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Sample records for hybrid pv-t collector

  1. Thermal performances of vertical hybrid PV/T air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, I.; Touafek, K.; Bellel, N.; Khelifa, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, numerical analyses and the experimental validation of the thermal behavior of a vertical photovoltaic thermal air collector are investigated. The thermal model is developed using the energy balance equations of the PV/T air collector. Experimental tests are conducted to validate our mathematical model. The tests are performed in the southern Algerian region (Ghardaïa) under clear sky conditions. The prototype of the PV/T air collector is vertically erected and south oriented. The absorber upper plate temperature, glass cover temperature, air temperature in the inlet and outlet of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation are measured. The efficiency of the collector increases with increase in mass flow of air, but the increase in mass flow of air reduces the temperature of the system. The increase in efficiency of the PV/T air collector is due to the increase in the number of fins added. In the experiments, the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the PV/T air collector reaches 10 ° C on November 21, 2014, the interval time is between 10:00 and 14:00, and the temperature of the upper plate reaches 45 ° C at noon. The mathematical model describing the dynamic behavior of the typical PV/T air collector is evaluated by calculating the root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. A good agreement between the experiment and the simulation results is obtained.

  2. New generation of hybrid solar PV/T collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the suitability of commercially available panels using amorphous silicon (a-Si) technology for use in hybrid photovoltaic-thermal collectors. A previously made feasibility study is quoted that showed that the competitiveness of hybrid collectors depends on the technical requirements placed on the integrated photovoltaic modules. The detail results of tests made on unencapsulated samples of a-Si modules based on various different substrates are presented. These include assessment of absorption factors on the basis of spectrometric and calorimetric measurements, testing of the thermal stability of the a-Si cells and emissivity measurements made on the top-cover materials used in the panels. The report is concluded with recommendations for the development of new encapsulation materials with low emissivity and improved durability at high temperatures.

  3. Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T Air and Water Based Solar Collectors Suitable for Building Integrated Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of mass flow rates on the electrical, thermal and combined of photovoltaic thermal efficiencies of the hybrid collectors. Approach: Two photovoltaic thermal solar collectors were designed and fabricated. The first collector, known as spiral flow absorber collector, designed to generate hot water and electricity. The second collector, known as single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector designed to generate hot air and electricity. Both absorber collectors were fixed underneath the flat plate single glazing sheet of polycrystalline silicon PV module. Water was used as a heat transfer medium in spiral flow absorber collector and air for the Single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector respectively. Results: The experiment results showed that the single flow absorber collector generates combined PV/T efficiency of 64%, electrical efficiency of 11% and power maximum achieved at 25.35 W. Moreover, Single pass rectangular tunnel absorber collector generated combined PV/T efficiency of 55%, electrical efficiency of 10% and maximum power of 22.45 W. Conclusion/Recommendations: The best mass flow rate achieved for spiral flow absorber collector is 0.011 kg sec-1 at surface temperature of 55% and 0.0754 kg sec-1 at surface temperature of 39°C for single pass rectangular collector absorber. It was recommended for PV/T system to further improve its efficiency by optimizing the contact surfaces between the solar panel (photovoltaic module and the tubes underneath and also recommended to use other type of photovoltaic cell such as amorphous silicon cell that posses the black mat surfaces property that will improve it thermal absorption.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Single Pass, Double Duct Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T) Air Collector with CPC and Fins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. E.A. Alfegi; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Y.H. Othman; Baharudin B. Yatim

    2008-01-01

    ...) with the photovoltaic module. Such unit is called photovoltaic/thermal collector (pv/t) or hybrid (pv/t). An experimental investigation of a solar air heater with photovoltaic cell located at the absorber with compound parabolic collector...

  5. Energy and exergy analysis of PV/T air collectors connected in series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubey, Swapnil; Solanki, S.C.; Tiwari, Arvind

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to derive the analytical expressions for N hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) air collectors connected in series. The performance of collectors is evaluated by considering the two different cases, namely, Case I (air collector is fully covered by PV module (gla

  6. Energy and exergy analysis of PV/T air collectors connected in series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubey, Swapnil; Solanki, S.C.; Tiwari, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to derive the analytical expressions for N hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) air collectors connected in series. The performance of collectors is evaluated by considering the two different cases, namely, Case I (air collector is fully covered by PV module

  7. Experimental Investigation of Single Pass, Double Duct Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T Air Collector with CPC and Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E.A. Alfegi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of photovoltaic modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. This undesirable effect can be partially avoided by applying a heat recovery unit with fluid circulation (air or water with the photovoltaic module. Such unit is called photovoltaic/thermal collector (pv/t or hybrid (pv/t. An experimental investigation of a solar air heater with photovoltaic cell located at the absorber with compound parabolic collector (CPC and fins have been developed and tested. The performance of the photovoltaic, thermal and combined pv/t collector over range of operating conditions and the results was discussed. Results at solar irradiance of 400 W/m2 showed that the combined pv/t efficiency is increasing from 27.50 % to 40.044 % at mass flow rates various from 0.0316 to 0.09 kg-1 s.

  8. Analysis of PV/T flat plate water collectors connected in series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, G.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2009-09-15

    Photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) technology refers to the integration of a PV and a conventional solar thermal collector in a single piece of equipment. In this paper we evaluate the performance of partially covered flat plate water collectors connected in series using theoretical modeling. PV is used to run the DC motor, which circulates the water in a forced mode. Analytical expressions for N collectors connected in series are derived by using basic energy balance equations and computer based thermal models. This paper shows the detailed analysis of thermal energy, exergy and electrical energy yield by varying the number of collectors by considering four weather conditions (a, b, c and d type) for five different cities (New Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Srinagar, and Jodhpur) of India. Annual thermal and electrical energy yield is also evaluated for four different series and parallel combination of collectors for comparison purpose considering New Delhi conditions. This paper also gives the total carbon credit earned by the hybrid PV/T water heater investigated as per norms of Kyoto Protocol for New Delhi climatic conditions. Cost analysis has also been carried out. It is observed that the collectors partially covered by PV module combines the production of hot water and electricity generation and it is beneficial for the users whose primary requirement is hot water production and collectors fully covered by PV is beneficial for the users whose primary requirement is electricity generation. We have also found that if this type of system is installed only in 10% of the total residential houses in Delhi then the total carbon credit earned by PV/T water heaters in terms of thermal energy is USD $144.5 millions per annum and in terms of exergy is USD $14.3 millions per annum, respectively. (author)

  9. Mathematical modeling of photovoltaic thermal PV/T system with v-groove collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohri, M.; Fudholi, A.; Ruslan, M. H.; Sopian, K.

    2017-07-01

    The use of v-groove in solar collector has a higher thermal efficiency in references. Dropping the working heat of photovoltaic panel was able to raise the electrical efficiency performance. Electrical and thermal efficiency were produced by photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) system concurrently. Mathematical modeling based on steady-state thermal analysis of PV/T system with v-groove was conducted. With matrix inversion method, the energy balance equations are explained by means of the investigative method. The comparison results show that in the PV/T system with the V-groove collector is higher temperature, thermal and electrical efficiency than other collectors.

  10. Indoor simulation and testing of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) air collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solanki, S.C.; Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, Arvind

    2009-01-01

    An indoor standard test procedure has been developed for thermal and electrical testing of PV/T collectors connected in series. For this, a PV/T solar air heater has been designed, fabricated and its performance over different operating parameters were studied. Based on the energy balance equations,

  11. Indoor simulation and testing of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) air collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solanki, S.C.; Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, A.

    2009-01-01

    An indoor standard test procedure has been developed for thermal and electrical testing of PV/T collectors connected in series. For this, a PV/T solar air heater has been designed, fabricated and its performance over different operating parameters were studied. Based on the energy balance equations,

  12. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  13. Energy and exergy analysis of PV/T air collectors connected in series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Swapnil; Solanki, S.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Design, Production and Management, University of Twente (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    In this paper an attempt has been made to derive the analytical expressions for N hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) air collectors connected in series. The performance of collectors is evaluated by considering the two different cases, namely, Case I (air collector is fully covered by PV module (glass to glass) and air flows above the absorber plate) and Case II (air collector is fully covered by PV module (glass to glass) and air flows below the absorber plate). This paper shows the detailed analysis of energy, exergy and electrical energy by varying the number of collectors and air velocity considering four weather conditions (a, b, c and d type) and five different cities (New Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Srinagar, and Jodhpur) of India. It is found that the collectors fully covered by PV module and air flows below the absorber plate gives better results in terms of thermal energy, electrical energy and exergy gain. Physical implementation of BIPV system has also been evaluated. If this type of system is installed on roof of building or integrated with building envelope will simultaneously fulfill the electricity generation for lighting purpose and hot air can be used for space heating or drying. (author)

  14. Indoor simulation and testing of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, S.C.; Dubey, Swapnil [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Design, Production and Management, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    An indoor standard test procedure has been developed for thermal and electrical testing of PV/T collectors connected in series. For this, a PV/T solar air heater has been designed, fabricated and its performance over different operating parameters were studied. Based on the energy balance equations, in a steady state condition, a thermal model has been developed. Comparison between experimental and theoretical results were also been carried out. The thermal and electrical efficiency of the solar heater is 42% and 8.4%, respectively. This test procedure can be used by manufacturers for testing of different types of PV modules in order to optimize its products. (author)

  15. Concentrating PV/T Hybrid System for Simultaneous Electricity and Usable Heat Generation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhou Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV power generation is one of the attractive choices for efficient utilization of solar energy. Considering that the efficiency and cost of PV cells cannot be significantly improved in near future, a relatively cheap concentrator to replace part of the expensive solar cells could be used. The photovoltaic thermal hybrid system (PV/T, combining active cooling with thermal electricity and providing both electricity and usable heat, can enhance the total efficiency of the system with reduced cell area. The effect of nonuniform light distribution and the heat dissipation on the performance of concentrating PV/T was discussed. Total utilization of solar light by spectral beam splitting technology was also introduced. In the last part, we proposed an integrated compound parabolic collector (CPC plate with low precision solar tracking, ensuring effective collection of solar light with a significantly lowered cost. With the combination of beam splitting of solar spectrum, use of film solar cell, and active liquid cooling, efficient and full spectrum conversion of solar light to electricity and heat, in a low cost way, might be realized. The paper may offer a general guide to those who are interested in the development of low cost concentrating PV/T hybrid system.

  16. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained

  17. Nighttime radiative cooling potential of unglazed and PV/T solar collectors: parametric and experimental analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    Nighttime radiative cooling technology has been studied both by means of simulations and experiments, to evaluate its potential and to validate the existing theoretical models used to describe it. Photovoltaic/thermal panels (PV/T) and unglazed solar collectors have been chosen as case studies....... An experimental setup has been constructed and tested during summer of 2014, at the Technical University of Denmark. The cooling performance (heat loss) has been measured simultaneously for both types of panels, installed side-by-side. The experimental results have been compared with the results from a commercial....... The obtained values showed a good agreement with the ones found in the literature about solar panels or other kinds of heat sinks used for radiative cooling applications. The panels provided a cooling performance per night ranging between 0.2 and 0.9 kWh/m2 of panel. The COP values (defined as the ratio...

  18. Modeling and Testing of a PV/T hybrid system with Water based Optical Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model has been developed for the Non-imaging V-trough hybrid PV/T concentrator systems along with optical filter and validated with the designed and fabricated system to assess over all thermal efficiency of the PV/T system. A V-trough concentrator system has been developed for two axes tracking. Commercially available solar modules were evaluated for their usability under 2-sun concentration. V-trough concentrator with geometric concentration ratio of 2 (2-sun, we are getting an average overall efficiency of the PV/T system increased by 23.54 % extra overall thermal efficiency of the PV/T system as compared to the solar module efficiency at standard test conditions.

  19. Review on the Recent Developments of Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC Based Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T system emerged as one of the convenient type of renewable energy system acquire the ability to generate power and thermal energy in the absence of moving parts. However, the power output of PV/T is intermittent due to dependency on solar irradiation condition. Furthermore, its efficiency decreases because of cells instability at high temperature. On the other hand, fuel cell co-generation system (CGS is another technology that can generate power and heat simultaneously. Integration of PV/T and fuel cell CGS could enhance the reliability and sustainability of both systems as well as increasing the overall system performance. Hence, this paper intended to present the parameters that affect performance of PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC CGS. Moreover, recent developments on PV/T-fuel cell hybrid system are also presented. Based on literates, mass flow rate of moving fluid in PV/T was found to affect the system efficiency. For the PEMFC, when the heat is utilized, the system performance can be increased where the heat efficiency is similar to electrical efficiency which is about 50%. Recent developments of hybrid PV/T and fuel cell show that most of the studies only focus on the power generation of the system. There are less study on the both power and heat utilization which is indeed necessary in future development in term of operation strategy, optimization of size, and operation algorithm.

  20. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  1. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  2. Analytical expression for electrical efficiency of PV/T hybrid air collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Tiwari, G.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2009-05-15

    The overall electrical efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) module can be increased by reducing the temperature of the PV module by withdrawing the thermal energy associated with the PV module. In this communication an attempt has been made to develop analytical expression for electrical efficiency of PV module with and without flow as a function of climatic and design parameters. The four different configurations of PV modules are considered for the present study which are defined as; case A (Glass to glass PV module with duct), case B (Glass to glass PV module without duct), case C (Glass to tedlar PV module with duct), case D (Glass to tedlar PV module without duct). Further, experiments were carried out for all configurations under composite climate of New Delhi. It is found that the glass to glass PV modules with duct gives higher electrical efficiency as well as the higher outlet air temperature amongst the all four cases. The annual effect on electrical efficiency of glass to glass type PV module with and without duct is also evaluated. The annual average efficiency of glass to glass type PV module with and without duct is 10.41% and 9.75%, respectively. (author)

  3. Improvements of hybrid PV-T solar energy systems using Amlouk-Boubaker optothermal expansivity optimizing abacus sketch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubaker, K.; Amlouk, M. [Unite de Physique de Dispositifs a Semiconducteurs-UPDS-Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-10-15

    This study is a prelude to the definition of a new synthetic parameter inserted in a 2D abacus. This parameter: the Amlouk-Boubaker optothermal expansivity <{psi}{sub AB}>, is defined, for a given PV-T material, as a thermal diffusivity-to-optical effective absorptivity ratio. This parameter's unit evokes a heat flow velocity inside the material. Consequently, the parameter {psi}{sub AB} could be combined with the already known bandgap energy E{sub g}, in order to establish a 2D abacus. A sketched scheme of the 2D abacus is proposed as a guide for investigation and evaluation of PV-T candidate materials like metal oxides, amorphous silicon, zinc-doped binary compounds, and hydrogenated amorphous carbon. Using this abacus, designers will be able to compare solar energy-related materials on the basis of conjoint optical and thermal efficiency. (author)

  4. Combined photovoltaic and thermal hybrid collector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.; Russell, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Solar energy collectors that produce both electric and thermal energy are an attractive alternative to individual thermal and photovoltaic collectors for certain applications and climates. Economic results from a system analysis indicate that hybrid collector systems are attractive in small buildings that have substantial heating loads. Passively cooled photovoltaic panels are best suited for structures located in regions where year-round air conditioning and small, low-grade, thermal energy demands predominate. Hybrid collectors are to be tested according to ASHRAE standards and a full-system experiment incorporating a photovoltaic array installed at the Solar Energy Research Facility of the University of Texas will be conducted by Lincoln Laboratory.

  5. Performance of hybrid photovoltaic collector

    OpenAIRE

    Garbisu Eugui, Josu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present project is the study of the performance of a combined photovoltaic-thermal plant, called also hybrid system, located in south Italy, evaluating the efficiency of the photovoltaic and thermal systems and the advantage respect to the two single plants (photovoltaic and thermal ). This research project has two objectives fundamentals of efficiency improvement energy from solar photovoltaic panels. On one hand, increase photovoltaic efficiency, at the same time an...

  6. Numerical study of PV/T-SAHP system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang PEI; Jie JI; Ke-liang LIU; Han-feng HE; Ai-guo JIANG

    2008-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy effectively and to achieve a higher electrical efficiency by limiting the operating temperature of the photovoltaic (PV) panel, a novel photovoltaic/thermal solar-assisted heat pump (PV/T-SAHP) system was proposed and constructed. The hybrid solar system generates electricity and thermal energy simultaneously. A distributed parameters model of the PV/T-SAHP system was developed and applied to analyze the system dynamic performance in terms of PV action, photothermal action and Rankine cycle processes. The simulation results indicated that the coefficient of performance (COP) of the proposed PV/T-SAHP can be much better than that of the conventional heat pump. Both PV-efficiency and photothermic efficiency have been improved considerably. The results also showed that the performance of this PV/T-SAHP system was strongly influenced by the evaporator area, tube pitch and tilt angle of the PV/T evaporator, which are the key factors in PV/T-SAHP system optimization and PV/T evaporator design.

  7. Energy and exergy analysis of a two pass photovoltaic –thermal (PV/T) air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, M.; Jayaraj, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2013-07-01

    A double pass hybrid solar air (PV/T) heater with slats is designed and fabricated to study elaborately its thermal and electrical performance corresponding to the warm and humid environment. Air as a heat removing fluid is made to flow through upper and lower channels of the collector. The collector is designed in such way that the absorber plate is partially covered by solar cells. Thin metallic strips (called slats) are attached longitudinally at the bottom side of the absorber plate to improve the overall system performance (by increasing the cooling rate of the absorber plate). Thermal and electrical performances of the whole system at different cooling rates are presented. The exergy analysis of double pass hybrid solar air (PV/T) heater with slats has also been carried out. The instantaneous overall energy and overall exergy efficiency of the double pass hybrid (PV/T) solar air heater varies between 29 – 37 percent and 14-17 percent respectively. These obtained values are comparable with that of published results.

  8. 新型平板太阳能PV/T空气集热器传热特性的数值研究%Numerical Simulation of Thermal Performance of a New Type of Flat-Plate Solar PV/T Air Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 徐银文; 黄章峰; 李杰

    2015-01-01

    文中设计了一款新型PV/T一体化空气集热器,建立了新型PV/T空气系统内部传热过程的一维非稳态数学模型,并利用差分法对模型进行了数值计算。根据计算结果对一体化系统的性能及影响因素进行了分析。结果表明:在一定的光照强度下,随着空气质量流量增加,电池板温度Tp逐渐下降,空气温升逐渐降低;而热效率、光电转化效率、联合效率随空气流量的增加有所升高。模型的建立为高性能太阳能PV/T一体化空气集热器的优化设计提供较好理论依据。%In this paper, a new type of integrated solar PV/T air collector is designed. A one-dimensional unsteady mathematical model is developed, the internal heat transfer process is calculated by ifnite difference approach. The performance of PV/T solar air collector is predicted under different parameters and conditions. Results indicate that the temperature of solar cell and outlet air decrease with the increase of air mass lfow rate under the same incident solar intensity. Then, the thermal efifciency, electrical efifciency and total efifciency of PV/T system increase with the rising of the inlet air mass lfow rate. The models provide valuable theoretical basis for the optimal design of high-performance solar PV/T integrated air system.

  9. a New Parameter:. AN Abacus for Optimizing Pv-T Hybrid Solar Device Functional Materials Using the Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridjine, S.; Amlouk, M.

    In this study, we define a synthetic parameter: optothermal expansivity as a quantitative guide to evaluating and optimizing both the thermal and the optical performance of PV-T functional materials. The definition of this parameter, ψAB (Amlouk-Boubaker parameter), takes into account the thermal diffusivity and the optical effective absorptivity of the material. The values of this parameter, which seems to be a characteristic one, correspond to the total volume that contains a fixed amount of heat per unit time (m3 s-1) and can be considered as a 3D velocity of the transmitted heat inside the material. As the PV-T combined devices need to have simultaneous optical and thermal efficiency, we try to investigate some recently proposed materials (β-SnS2, In2S3, ZnS1-xSex|0 ≤xabacus.

  10. Thermal performance of a linear Fresnel reflector solar concentrator PV/T energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, Mohamed R. [State Engineering University of Armenia (Armenia)], E-Mail: Dmoh_elbehary@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    This is a report on an investigation of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. Solar energy conversion efficiency was increased by taking advantage of PV/T collectors and low solar concentration technologies, combined into a PV/T system operated at elevated temperature. The main novelty is the coupling of a linear Fresnel mirror reflecting concentrator with a channel PV/T collector. Concentrator PV/T collectors can function at temperatures over 100 degrees celsius, and thus thermal energy can be made to drive processes such as refrigeration, desalination and steam production. Solar system analytical thermal performance gives efficiency values over 60%. Combined electric and thermal (CET) efficiency is high. A combined electric and heat power for the linear fresnel reflector approach that employs high performance CPV technology to produce both electricity and thermal energy at low to medium temperatures is presented. A well-functioning PV/T system can be designed and constructed with low concentration and a total efficiency of nearly 80% can be attained.

  11. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  12. Thermal modeling of a combined system of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, G.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, an integrated combined system of a photovoltaic (glass-glass) thermal (PV/T) solar water heater of capacity 200 l has been designed and tested in outdoor condition for composite climate of New Delhi. An analytical expression for characteristic equation for photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) flat plate collector has been derived for different condition as a function of design and climatic parameters. The testing of collector and system were carried out during February-April, 2007. It is observed that the photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) flat plate collector partially covered with PV module gives better thermal and average cell efficiency which is in accordance with the results reported by earlier researchers. (author)

  13. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  14. Investigation of a hybrid PVT air collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, S.; Touafek, K.; Mordjaoui, M.; Khelifa, A.; Tabet, I.

    2017-02-01

    The photovoltaic thermal hybrid (PVT) collectors, which simultaneously produce electricity and heat, are an alternative to photovoltaic modules and thermal collectors installed separately. Indeed, the heat extracted from the solar cell is used to heat water or air, thereby cooling the cell, and thus increasing its energy efficiency. This paper deals with a hybrid PVT air collector in which a new design has been proposed and tested. Its principle is based on the return of the preheating air to a second heating. The air thus passes twice under the solar cells before being evacuated to the outside of the collector (for space heating). The system is modular and expandable to cover large spaces to be heated. The experimental results of this novel design are presented and discussed under both normal and forced circulation. This technique of air return shows favorable results in terms of the quality of the heated air and electric power generation.

  15. Hybrid thermoelectric solar collector design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Shaheen, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    A flat-plate solar collector is conceived where energy cascades through thermoelectric power modules generating direct-current electricity. The intent of this work was to choose a collector configuration and to perform a steady-state thermal performance assessment. A set of energy balance equations were written and solved numerically for the purpose of optimizing collector thermal and electrical performance. The collector design involves finned columns of thermoelectric modules imbedded in the absorber plate (hot junction) over a parallel array of vertical tubes. The thermoelectric power output is limited by the small hot-junction/cold-junction temperature difference which can be maintained under steady-state conditions. The electric power per unit tube pass area is found to have a maximum as a function of a geometric parameter, while electric power is maximized with respect to an electric resistance ratio. Although the electric power efficiency is small, results indicate that there is sufficient electric power production to drive a coolant circulator, suggesting the potential for a stand-alone system.

  16. Hybrid thermoelectric solar collector design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Shaheen, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    A flat-plate solar collector is conceived where energy cascades through thermoelectric power modules generating direct-current electricity. The intent of this work was to choose a collector configuration and to perform a steady-state thermal performance assessment. A set of energy balance equations were written and solved numerically for the purpose of optimizing collector thermal and electrical performance. The collector design involves finned columns of thermoelectric modules imbedded in the absorber plate (hot junction) over a parallel array of vertical tubes. The thermoelectric power output is limited by the small hot-junction/cold-junction temperature difference which can be maintained under steady-state conditions. The electric power per unit tube pass area is found to have a maximum as a function of a geometric parameter, while electric power is maximized with respect to an electric resistance ratio. Although the electric power efficiency is small, results indicate that there is sufficient electric power production to drive a coolant circulator, suggesting the potential for a stand-alone system.

  17. Annual measured and simulated thermal performance analysis of a hybrid solar district heating plant with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    in large solar heating plants for a district heating network, a hybrid solar collector field with 5960 m2 flat plate collectors and 4039 m2 parabolic trough collectors in series was constructed in Taars, Denmark. The design principle is that the flat plate collectors preheat the return water from...... for this type of hybrid solar district heating plants with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in the Nordic region, but also introduce a novel design concept of solar district heating plants to other high solar radiation areas.......Flat plate collectors have relatively low efficiency at the typical supply temperatures of district heating networks (70–95 °C). Parabolic trough collectors retain their high efficiency at these temperatures. To maximize the advantages of flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors...

  18. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume II. PV-T state-of-the-art survey and site/application pair selection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    As part of a project to develop feasibility assessments, design procedures, and reference designs for total energy systems that could use actively cooled concentrating photovoltaic collectors, a survey was conducted to provide an overview of available photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) technology. General issues associated with the design and installation of a PV-T system are identified. Electrical and thermal efficiencies for the line-focus Fresnel, the linear parabolic trough, and the point-focus Fresnel collectors are specified as a function of operating temperature, ambient temperature, and insolation. For current PV-T technologies, the line-focus Fresnel collector proved to have the highest thermal and electrical efficiencies, lowest array cost, and lowest land area requirement. But a separate feasibility analysis involving 11 site/application pairs showed that for most applications, the cost of the photovoltaic portion of a PV-T system is not recovered through the displacement of an electrical load, and use of a thermal-only system to displace the thermal load would be a more economical alternative. PV-T systems are not feasible for applications that have a small thermal load, a large steam requirement, or a high load return temperature. SAND82-7157/3 identifies the technical issues involved in designing a photovoltaic-thermal system and provides guidance for resolving such issues. Detailed PV-T system designs for three selected applications and the results of a trade-off study for these applications are presented in SAND82-7157/4. A summary of the major results of this entire study and conclusions concerning PV-T systems and applications is presented in SAND82-7157/1.

  19. Environmental Life-Cycle Analysis of Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems for Use in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin-Tai Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While sheet-and-tube absorber is generally recommended for flat-plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T collector design because of the simplicity and promising performance, the use of rectangular-channel absorber is also tested to be a good alternative. Before a new energy technology, like PV/T, is fully implemented, its environmental superiority over the competing options should be assessed, for instance, by evaluating its consumption levels throughout its production and service life. Although there have been a plenty of environmental life-cycle assessments on the domestic solar hot water systems and PV systems, the related works on hybrid solar PV/T systems have been very few. So far there is no reported work on the assessment of PV/T collector with channel-type absorber design. This paper reports an evaluation of the energy payback time and the greenhouse gas payback time of free-standing and building-integrated PV/T systems in Hong Kong. This is based on two case studies of PV/T collectors with modular channel-type aluminium absorbers. The results confirm the long-term environmental benefits of PV/T applications.

  20. Exergetic evaluation on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid panel; Taiyoko netsu hybrid panel no exergy hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaki, H.; Morita, Y.; Fujisawa, T.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The photovoltaic/thermal hybrid panel (PV/T) is an energy converter that was designed for the composite use of electricity and heat. In this paper, the validity of PV/T designed for trial was evaluated based on an exergetic theory. As the result of an experiment, the electric exergetic value of PV/T and PV is each 65.8 kWh/m{sup 2} and 58.6 kWh/m{sup 2}. The former is higher than the latter by 11.2%. The total exergetic value of PV/T is also 1.2 and 8.2 times as high as those of a PV and solar collector (SC), respectively. The calculation result of the optimum temperature operation showed that the exergetic value of PV/T is 3.1 times as high as the electric exergetic value. Therefore, the operation must be performed with the electric and thermal exergetic values set in a ratio of 3.1 to 1. In this paper, the operating mode is handled in which importance was more attached to the electric exergy than the thermal exergy. The flow rate of a heating medium on PV/T is not thus the flow control that maximizes the PV/T exergy. In the future, studies including these points will be promoted. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Performance of double -pass solar collector with CPC and fins for heat transfer enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfegi, Ebrahim M. A.; Abosbaia, Alhadi A. S.; Mezughi, Khaled M. A.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2013-06-01

    The temperature of photovoltaic modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. This undesirable effect can be partially avoided by applying a heat recovery unit with fluid circulation (air or water) with the photovoltaic module. Such unit is called photovoltaic / thermal collector (pv/t) or hybrid (pv/t). In this unit, photovoltaic cells were pasted directly on the flat plate absorber. An experimental study of a solar air heater with photovoltaic cell located at the absorber with fins and compound parabolic collector for heat transfer enhancement and increasing the number of reflection on the cells have been conducted. The performance of the photovoltaic, thermal, and combined pv/t collector over range of operating conditions and the results was discussed. Results at solar irradiance of 500 W/m2 show that the combined pv/t efficiency is increasing from 37.28 % to 81.41 % at mass flow rates various from 0.029 to 0.436 kg/s.

  2. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...... collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector...

  3. 太阳能光伏光热一体化系统性能影响因素%Experimental study on performance of hybrid PV/T solar system and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余长富; 阮应君; 吴家正

    2015-01-01

    为分析太阳能光伏光热一体化(PV/T)系统热效率、电效率和(火用)效率等性能的影响因素,设计并构建了PV/T实验系统,基于全天太阳能辐照度、环境温度、入口水温度等参数和与光伏(PV)对比子系统性能的比较,分析了冷却流体、入口水流量、太阳能电池覆盖率对PV/T系统性能的影响.结果表明:PV/T系统集热器平均电效率较PV对比子系统集热器提高了0.91%;入口水流量较小时,PV/T系统集热器热效率和电效率均较低,但其能够获得较高的出口水温度和(火用)效率;PV/T系统集热器热效率与太阳能电池覆盖率呈现负相关关系,PV/T系统集热器电效率与太阳能电池覆盖率呈现正相关关系.

  4. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Steven A. Benson; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ''Advanced Hybrid''{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot

  5. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Paticulate Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay Almlie

    2004-09-30

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task

  6. PV/T slates - Application examples and case studies; PV/T-Schiefer. Anwendungsbeispiele und Fallstudien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report presents possible applications for PV/T slates based on data from the production atlas presented in another report in this series. Application variants are discussed, including hot-water preparation, air pre-heating, air-water heat pumps, buried seasonal storage and latent seasonal heat storage. Detailed examples are given for a hotel in Lugano, Switzerland and a residential estate in Davos.

  7. PV/T slates - Pilot project in Steinhausen; PV/T-Schiefer. Pilotprojekt Steinhausen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report deals with a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates) mounted on a garden shed in Steinhausen, Switzerland. The installation provides power and heat to the main house. The report describes the construction and operation of this pilot project and the results of measurements made on its electrical and thermal performance. The results of measurements made are presented in detail in graphical form and compared with the results of simulation. Suggestions are made for the optimisation of the system. Figures are presented on energy production and energy flows in graphical form.

  8. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2004-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  9. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2004-03-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes benchscale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at

  10. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlene R. Crocker; Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller

    2003-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  11. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-12-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes benchscale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at

  12. Performance assessment and transient optimization of multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems with building PV/T integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Mohamed; Saghafifar, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    One of the popular solar air conditioning technologies is desiccant air conditioning. Nonetheless, single stage desiccant air conditioning systems' coefficient of performance (COP) are relatively low. Therefore, multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems are recommended. In this paper, an integrated double-stage desiccant air conditioning systems and PV/T collector is suggested for hot and humid climates such as the UAE. The results for the PV/T implementation in the double-stage desiccant cooling system are assessed against the PV/T results for a single-stage desiccant air conditioning system. In order to provide a valid comparative evaluation between the single and double stage desiccant air conditioning systems, an identical PV/T module, in terms of dimensions, is incorporated into these systems. The overall required auxiliary air heating is abated by 46.0% from 386.8 MWh to 209.0 MWh by replacing the single stage desiccant air conditioning system with the proposed double stage configuration during June to October. Moreover, the overall averaged solar share during the investigated months for the single and double stage systems are 36.5% and 43.3%.

  13. Design of an Energy System Based on Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors in the South of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Touafek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the design of a new energy system where the energy source will be provided by solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T hybrid collectors. This system will be applied to a habitation in the region of Ghardaïa in the south of Algeria. The cold water reaches the thermal storage tank and then will be heated by the hybrid collector. The hot water will be used directly as sanitary water. The electric power produced by the hybrid collector will be used to charge the battery and will be delivered to the load (electrical appliances, lamps, etc.. Two types of loads are considered: a DC load and the other alternating current. The fans located adjacent to the radiators supplied with hot water will provide warm air to the house in winter.

  14. A new concept of hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector with natural circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Longsheng; Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Xiaokang

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) technology refers to the integration of a photovoltaic module into a conventional solar thermal collector. Generally, the traditional design of a PVT collector has solar cells fixed on the top surface of an absorber in a flat-plate solar thermal collector. In this work, we presented a new concept of water-based PVT collector in which solar cells were directly placed on the bottom surface of its glass cover. A dynamic numerical model of this new PVT is developed and validated by experimental tests. With numerical analysis, it is found that at same covering factor, the electricity conversion efficiency of solar cells of the new PVT exceed that of the traditional PVT by nearly 10% while its thermal efficiency is approximately 30% lower than that of the traditional PVT. When the covering factor changes from 0.05 to 1, the thermal efficiency of the new PVT drops nearly 70%. The thermal efficiency of both the new PVT and the traditional PVT rise up as the water mass in tank increases. Meanwhile, the final water temperature in tank of the traditional PVT collector declines more than 17 °C, whereas that of the new PVT declines less than 6 °C, when the water mass increases from 100 to 300 kg.

  15. Parallel experimental study of a novel super-thin thermal absorber based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T system against conventional photovoltaic (PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV semiconductor degrades in performance due to temperature rise. A super thin-conductive thermal absorber is therefore developed to regulate the PV working temperature by retrofitting the existing PV panel into the photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T panel. This article presented the parallel comparative investigation of the two different systems through both laboratory and field experiments. The laboratory evaluation consisted of one PV panel and one PV/T panel respectively while the overall field system involved 15 stand-alone PV panels and 15 retrofitted PV/T panels. The laboratory testing results demonstrated the PV/T panel could achieve the electrical efficiency of about 16.8% (relatively 5% improvement comparing with the stand-alone PV panel, and yield an extra amount of heat with thermal efficiency of nearly 65%. The field testing results indicated that the hybrid PV/T panel could enhance the electrical return of PV panels by nearly 3.5%, and increase the overall energy output by nearly 324.3%. Further opportunities and challenges were then discussed from aspects of different PV/T stakeholders to accelerate the development. It is expected that such technology could become a significant solution to yield more electricity, offset heating load freely and reduce carbon footprint in contemporary energy environment.

  16. Research Status and Solution for Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) Solar System%光伏/热(PV/T)太阳能系统的研究现状及解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何永泰; 肖丽仙; 刘晋豪; 李雷

    2014-01-01

    The research status of the photovoltaic/thermal ( PV/T) solar system is introduced in the paper. The cause of poor practicability for the PV/T solar system is analyzed. In order to improver the practicability of the PV/T solar system, the solutions ( integrated condenser in PV/T solar system, opti-mized the structure of PV/T collector, balance of the conversion efficiency and the operation temperature, perfection evaluation method) are proposed based on the structure and theory of the PV/T collector.%本文介绍了PV/T太阳能系统的研究现状,分析了导致PV/T太阳能系统实用性差的原因。根据PV/T太阳能系统的结构特点及其相关理论,提出聚光技术与PV/T太阳能系统集成、 PV/T集热器结构优化、 PV/T太阳能系统转换效率与工作温度之间的平衡及完善PV/T太阳能特性评价体系的解决方案。实验证明方案有利于提高PV/T太阳能系统的实用性。

  17. Photovoltaic/thermal solar hybrid system with bifacial PV module and transparent plane collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles-Ocampo, B. [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya 11111, Guanajuato (Mexico); CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Ruiz-Vasquez, E.; Canseco-Sanchez, H. [Instituto Tecnologico de Oaxaca, Oaxaca 68030, Oaxaca (Mexico); CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Cornejo-Meza, R.C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Tepic, av. Tecnologico 2595, Tepic 63175, Nayarit (Mexico); CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Trapaga-Martinez, G.; Vorobiev, Y.V. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Unidad Queretaro, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Queretaro, 76230, QRO (Mexico); Garcia-Rodriguez, F.J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya 11111, Guanajuato (Mexico); Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. [CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2007-12-14

    Electric energy production with photovoltaic (PV)/thermal solar hybrid systems can be enhanced with the employment of a bifacial PV module. Experimental model of a PV/thermal hybrid system with such a module was constructed and studied. To make use of both active surfaces of the bifacial PV module, we designed and made an original water-heating planar collector and a set of reflecting planes. The heat collector was transparent in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions, which makes it compatible with the PV module made of crystalline Si. The estimated overall solar energy utilization efficiency for the system related to the direct radiation flux is of the order of 60%, with an electric efficiency of 16.4%. (author)

  18. Hybrid utilization of solar energy. Part 2. Performance analyses of heating system with air hybrid collector; Taiyo energy no hybrid riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kuki shunetsu hybrid collector wo mochiita danbo system no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the effective utilization of solar energy at houses, a heating system using an air hybrid collector (capable of simultaneously performing heat collection and photovoltaic power generation). As the specimen house, a wooden house of a total floor area of 120m{sup 2} was simulated. Collected air is fanned into a crushed stone heat accumulator (capable of storing one day`s collection) or into a living room. The output of solar cell arrays is put into a heat pump (capable of handling a maximum hourly load of 36,327kJ/h) via an inverter so as to drive the fan (corresponding to average insolation on the heat collecting plate of 10.7MJ/hm{sup 2} and heat collecting efficiency of 40%), and shortage in power if any is supplied from the system interconnection. A hybrid collector, as compared with the conventional air collector, is lower in thermal efficiency but the merit that it exhibits with respect to power generation is far greater than what is needed to counterbalance the demerit. When the hybrid system is in heating operation, there is an ideal heat cycle of collection, accumulation, and radiation when the load is light, but the balance between accumulation and radiation is disturbed when the load is heavy. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Fresnel-collectors in hybrid solar thermal power plants with high solar shares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerchenmueller, H.; Mertins, M.; Morin, G. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Haeberle, A. [PSE GmbH, Solar Info Center, Freiburg (Germany); Bockamp, S.; Ewert, M.; Fruth, M.; Griestop, T. [E.ON Energie AG, Muenchen (Germany); Dersch, J. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The use of Fresnel-Collectors in power plant configurations with low or zero CO2-emission has been analysed in this paper. Both, the solar-biomass hybrid plant and the solar-gas hybrid plant are very promising concepts with respect to technical, economical and ecological aspects. The hybrid operation would be very useful to handle the fluctuating solar resource and facilitate operation. Depending on feed in tariffs the hybridisation of a solar thermal power plant with biomass or with small shares of natural gas can be economically very interesting. The ecological advantage of a solar-biomass power plant is evident, since it would be a zero CO2- emission plant. Beyond that biomass is a limited source, especially in regions with high solar irradiance. The herein examined gas hybrid variants are by far more favourable than Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Systems (ISCCS), which have been previously examined. Since much higher solar shares can be reached this is a forward-looking technology. Furthermore the solar field does not act as a disturbing factor as opposed to the ISCCS concept, where the efficiency of the sophisticated CC system is reduced due to suboptimal dimensioning of components. In other words: It is better to build the suggested hybrid plant with low gas share and CC plants instead of ISCCS plants. The resulting solar levelised electricity costs of both options are approximately the same. The calculated levelised electricity costs for the examined configurations of between 11 and 13 ct/kWh are very promising results. The calculations were made based on cost assumptions for the collector of 130 Euro/m{sup 2} which seems realistic not for the first project but for the third plant. As a next step in the commercialisation of the Fresnel-technology demonstration and test collectors must be built, such as by the Australian company Solar Heat and Power, to validate the technical and economic assumptions. (orig.)

  20. PVMirrors: Hybrid PV/CSP collectors that enable lower LCOEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kate; Yu, Zhengshan Jason; Striling, Rob; Holman, Zachary

    2017-06-01

    The primary challenge with concentrating solar power (CSP) is that the conversion efficiency is low—and the cost high—compared to that of photovoltaics (PV), and the primary challenge with PV is that the energy generated cannot be stored cost effectively. We introduce a technology that hybridizes CSP and PV, resulting in power plants with high energy conversion efficiency and affordable storage. This is accomplished by replacing silvered troughs (or heliostat facets) with "PVMirrors" that and direct photons of each wavelength to the converter (PV or thermal) that may best use them. A PVMirror looks like a curved PV module that includes a spectrum-splitting dichroic mirror film; this film, which is the heart of the technology, transmits near-infrared light to the underlying silicon PV cells while reflecting both longer and shorter wavelengths to a thermal absorber tube. This paper investigates the optical performance of dichroic mirror film, the specularity of PVMirrors, and the anticipated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from a PVMirror power plant. PVMirrors are found to decrease LCOE by more than 15% relative to CSP while retaining full dispatchability.

