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Sample records for hybrid progeny electronic

  1. Early growth performance of full-sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies at three different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Aimin, Atirah Abdullah; Abdullah, Mohd Zaki; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    Field trials of 14 full sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies were evaluated for growth performance at three sites (Bintulu, Mentakab and Segamat). Results indicated that there were significant differences (p> 0.05) for diameter breast height (Dbh) and total height (Ht) among the progenies and different sites. Superior progenies have been identified for future tree selection and improvement.

  2. Aneuploid progenies of triploid hybrids between diploid and tetraploid loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Juan; Gao, Yang-Chun; Zhou, He; Ma, Hai-Yan; Lin, Zhong-Qiao; Ma, Tian-Yu; Sui, Yi; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2016-10-01

    Triploid Chinese loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, hybrids between tetraploids from Hubei Province and diploids from Liaoning Province were mated with either diploid wild-type or triploid hybrids to analyze viability and ploidy of the resultant progenies. Both triploid males and females generated fertile gametes, but progenies from the crosses using gametes of triploid hybrids did not survive beyond the larval stages. In crosses between wild-type diploid females and triploid hybrid males, embryos ranging from 2.2n to 2.6n were predominant with a mode of either 2.4n (chromosome numbers 59, 60, 61) or 2.5n (chromosome numbers 62, 63). Those from the crosses between triploid hybrid females and diploid males gave a modal ploidy level at approximately 2.5n in one case, but a shift to a higher ploidy level was observed in other embryos. In the progenies between triploid hybrid females and males, the ploidy level at approximately 3.0n (chromosome numbers 74, 75, 76) was most frequent. The cytogenetic results of the progenies suggest the production of aneuploid gametes with a modal ploidy level at approximately 1.5n in triploid hybrids. However, a shift to higher chromosome numbers in gametes was observed in certain cases, suggesting the involvement of mortality selection of gametes and/or zygotes with lower chromosome numbers.

  3. Parental partners effects on progenies characteristics on hybridization within the Larix genus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, J.; Frydl, J. [Forestry and Game Management Research Inst., Jiloviste (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    Larch progenies of maternal clone No. 52-4-11 (Larix decidua Mill.) combined with the series of paternal clones of the same species and further of the Larix leptolepis Gord. and L. gmelini (Rupr.) Ledeb. species were evaluated on three research plots with larch (Larix sp.). Growth in height and thickness as well as stem forming were monitored at the age of 11 and 22 years. There was found out a significant share of variance falling on the action of mother, hence the existence of extra-nuclear heredity can be anticipated, particularly in interspecific hybrids. Comparing with the control in interspecific hybrids mostly luxuriant growth is displayed. On one of the studied plots there was found out the assumed growth depression in the quantitative characters of progenies originated from self-pollination. Some results of the research can be used as an auxiliary criterion in the selection of progenies and trees within the progenies for the establishment of seed orchards to produce hybrid seed of F2 generation. 24 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  4. The behavior of maize hybrids generated from contrasting progenies regarding the use of nitrogen

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    Fernando Lisboa Guedes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of maize hybrids synthesized from contrasting genotypes with regard to the use of nitrogen that were selected for their performance in topcrosses. Sixty-seven S0:1 progenies derived from the germplasm bank of Ufla were evaluated in topcross combinations with two testers  at two nitrogen levels. The six progenies with the greatest tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen (RT and the five with the least tolerance and responsiveness (RnTn were selected and, were, afterwards, crossed in a complete diallel, for a total of 55 hybrid combinations. The following genetic parameters were estimated: genetic variance among the hybrids (σ^2G, broad sense heritability in the mean of the hybrids, and selective accuracy (r^2gg. It was observed that the genetic parameters were greater in the environments with available nitrogen and that the early selection by performance in topcrosses of progenies tolerant to low N levels may not be made with high intensity. The hybrids tolerant to low N levels were obtained by crossing contrasting parents.

  5. Progeny test of tetraploid Betula platyphylla and preliminary selection of hybrid parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanwen Xu; Yu Liu; Jing Jiang; Guifeng Liu; Xiyang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Estimating genetic parameters of parental lines through progeny testing and choosing good hybrid parents are important for genetically improving seed orchard trees. In this study, 24 tetraploid progeny seedlings were used as experimental materials, which came from test cross design:six tetraploid Betula platyphylla lines (Q33, Q13, Q103, Q19, Q83 and Q14) as female parents and four individual B. platyphylla diploid lines (F3, F4, F9 and F11) as male parents were crossed. Variance analysis of height, diame-ter, height-to-diameter ratio, and internodal distance showed that the differences between hybrid combinations reached highly significant levels. Using multi-objective decisionmaking, we performed a comprehensive assess-ment of the various hybrid combinations. Using a selection rate of 20% of the standard, five hybrids were selected;their genetic gains in average height, diameter, height-to-diameter ratio, and internodal distance were 20.95, 6.07, 13.07 and 8.96%, respectively. We also analyzed the combining ability and genetic parameter effect values of parents and hybrid combinations. The combined analysis revealed that Q13, Q103, Q33 and Q83 were superior females; F3, F4, and F9 were superior males; and F3 9 Q13, F4 9 Q83 and F9 9 Q33 were superior hybrid combinations. The heights and diameters of these proge-nies were 22.49 and 11.48% greater than average, respectively.

  6. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  7. Characterization of interspecific hybrids and backcross progenies from a cross between Oryza minuta and Oryza sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Oryza minuta, a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice, is an important source for the genetic improvement. Interspecific hybrids were obtained from the cross of O. sativa L. (IR24) and O. minuta (Acc. No. 101133) with 5.58% crossability, which ranged from 0.11% to 1.62% in the backcross generations. The chromosome numbers of the backcross progenies were 24 to 48. Seven yield-related traits of the parents, hybrid F1, and backcross progenies were evaluated. Simple sequence repeat markers analysis showed that the polymorphism ratio of SSR bands between IR24 and Acc. No. 101133 was 93.2%. The average donor segment number, length, donor genome size, and percentage of donor genome of 92 BC3F1 plants (2n=24) were 24.1, 17.8 cM, 438.4 cM and 26.2%, respectively. They were complex variation and uneven among the chromosomes. These introgression lines could be used to identify the favorable genes of O. minuta and provide a new platform for the genetic improvement of cultivated rice.

  8. Assessing hybrid sterility in Oryza glaberrima x O. sativa hybrid progenies by PCR marker analysis and crossing with wide compatibility varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Sigrid; Miézan, Kouamé M

    2003-09-01

    Interspecific crossing of the African indigenous rice Oryza glaberrima with Oryza sativa cultivars is hindered by crossing barriers causing 100% spikelet sterility in F(1) hybrids. Since hybrids are partially female fertile, fertility can be restored by back crossing (BC) to a recurrent male parent. Distinct genetic models on spikelet sterility have been developed predicting, e.g., the existence of a gamete eliminator and/or a pollen killer. Linkage of sterility to the waxy starch synthase gene and the chromogen gene C, both located on chromosome 6, have been demonstrated. We selected a segregating BC(2)F(3) population of semi-sterile O. glaberrima x O. sativa indica hybrid progenies for analyses with PCR markers located at the respective chromosome-6 region. These analyses revealed that semi-sterile plants were heterozygous for a marker (OSR25) located in the waxy promoter, whereas fertile progenies were homozygous for the O. glaberrima allele. Adjacent markers showed no linkage to spikelet sterility. Semi-sterility of hybrid progenies was maintained at least until the F(4) progeny generation, suggesting the existence of a pollen killer in this plant material. Monitoring of reproductive plant development showed that spikelet sterility was at least partially due to an arrest of pollen development at the microspore stage. In order to address the question whether genes responsible for F(1) sterility in intraspecific hybrids ( O. sativa indica x japonica) also cause spikelet sterility in interspecific hybrids, crossings with wide compatibility varieties (WCV) were performed. WCV accessions possess "neutral" S-loci ( S(n)) improving fertility in intraspecific hybrids. This experiment showed that the tested S(n)-loci had no fertility restoring effect in F(1) interspecific hybrids. Pollen development was completely arrested at the microspore stage and grains were never obtained after selfing. This suggests that distinct or additional S-loci are responsible for sterility

  9. GISH Analysis of Subsequent Progeny Crossed with 2n-gametes of F-1 Oriental-Asiatic Interspecific Hybrid in Lily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, M.Y.; Chung, J.D.; Tuyl, van J.M.; Lim, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to analyze the chromosome composition and homoeologous recombination of subsequent progenies, derived from cross of Oriental-Asiatic (OA) interspecific hybrid producing 2n-gametes, by GISH technique. GISH analysis of F-1 OA interspecific hybrid '2nOA-001', which produced 2

  10. Cytogenetic Analysis of the Primary Amphidiploid Derived from Interspecific Hybridization in Cucumis and Its Selfed Progenies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-feng; QIAN Chun-tao; J E Staub; LUO Xiang-dong; ZHUANG Fei-yun

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the reproduction and cytogenetic characterization of a primary amphidiploid Cucumis species C. hytivus Chen and Kirkbride (2n = 4x = 38) indicated that a more comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of this species and its first selfed progeny would increase its potential utility in cucumber improvement. With tendrils used as source materials for mitotic analysis, chromosome numbers in all selfed progenies were 2n = 38, confirming chromosomal stability in this synthetic amphidiploid species. Detailed meiotic processes were described by comparing the primary and the selfed amphidiploids.Meiotic abnormalities, such as chromosome lagging, unequal separation, chromosome multi-polarization and polyads were observed frequently in all amphidiploid plants except for the selfed no.8, in which meiosis was arrested prior to metaphase I. Generally, the frequency of multivalents was higher and the configurations were more complex in the selfed progenies, demonstrating a more extensive genetic exchange between cucumber and C. hystrix Chakr. Genome separation between cucumber and C. hystrix was observed through prophase ! to anaphase I in both generations of the amphidiploids. Consequently, in addition to n = 19, a new gamete with n = 7 was produced, which was confirmed by the chromosome counts 2n = 14 in the backcrossing progenies from cucumber × amphidiploid mating. Fertility varied among the selfed amphidiploid plants. The selfed plant no. 1 was found to have an improved fertility (e.g., pollen staining ability 40.8% and 25.6 seeds per fruit) and then was used as source germplasm in further introgression and gene exchange experiments.

  11. Effects of pollen selection on progeny vigor in a Cucurbita pepo x C. texana hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, M; Winsor, J A; Stephenson, A G

    1996-05-01

    We examined the effects of pollen selection for rapid pollen-tube growth on progeny vigor. First, we crossed a wild gourd (Cucurbita texana) to a cultivated zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cv 'Black Beauty') to produce an F1 and then an F2 generation. Half of the F1 seeds were produced by depositing small loads of C. texana pollen onto the stigmas of C. pepo. These small pollen loads were insufficient to produce a full complement of seeds and, consequently, both the fast- and the slow-growing pollen tubes were permitted to achieve fertilization. An F2 generation was then produced by depositing small loads of F1 pollen onto stigmas of F1 plants. The F2 seeds resulting from two generations of small pollen loads are termed the non-selected line because there was little or no selection for pollen-tube growth rate on these plants. The other half of the F1 and F2 seeds were produced by depositing large pollen loads (>10 000 pollen grains) onto stigmas and then allowing only the first 1% or so of the pollen tubes that entered the ovary to fertilize the ovules. We did this by excising the styles at the ovary at 12-15 h after pollination. The resulting F2 seeds are termed 'the selected line' because they were produced by two generations of selection for only the fastest growing pollen tubes. Small pollen loads from the F2plants, both the selected and the non-selected lines, were then deposited onto stigmas of different C. pepo flowers, and the vigor of the resulting seeds was compared under greenhouse and field conditions. The results showed that the seeds fertilized by pollen from the selected line had greater vegetative vigor as seedlings and greater flower and fruit production as mature plants than the seeds fertilized by pollen from the non-selected line. This study demonstrates that selection for fast pollen-tube growth (selection on the microgametophyte) leads to a correlated increase in sporophyte (progeny) vigor.

  12. On the interaction between radon progeny and particles generated by electronic and traditional cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Trassierra, C.; Cardellini, F.; Buonanno, G.; De Felice, P.

    2015-04-01

    During their entire lives, people are exposed to the pollutants present in indoor air. Recently, Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems, mainly known as electronic cigarettes, have been widely commercialized: they deliver particles into the lungs of the users but a "second-hand smoke" has yet to be associated to this indoor source. On the other hand, the naturally-occurring radioactive gas, i.e. radon, represents a significant risk for lung cancer, and the cumulative action of these two agents could be worse than the agents separately would. In order to deepen the interaction between radon progeny and second-hand aerosol from different types of cigarettes, a designed experimental study was carried out by generating aerosol from e-cigarette vaping as well as from second-hand traditional smoke inside a walk-in radon chamber at the National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (INMRI) of Italy. In this chamber, the radon present in air comes naturally from the floor and ambient conditions are controlled. To characterize the sidestream smoke emitted by cigarettes, condensation particle counters and scanning mobility particle sizer were used. Radon concentration in the air was measured through an Alphaguard ionization chamber, whereas the measurement of radon decay product in the air was performed with the Tracelab BWLM Plus-2S Radon daughter Monitor. It was found an increase of the Potential Alpha-Energy Concentration (PAEC) due to the radon decay products attached to aerosol for higher particle number concentrations. This varied from 7.47 ± 0.34 MeV L-1 to 12.6 ± 0.26 MeV L-1 (69%) for the e-cigarette. In the case of traditional cigarette and at the same radon concentration, the increase was from 14.1 ± 0.43 MeV L-1 to 18.6 ± 0.19 MeV L-1 (31%). The equilibrium factor increases, varying from 23.4% ± 1.11% to 29.5% ± 0.26% and from 30.9% ± 1.0% to 38.1 ± 0.88 for the e-cigarette and traditional cigarette, respectively. These growths still continue for long

  13. Hybrid Weakness Found in the Backcross Progeny of an Inter-Specific Cross of Oryza Sativa / O. Glumaepatula

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    Sobrizal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breakdown expressed as sterility or weakness or both in F2 or later generations is considered to be a reproductive barrier between two distantly related taxa. Hybrid breakdown that showed poor growth habit with fertile seeds was found in the backcross progenies (BC4F2 which were derived from a cross between a cultivated rice Oryza sativa L. cv. Taichung 65 and a wild rice Oryza glumaepatula Steud (Acc. IRGC 105668 where Taichung 65 was used as a recurrent parent. Through segregation analysis of BC4F2 population, a novel gene for weakness was identified, and this gene was designated as hwf1 (hybrid weakness f-1. RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis was employed to determine the chromosomal location of hwf1 gene. The result revealed that hwf1 was located between G3006 and C933 RFLP markers, with map distances of 0.5 cM and 1.9 cM, respectively, and co-segregated with C708, C820, and R288 on the short arm of chromosome 4. Since both O. glumaepatula (Acc. IRGC 105668 and Taichung 65 that was used as parents showed normal growth habit, the weakness in this study was assumed to be controlled by a set of complementary recessive genes. One of the complementary genes is hwf1 from O. glumaepatula, and another gene should be from Taichung 65, because the genetic background of the BC4F2 populations that were used for analysis is Taichung 65. The gene from Taichung 65 has not been identified yet, therefore, it is necessary to conduct the experiment for finding out the complement of hwf1 gene in near future.

  14. Novel somatic hybrids (Solanum tuberosum L.+Solanum tarnii) and their fertile BC1 progenies express extreme resistance to potato virus Y and late blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Antonova, Olga; Schubert, Jörg; Nachtigall, Marion; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Solanum tarnii, a wild diploid, tuber-bearing Mexican species belonging to the series Pinnatisecta is highly resistant to Potato virus Y (PVY) and Colorado potato beetle and shows a strong hypersensitive reaction to Phytophthora infestans. Therefore, it could be a potential source of resistance to pathogens for potato breeders. S. tarnii (2n=2x=24) is reproductively isolated from tetraploid Solanum tuberosum and hence difficult to include in potato breeding programmes. In this study, interspecific somatic hybrids were produced for the first time by protoplast electrofusion of the cells of potato cv. Delikat (Solanum tuberosum L.) and Solanum tarnii. The hybrid nature of the regenerants was confirmed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and by morphological analysis and flow cytometry. Selected somatic hybrids were successfully backcrossed with cv. Delikat. Parental lines, primary somatic hybrids and BC1 progeny were assessed for resistance to PVY by mechanical inoculation, grafting and exposure to viruliferous aphid vectors in the field, and resistance to late blight (P. infestans) by detached leaflet and whole tuber tests. The somatic hybrids showed no symptoms of viral infection and most of them displayed high levels of resistance to foliage blight. The BC1 progenies were highly resistant to PVY and a few were resistant to foliage blight. Selected hybrids and BC1 clones were evaluated in the field for tuber quality and tuber yield. Some BC1 clones produced yields of good quality tubers. The results confirm that both the resistance to PVY and to late blight of S. tarnii is expressed in somatic hybrids, and PVY resistance is transferred to BC1 progeny, whereas blight resistance is harder to transfer. Somatic hybridization again proved to be a valuable tool for producing pre-breeding material with increased genetic diversity.

  15. Timing and duration of hatching in gynogenetic, triploid, tetraploid, and hybrid progenies in rainbow trout

    OpenAIRE

    Chevassus B; Quillet Edwige; Devaux A.

    1988-01-01

    La vitesse moyenne de développement embryonnaire (mesurée par la date d’éclosion) et sa variabilité ont été étudiées dans sept types de descendances chez la truite arc-en-ciel : des témoins diploïdes, des gynogénétiques diploïdes, des triploïdes obtenus par rétention du second globule polaire (choc thermique chaud) et des triploïdes obtenus par croisement direct entre une femelle diploïde et un mâle tétraploïde, des tétraploïdes et des hybrides diploïdes ou triploïdes entre la femelle tr...

  16. Limited fitness advantages of crop-weed hybrid progeny containing insect-resistant transgenes (Bt/CpTI in transgenic rice field.

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    Xiao Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spread of insect-resistance transgenes from genetically engineered (GE rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea populations via gene flow creates a major concern for commercial GE rice cultivation. Transgene flow to weedy rice seems unavoidable. Therefore, characterization of potential fitness effect brought by the transgenes is essential to assess environmental consequences caused by crop-weed transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Field performance of fitness-related traits was assessed in advanced hybrid progeny of F(4 generation derived from a cross between an insect-resistant transgenic (Bt/CpTI rice line and a weedy strain. The performance of transgene-positive hybrid progeny was compared with the transgene-negative progeny and weedy parent in pure and mixed planting of transgenic and nontransgenic plants under environmental conditions with natural vs. low insect pressure. Results showed that under natural insect pressure the insect-resistant transgenes could effectively suppress target insects and bring significantly increased fitness to transgenic plants in pure planting, compared with nontransgenic plants (including weedy parent. In contrast, no significant differences in fitness were detected under low insect pressure. However, such increase in fitness was not detected in the mixed planting of transgenic and nontransgenic plants due to significantly reduced insect pressure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Insect-resistance transgenes may have limited fitness advantages to hybrid progeny resulted from crop-weed transgene flow owning to the significantly reduced ambient target insect pressure when an insect-resistant GE crop is grown. Given that the extensive cultivation of an insect-resistant GE crop will ultimately reduce the target insect pressure, the rapid spread of insect-resistance transgenes in weedy populations in commercial GE crop fields may be not likely to happen.

