples has been routinely performed on triple quadrupole instruments operated in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM), and two major challenges remain. Firstly, the number of peptides to be included in one survey experiment needs to be increased to routinely reach several hundreds, and secondly, the degr...
Mass Quadrupole as a Source of Naked Singularities
Quevedo, Hernando
2010-01-01
We investigate the gravitational field of a static mass with quadrupole moment in empty space. It is shown that in general this configuration is characterized by the presence of curvature singularities without a surrounding event horizon. These naked singularities generate an effective field of repulsive gravity which, in turn, drastically changes the behavior of test particles. As a possible consequence, the accretion disk around a naked singularity presents a particular discontinuous structure.
NMR Probe as a Field Marker in a Quadrupole
Caspers, Friedhelm; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division
1999-01-01
A study has started to improve the reproducibility of the focusing elements of the SPS for its operation as LHC injector. This note is a copy of the oral presentation to the IMMW11 seminar, which took place at Brookhaven National Laboratory in September 1999. It indicates the feasibility of the creation of a "G-Train" via a NMR probe used as a field marker in a reference quadrupole.
Longitudinal capture in the radio-frequency-quadrupole structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inagaki, S.
1980-03-01
The radio-frequency-quadrupole (RFQ) linac structure not only can attain easily transverse focusing in the low-beta region, but also can obtain very high capture efficiency because of its low beta-lambda and low-particle rigidity. An optimization study of the zero space-charge longitudinal capture in an RFQ linac that yields configurations with large capture efficiency is described.
Quadrupole Law and Steering Options in the Linac4 DTL
Stovall, J
2009-01-01
The Linac4 drift-tube linac (DTL) reference design has been modified to reduce the power consumption in tank 1 by adjusting the accelerating field and phase laws. In this note we investigate three options for the transverse focusing lattice, quadrupole law, and two options for beam steering. We use acceptance, sensitivity to alignment errors and the probabiity of beam loss as figures of merit for evaluating each option.
Analysis of lamination measurements for CERN's twin aperture quadrupoles
Clark, G S
2002-01-01
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC's cleaning insertions require 48 twin aperture resistive quadrupoles. The laminations for these magnets are punched from low carbon steel sheet 1.5 mm thick. To check the quality of the laminations, samples are regularly collected and measured. This paper describes how these measurements are analyzed. This work is part of the Canadian contribution to the LHC. (5 refs).
MEASURING LOCAL GRADIENT AND SKEW QUADRUPOLE ERRORS IN RHIC IRS.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CARDONA,J.; PEGGS,S.; PILAT,R.; PTITSYN,V.
2004-07-05
The measurement of local linear errors at RHIC interaction regions using an ''action and phase'' analysis of difference orbits has already been presented. This paper evaluates the accuracy of this technique using difference orbits that were taken when known gradient errors and skew quadrupole errors were intentionally introduced. It also presents action and phase analysis of simulated orbits when controlled errors are intentionally placed in a RHIC simulation model.
Page, P R
2003-01-01
We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.
Focusing Strength Measurements of the Main Quadrupoles for the LHC
Smirnov, N; Calvi, M; Deferne, G; Di Marco, J; Sammut, N; Sanfilippo, S
2006-01-01
More than 1100 quadrupole magnets of different types are needed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is in the construction stage at CERN. The most challenging parameter to measure on these quadrupoles is the integrated gradient (Gdl). An absolute accuracy of 0.1% is needed to control the beta beating. In this paper we briefly describe the whole set of equipment used for Gdl measurements: Automated Scanner system, Single Stretched Wire system and Twin Coils system, concentrating mostly on their absolute accuracies. Most of the possible inherent effects that can introduce systematic errors are discussed along with their preventive methods. In the frame of this qualification some of the magnets were tested with two systems. The results of the intersystem cross-calibrations are presented. In addition, the qualification of the measurement system used at the magnet manufacturer's is based on results of more than 40 quadrupole assemblies tested in cold conditions at CERN and in warm conditions at the vendor si...
In-situ Vibration Measurements of the CTF2 Quadrupoles
Coosemans, Williame
2004-01-01
The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC), presently under study at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), aims at colliding high energy âﾜnanobeamsâ at a luminosity of 1035 cm-2s-1. Vibrations of the lattice elements, if not properly corrected, can result in a loss in performance by creating both unacceptable emittance growth in the linear accelerator and relative beam-beam offsets at the interaction point. Of particular concern are the vibrations induced by the accelerator environment. For example, the circulating water used to cool the lattice quadrupoles will increase magnet vibration levels. In the framework of the CLIC stability study, in-situ measurements of quadrupole vibrations have been performed at the CLIC Test Facility 2 (CTF2) with all accelerator equipment switched on. Since the CTF2 quadrupoles and their alignment support structures are realistic prototypes of those to be used in the CLIC linac, the measurements provide a realistic estimate of the CLIC magnet vibrations in a...
Development of a $Nb_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnet model
Devred, Arnaud; Gourdin, C; Juster, F P; Peyrot, M; Rey, J M; Rifflet, J M; Streiff, J M; Védrine, P
2001-01-01
One possible application of Nb/sub 3/Sn, whose superconducting properties far exceed those of NbTi, is the fabrication of short and powerful quadrupole magnets for the crowded interaction regions of large particle accelerators. To learn about Nb/sub 3/Sn technology and to evaluate fabrication techniques, DAPNIA/STCM at CEA/Saclay has undertaken an R&D program aimed at designing and building a 1 m-long, 56 mm single-aperture quadrupole magnet model. The model relies on the same coil geometry as the LHC arc quadrupole magnets, but has no iron yoke. It is expected to produce a nominal field gradient of 211 T/m at 11870 A. The coils are wound from Rutherford-type cables insulated with quartz fiber tapes, before being heat-treated and vacuum-impregnated with epoxy resin. Laminated, austenitic collars, locked around the coil assembly by means of keys restrain the Lorentz forces. After reviewing the conceptual design of the magnet model, we report on the cable and cable insulation development programs and we pre...
Final 6D Muon Ionization Colling using Strong Focusing Quadrupoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab
2016-11-15
Abstract Low emittance muon beam lines and muon colliders are potentially a rich source of BSM physics for future exper- imenters. A muon beam normalized emittance of ax,y,z = (280, 280, 1570)µm has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to achieve a normalized transverse emittance of 100 µm and complete 6D cooling. The low beta regions, as low as 5 mm, produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam transversely. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the transverse betatron function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 µm at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Cooling challenges include chromaticity correction, ssband overlap, quadrupole acceptance, and staying in phase with RF.
Position Stability Monitoring of THEthe LCLS Undulator Quadrupoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nuhn, Heinz Dieter; Gassner, Georg; Peters, Franz; /SLAC
2012-03-26
X-ray FELs demand that the positions of undulator components be stable to less than 1 {mu}m per day. Simultaneously, the undulator length increases significantly in order to saturate at x-ray wavelengths. To minimize the impact of the outside environment, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) undulator is placed underground, but reliable data about ground motion inside such a tunnel was not available in the required stability range during the planning phase. Therefore, a new position monitor system had been developed and installed with the LCLS undulator. This system is capable of measuring x, y, roll, pitch and yaw of each of the 33 undulator quadrupoles with respect to stretched wires. Instrument resolution is about 10 nm and instrument drift is negligible. Position data of individual quadrupoles can be correlated along the entire 132-m long undulator. The system has been under continuous operation since 2009. This report describes long term experiences with the running system and the observed positional stability of the undulator quadrupoles.
Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Hwan-Wei; Ho, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Ming-Te; Huang, Sheng-Jhe; Yang, Zih-Yi; Lin, Xin-Yao
2016-07-25
A bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-invisible laser light communication (IVLLC) integrated system that employs polarization-orthogonal modulation scheme for hybrid cable television (CATV)/microwave (MW)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission is proposed and demonstrated. To our knowledge, it is the first one that adopts a polarization-orthogonal modulation scheme in a bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-IVLLC integrated system with hybrid CATV/MW/MMW/BB signal. For downlink transmission, carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), composite triple-beat (CTB), and bit error rate (BER) perform well over 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and 10-m RF/50-m optical wireless transport scenarios. For uplink transmission, good BER performance is obtained over 40-km SMF and 50-m optical wireless transport scenario. Such a bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-IVLLC integrated system for hybrid CATV/MW/MMW/BB signal transmission will be an attractive alternative for providing broadband integrated services, including CATV, Internet, and telecommunication services. It is shown to be a prominent one to present the advancements for the convergence of fiber backbone and RF/optical wireless feeder.
A convergence study for SPDEs using combined Polynomial Chaos and Dynamically-Orthogonal schemes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Minseok [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Sapsis, Themistoklis P. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012 (United States); Karniadakis, George Em, E-mail: george_karniadakis@brown.edu [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)
2013-07-15
We study the convergence properties of the recently developed Dynamically Orthogonal (DO) field equations [1] in comparison with the Polynomial Chaos (PC) method. To this end, we consider a series of one-dimensional prototype SPDEs, whose solution can be expressed analytically, and which are associated with both linear (advection equation) and nonlinear (Burgers equation) problems with excitations that lead to unimodal and strongly bi-modal distributions. We also propose a hybrid approach to tackle the singular limit of the DO equations for the case of deterministic initial conditions. The results reveal that the DO method converges exponentially fast with respect to the number of modes (for the problems considered) giving same levels of computational accuracy comparable with the PC method but (in many cases) with substantially smaller computational cost compared to stochastic collocation, especially when the involved parametric space is high-dimensional.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brad W. Watson
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Nanostructuring organic polymers and organic/inorganic hybrid materials and controlling blend morphologies at the molecular level are the prerequisites for modern electronic devices including biological sensors, light emitting diodes, memory devices and solar cells. To achieve all-around high performance, multiple organic and inorganic entities, each designed for specific functions, are commonly incorporated into a single device. Accurate arrangement of these components is a crucial goal in order to achieve the overall synergistic effects. We describe here a facile methodology of nanostructuring conjugated polymers and inorganic quantum dots into well-ordered core/shell composite nanofibers through cooperation of several orthogonal non-covalent interactions including conjugated polymer crystallization, block copolymer self-assembly and coordination interactions. Our methods provide precise control on the spatial arrangements among the various building blocks that are otherwise incompatible with one another, and should find applications in modern organic electronic devices such as solar cells.
Orthogonal rotation-invariant moments for digital image processing.
Lin, Huibao; Si, Jennie; Abousleman, Glen P
2008-03-01
Orthogonal rotation-invariant moments (ORIMs), such as Zernike moments, are introduced and defined on a continuous unit disk and have been proven powerful tools in optics applications. These moments have also been digitized for applications in digital image processing. Unfortunately, digitization compromises the orthogonality of the moments and, therefore, digital ORIMs are incapable of representing subtle details in images and cannot accurately reconstruct images. Typical approaches to alleviate the digitization artifact can be divided into two categories: 1) careful selection of a set of pixels as close approximation to the unit disk and using numerical integration to determine the ORIM values, and 2) representing pixels using circular shapes such that they resemble that of the unit disk and then calculating ORIMs in polar space. These improvements still fall short of preserving the orthogonality of the ORIMs. In this paper, in contrast to the previous methods, we propose a different approach of using numerical optimization techniques to improve the orthogonality. We prove that with the improved orthogonality, image reconstruction becomes more accurate. Our simulation results also show that the optimized digital ORIMs can accurately reconstruct images and can represent subtle image details.
A Non-orthogonal STFC-OFDM on Frequency-Selective Fading Channels
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XUE Yi; JIANG Ling-ge; HE Chen
2005-01-01
A new non-orthogonal space-time-frequency code (STFC) was proposed. In conjunction with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), it is appropriate for the application on frequency-selective fading channels. On the basis of the existing non-orthogonal STC, frequency diversity is studied and a new non-orthogonal STFC is further designed. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the non-orthogonal STFC-OFDM has the advantage of large diversity order, high bandwidth efficiency and better BER performance when compared with the orthogonal STC/STFC OFDM and non-orthogonal STC-OFDM systems.
Mao, Qian; Bai, Min; Xu, Jin-Di; Kong, Ming; Zhu, Lin-Yin; Zhu, He; Wang, Qiang; Li, Song-Lin
2014-08-01
In present study, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) based metabolomics approach was established to investigate the metabolic profiles and characteristic chemical markers for distinguishing between leaves of Panax ginseng (LPG) and Panax quinquefolius (LPQ). The UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) to rapidly find the potential characteristic components of LPG and LPQ, and the identities of detected peaks including the potential characteristic components were elucidated. Totally, 86 components were identified from these 2 kinds of leaf samples, in which 9 ginsenosides could be regarded as the characteristic chemical markers for the discrimination of LPG from LPQ. These results suggested that UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS based metabolomics approach is a powerful tool to rapidly find characteristic markers for the quality control of LPG.
Bose-Einstein Condensation in an electro-pneumatically transformed quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap
Kumar, Sunil; Verma, Gunjan; Vishwakarma, Chetan; Noaman, Md; Rapol, Umakant
2014-01-01
We report a novel approach for preparing a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of $^{87}$Rb atoms using electro-pneumatically driven transfer of atoms into a Quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap (QUIC Trap). More than 5$\\times$$10^{8}$ atoms from a Magneto-optical trap are loaded into a spherical quadrupole trap and then these atoms are transferred into an Ioffe trap by moving the Ioffe coil towards the center of the quadrupole coil, thereby, changing the distance between quadrupole trap center and the Ioffe coil. The transfer efficiency is more than 80 \\%. This approach is different from a conventional approach of loading the atoms into a QUIC trap wherein the spherical quadrupole trap is transformed into a QUIC trap by changing the currents in the quadrupole and the Ioffe coils. The phase space density is then increased by forced rf evaporative cooling to achieve the Bose-Einstein condensation having more than $10^{5}$ atoms.
Testing of Nb3Sn quadrupole coils using magnetic mirror structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zlobin, A.V.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab
2009-07-01
This paper describes the design and parameters of a quadrupole mirror structure for testing the mechanical, thermal and quench performance of single shell-type superconducting quadrupole coils at field, current and force levels similar to that of real magnet. The concept was experimentally verified by testing two quadrupole coils, previously used in quadrupole models, in the developed mirror structure in the temperature range from 4.5 to 1.9 K. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, heaters, and strain gauges to monitor their mechanical and thermal properties and quench performance. A new quadrupole coil made of improved Nb{sub 3}Sn RRP-108/127 strand and cable insulation based on E-glass tape was also tested using this structure. The fabrication and test results of the quadrupole mirror models are reported and discussed.
Testing of Nb3Sn quadrupole coils using magnetic mirror structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zlobin, A.V.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab
2009-07-01
This paper describes the design and parameters of a quadrupole mirror structure for testing the mechanical, thermal and quench performance of single shell-type superconducting quadrupole coils at field, current and force levels similar to that of real magnet. The concept was experimentally verified by testing two quadrupole coils, previously used in quadrupole models, in the developed mirror structure in the temperature range from 4.5 to 1.9 K. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, heaters, and strain gauges to monitor their mechanical and thermal properties and quench performance. A new quadrupole coil made of improved Nb{sub 3}Sn RRP-108/127 strand and cable insulation based on E-glass tape was also tested using this structure. The fabrication and test results of the quadrupole mirror models are reported and discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S KH Mousavi
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper the design and simulation of quadrupole magnets and electron beam optical of that by CST Studio code has been studied. Based on simulation result the magnetic quadrupole has been done for using in beam line of first Iranian powerful electron accelerator. For making the suitable magnetic field the effects of material and core geometry and coils current variation on quadrupole magnetic field have been studied. For test of quadrupole magnet the 10 MeV beam energy and 0.5 pi mm mrad emittance of input beam has been considered. We see the electron beam through the quadrupole magnet focus in one side and defocus in other side. The optimum of distance between two quadrupole magnets for low emittance have been achieved. The simulation results have good agreement with experimental results
Simultaneous expansion and orthogonalization of measured modes for structure identification
Smith, Suzanne Weaver; Beattie, Christopher A.