  1. Experimental Performance Investigation of Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV-T) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgoren, M.; Aksoy, M. H.; Bakir, C.; Dogan, S.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic solar cells convert light energy from the sun into electricity. Photovoltaic cells are produced by semi-conducting materials to convert the energy into electricity and during this process heat is absorbed by the solar radiation. This heat causes a loss of electricity generation efficiencies.In this study, an experimental setup was designed and established to test two separate photovoltaic panel systems with alone PV and with water cooling system PV/T to examine the heat effect on PV systems. The absorbed heat energy behind the photovoltaic cell's surface in insulated ambient was removed by means of a water cooling system and the tests for both systems were simultaneously performed along the July 2011. It is found that without active water cooling, the temperature of the PV module was higher during day time and solar cells could only achieve around 8% conversion efficiency. On the other hand, when the PV module was operated with active water cooling condition, the temperature dropped significantly, leading to an increase in the efficiency of solarcells as much as 13.6%. Gained from absorbed solar heat and maximum thermal conversion efficiencies of the system are determined as 49% and 51% for two different mass flow rates. It is observed that water flow rate is effective on the increasing the conversion efficiency as well as absorption and transitionrates of cover glass in PV/T (PV-Thermal) collector, the insulation material and cell efficiency. As a conclusion, the conversion efficiency of the PV system with water cooling might be improved on average about 10%. Therefore, it is recommended that PV system should be designed with most efficient type cooling system to enhance the efficiency and to decrease the payback period.

  2. Field tests of a natural vacuum solar desalination system using hybrid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Eko Y.; Napitupulu, Richard A. M.; Siagian, Parulian; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    This study deals with field test of a natural vacuum solar desalination system using hybrid type solar collector. In order to perform the tests, a natural vacuum solar desalination has been designed and fabricated. The dimension of evaporator is 1000 mm ×1000 mm × 200 mm, while dimension of solar collector is 1000 mm ×1500 mm. The system is tested by exposing to solar radiation in Medan city of Indonesia for five days. The solar radiations during test are 8.79 MJ/m2, 10.14 MJ/m2, 6.88 MJ/m2, 11.05 MJ/m2, and 11.36 MJ/m2, respectively. The produced fresh waters are 160 ml, 180 ml, 118 ml, 206 ml, 220 ml, respectively. The conclusions are as follows. The produced fresh water is still very low due to the heat from the solar collector is not transferred perfectly to the evaporator. There produced fresh water is strongly affected by solar irradiation. It is recommended to minimize the heat loss from the evaporator and the transfer fluid.

  3. Solar photovoltaic/thermal (hybrid) energy project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, D. B.

    1981-09-01

    Development of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and residential heat pump systems is reported. Candidate collector and residential heat pump systems were evaluated using the TRNSYS computer program. It is found that combined heat pump and PV array is a promising method for achieving economical solar cooling. Where the cooling load is dominant, exclusively PV collectors rather than PV/T collectors are preferred. Where the heating load is dominant, the thermal component of PV/T collectors makes a significant contribution to heating a residence. PV/T collectors were developed whose combined efficiency approaches the efficiency of a double glazed, exclusively thermal collector. The design and operational problems of air source heat pumps are reviewed. Possible effects of compressor startup transients on PV power system operation are discussed.

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

  5. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T air system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed. The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m 2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency, exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  6. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian; SHI MingHeng

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermsl(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T sir system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed.The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m~2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency,exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  7. Parametric studies of an active solar water heating system with various types of PVT collectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roonak Daghigh; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2015-10-01

    This study simulated active photovoltaic thermal solar collectors (PV/T) for hot water production using TRNSYS. The PV/T collectors consist of the amorphous, monocrystalline and polycrystalline. The long-term performances for the glazed and unglazed PV/T collectors were also evaluated. In this simulation, the design parameters used were collector area of 4 m2, collector slope angle of 15 degree and mass flow rate to the collector area ratio of 8–20 kg/hm2. In addition the tank height between 0.9 m to 1.1 m for unglazed PV/T collectors and 0.9 m to 1 m for glazed collectors, as well as the storage tank volume between 200 and 300 L has been used. The climate parameters used were solar radiation levels range of 4–4.9 kWh/m2, the mean ambient temperature in the range of 25–28°C. The results of the simulation indicated that there was an increase in solar fraction and electrical power output of the active PV/T hot water system.

  8. Optimization of woven jute/glass fibre-reinforced polyester hybrid composite solar parabolic trough collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K. S.; Singla, Hitesh

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, structural analysis of 5.77m × 4m woven jute (J)/glass (G) fibre-reinforced polyester hybrid composite solar parabolic trough is carried out based on trough parameters to obtain the minimum RMS local slope deviation, termed as SDx value under gravity loading. The optimization is done by varying parameters viz. direction and size of reinforced conduits, stacking number and sequence of hybrid trough laminate at fibre orientation of Δθ=45° and Δθ=60° amongst the layers at 0° collector angle. The analysis revealed that the configuration in which the conduits are placed in both X and Y directions is preferred over other configurations to scale down the effect of wind loads. Furthermore it has been observed that laminate of the order [0°G/45°G/-45°J/90°J]s undergoes minimum surface deformation amongst all the other configurations at conduit reinforcement in both X and Y directions for a conduit thickness of 0.75 mm and radius of 10 mm and obtains the overall SDx value of 1.3492 mrad. The results shows that proposed trough model is very promising and evolves a cost effective system.

  9. Hybrid Microsupercapacitors with Vertically Scaled 3D Current Collectors Fabricated using a Simple Cut-and-Transfer Strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Qiu

    2016-09-08

    By employing 3D current collectors, hybrid coplanar microsupercapacitors are fabricated. These devices show excellent energy density of 200 μW h cm−2 compared to the state-of-the-art microsupercapacitors (1–40 μW h cm−2), and superior power density (4.4 mW cm−2) compared to thin film batteries and microbatteries at comparable energy density.

  10. Carbon nanotube charge collectors for nanoimprinted hybrid perovskite photovoltaics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Haroldson, Ross; Saranin, Danila; Martinez, Patricia; Ishteev, Artur

    2017-06-01

    The hybrid (organo-inorganic) lead-halide perovskites revolutionized the field of solar cell research due to the impressive power conversion efficiencies of up to 21% recently reported in perovskite based solar cells. This talk will present first the general concepts of excitonic photovoltaics, as compared to conventional Si-type solar cells, asking a question: is hybrid perovskite PV an excitonic solar cell or not? Do we need excitons dissociation at D-A interfaces or CNT charge collectors? Then I will show our recent experimental results on the fast spectroscopy of excitons, magnetic field effect on generation of correlated (e-h) pairs. Also will discuss our Hall effect results, that allows to evaluate intrinsic charge carrier transport and direct measurements of mobility in these materials performed for the first time in steady-state dc transport regime. From these measurements, we have obtained the electron-hole recombination coefficient, the carrier diffusion length and lifetime. Our main results include the intrinsic Hall carrier mobility reaching up to 60 cm2V-1s-1 in perovskite single crystals, carrier lifetimes of up to 3 ms (surprisingly too long!), and carrier diffusion lengths as long as 650 μm (huge if compared to organic and even best inorganic materials). Our results also demonstrate that photocarrier recombination in these disordered solution-processed perovskites is as weak as in the best (high-purity single crystals) of conventional direct-band inorganic semiconductors. Moreover, as we show in our experiment, carrier trapping in perovskites is also strongly suppressed, which accounts for such long carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths, significantly longer than similar parameters in the best inorganic semiconductors, such e.g. as GaAs. All these remarkable transport properties of hybrid perovskites need to be understood from fundamental physics point of view. Looks like we need some new concepts to explain the mysterious properties of

  11. Lanthanide doped ultrafine hybrid nanostructures: multicolour luminescence, upconversion based energy transfer and luminescent solar collector applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyam; Shahi, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv; Rai, Shyam Bahadur

    2017-01-05

    We herein demonstrate novel inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) composed of inorganic NPs, NaY0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4, and an organic β-diketonate complex, Eu(TTA)3Phen, for energy harvesting applications. Both the systems maintain their core integrity and remain entangled through weak interacting forces. HNPs incorporate the characteristic optical behaviour of both the systems i.e. they give an intense red emission under UV excitation, due to Eu(3+) in organic complexes, and efficient green upconversion emission of Er(3+) in inorganic NPs for NIR (980 nm) excitation. However, (i) an energy transfer from Er(3+) (inorganic NPs) to Eu(3+) (organic complex) under NIR excitation, and (ii) an increase in the decay time of (5)D0 → (7)F2 transition of Eu(3+) for HNPs as compared to the Eu(TTA)3Phen complex, under different excitation wavelengths, are added optical characteristics which point to an important role of the interface between both the systems. Herein, the ultra-small size (6-9 nm) and spherical shape of the inorganic NPs offer a large surface area, which improves the weak interaction force between both the systems. Furthermore, the HNPs dispersed in the PMMA polymer have been successfully utilized for luminescent solar collector (LSC) applications.

  12. Analysis of the Influence of the Stability Factors of PV/T-SAHP on the Performance of the System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The integrated photovoltaic/thermal collector (PV/T with solar assisted heat pump (SAHP often operates under an undesigned condition. Against the backdrop of heat pump system oscillation resulting from the mismatching between collectors area and compressor capacity, this work explores the dynamic performance of heat pump system at a fixed compressor frequency when the condensing water temperature and electronic expansion valve (EEV opening are variable or invariable. We also consider why the system is unstable and propose the theory of SAHP system stability. Also, a preliminary performance analysis is made on SAHP system that is respectively influenced by an inverter compressor and EEV. The MSS(Minimum Stable Signal line theory is proposed to account for system unstabilty in the research of the match between EEV and evaporators, that is to say, the critical problem of keep the system stability is to find out how evaporators superheat under the circumstance of specified loads and its corresponding EEV opening, in other words, to find the MSS line.

  13. Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    . When the solar collectors are unable to supply the heat demand an auxiliary heat source is used. Heat pumps can generate this heat. Liquid/water heat pumps have better performance than air/water heat pumps in cold climates but requires installation of a tubing system for the cold side of the heat pump....... The tubes are typically placed in the ground, requires a significant land area and increase the installation cost. A new system design of a solar heating system with two storage tanks and a liquid/water heat pump is presented. The system consists of PVT collectors that generate both heat and electricity....... Heat from the collectors is transferred to a domestic hot water storage tank or to a cold storage tank, which is used as the source for the heat pump. When the heat pump charges the warm storage tank, heat is extracted from the cold storage tank, which then can be reheated by the PVT collectors...

  14. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume III. Technical issues and design guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    This report provide appropriate guidance for addressing the major technical issues associated with the design and installation of a photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) system. Nomographs are presented for developing preliminary sizing and costing, and issues associated with specific components and the overall design of the electrical and mechanical system are discussed. SAND82-7157/2 presents a review of current PV-T technology and operating systems and a study of potential PV-T applications. Detailed PV-T system designs for three selected applications and the results of a trade-off study for these applications are presented in SAND82-7157/4. A summary of the major results of this entire study and conclusions concerning PV-T systems and applications is presented in SAND82-7157/1.

  15. Determination of Efficiency of Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collectors Using Artificial Neural Network Approach for Different PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to determine efficiency of semi transparent hybrid photovoltaic thermal double pass air collector for different PV technology and compare it with single pass air collector using artificial neural network (ANN technique for New Delhi weather station of India. The MATLAB 7.1 neural networks toolbox has been used for defining and training of ANN for determination of thermal, electrical, overall thermal and overall exergy efficiency of the system. The ANN model uses ambient air temperature, number of sunshine hours, number of clear days, temperature coefficient, cell efficiency, global and diffuse radiation as input parameters. The transfer function, neural network configuration and learning parameters have been selected based on highest convergence during training and testing of network. About 2000 sets of data from four weather stations (Bangalore, Mumbai, Srinagar and Jodhpur have been given as input for training and data of the fifth weather station (New Delhi has been used for testing purpose. It has been observed that the best transfer function for a given configuration is logsig. The feed forward back-propagation algorithm has been used in this analysis. Further the results of ANN model have been compared with analytical values on the basis of root mean square error.

  16. EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1981-06-01

    The technical and economic attractiveness of combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. it was also specified at the outset that reduction in required roof area was not to be used as an argument for combining the collection of thermal and electrical energy into one module. Three tests of economic viability were identified, all of which PV/T must pass if it is to be considered a promising alternative: PV/T must prove to be competitive with photovoltaic-only, thermal-only, and side-by-side photovoltaic-plus-thermal collectors and systems. These three tests were applied to systems using low-temperature (unglazed) collectors and to systems using medium-temperature (glazed) collectors in Los Angeles, New York, and Tampa. For photovoltaics, the 1986 DOE cost goals were assumed to have been realized, and for thermal energy collection two technologies were considered: a current technology based on metal and glass, and a future technology based on thin-film plastics. The study showed that for medium-temperature applications PV/T is not an attractive option in any of the locations studied. For low-temperature applications, PV/T appears to be marginally attractive.

  17. EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1981-06-01

    The technical and economic attractiveness of combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. it was also specified at the outset that reduction in required roof area was not to be used as an argument for combining the collection of thermal and electrical energy into one module. Three tests of economic viability were identified, all of which PV/T must pass if it is to be considered a promising alternative: PV/T must prove to be competitive with photovoltaic-only, thermal-only, and side-by-side photovoltaic-plus-thermal collectors and systems. These three tests were applied to systems using low-temperature (unglazed) collectors and to systems using medium-temperature (glazed) collectors in Los Angeles, New York, and Tampa. For photovoltaics, the 1986 DOE cost goals were assumed to have been realized, and for thermal energy collection two technologies were considered: a current technology based on metal and glass, and a future technology based on thin-film plastics. The study showed that for medium-temperature applications PV/T is not an attractive option in any of the locations studied. For low-temperature applications, PV/T appears to be marginally attractive.

  18. Efficient Utilization and Development Situation of Water-Cooling PV/T System%水冷型PV/T系统的高效利用与发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马双; 吴家正; 阮应君

    2015-01-01

    在光伏光热系统(PV/T)中为提高其电效率并高效利用低品位热能,近年来对于冷却工质及其工作方式的研究越来越多。其中,水冷式以其方便直接使用、无需二次换热、良好的光学特性和高热容量等优点,受到了广泛的理论研究和实验测试。通过以效率的视角探究光伏覆盖率、背管分布形式等影响流体冷却能力的因素,并结合相变PV/T、PV/T矩阵等PV/T未来发展新趋势,为今后水冷型PV/T系统进一步高效实验提供了研究方向。%In order to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic power and make the low-grade thermal energy useful in the photovoltaic/thermal hybrid system, there were more and more researches on cooling media and the ways of working in recent years, among which the water-cooling type PV/T system has been widely theoretical researched and experimental tested for its convenient using, without secondary heat exchange, optical properties and high thermal capacity. From the perspective of efficiency, this paper explores better flow distribution, coverage rate, PCM-PV/T, PV/T arrays and other factors which influence water cooling capacity severely, providing a research direction to the future high efficient experimental methods of the water-cooling type PV/T system.

  19. Subtask 2.13 - Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector-Fundamental Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley Miller

    2007-07-01

    Under the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, a full-scale Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter was installed at the Big Stone Plant, with start-up in October 2002. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter was retrofitted into Fields 2-4 of the old Big Stone electrostatic precipitator (ESP). While many aspects of the operation were satisfactory, pressure drop was higher than expected. To achieve acceptable pressure drop and successfully demonstrate the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter technology, the first fields of the ESP were also converted into an Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter in 2005. However, since start-up in June 2005, the first fields have been inoperable for multiple reasons. The fundamental cause of the dysfunctional performance of the first fields was attributed to spacing and alignment problems, which led to excessive sparking and shutdown of the high-voltage power. In spite of attempts to correct the problems, satisfactory performance of the first fields was never achieved. Because of the uncertainties of how to achieve acceptable performance with a new technology, the Big Stone Plant made the decision to convert the entire Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter housing into a pulse-jet fabric filter.

  20. Solar energy in double-pack? Hybrid collectors; Sonne im Doppelpack? Hybridkollektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    The scarce roof space could be utilized more efficient by means of modules which supply electricity as well as thermal energy for the generation of hot water or heating processes. Nethertheless, these solar modules do not harmonize optimally. Thus, the so-called hybrid technology prevails only hesitantly.

  1. An energy-efficient and secure hybrid algorithm for wireless sensor networks using a mobile data collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, Karanam Ravichandran; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a new hybrid algorithm for security, which incorporates both distributed and hierarchal approaches. It uses a mobile data collector (MDC) to collect information in order to save energy of sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN) as, in most networks, these sensor nodes have limited energy. Wireless sensor networks are prone to security problems because, among other things, it is possible to use a rogue sensor node to eavesdrop on or alter the information being transmitted. To prevent this, this paper introduces a security algorithm for MDC-based WSNs. A key use of this algorithm is to protect the confidentiality of the information sent by the sensor nodes. The sensor nodes are deployed in a random fashion and form group structures called clusters. Each cluster has a cluster head. The cluster head collects data from the other nodes using the time-division multiple access protocol. The sensor nodes send their data to the cluster head for transmission to the base station node for further processing. The MDC acts as an intermediate node between the cluster head and base station. The MDC, using its dynamic acyclic graph path, collects the data from the cluster head and sends it to base station. This approach is useful for applications including warfighting, intelligent building and medicine. To assess the proposed system, the paper presents a comparison of its performance with other approaches and algorithms that can be used for similar purposes.

  2. Experimental investigations of hybrid PV/Spiral flow thermal collector system performance using Al2O3/water nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadevi, R.; Vinayagam, B. K.; Senthilraja, S.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the PV/T (Photovoltaic thermal unit) system is investigated experimentally to examine the thermal, electrical and overall efficiency by circulating Al2O3/water nanofluid of 1wt% and 2wt% with an optimum flow rate of 40L/H. The overall efficiency of PVT system is largely influenced by various factors such as heat due to photovoltaic action; energy radiated at the infrared wavelength of the solar spectrum, solar irradiance, mounting structure, tilt angle, wind speed direction, Ambient temperature and panel material composition. However, the major factor is considered in this study to extract the heat generated in the PV panel by using nanofluid as a coolant to increase the overall system efficiency. Therefore, the result shows that by using 2 wt% Al2O3/water nanofluid the electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and overall efficiency of the PVT system enhanced by 13%, 45%, and 58% respectively compared with water.

  3. Renewable Electricity Generation via Solar-Powered Methanol Reforming: Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems Based on Novel Non-Concentrating, Intermediate-Temperature Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Daniel J.

    Tremendous research efforts have been conducted studying the capturing and conversion of solar energy. Solar thermal power systems offer a compelling opportunity for renewable energy utilization with high efficiencies and excellent cost-effectiveness. The goal of this work was to design a non-concentrating collector capable of reaching temperatures above 250 °C, use this collector to power methanol steam reforming, and operate a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using the generated hydrogen. The study presents the construction and characterization of a non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature, fin-in-tube evacuated solar collector, made of copper and capable of reaching stagnation temperatures of 268.5 °C at 1000 W/m2 irradiance. The collector was used to power methanol steam reforming, including the initial heating and vaporization of liquid reactants and the final heating of the gaseous reactants. A preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst was used to remove CO from simulated reformate gas, and this product gas was used to operate a PEM fuel cell. The results show 1) that the outlet temperature is not limited by heat transfer from the absorber coating to the heat transfer fluid, but by the amount of solar energy absorbed. This implicates a constant heat flux description of the heat transfer process and allows for the usage of materials with lower thermal conductivity than copper. 2) It is possible to operate a PEM fuel cell from reformate gas if a PROX catalyst is used to remove CO from the gas. 3) The performance of the fuel cell is only slightly decreased (~4%) by CO2 dilution present in the reformate and PROX gas. These results provide a foundation for the first renewable electricity generation via solar-powered methanol reforming through a hybrid PEM fuel cell system based on novel non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature solar collectors.

  4. Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  5. Evaluation of Single-Pass Photovoltaic-Thermal Air Collector with Rectangle Tunnel Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh L. Jin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Photovoltaic solar cell generate electric by receiving sun light or solar irradiance. But solar cell received heat from solar irradiance as well and this will reduced the efficiency of the solar cell. The heat trap at the solar photovoltaic panel become waste energy. Approach: The solution for this was by adding a cooling system to the photovoltaic panel. The purpose of this study was to cool the solar cell in order to increase its electrical efficiency and also to produce heat energy in the form of hot air. Hot air can be used for drying applications. A single pass PVT with rectangle tunnel absorber has been developed. The rectangle tunnel acted as an absorber and was located at the back side of a standard photovoltaic panel. The dimension of the photovoltaic panel was 120×53 cm. The size of the rectangle tunnel was 27 units of tunnel bar with the size of 1.2×2.5×120 cm (width×tall×length and 12 units with 1.2×2.5×105.3 cm (width×tall×length. The rectangle tunnel was connected in parallel. The PVT collector has been tested using a solar simulator. Results: Electrical efficiency increased when the solar cell was cool by air flow. Solar photovoltaic thermal collector with rectangle tunnel absorber has better electrical and thermal efficiency compared to solar collector without rectangle tunnel absorber. Photovoltaic, thermal and combined photovoltaic thermal efficiency of 10.02, 54.70 and 64.72% at solar irradiance of 817.4 W m-2, mass flow rate of 0.0287 kg sec-1 at ambiant temperature of 25°C respectively has been obtained. Conclusion: The hybrid photovoltaic and thermal with rectangle tunnel as heat absorber shows higher performance compared to conventional PV/T system.

  6. A 2-dimensional heat transfer analysis of a sheet-and-tube flat plate PV/thermal collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriere, J.; Harrison, S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Solar Calorimetry Lab

    2008-08-15

    Temperature gradients in photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems can have a significant impact on the reliability and life-span of system components. However, many simple PV/T models do not consider temperature gradients. In this study, a detailed heat transfer model was used to quantify temperature gradients within a PV/T panel in order to predict thermal and electrical performance as a function of fluid and atmospheric temperatures. The PV/T system consisted of a PV laminate bonded to a thermal collector. A glass cover was used as a secondary glazing system. The effect of increasing the thermal resistance between the various layers in the construction was evaluated in order to measure the temperature gradient through the absorber thickness. A 2-D finite difference model of heat flow in the collector was conducted in order to study the magnitude of the temperature gradient. Steady-state heat flow was calculated along the width of the system as well as between the layers. Heat flux was calculated to the centre of each element. Total absorptivity in each layer was determined by adding the absorption of each portion of the spectrum. Heat losses through the top of the collector were estimated using a 1-D analysis. The study showed that current methods of calculating fin efficiency are not valid when temperature gradients are not considered. Future studies will examine the effect of thermal expansion and shear stresses. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Mathematical Model of Double Pass Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collector with Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim M.A. Alfegi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The efficiency of photovoltaic cells is generally temperature dependent (efficiency decrease when the temperature of the photovoltaic cells increase. This problem can be solved by cooling the solar cells during operation and operated at low temperature. Approach: This study presented a numerical model of double pass Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T solar air collector with fins attached to the back side of the absorber plate to improve heat transfer to the flowing air for predicting the performance of the system. Results: Five coupled of unsteady nonlinear partial differential equations were formulated by using first order forward scheme in time and second order central difference scheme in space to predict the performance of PV/T solar air heater at different parameters and conditions. The temperatures of the solar cells, outlet fluid temperature and the temperature distribution of every static element in both models were predicted. The performance of the collector including photovoltaic, thermal and combined PV/T collector over range of operating conditions are discussed. Conclusion: Experimental and theoretical results were compared and showed that close agreement between these two values were obtained.

  8. Parallel experimental study of a novel super-thin thermal absorber based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system against conventional photovoltaic (PV) system

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) semiconductor degrades in performance due to temperature rise. A super thin-conductive thermal absorber is therefore developed to regulate the PV working temperature by retrofitting the existing PV panel into the photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panel. This article presented the parallel comparative investigation of the two different systems through both laboratory and field experiments. The laboratory evaluation consisted of one PV panel and one PV/T panel respectively while the...

  9. PV/T集热器优化设计及实验%Optimization design and experimental study on collector of photovoltaic/thermal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁子伟; 简林桦; 闫金州; 关欣

    2016-01-01

    The photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T) collector is a critical component of the photovoltaic thermal system. Performance quality directly decides high or low of comprehensive utilization of solar energy. Therefore,the design of the PV/T collector has an important role on research in the performance of the photovoltaic solar-thermal system. In this paper,the analysis structure and heat resistance of the PV/T collector,simulation of the thermal performance of the PV/T collector in aluminum tube plate under 75 kinds of working conditions,including irradiance types,structure size and flow conditions by using the Fluent software,and optimal design for the PV/T collector,according to the result of design to build the test rig,the collection efficiency and power efficiency of PV/T collector were studied. The results showed that the better cooling water flow rate(Q=0.008kg/s) and area ratio(D/W=0.4) of the collector were obtained. With the increase of the normalized temperature difference,the photoelectric efficiency and the collection efficiency of PV/T collector decreased. The maximum error of the predicted values and experimental values of the photoelectric efficiency was 22.5 percent. The average collection efficiency is 0.63. The county thermal efficiency reaches 0.75.%光伏/光热(photovoltaic/thermal collector,PV/T)集热器是光伏光热系统的关键部件,其性能好坏直接决定着太阳能综合利用率的高低,因此 PV/T 集热器的设计对光伏光热系统的性能研究有着重要的作用。本文对PV/T 集热器结构和传热热阻进行了分析,采用 Fluent 软件对不同的辐照度、结构尺寸和流量共75种工况下的PV/T集热器的热性能进行了数值模拟;并对PV/T集热器进行了优化设计,根据设计结果搭建了试验台,对PV/T集热器的集热效率与发电效率进行了研究。研究结果表明:集热器内最佳冷却水流量为0.008kg/s,光伏电池和集热面积最佳比 D/W=0.4。

  10. 基于模拟太阳辐射强度对自然循环式PV/T系统的实验研究%Simulation Experiment Study of the Effect of Solar Radiation Intensity on PV/T System with Natural Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红岩; 杨洪兴; 吕建; 李宪莉

    2015-01-01

    为提高太阳能的利用率同时得到可资利用的电能和热能,对辐射强度对光伏光热建筑热电联供系统的影响进行实验研究。在太阳能模拟实验室进行了自然循环模式下,太阳辐射强度对系统的发电效率、热效率以及综合效率和一次能源节约率的影响进行分析,结果表明:太阳辐射强度是影响PV/T系统的主要因素。%For the improvement of the availability of solar energy and the obtaining of the available electrical and thermal energy,an experimental study of the effect of radiation intensity on solar hybrid photovoltaic and thermal system(PV/T)is conducted. An analysis of the effect of solar radiation intensity on the power generation efficiency and the thermal effi-ciency,overall efficiency and primary energy saving ratio of the PV/T system is carried out under the circulation pattern at different radiation intensity in the photovoltaic solar simulation laboratory. The result shows that the solar radiation intensity is the major influence factor of PV/T system.

  11. Simple, economical solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hot air solar collector designed for economy and simplicity is assembled from only three parts: (1) molded urethane foam body, (2) flat sheet metal collector panel and (3) transparent cover. Large arrays may be assembled by inserting male fittings of each collector into female fitting of adjacent collector.

  12. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume IV. Design analysis and trade-off study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    Detailed reference designs developed for optimally sized photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) systems are presented for three selected applications. The results of trade-off analyses to determine the effects of load variations, new components, changes in location, and variations in array cost are also discussed.

  13. High performance collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, H.; Hozumi, S.; Mitsumata, T.; Yoshino, K.; Aso, S.; Ebisu, K.

    1983-04-01

    Materials and structures used for flat plate solar collectors and evacuated tubular collectors were examined relative to their overall performance to project effectiveness for building heating and cooling and the feasibility of use for generating industrial process heat. Thermal efficiencies were calculated for black paint single glazed, selective surface single glazed, and selective surface double glazed flat plate collectors. The efficiencies of a single tube and central tube accompanied by two side tube collectors were also studied. Techniques for extending the lifetimes of the collectors were defined. The selective surface collectors proved to have a performance superior to other collectors in terms of the average annual energy delivered. Addition of a black chrome-coated fin system to the evacuated collectors produced significant collection efficiency increases.

  14. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...

  15. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  16. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...... this kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency...

  17. PV/T太阳能热泵系统的性能研究%Dynamic Performance of PV/T Solar-assisted Heat Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴刚; 季杰; 何伟; 孙炜

    2006-01-01

    提出一种新型的太阳能热泵系统--PV/T-SAHP系统,该系统具有光电/光热综合利用的功能;建立了PV/T-SAHP系统的动态模型,对该系统的运行特性进行了数值模拟.结果显示,PV/T-SAHP系统的电效率和热效率较传统的太阳能系统和热泵系统都有明显提高,运行能耗较普通热泵大幅度降低;系统PV/T蒸发器的面积、管间距、倾角等参数的变化对电效率和热性能会产生比较大的影响,是系统优化设计的关键因素.

  18. 空气-水复合平板型太阳能集热器%Experiment test of hybrid air-water solar flat plate collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东亮; 代彦军; 李勇

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a new type of solar collector that has the potential for using in solar heating systems. It can use both air and water as the circulation mediums. Experiment results show that the collector efficiency is between 55%~65% when air is used as the circulation medium, while the efficiency is between 32%~34% for using water as the circulation medium, and it can meet the requirement of solar heating systems. Moreover, this collector is fairly cheap, therefore, especially suitable for the rural areas in north China.%提出了一种适用于太阳能供热采暖工程的新型太阳能空气-水复合平板集热器.该集热器可以单独使用空气、水或同时以空气和水作为集热工质.测试显示,该集热器空气循环集热效率为55%~65%,水循环集热效率为32%~34%,能够满足太阳能供热采暖工程的要求.该集热器成本不高,适用于在我国北方广大农村地区推广使用.

  19. Effect of dividing daylight in symmetric prismatic daylight collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lu, Ju-Lin; Cheng, Yu-Chin

    2017-04-01

    This paper presented a symmetric prismatic daylight collector to collect daylight for the natural light illumination system. We analyzed the characteristics of the emerging light when the parallel light beam illuminate on the horizontally placed symmetric prismatic daylight collector. The ratio of the relative intensities of collected daylight that emerging from each surface of the daylight collector shown that the ratio is varied with the incident angle during a day. The simulation of the emerging light of the daylight collector shown that the ratio of emerging light is varied with the tilted angle when sunshine illuminated on a symmetric prismatic daylight collector which was not placed horizontally. The integration of normalized intensity is also varied with the tilted angle. The symmetric prismatic daylight collector with the benefits of reducing glare and dividing intensity of incident daylight, it is applicable to using in the natural light illumination system and hybrid system for improving the efficiency of utilizing of solar energy.

  20. Solar thermal collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranovitch, E.

    Thermal processes in solar flat plate collectors are described and evaluated analytically, and numerical models are presented for evaluating the performance of various designs. A flat plate collector consists of a black absorber plate which transfers absorbed heat to a fluid, a cover which limits thermal losses, and insulation to prevent backlosses. Calculated efficiencies for the collectors depend on the radiation absorbed, as well as IR losses due to natural convection, conduction, and radiation out of the collector. Formulations for the global emittance and heat transfer, as well as losses and their dependence on the Nusselt number and Grashof number are defined. Consideration is given to radiation transmission through transparent covers and Fresnel reflections at interfaces in the cover material. Finally, the performance coefficients for double-glazed and selective surface flat plate collectors are examined.

  1. A high temperature hybrid photovoltaic-thermal receiver employing spectral beam splitting for linear solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojiri, Ahmad; Stanley, Cameron; Rosengarten, Gary

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV-T) solar collectors are capable of delivering heat and electricity concurrently. Implementing such receivers in linear concentrators for high temperature applications need special considerations such as thermal decoupling of the photovoltaic (pv) cells from the thermal receiver. Spectral beam splitting of concentrated light provides an option for achieving this purpose. In this paper we introduce a relatively simple hybrid receiver configuration that spectrally splits the light between a high temperature thermal fluid and silicon pv cells using volumetric light filtering by semi-conductor doped glass and propylene glycol. We analysed the optical performance of this device theoretically using ray tracing and experimentally through the construction and testing of a full scale prototype. The receiver was mounted on a commercial parabolic trough concentrator in an outdoor experiment. The prototype receiver delivered heat and electricity at total thermal efficiency of 44% and electrical efficiency of 3.9% measured relative to the total beam energy incident on the primary mirror.

  2. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  3. Horizontally mounted solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D. H. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy is collected by using a vertical deflector assembly, a stationary reflector and a horizontally mounted solar collector. The deflector assembly contains a plurality of vanes which change the direction of the solar energy to the vertical, while constantly keeping the same side of the deflector facing the sun. The vertical rays are then reflected off the stationary reflector and are then absorbed by the collector.

  4. Performance analysis on CPC-PV/T system%CPC型聚光光伏光热系统的性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚雷; 张红; 许辉; 万懿

    2011-01-01

    According to Law of Conservation of Energy, a dynamic model is established to analyze the thermal and electrical performance of a combined parabolic concentrator-photovoltaic/thermal (CPCPV/T) system.The influence of some factors such as the dimension of the CPC-PV/T system, the water mass flow rate and etc., on the performance of CPC-PV/T system are investigated.When the water mass flow rate is constant, the daily electrical and thermal efficiency is decreased along with the increase of the length of the CPC-PV/T system.When the length of the system is constant, the temperature of water is decreased along with the increase of the water mass flow rate, the system electrical efficiency is increased.However,with the increase of the water mass flow rate, the variations in temperature of water and system electrical efficiency are decreased.There is an optimum relationship between the system electrical efficiency and the temperature of water based on the water mass flow rate.%根据能量守恒定律,建立了分析CPC型聚光光伏光热系统性能的动态模型,并研究了系统的结构尺寸、冷却水流量等参数对系统性能的影响.当冷却水流量一定时,随着系统长度的增加,系统日发电效率和系统日集热效率逐渐降低.当系统长度一定时,增加冷却水流量能降低冷却水的出口温度,提高系统的发电效率.但是,随着冷却水流量的逐渐增加,各指标的变化趋势将逐渐平缓,系统的发电效率与水温之间存在一个基于流量的优化关系.

  5. Experimental study of water-cooled panel type PV/T system in winter%水为工质的面板式PV/T系统冬季实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱群志; 唐李清; 李金斗; 李超; 陈慧

    2014-01-01

    研究一种以水为工质的面板式 PV/T(photovoltaic/thermal)系统在冬季的性能。搭建 PV/T 实验和测试系统,测试户外条件下系统冬季运行时的各项参数,对实验数据进行处理、分析,获得光伏电池的电效率和系统的热效率。结果表明:面板式 PV/T 系统运行时电池板温度较低,电池转换效率较高;工质通过循环加热可上升30℃左右,综合效率接近普通PV板的两倍。%Presents an experimental study on a water-cooling panel type PV/T system in winter.The experimental system was built up and various factors were investigated under the outdoor condition in winter.The electric efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system were obtained through the analysis of the experiment data.The results show that the PV/T system can effectively reduce the temperature of the PV panels in winter,and accordingly improve the conversion efficiency.The temperature of working fluid could increase by 30℃ in the circulate mode.The overall efficiency of PV/T can reach twice as that of the PV.

  6. A solar energy collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' yev, L.L.; Avakyan, Yu.V.; Bogdanov, V.M.; Gagiyan, L.A.; Grakovich, L.P.; Karapetyan, G.S.; Morgun, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A collector whose primary component is a heating pipe is proposed. The evaporation zone located in the lower half of the heating pipe has an external absorption coating. Chambers that open upward and contain the evaporating fluid are mounted within this region along the top. In order to improve operational reliability of the collector, these chambers are mounted on one coated wall; the area of projection of each of the chambers onto the horizontal plane is greater than the area of the projection of each of the chambers placed above it. The coating may be in the form of photocells; a filter is mounted on the chamber side inside the evaporation zone. The evaporation zone may take the form of a cylinder with a segmented base; the photocells are mounted on a flat section of the lateral surface. The collector may be used to cool the photocells.

  7. Miniature, ruggedized data collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Scott; Calcutt, Wade; Knobler, Ron; Jones, Barry; Klug, Robert

    2009-05-01

    McQ has developed a miniaturized, programmable, ruggedized data collector intended for use in weapon testing or data collection exercises that impose severe stresses on devices under test. The recorder is designed to survive these stresses which include acceleration and shock levels up to 100,000 G. The collector acquires and stores up to four channels of signal data to nonvolatile memory for later retrieval by a user. It is small (< 7 in3), light weight (< 1 lb), and can operate from various battery chemistries. A built-in menuing system, accessible via a USB interface, allows the user to configure parameters of the recorder operation, such as channel gain, filtering, and signal offsets, and also to retrieve recorded data for analysis. An overview of the collector, its features, performance, and potential uses, is presented.

  8. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  9. Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

  10. Studies efficiency solar air collector

    OpenAIRE

    YORKIN SODIKOVICH ABBASOV; MIRSOLI ODILJANOVICH UZBEKOV

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the existing solar air collectors. A description of the design and the results of experimental studies on the effectiveness of the solar air collector with an absorber of from metal shavings.

  11. PV/T slates - Energy-efficiency optimisation for buildings using simulation and measurement - Back-ventilated photovoltaics as an example; PV/T-Schiefer. Optimierung der Energieeffizienz von Gebaeuden durch gegenseitige Ergaenzung von Simulation und Messung am Beispiel der Hinterlueftung gebaeudeintegrierter Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is the introductory report to a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. This introductory report summarises the findings of the project. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. A mathematical model for the calculation of the dynamic gain is described. Reports 1 and 2 deal with an experimental outdoor set-up and in-situ measurements made on the prototype of a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates). In report 3 the simulation model for the dynamic calculation of the heat gain from the PV/T-Slates using climatic data available is described in detail. Measured data from reports 1 and 2 are compared with the simulation results. In the yield atlas (report 4) the heat gain expected is subdivided into classes of temperature and presented for three locations in different Swiss climatic regions. In report 5 it is shown with the help of the yield-atlas how the degree of utilisation can be estimated. Two promising applications (domestic hot water preheating for a hotel in Lugano and seasonal ground heat storage for a Minergie low energy consumption house in Davos) are selected for detailed investigation using the new numerical model.

  12. The Olympic Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Products bearing Beijing Olympics images are big business for China’s dedicated collectors As every December over last few years,retired teacher Li Mi in Beijing started to collect thick stacks of postcards sent by her former students from her mailbox in the weeks running up to the New Year.

  13. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  14. Simulation Study on Solar PV/T System Performance of Building in Chongqing%重庆地区建筑太阳能PV/T系统性能模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋石海; 庄春龙; 张洪宇

    2013-01-01

    The two application forms of solar PV/T in roof sand walls in Chongqing are studied through simulation with TRNSYS for a year and photo-electric and photo-thermal features are analyzed. The results show that the power production and photo-thermal transfer amount of R-PV/T system are higher than those of W-PV/T, but W-PV/T laying is out of the limit of building, so it can be applied by building walls and it's feasible. It offers some ref-erences for the application of PV/T in parts of low solar radiation in Chongqing.%  利用TRNSYS软件对太阳能光电/热综合利用系统(PV/T)在重庆地区的屋顶及墙面两种应用形式进行了全年模拟研究,对其光电、光热特性进行了分析。得出R-PV/T系统的发电总量与系统的光热转换总量高于W-PV/T系统,而W-PV/T系统的敷设可以不受屋面场地的限制,使建筑墙体表面获得利用,因此仍然具有较大可行性。论文的研究为PV/T在重庆等太阳辐射强度较弱地区的应用提供了参考。

  15. Development and investigation of solar collectors for conversion of solar radiation into heat and/or electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Velimir P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes work on two projects of the National Energy Efficiency Program NEEP 709300036 and NPEE 271003 titled "The model of solar collector for middle temperature conversion of solar radiation in heat" and "Development and investigation on hybrid solar collector for heat and electricity generation", respectively. This first project deals with solar collector that transfers solar radiation in heat in area of middle temperature conversion (at temperatures above 100 ºC. During entire year it can realize significant saving of electric energy used for preparation of warm water and in central and district heating. During work on the second project, two hybrid solar collectors, their installation, mathematical model, software, and experimental set-up were designed and realized. The first collector had the photovoltaic panel located above the absorber and the second collector had the panel located on the absorber. For both collectors, the results show that efficiency of fossil fuel replacement is 85%. .

  16. A solar energy collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyev, L.L.; Avakyan, Yu V.; Dabagyan, T.N.; Grakovich, L.P.; Khustalev, D.K.; Morgun, V.A.; Vartanyan, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    During collector operation, solar emission is absorbed by the evaporator section of the heating tube; the degree of blackness of the forward wall of the section is increased significantly by the use of corrugations in this section. Boiling of the working fluid in the longitudinal slotted channels is accompanied by outbursts of the steam fluid mixture in the direction of the forward wall, resulting in wetting of the longitudinal corrugation on this wall. In this solar collector, there is a continuous flow of the working fluid onto the internal surface of the leading wall of the evaporation section of the heat tube; the working fluid evaporation process is accelerated by the spraying resulting from the popping of vapor bubbles.