  17. Identification of Self-compatibility of Hybrid Progenies of Sweet Cherry%甜樱桃杂交后代自交亲和性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程和禾; 吴雅琴; 吴永杰; 李玉生; 陈龙; 赵艳华

    2012-01-01

    The genomic DNA of 29 natural hybrid progenies of sweet cherry Stella was amplified using the specific primers BFP200/BFP201 of SFB4' gene and the control primers IC-F/IC-R to identify the self-compatibility of hybrid progenies.The self-compatibility of 10 progenies was verified through self-pollination experiment.The results showed that 27.6% natural hybrid progenies had the specific band,which were self-compatible.The self-fruitful rate of varieties and progenies with specific band and those without specific band was greater than or equal to 18.6% and lower or equal to 14.8%,respectively.The varieties and progenies were self-compatible when the self-fruitful rate was greater than 15.0%.%利用SFB4'基因特异引物BFP200/BFP201与内对照引物PCR IC-F/IC-R对甜樱桃自交亲和品种斯特拉自然杂交后代的29个株系的基因组DNA进行扩增,鉴别其是否具有自交亲和性,并对已进入结果期的10个株系进行田间自花授粉试验进一步验证其自交亲和性。结果表明:斯特拉杂交后代的29个株系中27.6%的株系检测出自交亲和特异条带,具有自交亲和性。在自交亲和基因鉴定时出现特异条带的品种和株系,其自交结实率均≥18.6%;而未检测出自交亲和基因特异条带的品种和株系,其自交结实率均≤14.8%。甜樱桃自交授粉结实率〉15.0%的品种,即可认为具有自交亲和性。

  18. Metabolic Characteristics in Meal of Black Rapeseed and Yellow-Seeded Progeny of Brassica napus–Sinapis alba Hybrids

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    Jinjin Jiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus is preferred over black-seeded rapeseed for the desirable properties of the former. This study evaluated the metabolites and nutritive values of black-seeded rapeseed meal and yellow-seeded meal from the progeny of a B. napus–Sinapis alba hybrid. Yellow-seed meal presented higher protein (35.46% vs. 30.29%, higher sucrose (7.85% vs. 7.29%, less dietary fiber (26.19% vs. 34.63% and crude fiber (4.56% vs. 8.86%, and less glucosinolates (22.18 vs. 28.19 μmol/g than black-seeded one. Amounts of ash (3.65% vs. 4.55%, phytic acid (4.98% vs. 5.60%, and total polyphenols (2.67% vs. 2.82% were decreased slightly in yellow-seeded meal compared with black-seeded meal. Yellow-seeded meal contained more essential amino acids than black-seeded meal. Levels of the mineral elements Fe, Mn, and Zn in yellow-seeded meal were higher than black-seeded meal. By contrast, levels of P, Ca, and Mg were lower in yellow-seeded meal. Moreover, yellow-seeded meal showed lower flavonol (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and their derivatives content than black-seeded meal. Comparison of metabolites between yellow and black rapeseed confirmed the improved nutritional value of meal from yellow-seeded B. napus, and this would be helpful to the breeding and improvement of rapeseed for animal feeding.

  19. Varietal differences in photosynthetic characters and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics parameters among intergeneric progeny derived from Oryza×Sorghum, its parents, and hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study on the photosynthetic parameters among intergeneric progenies derived from Oryza sativa L.×Sorghum vulgare L., its maternal parent Gui 630 and commercial 3-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63 in pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted. The morphological and photosynthetic characters of canopy leaves and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic parameters including Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, photochemical quenching coefficient and non-photochemical coefficient of canopy leaves of 3 varieties were measured. The results showed the progeny, Yuanyou 1, derived from an intergeneric cross of rice and sorghum possesses better canopy spatial architecture with thicker, heavier and bigger canopy leaf than its maternal parent Gui 630. Higher photosynthetic rate due to higher chlorophyll content, higher primary energy transformation efficiency, potential of PSII and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (qE) were also measured in Yuanyou 1. These explain partly why the intergeneric progeny has higher biomass production, and better tolerance to adverse conditions and higher field yields even under stress conditions.

  20. Varietal differences in photosynthetic characters and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics parameters among intergeneric progeny derived from Oryza×Sorghum, its parents, and hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KatsuyoshiShimizu; 唐建军; 陈欣

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study on the photosynthetic parameters among intergeneric progenies derived from Oryza sativa L.× Sorghum vulgare L. , its maternal parent Gui 630 and commercial 3-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63 in pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted. The morphological and photosynthetic characters of canopy leaves and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic pm'mneters including Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, photochemical quenching coefficient and non-photochemical coefficient of canopy leaves of 3 varieties were measured. The results showed the progeny, Yuanyou 1, derived from an intergeneric cross of rice and sorghum possesses better canopy spatial architecture with thicker, heavier and bigger canopy leaf than its maternal parent Gui 630.Higher photosynthetic rate due to higher chlorophyll content, higher primary energy transformation efficiency,potential of PSII and non-photochemieal quenching coefficient (qE) were also measured in Yuanyou 1. These explain partly why the intergeneric progeny has higher biomass production, and better tolerance to adverse conditions and higher field yields even under stress conditions.

  1. Isoenzymatic variability in progeny of Pinus mugo Turra x Pinus sylvestris L. hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem, in experimental culture

    OpenAIRE

    Maria A. Bobowicz; Władysław Danielewicz

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the genetic structure of 12-year old seedlings. They were grown in an experimental culture representing the progeny of natural hybrids of Pinus mugo Turra and Pinus sylvestris L. from the peatbog Bór na Czerwonem. The studies were carried out on seedlings, employing electrophoresis of enzymatic proteins from winter buds. Parallel isoenzymatic analyses were also conducted for trees of P. mugo Turra from Tatra Mountains and for P. sylvestris L. trees from Białowieża in ord...

  2. Isoenzymatic variability in progeny of Pinus mugo Turra x Pinus sylvestris L. hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem, in experimental culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the genetic structure of 12-year old seedlings. They were grown in an experimental culture representing the progeny of natural hybrids of Pinus mugo Turra and Pinus sylvestris L. from the peatbog Bór na Czerwonem. The studies were carried out on seedlings, employing electrophoresis of enzymatic proteins from winter buds. Parallel isoenzymatic analyses were also conducted for trees of P. mugo Turra from Tatra Mountains and for P. sylvestris L. trees from Białowieża in order to determine similarities of the hybrids to the 'pure' species, thought to represent parental forms, and for natural hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem. The obtained electrophoretic patterns made the determination of genetic structure of the population possible, namely of the observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, Wright's fixation index and coefficients of similarity according to Nei and Hedrick. Genetic distances between the populations were also estimated. The variability of 11 enzymatic loci demonstrated the highest level of variability in the population of hybrids. Coefficients of genetic differentiation (GST and of gene flow, (Nm suggested a close relationship of the hybrids to P. mugo which may indicate an introgressive type of the hybrid swarm, from which the studied trees originated. The analysis of genetic similarity coefficients, according to Nei and Hedrick, demonstrated also an extensive similarity of the two hybrid groups to P. mugo. However, upon analysis of individual enzymatic loci, some of them highly resembled P. mugo while others were similar to P. sylvestris. The closest genetic similarity was demonstrated for the group of hybrids from the peatbog and the respective of hybrides group from culture. The variable gene expression as well as asymmetric inheritance of isoenzymes provided additional evidence of the introgressive character of the studied trees from the hybrid population.

  3. NextFlex Flexible Hybrid Electronics Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    and innovators, along with a robust U.S. network of manufacturing nodes, to advance a national flexible hybrid electronics (FHE) manufacturing...methods to scale up today’s FHE laboratory experiments into smart , affordable products. FHE manufacturing en- compasses innovative electronic...The software design tools will encompass multiphysics simulation (e.g., electrical , thermal, mechanical, etc., interactions based on first principles

  4. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XXV - Produtividade de progênies e híbridos de café Coffee breeding: XXV- Performance of cultivars progenies and hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio S. Novaes Antunes

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Três grupos de progênies de café num total de 104, forom analisados quanto à produção e variabilidade durante 4 a 11 anos. No primeiro grupo, que encerra os cultivores 'Mundo Novo', 'Bourbon Amarelo', 'Bourbon Vermelho' e Híbridos Diversos, salientou-se o 'Mundo Novo' como o de maior produtividade. No grupo II, os cultivores 'Bourbon Amarelo', 'Bourbon Vermelho', 'Cera', 'Típica', 'Caturra Vermelho' e Híbridos Diversos, mostrou-se mais produtivo o grupo de progênies de 'Bourbon Amarelo'. No terceiro grupo, com os cultivores 'Mundo Novo', 'Bourbon Vermelho' e oito outros, novamente se salientou o 'Mundo Novo' pela elevada produção tanto no período 1951-54 como em 1951-59. Os dados permitem interpretar que a seleção precoce, após o total de 4 anos de produção, é bem eficiente, o que concordo com dados obtidos em outros ensaios. A relação entre a quantidade de sementes concha e a alta incidência de lojas do fruto sem sementes, encontrada nas progênies que segregam plantas com esse defeito, confirmam, também, outros resultados experimentais. A observação geral indica que o cultivar 'Mundo Novo' deve ser aconselhado para o plantio, pelo vigor vegetativo e elevada produção.The yielding capacity of 104 coffee progenies was tested during 4 to 11 years in Campinas. The progenies were planted in rows with 20 individuals each, without replication. Due to the differences in the age of the material, the progenies were divided in three groups. The first group comprised the cultiva rs 'Mundo Novo', 'Bourbon Amarelo', 'Bourbon Vermelho' and several hybrids between different cultivars. The 'Mundo Novo' cultivar had the best yield. In the second group besides 'Bourbon Amarelo' and 'Bourbon Vermelho' it was included progenies of 'Cera', 'Tipica', 'Caturra Vermelha' and also five hybrid populations. 'Bourbon Amarelo' gave the highest yield whereas the cultivar 'Tipica' had the lowest. The third group was composed mostly of progenies of

  5. Meiotic study of Zea mays ssp. mays (2n = 40) x Tripsacum dactyloides (2 n = 72) hybrid and its progeny

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, María del Carmen; García, María Dina; Chorzempa, Silvia Elena

    2006-01-01

    Maize (2n = 40) x Tripsacum dactyloides (2n = 72) F1 hybrid plants (2n = 56) were obtained by embryo rescue and induction of somatic embryogenesis/organogenesis. Hybrid plants showed Tripsacum-like phenotypes, tolerance to stresses such as NaCl salinity and low temperatures. The more frequent meiotic configurations were 28II (24%), 24II + 2IV (19%) and 26II + 1IV (12%), with an average per cell of 0.55I + 25.18II + 1.19IV. Significant differences between plants were not observed. Pollen ferti...

  6. Chromosome substitutions in progeny of hybrids Triticum aestivum x Triticum timopheevii resistant to brown rust and powdery mildew

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badaeva, E.D. [Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Badaev, N.S. [Bioengineering Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Enno, T.M.; Peusha, H.O. [Institute of Experimental Biology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zeller, F.J. [Institut fuer Pflanzenbau und Pflanzenzuechtung, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    By the C-banding technique, chromosome analysis of introgressive wheat lines derived from the tetraploid species T. timopheevii and T. militinae, with complex immunity to pathogens, was performed. It is shown that all hybrid lines possess genetic material of T. timopheevii and are stable in chromosome number (2n = 6x = 42) and composition. In the lines studied, the number of substitutions per genome varied from one to three; variation in the spectrum of chromosome substitutions was observed. Karyotypes of lines 146-155-T, SMT 30, SMT 34, SMT 37, and SMT 45, resistant to brown rust and powdery mildew, had one common chromosome substitution 6B(6G). It is suggested that the resistance to pathogens of these lines is determined by chromosome 6G of T. timopheevii.

  7. 二倍体与四倍体苹果的三倍性杂交后代 ISSR 遗传分析%Genetic Analysis of Apple Triploid Hybrid Progenies from Diploid and Tetraploid Based on ISSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; 王玉霞; 李林光; 王海波; 李慧峰; 孙清荣; 程来亮

    2015-01-01

    利用 ISSR 分子标记技术对苹果‘寒富’与‘四倍体嘎拉’杂交的三倍性后代及亲本进行遗传变异研究。结果表明9条 ISSR 引物共扩增出多态性条带58条,多态性比率为67.4%。相似性分析可知,三倍性新种质与母体相似系数在0.5909~0.7692之间,与父本相似系数在0.5714~0.7500之间,聚类结果显示三倍性杂交后代具有母本倾向。%The genetic variation of triploid hybrid progenies from ‘Hanfu’ב4 x Gala’were studied based on ISSR molecular markers in this paper.The results showed that 58 polymorphic bands were amplified by 9 ISSR primers,the percentage of polymorphic bands of ISSR was 67.4%.The genetic similarity was 0.5909 ~0.7692 between triploid hybrid progenies and female parent,and it was 0.5714 ~0.7500 between triploid hybrid progenies and male parent.The cluster result showed that most of triploid hybrid progenies were tend to the female parent ‘Hanfu’.

  8. Triple Hybrid Energy Harvesting Interface Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluşan, H.; Chamanian, S.; Pathirana, W. M. P. R.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a novel triple hybrid system that combines simultaneously generated power from thermoelectric (TE), vibration-based electromagnetic (EM) and piezoelectric (PZT) harvesters for a relatively high power supply capability. In the proposed solution each harvesting source utilizes a distinct power management circuit that generates a DC voltage suitable for combining the three parallel supplies. The circuits are designed and implemented in 180 nm standard CMOS technology, and are terminated with a schottky diode to avoid reverse current flow. The harvested AC signal from the EM harvester is rectified with a self-powered AC-DC doubler, which utilizes active diode structures to minimize the forward- bias voltage drop. The PZT interface electronics utilizes a negative voltage converter as the first stage, followed by synchronous power extraction and DC-to-DC conversion through internal switches, and an external inductor. The ultra-low voltage DC power harvested by the TE generator is stepped up through a charge-pump driven by an LC oscillator with fully- integrated center-tapped differential inductors. Test results indicate that hybrid energy harvesting circuit provides more than 1 V output for load resistances higher than 100 kΩ (10 μW) where the stand-alone harvesting circuits are not able to reach 1 V output. This is the first hybrid harvester circuit that simultaneously extracts energy from three independent sources, and delivers a single DC output.

  9. SECURED ELECTRONIC VOTING PROTOCOL USING HYBRID CRYPTOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALAICHELVI V

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Voting play a really vital role in the democracy of our life. In this paper, we propose an electronic voting protocol. Our scheme does not require a special voting channel and communication can occur entirely over the current Internet. This method integrates the Internet convenience and cryptology. In the existing protocol the Tallier has to wait until the decryption key is received from the voter. So it will consume lot of time. But, the proposed protocol is based on the hybrid cryptosystem. In this, the ballot is encrypted using faster secret key algorithm and the digital envelope is encrypted using Tallier’s public key. So, the Tallier will decrypt the digital envelope using his own private key to get the secret key and then the encrypted ballot is decrypted using that secret key. So, comparatively the proposed protocol consumes less time. This paper also analyzes the various security issues involved in an electronic voting like security, privacy, authentication, anonymous, uniqueness, accuracy, fairness, efficiency and uncoercibility.

  10. Mixed protonic and electronic conductors hybrid oxide synaptic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang Ming; Zhu, Li Qiang; Wen, Juan; Xiao, Hui; Liu, Rui

    2017-05-01

    Mixed ionic and electronic conductor hybrid devices have attracted widespread attention in the field of brain-inspired neuromorphic systems. Here, mixed protonic and electronic conductor (MPEC) hybrid indium-tungsten-oxide (IWO) synaptic transistors gated by nanogranular phosphorosilicate glass (PSG) based electrolytes were obtained. Unique field-configurable proton self-modulation behaviors were observed on the MPEC hybrid transistor with extremely strong interfacial electric-double-layer effects. Temporally coupled synaptic plasticities were demonstrated on the MPEC hybrid IWO synaptic transistor, including depolarization/hyperpolarization, synaptic facilitation and depression, facilitation-stead/depression-stead behaviors, spiking rate dependent plasticity, and high-pass/low-pass synaptic filtering behaviors. MPEC hybrid synaptic transistors may find potential applications in neuron-inspired platforms.

  11. The extent and position of homoeologous recombination in a distant hybrid of Alstroemeria: a molecular cytogenetic assessment of first generation backcross progenies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, S.A.; Kuipers, A.G.J.; Jeu, de M.J.; Ramanna, M.S.; Jacobsen, E.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the extent and position of homoeologous recombination during meiosis in an interspecific hybrid between two distantly related Alstroemeria species, the chromosome constitution of six first generation backcross (BC1) plants was analysed using sequential fluorescent in situ hybridization

  12. 甘蓝型油菜与红菜薹的杂种及其后代遗传变异分析%Genetic Variation Analyses on Brassica napus×Purple-Caitai Hybrids and Their Backcross Progenies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亭亭; 徐跃进; 万正杰; 张艳

    2011-01-01

    Distant hybridization of a new kind of cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica napus (2n =4× =38) and Purple-Caitai was carried out. Purple-Caitai was used as the recurrent parent to continue backcross. Agronomic and quality traits of the hybrids and backcross progenies of Brassica napus × Purple-Caitai were analyzed. The results showed that the donor parent and the recipient parent e×hibited nucleus replacement,the values of agronomic traits and quality traits of hybridization and backcross progenies had a certain fluctuation and the higher the generation of material, the more similar to the recurrent parent, while the variation range of lower generation was wide.%本研究采用一种新型甘蓝型油菜细胞质雄性不育系(Eru CMS)(Brassica napus 2n=4x=38)与红菜薹(B.campestris L.ssp.chinensis L.var.utilis Tsen et Lee.2n=2x=20)进行远缘杂交,并以红菜薹为轮回亲本连续回交,对甘蓝型油菜细胞质雄性不育系与红菜薹的杂种一代及其回交后代进行植物学性状及品质性状调查测定.结果表明,供体亲本和受体亲本在回交转育过程中发生明显的核置换,其杂交及回交后代的农艺性状及品质性状出现波动,并且随着回交次数的增多,世代越高的材料越相似于轮回亲本红菜薹,而世代越低材料遗传变异范围更大.

  13. Hybrid simulation of electron cyclotron resonance heating

    CERN Document Server

    Ropponen, T; Suominen, P; Koponen, T K; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H

    2008-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating is a fundamentally important aspect in understanding the physics of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). Absorption of the radio frequency (RF) microwave power by electron heating in the resonance zone depends on many parameters including frequency and electric field strength of the microwave, magnetic field structure and electron and ion density profiles. ECR absorption has been studied in the past by e.g. modelling electric field behaviour in the resonance zone and its near proximity. This paper introduces a new ECR heating code that implements damping of the microwave power in the vicinity of the resonance zone, utilizes electron density profiles and uses right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) electromagnetic waves to simulate electron heating in ECRIS plasma.

  14. Hybrid simulation of electron cyclotron resonance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: tommi.ropponen@phys.jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Suominen, P. [CERN Geneve 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Koponen, T.K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Nanoscience Center, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2008-03-11

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating is a fundamentally important aspect in understanding the physics of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). Absorption of the radio frequency (RF) microwave power by electron heating in the resonance zone depends on many parameters including frequency and electric field strength of the microwave, magnetic field structure and electron and ion density profiles. ECR absorption has been studied in the past by e.g. modelling electric field behaviour in the resonance zone and its near proximity. This paper introduces a new ECR heating code that implements damping of the microwave power in the vicinity of the resonance zone, utilizes electron density profiles and uses right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) electromagnetic waves to simulate electron heating in ECRIS plasma.

  15. Segregation of tolerance to iron deficiency in apomictic and hybrid progeny of Malus xiaojinensis%小金海棠实生后代耐缺铁性状分离分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐连生; 王磊; 王然; 王忆; 张新忠; 许雪峰; 韩振海

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In this study, we evaluated the resistance to iron deficiency of hybrid type, restituted apomictic type and non-restituted apomictic type in seeding progeny population from tetraploid Malus xiaojinensis (iron-efficient, facultative apomixis) xM. baccata (iron-inefficient) by using direct identification method, which would be helpful to screen new germplasm and rootstocks with high resistance to iron dificieney. [Method] The experiments were designed to survey the tolerance to iron deficiency and segregation pattern of the apomictic progeny of M. xiaojinensis and hybrid progeny of M. xiaojinensis xM. baccata through observing chlorisis situation and measuring their iron content, SPAD(Soil and Plant Ana- lyzer Development) Reading under sand culture-trickle irrigation conditions. [Result] Results showed that the ability of tolerance to iron deficiency in apomictic progeny mainly remained unchanged, but still displayed segregation related to ploidy. The ability of tolerance to iron deficiency of hybrid progeny was inferior to that of apomictic progeny, and segregation of triploid hybrid was wider than that of the others, and there appeared higher percentage of individual tolerant to iron deficiency. These results indicate that the ability of tolerance to iron deficiency is a recessive trait controlled by several genes. [Conclusion]The separation of resistance to iron dificiency in seeding progeny population from Malus xiaojinensis is complex, and the probability is low to get excellent hybrids which combine high resistance to iron deficiency from M. xiaojinensis with other outstanding characteristics form other rootstocks.%【目的】采用直接鉴定的方法,对四倍体小金海棠(高耐缺铁,兼性无融合生殖)×山定子(不耐缺铁)杂交后代实生群体中杂种、重组型无融合生殖及非重组型无融合生殖等不同倍性的后代单株的耐缺铁性状进行评价,对筛选高耐缺铁新种质和培

  16. Technique for Measuring Hybrid Electronic Component Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, C.C.; Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Robinson, D.; Rutherford, B.; Uribe, F.