1990-01-01
Tests of large structures on-orbit will be performed with measurements at a relatively few structure points. Values for the unmeasured degrees of freedom (dofs) can be estimated based on measured dofs and analytical model dynamic information. These 'expanded' mode shapes are useful for optimal-update identification and damage location as well as test/analysis correlation. A new method of expansion for test mode shape vectors is developed from the orthogonal Procrustes problem from computational linear algebra. A subspace defined by the set of measured dofs is compared to a subspace defined by mode shapes from an analytical model of the structure. The method simultaneously expands and orthogonalizes the mode shape vectors. Two demonstration problems are used to compare the new method to current expansion techniques. One demonstration uses test data from a laboratory scale-model truss structure. Performance of the new method is comparable or superior to that of the previous expansion methods which require separate orthogonalization.
Productivity of Non-Orthogonal Term Rewrite Systems
Raffelsieper, Matthias
2012-01-01
Productivity is the property that finite prefixes of an infinite constructor term can be computed using a given term rewrite system. Hitherto, productivity has only been considered for orthogonal systems, where non-determinism is not allowed. This paper presents techniques to also prove productivity of non-orthogonal term rewrite systems. For such systems, it is desired that one does not have to guess the reduction steps to perform, instead any outermost-fair reduction should compute an infinite constructor term in the limit. As a main result, it is shown that for possibly non-orthogonal term rewrite systems this kind of productivity can be concluded from context-sensitive termination. This result can be applied to prove stabilization of digital circuits, as will be illustrated by means of an example.
Composite orthogonal projection methods for large matrix eigenproblems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贾仲孝
1999-01-01
For classical orthogonal projection methods for large matrix eigenproblems, it may be much more difficult for a Ritz vector to converge than for its corresponding Ritz value when the matrix in question is non-Hermitian. To this end, a class of new refined orthogonal projection methods has been proposed. It is proved that in some sense each refined method is a composite of two classical orthogonal projections, in which each refined approximate eigenvector is obtained by realizing a new one of some Hermitian semipositive definite matrix onto the same subspace. A priori error bounds on the refined approximate eigenvector are established in terms of the sine of acute angle of the normalized eigenvector and the subspace involved. It is shown that the sufficient conditions for convergence of the refined vector and that of the Ritz value are the same, so that the refined methods may be much more efficient than the classical ones.
Recurrence Relations for Orthogonal Polynomials on Triangular Domains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abedallah Rababah
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In Farouki et al, 2003, Legendre-weighted orthogonal polynomials P n , r ( u , v , w , r = 0 , 1 , … , n , n ≥ 0 on the triangular domain T = { ( u , v , w : u , v , w ≥ 0 , u + v + w = 1 } are constructed, where u , v , w are the barycentric coordinates. Unfortunately, evaluating the explicit formulas requires many operations and is not very practical from an algorithmic point of view. Hence, there is a need for a more efficient alternative. A very convenient method for computing orthogonal polynomials is based on recurrence relations. Such recurrence relations are described in this paper for the triangular orthogonal polynomials, providing a simple and fast algorithm for their evaluation.
CPT-odd Photon in Vacuum-Orthogonal Model
Albayrak, Soner
2015-01-01
Lorentz and CPT violation in the photon sector with the operators of arbitrary mass dimension has been proposed in the context of Standard-Model Extension. The CPT-odd subset of this enlarged model is investigated from a quantum-field theoretical point of view. The generic forms of dispersion relations, polarization vectors and the propagators are obtained for this special subset. Particularly, the general vacuum-orthogonal model is analyzed and it is demonstrated that the vacuum orthogonal model remains vacuum orthogonal at all orders. Although the model has birefringent solutions, they are shown to be spurious. Furthermore, the relevant polarization vectors are shown to be conventional. Leading order model is explicitly analyzed and it is demonstrated that there exists a nontrivial coefficient space satisfying above properties.
Quantum Walks with Non-Orthogonal Position States
Matjeschk, R; Enderlein, M; Cedzich, Ch; Werner, A H; Keyl, M; Schaetz, T; Werner, R F
2012-01-01
Quantum walks have by now been realized in a large variety of different physical settings. In some of these, particularly with trapped ions, the walk is implemented in phase space, where the corresponding position states are not orthogonal. We develop a general description of such a quantum walk and show how to map it into a standard one with orthogonal states, thereby making available all the tools developed for the latter. This enables a variety of experiments, which can be implemented with smaller step sizes and more steps. Tuning the non-orthogonality allows for an easy preparation of extended states such as momentum eigenstates, which travel at a well-defined speed with low dispersion. We introduce a method to adjust their velocity by momentum shifts, which allows to investigate intriguing effects such as the analog of Bloch oscillations.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System with Frequency Offset Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meghashree D.Nimje
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM system, use a large number of parallel narrowband subcarriers instead of a single wide-band carrier to transport information. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is the modulation technique use in digital communication systems . Carrier frequency offset occurs due to Doppler effect or noise. Carrier frequency offsets (CFOs is the Offset between the transmitter and the receiver oscillators .CFO damages the orthogonality of the carries ,resulting in degradation of the systems performance. Carrier frequency offset estimation method is discussed in this paper. In this paper one complex training sequence use, which can effectively estimate carrier frequency offset in the time domain and frequency domain. Here fine and coarse frequency is estimated to improve the improve the system performance. This paper shows the estimation range for frequency offset can be improve to large extent..
Orthogonally Evolved AI to Improve Difficulty Adjustment in Video Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hintze, Arend; Olson, Randal; Lehman, Joel Anthony
2016-01-01
(i.e. agents subject to fewer generations of evolution) make for easier opponents, while highly-evolved agents are more challenging to overcome. In this publication we test a new approach for difficulty adjustment in games: orthogonally evolved AI, where the player receives support from collaborating...... agents that are co-evolved with opponent agents (where collaborators and opponents have orthogonal incentives). The advantage is that game difficulty can be adjusted more granularly by manipulating two independent axes: by having more or less adept collaborators, and by having more or less adept...... opponents. Furthermore, human interaction can modulate (and be informed by) the performance and behavior of collaborating agents. In this way, orthogonally evolved AI both facilitates smoother difficulty adjustment and enables new game experiences....
Quadrupole Moments of Rapidly Rotating Compact Objects in Dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Theory
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Mojica, Sindy
2014-01-01
We consider rapidly rotating black holes and neutron stars in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGBd) theory and determine their quadrupole moments, which receive a contribution from the dilaton. The quadrupole moment of EGBd black holes can be considerably larger than the Kerr value. For neutron stars, the universality property of the $\\hat I$-$\\hat Q$ relation between the scaled moment of inertia and the scaled quadrupole moment appears to extend to EGBd theory.
Precision Alignments of Stripline BPMs with Quadrupole Magnets for TTF2
Priebe, G; Wendt, M; Werner, M
2004-01-01
We report on our alignment setup to calibrate beam position monitors (BPM) with respect to the magnetic axis of the quadrupole magnets used in the warm sections of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF2). The Stripline BPM's are fixed inside the quadrupole magnets. A streched wire measurement was used to calibrate the electrical axis of the BPM wrt. to the magnetic axis of the quadrupole.
Structure relations for monic orthogonal polynomials in two discrete variables
Rodal, J.; Area, I.; Godoy, E.
2008-04-01
In this paper, extensions of several relations linking differences of bivariate discrete orthogonal polynomials and polynomials themselves are given, by using an appropriate vector-matrix notation. Three-term recurrence relations are presented for the partial differences of the monic polynomial solutions of admissible second order partial difference equation of hypergeometric type. Structure relations, difference representations as well as lowering and raising operators are obtained. Finally, expressions for all matrix coefficients appearing in these finite-type relations are explicitly presented for a finite set of Hahn and Kravchuk orthogonal polynomials.
Automorphisms of Algebras and Bochner's Property for Vector Orthogonal Polynomials
Horozov, Emil
2016-05-01
We construct new families of vector orthogonal polynomials that have the property to be eigenfunctions of some differential operator. They are extensions of the Hermite and Laguerre polynomial systems. A third family, whose first member has been found by Y. Ben Cheikh and K. Douak is also constructed. The ideas behind our approach lie in the studies of bispectral operators. We exploit automorphisms of associative algebras which transform elementary vector orthogonal polynomial systems which are eigenfunctions of a differential operator into other systems of this type.
Study on modulation techniques free of orthogonality restriction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The Nyquist rate is a limit of transmission for traditional modulation methods from orthogonality restriction. Nonorthogonal modulation techniques (NMT) is proposed, which removes the orthogonality restriction, and as a result, higher bandwidth efficiency than the traditional methods can be achieved. First, the symbol error rate of NMT is introduced by using estimation theory. Then the relation between bandwidth efficiency and signal to noise ratio is discussed. Finally, a design instance of NMT is present and numerical experiment is made. This study explores for new modulation methods and points out a widened direction for modulation theory and applications.
Deformed Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble Analysis of the Interacting Boson Model
Pato, M P; Lima, C L; Hussein, M S; Alhassid, Y
1994-01-01
A Deformed Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (DGOE) which interpolates between the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble and a Poissonian Ensemble is constructed. This new ensemble is then applied to the analysis of the chaotic properties of the low lying collective states of nuclei described by the Interacting Boson Model (IBM). This model undergoes a transition order-chaos-order from the $SU(3)$ limit to the $O(6)$ limit. Our analysis shows that the quantum fluctuations of the IBM Hamiltonian, both of the spectrum and the eigenvectors, follow the expected behaviour predicted by the DGOE when one goes from one limit to the other.
An efficient quantum secret sharing protocol with orthogonal product states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
An efficient quantum secret sharing protocol with orthogonal product states in the 33 Hilbert space is presented. The particles in the orthogonal product states form two particle sequences. One sequence is sent to Bob and the other is sent to Charlie after rearranging the particle orders. With the help of Alice, Bob and Charlie make the corresponding local measurement to obtain the information of the or- thogonal product states prepared. This protocol has many distinct features such as great capacity and high efficiency.
Preparation and Properties of Orthogonal Piezoelectric Composite Materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Jun; Lu Ying; Zhang Xingguo; Shen Yi; Chen Chun
2004-01-01
. PZT piezoelectric ceramic with La2O3, SrCO3, BaO and Sb2O5 was prepared. It has high value of the piezoelectric strain constant d33 ( -681 PC/N) and high value of-d33/d31 (2.65). Orthogonal piezoelectric composite materials was designed and prepared by PZT, DAD- 40 electric conductive adhesive and E51 epoxy resin. The OPCM shows obvious orthogonal anisotropy. The matching property of the interface between piezoelectric ceramic and polymer of OPCM relies on the defects of interface. The proper conductive mid-layer could improve the matching property of the interface.
Cardinality-dependent Variability in Orthogonal Variability Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mærsk-Møller, Hans Martin; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
2012-01-01
During our work on developing and running a software product line for eco-sustainable greenhouse-production software tools, which currently have three products members we have identified a need for extending the notation of the Orthogonal Variability Model (OVM) to support what we refer to as car......During our work on developing and running a software product line for eco-sustainable greenhouse-production software tools, which currently have three products members we have identified a need for extending the notation of the Orthogonal Variability Model (OVM) to support what we refer...
Post-functionalization of polymers via orthogonal ligation chemistry.
Goldmann, Anja S; Glassner, Mathias; Inglis, Andrew J; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher
2013-05-27
The establishment of advanced living/controlled polymerization protocols allows for engineering synthetic polymers in a precise fashion. Combining advanced living/controlled polymerization techniques with highly efficient coupling chemistries facilitates quantitative, modular, and orthogonal functionalization of synthetic polymer strands at their chain termini as well as side-chain functionalization. The review highlights the current status of selected post-functionalization techniques of polymers via orthogonal ligation chemistries, major characteristics of the specific transformation chemistry, as well as the characterization of the products.
Hardware Architectures for the Orthogonal and Biorthogonal Wavelet Transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Knowles
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this note, optimal hardware architectures for the orthogonal and biorthogonal wavelet transforms are presented. The approach used here is not the standard lifting method, but takes advantage of the symmetries inherent in the coefficients of the transforms and the decimation/interpolation operators. The design is based on a highly optimized datapath, which seamlessly integrates both orthogonal and biorthogonal transforms, data extension at the edges and the forward and inverse transforms. The datapath design could be further optimized for speed or low power. The datapath is controlled by a small fast control unit which is hard programmed according to the wavelet or wavelets required by the application.
On a Family of 2-Variable Orthogonal Krawtchouk Polynomials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Alberto Grünbaum
2010-12-01
Full Text Available We give a hypergeometric proof involving a family of 2-variable Krawtchouk polynomials that were obtained earlier by Hoare and Rahman [SIGMA 4 (2008, 089, 18 pages] as a limit of the 9−j symbols of quantum angular momentum theory, and shown to be eigenfunctions of the transition probability kernel corresponding to a ''poker dice'' type probability model. The proof in this paper derives and makes use of the necessary and sufficient conditions of orthogonality in establishing orthogonality as well as indicating their geometrical significance. We also derive a 5-term recurrence relation satisfied by these polynomials.
Orthogonal Expansions for VIX Options Under Affine Jump Diffusions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barletta, Andrea; Nicolato, Elisa
2017-01-01
In this work we derive new closed–form pricing formulas for VIX options in the jump-diffusion SVJJ model proposed by Duffie et al. (2000). Our approach is based on the classic methodology of approximating a density function with an orthogonal expansion of polynomials weighted by a kernel....... Orthogonal expansions based on the Gaussian distribution, such as Edgeworth or Gram–Charlier expansions, have been successfully employed by a number of authors in the context of equity options. However, these expansions are not quite suitable for volatility or variance densities as they inherently assign...
Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Schemes for 5G
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Chunlin; YUAN Zhifeng; LI Weimin; YUAN Yifei
2016-01-01
Multiple access scheme is one of the key techniques in wireless communication systems. Each generation of wireless communica⁃tion is featured by a new multiple access scheme from 1G to 4G. In this article we review several non⁃orthogonal multiple access schemes for 5G. Their principles, advantages and disadvantages are discussed, and followed by a comprehensive comparison of these solutions from the perspective of user overload, receiver type, receiver complexity and so on. We also discuss the applica⁃tion challenges of non⁃orthogonal multiple access schemes in 5G.
Progress in the Development of Superconducting Quadrupoles forHeavy-ion Fusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.
2002-08-19
The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.
Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.