  17. A Hybrid Power Generation System Combined Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors and Chemical Heat Pump%槽式太阳能集热与化学热泵耦合的复合发电系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳娟; 刘启斌; 金红光

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid power generation system combined parabolic trough solar collectors and chemical heat pump is proposed in the paper.The thermodynamic performance of the proposed system and the effects of the key operating parameters on the performances of the system were investigated.The relationship between the direct normal irradiation (DNI) and the performance of the proposed system was disclosed.When the DNI was larger than the design condition,variation of the mass flow rate of CaO for solar energy storage with the DNI was analyzed.In the design conditions,the output work of the system is 335.7 MW the thermal efficiency of the proposed system is 30.4%,and the solar-to-electric efficiency of the proposed system can reach 23.6%.The hybrid power system proposed can improve the thermal efficiency significantly by increasing the steam parameters compared to the conventional solar parabolic trough power generating system.%本文提出了一种抛物槽式太阳能集热与化学热泵耦合的复合发电系统,对其热力性能进行了分析,并研究了反应器中反应蒸汽温度、镜场加热给水温度等关键运行参数对系统性能的影响.研究了太阳能特征参数对系统性能的影响规律,分析了太阳直射辐照强度(DNI)高于设计工况时,储能材料氧化钙的量与DNI的关系.设计工况下,系统输出功335.7 MW,热效率为30.4%,发电效率23.6%.所提出的系统,为解决槽式太阳能单独热发电系统蒸汽参数低导致动力循环热效率低的难题提供了新途径.

  18. Solar collector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  19. A Review on Suitable Standards for Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivar, Marta; Clarke, Matthew; Ratcliff, Tom; Everett, Vernie

    2011-12-01

    This paper will present an evaluation of the available standards and their considerations when using active-cooled CPV systems, along with an initial assessment of the most appropriate tests, including additional test requirements, for hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal (PV-T) systems in order to guarantee their long-time electrical and thermal performance.

  20. Combined solar collector

    OpenAIRE

    Voznyak, O.; Shapoval, S.; Pona, O.; Vengryn, I.

    2014-01-01

    In this article was analyzing the efficiency of the combined solar collector for heating buildings. This enhances the efficiency of solar system by increasing the area of the absorption of solar energy. There are describes the results of the research on solar radiation input on a combined solar collector. Проаналізовано ефективність використання комбінованого сонячного колектора для теплопостачання будівель. Він забезпечує підвищення ефективності геліосистеми за рахунок збільшення площі погли...

  1. Fin-tube solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report presents test procedures and results of thermal-performance evaluation of seven commercial fin tube (liquid) solar collector-absorber plates. Tests were conducted indoors at Marshall Space Flight Center Solar simulator. Results are graphically shown along with supporting test data and summary, indicating efficiency as function of collector inlet temperature.

  2. High-performance solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekley, D. C.; Mather, G. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Evacuated all-glass concentric tube collector using air or liquid transfer mediums is very efficient at high temperatures. Collector can directly drive existing heating systems that are presently driven by fossil fuel with relative ease of conversion and less expense than installation of complete solar heating systems.

  3. Collector-Output Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II

    1986-01-01

    Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.

  4. 新型PV/T太阳能利用复合系统的实验研究%Experimental Study on A Novel Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光明; 刘祖明; 李景天; 廖华; 朱勋梦; 张卫东

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid photovoltaic /thermal solar system,which combining flat stainless steel box as solar heat collectors with aluminum alloy backplane monocrystalline silicon PV components,and using the thermally conductive silica-gel for adhesion,was designed to improve the energy efficiency and to supply hot water and electricity.The system performed good adhesion,insulation and heat conduction between the collector and PV module.The electrical and thermal efficiency of the system are tested through experiments conducted in Kunming area with different water mass and under different conditions.The results show that the total efficiency and general energy efficiency of novel PV/T system is higher in 75kg water mass sunny weather.Its electrical efficiency,thermal efficiency,total efficiency and general energy efficiency are 14%,37%,51%,and 70.72%,respectively.Compared with in 50kg water mass sunny or 75kg water mass cloudy weather,the general efficiency has been enhanced by 11.86% or 2.09%.Compared with pure PV system or the nature circulation of the solar water collector,The novel PV/T systems has several advantages,including smaller occupied area,higher utilization of solar energy and lower expenditure.%为提高PV/T系统太阳能利用率,同时获得可利用的热水和电力,将铝合金背板型单晶硅光伏组件和自行设计制作的不锈钢扁盒式集热板相结合,用导热硅胶加以粘接制成新型光伏光热一体化(PV/T)复合系统,该系统实现了光伏组件与集热板之间良好的粘接性、绝缘性和热传导,并在昆明地区对系统进行测试,分析了系统在不同水箱水容量及不同天气工况下运行的光电光热性能.结果表明,系统在75kg水箱水容量(m)晴天工况下运行效率更高,系统的平均电效率、热效率、综合效率及综合性能效率分别在14%、37%、51%、70.72%左右,与系统在50kg水箱水容量晴天或75kg水箱水容量多云工况下运行相比,

  5. LHCb Tag Collector

    CERN Document Server

    Fuente Fernàndez, P; Cousin, N

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb physics software consists of hundreds of packages, each of which is developed by one or more physicists. When the developers have some code changes that they would like released, they commit them to the version control system, and enter the revision number into a database. These changes have to be integrated into a new release of each of the physics analysis applications. Tests are then performed by a nightly build system, which rebuilds various configurations of the whole software stack and executes a suite of run-time functionality tests. A Tag Collector system has been developed using solid standard technologies to cover both the use cases of developers and integration managers. A simple Web interface, based on an AJAX-like technology, is available. Integration with software management and Nightly Build programs is possible via a Python API. Data are stored in a relational database with the help of an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) library.

  6. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  7. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  8. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  9. Accelerated Testing of Solar Collector Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1996-01-01

    A climatic simulator has been build to test the reliability and durability of solar collectors. In the climatic simulator the collector is expåosed to extreme climatic conditions and temperature variations in an accelerated way and during this process the function of the collector is tested...... and the microclimate in the collector box is measured....

  10. Optimisation of solar collector foils with transparent thermal insulation. Final report; Optimierung von transparent waermegedaemmten Folien-Speicherkollektoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, M

    1995-02-01

    The report describes storage collector foils which are used as hybrid systems. Contents: State of the art - solar test facility - tests on small test collectors - cost reduction. (HW) [Deutsch] Es wird berichtet ueber Folien-Speicherkollektoren, die als Hybridsysteme zum Einsatz kommen. Inhalt der Arbeit: - Stand der Technik - solare Testanlage - Untersuchungen an kleinen Testkollektoreinheiten - Kostenreduzierung. (HW)

  11. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    This report presents data provided by US-based manufacturers and importers of solar collectors. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the years 1974 through 1992. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the years 1982 through 1992. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1992. Appendix A describes the survey methodology. Appendix B contains the 1992 survey forms and instructions. Appendices C and D list the companies that responded to the 1992 surveys and granted permission for their names and addresses to appear in the report. Appendix E provides selected tables from this report with data shown in the International System of Units (SI) metric units. Appendix F provides an estimate of installed capacity and energy production from solar collectors for 1992.

  12. Modelling of Microclimate in collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Abstract It is important to avoid condensation in solar collectors, most of all because wetness of the absorber can damage the selective surface and cause corrosion on the absorber plate. During night time the cover of collectors will cool below ambient temperature due to thermal radiation...... to the cold sky. In climates where the air during night time becomes saturated with humidity (the relative humidity is 100%), condensation will form on the outside and inside of the collector glazing. If too much condensation takes place on the inside of the glazing, it will start to fall off...... on to the absorber surface. It is important to characterize microclimatic conditions in the collector, and at the Department of Buildings and Energy work is carried out with the improvement of a computer model. As a tool the computer model will be useful in developing guidelines to achieve the most favourable...

  13. Manifold Insulation for Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Results of computer analysis of effects of various manifold insulation detailed in 23-page report show that if fluid is distributed to and gathered from array of solar collectors by external rather than internal manifold, effectiveness of manifold insulation has major influence on efficiency. Report describes required input data and presents equations that govern computer model. Provides graphs comparing collector efficiencies for representative manifold sizes and insulations.

  14. Solar radiation on a catenary collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchik, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    1992-01-01

    A tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic blanket acting as a catenary collector is presented. The shadow cast by one side of the collector produces a shadow on the other side of the collector. This self-shading effect is analyzed. The direct beam, the diffuse, and the albedo radiation on the collector are determined. An example is given for the insolation on the collector operating on Viking Lander 1 (VL1).

  15. Design package for concentrating solar collector panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, with a dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, and fiber glass insulation. It weights 98 pounds. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

  16. Dual-Source Heat Pump System Combined with Photovoltaic Solar-Thermal (PV/T) Components%结合光伏光热组件的双源热泵系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海照; 陈剑波; 姚晶珊

    2015-01-01

    As the electricity conversion efficiency of solar panel decreases with temperature rises, and the efficiency of the heat pump increases with the water temperature rises, a dual-source heat pump system is designed with combination of photovoltaic solar-thermal (PV/T) components. Whether the system can run reliably or not is verified through the outdoor experiments on the system, which also can verify whether the efficiency of the solar panels improves or not. The experimental results show that the system can run reliably, and conversion efficiency of PV/T components compared with the fixed angle of TPV components increase by about 0.3%. It can provide experimental data for the next step of the optimal operation.%考虑到太阳能电池板温度升高时其光电转换效率降低,以及水源温度升高时热泵运行效率增加的特点,设计出一套结合光伏光热(PV/T)组件的双源热泵系统。对该系统进行室外实际运行实验,通过实验验证系统是否能够稳定运行,并验证太阳能电池板降温提效的可行性。实验结果表明,该系统运行可靠,且组件电池转换效率与固定倾角的追踪式光伏(TPV)组件相比,提高0.3%左右,能够为下一步研究最优运行方式提供实验数据支持。

  17. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

  18. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loferski, J.J. (ed.)

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON A CPC CONCENTRATING SOLAR PV/T SYSTEM%复合抛物面聚光太阳能PV/T系统的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 王艳香; 施明恒

    2012-01-01

    A concentration solar PV/T experimental system was designed and set up, it' s electric-thermal perform-ance was measured at different conditions. Experimental results showed that the temperature of the various compo-nents of the system increase with the increasing of the solar radiation intensity, and decrease with the increasing of the air inlet velocity of the back channel. The power output of concentrating system is higher than the non-concen-trating system. The maximum power output for the concentrating PV/T system is 60W, is 20W higher compared to a similar non-concentrating photovoltaic panel with the same cell area. The electrical efficiency of the concentrating PV/T system increase with increasing the solar radiation intensity. The maximum electrical efficiency for the con-centrating system is 11% ,and the highest thermal efficiency is 70% ,and the maximum exergy efficiency is 16%. The maximum exergy efficiency for the concentrating system is 5% higher than non-concentrating system. Thus the thermal and electrical performance of the concentrating PV/T air system is better than the performance of the plate system. The experimental study obtained valuable information regarding the design and operation of such types of concentrating PV/T system.%设计并搭建了CPC低倍聚光太阳能PV/T单通道空气系统实验台,对不同工作环境下聚光PV/T系统的热电性能进行了实验研究.实验研究结果显示:在聚光条件下,系统的各表面温度随光照强度的增加而升高,随下部通道入口空气流速的增加而降低.聚光PV/T系统的最大输出功率可达到60W,比对应相同电池面积平板系统最大输出功率高20W.聚光PV/T系统的各效率随光照强度增加而增大,系统的最大电效率为11%,最大热效率为70%,最大炯效率为16%,比单纯发电时最大(火用)效率提高约5%.实验获得了一批新的有价值的实验数据,为聚光太阳能光伏光热系统的进一步研究提供了依据.

  20. The multiple layer solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for obtaining numerical solutions for differential equations describing the performance of separate layers in a multiple layer solar collector. The configurations comprises heat transfer fluid entering at the top of the collector and travelling down through several layers. A black absorber plate prevents reemission of thermal radiation. The overall performance is shown to depend on the number of layers, the heat transfer coefficient across each layer, and the absorption properties of the working fluid. It is found that the multiple layer system has a performance inferior to that of flat plate selective surface collectors. Air gaps insulating adjacent layers do not raise the efficiency enough to overcome the relative deficiency.

  1. Aid To Solar Collector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar heating and cooling systems employ coatings to increase efficiency. Designers want a coating which absorbs solar heat to the maximum extent possible with minimal emittance of infrared radiation, which occurs when the collector plate gets hot. The coating is important because too much coating causes energy loss by emittance, too little reduces the collector's ability to absorb heat. NASA's Lewis Research Center, which conducts solar energy research, saw a need for a simple means of testing coating samples for emittance. Such equipment is available to research laboratories, but it is complex and expensive

  2. Large-scale solar thermal collector concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Thermal collector could be used ultimately to power steamplant to produce electricity. Collector would consist of two major subsystems: (1) series of segmented tracking mirrors with two axes of rotation and (2) absorber mounted on centrally located tower.

  3. Numerical and Experimental Study on Energy Performance of Photovoltaic-Heat Pipe Solar Collector in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have found that the decrease of photovoltaic (PV cell temperature would increase the solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency. Water type PV/thermal (PV/T system was a good choice but it could become freezing in cold areas of Northern China. This paper proposed a simple combination of common-used PV panel and heat pipe, called PV-heat pipe (PV-HP solar collector, for both electrical and thermal energy generation. A simplified one-dimensional steady state model was developed to study the electrical and thermal performance of the PV-HP solar collector under different solar radiations, water flow rates, and water temperatures at the inlet of manifold. A testing rig was conducted to verify the model and the testing data matched very well with the simulation values. The results indicated that the thermal efficiency could be minus in the afternoon. The thermal and electrical efficiencies decreased linearly as the inlet water temperature and water flow rate increased. The thermal efficiency increased while the electrical efficiency decreased linearly as the solar radiation increased.

  4. Theoretical and experimental investigations of Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated.......Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated....

  5. Highly conductive freestanding graphene films as anode current collectors for flexible lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Kuldeep; Singh, Jyoti; Lee, Jeong-Taik; Park, Jong Hyeok; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2014-07-23

    The electrodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are typically films that are arranged on metal foil current collectors with a thickness of several tens of μm. Here, we report on the preparation of a thick free-standing graphene film synthesized by CVD as an alternative to Cu foil as an anode current collector. As a model system, MoS2 anodes with a flower-like morphology were anchored onto the surface of the thick graphene film. A hybrid and binder free anode without a conventional metal current collector exhibited an excellent capacity value of around 580 mAh/g (@50 mA/g) and reasonable charge/discharge cyclability. The work presented here may stimulate the use of graphene films as replacements for conventional current collectors and additive free electrode in LIBs.

  6. DESIGN AND EXPERIMENT OF THE PARTIALLY COVERED PV/T SOLAR SYSTEM%部分覆盖光伏/光热太阳能系统优化设计与实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何永泰; 肖丽仙; 刘晋豪; 李雷

    2015-01-01

    介绍一种部分覆盖太阳电池的光伏/光热(PV/T)太阳能系统.在PV/T系统中,设计使用两个面积为2 m2、太阳电池面积为0.6 m2的平板PV/T集热器,并对PV/T系统设计的理论和能量转换特性进行研究分析.在楚雄市,所设计的PV/T太阳能系统样机分别在晴天(2013年5月28日)和多云阴天(2013年6月23日)进行特性测试.结果表明,晴天,PV/T系统的热水温度可达66.5℃,一日内(08:05~18:05)系统输出平均电功率为34.0W;多云阴天,pV/T系统的热水温度可达57.0℃,一日内(09:10~18:10)系统输出平均电功率为33.1 W.PV/T系统输出日热效率为45.5%,可满足农村普通家庭热水和照明电能需要,具有较高的实用性.

  7. Recommendations for European solar collector test methods (Liquid heating collectors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, A.; Gillett, W. B.

    Standardized testing formats, equipment, conditions, and tests defined as part of the solar flat plate collector testing program performed by the Commission of the European Communities are detailed. The work is a product of efforts at 20 laboratories, and alternative methods have been characterized for tailoring tests to particular locations and climatic conditions. The testing methods are intended for collectors using a liquid as the heat transfer medium. Procedures have been defined for examining steady state and transient performance, heat loss, thermal capacity, pressure drop, and anemometry. Instrumentation types and accuracies have been defined, and a standardized format for presentation of results has been developed. The tests are tailored for determining the durability of the flat plate systems under simulated solar radiation conditions.

  8. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Wipke, K.

    1992-05-01

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69 percent more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44 percent less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration.

  9. Automated Verification of Practical Garbage Collectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hawblitzel, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Garbage collectors are notoriously hard to verify, due to their low-level interaction with the underlying system and the general difficulty in reasoning about reachability in graphs. Several papers have presented verified collectors, but either the proofs were hand-written or the collectors were too simplistic to use on practical applications. In this work, we present two mechanically verified garbage collectors, both practical enough to use for real-world C# benchmarks. The collectors and their associated allocators consist of x86 assembly language instructions and macro instructions, annotated with preconditions, postconditions, invariants, and assertions. We used the Boogie verification generator and the Z3 automated theorem prover to verify this assembly language code mechanically. We provide measurements comparing the performance of the verified collector with that of the standard Bartok collectors on off-the-shelf C# benchmarks, demonstrating their competitiveness.

  10. Influence of current collectors design on the performance of a silicon-based passive micro direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, J.P.; Sabate, N.; Santander, J.; Torres-Herrero, N.; Gracia, I.; Ivanov, P.; Fonseca, L.; Cane, C. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-20

    In this paper, the influence of current collector open ratio on the performance of a passive micro direct methanol fuel cell is evaluated. The device is based on a hybrid approach consisting of two microfabricated silicon current collectors assembled together with a commercial membrane electrode assembly. The characterization was performed by measuring polarization curves of the fuel cell using current collectors with different open ratios on anode and cathode. Results show that the way in which the open ratio of current collectors is combined has an effect not only on the output power but also on the repeatability of polarization curves. This study allows the setting of some general design rules for current collectors of passive micro direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  11. Investigations on efficiencies of HT solar collectors for different flow rates and collector tilts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon;

    2013-01-01

    Two HT solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one solar collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between...... the absorber and the cover glass and the other is without ETFE foil. The efficiencies for the collectors are tested at different flow rates and tilt. On the basis of the measured efficiencies, the efficiencies for the collectors as functions of flow rates are obtained. The calculated efficiencies are in good...... agreement with the measured efficiencies....

  12. Optical design for EUV lithography source collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqing Zhang; Qi Wang; Dongyuan Zhu; Runshun Li; Chang Liu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Wolter I collector is the best collector for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, which has a series of nested mirrors.It has high collection efficiency and can obtain more uniform intensity distribution at the intermediate focus (IF).A new design with the calculation sequence from the outer mirror to the inner one on the premise of satisfying the requirements of the collector is introduced.Based on this concept, a computer program is established and the optical parameters of the collector using the program is calculated.The design results indicate that the collector satisfies all the requirements.%Wolter I collector is the best collector for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, which has a series of nested mirrors. It has high collection efficiency and can obtain more uniform intensity distribution at the intermediate focus (IF). A new design with the calculation sequence from the outer mirror to the inner one on the premise of satisfying the requirements of the collector is introduced. Based on this concept, acomputer program is established and the optical parameters of the collector using the program is calculated.The design results indicate that the collector satisfies all the requirements.

  13. Investigating the collector efficiency of silver nanofluids based direct absorption solar collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, M.; He, Y.; J. Zhu; Wen, D

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional transient heat transfer analysis was carried out to analyze the effects of the Nanoparticle (NP) volume fraction, collector height, irradiation time, solar flux, and NP material on the collector efficiency. The numerical results were compared with the experimental results obtained by silver nanofluids to validate the model, and good agreement was obtained. The numerical results show that the collector efficiency increases as the collector height and NP volume fraction increa...

  14. Solar thermal collectors using planar reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    Specular reflectors have been used successfully with flat-plate collectors to achieve exceptionally high operating temperatures and high delivered energy per unit collector area. Optimal orientation of collectors and reflectors can result in even higher performance with an improved relationship between energy demand and supply. This paper reports on a study providing first order optimization of collector-reflector arrays in which single- and multiple-faceted reflectors in fixed or singly adjustable configurations provide delivered energy maxima in either summer or winter.

  15. Fog collectors and collection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhler, I.; Suau, C.

    2010-07-01

    The earth sciences taught that due to the occurrence of water in three phases: gas, liquid and solid, solar energy keeps the hydrological cycle going, shaping the earth surface while regulating the climate and thus allowing smart technologies to interfere in the natural process by rerouting water and employing its yield for natural and human environments’ subsistence. This is the case of traditional fog collectors implemented by several researchers along the Atacama Desert since late ’50s such as vertical tensile mesh or macro-diamonds structures. Nevertheless, these basic prototypes require to be upgraded, mainly through new shapes, fabrics and frameworks’ types by following the principles of lightness, transformability, portability and polyvalence. The vertical canvas of conventional fog collectors contain too much stressed at each joints and as result it became vulnerable. Our study constitutes a research by design of two fog-trap devices along the Atacama Desert. Different climatic factors influence the efficiency of fog harvesting. In order to increase yield of collected fog water, we need to establish suitable placements that contain high rates of fog’s accumulation. As important as the location is also the building reliability of these collectors that will be installed. Their frames and skins have to be adjustable to the wind direction and resistant against strong winds and rust. Its fabric need to be more hydrophobic, elastic and with light colours to ease dripping/drainage and avoid ultra-violet deterioration. In addition, meshes should be well-tensed and frames well-embraced too. In doing so we have conceived two fog collectors: DropNet© (Höhler) and FogHive© (Suau). These designs explore climatic design parameters combined with the agile structural principles of Tensegrity and Geodesic widely developed by Bucky Fuller and Frei Otto. The research methods mainly consisted of literature review; fieldwork; comparative analysis of existing fog

  16. Automated solar collector installation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  17. Optimization of dish solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for optimizing parabolic dish solar collectors and the consequent effects of various optical, thermal, mechanical, and cost variables are examined. The most important performance optimization is adjusting the receiver aperture to maximize collector efficiency. Other parameters that can be adjusted to optimize efficiency include focal length, and, if a heat engine is used, the receiver temperature. The efficiency maxima associated with focal length and receiver temperature are relatively broad; it may, accordingly, be desirable to design somewhat away from the maxima. Performance optimization is sensitive to the slope and specularity errors of the concentrator. Other optical and thermal variables affecting optimization are the reflectance and blocking factor of the concentrator, the absorptance and losses of the receiver, and, if a heat engine is used, the shape of the engine efficiency versus temperature curve. Performance may sometimes be improved by use of an additional optical element (a secondary concentrator) or a receiver window if the errors of the primary concentrator are large or the receiver temperature is high. Previously announced in STAR as N83-19224

  18. Evaluation of Test Method for Solar Collector Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The test method of the standard EN12975-2 (European Committee for Standardization, 2004) is used by European test laboratories to determine the efficiency of solar collectors. In the test methods the mean solar collector fluid temperature in the solar collector, Tm is determined by the approximated equation where Tin is the inlet temperature to the collector and Tout is the outlet temperature from the collector. The specific heat of the solar collector fluid is in the test method as an approx...

  19. Foldable Frame Supporting Electromagnetic Radiation Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to flexible frames supporting electromagnetic radiation collectors, such as antennas, antenna reflectors, deflectors or solar collectors, for celestial or terrestrial applications, which can be folded to be stored and/or transported. The method for stowing deforms...

  20. Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Pepper, Peter; Smith, Douglas R.

    Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors have mainly been based on posit-and-prove verification or on the application of domain-specific templates and transformations. We show how to derive the

  1. Design review of a liquid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesewmaier, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Report documents procedures, results, and recommendations for in-depth analysis of problems with liquid-filled version of concentric-tube solar collector. Problems are related to loss of vacuum and/or violent fracture of collector elements, fluid leakage, freezing, flow anomalies, manifold damage, and other component failures.

  2. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  3. Cleaner for Solar-Collector Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickland, P. O.; Cleland, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Simple self-contained cleaning system proposed for solar collectors or solar-collector protective domes. Perforated transparent plastic cap attached to top of protective dome in heliostat solar-energy collection system distributes cleaning fluid over surface of dome without blocking significant fraction of solar radiation.

  4. Pioneer CESA Guidance Project: Data Collectors Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Brenda; Andrews, Theodore

    The purpose of this guide is to assist trained data collectors in the use of the "Performance-Based Counselor Certification Model for the State of Georgia." The guidelines are intended to clarify the process rather than to limit the data collector to a confining set of definitions. In addition, the guide discusses specific school…

  5. Foldable Frame Supporting Electromagnetic Radiation Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to flexible frames supporting electromagnetic radiation collectors, such as antennas, antenna reflectors, deflectors or solar collectors, for celestial or terrestrial applications, which can be folded to be stored and/or transported. The method for stowing deforms th...

  6. Weathering of a liquid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Commercially available flate plate hot water solar collector is characterized in report that presents 10 month weathering study of system. Collector efficiency was calculated and plotted from measurements of fluid temperature and flow rate, ambient temperature and solar flux. Windspeed and wind direction were also measured during tests.

  7. 不同管间距热管PV/T系统中光电/光热性能的对比研究%COMPARATIVE RESEARCH BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT HEAT PIPE SPACES PV/T SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱绘娟; 裴刚; 符慧德; 张涛; 季杰

    2013-01-01

    提出一种新型的热管光电/光热(photovoltaic/thermal,PV/T)综合利用系统,该系统可同时产生电能和热能,与传统的水循环PV/T系统相比,热管PV/T系统可避免系统在高纬度地区冬季结冻问题,拓展了PV/T系统的适用范围.主要对热管间距分别为80mm和140mm的PV/T系统进行热效率、电效率和光电光热综合效率的实验测试,分析系统在晴朗天气和多云条件下的光电光热性能.实验结果表明热管PV/T系统的热效率在40%以上,日平均发电效率约10%,系统的综合效率在50%以上,且小管间距(80mm) PV/T系统的光电和光热转换效率比大管间距(140mm)PV/T系统的高,减小热管间距对系统光电性能的影响大于对光热性能的影响.

  8. Experimental study on heat dissipation characteristics of different PV/T systems%不同结构PV/T系统散热方式的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许佩佩; 黄亚继; 徐亮亮

    2013-01-01

    光伏/光热(PV/T)集热器集光伏发电和太阳能低温热利用于一体,既可以提高电池效率,又可以回收和利用低温热能.文章对内置不同冷却结构的PV/T系统和电池板的散热特性进行了对比试验.试验结果表明:回形冷却结构PV/T系统的冷却效果要优于蛇形结构;不同结构PV/T系统的综合效率均大于电池光板的折算综合效率.回形冷却结构的PV/T系统最高综合效率可达40%,而电池板的折算综合效率最高只有14.7%.

  9. Electrostatic particle collector with improved features for installing and/or removing its collector plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegfried, Matthew J.; Radford, Daniel R.; Huffman, Russell K.

    2017-04-04

    An electrostatic particle collector may generally include a housing having sidewalls extending lengthwise between a first end and a second end. The housing may define a plate slot that extends heightwise within the housing between a top end and a bottom end. The housing may further include a plate access window that provides access to the bottom end of the plate slot. The collector may also include a collector plate configured to be installed within the plate slot that extends heightwise between a top edge and a bottom edge. Additionally, when the collector plate is installed within the plate slot, the bottom edge of the collector plate may be accessible from an exterior of the housing via the plate access window so as to allow the bottom edge of the collector plate to be moved relative to the housing to facilitate removal of the collector plate from the housing.

  10. Synthetic fiber air collectors for agricultural uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.

    Details are given on an innovative air collector system made of porous black synthetic fibers to take in air and absorb solar radiation to heat it. Synthetic fiber collectors are unexpensive, they are characterized by their efficient heat transfers, good working properties, and wind resistance. Excessive heating, condensates, and dusts are avoided using them. Schematic sketches facilitate access to the fibrous structure, uses, design and construction of solar air collectors made of Nicolon fibers. Temperature and collector capacity measuring results are shown in a diagram. Details are given on a small-scale solar drier drying herbs (solar collector system with a 36 m/sup 2/ fibrous absorber surface) as well as on experiences gained in the operation of more than 20 solar driers of the kind described. (HWJ).

  11. COMPARATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF DIFFERENT FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Full-scale traditional metal solar collectors and solar collector specimens fabricated from polymeric materials were investigated in the present study. A polymeric collector is 67.8% lighter than a traditional metal solar collector, and a metal solar collector with transparent plastic covering is 40.3% lighter than a traditional metal solar collector. Honeycomb multichannel plates made from polycarbonate were chosen to create a polymeric solar collector. A test rig for the natural circulation of the working fluid in a solar collector was built for a comparative experimental investigation of various solar collectors operating at ambient conditions. It was shown experimentally that the efficiency of a polymeric collector is 8–15% lower than the efficiency of a traditional collector.

  12. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Attila [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States); Charles, Ruth [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2014-07-31

    The intent of “Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP” program was to develop key technology elements for collectors in Phase 1 (Budget Period 1), design these elements in Phase 2 (Budget Period 2) and to deploy and test the final collector in Phase 3 (Budget Period 3). 3M and DOE mutually agreed to terminate the program at the end of Budget Period 1, primarily due to timeline issues. However, significant advancements were achieved in developing a next generation reflective material and panel that has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of CSP systems.

  13. A mobile apparatus for solar collector testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a mobile apparatus for solar collector testing (MASCOT) is described. The MASCOT is a self-contained test unit costing about $10,000 whose only external requirement for operation is electrical power and which is capable of testing two water-cooled flat-plate solar collectors simultaneously. The MASCOT is small enough and light enough to be transported to any geographical site for outdoor tests at the location of collector usage. It has been used in both indoor solar simulator tests and outdoor tests.

  14. Recent Advances of Solar Cells' Cooling and Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Technology%太阳电池冷却及光伏/光热一体技术的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖泽成; 秦红; 靳晓钒

    2011-01-01

    As the solar cells'photoelectric conversion efficiency decreases when their temperature rises, the cool ing of solar cells has become an important content [or photovoltaic researehes; meanwhile, this extends the concept of hybrid photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T) so as to utilize the heat transfered by solar cells, which is an important development trend for new energy industry. This paper collected and sorted the solar cells'cooling methods and PV/T research achievements in recent 5 years at home and abroad, especially for flat plate solar cells combined with solar collectors, made the analysis and comparisons.%由于太阳电池光电转换效率随自身温度的升高而下降,因而对太阳电池进行冷却成为当前太阳能光伏研究的一项重要内容;同时,在太阳电池冷却的研究课题当中引申出了光伏与光热相结合(PV/T)的概念,使太阳电池转换而成的热量得以应用,这是新能源产业的一项重要发展趋势。收集并整理了近5年国内外的太阳电池冷却方法和光伏光热一体化研究成果,特别是针对平板式太阳电池组件与太阳能集热器相结合的研究文献,对其进行了分析和比较。

  15. Performance after weathering of a liquid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results from retesting of liquid solar collector described in "Performance evaluation of liquid collector" (M-FS-23931), after long term exposure to natural weathering indicate no detectable degradation in collector performance and no visable deterioration in appearance of collector. Supporting data and pretest/post test efficiency comparison are included.

  16. Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, Deven [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States); Farr, Adrian [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The parabolic trough is the most established CSP technology and carries a long history of design experimentation dating back to the 1970’s. This has led to relatively standardized collector architectures, a maturing global supply chain, and a fairly uniform cost reduction strategy. Abengoa has deployed more than 1,500MWe of CSP troughs across several countries and has built and tested full-scale prototypes of many R&D concepts. The latest trough R&D efforts involved efforts to internalize non-CSP industry experience including a preliminary DFMA principles review done with Boothroyd Dewhurst, a construction literature review by the Arizona State University School of Construction Management, and two more focused manufacturing engineering subcontracts done by Ricardo Inc. and the nonprofit Edison Welding Institute. The first two studies highlighted strong opportunities in lowering part count, standardizing components and fasteners, developing modular designs to support prefabrication and automation, and devising simple, error-proof manual assembly methods. These principles have delivered major new cost savings in otherwise “mature” products in analogous industries like automotive, truck trailer manufacture, metal building fabrication, and shipbuilding. For this reason, they were core in the design development of the SpaceTube® collector, and arguably key to its early successes. The latter two studies were applied specifically to the first-generation SpaceTube® design and were important in setting the direction of the present SolarMat project. These studies developed a methodology to analyze the costs of manufacture and assembly, and identify new tooling concepts for more efficient manufacture. Among the main opportunities identified in these studies were the automated mirror arm manufacturing concept and the need for a less infrastructure-intensive assembly line, both of which now form central pillars of the SolarMat project strategy. These new designs will be

  17. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT SOLAR AIR COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Karim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of using solar air collectors is to raise the atmospheric air temperature to a temperature which can be used for various low and medium temperature applications. Collector, absorber and airflow arrangement are the most important components in the solar air collector. The performance of the collector depends on its heat loss and the absorber area that is in contact with the airflow. This study involves the theoretical simulation of the effect of mass flow rate on the performance, for flat plate and v-groove collectors that are in single and double pass configurations. Results show that the v-groove double pass air collector has the highest efficiency value of 56% at . The performance is greater than flat plate double pass collector, which has an efficiency of 54% under the same operating conditions. KEYWORDS: solar air collector; flat plate collector (fpc; v-groove collector; efficiency; single pass; double pass

  18. A Long Term Test of Differently Designed Evacuated Tubular Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    carried out with different mean solar collector fluid temperatures and in different seasons of the year. The results of the measurements are presented in this paper. The influence of the mean solar collector fluid temperature on the thermal performance of the different collector designs will be discussed......During three years seven differently designed evacuated tubular collectors (ETCs) utilizing solar radiation from all directions have been investigated experimentally. The evacuated tubular solar collectors investigated include one SLL all-glass ETC from Tshinghua Solar Co. Ltd, four heat pipe ETCs...... of the inlet fluid to the collectors have been the same for all collectors. The volume flow rate through each of the collectors is adjusted so that the mean solar collector fluid temperature has been the same for all collectors. Thus a direct performance comparison is possible. The side-by-side tests were...

  19. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  20. Concentrating solar collector-performance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report summarizes test results from evaluation of concentrating solar collector thermal performance, from transient behavior, and incident-of-angle behavior. Tests were conducted using National Bureau of Standards recommedations and specifications.

  1. Processing on high efficiency solar collector coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M.

    1977-01-01

    Wavelength selective coatings for solar collectors are considered. Substrates with good infrared reflectivity were examined along with their susceptibility to physical and environmental damage. Improvements of reflective surfaces were accomplished through buffing, chemical polishing and other surface processing methods.

  2. Performance of a solar-thermal collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    Possible means of achieving the technology required for field application of solar thermal power systems are discussed. Simplifications in construction techniques as well as in measurement techniques for parabolic trough collectors are described. Actual measurement data is also given.

  3. A self-tractable solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhadi, M.; Ghorayeb, F.

    2006-06-01

    An analytical experimental investigation into the thermal performance of a tubeless hemispherical (a spherical cap) solar collector for use in heating and cooling purposes is presented. The receiver plate surface temperature was estimated at the prevailing steady-state conditions from the energy balance equation on the absorber plate. From the experimental analytical investigation, the present collector was found to be much more efficient than a flat-plate collector. Fluid outlet temperatures over 95°C could be provided on mid clear shining sunny days. Remembering the easiness of building a complex of such a collector, it follows that plenty of residential and industrial implementations, mostly in heating and cooling refrigeration absorption cycles, could be undertaken.

  4. Local Reasoning about a Copying Garbage Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Smith, Noah; Birkedal, Lars; Reynolds, John C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a programming language, model, and logic appropriate for implementing and reasoning about a memory management system. We state semantically what is meant by correctness of a copying garbage collector, and employ a variant of the novel separation logics to formally specify partial...... correctness of Cheney’s copying garbage collector in our program logic. Finally, we prove that our implementation of Cheney’s algorithm meets its specification using the logic we have given and auxiliary variables. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  5. Qualification test and analysis report: Solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Test results show that the Owens-Illinois Sunpak TM Model SEC 601 air-cooled collector meets the national standards and codes as defined in the Subsystem Peformance Specification and Verification Plan of NASA/MSFC, dated October 28, 1976. The program calls for the development, fabrication, qualification and delivery of an air-cooled solar collector for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems.

  6. Effects of High Temperature on Collector Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Report reveals electroplated black chrome is good coating for concentrating collectors in which temperatures are in the 650 degrees-800 degrees F (340 degrees - 430 degrees C) range. Black chrome thermal emittance is low and solar-absorption properties are not seriously degraded at high temperatures. Black coatings are used to increase absorption of solar energy by base metal while decreasing emission of infrared energy. Coatings are intended to improve efficiency of solar collectors.

  7. Developments of solar collectors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    China has abundant solar energy resource. Solar thermal collectors, particularly all-glass evacuated tubular collectors, have been studied and developed for 30 years, and solar thermal industry has developed rapidly for 15 years. There are various solar thermal systems, with an operation area of around 108 million m2 in 2007. These systems mainly provide domestic hot water, but some other applications are under extensive study and development as well.

  8. Simulation Application for Optimization of Solar Collector Array

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Shesho*,; Done Tashevsk

    2014-01-01

    Solar systems offer a comparatively low output density , so increasing the output always means a corresponding increase in the size of the collector area. Thus collector arrays are occasionally constructed (i.e. with different azimuth angles and/or slopes, which be imposed by the location and structure available to mount the collector. In this paper is developed simulation application for optimization for the solar collector array position and number of collectors in regard of...

  9. High temperature flat plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, S.; Aso, S.; Ebisu, K.; Uchino, H.

    1981-04-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of collectors are of great importance for extending the utilization of solar energy for heating and cooling in homes. A highly efficient collector makes the system size small and decreases the system cost effectively. From the view of the amount of energy collected, the efficient collector has a multiple effect, not only because of the high increase in instantaneous efficiency, but also because of the large usable intensity range of the insolation. On the basis of a functional analysis for a flat collector, the materials and parameters were selected and optimized, and a new high temperature flat collector was designed. The collector has 2 panes. The first pane is low iron glass and the second pane is a thin film of fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer. The overall solar transmittance for the two panes is 0.89. The collecting panel and its water paths were formed by means of welding and hydraulic expansion. The selective absorbing surface consists of colored stainless steel whose absorption characteristic is 0.89 and emission characteristic is 0.16. The thermal insulator preventing backward heatloss consists of double layers of urethane foam and glass wool. Furthermore, the sustained method for the second pane is contrived so as to prevent water condensation on the panes and excessive elevation of the absorber temperature during no load heating.

  10. Low arc drop hybrid mode thermionic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1977-01-01

    The hybrid mode operation for the reduction of plasma drops is being investigated. This report discusses the results obtained from two molybdenum emitter converters. One converter had a molybdenum collector and the other a nickel collector. The molybdenum collector converter was operated in a hybrid mode (at an interelectrode distance of 1.7 mm) and produced a minimum barrier index of 1.96 eV at an emitter temperature of 1500 K. The arc drop was calculated to be 0.14 eV, using the published results for a molybdenum collector. On the other hand, the nickel collector converter was operated in a conventional ignited mode (at an interelectrode distance of 0.5 mm) and produced a minimum barrier index of 2.1 eV at an emitter temperature of 1700 K. It is tentatively concluded that a large-gap operation of the hybrid mode converter permits the diffusion of cesium ions to a distance in the order of one millimeter for an effective neutralization of electron space charge. By employing a low work function collector (1.55 eV) in a hybrid mode converter with an arc drop of 0.14 eV, it appears that a barrier index as low as 1.69 eV could be achieved.

  11. Two new designs of parabolic solar collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Sadaghiyani Omid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two new compound parabolic trough and dish solar collectors are presented with their working principles. First, the curves of mirrors are defined and the mathematical formulation as one analytical method is used to trace the sun rays and recognize the focus point. As a result of the ray tracing, the distribution of heat flux around the inner wall can be reached. Next, the heat fluxes are calculated versus several absorption coefficients. These heat flux distributions around absorber tube are functions of angle in polar coordinate system. Considering, the achieved heat flux distribution are used as a thermal boundary condition. After that, Finite Volume Methods (FVM are applied for simulation of absorber tube. The validation of solving method is done by comparing with Dudley's results at Sandia National Research Laboratory. Also, in order to have a good comparison between LS-2 and two new designed collectors, some of their parameters are considered equal with together. These parameters are consist of: the aperture area, the measures of tube geometry, the thermal properties of absorber tube, the working fluid, the solar radiation intensity and the mass flow rate of LS-2 collector are applied for simulation of the new presented collectors. After the validation of the used numerical models, this method is applied to simulation of the new designed models. Finally, the outlet results of new designed collector are compared with LS-2 classic collector. Obviously, the obtained results from the comparison show the improving of the new designed parabolic collectors efficiency. In the best case-study, the improving of efficiency are about 10% and 20% for linear and convoluted models respectively.