    1999-01-01

    Materials compatibility studies of aged, engineered materials and hardware are critical to understanding and predicting component reliability, particularly for systems with extended stockpile life requirements. Nondestructive testing capabilities for component reliability would significantly enhance lifetime predictions. For example, if the detection of crack propagation through a solder joint can be demonstrated, this technique could be used to develop baseline information to statistically determine solder joint lifelengths. This report will investigate high frequency signal response techniques for nondestructively evaluating the electrical behavior of thick film hybrid transmission lines.

  17. Hybrid electronics and electrochemistry with conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle

    2010-07-01

    In this critical review, we discuss the history and development of polymer devices wherein manipulation of the electronic conductivity by electrochemical redox processes in a conjugated polymer is used to form new functions. The devices employed are an electrochemical transistor, an electrolyte-gated field-effect transistor and light-emitting electrochemical cells, all of which combine doping/undoping of a conjugated polymer with modification of electronic transport (130 references).

  18. Photoinduced Reductive Electron Transfer in LNA:DNA Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenge, Ulrike; Wengel, Jesper; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2012-01-01

    Lock it, but not too much: LNA units (locked or bridging nucleic acids) in LNA:DNA hybrids lead to a negative effect on electron transfer (ET), but they also force the nucleic acid structure in the A-type double helix, which allows a better base stacking than the normal B-type and thus positively...... influences the ET. This result is significant for the design of nucleic acids of molecular electronics....

  19. Electrostatic electron cyclotron instabilities near the upper hybrid layer due to electron ring distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, B.; Speirs, D. C.; Daldorff, L. K. S.

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical study is presented of the electrostatic electron cyclotron instability involving Bernstein modes in a magnetized plasma. The presence of a tenuous thermal ring distribution in a Maxwellian plasma decreases the frequency of the upper hybrid branch of the electron Bernstein mode until it merges with the nearest lower branch with a resulting instability. The instability occurs when the upper hybrid frequency is somewhat above the third, fourth, and higher electron cyclotron harmonics, and gives rise to a narrow spectrum of waves around the electron cyclotron harmonic nearest to the upper hybrid frequency. For a tenuous cold ring distribution together with a Maxwellian distribution an instability can take place also near the second electron cyclotron harmonic. Noise-free Vlasov simulations are used to assess the theoretical linear growth-rates and frequency spectra, and to study the nonlinear evolution of the instability. The relevance of the results to laboratory and ionospheric heating experiments is discussed.

  20. Ambient insect pressure and recipient genotypes determine fecundity of transgenic crop-weed rice hybrid progeny: Implications for environmental biosafety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Xia, Hanbing; Xu, Kai; Cai, Xingxing; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2016-08-01

    Transgene introgression into crop weedy/wild relatives can provide natural selective advantages, probably causing undesirable environmental impact. The advantages are likely associated with factors such as transgenes, selective pressure, and genetic background of transgene recipients. To explore the role of the environment and background of transgene recipients in affecting the advantages, we estimated the fitness of crop-weed hybrid lineages derived from crosses between marker-free insect-resistant transgenic (Bt/CpTI) rice with five weedy rice populations under varied insect pressure. Multiway anova indicated the significant effect of both transgenes and weedy rice genotypes on the performance of crop-weed hybrid lineages in the high-insect environment. Increased fecundity was detected in most transgene-present F1 and F2 hybrid lineages under high-insect pressure, but varied among crop-weed hybrid lineages with different weedy rice parents. Increased fecundity of transgenic crop-weed hybrid lineages was associated with the environmental insect pressure and genotypes of their weedy rice parents. The findings suggest that the fitness effects of an insect-resistant transgene introgressed into weedy populations are not uniform across different environments and genotypes of the recipient plants that have acquired the transgene. Therefore, these factors should be considered when assessing the environmental impact of transgene flow to weedy or wild rice relatives.

  1. Electronic properties of hybrid metal-discotic liquid crystal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, R. W.; Pecchia, A.; Bourlange, A.; Movaghar, B.; Evans, S. D.; Hickey, B. J.; Boden, N.

    2003-04-01

    A new class of hybrid organic/inorganic nanostructures, comprising self-organised discotic liquid crystal layers deposited on ultrathin metal films, has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Calculations show that the periodic self-organised molecular layer gives rise to a new, hybrid electronic bandstructure, resulting in modulation of the metal film conductivity. In situ conductivity measurements during deposition of such self-organised layers confirm that the metal film conductivity is altered. Theoretical modeling also shows that the AC conductivity should show structure related to the carrier trapping and one-dimensional transport features of the self-organised layer.

  2. The extent and position of homoeologous recombination in a distant hybrid of Alstroemeria: a molecular cytogenetic assessment of first generation backcross progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, S A; Kuipers, A G; De Jeu, M J; Ramanna, M S; Jacobsen, E

    1999-04-01

    To estimate the extent and position of homoeologous recombination during meiosis in an interspecific hybrid between two distantly related Alstroemeria species, the chromosome constitution of six first generation backcross (BC1) plants was analysed using sequential fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis. Four different probes were used for the FISH analysis: two species-specific and two rDNA probes. The six BC1 plants were obtained from crosses between the hybrid A. aurea x A. inodora with its parent A. inodora. GISH clearly identified all chromosomes of both parental genomes as well as recombinant chromosomes. The sequential GISH and FISH analysis enabled the accurate identification of all individual chromosomes in the BC1 plants, resulting in the construction of detailed karyotypes of the plants. The identification of the recombinant chromosomes provided evidence which chromosomes of the two species are homoeologous. Two of the BC1 plants were aneuploid (2n=2x+1=17) and four triploid (2n=3x=24), indicating that both n and 2n gametes were functional in the F1 hybrid. Using GISH, it was possible to estimate homeologous recombination in two different types of gametes in the F1 hyrid. The positions of the crossover points ranged from highly proximal to distal and the maximum number of crossover points per chromosome arm was three. Compared with the aneuploid plants, the triploid plants (which received 2n gametes) clearly possessed fewer crossovers per chromosome, indicating reduced chromosome pairing/recombination prior to the formation of the 2n gametes. Besides homeologous recombination, evidence was found for the presence of structural rearrangements (inversion and translocation) between the chromosomes of the parental species. The presence of the ancient translocation was confirmed through FISH analysis of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes.

  3. Biochemical Diversity Analysis of the Natural Hybrid Progenies of Camellia sinensis cv. Huangshanzhong%茶树‘黄山种’自然杂交后代生化成分多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金霞; 王玉; 丁兆堂

    2012-01-01

    通过对130份‘黄山种’自然杂交后代种质材料的生化多样性进行鉴定,为杂交育种亲本筛选与新品种选育奠定基础.结果发现,‘黄山种’自然杂交后代存在丰富的变异,平均遗传多样性指数达到1.99,平均变异系数达到30.5%,通过多变量的主成分分析,主成分PC1、PC2、PC3、PC4代表了茶树生化成分多样性的84.86%的信息.基于生化成分,把130份资源聚类划分为3个类群.第1类群为红绿茶兼制的资源,第2类群和第3类群大部分为适制绿茶的资源.并从中筛选出一批生化成分特异的资源.‘黄山种’自引种至山东以来,其自然杂交后代的生化成分发生了丰富的变异,其中存在大量高氨基酸、茶氨酸、茶多酚、咖啡碱、儿茶素等单株.%The biochemical diversity of the 130 natural hybrid progenies of Camellia sinensis Huangshanzhong were identified for the foundation of crossbreeding parent screening and the new variety selective breeding. The results showed that the biochemical diversity and variation were high in the natural hybrid progenies of Camellia sinensis Huangshanzhong. The average diversity index and coefficient of variation were 1.99 and 30.5% , respectively. In principal component analysis, the first 4 principal components represented 84. 86% of the biochemical diversity. Based on the biochemical data, 130 germplasms were clustered into 3 groups. The germplasms in the first group suited to be processed black tea and green tea. The germplasms in the second and third group suited to be processed green tea. A set of special germplasms on some biochemical composition were selected. Since Camellia sinensis Huangshanzhong was introduced into Shandong province, the biochemical components of its natural hybrid progenies have had great variation, with abundant amino acid, theanine, tea polyphenols, cafeine and catechins in some individual plant, to screen outstanding plants out of them can be used for

  4. Variations in wood anatomical properties and specific gravity of half sib progenies of Populus deltoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. K. Pande; R. C. Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    We studied radial and inter-progeny variations in the dimensions of the wood elements and specific gravity of 21 half sib progenies of Populus deltoides Bartr.ex Marsh.The female parents of half sib progenies were G48 and S7C13 clones.Variance ratio (F) test indicated that inter-progeny variations in the dimensions of wood elements and specific gravity were significant for all wood traits while variations were significant for radial location for specific gravity only.Hierarchical cluster analysis was done by Squared Euclidean Distance for all of 21 progenies considering six wood traits.21 progenies were grouped into 4 clusters.Cluster 1 was the largest cluster with 11 progenies,whereas cluster 3 had only one progeny.Selected progenies in dusters 3 (progeny 155,male) and 4 (progeny 108,196,both female) were highly divergent from the other progenies so they were used in combinations as parents of hybrids to develop new clones with desired characters.Progeny 155 showed higher growth,fiber dimensions,and specific gravity,thus,should be used for the development of new clones.

  5. Hybrid planar free-electron maser in the magnetoresonance regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy A. Goryashko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the operation regime of a hybrid planar free-electron maser (FEM amplifier near the magnetoresonant value of the uniform longitudinal (guide magnetic field. Using analytical expressions for individual test electron trajectories and normal frequencies of their three-dimensional oscillations in the magnetostatic field of the hybrid planar FEM, an analytical condition of chaotization of motion is established and shown to be given by the Chirikov resonance-overlap criterion applied to the normal undulator and cyclotron frequencies with respect to the coupling induced by the undulator magnetic field. It is also shown analytically that, in spite of the well-known drop for the exact magnetoresonance, the gain attains its maximal value in the zone of regular dynamics slightly above the magnetoresonant value of the guide magnetic field. Under the condition of undulator resonance, it is practically independent of the amplitude of the undulator magnetic field and the wavelength of amplified signal. To account for space-charge effects, we propose a theoretical model of a weakly relativistic FEM, which accommodates not only potential but also rotational parts of the nonradiated electromagnetic field of a moving charged particle. It turns out that the rotational part of nonradiated field diminishes the defocusing influence of the potential part on the beam bunching. Numeric simulation of the nonlinear stage of amplification is fulfilled, taking into consideration adiabatic entrance of the electron beam to the interaction region and initial electron velocity spread. We find that nonradiated field and initial electron velocity spread do not influence essentially the efficiency of hybrid planar FEM amplification if parameters of the beam-microwave interaction correspond to the operational regime in the zone of regular dynamics near the magnetoresonance.

  6. Electronic structure of hybrid interfaces for polymer-based electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, M; Crispin, A; Crispin, X; Henze, S K M; de Jong, M P; Osikowicz, W; Tengstedt, C; Salaneck, W R

    2007-05-08

    The fundamentals of the energy level alignment at anode and cathode electrodes in organic electronics are described. We focus on two different models that treat weakly interacting organic/metal (and organic/organic) interfaces: the induced density of interfacial states model and the so-called integer charge transfer model. The two models are compared and evaluated, mainly using photoelectron spectroscopy data of the energy level alignment of conjugated polymers and molecules at various organic/metal and organic/organic interfaces. We show that two different alignment regimes are generally observed: (i) vacuum level alignment, which corresponds to the lack of vacuum level offsets (Schottky-Mott limit) and hence the lack of charge transfer across the interface, and (ii) Fermi level pinning where the resulting work function of an organic/metal and organic/organic bilayer is independent of the substrate work function and an interface dipole is formed due to charge transfer across the interface. We argue that the experimental results are best described by the integer charge transfer model which predicts the vacuum level alignment when the substrate work function is above the positive charge transfer level and below the negative charge transfer level of the conjugated material. The model further predicts Fermi level pinning to the positive (negative) charge transfer level when the substrate work function is below (above) the positive (negative) charge transfer level. The nature of the integer charge transfer levels depend on the materials system: for conjugated large molecules and polymers, the integer charge transfer states are polarons or bipolarons; for small molecules' highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals and for crystalline systems, the relevant levels are the valence and conduction band edges. Finally, limits and further improvements to the integer charge transfer model are discussed as well as the impact on device design.

  7. Hybrid [5]Radialenes with Bispyrroloheteroles: New Electron-Donating Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Tomohiro; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2015-09-14

    Bispyrroloheteroles have been synthesized to address their intrinsic structural, optical, and electrochemical properties. The X-ray crystal structures and calculated natural bond orbital (NBO) bond orders unambiguously demonstrated the existence of a two pyrrole-fused five-membered ring with short exocyclic C-C double bonds and long endocyclic C-C single bonds, supporting that the bispyrroloheteroles are rare examples of structurally characterized hybrid [5]radialenes. The bispyrroloheteroles were found to act as an electron-donating unit, which would be fascinating for the rational design of new charge-transporting and donor-acceptor photovoltaic materials as well as versatile charge-transfer complexes.

  8. Transmission electron microscopy of unstained hybrid Au nanoparticles capped with PPAA (plasma-poly-allylamine)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel C.; Fernández, Asunción; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.;

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid (organic shell-inorganic core) nanoparticles have important applications in nanomedicine. Although the inorganic components of hybrid nanoparticles can be characterized readily using conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, the structural and chemical arrangement of ...

  9. Structural and electronic properties of hybrid silicon-germanium nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. Pérez Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using first principles molecular calculations, based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT, structural and electronic properties of hybrid graphene—like silicon—germanium circular nanosheets of hexagonal symmetry are investigated. The exchange—correlation functional of Perdew—Wang (PW in the local spin density approximation (LSDA based on the pseudopotentials of Dolg—Bergnre is applied. The finite extension nanosheets are represented by the CnHm—like cluster model with mono—hydrogenated armchair edges. Changes of the physicochemical properties were analyzed to learn on the chemical composition. We have obtained that the corrugation of the hybrid nanosheets is maintained (with respect to the pristine nanosheets of Ge and Si and is more pronounced when there is a high percentage of germanium. Moreover, hybrid nanosheets have ionic bonds (polarity in the interval from 0.18 to 0.77 D and exhibit a semimetal behavior. Three types of chemical compositions are considered: 1 the one—one relationship, 2 formation of Ge dimers and 3 formation of Ge hexagons. In each case it is observed an increase in the chemical reactivity. Finally, analyzing the work function we conclude that in cases 1 and 2 the chemical compositions improve the efficiency of the field emission and thereby they could expand the scope of nanotechnology applications.

  10. Electron imaging with Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    McMullan, G; Chen, S; Henderson, R; Llopart, X; Summerfield, C; Tlustos, L; Faruqi, A R

    2007-01-01

    The electron imaging performance of Medipix2 is described. Medipix2 is a hybrid pixel detector composed of two layers. It has a sensor layer and a layer of readout electronics, in which each 55 μm×55 μm pixel has upper and lower energy discrimination and MHz rate counting. The sensor layer consists of a 300 μm slab of pixellated monolithic silicon and this is bonded to the readout chip. Experimental measurement of the detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0) at 120 keV shows that it can reach 85% independent of electron exposure, since the detector has zero noise, and the DQE(Nyquist) can reach 35% of that expected for a perfect detector (4/π2). Experimental measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist resolution for 120 keV electrons using a 60 keV lower energy threshold, yields a value that is 50% of that expected for a perfect detector (2/π). Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks and energy deposited in adjacent pixels have been performed and used to calculate expected v...

  11. Electronic heat current rectification in hybrid superconducting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornieri, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.fornieri@sns.it; Giazotto, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.giazotto@sns.it [NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Martínez-Pérez, María José [Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II Universität Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, we review and expand recent theoretical proposals for the realization of electronic thermal diodes based on tunnel-junctions of normal metal and superconducting thin films. Starting from the basic rectifying properties of a single hybrid tunnel junction, we will show how the rectification efficiency can be largely increased by combining multiple junctions in an asymmetric chain of tunnel-coupled islands. We propose three different designs, analyzing their performance and their potential advantages. Besides being relevant from a fundamental physics point of view, this kind of devices might find important technological application as fundamental building blocks in solid-state thermal nanocircuits and in general-purpose cryogenic electronic applications requiring energy management.

  12. Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam D.; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L.; Eperon, Giles E.; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A.; Snaith, Henry J.; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2016-05-01

    Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron-phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ~40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites.

  13. Electron-phonon coupling in hybrid lead halide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam D; Verdi, Carla; Milot, Rebecca L; Eperon, Giles E; Pérez-Osorio, Miguel A; Snaith, Henry J; Giustino, Feliciano; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2016-05-26

    Phonon scattering limits charge-carrier mobilities and governs emission line broadening in hybrid metal halide perovskites. Establishing how charge carriers interact with phonons in these materials is therefore essential for the development of high-efficiency perovskite photovoltaics and low-cost lasers. Here we investigate the temperature dependence of emission line broadening in the four commonly studied formamidinium and methylammonium perovskites, HC(NH2)2PbI3, HC(NH2)2PbBr3, CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3, and discover that scattering from longitudinal optical phonons via the Fröhlich interaction is the dominant source of electron-phonon coupling near room temperature, with scattering off acoustic phonons negligible. We determine energies for the interacting longitudinal optical phonon modes to be 11.5 and 15.3 meV, and Fröhlich coupling constants of ∼40 and 60 meV for the lead iodide and bromide perovskites, respectively. Our findings correlate well with first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, which underlines the suitability of an electronic band-structure picture for describing charge carriers in hybrid perovskites.