2002-05-24
The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moloney, G.R.; Jamieson, D.N.; Legge, G.J.F. (School of Physics, Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia))
1991-03-01
Extensive, quantitative measurements of magnetic quadrupole lens fringe fields have been conducted. The fringe field region of magnetic quadrupole lenses has been shown to contain significant contamination by higher-order multipole fields. These multipole components will contribute to the aberration coefficients of the lens. One of the largest components is the duodecapole component, which contributes to the fifth-order geometric aberrations of the lens. The measured multipole profiles in the fringe field region of the Melbourne quadrupoles are presented. We also present the results of an investigation into the effect of modifying the quadrupole pole tip profile at the pole ends. (orig.).
Design, development, and acceleration trials of radio-frequency quadrupole
Rao, S. V. L. S.; Jain, Piyush; Pande, Rajni; Roy, Shweta; Mathew, Jose V.; Kumar, Rajesh; Pande, Manjiri; Krishnagopal, S.; Gupta, S. K.; Singh, P.
2014-04-01
A deuteron radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested at BARC, which will be used for neutron generation. The RFQ operates at a frequency of 350 MHz and needs an inter-vane voltage of 44 kV to accelerate the deuteron beam to 400 keV within a length of 1.03 m. The error analysis shows that the offset of two opposite vanes in the same direction by 100 μm leads to a change in resonant frequency by 1.3 MHz and a significant change of fields in the quadrants (˜±40% with respect to average field). From the 3D analysis, we have observed that the unwanted dipole mode frequencies are very near to the quadrupole mode frequency which will make structure sensitive to the perturbations. In order to move the dipole modes away from the quadrupole modes, we have used the dipole stabilizer rods. The 5 wire transmission line theory was used to study the perturbative analysis of the RFQ and based on this a computer program has been written to tune the cavity to get required field distribution. Based on these studies, a 1.03 m long RFQ made of OFE copper has been fabricated and tested. Even though the RFQ was designed for deuteron (D+) beam, we tested it by accelerating both the proton (H+) and D+ beams. The RFQ was operated in pulsed mode and accelerated both H+ and D+ beams to designed values of 200 and 400 keV, respectively. The measured parameters are in good agreement with the designed values validating our simulations and fabrication processes. In this paper, simulations, RF measurements, and beam commissioning results are presented.
Small Aperture BPM to Quadrupole Assembly Tolerance Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fong, K. W.
2010-12-07
The LCLS injector and linac systems utilize a series of quadrupole magnets with a beam position monitor (BPM) captured in the magnet pole tips. The BPM measures the electron beam position by comparing the electrical signal from 4 electrodes and interpolating beam position from these signals. The manufacturing tolerances of the magnet and BPM are critical in determining the mechanical precision of the electrodes relative to the nominal electron beam Z-axis. This study evaluates the statistical uncertainty of the electrodes center axis relative to the nominal electron beam axis.
Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.
2003-05-01
The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.
Optimized Superconducting Quadrupole Arrays for Multiple Beam Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.; Ball, Millicent, J.
2005-09-20
This research project advanced the development of reliable, cost-effective arrays of superconducting quadrupole magnets for use in multi-beam inertial fusion accelerators. The field in each array cell must be identical and meet stringent requirements for field quality and strength. An optimized compact array design using flat double-layer pancake coils was developed. Analytical studies of edge termination methods showed that it is feasible to meet the requirements for field uniformity in all cells and elimination of stray external field in several ways: active methods that involve placement of field compensating coils on the periphery of the array or a passive method that involves use of iron shielding.
Status of the LHC inner triplet quadrupole program at Fermilab
Andreev, N; Bauer, P; Bossert, R; Brandt, J; Carson, J; Caspi, S; Chichili, D R; Chiesa, L; Darve, C; Di Marco, J; Fehér, S; Ghosh, A; Glass, H; Huang, Y; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Markarov, A A; McInturff, A D; Nicol, T H; Nobrega, A; Novitski, I; Ogitsu, T; Orris, D; Ozelis, J P; Page, T; Peterson, T; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Robotham, W; Sabbi, G L; Scanlan, R M; Schlabach, P; Sylvester, C D; Strait, J B; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J C; Velev, G V; Yadav, S; Zlobin, A V
2001-01-01
Fermilab, in collaboration with LBNL and BNL, is developing a quadrupole for installation in the interaction region inner triplets of the LHC. This magnet is required to have an operating gradient of 215 T/m across a 70 mm coil bore, and operates in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. A 2 m magnet program addressing mechanical, magnetic, quench protection, and thermal issues associated with the design was completed earlier this year, and production of the first full length, cryostatted prototype magnet is underway. This paper summarizes the conclusions of the 2 m program, and the design and status of the first full-length prototype magnet. (11 refs).
Beam acceleration through proton radio frequency quadrupole accelerator in BARC
Bhagwat, P. V.; Krishnagopal, S.; Mathew, J. V.; Singh, S. K.; Jain, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, M.; Kumar, R.; Roychowdhury, P.; Kelwani, H.; Rama Rao, B. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Agarwal, A.; Kukreti, B. M.; Singh, P.
2016-05-01
A 3 MeV proton Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India, for the Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) programme. The 352 MHz RFQ is built in 4 segments and in the first phase two segments of the LEHIPA RFQ were commissioned, accelerating a 50 keV, 1 mA pulsed proton beam from the ion source, to an energy of 1.24 MeV. The successful operation of the RFQ gave confidence in the physics understanding and technology development that have been achieved, and indicate that the road forward can now be traversed rather more quickly.
Kick velocity induced by magnetic dipole and quadrupole radiation
Kojima, Yasufumi
2010-01-01
We examine the recoil velocity induced by the superposition of the magnetic dipole and quadrupole radiation from a pulsar/magnetar born with rapid rotation. The resultant velocity depends on not the magnitude, but rather the ratio of the two moments and their geometrical configuration. The model does not necessarily lead to high spatial velocity for a magnetar with a strong magnetic field, which is consistent with the recent observational upper bound. The maximum velocity predicted with this model is slightly smaller than that of observed fast-moving pulsars.
2-MV electrostatic quadrupole injector for heavy-ion fusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.A.
2004-11-10
High current and low emittance are principal requirements for heavy-ion injection into a linac driver for inertial fusion energy. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector is capable of providing these high charge density and low emittance beams. We have modified the existing 2-MV Injector to reduce beam emittance and to double the pulse length. We characterize the beam delivered by the modified injector to the High Current Transport Experiment (HCX) and the effects of finite rise time of the extraction voltage pulse in the diode on the beam head. We demonstrate techniques for mitigating aberrations and reducing beam emittance growth in the injector.
Quadrupole collectivity in Si isotopes around N=20
Rodríguez-Guzman, R R; Robledo, L M
2001-01-01
The angular momentum projected Generator Coordinate Method using the quadrupole moment as collective coordinate and the Gogny force as the effective interaction is used to describe the properties of the ground state and low-lying excited states of the neutron rich light nuclei 32,34,36Si. It is found that the ground state of the nucleus 34Si is spherical. However, this is not only due to the N=20 shell closure as the ground state of 34Si contains a significant amount of the intruder f7/2 neutron orbital. On the other hand, rather good agreement with experimental data for many observables is obtained.
Electrostatic quadrupole accelerator for the heavy ion fusion project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.; Eylon, S.
1994-07-01
A full scale (2 MeV, 800 mA, K{sup +}), low emittance injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Project has been built at LBL It consists of a 750 key diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provide strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The actual operation of this new machine has exceeded design parameters. Design of the accelerator, report on experiments performed in connection with the evaluation and characterization of the ESQ and corresponding 3D Particle in Cell simulations will be presented.
Low-lying quadrupole collectivity in {sup 136}Xe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stahl, Christian; Leske, Joerg; Pietralla, Norbert; Reese, Michael [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Bazzacco, Dino; Farnea, Enrico [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Gadea, Andres [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Gottardo, Andrea [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padova (Italy); John, Philipp Rudolf; Michelagnoli, Caterina [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padova (Italy); Valiente-Dobon, Jose Javier [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy)
2015-07-01
We present recent results from our investigation of low-lying quadrupole collectivity in the semi-magic N=82 nucleus {sup 136}Xe. An experiment was performed at the Legnaro National Laboratory employing the AGATA demonstrator. Level-lifetimes and B(E2, 0{sup +}{sub 1}→2{sup +}{sub i})-values were determined from Coulomb excitation and by the continuous-angle DSA method exploiting AGATA's position resolution. 2{sup +}{sub i} - states up to i=7 were excited and analyzed.
Nuclear quadrupole resonance of boron in borate glasses
Gravina, Samuel J.; Bray, Phillip J.
A continuous wave nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer that has a high sensitivity even at low frequencies has been built. Boron and aluminum NQR has been detected in the region 200 kHz to 1.4 MHz. For the first time, boron NQR has been detected in a glass. The NQR spectrum of pure B 20 3 glass is consistent with 85 ± 2% of the boron atoms belonging to boroxol rings. In sodium borate glasses, the number of borons in boroxol rings decreases with increasing sodium content, until when sodium oxide comprises 20 mol% of the glass less than 2% of the borons are in boroxol rings.
Applications of hybrid measurements with discrete and continuous variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laghaout, Amine
The main topic of this thesis revolves around quantum measurement. We illustrate how two different views of quantum objects, the discrete-and continuous-variable views, can be combined to more effectively distinguish between orthogonal states. Such combined measurements are referred to as hybrid...
Bernal Arango, F.; Coenen, T.; Koenderink, A.F.
2014-01-01
A central idea in plasmonics and metamaterials is to interpret scattering resonances as resulting from hybridization of electric dipoles. Recent developments in metamaterials as well as in plasmonic Fano systems have further included magnetic dipoles and electric quadrupoles in this reasoning. We
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)
1997-07-01
The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)
A Temporal Extension to Traditional Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Andersen, Ole Baltazar
2002-01-01
This paper describes the application of temporal maximum autocorrelation factor analysis to global monthly mean values of 1996-1997 sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) data. This type of analysis can be considered as an extension of traditional empirical orthogonal function...
Orthogonality of Hermite polynomials in superspace and Mehler type formulae
Coulembier, Kevin; Sommen, Frank
2010-01-01
In this paper, Hermite polynomials related to quantum systems with orthogonal O(m)-symmetry, finite reflection group symmetry G < O(m), symplectic symmetry Sp(2n) and superspace symmetry O(m) x Sp(2n) are considered. After an overview of the results for O(m) and \\cG, the orthogonality of the Hermite polynomials related to Sp(2n) is obtained with respect to the Berezin integral. As a consequence, an extension of the Mehler formula for the classical Hermite polynomials to Grassmann algebras is proven. Next, Hermite polynomials in a full superspace with O(m) x Sp(2n) symmetry are considered. It is shown that they are not orthogonal with respect to the canonically defined inner product. However, a new inner product is introduced which behaves correctly with respect to the structure of harmonic polynomials on superspace. This inner product allows to restore the orthogonality of the Hermite polynomials and also restores the hermiticity of a class of Schroedinger operators in superspace. Subsequently, a Mehler fo...
Graph parameters and invariants of the orthogonal group
Regts, G.
2013-01-01
This thesis is concerned with links between certain graph parameters and the invariant theory of the orthogonal group and some of its subgroups. These links are given through so-called partition functions of edge-coloring models. These partition functions can be seen as graph parameters as well as p
Non-orthogonal approaches to the study of magnetic interactions
Broer-Braam, H.B.; Hozoi, L; Nieuwpoort, WC
2003-01-01
Early theoretical studies of magnetic interactions between paramagnetic centres in solids and molecules are briefly reviewed as an introduction to the main theme of this paper: nonorthogonal CI approaches for the prediction and interpretation of magnetic couplings. In a non-orthogonal CI approach, t
Recurrence Relations of the Multi-Indexed Orthogonal Polynomials : III
Odake, Satoru
2015-01-01
In a previous paper, we presented conjectures of the recurrence relations with constant coefficients for the multi-indexed orthogonal polynomials of Laguerre, Jacobi, Wilson and Askey-Wilson types. In this paper we present a proof for the Laguerre and Jacobi cases. Their bispectral properties are also discussed, which give a method to obtain the coefficients of the recurrence relations explicitly.
Orthogonal Series Methods for Both Qualitative and Quantitative Data
Hall, Peter
1983-01-01
We introduce and describe orthogonal series methods for estimating the density of qualitative, quantitative or mixed data. The techniques are completely nonparametric in character, and so may be used in situations where parametric models are difficult to construct. Just this situation arises in the context of mixed--both qualitative and quantitative--data, where there are few parametric models.
Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs
Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.
2015-01-01
While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular fra
A four-component organogel based on orthogonal chemical interactions.
Luisier, Nicolas; Schenk, Kurt; Severin, Kay
2014-09-14
A thermoresponsive organogel was obtained by orthogonal assembly of four compounds using dynamic covalent boronate ester and imine bonds, as well as dative boron-nitrogen bonds. It is shown that the gel state can be disrupted or reinforced by chemicals which undergo exchange reactions with the gel components.
An Orthogonal Least Squares Based Approach to FIR Designs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao-Feng Wu; Zi-Qiang Lang; Stephen A Billings
2005-01-01
This paper is concerned with the application of forward Orthogonal Least Squares (OLS) algorithm to the design of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters. The focus of this study is a new FIR filter design procedure and to compare this with traditional methods known as the fir2() routine provided by MATLAB.
ON A FAMILY OF MULTIVARIATE LEAST-SQUARES ORTHOGONAL POLYNOMIALS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑成德; 王仁宏
2003-01-01
In this paper the new notion of multivariate least-squares orthogonal poly-nomials from the rectangular form is introduced. Their existence and uniqueness isstudied and some methods for their recursive computation are given. As an applica-is constructed.
Orthogonal thin film magnetometer using the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect
Ridder, de René M.; Fluitman, Jan H.
1984-01-01
In an orthogonal thin film magnetometer a driving field oriented in the plane of a permalloy film along its hard-axis, saturates this film periodically in positive and negative direction. On return from saturation and in absence of a magnetic field component along the easy-axis, the magnetization in
Sparsely-Packetized Predictive Control by Orthogonal Matching Pursuit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nagahara, Masaaki; Quevedo, Daniel; Østergaard, Jan
2012-01-01
We study packetized predictive control, known to be robust against packet dropouts in networked systems. To obtain sparse packets for rate-limited networks, we design control packets via an ℓ0 optimization, which can be eectively solved by orthogonal matching pursuit. Our formulation ensures asym...
An Orthogonal Residual Procedure for Nonlinear Finite Element Equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, S.
A general and robust solution procedure for nonlinear finite element equations with limit points is developed. At each equilibrium iteration the magnitude of the load is adjusted such that the residual force is orthogonal to the current displacement increment from the last equilibrium state...
Wave Propagation in Isotropic Media with Two Orthogonal Fracture Sets
Shao, S.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.
2016-10-01
Orthogonal intersecting fracture sets form fracture networks that affect the hydraulic and mechanical integrity of a rock mass. Interpretation of elastic waves propagated through orthogonal fracture networks is complicated by guided modes that propagate along and between fractures, by multiple internal reflections, as well as by scattering from fracture intersections. The existence of some or all of these potentially overlapping modes depends on local stress fields that can preferentially close or open either one or both sets of fractures. In this study, an acoustic wave front imaging system was used to examine the effect of bi-axial loading conditions on acoustic wave propagation in isotropic media containing two orthogonal fracture sets. From the experimental data, orthogonal intersecting fracture sets support guided waves that depend on fracture spacing and fracture-specific stiffnesses. In addition, fracture intersections have stronger effects on propagating wave fronts than merely the superposition of the effects of two independent fractures because of energy partitioning among transmitted/reflected waves, scattered waves and guided modes. Interpretation of the properties of fractures or fracture sets from seismic measurements must consider non-uniform fracture stiffnesses within and among fracture sets, as well as considering the striking effects of fracture intersections on wave propagation.