  12. Step tracking program for concentrator solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, D.; Jaliu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The increasing living standards in developed countries lead to increased energy consumption. The fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas effect that accompany the energy production can be reduced by using renewable energy. For instance, the solar thermal systems can be used in temperate climates to provide heating during the transient period or cooling during the warmer months. Most used solar thermal systems contain flat plate solar collectors. In order to provide the necessary energy for the house cooling system, the cooling machine uses a working fluid with a high temperature, which can be supplied by dish concentrator collectors. These collectors are continuously rotated towards sun by biaxial tracking systems, process that increases the consumed power. An algorithm for a step tracking program to be used in the orientation of parabolic dish concentrator collectors is proposed in the paper to reduce the consumed power due to actuation. The algorithm is exemplified on a case study: a dish concentrator collector to be implemented in Brasov, Romania, a location with the turbidity factor TR equal to 3. The size of the system is imposed by the environment, the diameter of the dish reflector being of 3 meters. By applying the proposed algorithm, 60 sub-programs are obtained for the step orientation of the parabolic dish collector over the year. Based on the results of the numerical simulations for the step orientation, the efficiency of the direct solar radiation capture on the receptor is up to 99%, while the energy consumption is reduced by almost 80% compared to the continuous actuation of the concentrator solar collector.

  13. Sener Parabolic trough Collector Design and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, N.; Vazquez, J.; Domingo, M.

    2006-07-01

    Parabolic trough technology is nowadays the most extended solar system for electricity production or steam generation for industrial processes. It is basically composed of a collector field which converts solar irradiation into thermal energy- and a conventional thermal-toelectric conversion Rankine cycle. In these plants, a storage system can be implemented in order to increase plant production. Collector field represents more than half the total plant cost. Therefore, SENER has made an effort to improve current state of the art of parabolic trough collector (PTC from now on) design in order to reduce plant costs. Main characteristic of SENER design lies on the use of a torque tube as the central body of the collector. This tube is made of steel sheet, with a thickness depending on wind load requirements on the collector. This concept is very cost-effective, since the man-power needed to manufacture the tube has been minimized. Continuous cylindrical shape of the torque tube provides a high torsional stiffness, which is one of the main parameters affecting collector optical efficiency. Cantilever arms connect the mirrors to the central torque tube. These components are usually made of welded tube profiles. In SENER's new design, these cantilever arms are made using metal sheet stamping techniques (SENER patent), thus reducing manufacturing and mounting costs. SENER PTC module (called SENERTROUGH) is 12 meters long and has an aperture width of 5,76 m. HCE and curved mirrors existing in the market - as well as new products from different manufacturers - can be easily attached to collector structure. Two prototype modules of SENERTROUGH have been mounted and tested at the CIEMAT-PSA facilities. Several performance tests were performed in order to assure the validity of the concept. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of Test Method for Solar Collector Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    /S. The solar collector panel investigated has 16 parallel connected horizontal absorber fins. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations, calculations with a solar collector simulation program SOLEFF (Rasmussen and Svendsen, 1996) and thermal experiments are carried out in the investigation......The test method of the standard EN12975-2 (European Committee for Standardization, 2004) is used by European test laboratories to determine the efficiency of solar collectors. In the test methods the mean solar collector fluid temperature in the solar collector, Tm is determined by the approximated...... equation where Tin is the inlet temperature to the collector and Tout is the outlet temperature from the collector. The specific heat of the solar collector fluid is in the test method as an approximation determined as a constant equal to the specific heat of the solar collector fluid at the temperature Tm...

  15. The determination of space parameters of the heliostatic collector field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Kudelas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of perpetual perpendicular insolation of solar collector absorber surface may increase the insolation energy byca 42-45 %.. A consequence of theincrease in the energy production may be the reduction of the solar collectors’ surface area. For the large scale solar collector field conception is advantageous to build collector sections with several collectors in one heliostat. For the conception of the solar collector field with heliostat collectors is important to make a regular identification of space parameters of all parts of the solar system field. The placement of the heliostats is a basic condition for the optimal insolation conditions of heliostat solar collectors’ field.

  16. Efficiencies of flat plate solar collectors at different flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt;

    2012-01-01

    Two flat plate solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between...... the absorber and the cover glass and the other is without ETFE foil. The efficiencies for the collectors are tested at different flow rates. On the basis of the measured efficiencies, the efficiencies for the collectors as functions of flow rate are obtained. The calculated efficiencies are in good agreement...

  17. Materials for luminescent greenhouse solar collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, J A; Weber, W H

    1977-10-01

    Luminescent greenhouse solar collectors are potentially useful for concentrating sunlight onto photovoltaic power cells. Measurements of the performance of small-scale collectors made of two commercially available materials (Owens-Illinois ED2 neodymium-doped laser glass and rhodamine 6G-doped plastic) are presented. The results are encouraging, but they indicate a need for further spectral sensitization and for reduced matrix loss coefficient. The measurements with monochromatic illumination agree with the predictions of a mathematical model developed to take account of reemission following the absorption of luminescence. Under solar illumination, the model predicts photon flux concentrations of about 15 for optimized full-scale collectors made of the materials studied and concentrations of 110 for reasonably improved glass.

  18. Optimum solar collector fluid flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1996-01-01

    the energy consumption of a normal ciculation pump in the solar heating system.Calculations showed that the highest thermal performances for small SDHW systems based on mantle tanks with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rate is situated in the interval from 0...... to the temperature difference between the solar collector and the bottom of the mantle - an increase of about 1% of the thermal performance is possible.Finally, calculations showed that the highest thermal performance for large SDHW systems with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved....... The flow rate is increasing for increasing temperature.The flow rate at the high temperature level is typically 70 % greater than the flow rate at the low temperature level.Further, the energy consumption for the electronically controlled pump in a solar heating system will be somewhat smaller than...

  19. Behavior of a solar collector loop during stagnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model simulating the emptying behavior of a pressurized solar collector loop with solar collectors with a good emptying behavior is developed and validated with measured data. The calculated results are in good agreement with the measured results. The developed simulation model...... is therefore suitable to determine the behavior of a solar collector loop during stagnation. A volume ratio R, which is the ratio of the volume of the vapour in the upper pipes of the solar collector loop during stagnation and the fluid content of solar collectors, is introduced to determine the mass...... of the collector fluid pushed into the expansion vessel during stagnation, Min. A correlation function for the mass Min and the volume ratio R for solar collector loops is obtained. The function can be used to determine a suitable size of expansion vessels for solar collector loops....

  20. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    , as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat......-plate collectors. For solar heating plants, the yearly energy output from these evacuated tubular collectors is about 40%-90% higher than the output from typical flat-plate collectors at an operation temperature of about 50°C.......Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...

  1. Indoor thermal performance evaluation of Daystar solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, K., Sr.

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used and results obtained from a test program to obtain thermal performance data on a Daystar Model 21B, S/N 02210, Unit 2, liquid solar collector under simulated conditions are described. The test article is a flat plate solar collector using liquid as a heat transfer medium. The absorber plate is copper and coated with black paint. Between the tempered low iron glass and absorber plate is a polycarbonate trap used to suppress convective heat loss. The collector incorporates a convector heat dump panel to limit temperature excursions during stagnation. The following tests were conducted: (1) collector thermal efficiency; (2) collector time constant; (3) collector incident angle modifier; (4) collector heat loss coefficient; and (5) collector stagnation.

  2. A tool for standardized collector performance calculations including PVT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Kovacs, Peter; Olsson, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    A tool for standardized calculation of solar collector performance has been developed in cooperation between SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, DTU Denmark and SERC Dalarna University. The tool is designed to calculate the annual performance of solar collectors at representative locations...... can be tested and modeled as a thermal collector, when the PV electric part is active with an MPP tracker in operation. The thermal collector parameters from this operation mode are used for the PVT calculations....

  3. Solar Air Collectors: How Much Can You Save?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburn, J. D.

    1985-04-01

    A collector efficiency curve is used to determine the output of solar air collectors based on the testing of seven solar collectors sold in Iowa. In this application the solar heater is being used as a space heater for a house. The performance of the solar air heater was analyzed and an 8% savings in energy was achieved over a one year period using two 4 x 8 collectors in a typical house.

  4. Experimental investigation of efficiency of a novel conical solar collector

    OpenAIRE

    MORAVEJ, M

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods to improvement of solar-to-thermal energy conversion is the design of geometry in solar collectors. In this paper, the new solar collector which is called solar conical collector has been designed and tested. The efficiency of solar conical collector was experimentally investigated by use of ASHRAE standard. Experiments were performed with water as a working fluid in the outdoor condition of Ahvaz city in the south of Iran. The results show that the average efficiency of a ...

  5. Solar collector design with respect to moisture problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ole; Svendsen, Svend; Brunold, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Humidity inside the collectors is one factor that can be minimised to keep the most favourable microclimatic condition for the internal materials of the collector. This microclimate inside the collector is an important factor in determining the service lifetime of an absorber coating. During the ...

  6. Selective optical coatings for solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    For best performance, energy-absorbing surface of solar collector should be characterized by high ratio of solar absorptance to thermal emitance. Report on optical characteristics of several chemical treatments and electrodeposited coatings for metal solar-absorbing surfaces should interest designers and users of solar-energy systems. Moisture resistance of some coatings is also reported.

  7. Natural-oxide solar-collector coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnick, A. C.; Roberts, M. L.; Sharpe, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    Optically selective coatings for solar collectors are produced by thermally treating stainless steel in furnace after series of cleaning and soaking operations. Coatings have withstood 18-month exposure tests at 100 percent relative humidity and temperatures of 95 F. Room temperature coatings are valuable as they are inexpensive to produce, highly production oriented, and environmentally stable.

  8. New tool for standardized collector performance calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Kovacs, Peter; Olsson, Marcus;

    2011-01-01

    A new tool for standardized calculation of solar collector performance has been developed in cooperation between SP Technical Research Institute Sweden, DTU Denmark and SERC Dalarna University. The tool is designed to calculate the annual performance for a number of representative cities in Europe...

  9. A test program for solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Rigorous environmental and performance tests qualify solar collector for use in residential solar-energy systems. Testing over 7 month period examined pressurized effects, wind and snow loading, hail damage, solar and thermal degradation, effects of pollutants, efficiency, and outgassing. Test procedures and results are summarized in tables, graphs, and text.

  10. Performance evaluation of a liquid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes thermal performance and structural-load tests on commercial single glazed flat-plate solar collector with gross area of 63.5 sq ft that uses water as heat-transfer medium. Report documents test instrumentation and procedures and presents data as tables and graphs. Results are analyzed by standard data-reduction methods.

  11. Performance evaluation of an air solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Indoor tests on signal-glazed flat-plate collector are described in report. Marhsall Space Flight Center solar simulator is used to make tests. Test included evaluations on thermal performance under various combinations of flow rate, incident flux, inlet temperature, and wind speed. Results are presented in graph/table form.

  12. Colored solar collectors - Annual report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Chambrier, E. De; Roecker, Ch.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2007-12-15

    The architectural integration of thermal solar collectors into buildings is often limited by their black color, and the visibility of tubes and corrugations of the absorber sheets. A certain freedom in color choice would be desirable, but the colored appearance should not cause an excessive degradation of the collector efficiency. Multilayered thin film interference filters on the collector glazing can produce a colored reflection, hiding the corrugated metal sheet, while transmitting the non-reflected radiation entirely to the absorber. These interference filters are designed and optimized by numerical simulation, and are manufactured by sol-gel dip-coating or magnetron sputtering. The novel colored glazed solar collectors will be ideally suited for architectural integration into buildings, e.g. as solar active glass facades. Due to the tunability of the refractive index, nanostructured materials such as SiO{sub 2}:TiO{sub 2} composites and porous SiO{sub 2} are very useful for application in multilayer interference stacks. Novel quaternary Mg-F-Si-O films exhibit a surprisingly low refractive index and are therefore promising candidates for highly transparent coatings on solar collector glazing. The nanostructure of these thin films is studied by transmission electron microscopy, while the optical constants are measured precisely by ellipsometry. For a convincing demonstration, sufficiently large samples of high quality are imperatively needed. The fabrication of nanocomposite SiO{sub 2}:TiO{sub 2} films has been demonstrated by sol-gel dip-coating of A4-sized glass panes. The produced coatings exhibit a colored reflection in combination with a high solar transmittance, a homogenous appearance, and are free of visible defects. Film hardening by UV exposure will result in speeding up the sol-gel process and saving energy, thereby reducing costs significantly. The infrastructure for UV-curing has been established. A UV C radiation source can now be attached to the

  13. Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

  14. Standardized solar simulator tests of flat plate solar collectors. 1: Soltex collector with two transparent covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F.

    1975-01-01

    A Soltex flat plate solar collector was tested with a solar simulator for inlet temperatures of 77 to 201 F, flux levels of 240 and 350 Btu/hr-sq ft, a collant flow rate of 10.5 lb/hr sq ft, and incident angles of 0 deg, 41.5 deg, and 65.2 deg. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle.

  15. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, steel collector with one transparent cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are presented of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency was correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  16. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  17. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: An evacuated flatplate copper collector with a serpentine flow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  18. PV/T slates - Production atlas; PV/T-Schiefer. Ertragsatlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report first deals with the dynamic building simulation system IDA and goes on to present an appendix that lists the results for the three climatic locations Zurich, Lugano and Davos in detail. The results are calculated for various seasons, orientations, mounting angles, air-flow rates and temperature differences.

  19. THEORETICAL STUDY OF SOLAR COLLECTOR WITH MINI PARABOLIC CONCENTRATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I TABET

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, numerical modeling and simulation of the thermal behavior of a solar collector vacuum tube with a concentration has been done, the value of adding a system of concentration at the back of the collector and try to increase the amount of solar radiation incident on the collector  in order to obtain high temperatures compared to traditional flat plate collector  and improved their energy performance, this type of collector  being integrated into buildings for domestic hot water, air conditioning and for cooling.

  20. Outdoor performance results for NBS Round Robin collector no. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of a PPG flat-plate solar collector was evaluated utilizing an outdoor solar collector test facility at the NASA-Lewis Research Center, as part of the National Bureau of Standards 'round robin' collector test program. The correlation equation for collector thermal efficiency Eta curve fit of the data was: Eta = 0.666 - 1.003(Btu/hr-sq ft-F) Theta, where the parameter Theta is the difference between the average fluid temperature and the ambient temperature, all divided by the total flux impinging on the collector.

  1. Thermal performance of honeywell double covered liquid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, R.

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures and results obtained during an evaluation test program to determine the outdoor performance characteristics of the Honeywell liquid solar collector are presented. The program was based on the thermal evaluation of a Honeywell double covered liquid solar collection. Initial plans included the simultaneous testing of a single covered Honeywell collector. During the initial testing, the single covered collector failed due to leakage; thus, testing continued on the double covered collector only. To better define the operating characteristics of the collector, several additional data points were obtained beyond those requested.

  2. Performance correlations of five solar collectors tested simultaneously outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Collector thermal efficiency, and efficiency degradation with time were measured for 5 flat-plate solar collectors tested simultaneously in an outdoor solar collector test facility. Results indicate that by using collector performance parameters which account for diffuse insolation, outdoor data recorded on 'cloudy' days can be used as a measure of performance, as long as the ratio of direct to total insolation exceeds approximately 0.6. These outdoor results also show good agreement with thermal efficiency data obtained indoors in a solar simulator. Significant efficiency degradation occurred on only one of the five collectors exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of one to two years.

  3. Theoretical study on a solar collector loop during stagnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon;

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model simulating the stagnation behavior of a pressurized solar collector loop with solar collectors with a good emptying behavior is developed. Based on the pre-pressure of the expansion vessel, the system filling pressure of the solar collector loop and the design of the solar...... collector loop, the mass of the fluid flowing into the pressurized expansion vessel and the pressures at the top part and at the bottom part of the solar collector loop during stagnation for the solar collector loop are calculated. The theoretically calculated results are compared with experimental results....... There is a good agreement between calculations and measurements. The developed simulation model is therefore suitable to determine the behavior of solar collector loops during stagnation....

  4. Theoretical study on a solar collector loop during stagnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon;

    A mathematical model simulating the stagnation behavior of a pressurized solar collector loop with solar collectors with a good emptying behavior is developed. Based on the pre-pressure of the expansion vessel, the system filling pressure of the solar collector loop and the design of the solar...... collector loop, the mass of the fluid flowing into the pressurized expansion vessel and the pressures at the top part and at the bottom part of the solar collector loop during stagnation for the solar collector loop are calculated. The theoretically calculated results are compared with experimental results....... There is a good agreement between calculations and measurements. The developed simulation model is therefore suitable to determine the behavior of solar collector loops during stagnation....

  5. Improvement of flat plate collectors for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, H.; Hallermayer, R.; Schoelkopf, W.; Sizman, R.

    1984-03-01

    Selective absorption for thermal conversion of radiative energy was investigated. Improvement and operation of various measuring devices for absorption and emission are presented. Selective coatings were produced by vapor deposition and galvanic treatment. Calculations of the transmittance of turbular collector fields are presented. Operational Characteristics of Collector were examined. A collector test field with simultaneous recording of data from 24 collectors or uncovered absorbers was built and connected to a high performance microprocessor system. The transient behavior of collectors by variation of the irradiation and the collector inlet temperature were investigated. A mechanism for stratification of hot water of fluctuating inlet temperature in a storage tank was studied. The operating conditions of a heat pump installed in the collector test plant are investigated. A large domestic hot water system is equipped with temperature sensors and flowmeters for computer recording.

  6. Simulation of a solar collector array consisting of two types of solar collectors, with and without convection barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    The installed area of solar collectors in solar heating fields is rapidly increasing in Denmark. In this scenario even relatively small performance improvements may lead to a large increase in the overall energy production. Both collectors with and without polymer foil, functioning as convection...... barrier, can be found on the Danish market. Depending on the temperature level at which the two types of collectors operate, one can perform better than the other. This project aimed to study the behavior of a 14 solar collector row made of these two different kinds of collectors, in order to optimize...... the composition of the row. Actual solar collectors available on the Danish market (models HT-SA and HT-A 35-10 manufactured by ARCON Solar A/S) were used for this analysis. To perform the study, a simulation model in TRNSYS was developed based on the Danish solar collector field in Braedstrup. A parametric...

  7. A Self-Biasing Pulsed Depressed Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jensen, Aaron; Neilson, Jeff; /SLAC

    2014-05-29

    Depressed collectors have been utilized successfully for many years to improve the electrical efficiency of vacuum electron devices. Increasingly, pulsed, high-peak power accelerator applications are placing a premium on electrical efficiency. As RF systems are responsible for a large percentage of the overall energy usage at accelerator laboratories, methods to improve upon the state-of-the-art in pulsed high-power sources are desired. This paper presents a technique for self-biasing the stages in a multistage depressed collector. With this technique, the energy lost during the rise and fall times of the pulse can be recovered, separate power supplies are not needed, and existing modulators can be retrofitted. Calculations show that significant cost savings can be realized with the implementation of this device in high-power systems. In this paper, the technique is described along with experimental demonstration. (auth)

  8. Short-Term Solar Collector Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Perers, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to online forecasting of power output from solar thermal collectors. The method is suited for online forecasting in many applications and in this paper it is applied to predict hourly values of power from a standard single glazed large area flat plate collector....... The method is applied for horizons of up to 42 hours. Solar heating systems naturally come with a hot water tank, which can be utilized for energy storage also for other energy sources. Thereby such systems can become an important part of energy systems with a large share of uncontrollable energy sources......, such as wind power. In such a scenario online forecasting is a vital tool for optimal control and utilization of solar heating systems. The method is a two-step scheme, where first a non-linear model is applied to transform the solar power into a stationary process, which then is forecasted with robust time...

  9. Assessment of musculoskeletal load in refuse collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Jóźwiak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to assess the load on the musculoskeletal system and its effects in the collectors of solid refuse. The rationale behind this study was to formulate proposals how to reduce excessive musculoskeletal load in this group of workers. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 15 refuse collectors aged 25 to 50 years. Data about the workplace characteristics and subjective complaints of workers were collected by the free interview and questionnaire. During the survey the photorecording of the workpostures, the distance and velocity by GPS recorders, measurements of forces necessary to move containers, energy expenditure (lung ventilation method, workload estimation using the Firstbeat system and REBA method and stadiometry were done. Results: The distance walked daily by the collectors operating in terms of 2 to 3 in urban areas was about 15 km, and in rural areas about 18 km. The most frequent musculoskeletal complaints concerned the feet (60% subjects, knees, wrists and shoulders (over 40% subjects. After work-shift all examined workers had vertebral column shorter by 10 to 14 mm (11.4 mm mean. Conclusions: The results of our study show that the refuse collectors are subjected to a very high physical load because of the work organization and the way it is performed. To avoid adverse health effects and overload it is necessary to undertake ergonomic interventions, involving training of workers to improve the way of their job performance, active and passive leisure, technical control of the equipment and refuse containers, as well as the renegotiation of contracts with clients, especially those concerning non-standard containers. Med Pr 2013;64(4:507–519

  10. Theoretical study of fluidized solar collector performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adulla, S. H; Kassem, M A; El-Refaie, M. F. [Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a proposed novel design aiming to increasing the absorber-to-fluid heat transfer coefficient. This is accomplished by introducing small solid particles inside the collector tubes. When the collector liquid flows, it causes the particles to be fluidized and spread in the tubes. The particles material, size and total number should be turned together with the fluid mass flow rate to keep the bed, or particle dispersion, length within the physical length of collector tubes. Thus, the particles would be confined in the collector only; and not carried over to other parts of the circulation loop. While moving, the particles erode the thermal boundary layer formed on the tube inner surface, hence increasing the heat transfer coefficient. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta un diseno novedoso destinado a aumentar el coeficiente de trasferencia de calor de absorbedor a fluido. Esto se lleva a cabo mediante la introduccion de particulas solidas dentro de los tubos del colector. Cuando fluye el liquido del colector origina que las particulas se fluidicen y se diseminen en los tubos. El material de las particulas, tamano y numero total debera de ser puesto en movimiento junto con el regimen de flujo de masa de fluido para mantener el lecho o la dispersion de particulas por largo tiempo dentro de la longitud fisica de los tubos de colector. De esta manera las particulas seran confinadas solamente en el colector y no seran arrastradas a otras partes del anillo de circulacion. Al moverse, las particulas erosionan la capa de frontera termica formada en la superficie interior del tubo, aumentando por tanto el coeficiente de transmision de calor.

  11. Protection of solar collector materials from UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, J. G., Jr.; Gause, R. L.; Whitaker, A.

    1978-01-01

    Certain plastic films, such as KAPTON, are known to be stable with excellent long-term aging characteristics under intense uv radiation. Our recent measurements of the optical transmission spectra of KAPTON films show an absorption edge in the blue and are interpreted in terms of an electronic excitation mechanism. The application of this type of film as covering for solar collectors is discussed in regard to the protection this strong uv absorption offers to the materials underneath.

  12. High performance flat plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  13. Numerical Investigation of Nanofluid-based Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, M.; Raisee, M.; Delfani, S.

    2014-08-01

    Solar thermal collectors are applicable in the water heating or space conditioning systems. Due to the low efficiency of the conventional collectors, some suggestions have been presented for improvement in the collector efficiency. Adding nanoparticles to the working fluid in direct absorption solar collector, which has been recently proposed, leads to improvement in the working fluid thermal and optical properties such as thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient. This results certainly in collector efficiency enhancement. In this paper, the radiative transfer and energy equations are numerically solved. Due to laminar and fully developed flow in the collector, the velocity profile is assumed to be parabolic. As can be observed from the results, outlet temperature of collector is lower than that obtained using uniform velocity profile. Furthermore, a suspension of carbon nanohorns in the water is used as the working fluid in the model and its effect on the collector efficiency is investigated. It was found that the presence of carbon nanohorns increases the collector efficiency by about 17% compared to a conventional flat-plate collector. In comparison with the mixture of water and aluminium nanoparticles, a quite similar efficiency is obtained using very lower concentration of carbon nanohorns in the water.

  14. REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS ISI FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR WITH MODIFIED FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR.Y.Y.NANDURKAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar water heater of natural circulation type (thermo-siphon is fast growing in India. Initial cost of the solar water heater system at present is high because of store type design. It is necessary to make the product more popular by reducing the cost. This is possible by reducing area of liquid flat plate collector by increasing tube diameter and reducing riser length. Hence it is essential to make solar water heater in affordable range of the general public class. Present work is based on review of comparative performance and analysis of ISI flat plate collector with modified flat plat collector. The paper will be helpful for those who are working in the area of solar water heating system and their use in domestic areas.

  15. Performance of solar collectors under low temperature conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, Mircea; Eicher, Sara; Hildbrand, Catherine

    The performance of four solar thermal collectors (flat plate, evacuated tube, unglazed with rear insulation and unglazed without rear insulation) was experimentally measured and simulated for temperatures below ambient. The influence of several parameters (e.g. collector inlet temperature, air...... temperature, condensation) is investigated under different operating conditions (day and night). Under some conditions condensation might occur and heat gains could represent up to 55% of the total unglazed collector energy by night. Two TRNSYS collector models including condensation heat gains are also...... to be around 2%, frost heat gains were measured to be up to 40% per day, under specific conditions. Overall, results have shown that unglazed collectors are more efficient than flat plate or evacuated tube collectors at low operation temperatures or for night conditions, making them more suitable for heat pump...

  16. An improved dynamic test method for solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Fan, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive improvement of the mathematical model for the so called transfer function method is presented in this study. This improved transfer function method can estimate the traditional solar collector parameters such as zero loss coefficient and heat loss coefficient. Two new collector...... parameters t and mfCf are obtained. t is a time scale parameter which can indicate the heat transfer ability of the solar collector. mfCf can be used to calculate the fluid volume content in the solar collector or to validate the regression process by comparing it to the physical fluid volume content...... if known. Experiments were carried out under dynamic test conditions and then test data were processed using multi-linear regression method to get collector parameters with statistic analysis. A comparison of the collector parameters obtained from the improved transfer function (ITF) method and the quasi...

  17. Solar collector design with respect to moisture problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ole; Svendsen, Svend; Brunold, Stefan;

    2003-01-01

    .Simulation of the microclimate in solar thermal collectors can be a valuable tool for optimisation of the collector with respect to ventilation. A computer model has been established for fulfilling this. By using this tool the producers can be advised whether their solar collectors ought to be additionally tightened, or whether...... group Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors of the International Energy Agency-Solar Heating and Cooling Programme....... the design of the collector, the location and size of ventilation holes, properties of the insulation materials and dimension of the solar collector box are parameters that have to be taken into account for the optimisation in order to achieve the most favourable microclimate to prevent corrosion...

  18. Increasing thermal efficiency of solar flat plate collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pona, J.

    A study of methods to increase the efficiency of heat transfer in flat plate solar collectors is presented. In order to increase the heat transfer from the absorber plate to the working fluid inside the tubes, turbulent flow was induced by installing baffles within the tubes. The installation of the baffles resulted in a 7 to 12% increase in collector efficiency. Experiments were run on both 1 sq ft and 2 sq ft collectors each fitted with either slotted baffles or tubular baffles. A computer program was run comparing the baffled collector to the standard collector. The results obtained from the computer show that the baffled collectors have a 2.7% increase in life cycle cost (LCC) savings and a 3.6% increase in net cash flow for use in domestic hot water systems, and even greater increases when used in solar heating systems.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Dual Intake Transparent Transpired Solar Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Semenou; Rousse, Daniel R.; Brice Le Lostec; Hervé F. Nouanegue; Pierre-Luc Paradis

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, in several types of commercial or institutional buildings, a significant rise of transpired solar collectors used to preheat the fresh air of the building can be observed. Nevertheless, when the air mass flow rate is low, the collector efficiency collapses and a large amount of energy remains unused. This paper presents a simple yet effective mathematical model of a transparent transpired solar collector (TTC) with dual intake in order to remove stagnation problems in the plenum and...

  20. A tool for standardized collector performance calculations including PVT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Kovacs, Peter; Olsson, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    A tool for standardized calculation of solar collector performance has been developed in cooperation between SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, DTU Denmark and SERC Dalarna University. The tool is designed to calculate the annual performance of solar collectors at representative locations...... in Europe. The collector parameters used as input in the tool are compiled from tests according to EN12975, without any intermediate conversions. The main target group for this tool is test institutes and certification bodies that are intended to use it for conversion of collector model parameters (derived...

  1. High Performance Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collector Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockenbaugh, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lovullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lisell, Lars [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barker, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hanckock, Ed [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norton, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report was prepared for the General Services Administration by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Honeycomb Solar Thermal Collector (HSTC) is a flat plate solar thermal collector that shows promising high efficiencies over a wide range of climate zones. The technical objectives of this study are to: 1) verify collector performance, 2) compare that performance to other market-available collectors, 3) verify overheat protection, and 4) analyze the economic performance of the HSTC both at the demonstration sites and across a matrix of climate zones and utility markets.

  2. Simulation Application for Optimization of Solar Collector Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Shesho*,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar systems offer a comparatively low output density , so increasing the output always means a corresponding increase in the size of the collector area. Thus collector arrays are occasionally constructed (i.e. with different azimuth angles and/or slopes, which be imposed by the location and structure available to mount the collector. In this paper is developed simulation application for optimization for the solar collector array position and number of collectors in regard of maximum annual energy gain and thermal efficiency. It is analyzed solar collector array which has parallel and serial connected solar collectors with different tilt, orientation and thermal characteristics. Measurements are performed for determine the thermal performance of the system. Using the programming language INSEL it is developed simulation program for the analyzed system where optimization is done through parametric runs in the simulation program. Accent is given on the SE orientated collectors regarding their tilt and number, comparing two solutions-scenarios and the current system set situation of the in means of efficiency and total annual energy gain. The first scenario envisages a change of angle from 35 to 25 solar panels on the SE orientation, while the second scenario envisages retaining the existing angle of 35 and adding additional solar collector. Scenario 1 accounts for more than 13% energy gain on annual basis while Scenario 2 has 2% bigger thermal efficiency.

  3. Design and performance of multi-purpose vacuum solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotaki, H. Kavoosi; Saidi, M. H.

    2017-09-01

    Design and fabrication of solar collectors with high performance of energy efficiency to convert solar energy to utility energy is vitally important. This article reports the results obtained from design, construction and investigation of the performance of a Combined Multi-Purpose Vacuum Solar Collector (CMPVSC). This collector consists of three sections: the vacuum section, the liquid section and the air section. In the present collector, it is capable of transferring heat to two flows (liquid and air) simultaneously and separate with the possibility of multipurpose applications. The CMPVSC is compared with the existing individual collectors and the effects of different parameters on the efficiency of this collector are examined. Experimental data indicate that high temperature and high performance with a 43% reduction in cost can be obtained using CMPVSC compared to two individual collectors. To increase the efficiency of the collector, triangular and rectangular channels in the air section have been used. The vacuum part is implemented to reduce heat losses. The effect of water inlet temperature, air flow rate, shape of air channel and vacuum part on the heat delivery by air and water have been investigated. Furthermore, as a matter of comparison of CMPVSC with the individual collector, there is a chance of obtaining highest temperature and efficiency with minimum cost and space requirements.

  4. Some new aspects of the coupon-collector's problem

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Amy N.; Wilf, Herbert S.

    2003-01-01

    We extend the classical coupon collector's problem to one in which two collectors are simultaneously and independently seeking collections of $d$ coupons. We find, in finite terms, the probability that the two collectors finish at the same trial, and we find, using the methods of Gessel-Viennot, the probability that the game has the following ``ballot-like'' character: the two collectors are tied with each other for some initial number of steps, and after that the player who first gains the l...

  5. EFFICIENCY AND LIFETIME OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SOLAR HEATING PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jianhua; Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Björn

    2009-01-01

    The 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector HT, today marketed by Arcon Solvarme A/S, has been used in solar heating plants in Scandinavia since 1983. The collector is designed to operate in a temperature interval between 40°C and 90°C. The efficiency of the collector has been strongly improved since it was introduced on the market. The paper will present the increase of the efficiency of the collector due to technical improvements since 1983. Further, measurements from the spring of 2009 of the e...

  6. Performance test procedures for thermal collectors - Outdoor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, W. B.

    A review of outdoor solar collector test methods is presented, based largely on the CEC Recommendations for European Solar Collector Test Methods. Test facility design and instrumentation are discussed, with reference to their influence on measured collector efficiencies. Steady state outdoor testing, mixed indoor/outdoor testing and transient testing are reviewed, and it is concluded that although the testing of simple flat plate water heaters is fairly well understood, more work is now required to develop test methods for the new high performance collectors which are coming onto the market.

  7. Study on the Effect of the Curvature of Solar Collector on Wind Loading Coefficients and Dynamic Response of Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hameed Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, the work concentrated on studying the effect of curvature of solar parabolic trough solar collector on wind loading coefficients and dynamic response of solar collector. The response of collector to the aerodynamic loading was estimated numerically and experimentally. The curvature of most public parabolic trough solar collectors was investigated and compared. The dynamic response of solar collector due to wind loading was investigated by using numerical solution of fluid-structure interaction concept. The experimental work was done to verify the numerical results and shows good agreement with numerical results. The numerical results were obtained by using finite element software package (ANSYS 14. It was found that the change in collector curvature (focal length lead to remarkable changes in wind loading coefficients (drag, lift, and moment, dynamic response (displacement and natural frequencies but does not affect the first mode shape.

  8. CMS DT Upgrade The Sector Collector Relocation

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro Tobar, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The Sector Collector relocation is the first stage of the upgrade program for the Drift Tubes subdetector of the CMS experiment. It was accomplished during Long Shutdown 2013-2014, and consisted in the relocation of the second-level trigger and readout electronics from the experimental to the service cavern, relieving the environmental constraints and improving accessibility for maintenance and upgrade. Extending the electrical links would degrade reliability, so the information is converted to optical with a custom system capable of dealing with the DC-unbalanced data. Initially, present electronics are used, so optical-to-copper conversion has also been installed.

  9. Mobile Information Collectors' Trajectory Data Warehouse Design

    CERN Document Server

    oueslati, wided

    2010-01-01

    To analyze complex phenomena which involve moving objects, Trajectory Data Warehouse (TDW) seems to be an answer for many recent decision problems related to various professions (physicians, commercial representatives, transporters, ecologists ...) concerned with mobility. This work aims to make trajectories as a first class concept in the trajectory data conceptual model and to design a TDW, in which data resulting from mobile information collectors' trajectory are gathered. These data will be analyzed, according to trajectory characteristics, for decision making purposes, such as new products commercialization, new commerce implementation, etc.

  10. Adaptive control of solar energy collector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, João M; Igreja, José M

    2014-01-01

    This book describes methods for adaptive control of distributed-collector solar fields: plants that collect solar energy and deliver it in thermal form. Controller design methods are presented that can overcome difficulties found in these type of plants:they are distributed-parameter systems, i.e., systems with dynamics that depend on space as well as time;their dynamics is nonlinear, with a bilinear structure;there is a significant level of uncertainty in plant knowledge.Adaptive methods form the focus of the text because of the degree of uncertainty in the knowledge of plant dynamics. Parts

  11. New concepts for solar collectors in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, M.; Van Helden, W. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands); Nijs, J.; Reinders, A. [University of Twente, Faculty of CTW, Department of Design, Production and Management, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-01-15

    In 2030, solar energy is expected to cover the full energy demand of newly built houses. In addition, increasing standards for quality of living require that newly built houses offer increased comfort, while still being affordable. Current collector technology will not be able to meet all these requirements; hence, new collector concepts are required. This paper develops new concepts for the capture, conversion, and storage of solar energy with a focus on future integration in newly built houses. Industrial design engineering was used in the concept development, including an analysis of the field as well as a series of workshops. Out of several concepts, two were selected and elaborated. The first concept (aimed at 2015) is based on a passive house, and is able to fully provide the domestic energy use of both the user and the building itself. The second concept (aimed at 2030) integrates energy production, energy storage, building insulation, and an indoor climate system in durable, modular construction elements; the total energy production of this concept exceeds the total domestic energy use. This paper illustrates the concept development process and its results.

  12. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thuc

    2015-01-01

    Novel minichannel-tube solar thermal collectors for low to medium temperature applications are introduced. Two types of minichannel solar thermal collectors are analyzed experimentally: aluminum minichannel solar collector for low temperature applications, and copper minichannel solar collector for low to medium temperature applications.The aluminum minichannel solar collector has been tested for over a year alongside a conventional copper flat-plate solar collector of similar dimensions as t...

  13. ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF SOLAR EVAPORATOR-COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mohd. Amin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is considered a sustainable resource that poses little to no harmful effects on the environment. The performance of a solar system depends to a great extent on the collector used for the conversion of solar radiant energy to thermal energy. A solar evaporator-collector (SEC is basically an unglazed flat plate collector where refrigerants, such as R134a is used as the working fluid. As the operating temperature of the SEC is very low, it utilizes both solar irradiation and ambient energy leading to a much higher efficiency than the conventional collectors. This capability of SECs to utilize ambient energy also enables the system to operate at night. This type of collector can be locally made and is relatively much cheaper than the conventional collector.   At the National University of Singapore, the evaporator-collector was integrated to a heat pump and the performance was investigated for several thermal applications: (i water heating, (ii drying and (iii desalination. A 2-dimensional transient mathematical model of this system was developed and validated by experimental data. The present study provides a comprehensive study of performance. KEYWORDS: heat pump; evaporator-collector.

  14. Macrofauna Settlement on Pearl Oyster Collectors in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Collection of pearl oyster seed using artificial collectors is a critical step in the production of cultured ... settled on spat collectors set to collect Pinctada margaritifera and Pteria penguin seed in shallow ... experiments conducted in Kenya between 2002 and. 2005. ..... the macrofauna and the bivalves follow a similar.

  15. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  16. Advances in design of air-heating collectors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johannsen, A

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the operation of air-heating collectors are discussed. The fundamental differences between the design principles of air-heating as opposed to water-heating collectors are highlighted. The main requirement is the transfer of heat from...

  17. Thermal performance of integration of solar collectors and building envelopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国清; 龚小辉; 曹双华

    2009-01-01

    The integration of building with solar collector was studied. The theoretical model of integration of building envelopes and flat plate solar collectors was set up and the thermal performance of integration was studied in winter and summer,and compared to envelopes without solar collectors. The results show that the solar collection efficiency is raised in the integration of building envelopes and solar collectors with the air layer doors closed. This is true whether in winter or summer. The increment is higher as the inlet water temperature increases or the ambient temperature is low. In winter,the heat loss is significantly reduced through integration of the building envelopes and solar collectors with the closed air layer doors. The integration with the open air layer door is worse than that without collectors. In summer,the heat gains of the integration of envelopes and solar collectors are more obviously reduced than envelopes without collectors,the integration with the open air layer door is a little better than the closed one,but the difference is very small.

  18. Design and fabrication considerations of EUVL collectors for HVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, G.; Cassol, G. L.; Kools, J.; Prea, M.; Salmaso, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Zocchi, F. E.; Bolshukhin, D.; Schürmann, M.; Schriever, G.; Mader, A.; Zink, P.

    2009-03-01

    The power roadmap for EUVL high volume manufacturing (HVM) exceeds the 200W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus, thus posing more demanding requirements on HVM sources, debris suppression systems and collectors. Starting from the lessons learned in the design and fabrication of the grazing incidence collectors for the Alpha EUVL scanners, Media Lario Technologies is developing HVM optical solutions that enable designed-in lifetime improvements, such as larger source-collector distances, optimized collection efficiency through larger collected solid angles, and customized EUV reflective layers. The optical design of an HVM collector is described together with the selection of the sacrificial ruthenium reflective layer. The water cooling layout of the collector is evolved from the integrated cooling technology developed at Alpha level into an innovative cooling layout that minimizes the thermal gradients across the mirrors and allows controlling the optical performance at the far-field plane. Finally, the evolution of the collector's manufacturing technologies for HVM is discussed. XTREME technologies and Philips Extreme UV support this work by integrating the collector in the complete source collector module (SoCoMo). At system level, each component of the SoCoMo is part of a development and improvement plan leading to a comprehensive system that will fulfill the 200+ W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus.

  19. Thermal performance of a hot-air solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Report contains procedures and results of thermal-performance tests on double-glazed air solar collector. Four types of tests were carried out including thermal-efficiency and stagnation tests, collector time-constant tests to assess effects of transients, and incident-angle modifier tests. Data are presented in tables and as graphs and are discussed and analyzed.

  20. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  1. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimes Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data.