  14. Cre/Loxp系统在转基因拟南芥杂交后代中的删除效率分析%Recombination Efficiency Analysis of Cre/Loxp System in Hybrid Progenies of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉蕙; 葛佳; 汪丽君; 梦玲; 陆万香; 罗克明

    2015-01-01

    In recent years ,genetically modified (GM ) crops or transgenic crops carrying novel traits have been developed in developing countries .However ,there exist concerns to the public about controlling the flow of transgenic genes into the wild via pollen and seeds .To address these concerns ,the site‐specific re‐combination enzyme system Cre/Loxp ,in which Cre recombinase catalyzes recombination between two Loxp in the same direction and removes all DNA sequences ,eventually leaving only a Loxp site ,has been successfully used to delete the transgenes from GM crops .In this study ,we describe a hybrid system of Cre/Loxp in which Cre protein and two Loxp sites were separated and distributed at two loci on the chro‐mosomes from parents respectively .Transgenic male plants were transformed with pCXSN‐nlsCre carrying Cre gene and transgenic female plants were transformed with pCA‐Loxp containing GUS reporter gene flanked by two loxp sites in the same direction .The male and female parents were used for artificial hy‐bridization .After germination of seeds of hybrid offspring ,histochemical GUS staining of hybrid seedlings was performed .Excision of all foreign genes in hybrid seedlings was further analyzed by PCR and con‐firmed by DNA sequencing .The results showed that the Cre/Loxp system successfully deleted exogenous transgenes in hybrid progenies of transgenic A rabidopsis thaliana ,and the efficiency of gene deletion is up t o 82 .2% .%在位点特异性重组酶系统Cre/Loxp中,重组酶Cre可以识别两个同向Loxp位点,并删除Loxp位点之间的所有外源基因,最终只留下一个识别位点.基于这一原理,以拟南芥为材料,构建带有同向Loxp位点的植物双元表达载体pCA‐Loxp以及携带Cre基因的植物载体pCXSN‐nlsCre ,利用花序浸染法将二者分别转化野生型拟南芥.经逐步筛选得到各自的单拷贝纯合植株,分别以转基因纯合pCXSN‐nlsCre和pCA‐Loxp为父本

  15. Hybrid gate dielectric materials for unconventional electronic circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Young-Geun; Everaerts, Ken; Hersam, Mark C; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-04-15

    Recent advances in semiconductor performance made possible by organic π-electron molecules, carbon-based nanomaterials, and metal oxides have been a central scientific and technological research focus over the past decade in the quest for flexible and transparent electronic products. However, advances in semiconductor materials require corresponding advances in compatible gate dielectric materials, which must exhibit excellent electrical properties such as large capacitance, high breakdown strength, low leakage current density, and mechanical flexibility on arbitrary substrates. Historically, conventional silicon dioxide (SiO2) has dominated electronics as the preferred gate dielectric material in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated transistor circuitry. However, it does not satisfy many of the performance requirements for the aforementioned semiconductors due to its relatively low dielectric constant and intransigent processability. High-k inorganics such as hafnium dioxide (HfO2) or zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) offer some increases in performance, but scientists have great difficulty depositing these materials as smooth films at temperatures compatible with flexible plastic substrates. While various organic polymers are accessible via chemical synthesis and readily form films from solution, they typically exhibit low capacitances, and the corresponding transistors operate at unacceptably high voltages. More recently, researchers have combined the favorable properties of high-k metal oxides and π-electron organics to form processable, structurally well-defined, and robust self-assembled multilayer nanodielectrics, which enable high-performance transistors with a wide variety of unconventional semiconductors. In this Account, we review recent advances in organic-inorganic hybrid gate dielectrics, fabricated by multilayer self-assembly, and their remarkable synergy with unconventional semiconductors. We first discuss the principals and functional

  16. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    CERN Document Server

    Guiseppe, V E; Hime, A; Rielage, K; Westerdale, S

    2011-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly Rn-222) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of Pb-210 on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to depos...

  17. Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Electron transport in a mesoscopic superconducting ferromagnetic hybrid conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giroud, M.; Hasselbach, K.; Courtois, H.; Pannetier, B. [Centre de Recherche sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Mailly, D. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    2003-01-01

    We present electrical transport experiments performed on submicron hybrid devices made of a ferromagnetic conductor (Co) and a superconducting (Al) electrode. The sample was patterned in order to separate the contributions of the Co conductor and of the Co-Al interface. We observed a strong influence of the Al electrode superconductivity on the resistance of the Co conductor. This effect is large only when the interface is highly transparent. We characterized the dependence of the observed resistance decrease on temperature, bias current and magnetic field. As the differential resistance of the ferromagnet exhibits a non-trivial asymmetry, we claim that the magnetic domain structure plays an important role in the electron transport properties of superconducting / ferromagnetic conductors. (authors)

  19. Preliminary evaluation of some biparental progenies of two bivoltine silkworm (Bombyx mori L. ) hybrids%家蚕二化性杂交品种部分数量性状遗传参数的初步评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulam Nabi MALIK; Syed Zia Ul Haque RUFAIE; Tejender Paul SINGH; Mohammed Farooq BAQUAL; Habib Ullah DAR

    2005-01-01

    Twenty two BIPs (biparental progenies) generated from two bivoltine silkworm ( Bombyx mori L. ) hybrids, viz., SH6 × NB4D2 and CSR2 × CSR4, were evaluated for their performance in seven metric traits (weight of 10 mature larvae, single cocoon weight, single shell weight, shell ratio (%), effective rate of rearing, yield/10 000 larvae (wt.) and filament length.The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications for each treatment. The aim was to short list promising progenies and to work out estimates of direct selection parameters like heritability and genetic advance so that the generated information is utilized for the formulation of effective breeding and selection procedures aimed at extraction of new and more productive genotypes. BIPs 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, 16, 19 and 20 displayed a significantly superior performance in several traits. Single cocoon weight, yield/10 000 larvae (wt.) and filament length exhibited moderate estimates of heritability and reasonable genetic gains indicating genotypic variability to be a major component of phenotypic variability; hence, scope exists to bring about improvement in these traits through simple phenotypic selection. The rest traits (weight of 10 mature larvae,single shell weight, shell ratio (%) and ERR) recorded moderate estimates of heritability and low genetic gains environmental variability to be a major component of phenotypic variability; hence, selection for these traits would be less effective.%采用完全随机设计法根据10头老熟幼虫体重、全茧重、茧层量、茧层率(%)、存活率、万蚕茧层量和茧丝长等指标,对两对二化性家蚕Bombyx mori L.杂交品系(SH6×NB4D2和CSR2×CSR4)杂交一代的22个子代个体进行了遗传参数估算,以缩小优质蚕品种的候选范围,并且计算出直接筛选的参数,如遗传力和遗传进度等,使这些信息可用于以筛选高产新品种为目的的育种

  20. Melhoramento do cafeeiro XXXV: altura e profundidade das plantas e características das sementes de progênies e híbridos de café plantados a uma e quatro plantas por cova Coffee breeding XXXV: characteristics of coffee progenies and hybrids cultivated at one or four seedlings per hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1975-01-01

    characteristics of S1, progenies, F1, hybrids, and advanced generations of hybrids between selected plants of C. arabica cultivars planted at one or four seedlings per hill. Yield was higher and the coefficient of variation was lower at four plants per hill planting The highest total yields, in both planting modalites were observed among mundo novo progenies. Hybrids between selected mundo novo plants or between burbom amarelo plants had similar average yield as the S1, progenies of these cultivars, wheres, intermediate yield was observed for mundo novo x burbom vermelho hybrids. The performance of the best progenies or hybrids does not depend on the planting system. Consequently for breeding purposes the planting system will depend on the method of selection to be adopted. In cases of population selection four plants per hill will allow a more reliable selection of the best progenies or populations. It was also noted that early selection could be carried out efficiently after only two or four consecutive yields. Flat bean percentage revealed to be higher while peaberry and elephant beans percentages were lower when four seedlings were planted per hill. Bean size, however, seems, not to be affected by the planting method.

  1. Hybrid LC filter for power electronic drives. Theory and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhankhotov, V.

    2009-07-01

    Power electronic converter drives use, for the sake of high efficiency, pulse-width modulation that results in sequences of high-voltage high-frequency steep-edged pulses. Such a signal contains a set of high harmonics not required for control purposes. Harmonics cause reflections in the cable between the motor and the inverter leading to faster winding insulation ageing. Bearing failures and problems with electromagnetic compatibility may also result. Electrical du/dt filters provide an effective solution to problems caused by pulse-width modulation, thereby increasing the performance and service life of the electrical machines. It is shown that RLC filters effectively decrease the reflection phenomena in the cable. Improved (simple, but effective) solutions are found for both differential- and common-mode signals; these solutions use a galvanic connection between the RLC filter star point and the converter DC link. Foil chokes and film capacitors are among the most widely used components in high-power applications. In actual applications they can be placed in different parts of the cabinet. This fact complicates the arrangement of the cabinet and decreases the reliability of the system. In addition, the inductances of connection wires may prevent filtration at high frequencies. This thesis introduces a new hybrid LC filter that uses a natural capacitance between the turns of the foil choke based on integration of an auxiliary layer into it. The main idea of the hybrid LC filter results from the fact that both the foil choke and the film capacitors have the same roll structure. Moreover, the capacitance between the turns ('intra capacitance') of the foil inductors is the reason for the deterioration of their properties at high frequencies. It is shown that the proposed filter has a natural cancellation of the intra capacitance. A hybrid LC filter may contain two or more foil layers isolated from each other and coiled on a core. The core material can be

  2. Reduced density matrix hybrid approach: application to electronic energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelbach, Timothy C; Markland, Thomas E; Reichman, David R

    2012-02-28

    Electronic energy transfer in the condensed phase, such as that occurring in photosynthetic complexes, frequently occurs in regimes where the energy scales of the system and environment are similar. This situation provides a challenge to theoretical investigation since most approaches are accurate only when a certain energetic parameter is small compared to others in the problem. Here we show that in these difficult regimes, the Ehrenfest approach provides a good starting point for a dynamical description of the energy transfer process due to its ability to accurately treat coupling to slow environmental modes. To further improve on the accuracy of the Ehrenfest approach, we use our reduced density matrix hybrid framework to treat the faster environmental modes quantum mechanically, at the level of a perturbative master equation. This combined approach is shown to provide an efficient and quantitative description of electronic energy transfer in a model dimer and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and is used to investigate the effect of environmental preparation on the resulting dynamics.

  3. Genetic Variation Analyses of Apple Triploid Hybrid Progenies from‘Hanfu’ב4xGala’by ISSR and AFLP%‘寒富’ב四倍体嘎拉’苹果的三倍性杂交后代ISSR和AFLP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉霞; 李林光; 何平; 张丽杰; 董文轩

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation of 7 triploid hybrid progenies of‘Hanfu’ב4xGala’ were investigated based on ISSR and AFLP molecular markers in this paper. The results showed that the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) of ISSR was 60.00%, observed number of alleles (Na) was 1.600, effective number of alleles (Ne) was 1.420, Nei's gene diversity (H) was 0.236 and Shannon's Information index (I) was 0.346. And these were lower than that of AFLP, which were 66.54%, 1.665, 1.421, 0.240 and 0.357. The UPMGA cluster showed that most of 7 triploid hybrid progenies were tend to the female parent‘Hanfu’ based on ISSR and AFLP. Compared with ISSR, AFLP is more useful to analyze the genetic diversity of apple triploid hybrid progenies, and these triploid hybrid progenies were maternal inheritance. And these results can provide a basis for parent selecting in triploid apple breeding.%  利用ISSR及AFLP分子标记技术研究了‘寒富’ב四倍体嘎拉’苹果的7份三倍性后代及其亲本的遗传变异。结果表明ISSR扩增得到的遗传多样性指数中扩增多态性比率(PPB)为60.00%,观察等位基因数(Na)为1.600,有效等位基因数(Ne)为1.420,Nei's基因多样性指数(H)为0.236,Shannon信息指数(I)为0.346;均小于AFLP扩增的遗传多样性指数66.54%、1.665、1.421、0.240和0.357。根据ISSR和AFLP得到的UPGMA聚类图显示这7份三倍性杂交后代倾向于母本‘寒富’。在三倍性苹果遗传多样性检测上AFLP优于ISSR,且这7份三倍性新种质在遗传上倾向于母本遗传。为三倍性苹果育种的亲本选择提供依据。

  4. Lower hybrid current drive favoured by electron cyclotron radiofrequency heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesario, R.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Marinucci, M.; Tuccillo, A. A. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, 00044, Frascati (Italy); Amicucci, L.; Galli, A. [Università di Roma Sapienza, Dipartimento Ingegneria Elettronica, Rome (Italy); Giruzzi, G. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Napoli, F.; Schettini, G. [Università di Roma Tre, Dipartimento Ingegneria Elettronica, Rome (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    The important goal of adding to the bootstrap a fraction of non-inductive plasma current, which would be controlled for obtaining and optimizing steady-state profiles, can be reached by using the Current Drive produced by Lower Hybrid waves (LHCD). FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) experiments demonstrated, indeed, that LHCD is effective at reactor-graded high plasma density, and the LH spectral broadening is reduced, operating with higher electron temperature in the outer region of plasma column (T{sub e-periphery}). This method was obtained following the guidelines of theoretical predictions indicating that the broadening of launched spectrum produced by parametric instability (PI) should be reduced, and the LHCD effect at high density consequently enabled, under higher (T{sub e-periphery}). In FTU, the temperature increase in the outer plasma region was obtained by operating with reduced particle recycling, lithized walls and deep gas fuelling by means of fast pellet. Heating plasma periphery with electron cyclotron resonant waves (ECRH) will provide a further tool for achieving steady-state operations. New FTU experimental results are presented here, demonstrating that temperature effect at the plasma periphery, affecting LH penetration, occurs in a range of plasma parameters broader than in previous work. New information is also shown on the modelling assessing frequencies and growth rates of the PI coupled modes responsible of spectral broadening. Finally, we present the design of an experiment scheduled on FTU next campaign, where ECRH power is used to slightly increase the electron temperature in the outer plasma region of a high-density discharge aiming at restoring LHCD. Consequent to model results, by operating with a toroidal magnetic field of 6.3 T, useful for locating the electron cyclotron resonant layer at the periphery of the plasma column (r/a∼0.8, f{sub 0}=144 GHz), an increase of T{sub e} in the outer plasma (from 40 eV to 80 eV at r/a∼0.8) is

  5. The electronics hybrid of the ATLAS-SCT endcap detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterer, C

    2004-01-01

    An electronics hybrid has been developed for the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker endcaps. The high-density interconnect board carries 12 readout ASICs, as well as ASICs for the optical data transmission. Special requirements are that this hybrid has to be double sided, radiation hard, and low mass. A six-layer flexible circuit in copper-polyimide technology has been chosen for this purpose. It is folded around a highly heat conducting carbon-carbon composite substrate to form the rigid double-sided hybrid. Adequate thermal, mechanical, and electrical performance of the hybrid has been demonstrated. The production of the hybrids started in May 2003. (12 refs).

  6. Hybrid additive manufacturing of 3D electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wasley, T.; Nguyen, T. T.; Ta, V. D.; Shephard, J. D.; Stringer, J.; Smith, P.; Esenturk, E.; Connaughton, C.; Kay, R.

    2016-10-01

    A novel hybrid additive manufacturing (AM) technology combining digital light projection (DLP) stereolithography (SL) with 3D micro-dispensing alongside conventional surface mount packaging is presented in this work. This technology overcomes the inherent limitations of individual AM processes and integrates seamlessly with conventional packaging processes to enable the deposition of multiple materials. This facilitates the creation of bespoke end-use products with complex 3D geometry and multi-layer embedded electronic systems. Through a combination of four-point probe measurement and non-contact focus variation microscopy, it was identified that there was no obvious adverse effect of DLP SL embedding process on the electrical conductivity of printed conductors. The resistivity maintained to be less than 4  ×  10-4 Ω · cm before and after DLP SL embedding when cured at 100 °C for 1 h. The mechanical strength of SL specimens with thick polymerized layers was also identified through tensile testing. It was found that the polymerization thickness should be minimised (less than 2 mm) to maximise the bonding strength. As a demonstrator a polymer pyramid with embedded triple-layer 555 LED blinking circuitry was successfully fabricated to prove the technical viability.

  7. One- and many-electron self-interaction error in local and global hybrid functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Kümmel, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Electronic self-interaction poses a fundamental challenge in density-functional theory. It greatly limits, e.g., the physical interpretation of eigenvalues as electron removal energies. We here investigate whether local hybrid functionals that are designed to be free from one-electron self-interaction lead to occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalues and orbitals that approximate photoemission observables well. We compare the local hybrid results to the ones from global hybrid functionals that only partially counteract the self-interaction, and to the results that are obtained with a Perdew-Zunger-type self-interaction correction. Furthermore, we check whether being nominally free from one-electron self-interaction translates into a reduced many-electron self-interaction error. Our findings show that this is not the case for the local hybrid functionals that we studied: In practice they are similar to global hybrids in many respects, despite being formally superior. This finding indicates that there is a conceptual difference between the Perdew-Zunger way and the local hybrid way of translating the one-electron condition to a many-electron system. We also point out and solve some difficulties that occur when using local hybrid functionals in combination with pseudopotentials.

  8. Hybrid fluorescence and electron cryo-microscopy for simultaneous electron and photon imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Hirofumi; Fukuda, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Yoshihiro; Terakawa, Susumu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2014-01-01

    Integration of fluorescence light and transmission electron microscopy into the same device would represent an important advance in correlative microscopy, which traditionally involves two separate microscopes for imaging. To achieve such integration, the primary technical challenge that must be solved regards how to arrange two objective lenses used for light and electron microscopy in such a manner that they can properly focus on a single specimen. To address this issue, both lateral displacement of the specimen between two lenses and specimen rotation have been proposed. Such movement of the specimen allows sequential collection of two kinds of microscopic images of a single target, but prevents simultaneous imaging. This shortcoming has been made up by using a simple optical device, a reflection mirror. Here, we present an approach toward the versatile integration of fluorescence and electron microscopy for simultaneous imaging. The potential of simultaneous hybrid microscopy was demonstrated by fluorescence and electron sequential imaging of a fluorescent protein expressed in cells and cathodoluminescence imaging of fluorescent beads. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fast electron dynamics in lower hybrid current drive experiment on HT-7 tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Yue-Jiang; Kuang Gang-Li; Li Jian-Gang; HT-7 Team; Wan Bao-Nian; Chen Zhong-Yong; Hu Li-Qun; Lin Shi-Yao; Ruan Huai-Lin; Qian Jin-Ping; Zhen Xiang-Jun; Ding Bo-Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of fast electron in lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments is a crucial issue in the sense of enhancing plasma performance. A new hard x-ray diagnostic system on HT-7 allows the investigation of the lower hybrid wave dynamics. The behaviour of fast electron is studied in several kinds of LHCD experiments, including long pulse discharges, high performance discharges and counter-LHCD experiments.

  10. Parental Drought and Defoliation Effect on Yield, Grains Biochemical Aspects and Drought Performance of Sorghum Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, A. H.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of drought stress and drought with defoliation on yield parameters of three sorghum varieties (Giza 15, Dorado and Hybrid 113. Also, the effect of these parental stress treatments on drought performance of progeny of the most drought tolerant variety was investigated. Application of drought stress in the vegetative stage non significantly affected panicles number, grain yield and harvest index of all cultivars. Drought stress in the reproductive stage of Giza 15 and Hybrid 113 cultivars caused a two fold increase in length of lateral branch and panicles number. However, grain yield and total panicles weight were significantly reduced in all cultivars due to this stress. Application of drought with defoliation in the vegetative stage reduced shoot and straw weights, and grain yield in sorghum in comparison with drought stress only. Protein-N and polysaccharides content were decreased in parent grains in response to water stress.The stress intensity index (SII of progeny from drought- subjected parents was about 30-fold greater than SII of progeny from control parents. Further, SII of progeny from parents exposed to drought stress in the reproductive stage was higher than the SII of progeny from parents subjected to drought stress in the vegetative stage . A strong negative correlation appeared between the stress intensity index of the progeny and polysaccharides content of parent grains. Based on our research parental defoliation did not improve the drought resistance of sorghum progeny.

  11. 水稻籽粒蛋白质含量选择对杂交后代蛋白质含量及氮代谢关键酶活性的影响%Effects of Grain Protein Content Selection on Protein Content and Key Enzymes Activities for Nitrogen Metabolism in Rice Hybrid Progenies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星; 李晓光; 刘洪亮; 徐美兰; 张丰转; 张忠臣; 金正勋

    2009-01-01

    The japonica parents (Tong 769 and Xixuan 1) and their hybrid progenies, significantly differed in protein content in grains, were investigated to reveal the activities of protease in leaves and glutamine synthetase in grains and the dynamic alteration of soluble protein content in grains during grain filling. The results showed that the protein content in rice of the parents was near to each other, however, hybrid progenies with different contents of protein in grains and higher or lower activities of protease in leaves and glutamine synthetase in grains were acquired by consecutively directed selection of the grain protein content in their hybrid progenies. Moreover, the enzyme activity and protein content in grains exceled their parents during grain filling. The content of protein in rice and the activitiy of protease in leaves were positively related, and the content of soluble protein and activity of glutamine synthetase in grains were negatively related to some extent.%以籽粒蛋白质含量有显著差异的杂交后代及亲本为材料,分析了灌浆成熟过程中叶片蛋白水解酶和籽粒谷氨酰胺合成酶活性以及籽粒可溶性蛋白质含量的变化动态.结果表明,在籽粒蛋白质含量相近的亲本衍生的杂交后代中,通过籽粒蛋白质含量的连续定向选择不仅可以获得籽粒蛋白质含量和叶片蛋白水解酶活性及籽粒谷氨酰胺合成酶活性明显变高或变低的杂种后代,而且可获得蛋白质含量和酶活性超亲的后代;稻米蛋白质含量与灌浆过程中的叶片蛋白水解酶活性呈正相关, 籽粒可溶性蛋白质含量与籽粒谷氨酰胺合成酶活性呈显著负相关.