Synthesis of an Orthogonal Topological Analogue of Helicene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wixe, Torbjörn; Wallentin, Carl‐Johan; Johnson, Magnus T.
2013-01-01
The synthesis of an orthogonal topological pentamer analogue of helicene is presented. This analogue forms a tubular structure with its aromatic systems directed parallel to the axis of propagation, which creates a cavity with the potential to function as a host molecule. The synthetic strategy r...
Entanglement of Superpositions of Orthogonal Maximally Entangled States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Dao-Hua; ZHOU Duan-Lu; FAN Heng
2010-01-01
@@ We study the entanglement properties of the superposed state of orthogonal maximally entangled states.It is shown that the superposed state is maximally entangled and the superposed state is separable.The relation between the superposed state and the mutually unbiased state is discussed.
On orthogonal systems in Hilbert C*-modules
Landi, Giovanni; PAVLOV, Alexander
2009-01-01
Analogues for Hilbert C*-modules of classical results of Fourier series theory in Hilbert spaces are considered. Relations between different properties of orthogonal and orthonormal systems for Hilbert C*-modules are studied with special attention paid on the differences with the well-known Hilbert space situation.
All-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmitter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
The invention relates to an all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmitter for generating an OFDM output signal. The transmitter comprises a first time-domain optical Fourier transform (OFT) assembly, the first OFT assembly is of a K-D-K configuration and comprises...
RECEIVE ANTENNA SUBSET SELECTION BASED ON ORTHOGONAL COMPONENTS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lan Peng; Liu Ju; Gu Bo; Zhang Wei
2007-01-01
A new receive antenna subset selection algorithm with low complexity for wireless Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems is proposed, which is based on the orthogonal components of the channel matrix. Larger capacity is achieved compared with the existing antenna selection methods. Simulation results of quasi-static flat fading channel demonstrate the significant performance of the proposed selection algorithm.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with diversity for future wireless systems
Le, Khoa N
2012-01-01
The book examines several aspects of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) employing linear diversity techniques such as inter-carrier interference, bit error rate, peak to average power and inter-block interference. It should be a useful reference for readers interested in modern wireless communication systems.
Secrecy Capacity of a Class of Orthogonal Relay Eavesdropper Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aggarwal Vaneet
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The secrecy capacity of relay channels with orthogonal components is studied in the presence of an additional passive eavesdropper node. The relay and destination receive signals from the source on two orthogonal channels such that the destination also receives transmissions from the relay on its channel. The eavesdropper can overhear either one or both of the orthogonal channels. Inner and outer bounds on the secrecy capacity are developed for both the discrete memoryless and the Gaussian channel models. For the discrete memoryless case, the secrecy capacity is shown to be achieved by a partial decode-and-forward (PDF scheme when the eavesdropper can overhear only one of the two orthogonal channels. Two new outer bounds are presented for the Gaussian model using recent capacity results for a Gaussian multiantenna point-to-point channel with a multiantenna eavesdropper. The outer bounds are shown to be tight for two subclasses of channels. The first subclass is one in which the source and relay are clustered, and the eavesdropper receives signals only on the channel from the source and the relay to the destination, for which the PDF strategy is optimal. The second is a subclass in which the source does not transmit to the relay, for which a noise-forwarding strategy is optimal.
Orthogonality criterion for banishing hydrino states from standard quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, Antonio S. de [Universidade de Coimbra, Centro de Fisica Computacional, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, 12516-410 Guaratingueta SP (Brazil)], E-mail: castro@pesquisador.cnpq.br
2007-10-01
Orthogonality criterion is used to show in a very simple and general way that anomalous bound-state solutions for the Coulomb potential (hydrino states) do not exist as bona fide solutions of the Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations.
Velocity field calculation for non-orthogonal numerical grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2015-03-01
Computational grids containing cell faces that do not align with an orthogonal (e.g. Cartesian, cylindrical) coordinate system are routinely encountered in porous-medium numerical simulations. Such grids are referred to in this study as non-orthogonal grids because some cell faces are not orthogonal to a coordinate system plane (e.g. xy, yz or xz plane in Cartesian coordinates). Non-orthogonal grids are routinely encountered at the Savannah River Site in porous-medium flow simulations for Performance Assessments and groundwater flow modeling. Examples include grid lines that conform to the sloping roof of a waste tank or disposal unit in a 2D Performance Assessment simulation, and grid surfaces that conform to undulating stratigraphic surfaces in a 3D groundwater flow model. Particle tracking is routinely performed after a porous-medium numerical flow simulation to better understand the dynamics of the flow field and/or as an approximate indication of the trajectory and timing of advective solute transport. Particle tracks are computed by integrating the velocity field from cell to cell starting from designated seed (starting) positions. An accurate velocity field is required to attain accurate particle tracks. However, many numerical simulation codes report only the volumetric flowrate (e.g. PORFLOW) and/or flux (flowrate divided by area) crossing cell faces. For an orthogonal grid, the normal flux at a cell face is a component of the Darcy velocity vector in the coordinate system, and the pore velocity for particle tracking is attained by dividing by water content. For a non-orthogonal grid, the flux normal to a cell face that lies outside a coordinate plane is not a true component of velocity with respect to the coordinate system. Nonetheless, normal fluxes are often taken as Darcy velocity components, either naively or with accepted approximation. To enable accurate particle tracking or otherwise present an accurate depiction of the velocity field for a non-orthogonal
Performance of a Nb(3)Sn Quadrupole Under High Stress
Felice, H; Ferracin, P; De Rijk, G; Bajko, M; Caspi, S; Bingham, B; Giloux, C; Bordini, B; Milanese, A; Bottura, L; Sabbi, G L; Hafalia, R; Godeke, A; Dietderich, D
2011-01-01
Future upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will require large aperture and high gradient quadrupoles. Nb(3)Sn is the most viable option for this application but is also known for its strain sensitivity. In high field magnets, with magnetic fields above 12 T, the Lorentz forces will generate mechanical stresses that may exceed 200 MPa in the windings. The existing measurements of critical current versus strain of Nb(3)Sn strands or cables are not easily applicable to magnets. In order to investigate the impact of high mechanical stress on the quench performance, a series of tests was carried out within a LBNL/CERN collaboration using the magnet TQS03 (a LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) 1-meter long, 90-mm aperture Nb(3)Sn quadrupole). The magnet was tested four times at CERN under various pre-stress conditions. The average mechanical compressive azimuthal pre-stress on the coil at 4.2 K ranged from 120 MPa to 200 MPa. This paper reports on the magnet performance during the four tests focusing on...
Chaotic motion in axially symmetric potentials with oblate quadrupole deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Letelier, Patricio S. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, IMECC, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramos-Caro, Javier, E-mail: javier@ime.unicamp.br [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, IMECC, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lopez-Suspes, Framsol, E-mail: framsol@gmail.com [Facultad de Telecomunicaciones, Universidad Santo Tomas and Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)
2011-10-03
By computing the Poincare's surfaces of section and Lyapunov exponents, we study the effect of introducing an oblate quadrupole in the dynamics associated with two generic spherical potentials of physical interest: the central monopole and the isotropic harmonic oscillator. In the former case we find saddle points in the effective potential, in contrast to the statements presented by Gueron and Letelier in [E. Gueron, P.S. Letelier, Phys. Rev. E 63 (2001) 035201]. The results we show in the second case have application in nuclear or atomic physics. In particular, we find values of oblate deformation leading to a disappearance of shell structure in the single-particle spectrum. -- Highlights: → We find chaotic motion around a monopole with oblate quadrupole deformation. → This corrects the statements introduced in [E. Gueron, P.S. Letelier, Phys. Rev. E 63 (2001) 035201]. → We present an alternative model for the potential due to an oblate deformed nuclei. → This leads to stochastic regions in the phase space of classical orbits. → It suggests that the shell structure of single-particle spectrum tends to disappear.
VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS IN A RHIC QUADRUPOLE AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
JAIN, A.; AYDIN, S.; HE, P.; ANERELLA, M.; GANETIS, G.; HARRISON, M.; PARKER, B.; PLATE, S.
2005-10-17
One of the concerns in using compact superconducting magnets in the final focus region of the ILC is the influence of the cryogen flow on the vibration characteristics. As a first step towards characterizing such motion at nanometer levels, a project was undertaken at BNL to measure the vibrations in a spare RHIC quadrupole under cryogenic conditions. Given the constraints of cryogenic operation, and limited space available, it was decided to use a dual head laser Doppler vibrometer for this work. The performance of the laser vibrometer was tested in a series of room temperature tests and compared with results from Mark L4 geophones. The laser system was then used to measure the vibration of the cold mass of the quadrupole with respect to the outside warm enclosure. These measurements were carried out both with and without the flow of cold helium through the magnet. The results indicate only a minor increase in motion in the horizontal direction (where the cold mass is relatively free to move).
Extracting the Omega- electric quadrupole moment from lattice QCD data
Ramalho, G
2010-01-01
The Omega- has an extremely long lifetime, and is the most stable of the baryons with spin 3/2. Therefore the Omega- magnetic moment is very accurately known. Nevertheless, its electric quadrupole moment was never measured, although estimates exist in different formalisms. In principle, lattice QCD simulations provide at present the most appropriate way to estimate the Omega- form factors, as function of the square of the transferred four-momentum, Q2, since it describes baryon systems at the physical mass for the strange quark. However, lattice QCD form factors, and in particular GE2, are determined at finite Q2 only, and the extraction of the electric quadrupole moment, Q_Omega= GE2(0) e/(2 M_Omega), involves an extrapolation of the numerical lattice results. In this work we reproduce the lattice QCD data with a covariant spectator quark model for Omega- which includes a mixture of S and two D states for the relative quark-diquark motion. Once the model is calibrated, it is used to determine Q_Omega. Our pr...
Busbar studies for the LHC interaction region quadrupoles
Bauer, P; Fehér, S; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Orris, D; Sylvester, C D; Tompkins, J C; Zlobin, A V
2001-01-01
Fermilab (FNAL) and the Japanese high energy physics lab (KEK) are developing the superconducting quadrupole magnets for the interaction regions (IR) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These magnets have a nominal field gradient of 215 T/m in a 70 mm bore and operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. The IR magnets are electrically interconnected with superconducting busbars, which need to be protected in the event of a quench. Experiments to determine the most suitable busbar design for the LHC IR magnets and the analysis of the data are presented. The main purpose of the study was to find a design that allows the inclusion of the superconducting busbars in the magnet quench protection scheme, thus avoiding additional quench protection circuitry. A proposed busbar design that was tested in these experiments consists of a superconducting cable, which is normally used for the inner layer of the Fermilab IR quadrupoles, soldered to similar Rutherford type cables as a stabilizer. A series of prototypes with varyin...
Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, J.W.
1991-07-01
Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.
Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID
Chang, J. W.
1991-07-01
Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region are traditionally difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a RF field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter.
Extracting the Omega- electric quadrupole moment from lattice QCD data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G. Ramalho, M.T. Pena
2011-03-01
The Omega- has an extremely long lifetime, and is the most stable of the baryons with spin 3/2. Therefore the Omega- magnetic moment is very accurately known. Nevertheless, its electric quadrupole moment was never measured, although estimates exist in different formalisms. In principle, lattice QCD simulations provide at present the most appropriate way to estimate the Omega- form factors, as function of the square of the transferred four-momentum, Q2, since it describes baryon systems at the physical mass for the strange quark. However, lattice QCD form factors, and in particular GE2, are determined at finite Q2 only, and the extraction of the electric quadrupole moment, Q_Omega= GE2(0) e/(2 M_Omega), involves an extrapolation of the numerical lattice results. In this work we reproduce the lattice QCD data with a covariant spectator quark model for Omega- which includes a mixture of S and two D states for the relative quark-diquark motion. Once the model is calibrated, it is used to determine Q_Omega. Our prediction is Q_Omega= (0.96 +/- 0.02)*10^(-2) efm2 [GE2(0)=0.680 +/- 0.012].
Chemical Bonding: The Orthogonal Valence-Bond View
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander F. Sax
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Chemical bonding is the stabilization of a molecular system by charge- and spin-reorganization processes in chemical reactions. These processes are said to be local, because the number of atoms involved is very small. With multi-configurational self-consistent field (MCSCF wave functions, these processes can be calculated, but the local information is hidden by the delocalized molecular orbitals (MO used to construct the wave functions. The transformation of such wave functions into valence bond (VB wave functions, which are based on localized orbitals, reveals the hidden information; this transformation is called a VB reading of MCSCF wave functions. The two-electron VB wave functions describing the Lewis electron pair that connects two atoms are frequently called covalent or neutral, suggesting that these wave functions describe an electronic situation where two electrons are never located at the same atom; such electronic situations and the wave functions describing them are called ionic. When the distance between two atoms decreases, however, every covalent VB wave function composed of non-orthogonal atomic orbitals changes its character from neutral to ionic. However, this change in the character of conventional VB wave functions is hidden by its mathematical form. Orthogonal VB wave functions composed of orthonormalized orbitals never change their character. When localized fragment orbitals are used instead of atomic orbitals, one can decide which local information is revealed and which remains hidden. In this paper, we analyze four chemical reactions by transforming the MCSCF wave functions into orthogonal VB wave functions; we show how the reactions are influenced by changing the atoms involved or by changing their local symmetry. Using orthogonal instead of non-orthogonal orbitals is not just a technical issue; it also changes the interpretation, revealing the properties of wave functions that remain otherwise undetected.
Robust digital image watermarking against shearing based on Haar orthogonal function system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Ming-hui; HAO Yan-ling; SHEN Dong-hui
2004-01-01
In this paper, a robust digital watermarking method against shearing based on Haar orthogonal function system was introduced. The proposed method adopted the complete generalized orthogonal properties of Haar orthogonal function system to achieve the piece -based orthogonal transform on the image. The significant middle frequency coefficients in the transformation matrix are picked up, based on characteristics of the image visual system and the Haar orthogonal transform. The watermark is adoptively weighed to the middle frequency matrix. The method improves the validity of watermarking and shows excellent advantage against shearing attack. Experimental results show that the Haar orthogonal function system based watermark approach can provide an excellent protection under geometric attacks.
Todd, Daniel A; Zich, David B; Ettefagh, Keivan A; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S; Horswill, Alexander R; Cech, Nadja B
2016-08-01
Drug resistant bacterial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and new strategies are needed for the treatment of these infections. The anti-virulence approach, which targets non-essential virulence factors in bacteria, has been proposed as one way to combat the problem of antibiotic resistance. Virulence in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and many other Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is controlled by the quorum sensing system. Thus, there is excellent therapeutic potential for compounds that target this system. With this project, we have developed and validated a novel approach for measuring quorum sensing inhibition in vitro. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was employed to directly measure one of the important outputs of the quorum sensing system in MRSA, auto-inducing peptide I (AIP I) in bacterial cultures. The method for AIP detection was validated and demonstrated limits of detection and quantification of range of 0.0035μM and 0.10μM, respectively. It was shown that the known quorum sensing inhibitor ambuic acid inhibited AIP I production by a clinically relevant strain of MRSA, with an IC50 value of 2.6±0.2μM. The new method performed similarly to previously published methods using GFP reporter assays, but has the advantage of being applicable without the need for engineering of a reporter strain. Additionally, the mass spectrometry-based method could be applicable in situations where interference by the inhibitor prevents the application of fluorescence-based methods.