  2. FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR PANEL WITH HORIZONTAL FINS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontal fins. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics...... (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m² solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured......, temperature of inlet flow and collector tilt angle are shown. Based on the investigations preliminary recommendations for the operation of the investigated collector are given. For instance, minimum flow rate in order to avoid boiling in the horizontal strips is recommended....

  3. Design wind and sandstorm loads on trough collectors in fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Wang, Zhifeng; Wei, Zeyu

    2017-06-01

    Trough collectors are laid out in rows in a field withrow spacing. Wind and sandstorm loads on the collectors will be influenced by surrounding collectors. This paper presents analyzed results from a combined wind tunnel and sandstorm tunnel study on a trough collector field with seven rows and five spans. In wind tunneltests, the measured model with pressure taps was installed in the field to measure wind pressures on the surfaces. Mean and fluctuating pressures on the model were measured by the synchronous multi-pressure sensing system under typical boundary layer wind flow field. In sandstorm tunneltests,a isolated trough collector model was measured by the high-frequency force balance technique under wind-blown sand flow field.

  4. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  5. In situ built-up air collector with glass cover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Engelmark, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    as an absorber. Efficiency and aair pressure drop were measured. The efficiency of the two air solar collectors was almost similar and at the same level as other corresponding air solar collectors. The air pressure drop was somewhat larger in the case of the solar collector where the air flows behind...... with a cover of glass where the horizontal joints were made by means of different methods and materials. As a general principle a water-damming border at the horizontal glass joints was avoided. The test box was built as a solar collector with 14 different horizontal joints between the glasses. The box...... the absorber. This is due to the narrower air gap behind the absorber. Condensation has been observed in both the solar collectors, this has not been investigated more explicitly,...

  6. Detailed Modeling of Flat Plate Solar Collector with Vacuum Glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Shemelin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical analysis of flat plate solar collectors with a vacuum glazing is presented. Different configurations of the collector have been investigated by a detailed theoretical model based on a combined external and internal energy balance of the absorber. Performance characteristics for vacuum flat plate collector alternatives have been derived. Subsequently, annual energy gains have been evaluated for a selected variant and compared with state-of-the-art vacuum tube collectors. The results of modeling indicate that, in the case of using advanced vacuum glazing with optimized low-emissivity coating (emissivity 0.20, solar transmittance 0.85, it is possible to achieve efficiency parameters similar to or even better than vacuum tube collectors. The design presented in this paper can be considered promising for the extension of the applicability range of FPC and could be used in applications, which require low-to-medium temperature level.

  7. Mathematical modelling of unglazed solar collectors under extreme operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, M.; Perers, Bengt; Eicher, S.

    2015-01-01

    average temperature levels at the evaporator. Simulation of these systems requires a collector model that can take into account operation at very low temperatures (below freezing) and under various weather conditions, particularly operation without solar irradiation.A solar collector mathematical model......Combined heat pumps and solar collectors got a renewed interest on the heating system market worldwide. Connected to the heat pump evaporator, unglazed solar collectors can considerably increase their efficiency, but they also raise the coefficient of performance of the heat pump with higher...... was found due to the condensation phenomenon and up to 40% due to frost under no solar irradiation. This work also points out the influence of the operating conditions on the collector's characteristics.Based on experiments carried out at a test facility, every heat flux on the absorber was separately...

  8. Simulation of a solar collector array consisting of two types of solar collectors, with and without convection barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    The installed area of solar collectors in solar heating fields is rapidly increasing in Denmark. In this scenario even relatively small performance improvements may lead to a large increase in the overall energy production. Both collectors with and without polymer foil, functioning as convection...... analysis was carried out by modifying the composition of the row, in order to find both the energy and economy optimum....... barrier, can be found on the Danish market. Depending on the temperature level at which the two types of collectors operate, one can perform better than the other. This project aimed to study the behavior of a 14 solar collector row made of these two different kinds of collectors, in order to optimize...

  9. Antireflection Pyrex envelopes for parabolic solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, H. L.; Pettit, R. B.

    1983-11-01

    Antireflective (AR) coatings, applied to the glass envelopes used in parabolic trough solar collectors around the receiver tube in order to reduce thermal losses, can increase solar transmittance by 7 percent. An AR surface has been formed on Pyrex by first heat treating the glass to cause a compositional phase separation, removing a surface layer after heat treatment through the use of a preetching solution, and finally etching in a solution that contains hydrofluorosilic and ammonium bifluoride acids. AR-coated samples with solar transmittance values of more than 0.97, by comparison to an untreated sample value of 0.91, have been obtained for the 560-630 C range of heat treatment temperatures. Optimum values have also been determined for the other processing parameters.

  10. DRYING WITH SOLAR COLLECTOR BY HEAT PIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet DOĞAN

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, heating pipe was used in the solar collector in order to take better advantage of the solar energy. The energy obtained from the sun was transferred to the drying air by means of heating pipes and this hot air was blown on the material to be dried. The water on the material to be dried vaporised with the effect of the hot air and drying took place. Because drying took place in the shade, distant from the direct radiation effects of the sun, some of the disadvantages seen in drying outside, under the sun were eliminated. Additionally, it was observed that it took less time to dry in this method than it takes to dry under the open sun.

  11. Use of membrane collectors in electrostatic precipitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, D J; Pasic, H; Alam, M K; Shi, L; Haynes, B; Cochran, J; Khan, W

    2001-10-01

    Membrane collection surfaces, developed and patented by researchers at Ohio University, were used to replace steel plates in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Such replacement facilitates tension-based rapping, which shears the adhered particle layer from the collector surface more effectively than hammer-based rapping. Tests were performed to measure the collection efficiency of the membranes and to quantify the potential improvements of this novel cleaning technique with respect to re-entrainment. Results indicate that even semiconductor materials (e.g., carbon fibers) collect ash nearly as efficiently as steel plates, potentially indicating that collection surface resistivity is primarily dictated by the accumulated ash layer and not by the underlying plate conductivity. In addition, virtually all sheared particles separated from the collecting membranes fell within the boundary layer of the membrane, indicating extremely low potential for re-entrainment.

  12. Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Cataloging Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, P.J.; Rodriguez, M.C.; Calaway, M.C.; Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Genesis solar wind array collectors were fractured upon landing hard in Utah in 2004. The fragments were retrieved from the damaged canister, imaged, repackaged and shipped to the Johnson Space Center curatorial facility [1]. As of January 2009, the collection consists of 3460 samples. Of these, 442 are comprised into "multiple" sample groupings, either affixed to adhesive paper (177) or collected in jars (17), culture trays (87), or sets of polystyrene vials (161). A focused characterization task was initiated in May 2008 to document the largest samples in the collection. The task consisted of two goals: to document sapphire based fragments greater than 2 cm in one dimension, and to document silicon based fragments greater than 1 cm in one direction.

  13. Analysis of WWER 1000 collector cracking mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matocha, K.; Wozniak, J. [Vitkovice J.S.C., Ostrava (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the large experimental program, started in 1993 in Vitkovice, where the main aim was: (1) a detailed study of strain and thermal ageing, dissolved oxygen content and temperature on subcritical crack growth in 10NiMo8.5 (10GN2MFA) steel, (2) a detailed study of the effect of high temperature water and tube expansion technology on fracture behaviour of ligaments between holes for heat exchange tubes, and (3) a detailed study of the effect of drilling, tube expansion technology and heat treatment on residual stresses on the surface of holes for heat exchange tubes. The aim of all these investigations was to find a dominant damage mechanism responsible for collector cracking to be able to judge the efficiency of implemented modifications and suggested countermeasures and to answer a very important question whether proper operation conditions (mainly water chemistry) make the operation of steam generators made in Vitcovice safe throughout the planned lifetime. 10 refs.

  14. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  15. Study of Cylindrical Honeycomb Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atish Mozumder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of our investigation on cylindrical honeycomb solar collector. The honeycomb has been fabricated with transparent cellulose triacetate polymer sheets. Insulation characteristics of the honeycomb were studied by varying the separation between the honeycomb and the absorber plate. The optimal value of the separation was found to be 3.3 mm for which the heat transfer coefficient is 3.06 W m−2 K−1. This supports result of previous similar experiments. Further we test the honeycomb through a field experiment conducted in Delhi (28.6°N, 77°E and found that when the incident angle of the solar radiation is within 20° then the performance of the system with the honeycomb is better than the one without the honeycomb.

  16. Studies of flat-plate solar air collectors with absorber plates made of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules; Amorphous taiyo denchi module wo shunetsuban to shita heibangata kukishiki shunetsuki no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Ito, S.; Miura, N. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A light/heat hybrid air type heat collector has been developed in which heat is collected by solar cell panels. In Type 1 heat collector provided with a glass cover, two modules are connected in series and placed under a glass cover to serve as a heat collecting plate, each module built of a steel plate and two thin-film amorphous solar cells bonded to the steel plate. Air runs under the heat collecting plate. Type 2 heat collector is a Type 1 heat collector minus the glass cover. Air is taken in by a fan, runs in a vinyl chloride tube, and then through the heat collector where it is heated by the sun, and goes out at the exit. Heat collecting performance was subjected to theoretical analysis. This heat collector approximated in point of heat collection a model using a board painted black, which means that the new type functions effectively as an air-type heat collector. Operating as a photovoltaic power generator, the covered type generated approximately 20% less than the uncovered type under 800W/m{sup 2} insolation conditions. Type 1 has been in service for five months, and Type 2 for 2 months. At present, both are free of troubles such as deformation and the amorphous solar cell modules have deteriorated but a little. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  17. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS USING A SOLAR SIMULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norhafana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of a solar water heating system as well as to evaluate the performance of the solar collector in terms of useful heat of the multilayered absorber using the multidirectional ability of a solar simulator at several values of solar radiation. It is operated at three variables of solar radiation of 400 W/m2, 550 W/m2 and 700 W/m2 and using three different positions of angles at 0º, 45º and 90º. The results show that the multilayer absorber in the solar collector is only able to best adapt at 45° of solar simulator with different values of radiation intensity. At this angle the maximum values of useful heat and temperature difference are achieved. KEYWORDS: solar water heating system; solar collector; multilayered absorber; solar simulator; solar radiation 

  18. Evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in air-heating collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattox, D. L.

    1979-06-01

    The present research effort was initiated for the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of air heating solar collectors through identification and development of optimum design and operation criteria for solar absorber-to-air heat exchangers. Initially this effort took the form of a solar collector systems analysis to evaluate the impact of various techniques for enhancing the heat transfer between the absorber and air stream on overall thermal performance of the entire solar collector. This systems analysis resulted in the selection of solar collector designs providing ducted cooling air on the absorber shaded side as a base line. A transient heat transfer analysis of a complete solar air heating collector was used to demonstrate that an optimum absorber-to-air heat exchanger design could be provided with several interrupted fin configurations. Additional analyses were performed to establish that the maximum solar collector thermal performance to required pumping power was realized for a Reynolds number range of 1000 to 2000. This Reynolds number range was used to establish a theoretical design limit curve for maximum thermal performance versus required pumping power for all interrupted fin designs as published in the open literature. Heat and momentum transfer empirical relationships were defined for scaling the state-of-the-art high conductance fin designs identified from a compact configuration to the less compact designs needed for solar collectors.

  19. A high performance porous flat-plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Clarke, V.; Reynolds, R.

    1979-01-01

    A solar collector employing a porous matrix as a solar absorber and heat exchanger is presented and its application in solar air heaters is discussed. The collector is composed of a metallic matrix with a porous surface which acts as a large set of cavity radiators; cold air flows through the matrix plate and exchanges heat with the thermally stratified layers of the matrix. A steady-state thermal analysis of the collector is used to determine collector temperature distributions for the cases of an opaque surface matrix with total absorption of solar energy at the surface, and a diathermanous matrix with successive solar energy absorption at each depth. The theoretical performance of the porous flat plate collector is shown to exceed greatly that of a solid flat plate collector using air as the working medium for any given set of operational conditions. An experimental collector constructed using commercially available, low cost steel wool as the matrix has been found to have thermal efficiencies from 73 to 86%.

  20. Experimental studies of a matrix-tubular solar air collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesca, M.; Varlan, P. [Moldova Technical Univ., Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of). Dept. of Heat and Gas Supply and Ventilation

    2009-06-15

    The most common types of solar air collectors (SAC) are contact-type and matrix-type collectors, with the latter being more efficient. This paper described the design and testing of a matrix-tubular flat solar air collector in the city of Chisinau, Moldova, where the outdoor climatic radiation, heat, and humidity characteristics are favorable for the efficient use of solar energy for building heating and drying applications. The amount of solar energy absorbed by a solar energy air collector depends on the level of insulation and orientation of the solar collector; the absorbance of the absorber surface; and the transmittance of the cover material. This study examined the heat transfer, efficiency, and pressure drop using copper tubes inserted perpendicular to the plane of the absorber plate. The SAC consists of a glazed insulated case, an absorber, and ducting for cold air delivery and hot air discharge. Copper tubes are inserted perpendicular to the plane of the absorber. The absorber is installed in the body of the SAC in such a way that it divides it into an upper channel and lower channel. The channel bottom is lined with aluminium foil that reflects solar radiation coming through the tubes and decreases heat loss in the solar collector. Copper tubes increase the heat exchange surface, create air turbulence and intensify heat transfer. This increases the efficiency of the solar collector. The pressure drop of the matrix-tubular solar air collector is 40 per cent lower than that of the matrix-plate collectors. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    OpenAIRE

    Klimes Lubomir; Mauder Tomas; Ostry Milan; Charvat Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage...

  2. FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR PANEL WITH HORIZONTAL FINS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m² solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured......The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontal fins. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics...

  3. Calculating the Solar Energy of a Flat Plate Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Rosario

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount of solar energy that could be obtained by a flat plate solar collector of one square meter dimension is calculated in three different locations: Tampa FL, Fairbanks AL, and Pontianak Indonesia, considering the varying sunset time for each day of the year. The results show that if the collectors are placed near the equator, more total energy could be obtained. In fact, by placing a solar collector in Pontianak, Indonesia 12.42% more solar energy can be obtained than by placing it in Tampa and 96.9% more solar energy than Alaska.

  4. Analysis of a high-performance tubular solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Yung, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    This article analyzes the thermal performance of a new vacuum tube solar collector. The assumptions and mathematical modeling are presented. The problem is reduced to the formulation of two simultaneous linear differential equations characterizing the collector thermal behavior. After applying the boundary conditions, a general solution is obtained which is found similar to the general Hottel, Whillier and Bliss form, but with a complex flow factor. The details of the two-dimensional thermal model of the solar collector at steady state is also presented to include the computer simulation and the performance parameterization. Comparison of the simulated performance with the manufacturer's test data showed good agreement at wide ranges of operating conditions.

  5. Optical fiber sensor for tracking line-focus solar collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiczer, J J

    1982-08-01

    Currently there is a need to provide an alignment monitor feedback signal to the tracking mechanism of line-focus trough-type concentrating solar collectors. We report here on the novel use of an optical fiber as a distributed integrating sensor to generate such a signal. Experiments have shown that 3.0 m of optical fiber exposed to concentrated sunlight equal to ~40 suns in intensity will generate 1 microA of signal current in a silicon photodiode. These data were measured in an experimental line-focus solar collector using solar flux conditions common to this type of collector.

  6. Ray tracing study for non-imaging daylight collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittkopf, Stephen [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (NUS), 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, 06-01, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory (LESO), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland); Oliver Grobe, Lars; Geisler-Moroder, David [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (NUS), 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, 06-01, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Compagnon, Raphael [College of Engineering and Architecture of Fribourg (EIA-FR), University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HES-SO) (Switzerland); Kaempf, Jerome; Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis [Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory (LESO), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a novel method to study how well non-imaging daylight collectors pipe diffuse daylight into long horizontal funnels for illuminating deep buildings. Forward ray tracing is used to derive luminous intensity distributions curves (LIDC) of such collectors centered in an arc-shaped light source representing daylight. New photometric characteristics such as 2D flux, angular spread and horizontal offset are introduced as a function of such LIDC. They are applied for quantifying and thus comparing different collector contours. (author)

  7. Fuzzy Approximate Model for Distributed Thermal Solar Collectors Control

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2014-07-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling concentrated solar collectors where the objective consists of making the outlet temperature of the collector tracking a desired reference. The performance of the novel approximate model based on fuzzy theory, which has been introduced by the authors in [1], is evaluated comparing to other methods in the literature. The proposed approximation is a low order state representation derived from the physical distributed model. It reproduces the temperature transfer dynamics through the collectors accurately and allows the simplification of the control design. Simulation results show interesting performance of the proposed controller.

  8. Owens-Illinois subsystem design package for the SEC-601 air-cooled solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The subsystem design of the SEC-601 solar collector was evaluated. The collector is of modular design and is approximately 12 feet three inches wide and eight feet seven inches tall. It contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds. Included in this report are the subsystem performance specifications and the assembly and installation drawings of the solar collectors and manifold.

  9. Measurements and Calculations of the Effects of Distortions in the Collector Surface on Efficiencies of Umbrella-Type Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Victor R.

    1961-01-01

    The meridional tensions along the ribs in a Mylar-covered umbrella-type solar collector produce a distortion in the reflecting surface that is detrimental to the image in the focal plane. The investigation reported herein was made to obtain measured and calculated geometric efficiencies of umbrella-type collectors as affected by these surface distortions. These studies show that if the tension transverse to the ribs is increased relative to the meridional tensions, the distortion is reduced and higher efficiencies can be attained, and if the transverse tension is small, the number of ribs in the collector must be increased for higher efficiencies.

  10. Status of the NASA-Lewis flat-plate collector tests with a solar simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1974-01-01

    Simulator test results of 15 collector types are reported. Collectors are given performance ratings according to their use for pool heating, hot water, absorption A/C or heating and solar Rankine machines. Collectors found to be good performers in the above categories, except for pool heating, were a black nickel coated, 2 glass collector, and a black paint 2 glass collector containing a mylar honeycomb. For pool heating, a black paint, one glass collector was found to be the best performer. Collector performance parameters of 5 collector types were determined to aid in explaining the factors that govern performance. The two factors that had the greatest effect on collector performance were the collector heat loss and the coating absorptivity.

  11. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maag, W.L.; Wenzler, C.J.; Rom, F.E.; VanArsdale, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a low cost, bare-plate collector, determine its performance for a variety of climatic conditions, analyze the economics of this type of solar collector and evaluate specific applications. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60% or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20/sup 0/F for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that an installed cost of between $5 and $10 per square foot would make this type of solar system economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, these costs for the bare-plate solar collector are believed to be attainable. Specific applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  12. Opensource Software for MLR-Modelling of Solar Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Perers, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    A first research version is now in operation of a software package for multiple linear regression (MLR) modeling and analysis of solar collectors according to ideas originating all the way from Walletun et. al. (1986), Perers, (1987 and 1993). The tool has been implemented in the free and open...... source program R http://www.r-project.org/. Applications of the software package includes: visual validation, resampling and conversion of data, collector performance testing analysis according to the European Standard EN 12975 (Fischer et al., 2004), statistical validation of results......, and the determination of collector incidence angle modifiers without the need of a mathematical function (Perers, 1997). The paper gives a demonstration with examples of the applications, based on measurements obtained at a test site at DTU in Denmark (Fan et al., 2009). The tested collector is a single glazed large...

  13. Validation of CFD simulation for flat plate solar energy collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmi, Mohamed; Al-Khawaja, Mohammed J.; Marafia, Abdulhamid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Qatar, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, State of Qatar (Qatar)

    2008-03-15

    The problem of flat plate solar energy collector with water flow is simulated and analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The considered case includes the CFD modeling of solar irradiation and the modes of mixed convection and radiation heat transfer between tube surface, glass cover, side walls, and insulating base of the collector as well as the mixed convective heat transfer in the circulating water inside the tube and conduction between the base and tube material. The collector performance, after obtaining 3-D temperature distribution over the volume of the body of the collector, was studied with and without circulating water flow. An experimental model was built and experiments were performed to validate the CFD model. The outlet temperature of water is compared with experimental results and there is a good agreement. (author)

  14. The JPL parabolic dish project. [solar collectors technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscello, V. C.; Williams, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    The parabolic dish solar collector is a highly versatile concentrating collector system that can produce heat for many thermal processes and electricity by coupling the collector to a suitable heat engine. This paper discusses a project for the development of these collector systems and summarizes contracts with industry for developing the dish subsystems which include concentrator, receiver, and heat engine. An early market for dishes is the dispersed small community market which depends heavily on oil to operate diesel or steam turbine plants in order to generate electricity. The present contracts with industry for conducting engineering experiments using the developed dish hardware to demonstrate the technology in these early opportunity markets is also discussed.

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Dual Intake Transparent Transpired Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Semenou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in several types of commercial or institutional buildings, a significant rise of transpired solar collectors used to preheat the fresh air of the building can be observed. Nevertheless, when the air mass flow rate is low, the collector efficiency collapses and a large amount of energy remains unused. This paper presents a simple yet effective mathematical model of a transparent transpired solar collector (TTC with dual intake in order to remove stagnation problems in the plenum and ensure a better thermal efficiency and more heat recovery. A thermal model and a pressure loss model were developed. Then, the combined model was validated with experimental data from the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC. The results show that the collector efficiency can be up to 70% and even 80% regardless of operating conditions. The temperature gain is able to reach 20°K when the solar irradiation is high.

  16. Development of high efficiency collector plates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santala, T.; Sabol, R.

    1976-02-01

    Composite metal technology was used to manufacture intermetallic compound (IC) absorption surfaces and to combine them integrally with composite metal tube-in-sheet collector plates. Five material systems in which Al was one component metal and Fe, Cr, or Ni and their alloy was the other pair, were evaluated. All intermetallic compounds had high solar absorptance ..cap alpha.. approx. = 0.9. The AlNi was most promising and ..cap alpha.. > or = 0.95 and epsilon approx. = 0.3 were obtained over a broad range of compounding conditions. After eight months exposure in a flat plate collector enclosure the characteristic properties of AlNi surfaces remained virtually unchanged. Only LCS/Cu composite metal tube-in-sheet collector plates could be manufactured successfully. The technical difficulties associated with integrating the intermetallic compound and tube-in-sheet technologies make the manufacturing of composite metal collector plates at the time being economically unfeasible.

  17. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois model Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector is presented. Information in this package includes the subsystem design and development approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the preliminary design review.

  18. Glycol/water evacuated-tube solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes performance of 8 tube and 10 tube commercially produced solar collectors. Tests include thermal efficiency, time constant for temperature drop after solar flux is cut, change in efficiency with Sun angle, and temperature rise if circulation is stopped.

  19. Indoor tests of the concentric-tube solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes performance tests on 12-tube, liquid-filled collector. Thermal efficiency, change in efficiency with sun position, and time constant for temperature drop after solar flux is cut are described.

  20. Theoretical flow investigations of an all glass evacuated tubular collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    the highest efficiency, the optimal inlet flow rate was around 0.4-1 kg/min, the flow structures in the glass tubes were relatively uninfluenced by the inlet flow rate, Generally, the results showed only small variations in the efficiencies. This indicates that the collector design is well working for most......Heat transfer and flow structures inside all glass evacuated tubular collectors for different operating conditions are investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics. The investigations are based on a collector design with horizontal tubes connected to a vertical 14 manifold channel. Three...... different tube lengths varying from 0.59 in to 1.47 in have been modelled with five different inlet mass flow rates varying from 0.05 kg/min to 10 kg/min with a constant inlet temperature of 333 K. Under these operating conditions the results showed that: the collector with the shortest tube length achieved...

  1. Optical, Energetic and Exergetic Analyses of Parabolic Trough Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (O)ZT(U)RK Murat; (C)(I)(C)EK BEZ(I)R Nalan; (O)ZEK Nuri

    2007-01-01

    Parabolic trough collectors generate thermal energy from solar energy. Especially, they are very convenient for applications in high temperature solar power systems. To determine the design parameters, parabolic trough collectors must be analysed with optical analysis. In addition, thermodynamics (energy and exergy) analysis in the development of an energy efficient system must be achieved. Solar radiation passes through Earth's atmosphere until it reaches on Earth's surface and is focused from the parabolic trough collector to the tube receiver with a transparent insulated envelope. All of them constitute a complex mechanism. We investigate the geometry of parabolic trough reflector and characteristics of solar radiation to the reflecting surface through Earth's atmosphere, and calculate the collecting total energy in the receiver. The parabolic trough collector,of which design parameters are given, is analysed in regard to the energy and exergy analysis considering the meteorological specification in May, June, July and August in Isparta/Turkey, and the results are presented.

  2. Outdoor thermal efficiency evaluation of the Ying solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedure used and the test results obtained during an evaluation test program to obtain thermal efficiency performance data are presented. The flat plate collector used water/prestone antifreeze solution as the working fluid.

  3. Thermal Performance of an Annealed Pyrolytic Graphite Solar Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Hornacek, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    A solar collector having the combined properties of high solar absorptance, low infrared emittance, and high thermal conductivity is needed for applications where solar energy is to be absorbed and transported for use in minisatellites. Such a solar collector may be used with a low temperature differential heat engine to provide power or with a thermal bus for thermal switching applications. One concept being considered for the solar collector is an Al2O3 cermet coating applied to a thermal conductivity enhanced polished aluminum substrate. The cermet coating provides high solar absorptance and the polished aluminum provides low infrared emittance. Annealed pyrolytic graphite embedded in the aluminum substrate provides enhanced thermal conductivity. The as-measured thermal performance of an annealed pyrolytic graphite thermal conductivity enhanced polished aluminum solar collector, coated with a cermet coating, will be presented.

  4. Weathering of a liquid-filled solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes procedures and results of tests for effects of weathering on flat-plate liquid solar collector. Thermal performance was measured before and after natural weathering for 15-1/2 months by using Marshall Space Flight solar simulator.

  5. Low-cost EUV collector development: design, process, and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Ranju D.; Goldstein, Michael; Engelhaupt, Darell; Lee, Sang H.; Panning, Eric M.

    2007-03-01

    Cost of ownership (COO) is an area of concern that may limit the adoption and usage of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL). One of the key optical components that contribute to the COO budget is the collector. The collectors being fabricated today are based on existing x-ray optic design and fabrication processes. The main contributors to collector COO are fabrication cost and lifetime. We present experimental data and optical modeling to demonstrate a roadmap for optimized efficiency and a possible approach for significant reduction in collector COO. Current state of the art collectors are based on a Wolter type-1 design and have been adapted from x-ray telescopes. It uses a long format that is suitable for imaging distant light sources such as stars. As applied to industrial equipment and very bright nearby sources, however, a Wolter collector tends to be expensive and requires significant debris shielding and integrated cooling solutions due to the source proximity and length of the collector shells. Three collector concepts are discussed in this work. The elliptical collector that has been used as a test bed to demonstrate alternative cost effective fabrication method has been optimized for collection efficiency. However, this fabrication method can be applied to other optical designs as well. The number of shells and their design may be modified to increase the collection efficiency and to accommodate different EUV sources The fabrication process used in this work starts with a glass mandrel, which is elliptical on the inside. A seed layer is coated on the inside of the glass mandrel, which is then followed by electroplating nickel. The inside/exposed surface of the electroformed nickel is then polished to meet the figure and finish requirements for the particular shell and finally coated with Ru or a multilayer film depending on the angle of incidence of EUV light. Finally the collector shell is released from the inside surface of the mandrel. There are

  6. Characteristics of collector formation during the rift developmental stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidovich, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    An explanation is given for characteristics of the formation of collector properties in terrigenous and carbonate rock of the Devonian in the rift stage of the Pripyat downwarp development. An interconnection was noted between the paleostructural factor, lithogenesis, and the physical parameters of rocks. A forecast is made of collectors and for future oil and gas operations on the basis of an analysis of these data.

  7. Ideology, governance and consequences from a collector's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne G. Sayles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a condensed version of the background paper created for an Ancient Coin Collectors Guild (ACCG presentation at the 2010 CBA, Tyne and Wear Archives and Museums, and Newcastle University conference in Newcastle, England. It presents a view shared by many American collectors and independent scholars. The ACCG, a member of the International Numismatic Council, is a registered non-profit organisation within the United States but enjoys the active support of members worldwide.

  8. Shape Control of Solar Collectors Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, D. W.; Grossman, J. W.; Allen, J. J.; Rice, T. M.; Liang, C.; Davidson, F. M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun's rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper is principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a minimal amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems. In this paper the design, analysis and testing of a solar collector which is deformed into its desired shape by shape memory alloy actuators is presented. Computations indicate collector shapes much closer to spherical and with smaller focal lengths can be achieved by moving the actuators inward to a radius of approximately 6 inches. This would require actuators with considerably more stroke and some alternate SMA actuators are currently under consideration. Whatever SMA actuator is finally chosen for this application, repeatability and fatigue tests will be required to investigate the long term performance of the actuator.

  9. Proceedings of the solar thermal concentrating collector technology symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, B.P.; Kreith, F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to review the current status of the concentrating collector technology, to disseminate the information gained from experience in operating solar systems, and to highlight the significant areas of technology development that must be vigorously pursued to foster early commercialization of concentrating solar collectors. Separate abstracts were prepared for thirteen invited papers and working group summaries. Two papers were previously abstracted for EDB.

  10. Performance testing of the Acurex solar-collector Model 3001-03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, V.E.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    Results are summarized of tests conducted at the Collector Module Test Facility on an Acurex Model 3001-03 Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Collector. Test temperaure range was 100/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C. Tests were conducted with the collector axis oriented east-west and again with the collector axis oriented north-south. Three collectors were tested: one using polished aluminum mirrors, one using glass mirrors, and another using an aluminized acrylic film mirror.

  11. EFFICIENCY AND LIFETIME OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SOLAR HEATING PLANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector HT, today marketed by Arcon Solvarme A/S, has been used in solar heating plants in Scandinavia since 1983. The collector is designed to operate in a temperature interval between 40°C and 90°C. The efficiency of the collector has been strongly improved since...... it was introduced on the market. The paper will present the increase of the efficiency of the collector due to technical improvements since 1983. Further, measurements from the spring of 2009 of the efficiency of two HT collectors, which have been in operation in the solar heating plant Ottrupgaard, Skørping......, Denmark since 1994 with a constant high flow rate and in the solar heating plant Marstal, Denmark since 1996 with a variable flow rate, will be presented. The efficiencies will be compared to the efficiencies of the collectors when they were first installed in the solar heating plants. The measurements...

  12. EFFICIENCY AND LIFETIME OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SOLAR HEATING PLANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector HT, today marketed by Arcon Solvarme A/S, has been used in solar heating plants in Scandinavia since 1983. The collector is designed to operate in a temperature interval between 40°C and 90°C. The efficiency of the collector has been strongly improved since...... it was introduced on the market. The paper will present the increase of the efficiency of the collector due to technical improvements since 1983. Further, measurements from the spring of 2009 of the efficiency of two HT collectors, which have been in operation in the solar heating plant Ottrupgaard, Skørping......, Denmark since 1994 with a constant high flow rate and in the solar heating plant Marstal, Denmark since 1996 with a variable flow rate, will be presented. The efficiencies will be compared to the efficiencies of the collectors when they were first installed in the solar heating plants. The measurements...

  13. Dual curvature acoustically damped concentrating collector. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.A.; Rausch, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    A development program was conducted to investigate the design and performance parameters of a novel, dual curvature, concentrating solar collector. The reflector of the solar collector is achieved with a stretched-film reflective surface that approximates a hyperbolic paraboloid and is capable of line-focusing at concentration ratios ranging from 10 to 20X. A prototype collector was designed based on analytical and experimental component trade-off activities as well as economic analyses of solar thermal heating and cooling systems incorporating this type of collector. A prototype collector incorporating six 0.66 x 1.22 m (2 x 4 ft) was fabricated and subjected to a limited thermal efficiency test program. A peak efficiency of 36% at 121/sup 0/C (250/sup 0/F) was achieved based upon the gross aperture area. Commercialization activities were conducted, including estimated production costs of $134.44/m/sup 2/ ($12.49/ft/sup 2/) for the collector assembly (including a local suntracker and controls) and $24.33/m/sup 2/ ($2.26/ft/sup 2/) for the reflector subassembly.

  14. Arrangement of Multirow Solar Collector Array on Limited Roof Width

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Shaoxuan; XIA Chaofeng

    2010-01-01

    At the limited roof north-south(N-S)width of a building,for the array with multirow collectors based on no shading at winter solstice noon and sloped at latitude,this paper studied the shading and the radiant energy striking on solar collector array.Based on Kunming solar radiation data,the annual and monthly solar radiant energy striking on multi-array collectors was analyzed and estimated,from no shading to partial shading by adding 1-3 collector row,at the slopes of 10°,15°,20°,25°,30°,35° and 40°,respectively.The results showed that properly increasing the row number by reducing the slope of collectors was reasonable in order to get more annual radiant energy.Adding 1 row at 10° of slope was economical for Kunming,based on the 5-row array at 25°.And adding collector row by 20% at 10° of slope could increase the radiant energy striking on the array by 19%.

  15. Ray-tracing software comparison for linear focusing solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Tiago; Horta, Pedro; Larcher, Marco; Pujol-Nadal, Ramón; Hertel, Julian; van Rooyen, De Wet; Heimsath, Anna; Schneider, Simon; Benitez, Daniel; Frein, Antoine; Denarie, Alice

    2016-05-01

    Ray-Tracing software tools have been widely used in the optical design of solar concentrating collectors. In spite of the ability of these tools to assess the geometrical and material aspects impacting the optical performance of concentrators, their use in combination with experimental measurements in the framework of collector testing procedures as not been implemented, to the date, in none of the current solar collector testing standards. In the latest revision of ISO9806 an effort was made to include linear focusing concentrating collectors but some practical and theoretical difficulties emerged. A Ray-Tracing analysis could provide important contributions to overcome these issues, complementing the experimental results obtained through thermal testing and allowing the achievement of more thorough testing outputs with lower experimental requirements. In order to evaluate different available software tools a comparison study was conducted. Taking as representative technologies for line-focus concentrators the Parabolic Trough Collector and the Linear Fresnel Reflector Collector, two exemplary cases with predefined conditions - geometry, sun model and material properties - were simulated with different software tools. This work was carried out within IEA/SHC Task 49 "Solar Heat Integration in Industrial Processes".

  16. Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Initial Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalya Pikra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses initial trials of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC in Bandung. PTSC model consists of concentrator, absorber and tracking system. Concentrator designs are made with 2m aperture width, 6m length and 0.75m focal distance. The design is equipped with an automatic tracking system which is driven using 12V and 24Watt DC motor with 0.0125rpm rotational speed. Absorber/receiver is designed with evacuated tube type, with 1 inch core diameter and tube made of AISI304 and coated with black oxide, the outer tube is borosilicate glass with a 70 mm diameter and 1.5 m length. Working fluid stored in single type of thermal storage tank, a single phase with 37.7 liter volume. PTSC model testing carried out for 2 hours and 10 minutes produces heat output and input of 11.5 kW and 0.64 kW respectively. 

  17. Standarized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A steel flat-plate collector with two transparent covers and a proprietary coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator are given. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperature and flux level.

  18. Effect of openings collectors and solar irradiance on the thermal efficiency of flat plate-finned collector for indirect-type passive solar dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Dina, Sari Farah; Klaudia Kathryn Y., M.; Turmuzi, M.; Siregar, Fitri; Panjaitan, Nora

    2017-06-01

    Research on the effect of openings solar collector and solar irradiance to thermal efficiency has been done. Solar collector by flat plate-finned type consists of 3 ply insulator namely wood, Styrofoam and Rockwool with thickness respectively are 10 mm, 25 mm and 50 mm. Absorber plate made of aluminum sheet with thickness of 0.30 mm, painted by black-doff. Installation of 19 units fins (length x height x thickness: 1000x20x10 mm) on the collector will increase surface area of absorber so it can receive much more solar energy. The solar collector cover is made of glass (thickness of 5 mm). During the research, the solar irradiance and temperature of collector are measured and recorded every five minutes. Temperature measurement performed on the surface of the absorber plate, inside of collector, surface cover and the outer side insulator (plywood). This data is used to calculate the heat loss due to conduction, convection and radiation on the collector. Openings of collectors vary as follows: 100%, 75%, 15% and 0% (total enclosed). The data collecting was conducted from 09.00 am to 17.00 pm and triplicates. The collector thermal efficiency calculated based on the ratio of the amount of heat received to the solar irradiance absorbed. The results show that each of openings solar collector has different solar irradiance (because it was done on a different day) which is in units of W/m2: 390 (100% open), 376 (75% open), 429 (15% open), and 359 (totally enclosed). The highest thermal efficiency is in openings variation of 15% opened. These results indicate that the efficiency of the collector is influenced by the solar irradiance received by the collector and the temperature on the collector plate. The highest thermal efficiency is in variation of openings 15%. These indicate that the efficiency of the collector was influenced by solar irradiance received by the collector and openings of the collector plate.

  19. Simulation of a solar collector array consisting of two types of solar collectors, with and without convection barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    the composition of the row. Actual solar collectors available on the Danish market (models HT-SA and HT-A 35-10 manufactured by ARCON Solar A/S) were used for this analysis. To perform the study, a simulation model in TRNSYS was developed based on the Danish solar collector field in Braedstrup. A parametric...... analysis was carried out by modifying the composition of the row, in order to find both the energy and economy optimum....

  20. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  1. Coloured solar collectors. Phase II : from laboratory samples to collector prototypes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Roecker, Ch.; Chambrier, E. de; Munari Probst, M.

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the second phase of a project concerning the architectural integration of glazed solar collectors into the facades of buildings for heat production. The factors that limit the integration of photovoltaic panels in facades are discussed. The authors state that, for a convincing demonstration, sufficiently large samples and high quality levels are needed. The sol-gel deposition of the multi-layered coatings on A4-sized glass panes demonstrated in the laboratory by EPFL-LESO are discussed. The coatings produced exhibit a coloured reflection in combination with a high solar transmittance, a homogenous appearance, and are free of visible defects. Film hardening by UV exposure is discussed: This should result in the speeding up of the sol-gel process and thus save energy, thereby significantly reducing costs. Collaboration with industry is discussed in which full-scale glass panes are to be coated with novel multiple layers. The novel glazing is to be integrated into first prototype collectors. The manufacturing and test processes for the prototypes manufactured are discussed in detail.

  2. Sampling efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies focusing on the collection of semibuoyant fish eggs, which are associated with a pelagic broadcast-spawning reproductive strategy, are often conducted to evaluate reproductive success. Many of the fishes in this reproductive guild have suffered significant reductions in range and abundance. However, the efficiency of the sampling gear used to evaluate reproduction is often unknown and renders interpretation of the data from these studies difficult. Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a modified Moore egg collector (MEC) using field and laboratory trials. Gear efficiency was assessed by releasing a known quantity of gellan beads with a specific gravity similar to that of eggs from representatives of this reproductive guild (e.g., the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi) into an outdoor flume and recording recaptures. We also used field trials to determine how discharge and release location influenced gear efficiency given current methodological approaches. The flume trials indicated that gear efficiency ranged between 0.0% and 9.5% (n = 57) in a simple 1.83-m-wide channel and was positively related to discharge. Efficiency in the field trials was lower, ranging between 0.0% and 3.6%, and was negatively related to bead release distance from the MEC and discharge. The flume trials indicated that the gellan beads were not distributed uniformly across the channel, although aggregation was reduced at higher discharges. This clustering of passively drifting particles should be considered when selecting placement sites for an MEC; further, the use of multiple devices may be warranted in channels with multiple areas of concentrated flow.

  3. Collector optic cleaning by in-situ hydrogen plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elg, Daniel T.; Panici, Gianluca A.; Srivastava, Shailendra N.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography sources produce EUV photons by means of a hot, dense, highly-ionized Sn plasma. This plasma expels high-energy Sn ions and neutrals, which deposit on the collector optic used to focus the EUV light. This Sn deposition lowers the reflectivity of the collector optic, necessitating downtime for collector cleaning and replacement. A method is being developed to clean the collector with an in-situ hydrogen plasma, which provides hydrogen radicals that etch the Sn by forming gaseous SnH4. This method has the potential to significantly reduce collector-related source downtime. EUV reflectivity restoration and Sn cleaning have been demonstrated on multilayer mirror samples attached to a Sn-coated 300mm-diameter steel dummy collector driven at 300W RF power with 500sccm H2 and a pressure of 260mTorr. Use of the in-situ cleaning method is also being studied at industriallyapplicable high pressure (1.3 Torr). Plasma creation across the dummy collector surface has been demonstrated at 1.3 Torr with 1000sccm H2 flow, and etch rates have been measured. Additionally, etching has been demonstrated at higher flow rates up to 3200sccm. A catalytic probe has been used to measure radical density at various pressures and flows. The results lend further credence to the hypothesis that Sn removal is limited not by radical creation but by the removal of SnH4 from the plasma. Additionally, further progress has been made in an attempt to model the physical processes behind Sn removal.