  12. Meiotic behavior in apomictic Brachiaria ruziziensis × B. brizantha (Poaceae progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Aparecida Fuzinatto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids combining desirable traits from divergent parents are the main objective of some Brachiaria (Syn. Urochloa P. Beauv. breeding programs. There is great interest in the development of apomictic hybrid cultivars that combine desirable genes such as resistance to spittlebugs, high nutritive value, and tolerance to acid soils. Microsporogenesis of six apomictic progenies resulting from a tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36 cross between B. ruziziensis × B. brizantha was evaluated under light microscopy. Genetic recombination, ensured by multivalent chromosome association and crossing-over at prophase occurred in low frequency among progenies, and in one, recombination was almost nonexistent. The percentage of meiocytes with meiotic abnormalities among progenies ranged from 16.6 % to 85.6 %. Besides an observed irregular chromosome segregation typical of polyploid hybrids in these five progenies, putative meiotic mutations characterized as desynapsis and divergent spindle organization occurred in three progenies. These anomalies caused frequent fractionation of the genome into several microspores of different sizes. In Brachiaria, new cultivars must be apomictic to fix the genotype. However, Brachiaria is a pseudogamous apomict, and viable gametes are necessary to produce viable seeds. Considering meiotic behavior, only two progenies are promising for advancement in the breeding program.

  13. Simulating Strongly Correlated Electron Systems with Hybrid Monte Carlo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chuan

    2000-01-01

    Using the path integral representation, the Hubbard and the periodic Anderson model on D-dimensional cubic lattice are transformed into field theories of fermions in D + 1 dimensions. These theories at half-filling possess a positive definite real symmetry fermion matrix and can be simulated using the hybrid Monte Carlo method.

  14. Slow electron energy balance for hybrid models of direct-current glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, S. I.; Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present the formulation of slow electron energy balance for hybrid models of direct current (DC) glow discharge. Electrons originating from non-local ionization (secondary) contribute significantly to the energy balance of slow electrons. An approach towards calculating effective energy brought by a secondary electron to the group of slow electrons by means of Coulomb collisions is suggested. The value of effective energy shows a considerable dependence on external parameters of a discharge, such as gas pressure, type, and geometric parameters. The slow electron energy balance was implemented into a simple hybrid model that uses analytical formulation for the description of non-local ionization by fast electrons. Simulations of short (without positive column) DC glow discharge in argon are carried out for a range of gas pressures. Comparison with experimental data showed generally good agreement in terms of current-voltage characteristics, electron density, and electron temperature. Simulations also capture the trend of increasing electron density with decreasing pressure observed in the experiment. Analysis shows that for considered conditions, the product of maximum electron density ne and electron temperature Te in negative glow is independent of gas pressure and depends on the gas type, cathode material, and discharge current. Decreasing gas pressure reduces the heating rate of slow electrons during Coulomb collisions with secondary electrons, which leads to lower values of Te and, in turn, higher maximum ne.

  15. Tunable hybridization of electronic states of graphene and a metal surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gruneis, Alexander; Vyalikh, Denis

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach to monitor and control the strength of the hybridization between electronic states of graphene and metal surfaces. Inspecting the distribution of the $\\pi$ band in a high-quality graphene layer synthesized on Ni(111) by angle-resolved photoemission, we observe a new "kink" feature which indicates a strong hybridization between $\\pi$ and \\textit{d} states of graphene and nickel, respectively. Upon deposition and gradual intercalation of potassium atoms into the graphene/...

  16. Polymer-metal hybrid transparent electrodes for flexible electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Hongkyu; Jung, Suhyun; Jeong, Soyeong; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Kwanghee

    2015-01-01

    Despite nearly two decades of research, the absence of ideal flexible and transparent electrodes has been the largest obstacle in realizing flexible and printable electronics for future technologies...

  17. Preparation and property of a novel soluble electron transport POSS-based hybrid material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Juan Shen; Jin Cui Wu; Min Fang; Hong Yao Xu

    2008-01-01

    A novel POSS-based organic/inorganic hybrid covalently attached at molecular level, 2-(4-(allyloxy)phenyl)-5-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-POSS (6) (abbreviated as oxadiazole-POSS) was synthesized by Pt (dcp) catalyst. The hybrid was soluble in common organic solvents such as CHCl3, toluene, C2H4Cl2, and THF. Its structures and properties were characterized and evaluated with FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 29Si NMR, EA, TGA, DSC, GPC, and CV, respectively. The results show that the novel hybrid possesses high thermal stability and good electron injection ability.

  18. Interaction of runaway electrons with lower hybrid waves via anomalous Doppler broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Solís, J. R.; Sánchez, R.; Esposito, B.

    2002-05-01

    Due to the relativistic decrease of the electron cyclotron frequency, a cyclotron resonance may appear between runaway electrons and lower hybrid waves. A single particle description of the runaway dynamics [J. R. Martín-Solís et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2370 (1998)] is extended to analyze the effect of the interaction of runaway electrons with lower hybrid waves via anomalous Doppler broadening. The conditions under which the resonant interaction can play a role in limiting the runaway energy are established and it is shown that, under typical lower hybrid current drive operation parameters, an efficient wave-particle coupling may occur. Observations of a fast pitch angle scattering event during the current decay phase of Ohmic discharges in the Toroidal Experiment for Technically Oriented Research (TEXTOR) [R. J. E. Jaspers, Ph.D. thesis, Technical University Eindhoven (1995)] are interpreted in terms of such interaction.

  19. Investigation of the hybrid electron linac with negative group velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, E. A.; Alekhanov, R. Yu.; Bulanov, A. V.; Kaminskiy, V. I.; Matsievskiy, S. V.; Sobenin, N. P.

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid accelerator, incorporating travelling wave (TW) and standing wave (SW) structures is proposed and discussed. Accelerator can sum up an RF focusing in the SW buncher and lower losses in the TW accelerating structure walls. Moreover, the structure without dumping load is proposed. Input power and beam loading are chosen to minimize power reflection from buncher maintain travelling wave regime in the accelerating structure while beam loading is on. In this case SW buncher operates as a dumping load, so all input power either goes to beam or dissipates in the wall losses, it increases structure efficiency. RF characteristics and beam dynamics simulations have been performed.

  20. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li Qiang, E-mail: guoliqiang@ujs.edu.cn; Ding, Jian Ning; Huang, Yu Kai [Micro/Nano Science & Technology Center, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO{sub 2} electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO{sub 2} electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  1. Rechargeable Mg battery cathode TiS3 with d-p orbital hybridized electronic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kouji; Gu, Yunpeng; Katsura, Yukari; Yoshino, Takafumi; Takagi, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable performance is realized in Mg batteries using a TiS3 cathode without the nanometer-scale downsizing of electrode particles. The specific capacity is about 80 mAh/g for the first 50 cycles at room temperature. This observed specific capacity is comparable to that of the prototype cathode for Mg batteries. First-principles calculation indicates that TiS3 is a semiconductor with d-p orbital hybridized electronic structures around the Fermi level. The reversible electrode performance is likely assisted by the delocalized electronic distribution over metal-ligand units through d-p orbital hybridization.

  2. Selection of inbred maize (Zea mays L.) progenies by topcrosses conducted in contrasting environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, C S; Pacheco, C A P; Guedes, M L; Pinho, R G V; Castro, C R

    2016-09-23

    The aim of this study was to identify inbred progenies of S0:1 maize (Zea mays L.) plants that were efficient at a low level of technology and responsive at a high level of technology through the use of topcrosses. Two contrasting environments were created using two levels of base fertilization and topdressing, so that the levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were applied four times higher in one environment than in the other. We used S0:1 progenies derived from commercial hybrids in topcrosses with two testers (an elite line from the flint heterotic group and an elite line from the dent heterotic group). The progenies and three controls were evaluated in an augmented block design in Nossa Senhora das Dores, SE, Brazil in the 2010 crop season. The average grain yield in the high-technological level was 21.44% greater than that in the low-technological level. There were no changes in progeny behavior in the two technological levels for grain yield. The testers did not differ in the average grain yield of the progenies at the two technological levels. Therefore, it is possible to select progenies derived from commercial hybrids that have an efficient response to fertilization.

  3. 3D electronics for hybrid pixel detectors – TWEPP-09

    CERN Document Server

    Godiot, S; Chantepie, B; Clémens, J C; Fei, R; Fleury, J; Fougeron, D; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Krueger, H; Mekkaoui, A; Pangaud, P; Rozanov, A; Wermes, N

    2009-01-01

    Future hybrid pixel detectors are asking for smaller pixels in order to improve spatial resolution and to deal with an increasing counting rate. Facing these requirements is foreseen to be done by microelectronics technology shrinking. However, this straightforward approach presents some disadvantages in term of performances and cost. New 3D technologies offer an alternative way with the advantage of technology mixing. For the upgrade of ATLAS pixel detector, a 3D conception of the read-out chip appeared as an interesting solution. Splitting the pixel functionalities into two separate levels will reduce pixel size and open the opportunity to take benefit of technology's mixing. Based on a previous prototype of the read-out chip FE-I4 (IBM 130nm), this paper presents the design of a hybrid pixel read-out chip using threedimensional Tezzaron-Chartered technology. In order to disentangle effects due to Chartered 130nm technology from effects involved by 3D architecture, a first translation of FEI4 prototype had ...

  4. Antimycoplasmal antibiotics and hybrid sterility in Drosophila paulistorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaghan, R P; Ehrman, L

    1970-07-03

    Male hybrids between the Santa Marta and Mesitas strains of Drosophila paulistorum are sterile. The sterility can be partially alleviated by treatment of the Santa Marta mothers with the antimycoplasmal antibiotics tylosin tartrate and tetracycline hydrochloride. The proportions of hybrid males in which there are mature motile spermatozoa are higher in the progenies of drug-treated mothers than in the controls. Electron microscopy reveals mycoplasma-like bodies in the untreated controls, but not in the sons of the treated females. The mycoplasma-like symbionts appear to be implicated in the production of the sterility in the hybrid males.

  5. Nanoscale Structure of Self-Assembling Hybrid Materials of Inorganic and Electronically Active Organic Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofos, M.; Goswami, D.A. Stone D.K.; Okasinski, J.S.; Jin, H.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Stupp, S.I. (NWU)

    2008-10-06

    Hybrid materials with nanoscale structure that incorporates inorganic and organic phases with electronic properties offer potential in an extensive functional space that includes photovoltaics, light emission, and sensing. This work describes the nanoscale structure of model hybrid materials with phases of silica and electronically active bola-amphiphile assemblies containing either oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) or oligo(thiophene) segments. The hybrid materials studied here were synthesized by evaporation-induced self-assembly and characterized by X-ray scattering techniques. Grazing-incidence X-ray scattering studies of these materials revealed the formation of two-dimensional hexagonally packed cylindrical micelles of the organic molecules with diameters between 3.1 and 3.6 nm and cylindrical axes parallel to the surface. During the self-assembly process at low pH, the cylindrical aggregates of conjugated molecules become surrounded by silica giving rise to a hybrid structure with long-range order. Specular X-ray reflectivity confirmed the long-range periodicity of the hybrid films within a specific range of molar ratios of tetraethyl orthosilicate to cationic amphiphile. We did not observe any long-range ordering in fully organic analogues unless quaternary ammonium groups were replaced by tertiary amines. These observations suggest that charge screening in these biscationic conjugated molecules by the mineral phase is a key factor in the evolution of long range order in the self-assembling hybrids.

  6. The electronic transport characteristics of hybridized hexagon beryllium sulfide and graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Ding, Bingjun; Guo, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Hybridized Z-BexSyCz (x + y + z = 16) systems connected by zigzag beryllium-sulfide (BeS) and graphene nanoribbons are theoretically designed, and their electronic transport characteristics are explored by first-principles approach. For the hybridized systems with unequal number of x and y, i.e. z is an odd number, an exceptional negative differential resistance (NDR) property occurs. However, for the hybridized systems including an even number of zigzag carbon chains, namely x equal to y, an interesting current-limited behavior happens. Meanwhile, the NDR phenomenon disappears. The spin transport properties of these hybridized Z-BexSyCz systems with parallel magnetism configuration also reveal the above odd-even dependence conductance behavior.

  7. The role of viral infection in inducing variability in virus-free progeny in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marii, Liliana; Chiriac, Gheorghe

    2009-05-01

    The effect of virus-host interactions on subsequent generations is poorly understood. The evaluation of the effects of viral infection on inheritance of quantitative traits in the progeny of infected plants and elucidation of a possible relationship between chiasma frequency in the infected plants and variability of traits in the progeny were investigated. The current study involved genotypes of four intraspecific hybrids of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), their parental forms and two additional cultivars. Used as infection were the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and potato virus X (PVX). The consequences of the effect of viral infection were evaluated based on chromosome pairing in diakinesis and/or by examining quantitative and qualitative traits in the progeny of the infected tomato plants. Tomato plants infected with TMV + PVX were found to differ in chiasma frequency per pollen mother cell or per bivalent. Deviations have been observed for genotypes of both F(1) hybrids and cultivars. At the same time, differences in mean values of the traits under study have only been found for progeny populations (F(2)-F(4)) derived from virus-infected F(1) hybrids, but not in the case of progeny of the infected cultivars. The rate of recombinants combining traits of both parents increased significantly (2.22-8.24 times) in progeny populations of hybrids infected with TMV + PVX. The above suggests that the observed effects could be the result of modification of recombination frequencies that can be manifested in heterozygous hybrids and make small contributions to variability in cases of 'homozygous' tomato genotypes (i.e. cultivars).

  8. The Role of Viral Infection in Inducing Variability in Virus-Free Progeny in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliana Marii; Gheorghe Chiriac

    2009-01-01

    The effect of virus-host interactions on subsequent generations is poorly understood. The evaluation of the effects of viral infection on inheritance of quantitative traits in the progeny of infected plants and elucidation of a possible relationship between chiasma frequency in the infected plants and variability of traits in the progeny were investigated. The current study involved genotypes of four intraspecific hybrids of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), their parental forms and two additional cultivars. Used as infection were the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and potato virus X (PVX). The consequences of the effect of viral infection were evaluated based on chromosome pairing in diakinesis and/or by examining quantitative and qualitative traits in the progeny of the infected tomato plants. Tomato plants infected with TMV + PVX were found to differ in chiasma frequency per pollen mother cell or per bivalent. Deviations have been observed for genotypes of both F1 hybrids and cultivars. At the same time, differences in mean values of the traits under study have only been found for progeny populations (F2-F4) derived from virus-infected F1 hybrids, but not in the case of progeny of the infected cultivars. The rate of recombinants combining traits of both parents increased significantly (2.22-8.24 times) in progeny populations of hybrids infected with TMV + PVX. The above suggests that the observed effects could be the result of modification of recombination frequencies that can be manifested in heterozygous hybrids and make small contributions to variability in cases of 'homozygous' tomato genotypes (I.e. Cultivars).

  9. Using k-alpha emission to determine fast electron spectra using the Hybrid code ZEPHYROS

    CERN Document Server

    White, Thomas; Gregori, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    A high intensity laser-solid interaction invariably drives a non-thermal fast electron current through the target, however characterizing these fast electron distributions can prove difficult. An understanding of how these electrons propagate through dense materials is of fundamental interest and has applications relevant to fast ignition schemes and ion acceleration. Here, we utilize an upgraded version of the Hybrid code ZEPHYROS to demonstrate how the resulting k-alpha emission from such an interaction can be used as a diagnostic to obtain the characteristic temperature, divergence and total energy of the fast electron population.

  10. Estimation of genetic parameters in rubber progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Khusala Verardi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the genetic variability, the potential for rubber yield and secondary traits of rubber tree progenies at three locations in the state of Sao Paulo. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with 22 progenies and 6 replications. At the age of three years, the progenies were evaluated for rubber yield, girth growth and total number of latex vessel rings. The results showed the existence of genetic variability among progenies for each location separately as well as between locations, with differences in the progeny performance for the traits. The individual heritabilities calculated for rubber yield, girth growth and total number of latex vessel rings (0.30, 0.63 and 0.29, respectively, associated with high genetic gains with selection for the traits studied at each site, showed that the populations can be considered suitable for the rubber breeding program, provided that an appropriate selection procedure is used.

  11. My ENG 102 Class Has Gone to HEC: Creating the Hybrid Electronic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jeffrey

    In this paper, a college English professor shares his teaching experiences in a Hybrid Electronic Course (HEC), which combined traditional classroom meetings with e-mail-based workshops. The paper includes a general description of the course, the instructor's daily journals throughout the course, and his reflections following the course. Many of…

  12. Oxide nanomembrane hybrids with enhanced mechano- and thermo-sensitivity for semitransparent epidermal electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minjoon; Do, Kyungsik; Kim, Jaemin; Son, Donghee; Koo, Ja Hoon; Park, Jinkyung; Song, Jun-Kyul; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Minbaek; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2015-05-01

    Oxide nanomembrane hybrids with enhanced mechano- and thermo-sensitivity for semitransparent epidermal electronics are developed. The use of nanomaterials (single wall nanotubes and silver nanoparticles) embedded in the oxide nanomembranes significantly enhances mechanical and thermal sensitivities. These mechanical and thermal sensors are utilized in wheelchair control and hypothermia detection, which are useful for patients with strokes.

  13. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics systems and components, networking and hybrid drive

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the "Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics" technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle. Content Electrical and electronical systems – Basic principles of networking - Examples of networked vehicles – Bus systems – Architecture of electronic systems – Mechatronics – Elektronics – Electronic control Units – Software – Sensors – Actuators – Hybrid drives – Vehicle electrical system – Start...

  14. Identification of Progeny from Crosses between Sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.) and Intergeneric Hybrid Complex ( Erianthus arundinaceus × Saccharum spontaneum )with Molecular Markers%甘蔗与斑茅割手密复合体杂交后代的分子标记鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高轶静; 张革民; 方锋学; 刘昔辉; 张荣华; 宋焕忠; 杨荣仲; 罗霆; 段维兴; 游建华

    2012-01-01

    To get potential gene resources from wild germplasm for broadening sugarcane genetic base, crosses between sugarcane ( Saccharum spp. ) and intergeneric hybrid complex (Erianthus arundinacius x Saccharum spontaneum) were carried out and their progenies were then identified by microsatellites ( SSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism(SRAP) molecular markers in this study. 34 true hybrids were identified and the results confirmed that utilizing both S. spontaneum and E. arundinaceus in introgression breeding programs to improve sugarcane was viable.%为有效利用甘蔗野生种质拓宽甘蔗遗传基础,本研究利用甘蔗与斑茅割手密复合体进行杂交,同时应用序列相关扩增多态性(SRAP)和微卫星(SSR)分子标记技术鉴定其后代.两种分子标记鉴定结果相互印证表明:3个杂交组合的后代中,经表型鉴定含斑茅血缘的34个后代为真杂种.该真杂种后代为进一步综合利用斑茅、割手密的优异基因改良甘蔗品种提供了优良的创新种质.

  15. New materials strategies for creating hybrid electronic circuitry (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.

    2013-09-01

    This lecture focuses on the challenging design and realization of new materials for creating unconventional electronic circuitry. Fabrication methodologies to achieve these goals include high-throughput, large-area printing techniques. Materials design topics to be discussed include: 1. Rationally designed high-mobility p- and n-type organic semiconductors for printed organic CMOS, 2. Polycrystalline and amorphous oxide semiconductors for transparent and mechanically flexible electronics, 3) Self-assembled and printable high-k nanodielectrics enabling ultra-large capacitance, low leakage, high breakdown fields, minimal trapped interfacial charge, and device radiation hardness. 4) Combining these materials sets to fabricate a variety of high-performance thin-film transistor-based devices.