Development and testing of the improved focusing quadrupole for heavy ion fusion accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manahan, R R; Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B; Chiesa, L; Lietzke, A F; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A
2003-10-23
An improved version of the focusing magnet for a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerator was designed, built and tested in 2002-2003. This quadrupole has higher focusing power and lower error field than the previous version of the focusing quadrupoles successfully built and tested in 2001. We discuss the features of the new design, selected fabrication issues and test results.
CESAR, 2 MeV electron storage ring; construction period; quadrupole.
Service Photo; CERN PhotoLab
1962-01-01
One of the 24 quadrupoles. They were made of massive (non-laminated) soft iron, which at the low field-strength (35 G on the pole-tips) presented problems. Later they were fitted with shims on all 4 poles, to correct the quadrupole and sextupole components.
Metric of a Slow Rotating Body with Quadrupole Moment from the Erez-Rosen Metric
Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco; Cordero-García, Iván; Ulloa-Esquivel, Oscar
2012-01-01
A metric representing a slow rotating object with quadrupole moment is obtained using the Newman-Janis formalism to include rotation into the weak limit of the Erez-Rosen metric. This metric is intended to tackle relativistic astrometry and gravitational lensing problems in which a quadrupole moment has to be taken into account.
Dynamics of extended bodies with spin-induced quadrupole in Kerr spacetime: generic orbits
Han, Wen-Biao
2016-01-01
We discuss motions of extended bodies in Kerr spacetime by using Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations. We firstly solve the conditions for circular orbits, and calculate the orbital frequency shift due to the mass quadrupoles. The results show that we need not consider the spin-induced quadrupoles in extreme-mass-ratio inspirals for spatial gravitational wave detectors. We quantitatively investigate the temporal variation of rotational velocity of the extended body due to the coupling of quadrupole and background gravitational field. For generic orbits, we numerically integrate the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations for evolving the motion of an extended body orbiting a Kerr black hole. By comparing with the monopole-dipole approximation, we reveal the influences of quadrupole moments of extended bodies on the orbital motion and chaotic dynamics of extreme-mass-ratio systems. We do not find any chaotic orbits for the extended bodies with physical spins and spin-induced quadrupoles. Possible implications for...
Large-aperture $Nb_{3}Sn$ quadrupoles for $2^{nd}$ generation LHC IRs
Zlobin, A V; Chichili, D R; Huang Yu; Kashikhin, V V; Lamm, M J; Limon, P J; Mokhov, N V; Novitski, I; Peterson, T; Strait, J B; Yadav, S
2002-01-01
The 1/sup st/ generation of low-beta quadrupoles for the LHC interaction region (IR) was designed to achieve the nominal LHC luminosity of 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/. Given that the lifetime of the 1/sup st/ generation IR quadrupoles is limited by ionizing radiation to 6-7 years, the 2/sup nd/ generation of IR quadrupoles has to be developed with the goal to achieve the ultimate luminosity up to 10/sup 35/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/. The IR quadrupole parameters such as nominal gradient, dynamic aperture and physical aperture, operation margins are the main factors limiting the machine performance. Conceptual designs of 90-mm aperture high-gradient quadrupoles, suitable for use in 2/sup nd/ generation high-luminosity LHC IRs with the similar optics, are presented. The issues related to the field gradient, field quality and operation margins are discussed. (5 refs).
Nemykin, Victor N; Hadt, Ryan G
2006-10-01
Influence of molecular geometry, type of exchange-correlation functional, and contraction scheme of basis set applied at the iron nuclei have been tested in the calculation of 57Fe Mössbauer isomer shifts and quadrupole splittings for a wide range of ligand types, as well as oxidation and spin states, in inorganic and organometallic systems. It has been found that uncontraction of the s-part of Wachter's full-electron basis set at the iron nuclei does not appreciably improve the calculated isomer shifts. The observed correlations for all tested sets of geometries are close to each other and predominantly depend on the employed exchange-correlation functional with B3LYP functional being slightly better as compared to BPW91. Both hybrid (B3LYP) and pure (BPW91) exchange-correlation functionals are suitable for the calculation of isomer shifts in organometallic compounds. Surprisingly, it has been found that the hybrid B3LYP exchange-correlation functional completely fails in accurate prediction of quadrupole splittings in ferrocenes, while performance of the pure BPW91 functional for the same systems was excellent. This observation has been explained on the basis of relationship between the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange involved in the applied exchange-correlation functional and the calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gap in ferrocenes. On the basis of this explanation, use of only pure exchange-correlation functionals has been suggested for accurate prediction of Mössbauer spectra parameters in ferrocenes.
A hexagonal orthogonal-oriented pyramid as a model of image representation in visual cortex
Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.
1989-01-01
Retinal ganglion cells represent the visual image with a spatial code, in which each cell conveys information about a small region in the image. In contrast, cells of the primary visual cortex use a hybrid space-frequency code in which each cell conveys information about a region that is local in space, spatial frequency, and orientation. A mathematical model for this transformation is described. The hexagonal orthogonal-oriented quadrature pyramid (HOP) transform, which operates on a hexagonal input lattice, uses basis functions that are orthogonal, self-similar, and localized in space, spatial frequency, orientation, and phase. The basis functions, which are generated from seven basic types through a recursive process, form an image code of the pyramid type. The seven basis functions, six bandpass and one low-pass, occupy a point and a hexagon of six nearest neighbors on a hexagonal lattice. The six bandpass basis functions consist of three with even symmetry, and three with odd symmetry. At the lowest level, the inputs are image samples. At each higher level, the input lattice is provided by the low-pass coefficients computed at the previous level. At each level, the output is subsampled in such a way as to yield a new hexagonal lattice with a spacing square root of 7 larger than the previous level, so that the number of coefficients is reduced by a factor of seven at each level. In the biological model, the input lattice is the retinal ganglion cell array. The resulting scheme provides a compact, efficient code of the image and generates receptive fields that resemble those of the primary visual cortex.
(g, f)-factorizations orthogonal to a star in graphs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘桂真
1995-01-01
Let G be a graph, and F={F1, F2,…,Fm} and H be a factorization and a subgraph of G, respectively. If H has exactly one edge in common with Fi for all i, 1≤i≤m, then we say that F is orthogonal to H. Let g and f be two integer-valued functions defined on V(G) such that 0≤g(x)≤f(x) for every x∈V(G). In this paper, it is proved that for any given star with m edges of an (mg+m-1, mf-m + 1)-graph G, there exists a (g,f)-factorization of G orthogonal to it.
Orthogonally modulated molecular transport junctions for resettable electronic logic gates
Meng, Fanben; Hervault, Yves-Marie; Shao, Qi; Hu, Benhui; Norel, Lucie; Rigaut, Stéphane; Chen, Xiaodong
2014-01-01
Individual molecules have been demonstrated to exhibit promising applications as functional components in the fabrication of computing nanocircuits. Based on their advantage in chemical tailorability, many molecular devices with advanced electronic functions have been developed, which can be further modulated by the introduction of external stimuli. Here, orthogonally modulated molecular transport junctions are achieved via chemically fabricated nanogaps functionalized with dithienylethene units bearing organometallic ruthenium fragments. The addressable and stepwise control of molecular isomerization can be repeatedly and reversibly completed with a judicious use of the orthogonal optical and electrochemical stimuli to reach the controllable switching of conductivity between two distinct states. These photo-/electro-cooperative nanodevices can be applied as resettable electronic logic gates for Boolean computing, such as a two-input OR and a three-input AND-OR. The proof-of-concept of such logic gates demonstrates the possibility to develop multifunctional molecular devices by rational chemical design.
Noniterative Design of 2-Channel FIR Orthogonal Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiménez M Elena Domínguez
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of obtaining an explicit expression of all real FIR paraunitary filters. In this work, we present a general parameterization of 2-channel FIR orthogonal filters. Unlike other approaches which make use of a lattice structure, we show that our technique designs any orthogonal filter directly, with no need of iteration procedures. Moreover, in order to design an -tap 2-channel paraunitary filterbank, it suffices to choose independent parameters, and introduce them in a simple expression which provides the filter coefficients directly. Some examples illustrate how this new approach can be used for designing filters with certain desired properties. Further conditions can be eventually imposed on the parameters so as to design filters for specific applications.
Computational Complexity of Decoding Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes
Ayanoglu, Ender; Karipidis, Eleftherios
2009-01-01
The computational complexity of optimum decoding for an orthogonal space-time block code G satisfying the orthogonality property that the Hermitian transpose of G multiplied by G is equal to a constant c times the sum of the squared symbols of the code times an identity matrix, where c is a positive integer is quantified. Four equivalent techniques of optimum decoding which have the same computational complexity are specified. Modifications to the basic formulation in special cases are calculated and illustrated by means of examples. This paper corrects and extends [1],[2], and unifies them with the results from the literature. In addition, a number of results from the literature are extended to the case c > 1.
A NOTE ON SOBOLEV ORTHOGONALITY FOR LAGUERRE MATRIX POLYNOMIALS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhihui Zhu; Zhongkai Li
2007-01-01
Let {Ln(A,λ)(x)}n≥0 be the sequence of monic Laguerre matrix polynomials defined on [0, ∞) by Ln(A,λ)(x)=n!/(-λ)n∑nk=0(-λ)κ/k!(n-1)! (A+I)n[(A+I)k]-1 xk,where A ∈ Cr×r. It is known that {Ln(A,λ)(x)}n≥0 is orthogonal with respect to a matrix moment functional when A satisfies the spectral condition that Re(z) ＞ - 1 for every z ∈σ(A).In this note we show that forA such that σ(A) does not contain negative integers, the Laguerre matrix polynomials Ln(A,λ) (x) are orthogonal with respect to a non-diagonal SobolevLaguerre matrix moment functional, which extends two cases: the above matrix case and the known scalar case.
Superstability of the Generalized Orthogonality Equation on Restricted Domains
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Soon-Mo Jung; Prasanna K Sahoo
2004-08-01
Chmieliński has proved in the paper [4] the superstability of the generalized orthogonality equation $|\\langle f(x),f(y)\\rangle|=|\\langle x,y\\rangle|$. In this paper, we will extend the result of Chmieliński by proving a theorem: Let $D_n$ be a suitable subset of $\\mathbb{R}^n$. If a function $f: D_n→\\mathbb{R}^n$ satisfies the inequality $||\\langle f(x),f(y)\\rangle|-|\\langle x,y\\rangle||≤\\varphi(x,y)$ for an appropriate control function $\\varphi(x,y)$ and for all $x,y \\in D_n$, then satisfies the generalized orthogonality equation for any $x,y \\in D_n$.
The Baum-Connes conjecture for free orthogonal quantum groups
Voigt, Christian
2009-01-01
We prove an analogue of the Baum-Connes conjecture for free orthogonal quantum groups. More precisely, we show that these quantum groups have a $ \\gamma $-element and that $ \\gamma = 1 $. It follows that free orthogonal quantum groups are $ K $-amenable. We compute explicitly their $ K $-theory and deduce in the unimodular case that the corresponding reduced $ C^* $-algebras do not contain nontrivial idempotents. Our approach is based on the reformulation of the Baum-Connes conjecture by Meyer and Nest using the language of triangulated categories. An important ingredient is the theory of monoidal equivalence of compact quantum groups developed by Bichon, De Rijdt and Vaes. This allows us to study the problem in terms of the quantum group $ SU_q(2) $. The crucial part of the argument is a detailed analysis of the equivariant Kasparov theory of the standard Podle\\'s sphere.
Analysis of Sparse Representations Using Bi-Orthogonal Dictionaries
Vehkaperä, Mikko; Chatterjee, Saikat; Aurell, Erik; Skoglund, Mikael; Rasmussen, Lars
2012-01-01
The sparse representation problem of recovering an N dimensional sparse vector x from M < N linear observations y = Dx given dictionary D is considered. The standard approach is to let the elements of the dictionary be independent and identically distributed (IID) zero-mean Gaussian and minimize the l1-norm of x under the constraint y = Dx. In this paper, the performance of l1-reconstruction is analyzed, when the dictionary is bi-orthogonal D = [O1 O2], where O1,O2 are independent and drawn uniformly according to the Haar measure on the group of orthogonal M x M matrices. By an application of the replica method, we show that the typical compression threshold for such D is the same as for the IID Gaussian dictionary.
Tracking Lung Tumors in Orthogonal X-Rays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a computationally very efficient, robust, automatic tracking method that does not require any implanted fiducials for low-contrast tumors. First, it generates a set of motion hypotheses and computes corresponding feature vectors in local windows within orthogonal-axis X-ray images. Then, it fits a regression model that maps features to 3D tumor motions by minimizing geodesic distances on motion manifold. These hypotheses can be jointly generated in 3D to learn a single 3D regression model or in 2D through back projection to learn two 2D models separately. Tumor is tracked by applying regression to the consecutive image pairs while selecting optimal window size at every time. Evaluations are performed on orthogonal X-ray videos of 10 patients. Comparative experimental results demonstrate superior accuracy (~1 pixel average error and robustness to varying imaging artifacts and noise at the same time.
Fast Orthogonal Haar Transform Pattern Matching via Image Square Sum.
Li, Yujian; Li, Houjun; Cai, Zhi
2014-09-01
Although using image strip sum, an orthogonal Haar transform (OHT) pattern matching algorithm may have good performance, it requires three subtractions to calculate each Haar projection value on the sliding windows. By establishing a solid mathematical foundation for OHT, this paper based on the concept of image square sum, proposes a novel fast orthogonal Haar transform (FOHT) pattern matching algorithm, from which a Haar projection value can be obtained by only one subtraction. Thus, higher speed-ups can be achieved, while producing the same results with the full search pattern matching. A large number of experiments show that the speed-ups of FOHT are very competitive with OHT in most cases of matching one single pattern, and generally higher than OHT in all cases of matching multiple patterns, exceeding other high-level full search equivalent algorithms.
Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states.
Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2016-07-26
It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality.
Orthogonal functions, discrete variable representation, and generalized gauss quadratures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai
2002-01-01
, the basis of the generalized weight functions. We review these ideas below and apply then to the generation of the points and weights of the Rys polynomials which have proven useful in the evaluation of multicenter integrals, using Gaussian basis sets in quantum chemistry. In contrast to some approaches....... This three-term recursion can be used to generate the orthogonal functions as well as to generate the points and weights of Gauss quadratures on the basis of these functions. For the classical orthogonal functions, the terms in the three-term recursion are known analytically. For more general weight...... functions, this is not the case. However, they may be computed in a stable numerical fashion, via the recursion. In essence, this is an application of the well-known Lanczos recursion approach. Once the recursion coefficients are known, it is possible to compute the points and weights of quadratures on...
Peptide synthesis using unprotected peptides through orthogonal coupling methods.