  4. 太阳能光电-热一体化与热泵耦合系统的热力性能实验研究%Experimental Study of Thermal Performances of the Sloar Photovoltaic-thermal Hybrid and Heat Pump Coupled Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴应; 龚光彩; 王晨光

    2015-01-01

    太阳能光电−热一体化(solar photovoltaic-thermal hybrid,PV-T)系统产生的热水的温度通常达不到生活所需的水温,如果和热泵联合工作,则可以提供较高温度的热水,系统的实用性明显提高。理论上在PV-T提供的热能与热泵吸收的热能相等时, PV-T与热泵能很好的匹配耦合,在此基础上建立了PV-T与热泵耦合的热力分析模型。结合热管式 PV-T 系统实验装置和热泵实验装置进行测试的实验数据,对该耦合系统的热力性能进行分析,基于两种不同算法,得出了匹配情况下PV-T耦合热泵系统的COP,实验还得出PV-T系统的火用效率为0.08左右,热泵的火用效率为0.38左右,匹配情况下耦合系统的火用效率为0.05左右,该 PV-T耦合热泵系统有较好的节能效果。文中对系统提出了节能建议。该研究结果为PV-T与热泵耦合工作的应用及其系统参数的选用提供理论依据。%Temperature of the hot water produced by solar photovoltaic-thermal hybrid(PV-T) system usually can not reach the required hot water temperature of daily life. Working with heat pump, the PV-T system can provide hot water with higher temperature and the practicability of this system will be improved significantly. When the heat energy produced by the PV-T system is equal to that absorbed by the heat pump, the PV-T and heat pump coupled systems can achieve a very good match in theory. Based on this condition, a theoretical model of the coupled systems was established. The thermal performance was tested and analyzed according to the experimental data obtained from the PV-T and heat pump equipments.COP of the coupled systems under matching condition was concluded by two different algorithms. The exergy efficiency of the PV-T system and heat pump were about 0.08 and 0.38, respectively. The exergy efficiency of the coupled systems was about 0.05 under matching condition, which implied that the coupled

  5. Evaluation of flat-plate collector efficiency under controlled conditions in a solar simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.; Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The measured thermal efficiencies of 35 collectors tested with a solar simulator, along with the correlation equations used to generalize the data, are presented in this report. The single correlation used is shown to apply to all the different types of collectors tested, including one with black paint and one cover, one with a selective surface coating and two covers, and an evacuated-tube collector. The test and correlation technique is also modified by using a shield so that collectors larger than the simulator test area can also be tested. This technique was verified experimentally for a shielded collector for which the collector shielded area was 31% of the solar simulator radiation area. A table lists all the collectors tested, the collector areas, and the experimental constants used to correlate the data for each collector.

  6. Comparison of Electrical and Thermal Performances of Glazed and Unglazed PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT collectors combine photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors, forming a single device that receives solar radiation and produces electricity and heat simultaneously. PVT collectors can produce more energy per unit surface area than side-by-side PV modules and solar thermal collectors. There are two types of liquid-type flat-plate PVT collectors, depending on the existence of glass cover over PV module: glass-covered (glazed PVT collectors, which produce relatively more thermal energy but have lower electrical yield, and uncovered (unglazed PVT collectors, which have relatively lower thermal energy with somewhat higher electrical performance. In this paper, the experimental performance of two types of liquid-type PVT collectors, glazed and unglazed, was analyzed. The electrical and thermal performances of the PVT collectors were measured in outdoor conditions, and the results were compared. The results show that the thermal efficiency of the glazed PVT collector is higher than that of the unglazed PVT collector, but the unglazed collector had higher electrical efficiency than the glazed collector. The overall energy performance of the collectors was compared by combining the values of the average thermal and electrical efficiency.

  7. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the

  8. Atmospheric Ionic Deposition in Tropical Sites of Central Sulawesi Determined by Ion Exchange Resin Collectors and Bulk Water Collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S; Jungkunst, H F; Gutzler, C; Herrera, R; Gerold, G

    2012-09-01

    In the light of global change, the necessity to monitor atmospheric depositions that have relevant effects on ecosystems is ever increasing particularly for tropical sites. For this study, atmospheric ionic depositions were measured on tropical Central Sulawesi at remote sites with both a conventional bulk water collector system (BWS collector) and with a passive ion exchange resin collector system (IER collector). The principle of IER collector to fix all ionic depositions, i.e. anions and cations, has certain advantages referring to (1) post-deposition transformation processes, (2) low ionic concentrations and (3) low rainfall and associated particulate inputs, e.g. dust or sand. The ionic concentrations to be measured for BWS collectors may easily fall below detection limits under low deposition conditions which are common for tropical sites of low land use intensity. Additionally, BWS collections are not as independent from the amount of rain fallen as are IER collections. For this study, the significant differences between both collectors found for nearly all measured elements were partly correlated to the rainfall pattern, i.e. for calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. However, the significant differences were, in most cases, not highly relevant. More relevant differences between the systems were found for aluminium and nitrate (434-484 %). Almost five times higher values for nitrate clarified the advantage of the IER system particularly for low deposition rate which is one particularity of atmospheric ionic deposition in tropical sites of extensive land use. The monthly resolution of the IER data offers new insights into the temporal distribution of annual ionic depositions. Here, it did not follow the tropical rain pattern of a drier season within generally wet conditions.

  9. A new collector used for flotation of oxide minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-gang; WEI De-zhou; WANG Ben-ying; FANG Ping; WANG Xiao-hui; CUI Bao-yu

    2009-01-01

    A surfactant containing a mixed aliphatic structure, with a hydrocarbon chain and a diamine group, has proven to be collector for the flotation of quartz, calamine and calcite. And research about its collecting capability was carried out in laboratory. The test results show that the flotation recovery ascends sharply with increasing the concentration of collector. When the concentration of collector reaches 1.83×10~(-4)mol/L, the flotation recoveries of quartz, calamine and calcite get their maximum of 97.64%, 91.04% and 95.99%, respectively. The flotation recoveries of quartz, calamine and calcite rise sharply with the rise of pH. And in a wide range of pH, their flotation recoveries all exceed 90%. And in the whole flotation experiment, the flotation recovery of hematite rises with the increase of collector concentration and pH, while the maximal recovery is not more than 55%. Compared with dodecylamine, the N-dodecylethylenediamine has strong capability to quartz and calamine, while the flotation recoveries of calcite are closely. Hydrogen binding adsorption and electrostatic adsorption occur between the collector and the surface of quartz.

  10. Development of 12.5 m² Solar Collector Panel for Solar Heating Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have elucidated how different changes in the design of the 12.5 m(2) HT flat-plate solar collector from the Danish company ARCON Solvarme A/S influence the solar collector efficiency and the yearly thermal performance. The collector is designed for medium...... and large solar heating systems. Based on the theoretical findings a prototype of an improved HT solar collector was built and tested side-by-side with the original HT solar collector. The improved HT collector makes use of a changed insulation material, an absorber with improved absorptance and emittance...

  11. Optimization of solar air collector using genetic algorithm and artificial bee colony algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sencan Sahin, Arzu [Sueleyman Demirel University, Technology Faculty, Isparta (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Thermal performance of solar air collector depends on many parameters as inlet air temperature, air velocity, collector slope and properties related to collector. In this study, the effect of the different parameters which affect the performance of the solar air collector are investigated. In order to maximize the thermal performance of a solar air collector genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) have been used. The results obtained indicate that GA and ABC algorithms can be applied successfully for the optimization of the thermal performance of solar air collector. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. J.; Knoll, R. H.; Jensen, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. An 1180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row are calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every 5 minutes using a mini-computer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  13. Application of activated charcoal radon collectors in high humidity environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimoto, Takeshi E-mail: iimoto@rcnst.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tokonami, Shinji; Morishita, Yasuaki; Kosako, Toshiso

    2004-09-01

    Most commercially based activated charcoal radon collectors were designed for use in indoor environments. However, at present, they are often used for research in radon surveys in unique environments, such as in the bathrooms, underground areas, mines, caves and tunnels. In these environments, the relative humidity would be around 100%, and a change in the sensitivity of cpm(Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1}(radon) would occur. For this study, the reduction in the sensitivity of activated charcoal radon collector due to environmental humidity was investigated, and the data correction was discussed. Here, ST-100 (Pico-Rad) was selected as an example of a familiar activated charcoal radon collector. According to our performance test, the humidity of 90% (20 deg. C) resulted in a 15% reduction of the sensitivity for 24 h collection. The ST-100 user should discuss the necessity of data correction by comparing the change of sensitivity with other levels of estimation errors.

  14. Application of activated charcoal radon collectors in high humidity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Tokonami, Shinji; Morishita, Yasuaki; Kosako, Toshiso

    2005-01-01

    Most commercially based activated charcoal radon collectors were designed for use in indoor environments. However, at present, they are often used for research in radon surveys in unique environments, such as in the bathrooms, underground areas, mines, caves and tunnels. In these environments, the relative humidity would be around 100%, and a change in the sensitivity of cpm(Bq m(-3))(-1)(radon) would occur. For this study, the reduction in the sensitivity of activated charcoal radon collector due to environmental humidity was investigated, and the data correction was discussed. Here, ST-100 (Pico-Rad) was selected as an example of a familiar activated charcoal radon collector. According to our performance test, the humidity of 90% (20 degrees C) resulted in a 15% reduction of the sensitivity for 24 h collection. The ST-100 user should discuss the necessity of data correction by comparing the change of sensitivity with other levels of estimation errors.

  15. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  16. Influence of Emulsification of Composite Collector on Rutile Flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The emulsifiable conditions of composite collector (FP-2) in industry are systematically researched in the paper. It is found that tpyes of the emulsifiers, emulsification temperature, the mixed proportion of FP-2 to emulsifier are the important parameters affecting emulsification effect and rutile flotation targets. When the proportion of FP-2 to emulsifier (E-4) is 100, by means of emulsification of mechanical stirring, the rutile flotation recovery is 85.6% and the grade is 75.3%, which approach the flotation targets of FP-2 used as collector by ultrasonic emulsification unit. The favorable conditions are set up for FP-2 in industry application. By means of XPS measurement,the chemical interaction of composite collector with rutile is found.

  17. Thermal performance evaluation of the Calmac (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, H.

    1978-01-01

    The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the S. N. 1, (liquid) solar collector are presented. The flat plate collector uses water as the working fluid. The absorber plate is aluminum with plastic tubes coated with urethane black. The glazing consists of .040 in fiberglass reinforced polyester. The collector weight is 78.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 50.3in. x 98.3in. x 3.8in. The following information is given: thermal performance data under simulated conditions, structural behavior under static loading, and the effects of long term exposure to natural weathering. These tests were conducted using the MSFC Solar Simulator.

  18. Quality and efficiency of solar collectors in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerholm, H.

    Transparent or translucent insulation materials (TIM's) represent a new class of materials with a high potential for increasing the efficiency of solar thermal conversion systems. A large number of materials have been subjected to theoretical and experimental investigation. If materials that suppress heat losses are transparent to solar radiation, vacuum, certain gases, convection barriers, etc., then they can be regarded as TIM's. Exploratory field and laboratory studies of degraded FEP-film convection barriers in flat plate thermal solar collectors are described. The study related to collectors that had been operating in Sweden for periods of one year to ten years. Both physical, functional (thermal) and chemical aspects of degradation were considered. The report identifies the mistakes made so that they need not be repeated by the solar collector manufacturers in the future.

  19. Wind effects in solar fields with various collector designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetzold, Joachim; Cochard, Steve; Fletcher, David F.; Vassallo, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Parabolic trough power plants are often located in areas that are subjected to high wind speeds, as an open terrain without any obstructions is beneficial for the plant performance. The wind impacts both the structural requirements and the performance of the plant. The aerodynamic loads from the wind impose strong requirements on the support structure of the reflectors, and they also impact the tracking accuracy. On a thermal level the airflow around the glass envelope of the receiver tube cools its outer surface through forced convection, thereby contributing to the heat loss. Based on previous studies at the level of an individual row of collectors, this study analyses the wind effects in a full-scale solar field of different continuous and staggered trough designs. The airflow around several rows of parabolic trough collectors (PTC) is simulated at full scale in steady state simulations in an atmospheric boundary layer flow using the commercial computational fluid dynamics software ANSYSO® CFX 15.0. The effect of the wake of a collector row on the following collectors is analysed, and the aerodynamic loads are compared between the different geometries. The outermost collectors of a solar field experience the highest wind forces, as the rows in the interior of the solar field are protected from high wind speeds. While the aerodynamic forces in the interior of the solar field are almost independent of the collector shape, the deeper troughs (with large rim angles) tested in this study show a lower heat loss due to forced convection on the outer surface of the receiver tube than the shallower ones (with small rim angles) in most of the solar field.

  20. Performance of a solar collector with antireflection treated glass cover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    The spectral transmittances of two different glass types have been measured in a spectrophotometer. Both glass types have been investigated with and without a Sunarc anti reflection surface (AR surface). The transmittance data for the AR treated samples have been used as input to the AR treatment...... process in order to improve the solar transmittance for the glass samples. A standard flat plate solar collector has been tested in the indoor solar simulator. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the improvement in collector performance that can be expected by replacing the standard cover...

  1. Thermal performance evaluation of the Semco (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Procedures used and results obtained during the evaluation test program on a flat plate collector which uses water as the working fluid are discussed. The absorber plate is copper tube soldered to copper fin coated with flat black paint. The glazing consists of two plates of Lo-Iron glass; the insulation is polyurethane foam. The collector weight is 242.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 48.8 in. x 120.8 in. x 4.1 in. The test program was conducted to obtain thermal performance data before and after 34 days of weather exposure test.

  2. Hybrid Sculpture of the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Curley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1965–66, British artists Gerald Laing and Peter Phillips exhibited their sculpture Hybrid in New York City. This object was the result of gathering and tabulating the artistic preferences of over 130 critics, collectors, curators, and gallerists, mostly in New York and London. Considering Hybrid's international scope, its origin as dematerialized data, and its participation in the mid-1960s penchant for confusing notions of painting and sculpture, it questions the very parameters implied by the term “British Sculpture”.

  3. VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical work has included development of two TRNSYS [1] simulation models for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors utilizing solar radiation from all directions. One model...... coating on both sides. The input to the models is thus not a simple collector efficiency expression but the actual collector geometry. In this study, the TRNSYS models are validated with measurements for four differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors. The collectors are produced...... cases, a good degree of similarity between measured and calculated results is found. With these validated models detailed parameter analyses and collector design optimization are now possible. Key words: Evacuated tubular collector, Heat pipe, Thermal performance, TRNSYS simulation....

  4. The Effect of the Volume Flow rate on the Efficiency of a Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    rates. Theoretically, a simplified model of the solar collector panel is built by means of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code Fluent, where the geometry of the collector panel except the casing is fully modeled. Both lateral and longitudinal heat conduction in the absorber fins, the heat...... transfer from the absorber to the solar collector fluid and the heat loss from the absorber are considered. Flow and temperature distribution in the collector panel are investigated with buoyancy effect. Measurements are carried out with the solar collector panel. Collector efficiencies are measured......The flow distribution inside a collector panel with an area of 12.5 m² and with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins and the effect of the flow nonuniformity on the risk of boiling and on the collector efficiency have been theoretically and experimentally investigated for different volume flow...

  5. Performance evaluation of the solar kinetics T-700 line concentrating solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A performance evaluation of the solar kinetics T-700 line concentrating solar collector is reported. Collector descriptions, summary, test conditions, test equipment, test requirements and procedures, and an analysis of the various tests performed are described.

  6. EVALUATION OF EVACUATED TUBULAR SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR LARGE SDHW SYSTEMS AND COMBINED SPACE HEATING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    . Based on thesemodels, the thermal performance of large solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems and combined domestichot water and space heating systems with the four evacuated tubular collectors was determined. To make acomparison with traditional flat-plate collectors, similar simulations were also...... carried out for systems with atypical flat-plate collector. The results show that the thermal advantage of evacuated tubular collectors variesgreatly from system to system, and increases with the solar fraction. Furthermore, the higher the operationtemperature of the collector in the system is......In the present study, detailed investigations on evacuated tubular solar collectors for large solarheating systems have been carried out. Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors were used in theinvestigation. Based on laboratory tests, simulation models for the collectors were determined...

  7. No difference in the incidence of malaria in human-landing mosquito catch collectors and non-collectors in a Senegalese village with endemic malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélé N Wotodjo

    Full Text Available The human landing catches is the gold standard method used to study the vectors of malaria and to estimate their aggressiveness. However, this method has raised safety concerns due to a possible increased risk of malaria or other mosquito-borne diseases among the mosquito collectors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of malaria attacks among mosquito collectors and to compare these results with those of non-collectors in a Senegalese village.From July 1990 to December 2011, a longitudinal malaria study involving mosquito collectors and non-collectors was performed in Dielmo village, Senegal. During the study period, 4 drugs were successively used to treat clinical malaria, and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets were offered to all villagers in July 2008. No malaria chemoprophylaxis was given to mosquito collectors. Incidence of uncomplicated clinical malaria and asymptomatic malaria infection were analyzed among these two groups while controlling for confounding factors associated with malaria risk in random effects negative binomial and logistic regression models, respectively.A total of 3,812 person-trimester observations of 199 adults at least 15 years of age were analyzed. Clinical malaria attacks accounted for 6.3% both in collectors and non-collectors, and asymptomatic malaria infections accounted for 21% and 20% in collectors and non-collectors, respectively. A non-significant lower risk of malaria was observed in the collector group in comparison with the non-collector group after adjusting for other risk factors of malaria and endemicity level (Clinical malaria: adjusted incidence rate ratio = 0.89; 95% confidence interval = 0.65-1.22; p= 0.47.Being a mosquito collector in Dielmo was not significantly associated with an increased risk of malaria both under holoendemic, mesoendemic and hypoendemic conditions of malaria epidemiology. This result supports the view that HLC, the most accurate method for evaluating

  8. Parabolic dish collectors - A solar option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscello, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of several parabolic-dish high temperature solar thermal systems currently undergoing performance trials. A single parabolic dish has the potential for generating 20 to 30 kW of electricity with fluid temperatures from 300 to 1650 C. Each dish is a complete power-producing unit, and may function either independently or as part of a group of linked modules. The two dish designs under consideration are of 11 and 12 meter diameters, yielding receiver operating temperatures of 925 and 815 C, respectively. The receiver designs described include (1) an organic working fluid (toluene) Rankine cycle engine; (2) a Brayton open cycle unit incorporating a hybrid combustion chamber and nozzle and a shaft-coupled permanent magnet alternator; and (3) a modified Stirling cycle device originally designed for automotive use. Also considered are thermal buffer energy storage and thermochemical transport and storage.

  9. The Influence of Different Absorbed Coatings on Thermal Effect of Prefabricated Solar Collector Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Qi; Yang Liquan; Yu Miao; Li Song

    2016-01-01

    Prefabricated solar collector panels is a kind of new permeability structure of collector panels. For this test, we adopt a certain proportion of copper oxide, magnesium oxide and iron oxide to enamel paint as absorbed panel coating and make two kinds of collector panels for different forms of color by dark green coating and black coating. By the methods of comparison, the two kinds of panel collector efficiency and heat loss coefficient UL were tested. The results showed that there was a sli...

  10. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Guoying; Chen, Wei; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhao, Sainan

    2015-01-01

    Application of solar collectors for hot water supply, space heating, and cooling plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption. For conventional solar collectors, solar radiation is absorbed by spectral selective coating on the collectors’ tube/plate wall. The poor durability of the coating can lead to an increased manufacturing cost and unreliability for a solar collector operated at a higher temperature. Therefore, a novel nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector...

  11. CFD MODELING OF SOLAR COLLECTOR WITH NANO-FLUID DIRECT ABSORPTION FOR CIVIL APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Simonetti, Marco; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Direct solar absorption has been considered often in the past as a possible configuration of solar thermal collectors for residential and small commercial applications. Of course, a direct absorption could improve the performance of solar collectors by skipping one step of the heat transfer mechanism of standard devices and by modifying the temperature distribution inside the collector. In fact, classical solar thermal collectors have a metal sheet as absorber, designed such that water has th...

  12. An analytical comparison of the efficiency of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An analytical comparison of the efficiency of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds is reported. A FORTRAN computer program was written for the computation of the thermal performance of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds. Arrays constructed from two example solar thermal collectors are computated. Typical external manifold sizes and thermal insulations are presented graphically and are compared with the thermal performance of the collector alone.

  13. Theoretical analysis of solar thermal collector and flat plate bottom reflector with a gap between them

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Augmentation of solar radiation absorbed on a flat plate solar thermal collector by a flat plate bottom reflector was numerically determined when there was a gap between the collector and reflector. The inclination of both the collector and reflector was assumed to be adjustable according to the season. A mirror-symmetric plane of the collector to the reflector was introduced, and a graphical model was proposed to calculate the amount of solar radiation reflected by the reflector and then abs...

  14. Development of a Polymer-carbon Nanotubes based Economic Solar Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S. I.; Kissick, John; Spence, Stephen; Boyle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A low cost solar collector was developed by using polymeric components as opposed to metal and glass components of traditional solar collectors. In order to utilize polymers for the absorber of the solar collector, Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) has been added as a filler to improve the thermal conductivity and the solar absorptivity of polymers. The solar collector was designed as a multi-layer construction with considering the economic manufacturing. Through the mathematical heat transfer analysis,...

  15. Theoretical analysis of solar thermal collector and flat plate bottom reflector with a gap between them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Augmentation of solar radiation absorbed on a flat plate solar thermal collector by a flat plate bottom reflector was numerically determined when there was a gap between the collector and reflector. The inclination of both the collector and reflector was assumed to be adjustable according to the season. A mirror-symmetric plane of the collector to the reflector was introduced, and a graphical model was proposed to calculate the amount of solar radiation reflected by the reflector and then absorbed on the collector. The performance was analyzed for three typical days at a latitude of 30°N. Solar radiation absorbed on the collector can be increased by the bottom reflector even if there is a gap between the collector and reflector. The optimum inclinations of both the collector and reflector are almost the same while the gap length is less than the lengths of the collector and reflector. However, the range of inclination of the reflector that can increase the solar radiation absorbed on the collector decreases with an increase in gap length, and the solar radiation absorbed on the collector rapidly decreased with an increase in the gap length when the reflector and/or collector were not set at a proper angle.

  16. Carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors using low cost collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirhoseiny, Maryam; Zandi, Majid; Mosayyebi, Abolghasem; Khademian, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    In this work, electrochemical double layer supercapacitors were fabricated using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite microfilm as electrode. To improve the electrochemical properties, MWCNTs were functionalized with -COOH by acid treatments. CNT/PVA films have been deposited on different current collectors by spin coating to drastically enhance the electrode performance. Electrode fabrication involved various stages preparing of the CNT composite, and coating of the CNT/PVA paste on different substrates which also served as current collector. Al, Ni and graphite were used and compared as current collectors. The surface morphology of the fabricated electrodes was investigated with scanning electrode microscopy (SEM). Overall cell performance was evaluated with a multi-channel potentiostat/galvanostat analyzer. Each supercapacitor cell was subjected to charge-discharge cycling study at different current rates from 0.2Ag-1 to 1Ag-1. The results showed that graphite-based electrodes offer advantages of significantly higher conductivity and superior capacitive behavior compared to thin film electrodes formed on Ni and Al current collectors. The specific capacitance of graphite based electrode is found to be 29Fg-1.

  17. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: 60366 Sample Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize, localize, characterize and remove particle and thin film surface contamination, a small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques [1-5]. Here we present preliminary results for sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C).

  18. Solar-collector manufacturing activity, July through December, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-03-01

    Solar thermal collector and solar cell manufacturing activity is both summarized and tabulated. Data are compared for three survey periods (July through December, 1981; January through June, 1981; and July through December, 1980). Annual totals are also provided for the years 1979 through 1981. Data include total producer shipments, end use, market sector, imports and exports. (LEW)

  19. Certification and verification for calmac flat plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-27

    This document contains information used in the certification and verification of the Calmac Flat Plate Collector. Contained are such items as test procedures and results, information on materials used, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manuals, and other information pertaining to the verification and certification.

  20. Inverse Marx modulators for self-biasing klystron depressed collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Mark A; /SLAC

    2014-07-31

    A novel pulsed depressed collector biasing scheme is proposed. This topology feeds forward energy recovered during one RF pulse for use on the following RF pulse. The presented ''inverse'' Marx charges biasing capacitors in series, and discharges them in parallel. Simulations are shown along with experimental demonstration on a 62kW klystron.

  1. Development of nonmetallic solar collector and solar-powered pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Design and building of two unique components for solar heating (1. flatplate solar collector using no metal components, and 2. solar powered pump for heating and cooling systems are outlined in report. Report also discusses hardware, deliverable end items, problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and performance certification.

  2. On the Adsorption of Some Anionic Collectors on Fluoride Minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil

    1973-01-01

    Test flotations have been carried out in a small apparatus under standardized conditions in order to determine the dependence of the flotation yield on the reagent concentration for certain minerals and anionic collectors. The results suggest that a special adsorption mechanism is operating...

  3. Solar Thermal AIR Collector Based on New Type Selective Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musiy, R.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the best for optical performance and selective coating solar thermal air collector, which operates by solar power on the principle of simultaneous ventilation and heating facilities, is designed. It can be used for vacation homes, museums, wooden churches, warehouses, garages, houses, greenhouses etc.

  4. NUMERICAL STUDY ON MIXED CONVECTIVE FLOW IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In a solar energy heat collector forced convection and free convection will occur concurrently. In this paper, the mixed convective flow was investigated. The dimensionless equation was derived and the results was verified by experiments. The numerical solution shows that error is less than 5% if the effect of free convection is ignored.

  5. Silicon crystal as a low work function collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. H.; Shimada, K.

    1975-01-01

    A test vehicle with a low work function collector which can be incorporated in a thermionic converter was constructed from standard vacuum components including an ultrahigh vacuum ion pump. The collector assembly was fabricated by diffusion bonding a (100) oriented silicon single crystal to a molybdenum block. The silicon surface was treated with cesium and oxygen to produce an NEA-type condition and the results were tested by photoemission and work function measurements. An n-type silicon collector was successfully activated to a work function of 1.0 eV, which was verified by photoemission spectral yield measurements. The stability test of an activated surface at elevated temperatures was conducted in the range from room temperature to 619 K, which was slightly lower than the designed collector temperature of 700 K. The work function measurements clearly demonstrated that the behavior of cesium replenishment on the activated Si surface was similar in nature to that of a metallic surface; that is, the loss of cesium by thermal desorption could be compensated by maintaining an adequate vapor pressure of cesium.

  6. Low cost vee-trough evacuated tube collector module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost solar collector capable of operating at 150-200 C is described. An evacuated tube receiver is combined with asymmetric vee-trough concentrators. Peak efficiencies of about 40% at 120 C and 30% at 180 C are expected. Predicted future collector cost is $70/sq m which yields an energy cost of $4.20/GJ at 120 C. During the development of the vee trough/evacuated tube collector both mathematical models to predict thermal and optical performance were developed and tests run to verify theory. The asymmetric vee trough concentrator increases the solar flux intensity for an average value of 2 for year-round performance. Optimized collector module has reflector angles of 55 deg/85 deg. The aperture plane is tilted to the latitude. The reflector is made of electropolished aluminum. The supporting frame is formed by bending sheet metal. Evacuated tube receivers are Pyrex, 15 cm diam and 2.4 m long. The module has 12 tubes on right and left sides altogether. Attainable operation at temperatures on the order of 150-200 C are suitable for absorption refrigeration and power generation via Rankine engines.

  7. Geometry optimization of Fresnel-collectors with economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertins, M.; Heinzel, V. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany); Lerchenmueller, H. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Haeberle, A. [PSE GmbH, Solar Info Center, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The Fresnel solar collector is a promising concept to reduce the electricity cost price in solar thermal power plants. The optical performance of a Fresnel collector depends on material properties, on its geometric layout and on the level of optical accuracy that can be obtained. A variety of geometric parameters, e.g. the height of the absorber, the number, size and distance of primary mirrors in.uence the shading and blocking of rays and the amount of rays missing the absorber. To evaluate the in.uence of the parameter variation regarding the electricity cost price and to yield an optimization, the optical performance is assessed with an annual simulation based on hourly weather-data. To permit a consideration of changes in collector cost according to different geometric layouts, cost factors where allocated to geometric parameters. The paper presents the method and the simulation results of the optimization under different boundary conditions and shows how the developed simulation tool can lead to an optimum collector design with respect to cost price of electricity. The sensitivity of the results will be discussed. (orig.)

  8. Evacuated-tube solar collector--performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report gives thermal performance test procedures and results for commercially produced, water-filled, 8-tube collectors. Tests include efficiency, time constant for temperature drop after solar flux is cut, change in efficiency as function of sun angle, and test to see if tubes break when filled with hot water.

  9. Testing of a solar collector with concentrating mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Commerical flat-plate solar collector with concentrating mirrors has been tested for thermal performance, structured behavior under static load, and effects of long-term natural weathering. Report documents results of testing and concludes that absorptivity was degraded by weathering.

  10. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois mode Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector. Information in this package includes the Subsystem Design and Development Approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the Preliminary Design Review.

  11. Comparison under a simulated sun of two black-nickel-coated flat-plate solar collectors with a nonselective black-paint-coated collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    A performance evaluation was made of two, black nickel coated, flat plate solar collectors. Collector performance was determined under a simulated sun for a wide range of inlet temperatures, including the temperature required for solar powered absorption air conditioning. For a basis of comparison a performance test was made on a traditional, two glass, nonselective, black paint coated, flat plate collector. Performance curves and performance parameters are presented to point out the importance of the design variables which determine an efficient collector. A black nickel coated collector was found to be a good performer at the conditions expected for solar powered absorption air conditioning. This collector attained a thermal efficiency of 50 percent at an inlet temperature of 366 K (200 F) and an incident flux of 946 watts/sq m (300 Btu/hr-sq ft).

  12. Glazed PVT Collector with Polysiloxane Encapsulation of PV Cells: Performance and Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matuska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a new concept of glazed PVT collector based on temperature resistant polysiloxane encapsulation material is presented together with the results from experimental testing and modelling. Performance and economic analysis in 4 different European climates has been done to derive the competitive price of the PVT collector concepts with main focus on the glazed PVT collector under development. Results have shown that specific market price 400 to 500 EUR/m2 for the glazed PVT collector should not be exceeded in order to become competitive with conventional combination of photothermal and photovoltaic collectors.

  13. Performance evaluation of two black nickel and two black chrome solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, R.

    1977-01-01

    The test program was based on the evaluation of four unique solar collectors described below: (1) black nickel collector surface with a desiccant drying bed, (2) black nickel collector surface without a desiccant drying bed, (3) black chrome collector surface with a dessicant drying bed, and (4) black chrome collector surface without a desiccant drying bed. The test program included three distinct phases: Initial performance evaluation, natural environmental aging, and post-aging performance evaluation. Results of Phase III testing conclusively indicated a higher normalized efficiency for Black Chrome surfaces when compared to Black Nickel.

  14. Estimation of ash recirculation effect upon ash collector efficiency by the example of a TsBR-150U-1280 multicyclone collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.; Latushkina, S. V.

    2014-10-01

    Problems of the mathematical estimation of the amount of recirculating ash and its effect upon the efficiency of gas treating within ash collectors with the scroll and semiscroll gas supply, which are equipped by a gas and ash recirculation system, are considered. Based on the analysis of various publications and operational experience, a conclusion is drawn regarding the complex and substantial effect of the recirculation system upon the ash collector efficiency. The following research tasks are posed: computational determination of ash weight at the ash collector inlet subject to its recirculation, development of measures for enhancement of the ash collector, and estimation of these measures. A computation procedure for consumption of recirculating ash in the ash collector and its sections with the use of formulas of the geometrical progression is represented. Based on the represented procedure as applied to a TsBR-150U-1280 multicyclone collector collecting ash of coal of an Irsha-Borodinsk coalfield, corresponding ash consumptions are determined, including that at which the effective operation of the ash collector is provided. Various variants of the modernization of the mentioned multicyclone collector are developed and estimated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the necessity for further investigations for improvement of the represented procedure, in particular, the effect of the gas speed (boiler load) upon the efficiency of various ash collector units, recirculating ash consumption, and clogging their cyclone units.

  15. Characterization of a direct methanol fuel cell using Hilbert curve fractal current collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuan, Yean-Der [Department of Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning and Energy Engineering, National Chun-Yi University of Technology, NO 35, Lane 215, Section 1, Chung-Shan Road, Taiping City, 411 Taichung County (China); Chang, Jing-Yi [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, Tamkang University, Tamsui, 251 Taipei County (China); Lee, Shi-Min [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tamkang University, Tamsui, 251 Taipei County (China); Lee, Shah-Rong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technology and Science Institute of Northern Taiwan, Peitou, 112 Taipei (China)

    2009-02-01

    The current collector or bi-polar plate is a key component in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Current collector geometric designs have significant influence on cell performance. This paper presents a continuous type fractal geometry using the Hilbert curve applied to current collector design in a direct methanol fuel cell. The Hilbert curve fractal geometry current collector is named HFCC (Hilbert curve fractal current collector). This research designs the current collector using a first, second and third order open carved HFCC shape. The cell performances of the different current collector geometries were measured and compared. Two important factors, the free open ratio and total perimeter length of the open carved design are discussed. The results show that both the larger free open ratio and longer carved open perimeter length present higher performance. (author)

  16. Characterization of a direct methanol fuel cell using Hilbert curve fractal current collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yean-Der; Chang, Jing-Yi; Lee, Shi-Min; Lee, Shah-Rong

    The current collector or bi-polar plate is a key component in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Current collector geometric designs have significant influence on cell performance. This paper presents a continuous type fractal geometry using the Hilbert curve applied to current collector design in a direct methanol fuel cell. The Hilbert curve fractal geometry current collector is named HFCC (Hilbert curve fractal current collector). This research designs the current collector using a first, second and third order open carved HFCC shape. The cell performances of the different current collector geometries were measured and compared. Two important factors, the free open ratio and total perimeter length of the open carved design are discussed. The results show that both the larger free open ratio and longer carved open perimeter length present higher performance.

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation of a flat-plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A. [Departamento de Construcciones Navales, E.U. Politecnica, Universidade da Coruna, 15405 Ferrol (Spain); Cabeza, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade da Coruna, 15072 A Coruna (Spain); Muniz, M.C. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Varela, L.M. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In the present paper we present an experimental analysis and a thermal and hydrodynamic modelling of a newly designed flat-plate solar collector characterized by its corrugated channel and by the high surface area directly in contact with the heat transport fluid. The thermal and hydrodynamic modelling of the collector has been performed by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM), validated with analytical results for a well-known fin-and-tube type solar collector. The thermodynamic efficiency of the collector is analyzed by means of its experimental heating curves. The yield of the new collector has been compared to a previously existing commercial collector of related geometry but with less area in direct contact with the heat transport fluid. The experimental results are seen to adequately fit the simulation predictions, and a methodology to use in order to compute the parameters characterizing the thermal behavior of the collector is introduced. (author)

  18. General solution of collector performance with axial conduction and end effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouman, A. R.; Tag, I. A.

    The Phillips solution of the flat-plate solar collector is extended and utilized to examine the influence of the end losses on collector performance. The results of this study show that the influence of the end temperatures of the absorber plate is more significant than the losses due to the axial conductivity of an insulated end collector plate. It will be shown that for an insulated end collector, the loss in the heat removal factor due to axial conductivity is negligible in the region of interest for flat-plate collectors. However, the end temperatures of the collector plate have more significant influence on the same factor, showing losses in some regions and improvements in other regions. This study emphasizes the necessity of measuring the temperature of the absorber plate at both the fluid inlet and exit locations in order to determine accurately the collector performance parameters.

  19. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the

  20. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  1. Evaluation of Surface Slope Irregularity in Linear Parabolic Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Francini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology, very simple in its application, for measuring surface irregularities of linear parabolic collectors. This technique was principally developed to be applied in cases where it is difficult to use cumbersome instruments and to facilitate logistic management. The instruments to be employed are a digital camera and a grating. If the reflector surface is defective, the image of the grating, reflected on the solar collector, appears distorted. Analyzing the reflected image, we can obtain the local slope of the defective surface. These profilometric tests are useful to identify and monitor the mirror portions under mechanical stress and to estimate the losses caused by the light rays deflected outside the absorber.

  2. Water heating solar system using collector with polycarbonate absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luiz Guilherme Meira de; Sodre, Dilton; Cavalcanti, Eduardo Jose Cidade; Souza, Luiz Guilherme Vieira Meira de; Mendes, Jose Ubiragi de Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mails: lguilherme@dem.ufrn.br, diltonsodre@ifba.edu.br, ubiragi@ct.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    It is presented s solar collector to be used in a heating water for bath system, whose main characteristics are low cost and easy fabrication and assembly processes. The collector absorber surface consists of a polycarbonate plate with an area of 1.5 m{sup 2}. The water inlet and outlet are made of PVC 50mm, and were coupled to a 6mm thick polycarbonate plate using fiberglass resin. A 200 liters thermal reservoir will be used. This reservoir is also alternative. The absorber heating system works under thermo-siphon regimen. Thermal parameters will be evaluated to prove the feasibility of the studied solar heating system to obtain bath water for a four people family. (author)

  3. Bilinear reduced order approximate model of parabolic distributed solar collectors

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel, low dimensional and accurate approximate model for the distributed parabolic solar collector, by means of a modified gaussian interpolation along the spatial domain. The proposed reduced model, taking the form of a low dimensional bilinear state representation, enables the reproduction of the heat transfer dynamics along the collector tube for system analysis. Moreover, presented as a reduced order bilinear state space model, the well established control theory for this class of systems can be applied. The approximation efficiency has been proven by several simulation tests, which have been performed considering parameters of the Acurex field with real external working conditions. Model accuracy has been evaluated by comparison to the analytical solution of the hyperbolic distributed model and its semi discretized approximation highlighting the benefits of using the proposed numerical scheme. Furthermore, model sensitivity to the different parameters of the gaussian interpolation has been studied.

  4. Investigation of Backside Textures for Genesis Solar Wind Silicon Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. P.; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Genesis solar wind collectors were comprised of a suite of 15 types of ultrapure materials. The single crystal, pure silicon collectors were fabricated by two methods: float zone (FZ) and Czochralski (CZ). Because of slight differences in bulk purity and surface cleanliness among the fabrication processes and the specific vendor, it is desirable to know which variety of silicon and identity of vendor, so that appropriate reference materials can be used. The Czochralski method results in a bulk composition with slightly higher oxygen, for example. The CZ silicon array wafers that were Genesis-flown were purchased from MEMC Electronics. Most of the Genesis-flown FZ silicon was purchased from Unisil and cleaned by MEMC, although a few FZ wafers were acquired from International Wafer Service (IWS).

  5. Method for making a high current fiber brush collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuro, S. J.

    1986-05-01

    An axial-type homopolar motor having high density, high current fiber brush collectors affording efficient, low contact resistance and low operating temperatures is discussed. The collectors include a ring of concentric row of brushes in equally spaced beveled holes soldered in place using a fixture for heating the ring to just below the solder melting point at a soldering iron for the local application of additional heat at each brush. Prior to soldering, an oxide film is formed on the surfaces of the brushes and ring, and the bevels are burnished to form a wetting surface. Flux applied with the solder at each bevel removes to an effective soldering depth the oxide film on the brushes and the holes.

  6. Thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors under Danish weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have been carried out with the aim to elucidate the thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors for different weather conditions in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark (55.8°N), and for the weather conditions in Sisimiut, Greenland (66.9°N), just north of the arctic circle....... The investigations are based on calculations with a newly developed program. Measured weather data from a solar radiation measurement station at Technical University of Denmark in Kgs. Lyngby Denmark in the period 1990 to 2002 and the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY data file are used in the investigations....... The weather data used for Sisimiut are based on a Test Reference Year, TRY weather data file. The thermal advantages of different tracking strategies is investigated for two flat plate solar collectors with different efficiencies, operated at different temperature levels. The investigations show...

  7. Application of Induction Heating for Brazing Parts of Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Demianová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the application of induction heating for brazing parts of solar collectors made of Al alloys. The tube-flange joint is a part of the collecting pipe of a solar collector. The main task was to design an induction coil for this type of joint, and to select the optimum brazing parameters. Brazing was performed with AlSi12 brazing alloy, and corrosive and non-corrosive flux types were also applied. The optimum brazing parameters were determined on the basis of testing the fabricated brazed joints by visual inspection, by leakage tests, and by macro- and micro-analysis of the joint boundary. The following conditions can be considered to be the best for brazing Al materials: power 2.69 kW,brazing time 24 s, flux BrazeTec F32/80.