  16. Electronic Structure Rearrangements in Hybrid Ribozyme/Protein Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiyoung; Kino, Hiori; Field, Martin J.; Tateno, Masaru

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed the electronic structural changes that occur in the reaction cycle of a biological catalyst composed of RNA and protein, and elucidated the dynamical rearrangements of the electronic structure that was obtained from our previous study in which ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics simulations were performed. Notable results that we obtained include the generation of a reactive HOMO that is responsible for bond formation in the initial stages of the reaction, and the appearance of a reactive LUMO that is involved in the bond rupture that leads to products. We denote these changes as dynamical induction of the reactive HOMO (DIRH) and LUMO (DIRL), respectively. Interestingly, we also find that the induction of the reactive HOMO is enhanced by the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond (LBHB), which, to the best of our knowledge, represents a novel role for LBHBs in enzymatic systems.

  17. Hybrid optical and electronic laser locking using spectral hole burning

    CERN Document Server

    Farr, Warrick G; Ledingham, Patrick M; Korystov, Dmitry; Longdell, Jevon J

    2010-01-01

    We report on a narrow linewidth laser diode system that is stabilized using both optical and electronic feedback to a spectral hole in cryogenic Tm:YAG. The laser system exhibits very low phase noise. The spectrum of the beat signal between two lasers, over millisecond timescales, is either Fourier limited or limited by the -111dBc/Hz noise floor. The resulting laser is well suited to quantum optics and sensing applications involving rare earth ion dopants.

  18. Transmission electron microscopy of unstained hybrid Au nanoparticles capped with PPAA (plasma-poly-allylamine): structure and electron irradiation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontard, Lionel C; Fernández, Asunción; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Kasama, Takeshi; Lozano-Pérez, Sergio; Lucas, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid (organic shell-inorganic core) nanoparticles have important applications in nanomedicine. Although the inorganic components of hybrid nanoparticles can be characterized readily using conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, the structural and chemical arrangement of the organic molecular components remains largely unknown. Here, we apply TEM to the physico-chemical characterization of Au nanoparticles that are coated with plasma-polymerized-allylamine, an organic compound with the formula C3H5NH2. We discuss the use of energy-filtered TEM in the low-energy-loss range as a contrast enhancement mechanism for imaging the organic shells of such particles. We also study electron-beam-induced crystallization and amorphization of the shells and the formation of graphitic-like layers that contain both C and N. The resistance of the samples to irradiation by high-energy electrons, which is relevant for optical tuning and for understanding the degree to which such hybrid nanostructures are stable in the presence of biomedical radiation, is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging biomechanical energy for sustainably powering wearable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Xue; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    We report a hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for highly efficient scavenging of biomechanical energy to sustainably power wearable electronics by human walking. Based on the effective conjunction of triboelectrification and electromagnetic induction, the hybridized nanogenerator, with dimensions of 5 cm × 5 cm × 2.5 cm and a light weight of 60 g, integrates a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that can deliver a peak output power of 4.9 mW under a loading resistance of 6 MΩ and an electromagnetic generator (EMG) that can deliver a peak output power of 3.5 mW under a loading resistance of 2 kΩ. The hybridized nanogenerator exhibits a good stability for the output performance and a much better charging performance than that of an individual energy-harvesting unit (TENG or EMG). Furthermore, the hybridized nanogenerator integrated in a commercial shoe has been utilized to harvest biomechanical energy induced by human walking to directly light up tens of light-emitting diodes in the shoe and sustainably power a smart pedometer for reading the data of a walking step, distance, and energy consumption. A wireless pedometer driven by the hybrid nanogenerator can work well to send the walking data to an iPhone under the distance of 25 m. This work pushes forward a significant step toward energy harvesting from human walking and its potential applications in sustainably powering wearable electronics.

  20. First-Principles Study of Electronic Structure of Type I Hybrid Carbon-Silicon Clathrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S.; Peng, Xihong

    2016-08-01

    A new class of type I hybrid carbon-silicon clathrates has been designed using computational methods by substituting some of the Si atoms in the silicon clathrate framework with carbon atoms. In this work, the electronic structure of hybrid carbon-silicon clathrates with and without alkaline or alkaline-earth metal guest atoms has been computed within the density functional theory framework. The theoretical calculations indicate that a small number of carbon substitutions in the Si46 framework slightly reduces the density of states (DOS) near the band edge and narrows the bandgap of carbon-silicon clathrates. Weak hybridization of the conduction band occurs when alkaline metal (Li, Na, K) atoms are inserted into the structure, while strong hybridization of the conduction band occurs when alkaline-earth metal (Mg, Ca, Ba) atoms are inserted into the hybrid structure. Empty C y Si46- y clathrates within the composition range of 2 ≤ y ≤ 15 can be tuned to exhibit indirect bandgaps of 1.5 eV or less, and may be considered as potential electronic materials.

  1. Mode conversion and electron heating near the upper hybrid resonance frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.L.; Okuda, H.; Abe, H.

    1983-11-01

    Mode conversion near the upper hybrid resonance frequency and electron heating are studied using a one-dimensional electromagnetic relativistic particle code. It is found that for a sufficiently small pump field E/sub 0/, E/sub 0//sup 2//4..pi..nT/sub e/ less than or equal to 0.01, electron heating is localized in a region near the electron cyclotron layer where the pump frequency is equal to the local electron gyrofrequency. For stronger pump fields, electron heating takes place more or less uniformly across a region between the upper hybrid resonance layer and the cyclotron layer. In addition, a significant fraction of electromagnetic energy associated with the pump is found to be reflected back into the vacuum from a region in the plasma near the upper hybrid resonance layer for both strong (E/sub 0//sup 2//4..pi..nT/sub e/ approx. = 1) and weak pumps (E/sub 0//sup 2//4..pi..nT/sub e/ << 1).

  2. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  3. A review and design of power electronics converters for fuel cell hybrid system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of most promising power electronics topologies for a fuel cell hybrid power conversion system which can be utilized in many applications such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), distributed generations (DG) and uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems. Then......, a multiple-input power conversion system including a decoupled dual-input converter and a three-phase neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter is proposed. The system can operate in both stand-alone and grid-connected modes. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed...

  4. Efficient Hybrid Optimal Design Method for Power Electronics Converters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)697719; Aguglia, Davide; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel design methodology for dimensioning optimal power-electronic converters, which is able to achieve the precision of numerical simulation-based optimization procedures, however minimizing the overall computation time. The approach is based on the utilization of analytical and frequency-domain design models for a numerical optimization process, a validation with numerical simulations of the intermediate optimal solutions, and the correction of the analytical design models precision from the numerical simulation results. This method allows using the numerical simulation in an efficient way, where typically less than ten correction iterations are required. In order to demonstrate the performances of the proposed methodology, the calculation of the control parameters for an H-bridge DC-DC converter and the optimal dimensioning of a damped output filter for a buck converter using the proposed approach is presented.

  5. Electronic and magnetic properties of modified silicene/graphene hybrid: Ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Suman; Jana, Debnarayan, E-mail: cujanad@yahoo.com

    2016-11-01

    Among other two-dimensional (2D) novel materials, graphene and silicene both have drawn intense research interest among the researchers because they possess some unique intriguing properties which can change the scenario of the current electronic industry. In this work we have studied the electronic and the magnetic properties of a new kind of materials which is the hybrid of these two materials. Density functional theory (DFT) has been employed to calculate the relevant electronic and magnetic properties of this hybrid material. The pristine structure is modified by substitutional doping or by creating vacancy (Y-X, where one Y atom (Si or C) has been replaced by one X atom (B, N, Al, P or void)). The calculations have revealed that void systems are unstable while Si-B and Si-N are most stable ones. It has been noticed that some of these doped structures are magnetic in nature having induced mid-gap states in the system. In particular, Si-void structure is unstable yet it possess the highest magnetic moment of the order of 4 μ{sub B} (μ{sub B} being the Bohr magneton). The estimated band gaps of modified silicene/graphene hybrid from spin polarized partial density of states (PDOS) vary between 1.43–2.38 eV and 1.58–2.50 eV for spin-up and spin-down channel respectively. The implication of midgap states has been critically analysed in the light of magnetic nature. This study may be useful to build hybrid spintronic devices with controllable gap for spin up and spin down states. - Graphical abstract: We have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of silicene/graphene hybrid by employing density functional theory (DFT). - Highlights: • Electronic and magnetic properties of two dimensional graphene/silicene hybrid have been explored. • There is no magnetism in the system for a single carbon atom vacancy. • A net magnetic moment of 4.0 Bohr magneton is observed for a single silicon atom vacancy. • Unpaired electrons introduce mid-gap states which

  6. Biometrical analysis and selection of tetraploid progenies of Panicum maximum using mixed model methods

    OpenAIRE

    Resende Rosangela Maria Simeão; Jank Liana; Valle Cacilda Borges do; Bonato Ana Lídia Variani

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters and to predict the genetic and genotypic values of the selection candidates obtained from intraspecific crosses in Panicum maximum as well as the performance of the hybrid progeny of the existing and projected crosses. Seventy-nine intraspecific hybrids obtained from artificial crosses among five apomictic and three sexual autotetraploid individuals were evaluated in a clonal test with two replications and ten ...

  7. Hybridized Electromagnetic-Triboelectric Nanogenerator for a Self-Powered Electronic Watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ting; Wang, Xue; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya

    2015-12-22

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator including a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and six electromagnetic generators (EMGs) that can effectively scavenge biomechanical energy for sustainably powering an electronic watch. Triggered by the natural motions of the wearer's wrist, a magnetic ball at the center in an acrylic box with coils on each side will collide with the walls, resulting in outputs from both the EMGs and the TENG. By using the hybridized nanogenerator to harvest the biomechanical energy, the electronic watch can be continuously powered under different motion types of the wearer's wrist, where the best approach is to charge a 100 μF capacitor in 39 s to maintain the continuous operation of the watch for 456 s. To increase the working time of the watch further, a homemade Li-ion battery has been utilized as the energy storage unit for realizing the continuous working of the watch for about 218 min by using the hybridized nanogenerator to charge the battery within 32 min. This work will provide the opportunities for developing a nanogenerator-based built-in power source for self-powered wearable electronics such as an electronic watch.

  8. Chromosomal Behavior during Meiosis in the Progeny of Triticum timopheevii × Hexaploid Wild Oat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhou An

    Full Text Available The meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells (PMCs of the F2 and F3 progeny from Triticum timopheevii × hexaploid wild oat was investigated by cytological analysis and sequential C-banding-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH in the present study. A cytological analysis showed that the chromosome numbers of the F2 and F3 progeny ranged from 28 to 41. A large number of univalents, lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges and micronuclei were found at the metaphase I, anaphase I, anaphase II and tetrad stages in the F2 and F3 progeny. The averages of univalents were 3.50 and 2.73 per cell, and those of lagging chromosomes were 3.37 and 1.87 in the F2 and F3 progeny, respectively. The PMC meiotic indices of the F2 and F3 progeny were 12.22 and 20.34, respectively, indicating considerable genetic instability. A sequential C-banding-GISH analysis revealed that some chromosomes and fragments from the hexaploid wild oat were detected at metaphase I and anaphase I in the progeny, showing that the progeny were of true intergeneric hybrid origin. The alien chromosomes 6A, 7A, 3C and 2D were lost during transmission from F2 to F3. In addition, partial T. timopheevii chromosomes appeared in the form of univalents or lagging chromosomes, which might result from large genome differences between the parents, and the wild oat chromosome introgression interfered with the wheat homologues' normally pairing.

  9. Improvement in genetic characteristics and oil yield of selected soybean progenies from octuple crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamawaki Osvaldo Toshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate 44 soybean octuple crosses in the F4:3[8] and F5:3[8] generations in order to select progenies superior for seed oil yield (OY and other important agronomic characteristics. Octuple crosses were hybridized in a chain mating system. In one group, crosses were carried out for three generations with the adapted x exotic parents until octuple crosses with 75% adapted genes and 25% exotic genes were obtained. In a second group, hybridization of adapted x adapted parents originated crosses with 100% adapted genes. During the growing season 1994/95, the progenies F4:3[8] were evaluated by using the augmented block design. The progenies F5:3[8] were evaluated during the growing season 1995/96 in three experiments using augmented block design without repetition. The octuple crosses gave origin to superior progenies for all the characters studied. In the C22 cross, OY values were 707 kg/ha. The estimates of heritability in relation to the crosses average resulted in the following mean, minimum and maximum values, respectively: number of days to maturity (52.35%, 3.71%, 84.23%; agronomic value (26.69%, 1.62%, 61.28% and grain yield (29.28%, 1.52%, 61.06%. The observed genetic gains for grain yield in the early, intermediate and late F5:3[8] progenies were superior to the expected genetic gains and the observed genetic gains for OY were more expressive in the early and late F5:[8] progenies. The genetic variability remaining in the selected progenies of some crosses suggests that further genetic gains for grain yield and OY might be possible with advanced selection cycles.

  10. Photoionization of few electron systems with a hybrid Coupled Channels approach

    CERN Document Server

    Majety, Vinay Pramod; Scrinzi, Armin

    2014-01-01

    We present the hybrid anti-symmetrized coupled channels method for the calculation of fully differential photo-electron spectra of multi-electron atoms and small molecules interacting with strong laser fields. The method unites quantum chemical few-body electronic structure with strong-field dynamics by solving the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation in a fully anti-symmetrized basis composed of multi-electron states from quantum chemistry and a one-electron numerical basis. Photoelectron spectra are obtained via the time dependent surface flux (tSURFF) method. Performance and accuracy of the approach are demonstrated for spectra from the helium and berryllium atoms and the hydrogen molecule in linearly polarized laser fields at wavelength from 21 nm to 400 nm. At long wavelengths, helium and the hydrogen molecule at equilibrium inter-nuclear distance can be approximated as single channel systems whereas beryllium needs a multi-channel description.

  11. Vehicle height and posture control of the electronic air suspension system using the hybrid system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Chen, Long; Liu, Yanling; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-03-01

    The electronic air suspension (EAS) system can improve ride comfort, fuel economy and handling safety of vehicles by adjusting vehicle height. This paper describes the development of a novel controller using the hybrid system approach to adjust the vehicle height (height control) and to regulate the roll and pitch angles of the vehicle body during the height adjustment process (posture control). The vehicle height adjustment system of EAS poses challenging hybrid control problems, since it features different discrete modes of operation, where each mode has an associated linear continuous-time dynamic. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the modelling and controller design problem for the vehicle height adjustment system of EAS. The system model is described firstly in the hybrid system description language (HYSDEL) to obtain a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) hybrid model. For the resulting model, a hybrid model predictive controller is tuned to improve the vehicle height and posture tracking accuracy and to achieve the on-off statuses direct control of solenoid valves. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach are demonstrated by simulations and actual vehicle tests.

  12. Hybrid quantum circuit with a superconducting qubit coupled to an electron spin ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Yuimaru; Grezes, Cecile; Vion, Denis; Esteve, Daniel; Bertet, Patrice [Quantronics Group, SPEC (CNRS URA 2464), CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Diniz, Igor; Auffeves, Alexia [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Isoya, Jun-ichi [Research Center for Knowledge Communities, University of Tsukuba, 305-8550 Tsukuba (Japan); Jacques, Vincent; Dreau, Anais; Roch, Jean-Francois [LPQM (CNRS, UMR 8537), Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 94235 Cachan (France)

    2013-07-01

    We report the experimental realization of a hybrid quantum circuit combining a superconducting qubit and an ensemble of electronic spins. The qubit, of the transmon type, is coherently coupled to the spin ensemble consisting of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in a diamond crystal via a frequency-tunable superconducting resonator acting as a quantum bus. Using this circuit, we prepare arbitrary superpositions of the qubit states that we store into collective excitations of the spin ensemble and retrieve back into the qubit. We also report a new method for detecting the magnetic resonance of electronic spins at low temperature with a qubit using the hybrid quantum circuit, as well as our recent progress on spin echo experiments.

  13. Theoretical investigation of the electronic structures and carrier transport of hybrid graphene and boron nitride nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Tao Sun

    2012-09-01

    graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (C-BN nanostructures receive much research interest due to the complementary electronic properties. Graphene is a zero-gap semiconductor, while hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN is a wide gap semiconductor. Here we studied the electronic structures and carrier transport of hybrid C-BN nanostructures by using first principles calculations and deformation potential theory. We have found that the physical quantities in these systems under study, band gap, effective mass, deformation potential, and carrier mobility, can be categorised into three different families depending on the width of graphene nanoribbon. This family behavior is similar to pristine armchair graphene nanoribbon, but with slight difference from the individual component. New opportunities of designing nanoelectric devices are discussed by utilizing the quantum confinement effect based on such kind of hybrid nanostructures.

  14. Research Update: The electronic structure of hybrid perovskite layers and their energetic alignment in devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Olthof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has increased at a rapid pace due to their tremendous success in the field of thin film solar cells. This area closely ties together fundamental solid state research and device application, as it is necessary to understand the basic material properties to optimize the performances and open up new areas of application. In this regard, the energy levels and their respective alignment with adjacent charge transport layers play a crucial role. Currently, we are lacking a detailed understanding about the electronic structure and are struggling to understand what influences the alignment, how it varies, or how it can be intentionally modified. This research update aims at giving an overview over recent results regarding measurements of the electronic structure of hybrid perovskites using photoelectron spectroscopy to summarize the present status.

  15. Hybrid simulation of whistler excitation by electron beams in two-dimensional non-periodic domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodroffe, J.R., E-mail: woodrofj@erau.edu; Streltsov, A.V., E-mail: streltsa@erau.edu

    2014-11-01

    We present a two-dimensional hybrid fluid-PIC scheme for the simulation of whistler wave excitation by relativistic electron beams. This scheme includes a number of features which are novel to simulations of this type, including non-periodic boundary conditions and fresh particle injection. Results from our model suggest that non-periodicity of the simulation domain results in the development of fundamentally different wave characteristics than are observed in periodic domains.

  16. Role of Microstructure in the Electron-Hole Interaction of Hybrid Lead-Halide Perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Grancini, Giulia; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Frost, Jarvist M.; Barker, Alex J; Bastiani, Michele; Gandini, Marina; Marras, Sergio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Walsh, Aron; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Solar cells based on hybrid inorganic-organic halide perovskites have demonstrated high power conversion efficiencies in a range of architectures. The existence and stability of bound electron-hole pairs in these materials, and their role in the exceptional performance of optoelectronic devices, remains a controversial issue. Here we demonstrate, through a combination of optical spectroscopy and multiscale modeling as a function of the degree of polycrystallinity and temperature, that the ele...

  17. The superatom states of fullerenes and their hybridization into the nearly free electron bands of fullerites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Feng, Min; Yang, Jinlong; Petek, Hrvoje

    2009-04-28

    Motivated by the discovery of the superatom states of C60 molecules, we investigate the factors that influence their energy and wave function hybridization into nearly free electron bands in molecular solids. As the n = 3 solutions of the radial Schrodinger equation of the central attractive potential consisting of the short-range C atom core and the long-range collective screening potentials, respectively, located on the icosahedral C60 molecule shell and within its hollow core, superatom states are distinguished by their atom-like orbitals corresponding to different orbital angular momentum states (l = 0, 1, 2,...). Because they are less tightly bound than the pi orbitals, that is, the n = 2 states, which are often exploited in the intermolecular electron transport in aromatic organic molecule semiconductors, superatom orbitals hybridize more extensively among aggregated molecules to form bands with nearly free electron dispersion. The prospect of exploiting the strong intermolecular coupling to achieve metal-like conduction in applications such as molecular electronics may be attained by lowering the energy of superatom states from 3.5 eV for single chemisorbed C60 molecules to below the Fermi level; therefore, we study how the superatom state energies depend on factors such as their aggregation into 1D-3D solids, cage size, and exo- and endohedral doping by metal atoms. We find, indeed, that if the ionization potential of endohedral atom, such as copper, is sufficiently large, superatom states can form the conduction band in the middle of the gap between the HOMO and LUMO of the parent C60 molecule. Through a plane-wave density functional theory study, we provide insights for a new paradigm for intermolecular electronic interaction beyond the conventional one among the sp(n) hybridized orbitals of the organic molecular solids that could lead to design of novel molecular materials and quantum structures with extraordinary optical and electronic properties.