Tam, J P; Lu, Y A; Liu, C F; Shao, J
1995-01-01
We describe an approach to the synthesis of peptides from segments bearing no protecting groups through an orthogonal coupling method to capture the acyl segment as a thioester that then undergoes an intramolecular acyl transfer to the amine component with formation of a peptide bond. Two orthogonal coupling methods to give the covalent ester intermediate were achieved by either a thiol-thioester exchange mediated by a trialkylphosphine and an alkylthiol or a thioesterification by C alpha-thiocarboxylic acid reacting with a beta-bromo amino acid. With this approach, unprotected segments ranging from 4 to 37 residues were coupled to aqueous solution to give free peptides up to 54 residues long with high efficiency. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8618926
Optimal filtering in multipulse sequences for nuclear quadrupole resonance detection
Osokin, D. Ya.; Khusnutdinov, R. R.; Mozzhukhin, G. V.; Rameev, B. Z.
2014-05-01
The application of the multipulse sequences in nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) detection of explosive and narcotic substances has been studied. Various approaches to increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of signal detection are considered. We discussed two modifications of the phase-alternated multiple-pulse sequence (PAMS): the 180° pulse sequence with a preparatory pulse and the 90° pulse sequence. The advantages of optimal filtering to detect NQR in the case of the coherent steady-state precession have been analyzed. It has been shown that this technique is effective in filtering high-frequency and low-frequency noise and increasing the reliability of NQR detection. Our analysis also shows the PAMS with 180° pulses is more effective than PSL sequence from point of view of the application of optimal filtering procedure to the steady-state NQR signal.
Microscopic analysis of quadrupole-octupole shape evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nomura Kosuke
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We analyze the quadrupole-octupole collective states based on the microscopic energy density functional framework. By mapping the deformation constrained self-consistent axially symmetric mean-field energy surfaces onto the equivalent Hamiltonian of the sdf interacting boson model (IBM, that is, onto the energy expectation value in the boson coherent state, the Hamiltonian parameters are determined. The resulting IBM Hamiltonian is used to calculate excitation spectra and transition rates for the positive- and negative-parity collective states in large sets of nuclei characteristic for octupole deformation and collectivity. Consistently with the empirical trend, the microscopic calculation based on the systematics of β2 – β3 energy maps, the resulting low-lying negative-parity bands and transition rates show evidence of a shape transition between stable octupole deformation and octupole vibrations characteristic for β3-soft potentials.
Confining rigid balls by mimicking quadrupole ion trapping
Fan, Wenkai; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun
2016-01-01
The rotating saddle not only is an interesting system that is able to trap a ball near its saddle point, but can also intuitively illustrate the operating principles of quadrupole ion traps in modern physics. Unlike the conventional models based on the mass-point approximation, we study the stability of a ball in a rotating-saddle trap using rigid-body dynamics. The stabilization condition of the system is theoretically derived and subsequently verified by experiments. The results are compared with the previous mass-point model, giving large discrepancy as the curvature of the ball is comparable to that of the saddle. We also point out that the spin angular velocity of the ball is analogous to the cyclotron frequency of ions in an external magnetic field utilized in many prevailing ion-trapping schemes.
Radio Frequency Interference Suppression for Landmine Detection by Quadrupole Resonance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Guoqing
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The quadrupole resonance (QR technology can be used as a confirming sensor for buried plastic landmine detection by detecting the explosives within the mine. We focus herein on the detection of TNT mines via the QR sensor. Since the frequency of the QR signal is located within the AM radio frequency band, the QR signal can be corrupted by strong radio frequency interferences (RFIs. Hence to detect the very weak QR signal, RFI mitigation is essential. Reference antennas, which receive RFIs only, can be used together with the main antenna, which receives both the QR signal and the RFIs, for RFI mitigation. The RFIs are usually colored both spatially and temporally, and hence exploiting only the spatial diversity of the antenna array may not give the best performance. We exploit herein both the spatial and temporal correlations of the RFIs to improve the TNT detection performance.
$Nb_{3}Sn$ quadrupole magnets for the LHC IR
Sabbi, G L; Chiesa, L; Coccoli, M; Dietderich, D R; Ferracin, P; Gourlay, S A; Hafalia, R R; Lietzke, A F; McInturff, A D; Scanlan, R M
2003-01-01
The development of insertion quadrupoles with 205 T/m gradient and 90 mm bore represents a promising strategy to achieve the ultimate luminosity goal of 2.5 * 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/ at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At present, Nb/sub 3/Sn is the only practical conductor which can meet these requirements. Since Nb/sub 3/Sn is brittle, and considerably more strain sensitive than NbTi, the design concepts and fabrication techniques developed for NbTi magnets need to be modified appropriately. In addition, IR magnets must provide high field quality and operate reliably under severe radiation loads. The results of conceptual design studies addressing these issues are presented. (25 refs).
Alternative Mechanical Structure for LARP Nb3Sn Quadrupoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.; Ambrosio, G.; Caspi, S.; Felice, H.; Kovach, P.; Lamm, M.; Sabbi, G.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.
2010-08-01
An alternative structure for the 120 mm Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnet presently under development for use in the upgrade for LHC at CERN is presented. The goals of this structure are to build on the existing technology developed in LARP with the LQ and HQ series magnets and to further optimize the features required for operation in the accelerator. These features include mechanical alignment needed for field quality and provisions for cold mass cooling with 1.9 K helium in a helium pressure vessel. The structure will also optimize coil azimuthal and axial pre-load for high gradient operation, and will incorporate features intended to improve manufacturability, thereby improving reliability and reducing cost.
Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers.
Maggiore, M; Cavenago, M; Comunian, M; Chirulotto, F; Galatà, A; De Lazzari, M; Porcellato, A M; Roncolato, C; Stark, S; Caruso, A; Longhitano, A; Cavaliere, F; Maero, G; Paroli, B; Pozzoli, R; Romé, M
2014-02-01
Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented.
Nuclear magnetic and quadrupole resonance studies of the stripes materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grafe, H.-J., E-mail: h.grafe@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State Research, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)
2012-11-01
Nuclear Magnetic and Quadrupole Resonance (NMR/NQR) is a powerful tool to probe electronic inhomogeneities in correlated electron systems. Its local character allows for probing different environments due to spin density modulations or inhomogeneous doping distributions emerging from the correlations in these systems. In fact, NMR/NQR is not only sensitive to magnetic properties through interaction of the nuclear spin, but also allows to probe the symmetry of the charge distribution and its homogeneity, as well as structural modulations, through sensitivity to the electric field gradient (EFG). We review the results of NMR and NQR in the cuprates from intrinsic spatial variations of the hole concentration in the normal state to stripe order at low temperatures, thereby keeping in mind the influence of doping induced disorder and inhomogeneities. Finally, we briefly discuss NQR evidence for local electronic inhomogeneities in the recently discovered iron pnictides, suggesting that electronic inhomogeneities are a common feature of correlated electron systems.
LHC interaction region quadrupole cryostat design and fabrication
Nicol, T H; Huang, Y; Page, Thomas M
2002-01-01
The cryostat of a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Interaction Region (IR) quadrupole magnet consists of all components of the inner triplet except the magnet assembly itself. It serves to support the magnet accurately and reliably within the vacuum vessel, to house all required cryogenic piping, and to insulate the cold mass from heat radiated and conducted from the environment. It must function reliably during storage, shipping and handling, normal magnet operation, quenches, and seismic excitations, and must be able to be manufactured at low cost. The major components of the cryostat are the vacuum vessel, thermal shield, multilayer insulation system, cryogenic piping, and suspension system. The overall design of a cryostat for superconducting accelerator magnets requires consideration of fluid flow, proper selection of materials for their thermal and structural performance at both ambient and operating temperature, and knowledge of the environment to which the magnets will be subjected over the course of their...
Quadrupole collectivity of neutron-rich Neon isotopes
Rodríguez-Guzman, R R; Robledo, L M
2003-01-01
The angular momentum projected Generator Coordinate Method, with the quadrupole moment as collective coordinate and the Gogny force (D1S) as the effective interaction, is used to describe the properties of the ground state and low-lying excited states of the even-even Neon isotopes $^{20-34}$Ne, that is, from the stability valley up to the drip-line. It is found that the ground state of the N=20 nucleus $^{30}$Ne is deformed but to a lesser extent than the N=20 isotope of the Magnesium. In the calculations, the isotope $^{32}$Ne is at the drip-line in good agreement with other theoretical predictions. On the other hand, rather good agreement with experimental data for many observables is obtained.
Low Frequency Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance with SQUID Amplifiers
Clarke, John
1994-02-01
The dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) can be configured as an amplifier of spin-echos with a noise temperature of approximately 10 mK (f/1 M Hz) at an operating temperature of 1.5 K. A Fourier transform spectrometer based on a SQUID with a superconducting input circuit and operated in a flux-locked loop is used to obtain nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectra in a broadband m ode over the bandwith 0 -1 M Hz. Spin-echo spectra of 14N in NH4ClO4 reveal sharp NQR resonances, obtained simultaneously, at 17.4, 38.8 and 56.2 kHz. At 1.5 K, the measured longitudinal and transverse relaxation times T1 and T2 for the 38.8 kHz transition are 63 ± 3 ms and 22±2 ms, respectively.
Beam-induced quench test of LHC main quadrupole
Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Holzer, E B; Kurfuerst, C; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Steckert, J; Verweij, A; Zamantzas, C
2011-01-01
Unexpected beam loss might lead to a transition of the accelerator superconducting magnet to a normal conducting state. The LHC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system is designed to abort the beam before the energy deposited in the magnet coils reach a quench-provoking level. In order to verify the threshold settings generated by simulation, a series of beam-induced quench tests at various beam energies has been performed. The beam losses are generated by means of an orbital bump peaked in one of main quadrupole magnets (MQ). The analysis includes not only BLM data but also the quench protection system (QPS) and cryogenics data. The measurements are compared to Geant4 simulations of energy deposition inside the coils and corresponding BLM signal outside the cryostat.
Orthogonal polynomial approximation in higher dimensions: Applications in astrodynamics
Bani Younes, Ahmad Hani Abd Alqader
We propose novel methods to utilize orthogonal polynomial approximation in higher dimension spaces, which enable us to modify classical differential equation solvers to perform high precision, long-term orbit propagation. These methods have immediate application to efficient propagation of catalogs of Resident Space Objects (RSOs) and improved accounting for the uncertainty in the ephemeris of these objects. More fundamentally, the methodology promises to be of broad utility in solving initial and two point boundary value problems from a wide class of mathematical representations of problems arising in engineering, optimal control, physical sciences and applied mathematics. We unify and extend classical results from function approximation theory and consider their utility in astrodynamics. Least square approximation, using the classical Chebyshev polynomials as basis functions, is reviewed for discrete samples of the to-be-approximated function. We extend the orthogonal approximation ideas to n-dimensions in a novel way, through the use of array algebra and Kronecker operations. Approximation of test functions illustrates the resulting algorithms and provides insight into the errors of approximation, as well as the associated errors arising when the approximations are differentiated or integrated. Two sets of applications are considered that are challenges in astrodynamics. The first application addresses local approximation of high degree and order geopotential models, replacing the global spherical harmonic series by a family of locally precise orthogonal polynomial approximations for efficient computation. A method is introduced which adapts the approximation degree radially, compatible with the truth that the highest degree approximations (to ensure maximum acceleration error method is shown well-suited to solving these problems with over an order of magnitude speedup relative to known methods. Furthermore, the approach is parallel-structured so that it is
A general boundary capability embedded in an orthogonal mesh
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hewett, D.W.; Yu-Jiuan Chen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1995-07-01
The authors describe how they hold onto orthogonal mesh discretization when dealing with curved boundaries. Special difference operators were constructed to approximate numerical zones split by the domain boundary; the operators are particularly simple for this rectangular mesh. The authors demonstrated that this simple numerical approach, termed Dynamic Alternating Direction Implicit, turned out to be considerably more efficient than more complex grid-adaptive algorithms that were tried previously.
Near orthogonal launch of SPR modes in Au films
Canning, John; Tzoumis, Nikki; Tan, Yanzhen; Patyk, Rodolfo; Gibson, Brant C
2014-01-01
We report the excitation of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) close to the orthogonal axis of a gold (Au) film on borosilicate glass. Direct spectroscopic measurement of SPR shifts using different liquids are made at ~5{\\deg} incidence within a reflection spectrophotometer. Scattering of light that is able to penetrate across the film at the interfaces is the proposed mechanism by which coupling, and plasmon localization, is established.
A 'missing' family of classical orthogonal polynomials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vinet, Luc [Centre de Recherches Mathematiques, Universite de Montreal, PO Box 6128, Centre-ville Station, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Zhedanov, Alexei, E-mail: zhedanov@fti.dn.ua [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk 83114 (Ukraine)
2011-02-25
We study a family of 'classical' orthogonal polynomials which satisfy (apart from a three-term recurrence relation) an eigenvalue problem with a differential operator of Dunkl type. These polynomials can be obtained from the little q-Jacobi polynomials in the limit q = -1. We also show that these polynomials provide a nontrivial realization of the Askey-Wilson algebra for q = -1.
Trifluoroacetyl as an orthogonal protecting group for guanidines.
Bartoli, Sandra; Jensen, Kim B; Kilburn, Jeremy D
2003-11-28
The trifluoroacetyl moiety has been used as a new protecting group for guanidine functionality. The protecting group is easily cleaved under mild basic conditions and is complementary to the Boc, Cbz, and Ddpe protecting groups. The protecting group can be applied to peptide synthesis in solution as well as on a solid phase as it is orthogonal to a Boc and Cbz strategy and semiorthogonal to an Fmoc strategy.
TEACHING BASIC ELEMENTS IN TECHNICAL DRAWING – ORTHOGONAL PROJECTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CLINCIU Ramona
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The paper presents applications developed using AutoCAD and 3D Studio MAX programs. These applications are constructed such as to enable, gradually, the development of the spatial abilities of the students and, at the same time, to enable the understanding of the principles for the representation of the orthogonal projections of the parts, as well as for the construction of their axonometric projections.
Geometric Deformations of Orthogonal and Symplectic Galois Representations
Booher, Jeremy
2016-01-01
For a representation over a finite field of characteristic p of the absolute Galois group of the rationals, we study the existence of a lift to characteristic zero that is geometric in the sense of the Fontaine-Mazur conjecture. For two-dimensional representations, Ramakrishna proved that under technical assumptions odd representations admit geometric lifts. We generalize this to higher dimensional orthogonal and symplectic representations. The key innovation is the definition and study of a ...
MINIMIZATION PROBLEM FOR SYMMETRIC ORTHOGONAL ANTI-SYMMETRIC MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuan Lei; Anping Liao; Lei Zhang
2007-01-01
By applying the generalized singular value decomposition and the canonical correlation decomposition simultaneously, we derive an analytical expression of the optimal approximate solution (X), which is both a least-squares symmetric orthogonal anti-symmetric solution of the matrix equation ATXA ＝ B and a best approximation to a given matrix X*.Moreover, a numerical algorithm for finding this optimal approximate solution is described in detail, and a numerical example is presented to show the validity of our algorithm.
Solving Replication Problems in Complete Market by Orthogonal Series Expansion
Chaohua Dong; Jiti Gao
2012-01-01
We reconsider the replication problem for contingent claims in a complete market under a general framework. Since there are various limitations in the Black-Scholes pricing formula, we propose a new method to obtain an explicit self-financing trading strategy expression for replications of claims in a general model. The departure of our method from the literature is, using an orthogonal expansion of a process related to the proposed trading strategy, we can construct a complete orthonormal ba...