  8. Thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors under Danish weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2010-01-01

    . The investigations are based on calculations with a newly developed program. Measured weather data from a solar radiation measurement station at Technical University of Denmark in Kgs. Lyngby Denmark in the period 1990 to 2002 and the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY data file are used in the investigations....... The weather data used for Sisimiut are based on a Test Reference Year, TRY weather data file. The thermal advantages of different tracking strategies is investigated for two flat plate solar collectors with different efficiencies, operated at different temperature levels. The investigations show......Theoretical investigations have been carried out with the aim to elucidate the thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors for different weather conditions in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark (55.8°N), and for the weather conditions in Sisimiut, Greenland (66.9°N), just north of the arctic circle...

  9. Low work function silicon collector for thermionic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. H.; Shimada, K.

    1976-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of present thermionic converters, single crystal silicon was investigated as a low work function collector material. The experiments were conducted in a test vehicle which resembled an actual thermionic converter. Work function as low as 1.0eV was obtained with an n-type silicon. The stabilities of the activated surfaces at elevated temperatures were tested by raising the collector temperature up to 829 K. By increasing the Cs arrival rate, it was possible to restore the originally activated low work function of the surface at elevated surface temperatures. These results, plotted in the form of Rasor-Warner curve, show a behavior similar to that of metal electrode except that the minimum work function was much lower with silicon than with metals.

  10. A reference heat source for solar collector thermal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. J.; Bernier, M. A.

    1984-12-01

    A direct-comparison reference heat source (RHS), used for testing liquid-based solar collectors, is described. A major advantage of the RHS is its capability to measure the product of mass flow and specific heat directly in the test loop. Calibration tests are performed on two reference heat sources over a range of flowrates and inlet temperatures normally encountered in flat-plate solar collector testing (10 C to 95 C). It is shown that at low flowrates (less than or equal to 0.008 kg/s), localized boiling may introduce errors if the heater power density is not reduced as well, whereas operation at flowrates greater than 0.05 kg/s reduces the temperature rise across the RHS, increasing temperature measurement uncertainty. To achieve satisfactory results with an RHS, a stable inlet temperature, good flowrate control, and regulation of the power supplied to the heater are required.

  11. Preparation of Curled Micro bers by Electrospinning with Tip Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Cheng-Chun; CHEN Jun-Chi; LONG Yun-Ze; YIN Hong-Xing; SUN Bin; ZHANG Hong-Di

    2011-01-01

    We report on curled polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) microfibers fabricated by a modified electrospinning with a small nail as the tip collector. PVP (45 wt%) ethanol solution is electrospun under different working voltages ranging from 10 to 15, 20, 30 and 40kV. It is found that with the increase of working voltage, the proportion of the curled fibers increases and the uniformity of the curled fibers improves, as well as the repeat distance of the curled structures reducing. Particularly, some curled fibers develop into helical structures under relatively high voltages. Further analyses indicate that the formation mechanism for the curled polymer fibers can be ascribed to electrical driven bending instability and/or mechanical jet buckling when hitting the collector surface. This modified electrospinning technique may be a cost-effective approach for the mass production of curled microfibers.%@@ We report on curled polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP) microfibers fabricated by a modified electrospinning with a small nail as the tip collector.PVP(45 wt%) ethanol solution is electrospun under different working voltages ranging from 10 to 15,20,30 and 40kV.It is found that with the increase of working voltage,the proportion of the curled fibers increases and the uniformity of the curled fibers improves,as well as the repeat distance of the curled structures reducing.Particularly,some curled fibers develop into helical structures under relatively high voltages.Further analyses indicate that the formation mechanism for the curled polymer fibers can be ascribed to electrical driven bending instability and/or mechanical jet buckling when hitting the collector surface.This modified electrospinning technique may be a cost-effective approach for the mass production of curled microfibers.

  12. Parabolic-trough solar collectors and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Zarza, E.; Valenzuela, L. [CIEMAT-Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes, km. 4, Tabernas (Almeria) 04200 (Spain); Perez, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, Almeria 04120 (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an overview of the parabolic-trough collectors that have been built and marketed during the past century, as well as the prototypes currently under development. It also presents a survey of systems which could incorporate this type of concentrating solar system to supply thermal energy up to 400 C, especially steam power cycles for electricity generation, including examples of each application. (author)

  13. THE FORMATION OF THE MODIFIED CONCRETE STRUCTURE FOR PIPE COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pylypenko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article main points of developed technology of vibroimpact-pulse compaction of concrete mix for producing the pipes of sewage collectors are stated. It is shown that using the offered technology ensures the intensive growth of concrete strength at an initial period of hardening, the reduction of duration of heat treatment or its absolute avoidance, the manufacture of products with the stability and longevity of structures.

  14. Thermal performance of evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Nandy; Kristian, M. R.; David, R.; Haliansyah, K.; Ariantara, Bambang

    2016-06-01

    The high fossil energy consumption not only causes the scarcity of energy but also raises problems of global warming. Increasing needs of fossil fuel could be reduced through the utilization of solar energy by using solar collectors. Indonesia has the abundant potential for solar energy, but non-renewable energy sources still dominate energy consumption. With heat pipe as passive heat transfer device, evacuated tube solar collector is expected to heat up water for industrial and home usage without external power supply needed to circulate water inside the solar collector. This research was conducted to determine the performance of heat pipe-based evacuated tube solar collector as solar water heater experimentally. The experiments were carried out using stainless steel screen mesh as a wick material, and water and Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid as working fluid, and applying inclination angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. To analyze the heat absorbed and transferred by the prototype, water at 30°C was circulated through the condenser. A 150 Watt halogen lamp was used as sun simulator, and the prototype was covered by an insulation box to obtain a steady state condition with a minimum affection of ambient changes. Experimental results show that the usage of Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid at 30° inclination angle provides the highest thermal performance, which gives efficiency as high as 0.196 and thermal resistance as low as 5.32 °C/W. The use of nanofluid as working fluid enhances thermal performance due to high thermal conductivity of the working fluid. The increase of the inclination angle plays a role in the drainage of the condensate to the evaporator that leads to higher thermal performance until the optimal inclination angle is reached.

  15. Lifetime of solar collectors in solar heating plants; Levetid for solfangere i solvarmecentraler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.; Fan, J.; Perers, B.; Furbo, S.

    2009-10-15

    Two HT solar collectors, which have been in operation at high temperature levels in Ottrupgaard solar heating plant for 15 years and in Marstal solar heating plant for 13 years, were in the spring of 2009 tested with regard to efficiency. The collectors were also inspected with the aim to evaluate the life time of the collectors. An old version of the HT solar collector, which has been in operation in a Swedish test facility since 1982, was tested with regard to the thermal performance. The measurements showed that the efficiencies of the solar collectors from the two Danish solar heating plants have been decreased since the installation. The reductions of the yearly thermal performance of the solar collectors are at a temperature level of 40 centigrade Celsius, 1% and 4%, respectively, for the Marstal collector and the Ottrupgaard collector. At a temperature level of 60 centigrade Celsius the reduction of the yearly thermal performance is 10% and 11%, respectively, for the Marstal collector and the Ottrupgaard collector. At a temperature level of 80 centigrade Celsius the reduction is 27% and 23%, respectively, for the Marstal collector and the Ottrupgaard collector. Based on the inspection, it is estimated that the reason for the reduction of thermal performance is the condition of the Teflon foil and the installation of the Teflon foil. The Teflon foil is wrinkled and folded and expanded in such a way that the distance between the absorber and the Teflon foil is far too small. Further, cracks in the Teflon foil have been observed. The thermal performance of the Swedish solar collector in the test facility is after 26 years of operation reduced compared to the thermal performance of the collector when it was first installed. For this collector the reduction in thermal performance is only 2-5%. The collectors from Ottrupgaard solar heating plant and from Marstal solar heating plant were in a very good condition with exception of the above mentioned problems with

  16. Performance Simulation Comparison for Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parabolic trough systems are the most used concentrated solar power technology. The operating performance and optical efficiency of the parabolic trough solar collectors (PTCs are different in different regions and different seasons. To determine the optimum design and operation of the parabolic trough solar collector throughout the year, an accurate estimation of the daily performance is needed. In this study, a mathematical model for the optical efficiency of the parabolic trough solar collector was established and three typical regions of solar thermal utilization in China were selected. The performance characteristics of cosine effect, shadowing effect, end loss effect, and optical efficiency were calculated and simulated during a whole year in these three areas by using the mathematical model. The simulation results show that the optical efficiency of PTCs changes from 0.4 to 0.8 in a whole year. The highest optical efficiency of PTCs is in June and the lowest is in December. The optical efficiency of PTCs is mainly influenced by the solar incidence angle. The model is validated by comparing the test results in parabolic trough power plant, with relative error range of 1% to about 5%.

  17. Design and evaluation of a computer controlled solar collector simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, J. F.; Wood, B. D.

    1980-11-01

    A computer-controlled system has been developed to simulate the thermal processes of a flat-plate solar collector. The simulator is based on four water heaters of capacities of 1.5, 2.5, 5.0 and 5.0 kW providing a maximum design output of 14.0 kW which are controlled by a Nova 3 minicomputer, which also monitors temperatures in the fluid stream. Measurements have been obtained of the steady-state operating values and time constants of the individual heaters at different flow rates in order to utilize effectively their thermal outputs. Software was designed to control the heater system so the total thermal output closely approximates that of an actual heater array, utilizing steady-state or dynamic control modes. Simulation of the heat output of a previously tested collector has resulted in simulated values differing from actual output by a maximum of 3% under identical operating conditions, thus indicating that the simulator represents a viable alternative to the testing of a large field of collectors.

  18. Optimized concentrating/passive tracking solar collector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterne, K E; Johnson, A L; Grotheer, R H

    1979-01-01

    A concentrating solar collector having about half the material cost of other collectors with similar performance is described. The selected design is a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) which concentrates solar energy throughout the year without requiring realignment. Output is a fluid heated to 100/sup 0/C with good efficiency. The optical design of the reflector surface was optimized, yielding a 2.0:1 concentration ratio with a 60/sup 0/C acceptance angle and a low profile. Double glazing was chosen consisting of a polyester film outer glazing and an inner glazing of glass tubes around the absorbers. The selectively coated steel absorber tubes are connected in series with flexible plastic tubing. Much development effort went into the materials for the reflector subassembly. A laminate of metalized plastic film over plaster was chosen for the reflective surface. The reflector is rigidized by attaching filled epoxy header plates at each end. Aluminum side rails and an insulating back complete the structure. The finished design resulted in a material cost of $21.40 per square meter in production quantities. Performance testing of a prototype produced a 50% initial efficiency rating. This is somewhat lower than expected, and is due to materials and processes used in the prototype for the outer glazing, reflective surface and absorber coating. However, the efficiency curve drops only slightly with increasing temperature differential, showing the inherent advantage of the concentrator over flat plate collectors.

  19. On the failure of upscaling the single-collector efficiency to the transport of colloids in an array of collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2016-07-01

    Defining the removal efficiency of a filter is a key aspect for colloid transport in porous media. Several efforts were devoted to derive accurate correlations for the single-collector removal efficiency, but its upscaling to the entire porous medium is still a challenging topic. A common approach involves the assumption of deposition being independent of the history of transport, that is, the collector efficiency is uniform along the porous medium. However, this approach was shown inadequate under unfavorable deposition conditions. In this work, the authors demonstrate that it is not adequate even in the simplest case of favorable deposition. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were run in a vertical array of 50 identical spherical collectors. Particle transport was numerically solved by analyzing a broad range of parameters. The results evidenced that when particle deposition is not controlled by Brownian diffusion, nonexponential concentration profiles are retrieved, in contrast with the assumption of uniform efficiency. If sedimentation and interception dominate, the efficiency of the first sphere is significantly higher compared to the others, and then declines along the array down to an asymptotic value. Finally, a correlation for the upscaled removal efficiency of the entire array was derived.

  20. 采用热管冷却技术的太阳能光伏电–热一体化系统性能分析%Analysis on Performance of Solar Photovoltaic-thermal Hybrid System With Heat Pipe Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双应; 张巧玲; 肖兰; 郭凤华

    2011-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic-thermal(PV-T) hybrid system combines photovoltaic cell component with thermal utilization system,which has potential high overall conversion efficiency.A PV-T hybrid system with heat pipe cooling was put forward concerning that heat pipe has high heat transfer performance and uniform working temperature.The thermal to electrical conversion performance of the PV-T hybrid system,such as solar cell plate temperature,outlet temperature of cooling fluid,the electrical and thermal efficiencies,were theoretically analyzed based on the heat transfer characteristics of solar cell plate and the heat transfer effectiveness-number of heat transfer unit(?-NTU) method of heat exchanger.The results show that,for the heat pipe PV-T hybrid system,the variation of solar cell temperature is within 2.5 ℃,and the electrical and thermal efficiencies of system can reach up to 6.99%~7.46% and 51.0%~63.2%,respectively.This theoretical method provides a new approach to study the performance of PV-T hybrid system and can be applied to analyze and discuss the influence of relevant parameters on the thermal to electrical conversion performance of PV-T hybrid system with heat pipe cooling.%太阳能光伏电–热(photovoltaic-thermal,PV-T)一体化系统将光伏组件与太阳能热利用系统组合在一起,具有较高的太阳能综合利用效率。针对热管具有高效传热和均温性能的特点,提出一种采用热管冷却技术的太阳能光伏电-热一体化系统;基于光伏电池板传热过程特点及换热器的传热有效度——传热单元数(ε-NTU)法,对热管式PV-T系统的电池板温度、冷却流体出口温度以及系统电效率和热效率等热电转换性能进行了理论分析和计算。结果表明,热管式PV-T系统的电池温度变化幅度在2.5℃以内,系统电效率和热效率分别达到6.99%~7.46%和51.0%~63.2%。该文提出的理论方法为研究热管式PV-T系统热电转换性能提

  1. New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors: First-Principle OPTical Intercept Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, G.; Lewandowski, A.

    2012-11-01

    A new analytical method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is presented here for optical evaluation of trough collectors. It employs first-principle optical treatment of collector optical error sources and derives analytical mathematical formulae to calculate the intercept factor of a trough collector. A suite of MATLAB code is developed for FirstOPTIC and validated against theoretical/numerical solutions and ray-tracing results. It is shown that FirstOPTIC can provide fast and accurate calculation of intercept factors of trough collectors. The method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes. The FirstOPTIC techniques and analysis may be naturally extended to other types of CSP technologies such as linear-Fresnel collectors and central-receiver towers.

  2. A dynamic performance simulation model of flat-plate solar collectors for a heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinze, E.A.; Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. (Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). College of Engineering); Adefila, S.S.; Mumah, S.M. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Flat-plate collectors are inherently exposed to time-varying meteorological and system parameters. Thus, dynamic modeling, rather than the commonly used steady-state models, is a more accurate approach for the design and performance evaluation of flat-plate solar collectors. The dynamic model presented in this study describes the fluid, plate and cover temperatures of the collector by three different differential equations. Taylor series expansion and the Runge-Kutta method are used in the solution of the differential equations. The accuracy of the dynamic model was tested by comparing the results predicted by the model with experimental performance data obtained for a liquid-cooled flat-plate solar collector with a corrugated transparent fiberglass cover. The predicted results by the dynamic model agreed favorably with the measured experimental data for the flat-plate solar collector. Experimentally determined collector temperatures varied by a maximum of [+-]3[sup o]C from values predicted by the model. (Author)

  3. Incidence of Malaria among Mosquito Collectors Conducting Human Landing Catches in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimnig, John E.; Walker, Edward D.; Otieno, Peter; Kosgei, Jackline; Olang, George; Ombok, Maurice; Williamson, John; Marwanga, Doris; Abong'o, Daisy; Desai, Meghna; Kariuki, Simon; Hamel, Mary J.; Lobo, Neil F.; Vulule, John; Bayoh, M. Nabie

    2013-01-01

    The human landing catch (HLC) has long been the gold standard for estimating malaria transmission by mosquitoes, but has come under scrutiny because of ethical concerns of exposing collectors to infectious bites. We estimated the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in a cohort of 152 persons conducting HLCs and compared it with that of 147 non-collectors in western Kenya. Participants were presumptively cleared of malaria with Coartem™ (artemether-lumefantrine) and tested for malaria every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. The HLC collections were conducted four nights per week for six weeks. Collectors were provided chemoprophylaxis with Malarone™ (atovaquone-proguanil) during the six weeks of HLC activities and one week after HLC activities were completed. The incidence of malaria was 96.6% lower in collectors than in non-collectors (hazard ratio = 0.034, P malaria among collectors should not be an impediment to conducting HLC studies. PMID:23249685

  4. FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR PANEL WITH HORIZONTAL ABSORBER STRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontal strips. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics...... (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m² solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured...... rate, properties of solar collector fluid, solar collector fluid inlet temperature and collector tilt angle are shown. The flow distribution through the absorber fins is uniform if high flow rates are used. By decreased flow rate and decreased content of glycol in the glycol/water mixture used as solar...

  5. Comparative test of two large solar collectors for solar field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    and their results were compared to the experimental measurements. The experimental results showed that the FEP foil caused a decrease in the start efficiency of 2-4 percent. Nevertheless, the collector with the FEP foil performed better when the mean temperature of the solar collector fluid was sufficiently high......Two large solar collectors for solar heating plants were tested according to the standard norm EN 12975-2. The two collectors were almost identical, the only difference being a thin FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) foil interposed between the absorber and the glass cover in one of them......, in order to decrease convection losses. The efficiencies of the collectors were tested for different flow rates and tilt angles. The effect of the change from laminar to turbulent regime was investigated as well. Numerical models of the two collectors were developed with the software Soleff...

  6. Use of mirrors with plate collectors; Uso de espejos con colectores planos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follari, J. A.; Odicino, L. a.; Perello, A. D.; Fasulo, A. J.

    2004-07-01

    We analyze the solar radiative contribution that a fixed flat mirror cam perform on a collector, also fixed in its position , if that mirror is put above the collector. Various angles, be they for the mirror or for the collector are investigated, in order to determine their practical usefulness as a function of the real effective contribution they provide. First the theoretical contribution is calculated using approximative formulae, then the effective contribution to a solar collector connected to a thermal reservoir mow forming a solar heater, is measured. The field of applicability of this device is analyzed considering the cost of collector and the mirror, the usefulness depending on the angle between the collector and the horizontal plain. (Author)

  7. Numerical 3-D heat flux simulations on flat plate solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, N. Molero; Lopez, J.M. Cejudo; Munoz, F. Dominguez; Garcia, E. Rodriguez; Andres, A. Carrillo [Grupo de Energetica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, UMA, Plaza El Ejido s/n, 29013 Malaga (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    A transient 3-D mathematical model for solar flat plate collectors has been developed. The model is based on setting mass and energy balances on finite volumes. The model allows the comparison of different configurations: parallel tubes collectors (PTC), serpentine tube collectors (STC), two parallel plate collectors (TPPC), and other non-usual possibilities like the use of absorbent fluids with semitransparent or transparent plates. Transparent honeycomb insulation between plate and cover can also be modelled. The effect of temperature on the thermal properties of the materials has also been considered. The model has been validated experimentally with a commercial PTC. The model is a useful tool to improve the design of plate solar collectors and to compare different configurations. In order to show the capabilities of the model, the performance of a PTC collector with non-uniformity flow is analysed and compared with experimental data from literature with good agreement. (author)

  8. 一种新型PV/T复合系统电、热性能对比研究%Comparative Study on Electrical and Thermal Properties of a Novel Photovoltaic/Thermal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光明; 刘祖明; 李景天; 廖华; 朱勋梦; 张卫东

    2013-01-01

    To improve PV/T energy output performance,a novel hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar system is designed with flat stainless box as solar heat collector combined with aluminum alloy backplane monocrystalline silicon PV components.Experiments are conducted on the novel PV/T system,PV module and solar heat collector at same condition.Experimental results show that the electrical performances are compared between novel PV/T and conventional PV module.The voltage electrical efficiency,fill factor,output power and power generation of novel PV/T system have respectively been enhanced about 0.5 ~ 1.5V,9.76%,1.49%,3.75% and 4.02%,but thermal efficiency of PV/T system have been reduced about 22%.Compared with pure PV system or the nature circulation of the solar water collector,Novel PV/T system has other advantages,such as less occupied area,higher total performance efficiency,greater power generation and better efficiency of integrated performance.%为提高光伏光热一体化系统(PV/T)能量输出,将新型铝合金背板型光伏组件和自行设计制作的不锈钢扁盒流道集热板相结合,用导热硅胶加以粘接构成新型PV/T复合系统.将新型PV/T复合系统、常规TPT背板光伏组件、常规平板集热器至于同于工况下进行测试,测试结果表明,与TPT光伏组件相比,新型PV/T系统的电压约提升了0.5~1.5V,电转换效率、填充因子、输出功率及发电量平均提高了9.76%、1.49%、3.75%、4.02%.而复合系统热效率比常规平板集热器约低22%左右.相对于常规TPT光伏系统或自然循环平板集热器热水系统,新型PV/T系统有发电量高、占地面积小、综合性能效率高等优点.

  9. Formation of oil complex collectors in the Pripyatskiy trough. Formirovaniye kollektorov neftenosnykh kompleksov Pripyatskogo progiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidovich, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive study of sedimentary formations, the formation of capacitance and filtering properties of rocks is examined. In order to clarify the conditions of formation and dispersal of rock-collectors of oil and gas, tectonic-lithological geochemical method is used. Results are used from multiple-factor analysis. A general classification of the collectors is given. It was compiled with regard for rock lithogenesis. Possibilities are examined for predicting collectors using the data of geochemical studies.

  10. FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR PANEL WITH HORIZONTAL ABSORBER STRIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontal strips. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m² solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is e...

  11. Two dimensional simulation of direct methanol fuel cell : a new (embedded) type of current collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikovsky, A. A.; Divisek, J.; Kornyshev, Yu. M.

    2000-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model of the direct methanol fuel cell with gas fuel is developed. Simulation of the cell with current collectors of conventional geometry reveal the formation of fuel-depleted, "shaded" regions in the cathode and anode catalyst layers. These regions are positioned in front of current collectors, farther from the gas channel windows. Another disadvantage of the conventional geometry is the concentration of electron current at the edges of current collectors. Based ...

  12. Municipal waste collectors and hepatitis B and C virus infection: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsovili, Eva; Rachiotis, George; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Thanasias, Efthimios; Giannisopoulou, Olganthi; Papagiannis, Dimitrios; Eleftheriou, Andreas; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-12-01

    There is some evidence that municipal waste collectors are at risk of Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV). Published information on risk of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection among waste collectors is scant. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and possible risk factors of HBV and HCV infections among waste collectors in a municipality of the broader region of Attica, Greece. A cross-sectional sero-prevalence study was conducted in a municipality of the broader region of Attica, Greece. Fifty waste collectors participated in the study (response rate: 95%). The group of municipal waste collectors was compared to a convenient sample of white collar employees not exposed to waste (No 83). Waste collectors recorded a significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection (anti-HBc positivity) in comparison to the reference group (15% vs. 2.5%, respectively; p .001). Waste collectors who reported frequent exposure to needle-stick injuries had higher risk of HBV infection (RR 8.28; 95% CI 1.076-63.79; p 0.033). Only one municipal waste collector was anti-HCV positive. Our study corroborates previous results of an increased prevalence of Hepatitis B infection among municipal waste collectors. In addition we found that needle stick injuries were associated with the risk of HBV infection. By contrast, HCV infection does not seem to represent a significant occupational hazard among waste collectors. Vaccination against HBV among municipal solid waste collectors and promotion and use of safer methods for the collection of non-hospital medical waste could represent potential measures for the prevention of Hepatitis B Virus infection among municipal waste collectors.

  13. Optimization of Thin-Film Transparent Plastic Honeycomb Covered Flat-Plate Solar Collectors. Phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the former preferred for high-temperature collectors since it is opaque in the longer wavelength region and hence improves the efficiency by reducing re...different temperature regions . The analyses show that collectors equipped with Lexan honeycomb are more cost ef- fective than comparable nonhoneycomb...Contract E(04-3)- 1081. " REFERENCES 1. Francia , G., "A New Collector of Solar Energy -- Theory and Experimental Verification -- Calculation of the

  14. Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation on the Sunworks (air) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedure used and the results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted to obtain thermal performance data on a Sunworks single glazed air solar collector under simulated conditions are described. A time constant test and incident angle modifier test were conducted to determine the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector. These results and the results of the collector load test are also discussed.

  15. Indoor test for thermal performance of the Sunmaster evacuated tube (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures used to obtain the thermal performance data for a solar collector under simulated conditions are presented. Tests included a stagnation test, a time constant test, a thermal efficiency test, an incident angle modifier test, and a hot fill test. All tests were performed at ambient conditions and the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector were determined. The solar collector is a water working fluid type.

  16. A Dynamic Multinode Model for Component-Oriented Thermal Analysis of Flat-Plate Solar Collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Christoph N.; Christoph Trinkl; Wilfried Zörner; Hanby, Vic I.

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model of a flat-plate solar collector was developed on the basis of the physical principles of optics and heat transfer in order to determine collector’s component temperatures as well as collector efficiency. In contrast to many available models, the targeted use of this dynamic model is the detailed, theoretical investigation of the thermal behaviour of newly developed or adjusted collector designs on component level, for example, absorber, casing, or transparent cover. The d...

  17. The Effect of the Configuration of the Absorber on the Performance of Flat Plate Thermal Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Moyu; Qu, Ming; Peng, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a numerical thermal analysis for a new designed flat plate thermal collector was conducted through modeling. The new flat plate thermal collector has ellipse shaped tubes inside a wavy shaped absorber, which is made of stainless steel. For the comparison, the conventional flat plate thermal collector with circular copper tubes served as a base case was also modeled. Hottel-Whillier equations were utilized to formulate thermal networks for both models developed in Engineering Eq...

  18. Different collector types for sampling deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons--comparison of measurement results and their uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladtke, Dieter; Bakker, Frits; Biaudet, Hugues; Brennfleck, Alexandra; Coleman, Peter; Creutznacher, Harald; Van Egmond, Ben F; Hafkenscheid, Theo; Hahne, Frank; Houtzager, Marc M; Leoz-Garziandia, Eva; Menichini, Edoardo; Olschewski, Anja; Remesch, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Different collector types, sample workup procedures and analysis methods to measure the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were tested and compared. Whilst sample workup and analysis methods did not influence the results of PAH deposition measurements, using different collector types changed the measured deposition rates of PAH significantly. The results obtained with a funnel-bottle collector showed the highest deposition rates and a low measurement uncertainty. The deposition rates obtained with the wet-only collectors were the lowest at industrial sites and under dry weather conditions. For the open-jar collectors the measurement uncertainty was high. Only at an industrial site with extremely high PAH deposition rates the results of open-jar collectors were comparable to those obtained with funnel-bottle collectors. Thus, if bulk deposition of PAH has to be measured, funnel-bottle combinations are proved to be the collectors of choice. These collectors were the only ones always fulfilling the requirements of European legislation.

  19. Wind effects on collectors. Final report, October 1, 1978--October 1, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, H.C. Jr.; Griggs, E.I.

    1979-11-01

    Consideration was given to modeling wind speed data and to a scheme for correlating data between two separate stations. A sensor system was developed to measure the effect of wind on collector performance. The specifications for the sensor are presented, and a discussion of the calibration of the sensor is given. Four experiments were performed to determine wind flow patterns around buildings. The velocity profile over an actual collector was also measured as a function of free stream velocity. A mathematical model for a solar collector and three experimental efforts to measure the effect of wind on collector performance are reported. (MHR)

  20. Flow distribution in a solar collector panel with horizontally inclined absorber strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    dynamics (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m(2) solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured...... rate, properties of solar collector fluid, solar collector fluid inlet temperature and collector tilt angle are shown. The flow distribution through the absorber fins is uniform if high flow rates are used. By decreased flow rate and decreased content of glycol in the glycol/water mixture used as solar...

  1. A diagram for defined flat plate solar collector area for solar floor heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altuntop, N.; Tekin, Y. [Erciyes University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Reno University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NV (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In winters, one of the best ways to heat living areas by using the low- temperature - water obtained from flat-plate solar collectors is the floor heating. In floor heating, low temperature-water (30 + 60 deg C) can be used and heat can be stored in water when solar radiation is not possible. In this study, it is aimed to define collector surface needed to supply heat for floor heating. It is also aimed to define and explain the diagram developed for every heating months. The calculations about the sun geometry are used to define the amount of radiation coming in to the collectors. Formulations are made about the definition of solar radiation absorbed by the collectors, the total heat loss coefficient, and the collector plate surface temperature. These formulations are transformed in to the diagram. In addition, the studies, heat transfer calculations and design parameters about the floor of the heating areas are used. A combined collector floor heating diagram is obtained. This diagram is used to define collector surface area necessary to supply heat for floor heated places. In this diagram, the collector surface area is obtained by giving the heat capacity of the place area, floor surface temperature, approximate modulation distance of the floor, the elevation of city, collector slope angle, wind speed, sun shine lime and the amount of the solar radiation obtained from the solar radiation diagram. (authors)

  2. The program for calculation of heat productivity of solar converters with flat collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, E.; Vrtanessyan, K.; Kazarian, G. [State Engineering University of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia)

    1997-12-31

    The program for calculation of heat productivity of Solar Converters with flat collectors allows to calculate the parameters of heliosystem taking into account the input data and monthly meteorological data of regions. For solar heat study and predesigning process it is expedient to use a program for flat collectors productivity calculation. That program allows to calculate the collector`s parameters and characteristics proceeding from meteorological input data. Depending on the season of the year that program takes into account the whole absorbed solar energy and determines the coefficient for additional energy for the provision of necessary temperature

  3. Solar-collector studies for solar-heating and -cooling applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liers, H. S.; Yenamandra, N.; Brittle, P. N.; Raymond, M.; Edelman, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    Mirror and lens solar concentrator collectors suitable for space heating, cooling, and hot water applications were surveyed. The scope of the survey includes identification, analysis and comparison for all concentrating collector types for which prototypes and/or market models are or have been built for less than 10X concentration. The survey includes greater than 10X concentration ratios for manufacturers marketing such collectors for space heating and/or cooling applications. Collectors in the conceptual stage are noted and their attributes and disadvantages identified.

  4. Higher Magnification Imaging of the Polished Aluminum Collector Returned from the Genesis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Burkett, P. J.; Allton, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    The polished aluminum collector (previously referred to as the polished aluminum kidney) was intended for noble gas analysis for the Gene-sis mission. The aluminum collector, fabricated from alloy 6061T, was polished for flight with alumina, then diamond paste. Final cleaning was performed by soak-ing and rinsing with hexane, then isopropanol, and last-ly megasonically energized ultrapure water prior to installation. It was mounted inside the collector canister on the thermal shield at JSC in 2000. The polished aluminum collector was not surveyed microscopically prior to flight.

  5. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE AIR FLOW AROUND THE ARRAYS OF SOLAR COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukman V Bakić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the numerical simulation of air around the arrays of flat plate collectors and determination of the flow field, which should provide a basis for estimating a convective heat losses, a parameter which influences their working characteristics. Heat losses are the result of the reflection on the glass, conductive losses at the collector's absorber plate, radiation of the absorber plate and convective losses on the glass. Wind velocity in the vicinity of the absorber plate depends on its position in the arrays of collectors. Results obtained in the numerical simulation of flow around collectors were used as boundary conditions in modeling of thermal-hydraulic processes inside the solar collector. A method for coupling thermal-hydraulic processes inside the collector with heat transfer from plate to tube bundle was developed, in order to find out the distribution of the temperature of the absorber plate and the efficiency of the flat plate collectors. Analyses of flow around arrays of collectors are preformed with RNG k - ε model. Three values for free-stream velocity were analysed, i.e. 1 m/s, 5 m/s and 10 m/s, as well as two values for the angle between the ground and the collector (20° and 40°. Heat transfer coefficient was determined from the theory of boundary layer. Heat transfer inside the plate cavity was analyzed assuming constant intensity of radiation.

  6. Dynamics and control of a solar collector system for near Earth object deflection *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-Ping Gong; Jun-Feng Li; Yun-Feng Gao

    2011-01-01

    A solar collector system is a possible method using solar energy to deflect Earth-threatening near-Earth objects. We investigate the dynamics and control of a solar collector system including a main collector (MC) and secondary collector (SC).The MC is used to collect the sunlight to its focal point, where the SC is placed and directs the collected light to an asteroid. Both the relative position and attitude of the two collectors should be accurately controlled to achieve the desired optical path. First,the dynamical equation of the relative motion of the two collectors in the vicinity of the asteroid is modeled. Secondly, the nonlinear sliding-mode method is employed to design a control law to achieve the desired configuration of the two collectors. Finally,the deflection capability of this solar collector system is compared with those of the gravitational tractor and solar sail gravitational tractor. The results show that the solar collector is much more efficient with respect to deflection capability.

  7. Methods for determining the hydrodynamic parameters of oil and gas collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megyeri, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Hungarian oil and gas extracting industry has had high resolution pressure meters at its disposal since 1976. Pulsed measurement of the interaction between wells has entered oil field practice which gives a basis for determining the throughput and the useful volume of the collector or the examined sector of a collector. The results are briefly presented of developments which took place between 1980 and 1982, aimed at developing methods for determining the volume of a water zone associated with oil and gas collectors, studying the relationships between the change in pressure and porosity caused by influxes and outflows and measuring the shift of the phase interfaces in collectors.

  8. Simulations of geometry effects and loss mechanisms affecting the photon collection in photovoltaic fluorescent collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rau U.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Monte-Carlo simulations analyze the photon collection in photovoltaic systems with fluorescent collectors. We compare two collector geometries: the classical setup with solar cells mounted at each collector side and solar cells covering the collector back surface. For small ratios of collector length and thickness, the collection probability of photons is equally high in systems with solar cells mounted on the sides or at the bottom of the collector. We apply a photonic band stop filter acting as an energy selective filter which prevents photons emitted by the dye from leaving the collector. We find that the application of such a filter allows covering only 1% of the collector side or bottom area with solar cells. Furthermore, we compare ideal systems in their radiative limits to systems with included loss mechanisms in the dye, at the mirror, or the photonic filter. Examining loss mechanisms in photovoltaic systems with fluorescent collectors enables us to estimate quality limitations of the used materials and components.

  9. Instrumentation for measuring direct and diffuse insolation in testing thermal collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, K A

    1976-01-01

    The efficiencies of thermal collectors are traditionally expressed with respect to the total (direct beam plus diffuse) insolation at the collector plane. Evaluation of the performance of concentrating collectors, however, requires, in addition, a knowledge of the insolation which is within the angular field of view of the collector. The use of pyranometers to measure the total insolation as well as the insolation within specified angular fields of view, together with a normal incidence pyrheliometer to measure the direct beam component, is described. The instrument calibration procedure is discussed, and several data are presented.

  10. Compilation of publication and results from project C2: Modelling of microclimates in collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holck, O. [ed.

    1999-08-01

    It is important to avoid condensation in solar collectors, most of all because wetness of the absorber can damage the selective surface and cause corrosion on the absorber plate. During night time the cover of collectors will cool below ambient temperature due to thermal radiation to the cold sky. In climates where the air during night time becomes saturated with humidity (the relative humidity is 100%), condensation will form on the outside and inside of the collector glazing. If too much condensation takes place on the inside of the glazing, it will start to fall off on to the absorber surface. The intent of the present work is improvement of a existing computer model for calculation of microclimates data in collectors. Calculations with the model give insight in the humidity and temperature for artificial or realistic climatic data. This design tool makes it possible to calculate the effect of ventilation and insulation materials. Results from investigation of ventilation rates together with a model of the moisture inside the collector are built into the computer program. It has been found that modelling of the moisture transfer in backside insulation is essential to determine the humidity in the air gap of the collector. The objective is to develop guidelines for solar collector design to achieve the most favourable microclimates condition for materials. As a tool the computer model will be useful to fulfil this. Guidelines for collectors will be essential for manufactures to improve the long-term durability of solar collectors. (au)

  11. Solar district heating with evacuated collectors: First year experience of the Knivsta plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellson, E.; Perers, B.; Zinko, H.; Astrand, L.

    The experience gained during the summer enable some practical demands to be placed on solar collectors, namely: it must be possible to easily replace a solar collector without emptying the system; it must be easy to bleed the system; solar collectors must be able to withstand overheating due to boiling; and obvious leakage risks must be eliminated. There is no doubt that not all types of evacuated solar collectors fulfill these requirements and that further development is essential before large-scale installations with rational operation can be considered.

  12. Standard Test Method for Determining Thermal Performance of Tracking Concentrating Solar Collectors

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of thermal performance of tracking concentrating solar collectors that heat fluids for use in thermal systems. 1.2 This test method applies to one- or two-axis tracking reflecting concentrating collectors in which the fluid enters the collector through a single inlet and leaves the collector through a single outlet, and to those collectors where a single inlet and outlet can be effectively provided, such as into parallel inlets and outlets of multiple collector modules. 1.3 This test method is intended for those collectors whose design is such that the effects of diffuse irradiance on performance is negligible and whose performance can be characterized in terms of direct irradiance. Note 1—For purposes of clarification, this method shall apply to collectors with a geometric concentration ratio of seven or greater. 1.4 The collector may be tested either as a thermal collection subsystem where the effects of tracking errors have been essentially removed from t...

  13. Thermal performance evaluation of the Solargenics solar collector at outdoor conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Test procedures used during the performance of an evaluation program are presented. The test program was conducted to obtain the following performance data and information on the solar collector. (1) thermal performance data under outdoor conditions; (2) structural behavior of collector under static conditions; (3) effects of long term exposure to material weathering elements. The solargenics is a liquid, single-glazed, flat plate collector. Approximate dimensions of each collector are 240 inches long, 36 inches wide, and 3.5 inches in depth.

  14. Effect of Glass Thickness on Performance of Flat Plate Solar Collectors for Fruits Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Bakari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effect of thickness of glazing material on the performance of flat plate solar collectors. Performance of solar collector is affected by glaze transmittance, absorptance, and reflectance which results into major heat losses in the system. Four solar collector models with different glass thicknesses were designed, constructed, and experimentally tested for their performances. Collectors were both oriented to northsouth direction and tilted to an angle of 10° with the ground toward north direction. The area of each collector model was 0.72 m2 with a depth of 0.15 m. Low iron (extra clear glass of thicknesses 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm was used as glazing materials. As a control, all collector performances were analysed and compared using a glass of 5 mm thickness and then with glass of different thickness. The results showed that change in glass thickness results into variation in collector efficiency. Collector with 4 mm glass thick gave the best efficiency of 35.4% compared to 27.8% for 6 mm glass thick. However, the use of glass of 4 mm thick needs precautions in handling and during placement to the collector to avoid extra costs due to breakage.

  15. 太阳电池光伏光热一体化系统的性能研究%Performance study of a solar hybrid photovoltaic and thermal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常泽辉; 田瑞; 侯静

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the solar energy efficiency and to acquire electricity and hot energy, a copper exchanger was placed on PV rear surface to build a solar hybrid photovoltaic and thermal system (PV/T). The comparable experiments were performed to demonstrate its performance at Hohhot The results show that under the same solar radiation and environmental temperature, the output power of the single solar cell with heat exchanger increases almost 15% than the single solar cell.%为了提高太阳能的综合利用效率,同时获取电能和热能,将铜管换热器加装在太阳电池板背,构成太阳电池光伏光热(PV/T)一体化系统.采取对比实验法在呼和浩特地区对太阳电池板进行光伏光热性能测试.实验结果表明,在相同的太阳辐照度和环境温度条件下,装有铜管换热器的单块太阳电池的输出功率比普通单块太阳电池实际输出功率提高近17%.

  16. Analysis of influencing factors for a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal and heat pump system%光伏光热一体化装置与热泵结合系统的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆树春; 朱群志; 张静秋; 唐李清

    2013-01-01

    光伏光热一体化装置与热泵结合系统,既能产生电能,又可以回收热能.利用修正Hottel-Whillier模型,结合理想制冷循环,建立了光伏光热一体化装置与热泵结合系统的数学模型.通过对制冷剂流量、辐射强度及水箱水温等影响因素的分析,确定合适的蒸发温度、冷凝温度、制冷量等参数,为选择合适的节流装置和压缩机提供理论依据.%A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal and heat pump system (PV/T-HP) can generate electricity as well as recover thermal energy.The mathematical model of PV/T-HP system is established by extension of the Hottel-Whillier model and ideal refrigeration cycle.After analyzing influence factors such as refrigerant flow,solar radiation intensity and water temperature etc.,the appropriate evaporating temperature,condensing temperature,cooling capacity and other parameters have been determined,which provide a theoretical basis for the selection of the appropriate throttling device and compressor.