  18. Domain-dependent electronic structure and optical absorption property in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang; Zhang, Ruifeng; Fu, Zhongheng; Zhang, Qianfan

    2016-10-05

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, represented by materials in the CH3NH3PbI3 series, have become one of the most promising materials for solar cells with a high power conversion efficiency and low cost. The ordered Pb-I cage in such hybrid perovskites can induce the polarized cations to form a variety of polarization domains with long-range order, which will lead to the formation of specific atomic conformations or metastable crystalline phases, unique electronic band structures and optical absorption properties. Such domain-dependent characteristics play a critical role in the phase transition and service stability of such solar cells, and also open up the opportunity of tuning their electronic structure. In the present study, we systematically investigate the band structures and optical absorption properties of different electronically ordered domains in CH3NH3PbI3. By comparing different perovskites containing various cations, we have clarified the important influence of cation polarization on domain-dependent properties. Our results provide not only a possible pathway for the manipulation of band structure by applying an external field, but also a novel scheme for improving the performance and stability of hybrid perovskites.

  19. One-chip electronic detection of DNA hybridization using precision impedance-based CMOS array sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Oen; Sohn, Mi-Jin; Lee, Byunghun; Choi, Suk-Hwan; Kim, Sang Kyu; Yoon, Jun-Bo; Cho, Gyu-Hyeong

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes a label-free and fully electronic detection method of DNA hybridization, which is achieved through the use of a 16×8 microarray sensor in conjunction with a new type of impedance spectroscopy constructed with standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The impedance-based method is based on changes in the reactive capacitance and the charge-transfer resistance after hybridization with complementary DNA targets. In previously published label-free techniques, the measured capacitance presented unstable capacitive properties due to the parallel resistance that is not infinite and can cause a leakage by discharging the charge on the capacitor. This paper presents an impedance extraction method that uses excitation by triangular wave voltage, which enables a reliable measurement of both C and R producing a highly sensitive sensor with a stable operation independent of external variables. The system was fabricated in an industrial 0.35-μm 4-metal 2-poly CMOS process, integrating working electrodes and readout electronics into one chip. The integrated readout, which uses a parasitic insensitive integrator, achieves an enlarged detection range and improved noise performance. The maximum average relative variations of C and R are 31.5% and 68.6%, respectively, after hybridization with a 1 μM target DNA. The proposed sensor allows quantitative evaluation of the molecule densities on the chip with distinguishable variation in the impedance. This fully electronic microsystem has great potential for use with bioanalytical tools and point-of-care diagnosis.

  20. Photoemission study of ferrocenes: insights into the electronic structure of Si-based hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccia, A; Marrani, A G; Stranges, S; Zanoni, R [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' , piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Alagia, M [ISMN-CNR, Sezione Romal, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma, Italy and Laboratorio Nazionale TASC-CNR SS-14, Km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Iozzi, M F; Cossi, M [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, via V. Bellini 25/G, I-15100 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: Andrea.Marrani@uniromal.it

    2008-03-15

    We present here the results of synchrotron radiation-excited UV-photoemission investigation and DFT calculations on vinylferrocene (VFC), a redox molecule suitable for applications in molecular electronics. A detailed assignment is discussed of the valence photoelectron spectra (UPS), which provides new data on the electronic structure and offers a partial re-interpretation of previous assignments on VFC based on theoretical and experimental evidences. Furthermore, the present results can allow for a meaningful comparison of photoemission results from the corresponding hybrid obtained by covalently attaching VFC to Si oriented surfaces.

  1. Quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping of electron spins in superconducting hybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubanja, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.bubanja@callaghaninnovation.govt.nz

    2015-06-15

    We present schemes for quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping of electronic spin states in hybrid superconductor–normal-metal systems. The proposed schemes employ subgap transport whereby the lowest order processes involve Cooper pair-electron and double Cooper-pair cotunneling in quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping protocols, respectively. The competition between elastic cotunneling and Cooper-pair splitting results in the success probability of 25% in both cases. Described implementations of these protocols are within reach of present-day experimental techniques.

  2. Resistência do cafeeiro a nematóides: I - Testes em progênies e híbridos, para Meloidogyne exigua Coffee breeding for resistance to Meloidogyne exigua: I - Screening test using arabica progenies and interespecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Fazuoli

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar fontes de resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne exígua em cafeeiros derivados de híbridos interespecíficos e em progênies de café arábica oriundas da Etiópia, em experimentos estabelecidos em duas localidades. A infestação foi feita por dois processos usados com freqüência nesse tipo de trabalho. As avaliações do grau de ataque foram feitas quatro e 12 meses após a infestação, em Campinas e Ribeirão Preto, respectivamente, adotando-se escala variando de zero, para ausência de galhas, a cinco pontos para grande intensidade de ataque. Verificou-se que a leitura feita aos quatro meses é tão eficiente quanto aos 12 meses, indicando a possibilidade de abreviar consideravelmente a duração dessas avaliações. Notou-se, no experimento de Ribeirão Preto, uma redução de aproximadamente 8% no crescimento das mudas infestadas e verificou-se, também, uma redução de 11,5% e 12% nos pesos verde e seco das plantas, devido ao ataque do nematóide. De 1.692 plantas examinadas nos dois experimentos, selecionaram-se 106 (6,3%, caracterizadas pela ausência de galhas. As populações derivadas dos híbridos entre Coffea arabica e C. canephora revelaram-se mais promissoras, contribuindo com maior número de plantas resistentes. As plantas do experimento instalado em Campinas foram inoculadas também com a raça II de Hemileia vastatrix para o estudo da resistência conjunta aos dois patógenos. Essas seleções, em número de 38, representam valioso material para o programa de melhoramento do cafeeiro.Two coffee screening tests were undertaken in order to find out sources of resistance to the nematode M. exigua. Arabica progenies from Ethiopia origin and advanced popu-lations derived from interspecific crosses (Coffea arabica x C. canephora and C. arabica x C. dewevrei were evaluated. A five point scale (0 point to the roots without galls and 5 points to severely attacked roots was used for determination of the

  3. A hybrid density functional study on the electron and hole trap states in anatase titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takenori; Ohno, Takahisa

    2012-01-14

    We present a theoretical study on electron and hole trap states in the bulk and (001) surface of anatase titanium dioxide using screened hybrid density functional calculations. In both the bulk and surface, calculations suggest that the neutral and ionized oxygen vacancies are possible electron traps. The doubly ionized oxygen vacancy is the most stable in the bulk, and is a candidate for a shallow donor in colorless anatase crystals. The hole trap states are localized at oxygen anions in both the bulk and surface. The self-trapped electron centered at a titanium cation cannot be produced in the bulk, but can be formed at the surface. The electron trap level at the surface oxygen vacancy is consistent with observations by photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical absorptions and luminescence in UV-irradiated anatase nanoparticles are found to come from the surface self-trapped hole and the surface oxygen vacancy.

  4. The nature of excess electrons in anatase and rutile from hybrid DFT and RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Clelia; VandeVondele, Joost

    2014-12-21

    The behavior of excess electrons in undoped and defect free bulk anatase and rutile TiO2 has been investigated by state-of-the-art electronic structure methods including hybrid density functional theory (DFT) and the random phase approximation (RPA). Consistent with experiment, charge trapping and polaron formation is observed in both anatase and rutile. The difference in the anisotropic shape of the polarons is characterized, confirming for anatase the large polaron picture. For anatase, where polaron formation energies are small, charge trapping is observed also with standard hybrid functionals, provided the simulation cell is sufficiently large (864 atoms) to accommodate the lattice relaxation. Even though hybrid orbitals are required as a starting point for RPA in this system, the obtained polaron formation energies are relatively insensitive to the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange employed. The difference in trapping energy between rutile and anatase can be obtained accurately with both hybrid functionals and RPA. Computed activation energies for polaron hopping and delocalization clearly show that anatase and rutile might have different charge transport mechanisms. In rutile, only hopping is likely, whereas in anatase hopping and delocalization are competing. Delocalization will result in conduction-band-like and thus enhanced transport. Anisotropic conduction, in agreement with experimental data, is observed, and results from the tendency to delocalize in the [001] direction in rutile and the (001) plane in anatase. For future work, our calculations serve as a benchmark and suggest RPA on top on hybrid orbitals (PBE0 with 30% Hartree-Fock exchange), as a suitable method to study the rich chemistry and physics of TiO2.

  5. The analysis of single-electron orbits in a free electron laser based upon a rectangular hybrid wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordbacheh, A.; Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Maraghechi, B.

    2012-09-01

    A three-dimensional analysis of a novel free-electron laser (FEL) based upon a rectangular hybrid wiggler (RHW) is presented. This RHW is designed in a configuration composed of rectangular rings with alternating ferrite and dielectric spacers immersed in a solenoidal magnetic field. An analytic model of RHW is introduced by solution of Laplace's equation for the magnetostatic fields under the appropriate boundary conditions. The single-electron orbits in combined RHW and axial guide magnetic fields are studied when only the first and the third spatial harmonic components of the RHW field are taken into account and the higher order terms are ignored. The results indicate that the third spatial harmonic leads to group III orbits with a strong negative mass regime particularly in large solenoidal magnetic fields. RHW is found to be a promising candidate with favorable characteristics to be used in microwave FEL.

  6. Direct switching control of DC-DC power electronic converters using hybrid system theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Lin, F. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Wang, C. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Div. of Engineering Technology

    2010-07-01

    A direct switching control (DSC) scheme for power electronics converters was described. The system was designed for use in both traditional and renewable energy applications as well as in electric drive vehicles. The proposed control scheme was based on a detailed hybrid system converter model that used model predictive control (MPC), piecewise affine (PWA) approximations and constrained optimal control methods. A DC-DC converter was modelled as a hybrid machine. Switching among different modes of the DC-DC converter were modelled as discrete events controlled by the hybrid controller. The modelling scheme was applied to a Buck converter. The DSC was used to control the switch of the power converter based on a hybrid machine model. Results of the study showed that the method can be used to regulate output voltage and inductor currents. The method also provides fast transient responses and effectively regulates both currents and voltage. The controller can be used to provide immediate responses to dynamic disturbances and output voltage fluctuations. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Hybrid density functional study of the structural, bonding, and electronic properties of bismuth vanadate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Kyoung E.; Hwang, Gyeong S.

    2012-10-01

    The structure and property prediction of metal oxides can significantly be improved by incorporating exact Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange into density functional theory (DFT), which is the so-called hybrid DFT. We explored the impact of HF exchange inclusion on the predicted structural, bonding, and electronic properties of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4), with particular attention to the difference between its monoclinic and tetragonal scheelite phases. The applied exchange-correlation (xc) functionals include the gradient corrected Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and the PBE-HF hybrid functionals with HF exchange amounts of 10%, 25%, and 50%. We find that the PBE-HF25% yields a monoclinic structure in very close agreement with the experimentally determined structure, while the PBE-HF50% tends to overestimate the monoclinic distortion and the PBE/PBE-HF10% can hardly identify a distinct monoclinic configuration at ambient conditions. Electronic structure analysis reveals that the increasing monoclinic distortion with the amount of HF exchange is related to the enhancement of hybridization between Bi 6s-O 2p antibonding states and unoccupied Bi 6p states. The bonding mechanisms and band structures of the monoclinic and tetragonal phases of BiVO4 were also investigated, and we discuss how the predictions are sensitive to the xc functional choice.

  8. Electronic structures of one-dimensional metal-molecule hybrid chains studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung-Hoon; Koo, Bon-Gil; Kim, Howon; Yoon, Jong Keon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Kahng, Se-Jong

    2012-05-28

    The electronic structures of self-assembled hybrid chains comprising Ag atoms and organic molecules were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) in parallel with density functional theory (DFT). Hybrid chains were prepared by catalytic breaking of Br-C bonds in 4,4″-dibromo-p-terphenyl molecules, followed by spontaneous formation of Ag-C bonds on Ag(111). An atomic model was proposed for the observed hybrid chain structures. Four electronic states were resolved using STS measurements, and strong energy dependence was observed in STM images. These results were explained using first-principles calculations based on DFT.

  9. Femtosecond spectroscopic studies of photoinduced electron transfer in MDMO-PPV:ZnO hybrid bulk heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchetto, E.; De Cola, L. [Institute of Physics, University of Muenster, Mendelstrasse 7, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Slooff, H. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Zhang, H. [Van ' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129, 1018 WS Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    The photophysics of charge carriers (polaron) in MDMO-PPV:ZnO hybrid bulk heterojunction is studied at 80 K by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A short-lived positive polaron is observed in the blend phase in MDMO-PPV:ZnO blend films with a weight ratio of 1:1 and 1:2. Further increase of ZnO weight ratio results in a significant quenching of the polaron absorption. The results are discussed in the concept that both pristine polymer and MDMO-PPV:ZnO blend phases coexist in the blend films. It is concluded that a polaron is photogenerated within the excitation laser pulse (<100 fs) and electron transfer efficiency is highest in blend films 1:1 and 1:2. Lack of the interfacial area and faster back electron transfer process are discussed to be responsible for the quenching of the electron transfer efficiency in blend film 1:3.

  10. A linear dispersion relation for the hybrid kinetic-ion/fluid-electron model of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Told, Daniel; Astfalk, Patrick; Jenko, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A dispersion relation for a commonly used hybrid model of plasma physics is developed, which combines fully kinetic ions and a massless-electron fluid description. Although this model and variations of it have been used to describe plasma phenomena for about 40 years, to date there exists no general dispersion relation to describe the linear wave physics contained in the model. Previous efforts along these lines are extended here to retain arbitrary wave propagation angles, temperature anisotropy effects, as well as additional terms in the generalized Ohm's law which determines the electric field. A numerical solver for the dispersion relation is developed, and linear wave physics is benchmarked against solutions of a full Vlasov-Maxwell dispersion relation solver. This work opens the door to a more accurate interpretation of existing and future wave and turbulence simulations using this type of hybrid model.

  11. Chromosome Behavior of Pollen Mother Cell Meiosis in the Hybrid Progenies from Triticum timopheevi ×Avena fatua L.var.glabrata Pat%提莫菲维小麦与光稃野燕麦远缘杂交后代花粉母细胞减数分裂行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安洪周; 胡梅; 郑会敏; 张素勤; 张庆勤

    2013-01-01

    The chromosomic meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the hybrid progenies from Triticum timopheevi ×Avena fatua L.var.glabrata Pat was researched by general cytology and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in the present study.The results showed that the PMCs meiotic index of the F3 line was 87.46,indicating some genetic instability.4 pairs of red hybridization signals were found in the PMCs at the metaphase Ⅰ by GISH analysis,and there was a red signal in each dissociative univalent.Some lagging chromosome,chromosome bridges and micronuclei were discovered at the anaphase Ⅰ,anaphase Ⅱ and telophase Ⅱ,with the percentage of 10.58%,1.92% and 12.36%,respectively.Wheat homologues or homoeologues normally pairing was interfered by the wild oat chromatin might lead to these abnormal phenomena.%通过普通细胞学和基因组原位杂交(GISH)研究提莫菲维小麦(Triticum timopheevi)与光稃野燕麦(Avena fatua L.var.glabrata Pat)远缘杂交后代花粉母细胞染色体减数分裂行为.结果表明,该R株系花粉母细胞的减数分裂指数为87.46,表现出一定的遗传不稳定性.GISH分析发现该F3株系中期I细胞中有4对红色杂交信号,且游离的单价体上各有1个杂交信号;后期Ⅰ、后期Ⅱ和末期Ⅱ出现落后染色体、染色体桥、微核等现象,分别占观察数的10.58%、1.92%和12.36%,这些异常现象可能是由于光稃野燕麦遗传物质干扰了小麦同源染色体或部分同源染色体的正常配对造成的.

  12. Hybrid two-dimensional electronic systems and other applications of sp-2 bonded light elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Brian Maxwell

    The field-effect is a cornerstone of modern technology lying at the heart of transistors in consumer electronics. Experimentally, it allows one to continuously vary the carrier concentration in a material while studying its properties. The recent isolation of graphene, the first truly two-dimensional crystal, allows application of the field effect to a much wider range of physical situations. In the first part of the thesis, we investigate hybrid materials formed by coupling metals to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in graphene. We couple superconducting materials to the graphene sheet by cluster deposition. This material displays a superconducting phase whose properties are tuned by the carrier density via the field effect. The transition temperature is well-described by Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless vortex unbinding. The ground state properties show interesting effects due to the distribution of cluster spacings. Observations related to other hybrid electronic systems including ferromagnets and normal metals are presented. The second part of this thesis involves energy applications of light element materials. The mechanisms affecting coating of carbon nanotubes using atomic layer deposition is developed and applied to photovoltaic systems. The gas adsorption properties of activated boron nitride are investigated and the relative influence of surface area and hydrogen binding affinity is elaborated. The third part of this thesis explores electromechanical properties of suspended graphene membranes. We investigate buckling and strain in exfoliated graphene membranes as well as their deformation under an applied gate potential.

  13. Fluorescent Nanodiamond-Gold Hybrid Particles for Multimodal Optical and Electron Microscopy Cellular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weina; Naydenov, Boris; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Wuensch, Bettina; Hübner, Kristina; Ritz, Sandra; Cölfen, Helmut; Barth, Holger; Koynov, Kaloian; Qi, Haoyuan; Leiter, Robert; Reuter, Rolf; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Boldt, Felix; Scheuer, Jonas; Kaiser, Ute; Sison, Miguel; Lasser, Theo; Tinnefeld, Philip; Jelezko, Fedor; Walther, Paul; Wu, Yuzhou; Weil, Tanja

    2016-10-12

    There is a continuous demand for imaging probes offering excellent performance in various microscopy techniques for comprehensive investigations of cellular processes by more than one technique. Fluorescent nanodiamond-gold nanoparticles (FND-Au) constitute a new class of "all-in-one" hybrid particles providing unique features for multimodal cellular imaging including optical imaging, electron microscopy, and, and potentially even quantum sensing. Confocal and optical coherence microscopy of the FND-Au allow fast investigations inside living cells via emission, scattering, and photothermal imaging techniques because the FND emission is not quenched by AuNPs. In electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) analysis of FND-Au reveals greatly enhanced contrast due to the gold particles as well as an extraordinary flickering behavior in three-dimensional cellular environments originating from the nanodiamonds. The unique multimodal imaging characteristics of FND-Au enable detailed studies inside cells ranging from statistical distributions at the entire cellular level (micrometers) down to the tracking of individual particles in subcellular organelles (nanometers). Herein, the processes of endosomal membrane uptake and release of FNDs were elucidated for the first time by the imaging of individual FND-Au hybrid nanoparticles with single-particle resolution. Their convenient preparation, the availability of various surface groups, their flexible detection modalities, and their single-particle contrast in combination with the capability for endosomal penetration and low cytotoxicity make FND-Au unique candidates for multimodal optical-electronic imaging applications with great potential for emerging techniques, such as quantum sensing inside living cells.

  14. Donor-acceptor graphene-based hybrid materials facilitating photo-induced electron-transfer reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, Anastasios; Pagona, Georgia; Tagmatarchis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Graphene research and in particular the topic of chemical functionalization of graphene has exploded in the last decade. The main aim is to increase the solubility and thereby enhance the processability of the material, which is otherwise insoluble and inapplicable for technological applications when stacked in the form of graphite. To this end, initially, graphite was oxidized under harsh conditions to yield exfoliated graphene oxide sheets that are soluble in aqueous media and amenable to chemical modifications due to the presence of carboxylic acid groups at the edges of the lattice. However, it was obvious that the high-defect framework of graphene oxide cannot be readily utilized in applications that are governed by charge-transfer processes, for example, in solar cells. Alternatively, exfoliated graphene has been applied toward the realization of some donor-acceptor hybrid materials with photo- and/or electro-active components. The main body of research regarding obtaining donor-acceptor hybrid materials based on graphene to facilitate charge-transfer phenomena, which is reviewed here, concerns the incorporation of porphyrins and phthalocyanines onto graphene sheets. Through illustrative schemes, the preparation and most importantly the photophysical properties of such graphene-based ensembles will be described. Important parameters, such as the generation of the charge-separated state upon photoexcitation of the organic electron donor, the lifetimes of the charge-separation and charge-recombination as well as the incident-photon-to-current efficiency value for some donor-acceptor graphene-based hybrids, will be discussed.