Sparse Signals Recovery from Noisy Measurements by Orthogonal Matching Pursuit
Shen, Yi
2011-01-01
Recently, many practical algorithms have been proposed to recover the sparse signal from fewer measurements. Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is one of the most effective algorithm. In this paper, we use the restricted isometry property to analysis the algorithm. We show that, under certain conditions based on the restricted isometry property and the signals, OMP will recover the support of the sparse signal when measurements are corrupted by additive noise.
Discrete Orthogonal Transforms and Neural Networks for Image Interpolation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Polec
1999-09-01
Full Text Available In this contribution we present transform and neural network approaches to the interpolation of images. From transform point of view, the principles from [1] are modified for 1st and 2nd order interpolation. We present several new interpolation discrete orthogonal transforms. From neural network point of view, we present interpolation possibilities of multilayer perceptrons. We use various configurations of neural networks for 1st and 2nd order interpolation. The results are compared by means of tables.
Orthogonal frequency division multiple access fundamentals and applications
Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Yan
2010-01-01
Supported by the expert-level advice of pioneering researchers, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Fundamentals and Applications provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the foundations and applications of one of the most promising access technologies for current and future wireless networks. It includes authoritative coverage of the history, fundamental principles, key techniques, and critical design issues of OFDM systems. Covering various techniques of effective resource management for OFDM/OFDMA-based wireless communication systems, this cutting-edge reference:Add
An introduction to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing
Edfors, Ove; Sandell, Magnus; van de Beek, Jan-Jaap; Landström, Daniel; Sjöberg, Frank
1996-01-01
This report is an introduction to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The focus is on signal processing areas pursued by our research group at Luleå University of Technology. We present an historical background and some frequently used system models. Typical areas of applications are also described, both wireless and wired. In addition to the general overview, the addressed areas include synchronization, channel estimation and channel coding. Both time and frequency synchroniza...
Determining gaseous composition of fluid inclusions with quadrupole mass spectrometer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU; Heping
2002-01-01
［1］Joseph, R. G., Stephen, E. K., Factors affecting gas analysis of inclusion fluid by quadrupole mass spectrometry, Geo-chimica et Acta, 1995, 59(19): 3977-3986.［2］Masakatsu, S., Takayuki, S., Naoto, T., Analysis of fluid inclusion gases from geothermal systems, using a rapid-scanning quadrupole mass spectrometer, Eur. J. Mineral., 1992, 4: 895-906.［3］Van den Kerkhof, A. M., Isochoric phase diagrams in the systems CO2-CH4 and CO2-N2: Application to fluid inclusions, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1990, 54: 621-629.［4］Colin, B., Michael, P. S., Mass spectrometric determination of gases in individual fluid inclusions in natural minerals, Anal. Chem., 1986, 58: 1330-1333.［5］David, I. N., Fredrick, J. S., Analysis of volatiles in fluid inclusions by mass spectrometry, Chemical Geology, 1987, 61: 1-10.［6］Yoichi, M., Ryo, K., Takayuki, S. et al., Gas composition of fluid inclusion from the Mori Geothermal Reservoir, South-western Hokkaido, Japan, Resource Geology, 1997, 47(5): 283-291.［7］Lu Huanzhang, Guo Dijiang, Progress and trends of researches on fluid inclusions, Geological Review, 2000, 46(4): 385-392.［8］Xia Xinyu, Wang Xianbin, Chen Jiangfeng, Geningjie, composition of fluid inclusions and CO2 carbon isotope of ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks in Shuanghe area, Dabieshan Mountain, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1999, 29(4): 314-320.
A surface-electrode quadrupole guide for electrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffrogge, Johannes Philipp
2012-12-19
This thesis reports on the design and first experimental realization of a surface-electrode quadrupole guide for free electrons. The guide is based on a miniaturized, planar electrode layout and is driven at microwave frequencies. It confines electrons in the near-field of the microwave excitation, where strong electric field gradients can be generated without resorting to resonating structures or exceptionally high drive powers. The use of chip-based electrode geometries allows the realization of versatile, microstructured potentials with the perspective of novel quantum experiments with guided electrons. I present the design, construction and operation of an experiment that demonstrates electron confinement in a planar quadrupole guide for the first time. To this end, electrons with kinetic energies from one to ten electron-volts are guided along a curved electrode geometry. The stability of electron guiding as a function of drive parameters and electron energy has been studied. A comparison with numerical particle tracking simulations yields good qualitative agreement and provides a deeper understanding of the electron dynamics in the guiding potential. Furthermore, this thesis gives a detailed description of the design of the surface-electrode layout. This includes the development of an optimized coupling structure to inject electrons into the guide with minimum transverse excitation. I also discuss the extension of the current setup to longitudinal guide dimensions that are comparable to or larger than the wavelength of the drive signal. This is possible with a modified electrode layout featuring elevated signal conductors. Electron guiding in the field of a planar, microfabricated electrode layout allows the generation of versatile and finely structured guiding potentials. One example would be the realization of junctions that split and recombine a guided electron beam. Furthermore, it should be possible to prepare electrons in low-lying quantum mechanical
Orthogonality breaking through few-mode optical fiber.
Parnet, Francois; Fade, Julien; Alouini, Mehdi
2016-04-01
Polarization sensing and imaging through optical fibers is a technological challenge motivated by promising applications for in vivo, in situ polarimetric endoscopy for biomedical diagnosis. Among the recent approaches proposed to solve this issue, the depolarization/dichroism sensing by polarization orthogonality breaking (DSOB) technique was shown to perform remotely through single-mode optical fibers for depolarization/diattenuation measurements. In this article, we investigate the applicability of such a technique in slightly multimode waveguides. Through theoretical modeling and numerical simulations, we evidence the conditions required for the polarization orthogonality to be preserved after propagation in a few-mode fiber, notably in terms of detection geometry of the spatial modes. Original experiments realized in few-mode fibers both in transmission and reflection configurations are also reported and validate the theoretical predictions. These results allow us to analyze the influence of the experimental parameters, such as detection geometry, sample tilt, or fiber length, on orthogonality preservation and on the measurement dynamics of the DSOB technique in slightly multimode waveguides.
Investigation of formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma W.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available This work investigates the formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting of mild steel and the transformation conditions between various morphology chips. It is supposed that the modeling material follows the Johnson-Cook constitutive model. In orthogonal cutting process, both the plastic flow and the instability behaviors of chip materials are caused by the plane strain loadings. Therefore, the general instability behaviors of materials in plane strain state are first analyzed with linear perturbation method and a universal instability criterion is established. Based on the analytical results, the formation mechanisms of chips and the transformation conditions between continuous and serrated chips are further studied by instability phase diagram method. The results show that the chip formation strongly depends on the intensity ratios between shear and normal stresses. The ratios of dissipative rates of plastic work done by compression and shear stresses govern the transformation from continuous to serrated chips. These results are verified by the numerical simulations on the orthogonal cutting process.
Efficiency Improvements of Antenna Optimization Using Orthogonal Fractional Experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yen-Sheng Chen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an extremely efficient method for antenna design and optimization. Traditionally, antenna optimization relies on nature-inspired heuristic algorithms, which are time-consuming due to their blind-search nature. In contrast, design of experiments (DOE uses a completely different framework from heuristic algorithms, reducing the design cycle by formulating the surrogates of a design problem. However, the number of required simulations grows exponentially if a full factorial design is used. In this paper, a much more efficient technique is presented to achieve substantial time savings. By using orthogonal fractional experiments, only a small subset of the full factorial design is required, yet the resultant response surface models are still effective. The capability of orthogonal fractional experiments is demonstrated through three examples, including two tag antennas for radio-frequency identification (RFID applications and one internal antenna for long-term-evolution (LTE handheld devices. In these examples, orthogonal fractional experiments greatly improve the efficiency of DOE, thereby facilitating the antenna design with less simulation runs.
Orthogonal design for scale invariant feature transform optimization
Ding, Xintao; Luo, Yonglong; Yi, Yunyun; Jie, Biao; Wang, Taochun; Bian, Weixin
2016-09-01
To improve object recognition capabilities in applications, we used orthogonal design (OD) to choose a group of optimal parameters in the parameter space of scale invariant feature transform (SIFT). In the case of global optimization (GOP) and local optimization (LOP) objectives, our aim is to show the operation of OD on the SIFT method. The GOP aims to increase the number of correctly detected true matches (NoCDTM) and the ratio of NoCDTM to all matches. In contrast, the LOP mainly aims to increase the performance of recall-precision. In detail, we first abstracted the SIFT method to a 9-way fixed-effect model with an interaction. Second, we designed a mixed orthogonal array, MA(64,23420,2), and its header table to optimize the SIFT parameters. Finally, two groups of parameters were obtained for GOP and LOP after orthogonal experiments and statistical analyses were implemented. Our experiments on four groups of data demonstrate that compared with the state-of-the-art methods, GOP can access more correct matches and is more effective against object recognition. In addition, LOP is favorable in terms of the recall-precision.
Parsimonious extreme learning machine using recursive orthogonal least squares.
Wang, Ning; Er, Meng Joo; Han, Min
2014-10-01
Novel constructive and destructive parsimonious extreme learning machines (CP- and DP-ELM) are proposed in this paper. By virtue of the proposed ELMs, parsimonious structure and excellent generalization of multiinput-multioutput single hidden-layer feedforward networks (SLFNs) are obtained. The proposed ELMs are developed by innovative decomposition of the recursive orthogonal least squares procedure into sequential partial orthogonalization (SPO). The salient features of the proposed approaches are as follows: 1) Initial hidden nodes are randomly generated by the ELM methodology and recursively orthogonalized into an upper triangular matrix with dramatic reduction in matrix size; 2) the constructive SPO in the CP-ELM focuses on the partial matrix with the subcolumn of the selected regressor including nonzeros as the first column while the destructive SPO in the DP-ELM operates on the partial matrix including elements determined by the removed regressor; 3) termination criteria for CP- and DP-ELM are simplified by the additional residual error reduction method; and 4) the output weights of the SLFN need not be solved in the model selection procedure and is derived from the final upper triangular equation by backward substitution. Both single- and multi-output real-world regression data sets are used to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the CP- and DP-ELM in terms of parsimonious architecture and generalization accuracy. Innovative applications to nonlinear time-series modeling demonstrate superior identification results.
Limited-memory adaptive snapshot selection for proper orthogonal decomposition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oxberry, Geoffrey M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kostova-Vassilevska, Tanya [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arrighi, Bill [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chand, Kyle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-04-02
Reduced order models are useful for accelerating simulations in many-query contexts, such as optimization, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. However, offline training of reduced order models can have prohibitively expensive memory and floating-point operation costs in high-performance computing applications, where memory per core is limited. To overcome this limitation for proper orthogonal decomposition, we propose a novel adaptive selection method for snapshots in time that limits offline training costs by selecting snapshots according an error control mechanism similar to that found in adaptive time-stepping ordinary differential equation solvers. The error estimator used in this work is related to theory bounding the approximation error in time of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, and memory usage is minimized by computing the singular value decomposition using a single-pass incremental algorithm. Results for a viscous Burgers’ test problem demonstrate convergence in the limit as the algorithm error tolerances go to zero; in this limit, the full order model is recovered to within discretization error. The resulting method can be used on supercomputers to generate proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, or as a subroutine within hyperreduction algorithms that require taking snapshots in time, or within greedy algorithms for sampling parameter space.
Mutually Unbiased Bases and Orthogonal Decompositions of Lie Algebras
Boykin, P O; Tiep, P H; Wocjan, P; Sitharam, Meera; Tiep, Pham Huu; Wocjan, Pawel
2005-01-01
We establish a connection between the problem of constructing maximal collections of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and an open problem in the theory of Lie algebras. More precisely, we show that a collection of m MUBs in K^n gives rise to a collection of m Cartan subalgebras of the special linear Lie algebra sl_n(K) that are pairwise orthogonal with respect to the Killing form, where K=R or K=C. In particular, a complete collection of MUBs in C^n gives rise to a so-called orthogonal decomposition (OD) of sl_n(C). The converse holds if the Cartan subalgebras in the OD are also *-closed, i.e., closed under the adjoint operation. In this case, the Cartan subalgebras have unitary bases, and the above correspondence becomes equivalent to a result relating collections of MUBs to collections of maximal commuting classes of unitary error bases, i.e., orthogonal unitary matrices. It is a longstanding conjecture that ODs of sl_n(C) can only exist if n is a prime power. This corroborates further the general belief that...
L2 Orthogonal Space Time Code for Continuous Phase Modulation
Hesse, Matthias; Deneire, Luc
2008-01-01
To combine the high power efficiency of Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) with either high spectral efficiency or enhanced performance in low Signal to Noise conditions, some authors have proposed to introduce CPM in a MIMO frame, by using Space Time Codes (STC). In this paper, we address the code design problem of Space Time Block Codes combined with CPM and introduce a new design criterion based on L2 orthogonality. This L2 orthogonality condition, with the help of simplifying assumption, leads, in the 2x2 case, to a new family of codes. These codes generalize the Wang and Xia code, which was based on pointwise orthogonality. Simulations indicate that the new codes achieve full diversity and a slightly better coding gain. Moreover, one of the codes can be interpreted as two antennas fed by two conventional CPMs using the same data but with different alphabet sets. Inspection of these alphabet sets lead also to a simple explanation of the (small) spectrum broadening of Space Time Coded CPM.
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition as Surrogate Model for Aerodynamic Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentina Dolci
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A surrogate model based on the proper orthogonal decomposition is developed in order to enable fast and reliable evaluations of aerodynamic fields. The proposed method is applied to subsonic turbulent flows and the proper orthogonal decomposition is based on an ensemble of high-fidelity computations. For the construction of the ensemble, fractional and full factorial planes together with central composite design-of-experiment strategies are applied. For the continuous representation of the projection coefficients in the parameter space, response surface methods are employed. Three case studies are presented. In the first case, the boundary shape of the problem is deformed and the flow past a backward facing step with variable step slope is studied. In the second case, a two-dimensional flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil is considered and the surrogate model is constructed in the (Mach, angle of attack parameter space. In the last case, the aerodynamic optimization of an automotive shape is considered. The results demonstrate how a reduced-order model based on the proper orthogonal decomposition applied to a small number of high-fidelity solutions can be used to generate aerodynamic data with good accuracy at a low cost.
Reconstruction of the number and positions of dipoles and quadrupoles using an algebraic method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nara, Takaaki [University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1, Chofugaoka, Chofu-city, Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: nara@mce.uec.ac.jp
2008-11-01
Localization of dipoles and quadrupoles is important in inverse potential analysis, since they can effectively express spatially extended sources with a small number of parmeters. This paper proposes an algebraic method for reconstruction of pole positions as well as the number of dipole-quadrupoles without providing an initial parameter guess or iterative computing forward solutions. It is also shown that a magnetoencephalography inverse problem with a source model of dipole-quadrupoles in 3D space is reduced into the same problem as in 2D space.
First Test Results of the 150 mm Aperture IR Quadrupole Models for the High Luminosity LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambrosio, G. [Fermilab; Chlachidze, G. [Fermilab; Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven; Ferracin, P. [CERN; Sabbi, G. [LBNL, Berkeley
2016-10-06
The High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN will use large aperture (150 mm) quadrupole magnets to focus the beams at the interaction points. The high field in the coils requires Nb3Sn superconductor technology, which has been brought to maturity by the LHC Accelerator Re-search Program (LARP) over the last 10 years. The key design targets for the new IR quadrupoles were established in 2012, and fabrication of model magnets started in 2014. This paper discusses the results from the first single short coil test and from the first short quadrupole model test. Remaining challenges and plans to address them are also presented and discussed.