  17. CPV semi-dense array design for dish and tower collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Herb; Thomas, Paul; Fette, Nicholas; Farkas, Zoltan; Bading, Michael; Stone, Bradley; Miner, Mark; Stickroth, Oliver; Bagewadi, Nakul; Romero, Memo; Sonuparlak, Birol; Eichholz, Rainer; Ziegler, Michael; Pawlowski, Edgar

    2012-10-01

    SST is developing a new Dish CPV dense array system that overcomes the flux uniformity requirement of previous designs. The ability to operate without flux uniformity relaxes the precision requirements of primary collector optics and eliminates homogenizing optics previously required for dense array CPV. Array design can be configured for dish and tower/heliostat systems developed for thermal CSP applications. The design uses industry standard CPV cells and manufacturing materials and methods for minimum cost and high reliability. Nominal input flux to the array for full power is about 250 suns. Internal array optics increase flux to the cells to about 1200 suns. Linear optics provide additional concentration, permit novel use of commercial glass production methods and facilitate power collection design that is integrated with dynamic power conversion and maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Efficient power hybrid packaging methods are used along with advanced liquid cooling "cold-plate" thermal management. Byproduct "waste heat" can be provided for on-site CHP use. We report on the design approach and status of development with the beginning of on-sun alpha testing of the first of 50 kW of CPV modules being produced.

  18. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  19. Experience with building integrated solar collectors; Erfaring med bygningsintegrerte solfangere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsen, Ingeborg; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of the research 'Zero Emission Buildings' ZEB is to develop products and solutions that provide buildings with zero greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production, operation and disposal. Can we make this happen must the building produce more energy than it needs to compensate for greenhouse gas emissions from the production of materials and the actual construction.To build up knowledge on experience with building integrated solar collectors in Norway, we have in this study made interviews with suppliers and manufacturers of solar collectors and some building owners. Since the focus is on climate shell, we have limited the study to include solar collectors to replace a part of the cladding or roofing. Construction upstairs roofing, outside facade or freestanding rack is not considered as building integrated in this context. The providers we have been in contact with appeals to slightly different parts of the market. This is reflected in the product's development, assembly and approach to the calculation of energy delivery. Overall, providers may offer a range of products suitable for both the professional and skilled carpenter, the interested 'man in the street' . The feedback we have received shows generally good experiences with the product and the installation. Because of the preliminary short operating periods of the investigated plants we have little data on energy supply from these plants. In summary, we can say that the knowledge and the products are available and it is up to use to use them.(Author)

  20. Theoretical Study of the Compound Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Subhi S. Mahammed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical design of compound parabolic trough solar collector (CPC without tracking is presented in this work. The thermal efficiency is obtained by using FORTRAN 90 program. The thermal efficiency is between (60-67% at mass flow rate between (0.02-0.03 kg/s at concentration ratio of (3.8 without need to tracking system.The total and diffused radiation is calculated for Tikrit city by using theoretical equations. Good agreement between present work and the previous work.

  1. A Garbage Collector for a Large Distributed Address Space,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Memory 5 The Garbage Collector 6 Practical Implementation 7 Conclusions 8 Acknowledgements 9 Reference Appendix A. Algorithm in Pidgin Algol e’ * * S...lowest level, but also contributes to the garbage collection of the higher level areas above it. The algorithm is given in pidgin Algol in Appendix A...NJECESSARILY AV.-tLAfq F 10 MFMF:rRS 6’ INE PUBLIC OR TUOW-VMERCIAL ORG ,N’ ,ONS 13 APPENDIX A. Algorithm In Pidgin Algol. TYPE COLOUR - (whlte,grey

  2. Fuzzy Universal Model Approximator for Distributed Solar Collector Field Control

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2014-07-01

    This paper deals with the control of concentrating parabolic solar collectors by forcing the outlet oil temperature to track a set reference. A fuzzy universal approximate model is introduced in order to accurately reproduce the behavior of the system dynamics. The proposed model is a low order state space representation derived from the partial differential equation describing the oil temperature evolution using fuzzy transform theory. The resulting set of ordinary differential equations simplifies the system analysis and the control law design and is suitable for real time control implementation. Simulation results show good performance of the proposed model.

  3. Key aspects of cost effective collector and solar field design

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reeken, Finn; Nicodemo, Dario; Keck, Thomas; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Balz, Markus

    2016-05-01

    A study has been performed where different key parameters influencing solar field cost are varied. By using levelised cost of energy as figure of merit it is shown that parameters like GoToStow wind speed, heliostat stiffness or tower height should be adapted to respective site conditions from an economical point of view. The benchmark site Redstone (Northern Cape Province, South Africa) has been compared to an alternate site close to Phoenix (AZ, USA) regarding site conditions and their effect on cost-effective collector and solar field design.

  4. Insect thin films as sun blocks, not solar collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, D W; Crawford, A B

    2000-05-20

    We measured the visible reflectance spectra of whole wing sections from three species of iridescent butterflies and moths, for normal incidence, integrated over all reflected angles. In this manner, we separated the optics of the thin films causing the iridescence from the optics of the rest of the scale. We found that iridescence reduces solar absorption by the wing in all cases, typically by approximately 20% or less, in contrast to claims by Miaoulis and Heilman [Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 91, 122 (1998)] that the thin-film structures that produce iridescence act as solar collectors.

  5. Myers-Briggs personality types of art collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, Mark C

    2004-04-01

    27 art collectors (13 men, 14 women) completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Their age range was 37 to 86 years and the mean 59.5 yr. Seventy percent were classified as Intuition types instead of Sensation types (versus its 25% incidence in the general population). This corresponds to personality profiles of artists and the disproportionately high incidence of high scores on the related Openness to Experience factor in studies of creative personalities, thereby supporting the contention that persons creating art and appreciating art have personality traits in common.

  6. Solar-geothermal hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Alvaro; Almanza, Rafael [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Edificio 12, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant is located in the northwest of Mexico, lat. 32{sup o}39', long. 115{sup o}21' in the northern hemisphere. A solar-geothermal hybrid system is proposed in order to increase the steam flow during the present geothermal cycle, adding a solar field of parabolic trough concentrators. Energy is supplied to the geothermal flow from wells in order to increase the steam generation rate. This configuration will increase the capacity factor of the system by generating additional steam during the peak demand hours. The parabolic trough solar field is evaluated in North-South and East-West orientation collector alignments. A proposal to obtain an increase of 10% in steam flow is evaluated, as the increase in flow is limited by the content of dissolved salts, so as to avoid a liquid phase with high salt concentrations. The size of the parabolic troughs field was obtained. (author)

  7. Thermal and optical efficiency investigation of a parabolic trough collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tzivanidis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy utilization is a promising Renewable Energy source for covering a variety of energy needs of our society. This study presents the most well-known solar concentrating system, the parabolic trough collector, which is operating efficiently in high temperatures. The simulation tool of this analysis is the commercial software Solidworks which simulates complicated problems with an easy way using the finite elements method. A small parabolic trough collector model is designed and simulated for different operating conditions. The goal of this study is to predict the efficiency of this model and to analyze the heat transfer phenomena that take place. The efficiency curve is compared to a one dimensional numerical model in order to make a simple validation. Moreover, the temperature distribution in the absorber and inside the tube is presented while the heat flux distribution in the outer surface of the absorber is given. The heat convection coefficient inside the tube is calculated and compared with the theoretical one according to the literature. Also the angle efficiency modifier is calculated in order to predict the thermal and optical efficiency for different operating conditions. The final results show that the PTC model performs efficiently and all the calculations are validated.

  8. Parabolic Trough Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors: Design and Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vanoli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design procedure and a simulation model of a novel concentrating PVT collector. The layout of the PVT system under investigation was derived from a prototype recently presented in literature and commercially available. The prototype consisted in a parabolic trough concentrator and a linear triangular receiver. In that prototype, the bottom surfaces of the receiver are equipped with mono-crystalline silicon cells whereas the top surface is covered by an absorbing surface. The aperture area of the parabola was covered by a glass in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. In the modified version of the collector considered in this paper, two changes are implemented: the cover glass was eliminated and the mono-crystalline silicon cells were replaced by triple-junction cells. In order to analyze PVT performance, a detailed mathematical model was implemented. This model is based on zero-dimensional energy balances. The simulation model calculates the temperatures of the main components of the system and the main energy flows Results showed that the performance of the system is excellent even when the fluid temperature is very high (>100 °C. Conversely, both electrical and thermal efficiencies dramatically decrease when the incident beam radiation decreases.

  9. Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

  10. Water disinfection by solar photocatalysis using compound parabolic collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Blanco, J.; Sichel, C.; Malato, S. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    TiO{sub 2} solar photocatalysis has been proven to be a degradation process for aqueous organic contaminant leading to total mineralisation of a large number of compounds. Furthermore, the interest in using this technique for water disinfection has grown in the last decade. Recent publications have reported photokilling of bacteria and viruses by TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Therefore, solar photocatalysis disinfection seems to be a very promising process, which could help to improve public health in rural areas of developing countries. The objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of using TiO{sub 2} solar photocatalysis to disinfect water supplies for future applications in developing countries. This article reviews the viability of solar photocatalysis for disinfection in low cost compound parabolic collectors, using sunlight and titanium dioxide semiconductor, both applied as slurry and supported. We report on the bactericidal action of TiO{sub 2} on a pure culture of Escherichia coli with a low cost photoreactor based on compound parabolic collectors. The influence of different experimental set-ups and parameters are also analysed. The results and potential application of the solar photocatalysis technology to water disinfection are studied within the frame of two research EU projects whose objective consist on the development of a fully autonomous solar reactor system to purify drinking water in remote locations of developing countries.

  11. Energy collector for collecting solar energy and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, J.M.; Kumar, A.

    1978-10-03

    A solar energy collector connectable with a fluid-circulating system is contained in a plenum within an insulative housing and has a plurality of generally parallel, heat-absorbing conduits extending between intake and outlet manifolds and confronting the sun or other heat source through a transparent window, each conduit being separated from an adjacent conduit by an intervening slot. Positioned below the conduits is a heat-absorbing tank which is connected in fluid-flow relationship with the outlet manifold and also with the circulation system so that a heat-transfer medium may flow continuously between the energy collector and the circulation system. The tank receives radiant energy through the slots and after absorbing some of the radiation reflects the remaining portion upwardly to the conduits to thereby increase radiation intensity on and heat absorption by the conduits. Multiple reflections between tank and conduits further increase energy absorption both by tank and conduit. The conduits may be of round cross section or may have a planar heat-absorbing surface facing the sun and an arcuate, convex surface facing the tank. The tank may be provided with a plurality of arcuate troughs, a trough underlying and paralleling each conduit to both absorb energy and reflect energy toward the overlying conduit. The conduits may be provided with internal air ducts which communicate with the hot-air plenum and permit heat from the hot air to be transferred through the duct walls and to the fluid medium within the conduits.

  12. Functionalization of Magnetite Nanoparticles as Oil Spill Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new magnetic powder based on magnetite can be used as a petroleum crude oil collector. Amidoximes based on rosin as a natural product can be prepared from a reaction between hydroxylamine and rosin/acrylonitrile adducts. The produced rosin amidoximes were used as capping agents for magnetite nanoparticles to prepare hydrophobic coated magnetic powders. A new class of monodisperse hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles was prepared by a simple and inexpensive co-precipitation method. Iron ions and iodine were prepared by the reaction between ferric chloride and potassium iodide. The structure and morphology of magnetite capped with rosin amidoxime were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, zeta potential, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The magnetic properties were determined from vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM analyses. These prepared magnetite nanoparticles were tested as bioactive nanosystems and their antimicrobial effects were investigated. The prepared nanomaterials were examined as a crude oil collector using magnetic fields. The results show promising data for the separation of the petroleum crude oil from aqueous solution in environmental pollution cleanup.

  13. Functionalization of magnetite nanoparticles as oil spill collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Al-Hussain, Sami A

    2015-03-26

    In the present study, a new magnetic powder based on magnetite can be used as a petroleum crude oil collector. Amidoximes based on rosin as a natural product can be prepared from a reaction between hydroxylamine and rosin/acrylonitrile adducts. The produced rosin amidoximes were used as capping agents for magnetite nanoparticles to prepare hydrophobic coated magnetic powders. A new class of monodisperse hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles was prepared by a simple and inexpensive co-precipitation method. Iron ions and iodine were prepared by the reaction between ferric chloride and potassium iodide. The structure and morphology of magnetite capped with rosin amidoxime were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The magnetic properties were determined from vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analyses. These prepared magnetite nanoparticles were tested as bioactive nanosystems and their antimicrobial effects were investigated. The prepared nanomaterials were examined as a crude oil collector using magnetic fields. The results show promising data for the separation of the petroleum crude oil from aqueous solution in environmental pollution cleanup.

  14. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis [Department of Mechanical Engineering Educators, ASPETE, N. Iraklio, GR 14121 (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis [Environmental Engineering Dept., Technical University of Crete, Technical University Campus, GR 73100, Chania (Greece); Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), 19th km Marathon Ave., GR 19001, Pikermi (Greece)

    2010-01-15

    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  15. Rotating field collector subsystem phase 1 study and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.; Eibling, J. A.

    1982-10-01

    The rotating field collector system is an alternative concept in which all heliostats are mounted on a single large platform which rotates around a tower to track the azumuthal angle of the Sun. Each heliostat is mounted to the platform with appropriate pivots, linkage, and controls to provide the additional positioning required to properly direct the solar radiation onto the receiver. The results are presented of the first phase of a study to investigate the technical and economic merits of a particular type of rotating field collector subsystem. The large pie-shaped platform would revolve over an array of support pedestals by means of a roller at the top of each pedestal. Several heliostats were built to demonstrate their construction features, and the operation of both flat and amphitheater rotating fields was studied. Work included an analysis of the concepts, development of modifications and additions to make the system comply with design criteria, and cost estimates to be used for comparison with other heliostat subsystems. Because of considerably high cost estimates, the focus of a large part of the study was directed toward developing lower cost designs of major components.

  16. Optimization of Dish Solar Collectors with and without Secondary Concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for optimizing parabolic dish solar collectors and the consequent effects of various optical, thermal, mechanical, and cost variables are examined. The most important performance optimization is adjusting the receiver aperture to maximize collector efficiency. Other parameters that can be adjusted to optimize efficiency include focal length, and, if a heat engine is used, the receiver temperature. The efficiency maxima associated with focal length and receiver temperature are relatively broad; it may, accordingly, be desirable to design somewhat away from the maxima. Performance optimization is sensitive to the slope and specularity errors of the concentrator. Other optical and thermal variables affecting optimization are the reflectance and blocking factor of the concentrator, the absorptance and losses of the receiver, and, if a heat engine is used, the shape of the engine efficiency versus temperature curve. Performance may sometimes be improved by use of an additional optical element (a secondary concentrator) or a receiver window if the errors of the primary concentrator are large or the receiver temperature is high.

  17. Theoretical study for solar air pretreatment collector/regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Donggen; Zhang Xiaosong; Yin Yonggao [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)

    2008-07-01

    A new liquid regeneration equipment - solar air pretreatment collector/regenerator for liquid desiccant cooling system is put forward in this paper, which is preferable to solution regeneration in hot and moist climate in South China. The equipment can achieve liquid regeneration in lower temperature. When the solution and the air are in ''match'' state in collector/ regenerator, a match air to salt mass ratio ASMR* is found by theoretical study in which there is the largest theoretical storage capacity SC{sub max}. After two new concepts of the effective solution proportion (EPS) and the effective storage capacity (ESC) are defined, it is found by theoretical calculation that when ESP drops from 100% to 67%, ESC raises lowly, not drops and liquid outlet concentration C{sub str} {sub sol} increases from 40% to 49% in which its increment totals to 90%. All these data explain fully that air pretreatment liquid regeneration equipment enables to improve the performance of liquid desiccant cooling system. (orig.)

  18. Natural convection characteristics of flat plate collectors. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, K.R.; Wl-Wakil, M.M.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1977-09-01

    The results of an experimental investigation into the convective heat losses in large aspect ratio flat-plate solar collectors are described. An experimental study has been undertaken on a specially designed test cell using a 3 inch Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Air at atmospheric pressure was used as the heat-transfer fluid. The experimental results include interferograms which show the thermal boundary layer formations and the temperature profiles. Local temperature profiles have been analyzed through the use of an optical comparator to determine local Nusselt number profiles, which have, in turn, been integrated to give average heat-transfer results. Angles of inclination from the horizontal of 45, 60, 75 and 90 degrees have been investigated. Aspect ratios from 9 to 36 were examined over a Rayleigh number range of 4,000 to 310,000. Finally, heat-transfer correlations have been developed for the prediction of local Nusselt numbers in the starting and departure corners and for the average heat-transfer results as a function of collector tilt angle.

  19. Nanoparticles Ni electroplating and black paint for solar collector applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. El Nady

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A nanoparticles layer of bright nickel base was deposited on copper substrates using electrodeposition technique before spraying the paint. IR reflectance of the paint was found to be around 0.4 without bright nickel layer and the reflectance increased to 0.6 at a Ni layer thickness of 750 nm. The efficiency of the constructed solar collectors using black paint and black paint combined with bright nickel was found to be better than black paint individually. After aging tests under high temperature, Bright nickel improved the stability of the absorber paint. The collector optical gain FR(τα was lowered by 24.7% for the commercial paint and lowered by 19.3% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel. The overall heat loss FR(UL was increased by 3.3% for the commercial paint and increased by 2.7% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel after the temperature aging test.

  20. Flat-plate solar-collector performance evaluation with a solar simulator as a basis for collector selection and performance prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reports the measured thermal efficiency and evaluation of 23 collectors which differ according to absorber material (copper, aluminum, steel), absorber coating (nonselective black paint, selective copper oxide, selective black nickel, selective black chrome), type of glazing material (glass, Tedlar, Lexan, anti-reflection glass), the use of honeycomb material and the use of vacuum to prevent thermal convection losses. The collectors are given performance rankings based on noon-hour solar conditions and all-day solar conditions. The determination with the simulator of an all-day collector performance is made possible by tests at different incident angles. The solar performance rankings are made based on whether the collector is to be used for pool heating, hot water, absorption air conditioning, heating, or for a solar Rankine machine.

  1. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Vortex Shedding on Solar Collector Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaulddin Abdulqader Kadim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of vortex shedding on the solar collector performance of the parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC was estimated experimentally. The effect of structure oscillations due to wind vortex shedding on solar collector performance degradation was estimated. The performance of PTSC is evaluated by using the useful heat gain and the thermal instantaneous efficiency. Experimental work to simulate the vortex shedding excitation was done. The useful heat gain and the thermal efficiency of the parabolic trough collector were calculated from experimental measurements with and without vortex loading. The prototype of the collector was fabricated for this purpose. The effect of vortex shedding at different operation conditions was examined. The variation of angles of attack and wind velocity leads to different values of vortex loading coefficients and shedding frequencies. The relation between the dynamic characteristics and solar collector performance was evaluated. The finite element method was used to estimate the dynamic characteristic of the solar collector in addition to experimental work to evaluate the relation between the dynamic behavior of the collector and its performance.

  2. The Experimental Performance of an Unglazed PVT Collector with Two Different Absorber Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic-thermal collectors combine photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors, forming a single device that produces electricity and heat simultaneously. There are two types of liquid-type PVT collectors, depending on the existence or absence of a glass cover over the PV module. The glass-covered (glazed PVT collector produces relatively more thermal energy but has a lower electrical yield, whereas the uncovered (unglazed PVT collector has a relatively low thermal energy and somewhat higher electrical performance. The thermal and electrical performance of liquid-type PVT collectors is related not only to the collector design, such as whether a glass cover is used, but also to the absorber design, that is, whether the absorber is for the sheet-and-tube type or the fully wetted type. The design of the absorber, as it comes into contact with the PV modules and the liquid tubes, is regarded as important, as it is related to the heat transfer from the PV modules to the liquid in the tubes. In this paper, the experimental performance of two liquid-type PVT collectors, a sheet-and-tube type and a fully wetted type, was analyzed.

  3. Dispersal of collectors in different-facial Zadonsko-Yeletskiy deposits of the Pripyatskiy trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidovich, L.A.; Nazarova, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    Features are examined of dispersal of rock-collectors in different-facial deposits of the lower and upper Zadonskiy sublevels, as well as in the Yeletskiy level of the Devonian in the Pripyatskiy trough. It has been established that rock-collectors in the northern part of the Pripyatskiy trough are associated with organogenic reconstructions.

  4. Study of Performance of Coaxial Vacuum Tube Solar Collector on Ethanol Distillation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutomo; Ramelan, A. H.; Mustafa; Tristono, T.

    2017-07-01

    Coaxial vacuum tube solar collectors can generate heat up to 80°C is possibly used for ethanol distillation process that required temperature 79°C only. This study reviews the performance of coaxial collector vacuum tube used for ethanol distillation process. This experimental research was conducted in a closed space using a halogen lamp as a solar radiation simulator. We had done on three different of the radiation values, i.e. 998 W/m2, 878 W/m2 and 782 W/m2. The pressure levels of vacuum tube collector cavity in the research were 1; 0.5; 0.31; 0.179; and 0.043 atmospheres. The Research upgraded the 30% of ethanol to produce the concentration of 77% after distillation. The result shows that the performance of coaxial collector vacuum tube used for ethanol distillation process has the negative correlation to the level of the collector tube cavity pressure. The productivity will increase while the collector tube cavity pressure decreased. Therefore, the collector efficiency has the negative correlation also to the level of collector tube cavity pressure. The best performance achieved when it operated at a pressure of 0.043 atmosphere with radiation intensity 878 W / m2, and the value of efficiency is 57.8%.

  5. 30 CFR 33.35 - Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be done with conventional, commercial drilling equipment—pneumatic-percussion, hydraulic-rotary... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of drilling; dust-collector unit. 33.35..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN...

  6. Air-liquid solar collector for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and hot water subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A collection of quarterly reports consisting of the installation and layout design of the air collector system for commercial applications, completion of the preliminary design review, detailed design efforts, and preparation of the verification test plan are given. Performance specifications and performance testing of a prototype model of a two manifold, 144 tube air collector array is presented.

  7. The Effect of the Volume Flow rate on the Efficiency of a Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    rates. Theoretically, a simplified model of the solar collector panel is built by means of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code Fluent, where the geometry of the collector panel except the casing is fully modeled. Both lateral and longitudinal heat conduction in the absorber fins, the heat...

  8. A Computer-Interfaced Drop Counter as an Inexpensive Fraction Collector for Column Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara T.

    2008-01-01

    A computer-interfaced drop counter is described that serves as an inexpensive alternative to a fraction collector for column chromatography experiments. Undergraduate biochemistry laboratories frequently do not have the budget to purchase fraction collectors. Protocols that call for the manual measurement of fraction volumes as well as the manual…

  9. A Computer-Interfaced Drop Counter as an Inexpensive Fraction Collector for Column Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara T.

    2008-01-01

    A computer-interfaced drop counter is described that serves as an inexpensive alternative to a fraction collector for column chromatography experiments. Undergraduate biochemistry laboratories frequently do not have the budget to purchase fraction collectors. Protocols that call for the manual measurement of fraction volumes as well as the manual…

  10. Emotion, desire and reverie in the consumption practices from the recyclable material collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josilene Barbosa do Nascimento

    2014-08-01

    imagination. Thus, pointing out how works the self delusion of the collectors, characteristic of modern consumption, as we watch for the excitement and the individual values governing their consumption practices as pointing work. In this sense, the collectors consume to satiate subjectively established wills: it is the emotional consumption.

  11. METAL-POLYMER SOLAR COLLECTORS WITH MULTICHANNEL ABSORBER FOR MULTIFUNCTIONAL MULTIPURPOSE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available New modification of liquid-metal-polymer solar collector for solar heating and for creation of multifunctional energy systems on its basis, particularly solar refrigeration systems was developed. A comparative study of several modifications of polymer collectors involving data of a set of foreign researchers was made and high efficiency of the new elaboration was proven.

  12. A Didactic Experiment and Model of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experiment performed with a home-made flat-plate solar collector, carried out together with high-school students. To explain the experimental results, we propose a model that describes the heating process of the solar collector. The model accounts quantitatively for the experimental data. We suggest that solar-energy topics should…

  13. TECHNIQUE OF DEFINITION TRANSMITTANCE- ABSORPTION PRODUCT OF THE SOLAR COLLECTOR WITH POLYMERIC TUBES ABSORBER

    OpenAIRE

    Ermuratskii V.V.

    2009-01-01

    It is presented technique of determination of the reduced carrying and absorptance capacity of collector, which absorber represents the register made from polymeric pipes. This determination was made on the basis of experimental data received at zero collector flow rate of water and minimum difference of temperatures between the absorber and the environment.

  14. TECHNIQUE OF DEFINITION TRANSMITTANCE- ABSORPTION PRODUCT OF THE SOLAR COLLECTOR WITH POLYMERIC TUBES ABSORBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuratskii V.V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presented technique of determination of the reduced carrying and absorptance capacity of collector, which absorber represents the register made from polymeric pipes. This determination was made on the basis of experimental data received at zero collector flow rate of water and minimum difference of temperatures between the absorber and the environment.

  15. Certification and verification for Northrup Model NSC-01-0732 Fresnel lens concentrating solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The certification and verification of the Northrup Model NSC-01-0732 Fresnel lens tracking solar collector are presented. A certification statement is included with signatures and a separate report on the structural analysis of the collector system. System verification against the Interim Performance Criteria are indicated by matrices with verification discussion, analysis, and enclosed test results.

  16. 78 FR 38452 - Price for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Young Collector Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Young Collector Set AGENCY: United States... of $54.95 for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Young Collector Set. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  17. VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical work has included development of two TRNSYS [1] simulation models for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors utilizing solar radiation from all directions. One model...

  18. Efficiency of liquid flat-plate solar energy collector with solar tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekerovska Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive testing programme is performed on a solar collector experimental set-up, installed on a location in Shtip (Republic of Macedonia, latitude 41º 45’ and longitude 22º 12’, in order to investigate the effect of the sun tracking system implementation on the collector efficiency. The set-up consists of two flat plate solar collectors, one with a fixed surface tilted at 30о towards the South, and the other one equipped with dual-axis rotation system. The study includes development of a 3-D mathematical model of the collectors system and a numerical simulation programme, based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach. The main aim of the mathematical modelling is to provide information on conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer, so as to simulate the heat transfer performances and the energy capture capabilities of the fixed and moving collectors in various operating modes. The feasibility of the proposed method was confirmed by experimental verification, showing significant increase of the daily energy capture by the moving collector, compared to the immobile collector unit. The comparative analysis demonstrates a good agreement between the experimental and numerically predicted results at different running conditions, which is a proof that the presented CFD modelling approach can be used for further investigations of different solar collectors configurations and flow schemes.

  19. Results of thermal performance evaluation of the Owens-Illinois sunpack liquid solar collector at indoor conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Test procedures and results of the thermal performance of a liquid, evacuated tube, solar collector under simulated conditions are presented. The collector tested was a module used on the early demonstration projects.

  20. The use of collector efficiency test results in long term performance calculations. Revisions and clarifications in view of proper collector characterization and inter comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Maria Joao; Horta, Pedro; Mendes, Joao Farinha [INETI - Inst. Nacional de Engenharia Tecnologia e Inovacao, IP, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares Pereira, Manuel; Carbajal, Wildor Maldonado [AO SOL, Energias Renovaveis, S.A., Samora Correia (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    There are a growing number of solar thermal collector types: flat plates, evacuated tubes with and without backing reflectors and different tubular spacing, low concentration collectors, using different types of concentrating optics. These different concepts and designs all compete to be more efficient or simply cheaper, easier to operate, etc. at ever higher temperatures, and even to extend the use of solar thermal energy in other applications beyond the most common water heating for domestic purposes. This means that there is a growing need for the existing and future simulation tools to be as accurate as possible in the treatment of these different collector types, to allow for the proper dimensioning of solar thermal systems as well as the proper comparison of different collector technologies for a given application. This paper develops a systematic approach to the problem of the proper handling of solar radiation available to each collector type. The proposed methodology subdivides radiation in its different components, folding that with the information available from efficiency curve tests (steady state) for each collector type and the way the optics of each particular case transforms and uses the incident solar radiation. The suggestions made will hopefully be taken at the level of the testing standards themselves, rendering them more complete and general. (orig.)

  1. Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, J E; Diegle, R B

    1980-04-11

    The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.

  2. New performance testing stand for the characterization of innovative collectors and optical components; Neuer Leistungsteststand zur Charakterisierung innovativer Kollektoren und optischer Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahr, Sven; Schaefer, Arim; Mehnert, Stefan; Kramer, Korbinian; Hess, Stefan; Thoma, Christoph; Richter, Jens; Stryi-Hipp, Gerhard [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany); Luginsland, Frank [PSE AG, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The variety of collector designs is on the increase. It is expected that technologies such as concentrating collectors, solar air collectors, heat pipe collectors and facade integrated collectors increase their market shares. In order to meet the various requirements for the measurement of this collector design, the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and PSE-AG (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) developed a new modular outdoor test stand was developed for performance testing. This test stand meets the highest requirements on tracking accuracy and flexibility. If necessary, mobile test equipment for testing of air temperature collectors and medium temperature collectors can be integrated easily.

  3. An analytical investigation of the performance of solar collectors as nighttime heat radiators in airconditioning cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that if the upper and lower ends of a collector were opened, large free convention currents may be set up between the collector surface and the cover glass(es) which can result in appreciable heat rejection. If the collector is so designed that both plates surfaces are exposed to convection currents when the upper and lower ends of the collector enclosure are opened, the heat rejection rate is 300 watts sq m when the plate is 13 C above ambient. This is sufficient to permit a collector array designed to provide 100 percent of the heating needs of a home to reject the accumulated daily air conditioning load during the course of a summer night. This also permits the overall energy requirements for cooling to be reduced by at least 15 percent and shift the load on the utility entirely to the nighttime hours.

  4. The Influence of Different Absorbed Coatings on Thermal Effect of Prefabricated Solar Collector Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prefabricated solar collector panels is a kind of new permeability structure of collector panels. For this test, we adopt a certain proportion of copper oxide, magnesium oxide and iron oxide to enamel paint as absorbed panel coating and make two kinds of collector panels for different forms of color by dark green coating and black coating. By the methods of comparison, the two kinds of panel collector efficiency and heat loss coefficient UL were tested. The results showed that there was a slight difference between the heat loss coefficient of prefabricated solar collector panels, using the panel with dark green coating’s comprehensive thermal effect is well than the panel with black coating. The beautiful appearance color is more suitable for building requirements.

  5. Modeling Heat Flow In a Calorimeter Equipped With a Textured Solar Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Allen, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Heat engines are being considered for generating electric power for minisatellite applications, particularly for those missions in high radiation threat orbits. To achieve this objective, solar energy must be collected and transported to the hot side of the heat engine. A solar collector is needed having the combined properties of high solar absorptance, low infrared emittance, and high thermal conductivity. To test candidate solar collector concepts, a simple calorimeter was designed, manufactured, and installed in a bench top vacuum chamber to measure heat flow. In addition, a finite element analysis model of the collector/calorimeter combination was made to model this heat flow. The model was tuned based on observations from the as-manufactured collector/calorimeter combination. In addition, the model was exercised to examine other collector concepts, properties, and scale up issues.

  6. Influences of the Twisted Strips Insertion on the Performance of Flat Plate Water Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar M. Hassan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the efficiency of flat plate solar water collectors without changing in its original shape and with low additional cost, twisted strips are inserted inside its riser pipes. Three flat plate collectors are used for test. Family of twisted strips are inserted inside each collector risers with different twisted ratios (TR=3,4,5. The collectors are connected in parallel mode (Z-Configuration and are exposed to the same conditions (solar radiation and ambient temperature .The experimental results show that, the highest heat transfer rate occurs at twisted ratio (3 .Consequently, for the same twisted ratio the daily efficiencies for the solar collector at different flow rate used (60,100 and 150 ℓ /hr. were 49 %, 57% and 63% respectively.

  7. SIDE-BY-SIDE TESTS OF DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Six differently designed evacuated tubular collectors, ETCs, utilizing solar radiation from all directions, have been investigated experimentally. The evacuated tubular solar collectors investigated include one SLL all-glass ETC from Tshinghua Solar Co., four heat pipe ETCs from Sunda Technolgoy Co....... and one all-glass ETC with heat pipe from Exoheat AB. The collectors have been investigated side-by-side in an outdoor test facility for a long period. During the measurements, the operating conditions – such as weather conditions, inlet and mean solar collector fluid temperatures have been the same. Thus...... a direct performance comparison is possible. The results of the measurements will be presented in this paper. Among other things, the influence on the thermal performance of the absorber design will be explained. Further, it will be illustrated how the thermal performances of the different collector types...

  8. Experimental study of thermal performances of the sloar photovoltaic-thermal hybrid system%太阳能光电-热一体化系统的热力性能实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴应; 龚光彩; 王晨光; 喻骐骥; 龚建文

    2015-01-01

    Heat pipe can be applied on the solar photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T)hybrid system to decrease the working temperature of solar cell of which,the photoelectric efficiency of which is increased,and the some of the heat energy is recycled at the same time so that the total energy utilization efficiency of the system is improved greatly.A thermal theoretical model of the PV-T system was established,and the solar-thermal hybrid experimental device with heat pipe is developed.Some related experiments are conducted including the tests of PV efficiency and heat transfer efficiency and exergy efficiency.The results show that the photoelectric efficiency is about 4.7%,the comprehensive efficiency of the system is about 49%,and the maximum exergy efficiency is about 8%.The overall efficiency of this system is higher than that of a pure PV system.Through comparative performance evaluation of several kinds of PV-T system, the heat pipe type PV-T system shows a significant energy-saving potential.Some energy-saving suggestions were also put forward.%将热管应用于太阳能光电-热一体化(PV-T)系统,在进行光电转换的同时,降低了太阳能电池的工作温度而使其光电效率提高,还回收了部分热能,可以大大提高系统的能量利用效率。研制了热管式太阳能光电-热一体化实验装置,建立了系统的热力性能计算的数学模型,对该实验装置系统进行了光电效率、热效率的测试,并对系统热力性能包括能量效率、效率进行了计算和分析。实验结果显示:系统的光电效率为4.7%左右,系统的综合效率为49%左右,效率最大为8%左右,比单独利用太阳能光伏发电系统的效率有显著提高。综合比较了几种太阳能光电一体化系统,该热管式PV-T系统有较好的节能效果,并对系统提出了优化和节能建议。

  9. Standard performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 3-7/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes, and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  10. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  11. Indoor test for the thermal performance evaluation of the DEC 8A large manifold sunmaster evacuated tube (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Sunmaster DEC 8A Large Manifold solar collector using simulated conditions was evaluated. The collector provided 17.17 square feet of gross collector area. Test conditions, test requirements, an analysis of results, and tables of test data are reported.

  12. Lightweight performance data collectors 2.0 with Eiger support.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Benjamin A.

    2013-05-01

    We report on the use and design of a portable, extensible performance data collection tool motivated by modeling needs of the high performance computing systems co-design com- munity. The lightweight performance data collectors with Eiger support is intended to be a tailorable tool, not a shrink-wrapped library product, as pro ling needs vary widely. A single code markup scheme is reported which, based on compilation ags, can send perfor- mance data from parallel applications to CSV les, to an Eiger mysql database, or (in a non-database environment) to at les for later merging and loading on a host with mysql available. The tool supports C, C++, and Fortran applications.

  13. Characterization of Cable Gun Plasma with a Charge Collector Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉兰; 曾正中; 孙凤举; 蒯斌; 邱爱慈; 尹佳辉; 丛培天; 梁天学

    2003-01-01

    The density, drift velocity and reproducibility of the plasma produced by a cableplasma gun array have been measured with a charge collector array. The plasma is used to prefilla coaxial plasma-opening switch with a conducting time approaching 0.4μs. The reproducibilityof the plasma source in subsequent shots is better than 5%. Near the gun nozzle and the oppositeelectrode, the plasma density amounts to 1015cm-3, which is 2 times to 3 times that in the gapbetween the two coaxial electrodes. A plasma drift velocity of about 2.4 cm/μs is observed fromthe time of flight of the charged particles. Both plasma density and drift velocity increase almostlinearly with the rise in charge voltage.

  14. Method of forming oxide coatings. [for solar collector heating panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    This invention is concerned with an improved plating process for covering a substrate with a black metal oxide film. The invention is particularly directed to making a heating panel for a solar collector. A compound is electrodeposited from an aqueous solution containing cobalt metal salts onto a metal substrate. This compound is converted during plating into a black, highly absorbing oxide coating which contains hydrated oxides. This is achieved by the inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath. The inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath is contrary to standard electroplating practice. The hydrated oxides are converted to oxides by treatment in a hot bath, such as boiling water. An oxidizing agent may be added to the hot liquid treating bath.

  15. Angular solar absorptance of absorbers used in solar thermal collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfamichael, T; Wäckelgård, E

    1999-07-01

    The optical characterization of solar absorbers for thermal solar collectors is usually performed by measurement of the spectral reflectance at near-normal angle of incidence and calculation of the solar absorptance from the measured reflectance. The solar absorptance is, however, a function of the angle of incidence of the light impinging on the absorber. The total reflectance of two types of commercial solar-selective absorbers, nickel-pigmented anodized aluminum, and sputtered nickel nickel oxide coated aluminum are measured at angles of incidence from 5 to 80 in the wavelength range 300-2500 nm by use of an integrating sphere. From these measurements the angular integrated solar absorptance is determined. Experimental data are compared with theoretical calculations, and it is found that optical thin-film interference effects can explain the significant difference in solar absorptance at higher angles for the two types of absorbers.

  16. Wind loads on solar collector panels and support structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, H L; Norton, D J

    1979-10-01

    A study is reported which addresses the wind load problem for retrofit, roof-mounted solar collector panels and their support structures. The objective was to provide force and moment coefficients which occur for various configurations and wind conditions. Wind tunnel tests were made to investigate geometric variables such as the wind angle, aspect ratio, clearance between the support structure and the roof, inclination of the panels to the flow, and the number of panels in an array. Full-scale tests were conducted to provide measurements which could be compared with wind tunnel tests and investigate loads for a nonuniform wind approaching the structure. The structural analysis investigated the suitability of design techniques and potential problems using current building codes. (LEW)

  17. Thermomechanical Assessment of the Collector for the Hollow Electron Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, George Bowers

    2017-01-01

    The hollow electron lens (HEL) is a system proposed for the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider LHC (HL-LHC) [1]. Being considered for installation at LHC point 4, the HEL improves halo control and collimation of proton beams in the collider [2]. This is achieved by creating a hollow tube of electrons using an electron gun. This axisymmetric electron cloud travels around the proton beam for a few meters, overlapping with the proton beam halo, until the electron cloud is dissipated in a collector, which is the focus of this project. A 3D image of the HEL system is found in Figure 1 and a further technical description of such electron lenses is available in [3].

  18. Heat Loss Calculation of Compound Honeycomb Solar Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.S.Ge; Y.Z.Zhang; 等

    1993-01-01

    A simplified technique is described for calculating the heat loss coefficient from the absorber of the solar flat-plate collector with a combined honeycomb.The problem is treated in two ways:the coupled mode and the decoupled mode.In the analysis,the cell wall and glass cover are assumed to be specularly reflecting and diffusely emitting surfaces,while the absorber is a diffusely reflecting and emitting surface.The influences of emissivities of the absorber and the cell wall as wall as well as the aspect ratio on the heat loss coefficient are predicted.The theoretical results are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,and the agreement is good.

  19. Introducing CFD in the optical simulation of linear Fresnel collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, M. A.; Rungasamy, A.; Craig, K. J.; Meyer, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper seeks to determine whether the Finite Volume method within a commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver (ANSYS Fluent) can model radiation with comparable accuracy to a Monte Carlo ray-tracing software package (SolTrace). A detailed investigation was performed into modeling techniques that can be used to significantly reduce the optical errors traditionally associated with CFD modeling of radiation false scattering and ray effect using a simple optical test case. The strategies formulated in the first part of this paper were used to model a variety of Linear Fresnel Collector Concentrating Solar Power Plants. This paper shows that commercial CFD packages yield accurate results for line focusing concentrating solar applications and simple geometries, validating its use in an integrated environment where both optical and thermal performance of these plants can be simulated and optimized.

  20. A dynamic simulation of a flat-plate collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annino, A.

    1983-04-01

    A numerical model for the performance of a flat plate solar collector array is presented, with account taken of thermal transients and calculation on a microcomputer. The system modeled consists of a flat plate array, the heat transfer fluid, an insulated storage tank, an exchange loop for heating a secondary fluid, and a load maintained by a pump. The one-dimensional analysis includes equations for the energy balances, with consideration given to heat losses to the outside. A function is defined for the total incident solar radiation, and behavior is simulated over the entire 24-hr day, weighted by the highest and lowest recorded temperatures. Good agreement has been found with experimental data.