Wireless power transfer based on magnetic quadrupole coupling in dielectric resonators
Song, Mingzhao; Iorsh, Ivan; Kapitanova, Polina; Nenasheva, Elizaveta; Belov, Pavel
2016-01-01
We numerically investigate a magnetic resonant wireless power transfer system based on high refractive index dielectric resonators. We propose to operate at magnetic quadrupole mode of the resonators to enlarge the efficiency due to minimization of ohmic and radiation losses. Numerical estimation predicts the 80% efficiency of the wireless power transfer (WPT) system operating at quadrupole mode at 300 MHz. Moreover, the system operating at magnetic quadrupole mode is capable of transferring power with 70% efficiency when the receiver rotates 90°. We verify the simulated results by experimental investigation of the WPT system based on microwave ceramic resonators (ɛ = 80 and tanδ = 10-4).
Temperature and angular momentum dependence of the quadrupole deformation in sd-shell
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P A Ganai; J A Sheikh; I Maqbool; R P Singh
2009-11-01
Temperature and angular momentum dependence of the quadrupole deformation is studied in the middle of the sd-shell for 28Si and 27Si isotopes using the spherical shell model approach. The shell model calculations have been performed using the standard universal sd-shell (USD) interaction and the canonical partition function constructed from the calculated eigensolutions. It is shown that the extracted average quadrupole moments show a transitional behaviour as a function of temperature and the infered transitional temperature is shown to vary with angular momentum. The quadrupole deformation of the individual eigenstate is also analysed.
Orthogonal projection of points in CAD/CAM applications: an overview
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kwanghee Ko
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to review methods for computing orthogonal projection of points onto curves and surfaces, which are given in implicit or parametric form or as point clouds. Special emphasis is place on orthogonal projection onto conics along with reviews on orthogonal projection of points onto curves and surfaces in implicit and parametric form. Except for conics, computation methods are classified into two groups based on the core approaches: iterative and subdivision based. An extension of orthogonal projection of points to orthogonal projection of curves onto surfaces is briefly explored. Next, the discussion continues toward orthogonal projection of points onto point clouds, which spawns a different branch of algorithms in the context of orthogonal projection. The paper concludes with comments on guidance for an appropriate choice of methods for various applications.
2013-01-01
The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.
Considerations for a QD0 with Hybrid Technology in ILC
Modena, M; Garcia, H; Gatignon, L; Tomas, R
2014-01-01
The baseline design of the QD0 magnet for ILC, the International Linear Collider, is a very compact superconducting quadrupole (coil-dominated magnet). A prototype of this quadrupole is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA). In CLIC, the Compact Linear Collider under study at CERN, we are studying a different conceptual solution for the QD0. This is due to two main reasons: all the magnets of the Beam Delivery System will need to be stabilized in the nano-meter range and extremely tight alignment tolerances are required. The proposed solution, now baseline for CLIC, is a room temperature hybrid quadrupole based on resistive coils and permanent magnet blocks (iron-dominated magnet). In this paper we present a conceptual design for a hybrid solution studied and adapted also to the ILC project. A super-ferric solution (superconducting coils with warm iron poles) is proposed to make the cross section compatible with the layout of the experiments. This design matches the compactness requiremen...
Electric quadrupole interaction in cubic BCC α-Fe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Błachowski, A.; Komędera, K. [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Ruebenbauer, K., E-mail: sfrueben@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Cios, G.; Żukrowski, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Center for Materials and Nanotechnology, Av. A. Mickiewicza 30, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland); Górnicki, R. [RENON, ul. Gliniana 15/15, PL-30-732 Kraków (Poland)
2016-07-15
Mössbauer transmission spectra for the 14.41-keV resonant line in {sup 57}Fe have been collected at room temperature by using {sup 57}Co(Rh) commercial source and α-Fe strain-free single crystal as an absorber. The absorber was magnetized to saturation in the absorber plane perpendicular to the γ-ray beam axis applying small external magnetic field. Spectra were collected for various orientations of the magnetizing field, the latter lying close to the [110] crystal plane. A positive electric quadrupole coupling constant was found practically independent on the field orientation. One obtains the following value V{sub zz} = +1.61(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2} for the (average) principal component of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor under assumption that the EFG tensor is axially symmetric and the principal axis is aligned with the magnetic hyperfine field acting on the {sup 57}Fe nucleus. The nuclear spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment for the first excited state of the {sup 57}Fe nucleus was adopted as +0.17 b. Similar measurement was performed at room temperature using as-rolled polycrystalline α-Fe foil of high purity in the zero external field. Corresponding value for the principal component of the EFG was found as V{sub zz} = +1.92(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2}. Hence, it seems that the origin of the EFG is primarily due to the local (atomic) electronic wave function distortion caused by the spin–orbit interaction between effective electronic spin S and incompletely quenched electronic angular momentum L. It seems as well that the lowest order term proportional to the product L·λ·S dominates, as no direction dependence of the EFG principal component is seen. The lowest order term is isotropic for a cubic symmetry as one has λ=λ 1 for cubic systems with the symbol 1 denoting unit operator and λ being the coupling parameter. - Highlights: • Precision of MS the same as MAPON • Real scans versus magnetization direction • A challenge
Fast Fourier Transform Chlorine Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy.
D'Iorio, Marie
A nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer operating in the frequency range 1-40 MHz was updated for fast Fourier transform spectroscopy and coupled to a Nicolet 1180 computer and data acquisition system. It was used with a low temperature cryostat for studies shown down to liquid helium temperature and with a high pressure/low temperature system for studies down to liquid nitrogen temperature and up to six kilobars. The study of the ('35)Cl NQR spectrum of K(,2)OsCl(,6) at 298 K and 77 K revealed the presence of a satellite associated with the nearest neighbour chlorines to H('+) ion impurities located at vacant octahedral sties. This result is in agreement with the predictions of a point charge model calculation. A residence time for the H('+) ion was deduced and is consistent with the result obtained from dielectric measurements. A detailed study of the ('35)Cl NQR frequency in K(,2)ReCl(,6) was performed in the temperature range 85 - 130K where two structural phase transitions occur, and at pressures from 1 to 2643 bars. A number of unusual features were revealed and discussed as the possible signature of incommensurate behavior. The primary effect of the pressure was to alter the temperatures at which the phase transitions occurred. Contrary to the behavior expected, the transition temperature for the antiferrorotative transition has a negative pressure coefficient. The spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times for the ('35)Cl and ('37)Cl isotopes of the one dimensional XY system, PrCl(,3), were measured at 4.2K. The spin-lattice relaxation is exponential and dominated by magnetic dipole -dipole interactions. The spin-spin relaxation is non-exponential and dominated by electric quadrupolar interactions arising from the coupling of the electric dipole moment at the praseodymium site and the quadrupole moment of the chlorine ion. The temperature dependence of the spin-spin relaxation time was investigated. At 17.4 K both magnetic dipolar and electric
Geib, Timon; Sleno, Lekha; Hall, Rabea A.; Stokes, Caroline S.; Volmer, Dietrich A.
2016-08-01
We describe a systematic comparison of high and low resolution LC-MS/MS assays for quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in human serum. Identical sample preparation, chromatography separations, electrospray ionization sources, precursor ion selection, and ion activation were used; the two assays differed only in the implemented final mass analyzer stage; viz. high resolution quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF) versus low resolution triple quadrupole instruments. The results were assessed against measured concentration levels from a routine clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. Isobaric interferences prevented the simple use of TOF-MS spectra for extraction of accurate masses and necessitated the application of collision-induced dissociation on the QqTOF platform. The two mass spectrometry assays provided very similar analytical figures of merit, reflecting the lack of relevant isobaric interferences in the MS/MS domain, and were successfully applied to determine the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for patients with chronic liver disease.
Nucleic acid constructs containing orthogonal site selective recombinases (OSSRs)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilmore, Joshua M.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Dueber, John E.
2017-08-29
The present invention provides for a recombinant nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence comprising a plurality of constructs, wherein each construct independently comprises a nucleotide sequence of interest flanked by a pair of recombinase recognition sequences. Each pair of recombinase recognition sequences is recognized by a distinct recombinase. Optionally, each construct can, independently, further comprise one or more genes encoding a recombinase capable of recognizing the pair of recombinase recognition sequences of the construct. The recombinase can be an orthogonal (non-cross reacting), site-selective recombinase (OSSR).
The endoscopic classification of representations orthogonal and symplectic groups
Arthur, James
2013-01-01
Within the Langlands program, endoscopy is a fundamental process for relating automorphic representations of one group with those of another. In this book, Arthur establishes an endoscopic classification of automorphic representations of orthogonal and symplectic groups G. The representations are shown to occur in families (known as global L-packets and A-packets), which are parametrized by certain self-dual automorphic representations of an associated general linear group GL(N). The central result is a simple and explicit formula for the multiplicity in the automorphic discrete spectrum of G
Dissipative tunneling and orthogonality catastrophe in molecular transistors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braig, S.; Flensberg, Karsten
2004-01-01
of the charge on the molecule to the vibrational modes of the environment has on the I-V characteristics. We find that, for comparable characteristic length scales of the van der Waals and electrostatic interaction of the molecule with the environmental vibrational modes, the I-V characteristics...... are qualitatively changed from what one would expect from orthogonality catastrophe and develop a steplike discontinuity at the onset of conduction. For the case of very different length scales, we recover dissipation consistent with modeling the electrostatic forces as an external influence on the system comprised...
Introduction to orthogonal, symplectic and unitary representations of finite groups
Riehm, Carl R
2011-01-01
Orthogonal, symplectic and unitary representations of finite groups lie at the crossroads of two more traditional subjects of mathematics-linear representations of finite groups, and the theory of quadratic, skew symmetric and Hermitian forms-and thus inherit some of the characteristics of both. This book is written as an introduction to the subject and not as an encyclopaedic reference text. The principal goal is an exposition of the known results on the equivalence theory, and related matters such as the Witt and Witt-Grothendieck groups, over the "classical" fields-algebraically closed, rea
A Legendre orthogonal moment based 3D edge operator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Hui; SHU Huazhong; LUO Limin; J. L. Dillenseger
2005-01-01
This paper presents a new 3D edge operator based on Legendre orthogonal moments. This operator can be used to extract the edge of 3D object in any window size,with more accurate surface orientation and more precise surface location. It also has full geometry meaning. Process of calculation is considered in the moment based method.We can greatly speed up the computation by calculating out the masks in advance. We integrate this operator into our rendering of medical image data based on ray casting algorithm. Experimental results show that it is an effective 3D edge operator that is more accurate in position and orientation.
On the Complex Zeros of Some Families of Orthogonal Polynomials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugenia N. Petropoulou
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The complex zeros of the orthogonal Laguerre polynomials (( for <−, ultraspherical polynomials (( for <−, Jacobi polynomials (,( for <−, <−, +<−2(+1, orthonormal Al-Salam-Carlitz II polynomials ((; for <0, 0<<1, and -Laguerre polynomials ((; for <−, 0<<1 are studied. Several inequalities regarding the real and imaginary properties of these zeros are given, which help locating their position. Moreover, a few limit relations regarding the asymptotic behavior of these zeros are proved. The method used is a functional analytic one. The obtained results complement and improve previously known results.
Non-time-orthogonality, Gravitational Orbits, and Thomas Precession
Klauber, R D
2000-01-01
Non-time-orthogonal analysis of rotating frames is applied to objects in gravitational orbits and found to be internally consistent. The object's surface speed about its axis of rotation, but not its orbital speed, is shown to be readily detectable by any "enclosed box" experimenter on the surface of such an object. Sagnac type effects manifest readily, but by somewhat subtle means. The analysis is extended to objects bound in non-gravitational orbit, where it is found to be fully in accord with the traditional analysis of Thomas precession.
QES extension of Calogero model associated with exceptional orthogonal polynomials
Basu-Mallick, B; Roy, Pinaki
2016-01-01
By using the technique of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we study a quasi exactly solvable (QES) extension of the $N$-particle rational Calogero model with harmonic confining interaction. Such QES many particle system, whose effective potential in the radial direction yields a supersymmetric partner of the radial harmonic oscillator, is constructed by including new long-range interactions to the rational Calogero model. An infinite number of bound state energy levels are obtained for this system under certain conditions. We also calculate the corresponding bound state wave functions in terms of the recently discovered exceptional orthogonal Laguerre polynomials.
Directed Formation of DNA Nanoarrays through Orthogonal Self-Assembly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugen Stulz
2011-06-01
Full Text Available We describe the synthesis of terpyridine modified DNA strands which selectively form DNA nanotubes through orthogonal hydrogen bonding and metal complexation interactions. The short DNA strands are designed to self-assemble into long duplexes through a sticky-end approach. Addition of weakly binding metals such as Zn(II and Ni(II induces the formation of tubular arrays consisting of DNA bundles which are 50-200 nm wide and 2-50 nm high. TEM shows additional long distance ordering of the terpy-DNA complexes into fibers.
Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Napov, Artem [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)
2013-08-01
The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.
Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Napov, Artem [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)
2013-08-01
The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.
Quantum memory in an orthogonal geometry of silenced echo retrieval
Gerasimov, K. I.; Minnegaliev, M. M.; Moiseev, S. A.; Urmancheev, R. V.; Chanelière, T.; Louchet-Chauvet, A.
2017-08-01
We experimentally realize a quantum-memory protocol based on retrieval of silenced echo (ROSE) in Tm3+:Y3Al5O12 crystal in an orthogonal geometry of the signal and control light fields. The silenced echo signal revival efficiency of 13% with 36 μs storage time is demonstrated. To achieve that we implemented a high-precision atomic coherence control via amplitude- and phase-modulated laser pulses. We also discuss capabilities of this configuration, ways to increase quantum efficiency and to combine it with a single-mode optical cavity.
Effects of Orthogonal Rotating Electric Fields on Electrospinning Process
Cipolletta, Federico; Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro
2016-01-01
Electrospinning is an nanotechnology process whereby an external electric field is used to accelerate and stretch a charged polymer jet, so as to produce fibers at nanoscale diameters. In quest of a further reduction in the cross section of electrified jets hence of the resulting electrospun fibers, we explore the effects of an external rotating electric field orthogonal to the jet direction. Through extensive particle simulations, it is shown that by a proper tuning of the electric field amplitude and frequency, a reduction of up to a 30% in the aforementioned radius can be obtained, thereby opening new perspectives in the design of future ultra-thin electrospun fibres.
ORIENTATION FIELD RECONSTRUCTION OF ALTERED FINGERPRINT USING ORTHOGONAL WAVELETS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mini M.G.
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Ridge orientation field is an important feature for fingerprint matching and fingerprint reconstruction. Matching of the altered fingerprint against its unaltered mates can be done by extracting the available features in the altered fingerprint and using it along with approximated ridge orientation. This paper presents a method for approximating ridge orientation field of altered fingerprints. In the proposed method, sine and cosine of doubled orientation of the fingerprint is decomposed using orthogonal wavelets and reconstructed back using only the approximation coefficients. No prior information about the singular points is needed for orientation approximation. The method is found suitable for orientation estimation of low quality fingerprint images also.