  15. Hybrid Numerical Solvers for Massively Parallel Eigenvalue Computation and Their Benchmark with Electronic Structure Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Imachi, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Optimally hybrid numerical solvers were constructed for massively parallel generalized eigenvalue problem (GEP).The strong scaling benchmark was carried out on the K computer and other supercomputers for electronic structure calculation problems in the matrix sizes of M = 10^4-10^6 with upto 105 cores. The procedure of GEP is decomposed into the two subprocedures of the reducer to the standard eigenvalue problem (SEP) and the solver of SEP. A hybrid solver is constructed, when a routine is chosen for each subprocedure from the three parallel solver libraries of ScaLAPACK, ELPA and EigenExa. The hybrid solvers with the two newer libraries, ELPA and EigenExa, give better benchmark results than the conventional ScaLAPACK library. The detailed analysis on the results implies that the reducer can be a bottleneck in next-generation (exa-scale) supercomputers, which indicates the guidance for future research. The code was developed as a middleware and a mini-application and will appear online.

  16. Highly transparent, low-haze, hybrid cellulose nanopaper as electrodes for flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Long; Lubineau, Gilles; Ng, Tienkhee; Ooi, Boon S; Liao, Hsien-Yu; Shen, Chao; Chen, Long; Zhu, J Y

    2016-06-16

    Paper is an excellent candidate to replace plastics as a substrate for flexible electronics due to its low cost, renewability and flexibility. Cellulose nanopaper (CNP), a new type of paper made of nanosized cellulose fibers, is a promising substrate material for transparent and flexible electrodes due to its potentially high transparency and high mechanical strength. Although CNP substrates can achieve high transparency, they are still characterized by high diffuse transmittance and small direct transmittance, resulting in high optical haze of the substrates. In this study, we proposed a simple methodology for large-scale production of high-transparency, low-haze CNP comprising both long cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and short cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). By varying the CNC/CNF ratio in the hybrid CNP, we could tailor its total transmittance, direct transmittance and diffuse transmittance. By increasing the CNC content, the optical haze of the hybrid CNP could be decreased and its transparency could be increased. The direct transmittance and optical haze of the CNP were 75.1% and 10.0%, respectively, greatly improved from the values of previously reported CNP (31.1% and 62.0%, respectively). Transparent, flexible electrodes were fabricated by coating the hybrid CNP with silver nanowires (AgNWs). The electrodes showed a low sheet resistance (minimum 1.2 Ω sq(-1)) and a high total transmittance (maximum of 82.5%). The electrodes were used to make a light emitting diode (LED) assembly to demonstrate their potential use in flexible displays.

  17. A hybrid electron donor comprising cyclopentadithiophene and dithiafulvenyl for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Sorohhov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new photosensitizers featured with a cyanoacrylic acid electron acceptor (A and a hybrid electron donor (D of cyclopentadithiophene and dithiafulvenyl, either directly linked or separated by a phenyl ring, were synthesized and characterized. Both of them undergo two reversible oxidations and strongly absorb in the visible spectral region due to a photo-induced intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT transition. To a great extent, the electronic interaction between the D and A units is affected by the presence of a phenyl spacer. Without a phenyl ring, the D unit appears more difficult to oxidize due to a strong electron-withdrawing effect of the A moiety. In sharp contrast, the insertion of the phenyl ring between the D and A units leads to a broken π-conjugation and therefore, the oxidation potentials remain almost unchanged compared to those of an analogue without the A group, suggesting that the electronic coupling between D and A units is relatively weak. As a consequence, the lowest-energy absorption band shows a slight hypsochromic shift upon the addition of the phenyl spacer, indicative of an increased HOMO–LUMO gap. In turn, the direct linkage of D and A units leads to an effective π-conjugation, thus substantially lowering the HOMO–LUMO gap. Moreover, the application in dye-sensitized solar cells was investigated, showing that the power conversion efficiency increases by the insertion of the phenyl unit.

  18. A hybrid electron donor comprising cyclopentadithiophene and dithiafulvenyl for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorohhov, Gleb; Yi, Chenyi; Grätzel, Michael; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Two new photosensitizers featured with a cyanoacrylic acid electron acceptor (A) and a hybrid electron donor (D) of cyclopentadithiophene and dithiafulvenyl, either directly linked or separated by a phenyl ring, were synthesized and characterized. Both of them undergo two reversible oxidations and strongly absorb in the visible spectral region due to a photo-induced intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transition. To a great extent, the electronic interaction between the D and A units is affected by the presence of a phenyl spacer. Without a phenyl ring, the D unit appears more difficult to oxidize due to a strong electron-withdrawing effect of the A moiety. In sharp contrast, the insertion of the phenyl ring between the D and A units leads to a broken π-conjugation and therefore, the oxidation potentials remain almost unchanged compared to those of an analogue without the A group, suggesting that the electronic coupling between D and A units is relatively weak. As a consequence, the lowest-energy absorption band shows a slight hypsochromic shift upon the addition of the phenyl spacer, indicative of an increased HOMO-LUMO gap. In turn, the direct linkage of D and A units leads to an effective π-conjugation, thus substantially lowering the HOMO-LUMO gap. Moreover, the application in dye-sensitized solar cells was investigated, showing that the power conversion efficiency increases by the insertion of the phenyl unit.

  19. Tunable Radiation Response in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Gate Dielectrics for Low-Voltage Graphene Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Heather N; Cress, Cory D; McMorrow, Julian J; Schmucker, Scott W; Sangwan, Vinod K; Jaber-Ansari, Laila; Kumar, Rajan; Puntambekar, Kanan P; Luck, Kyle A; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-03-01

    Solution-processed semiconductor and dielectric materials are attractive for future lightweight, low-voltage, flexible electronics, but their response to ionizing radiation environments is not well understood. Here, we investigate the radiation response of graphene field-effect transistors employing multilayer, solution-processed zirconia self-assembled nanodielectrics (Zr-SANDs) with ZrOx as a control. Total ionizing dose (TID) testing is carried out in situ using a vacuum ultraviolet source to a total radiant exposure (RE) of 23.1 μJ/cm(2). The data reveal competing charge density accumulation within and between the individual dielectric layers. Additional measurements of a modified Zr-SAND show that varying individual layer thicknesses within the gate dielectric tuned the TID response. This study thus establishes that the radiation response of graphene electronics can be tailored to achieve a desired radiation sensitivity by incorporating hybrid organic-inorganic gate dielectrics.

  20. Role of Microstructure in the Electron-Hole Interaction of Hybrid Lead-Halide Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jarvist M.; Barker, Alex J.; De Bastiani, Michele; Gandini, Marina; Marras, Sergio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Walsh, Aron; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Solar cells based on hybrid inorganic-organic halide perovskites have demonstrated high power conversion efficiencies in a range of architectures. The existence and stability of bound electron-hole pairs in these materials, and their role in the exceptional performance of optoelectronic devices, remains a controversial issue. Here we demonstrate, through a combination of optical spectroscopy and multiscale modeling as a function of the degree of polycrystallinity and temperature, that the electron-hole interaction is sensitive to the microstructure of the material. The long-range order is disrupted by polycrystalline disorder and the variations in electrostatic potential found for smaller crystals suppress exciton formation, while larger crystals of the same composition demonstrate an unambiguous excitonic state. We conclude that fabrication procedures and morphology strongly influence perovskite behaviour, with both free carrier and excitonic regimes possible, with strong implications for optoelectronic devices. PMID:26442125

  1. Hybrid bio-organic interfaces with matchable nanoscale topography for durable high extracellular electron transfer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunmei; Liu, Huan; Lv, Meiling; Zhao, Tianyi; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei

    2014-07-21

    Here, we developed a novel hybrid bio-organic interface with matchable nano-scale topography between a polypyrrole nanowire array (PPy-NA) and the bacterium Shewanella, which enabled a remarkably increased extracellular electron transfer (EET) current from genus Shewanella over a rather long period. PPy-NA thus exhibited outstanding performance in mediating bacterial EET, which was superior to normal electrodes such as carbon plates, Au and tin-doped In₂O₃. It was proposed that the combined effect of the inherent electrochemical nature of PPy and the porous structured bacterial network that was generated on the PPy-NA enabled long-term stability, while the high efficiency was attributed to the enhanced electron transfer rate between PPy-NA and microbes caused by the enhanced local topological interactions.

  2. Role of Microstructure in the Electron-Hole Interaction of Hybrid Lead-Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancini, Giulia; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Frost, Jarvist M; Barker, Alex J; De Bastiani, Michele; Gandini, Marina; Marras, Sergio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Walsh, Aron; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2015-10-01

    Solar cells based on hybrid inorganic-organic halide perovskites have demonstrated high power conversion efficiencies in a range of architectures. The existence and stability of bound electron-hole pairs in these materials, and their role in the exceptional performance of optoelectronic devices, remains a controversial issue. Here we demonstrate, through a combination of optical spectroscopy and multiscale modeling as a function of the degree of polycrystallinity and temperature, that the electron-hole interaction is sensitive to the microstructure of the material. The long-range order is disrupted by polycrystalline disorder and the variations in electrostatic potential found for smaller crystals suppress exciton formation, while larger crystals of the same composition demonstrate an unambiguous excitonic state. We conclude that fabrication procedures and morphology strongly influence perovskite behaviour, with both free carrier and excitonic regimes possible, with strong implications for optoelectronic devices.

  3. Detection of secondary electrons with pixelated hybrid semiconductor detectors; Sekundaerelektronennachweis mit pixelierten hybriden Halbleiterdetektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, Ulrike Sonja

    2011-09-14

    Within the scope of this thesis, secondary electrons were detected with a pixelated semiconductor detector named Timepix. The Timepix detector consists of electronics and a sensor made from a semiconductor material. The connection of sensor and electronics is done for each pixel individually using bump bonds. Electrons with energies above 3 keV can be detected with the sensor. One electron produces a certain amount of electron-hole pairs according to its energy. The charge then drifts along an electric field to the pixel electronics, where it induces an electric signal. Even without a sensor it is possible to detect an electric signal from approximately 1000 electrons directly in the pixel electronics. Two different detector systems to detect secondary electrons using the Timepix detector were investigated during this thesis. First of all, a hybrid photon detector (HPD) was used to detect single photoelectrons. The HPD consists of a vacuum vessel with an entrance window and a cesium iodine photocathode at the inner surface of the window. Photoelectrons are released from the photocathode by incident light and are accelerated in an electric field towards the Timepix detector, where the point of interaction and the arrival time of the electron is determined. With a proximity focusing setup, a time resolution of 12 ns (with an acceleration voltage of 20 kV between photocathode and Timepix detector) was obtained. The HPD examined in this thesis showed a strong dependence of the dark rate form the acceleration voltage and the pressure in the vacuum vessel. At a pressure of few 10{sup -5} mbar and an acceleration voltage of 20 kV, the dark rate was about 800 Hz per mm{sup 2} area of the read out photocathode. One possibility to reduce the dark rate is to identify ion feedback events. With a slightly modified setup it was possible to reduce the dark rate to 0.5 Hz/mm{sup 2}. To achieve this, a new photocathode was mounted in a shorter distance to the detector. The

  4. Genetic Analysis of Triploid Progenies from Shatian Pummelo (2x) x Citrus Allotetraploid Somatic Hybrid NS (4x)%沙田柚(2x)×柑橘异源体细胞杂种NS(4x)的三倍体后代遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋健坤; 朱世平; 谭美莲; 郭文武; 邓秀新

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Two pairs of SSR (simple sequence repeat) primers TAA1 and TAA3 were used to detect the band patterns and segregation rations among the 79 triploid progenies derived from the sexual cross between diploid Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck ' Shatian' pummelo and somatic hybrid NS [ ( C. reticulata Blanco×C. paradisi Macf. ) 'Nova' tangelo + C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck 'Succari' sweet orange] by embyo rescue technology. Five and four band patterns were generated from the TAA1 and TAA3 primers at the ratio of 4 : 1 : 1 : 5 : 1 and 2 : 2 : 1 : 1 respectively, as was in good accordance with the segregation ratio of amphidiploid deduced by the law of Mendel. The results preliminarily indicated that the meiosis behavior of citrus allotetraploid somatic hybrid was similar to that of the amphidiploid.%用两对SSR引物TAAl和TAA3对以二倍体沙田柚为母本,体细胞杂种NS(Nova橘柚+Succari甜橙)为父本,通过有性杂交和胚挽救获得的79株三倍体后代群体的带型和分离情况进行了分析。结果发现TAAl引物和TAA3引物在后代群体中分别扩增出5种带型和4种带型,子代带型分别符合4:1:1:5:1和2:2:1:1的分离比例,与根据孟德尔遗传规律推导的双二倍体的分离比例相吻合,初步表明柑橘异源四倍体体细胞杂种减数分裂行为类似于双二倍体。

  5. Design of hybrid sol gel films for direct x-ray and electron beam nanopatterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatin, Giovanna; Della Giustina, Gioia; Romanato, Filippo; Guglielmi, Massimo

    2008-04-01

    New epoxy based sol-gel organic inorganic materials, showing lithographic resist-like properties without the addition of any photocatalysts, are presented. To obtain a material sensitive to radiation, specific sol-gel syntheses based on an organically modified alkoxide containing an epoxy ring, 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), have been developed. The synthesis and the patternability of hybrid materials have been obtained controlling the inorganic crosslinking degree and with an almost total absence of organic polymerization. Two examples of directly patternable hybrid films, called GB and GGe, have been synthesized using acidic (GGe) and basic (GB) conditions and obtaining different compositions. After electron beam lithography (EBL) or x-ray synchrotron radiation lithography (XRL) the polymerization of the organic component of the sol-gel film occurs, generating a hardening of the structure after post-exposure baking. The exposed polymerized material becomes insoluble, determining a negative resist-like behaviour of the film: the lithographic process of nanopatterning results from the dissolution of the unexposed areas in proper solvents (developers). Spatial resolution of the order of 200 nm is reported and a contrast of 2.2 is achieved. The novelty of this work is that epoxy based materials, which have enhanced thermomechanical stability with respect to the more usual acrylic based resins, are directly nanopatterned for the first time by electron beam (EB) and/or x-ray beam radiation exposure without the aid of catalysts for polymerization. In contrast to common resists that are sacrificial layers of the fabrication process, direct patternable sol-gel hybrids constitute the final material of the devices. In fact, an example of doping with a light emitting dye is reported together with the achievement of directly patterned structures by EBL and XRL.

  6. Hybrid CIS-DFT method to study electric field effects on electronic excited states of ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mei-Zhong; Zhu Zheng-He; Chen Xiao-Jun; Xu Guo-Liang; Zhang Yong-Bin; Mao Hua-Ping; Shen Xiao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the study of the effects of external dipole electric field on the molecular structure of ethylene using a hybrid method which combines the single-excitation configuration interactions (CIS) with density functional theory (DFT), i.e. CIS-DFT(B3LYP). It is found that the effects of electric dipole field on the molecular geometry (D2h, D2d and C2v), dipole moment, transition dipole moment, polarizability and, particularly, excitation energy of ethylene are remarkable. The advantages of the hybrid CIS-DFT method are that it can determine the symmetry of molecule and the correct order of excitation as well as the Molecular Orbital (MO) electron configuration;thereby the electronic excitation states of ethylene are easily derived, and most of them are in agreement with those obtained in experiments or references. It may be the first time the effects of external electric field on ethylene molecule have been considered. Compared with other ab initio methods, the CIS-DFT method is relatively accurate and low cost in computation. We expect that it can be used to study other closed-shell molecules.

  7. PARENTAL DROUGHT AND DEFOLIATION EFFECT ON YIELD, GRAINS BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS AND DROUGHT PERFORMANCE OF SORGHUM PROGENY

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. Ibrahim; El-Shahaby, O. A.; Abo-Hamed, S. A.; Younis, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of drought stress and drought with defoliation on yield parameters of three sorghum varieties (Giza 15, Dorado and Hybrid 113). Also, the effect of these parental stress treatments on drought performance of progeny of the most drought tolerant variety was investigated. Application of drought stress in the vegetative stage non significantly affected panicles number, grain yield and harvest index of all cultivars. Drought stress in the reproductive...

  8. Highly transparent, low-haze, hybrid cellulose nanopaper as electrodes for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Long; Lubineau, Gilles; Ng, Tienkhee; Ooi, Boon S.; Liao, Hsien-Yu; Shen, Chao; Chen, Long; Zhu, J. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Paper is an excellent candidate to replace plastics as a substrate for flexible electronics due to its low cost, renewability and flexibility. Cellulose nanopaper (CNP), a new type of paper made of nanosized cellulose fibers, is a promising substrate material for transparent and flexible electrodes due to its potentially high transparency and high mechanical strength. Although CNP substrates can achieve high transparency, they are still characterized by high diffuse transmittance and small direct transmittance, resulting in high optical haze of the substrates. In this study, we proposed a simple methodology for large-scale production of high-transparency, low-haze CNP comprising both long cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and short cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). By varying the CNC/CNF ratio in the hybrid CNP, we could tailor its total transmittance, direct transmittance and diffuse transmittance. By increasing the CNC content, the optical haze of the hybrid CNP could be decreased and its transparency could be increased. The direct transmittance and optical haze of the CNP were 75.1% and 10.0%, respectively, greatly improved from the values of previously reported CNP (31.1% and 62.0%, respectively). Transparent, flexible electrodes were fabricated by coating the hybrid CNP with silver nanowires (AgNWs). The electrodes showed a low sheet resistance (minimum 1.2 Ω sq-1) and a high total transmittance (maximum of 82.5%). The electrodes were used to make a light emitting diode (LED) assembly to demonstrate their potential use in flexible displays.Paper is an excellent candidate to replace plastics as a substrate for flexible electronics due to its low cost, renewability and flexibility. Cellulose nanopaper (CNP), a new type of paper made of nanosized cellulose fibers, is a promising substrate material for transparent and flexible electrodes due to its potentially high transparency and high mechanical strength. Although CNP substrates can achieve high transparency, they are

  9. Single electron tunneling in large scale nanojunction arrays with bisferrocene-nanoparticle hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Shilpi; Kumar, Susmit; Marzo, Pasquale; Primiceri, Elisabetta; di Corato, Riccardo; Rinaldi, Ross; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio; Bramanti, Alessandro Paolo; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods.We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods. Electronic supplementary

  10. Contribution of interlayer hybridization to the electronic structure in iron pnictides: a study of EELS and first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Yang, Huaixin; Tian, Huanfang; Shi, Honglong; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Jianqi

    2013-03-20

    Using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements and first-principles electronic structure calculations, the significant interlayer hybridization between the insulating layers (ReO or Ba) and the conducting FeAs layers was investigated in the layered iron pnictides, which is quite different from the case in the cuprate superconductors. This interlayer hybridization would result in an increase in the bandwidth near the Fermi level and interorbital charge transfer in the Fe 3d orbitals, which subsequently leads to a decrease in the Fe local moment and the modification of the Fermi surface topology. Therefore, a three-dimensional character of the electronic structure due to the interlayer hybridization is expected, as observed in previous experiments. These findings indicate that reduced dimensionality is no longer a necessary condition in the search for high-T(c) superconductors in iron pnictides.

  11. Single-Particle Cryo-EM and 3D Reconstruction of Hybrid Nanoparticles with Electron-Dense Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guimei; Yan, Rui; Zhang, Chuan; Mao, Chengde; Jiang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), accompanied with 3D reconstruction, is a broadly applicable tool for the structural characterization of macromolecules and nanoparticles. Recently, the cryo-EM field has pushed the limits of this technique to higher resolutions and samples of smaller molecular mass, however, some samples still present hurdles to this technique. Hybrid particles with electron-dense components, which have been studied using single-particle cryo-EM yet with limited success in 3D reconstruction due to the interference caused by electron-dense elements, constitute one group of such challenging samples. To process such hybrid particles, a masking method is developed in this work to adaptively remove pixels arising from electron-dense portions in individual projection images while maintaining maximal biomass signals for subsequent 2D alignment, 3D reconstruction, and iterative refinements. As demonstrated by the success in 3D reconstruction of an octahedron DNA/gold hybrid particle, which has been previously published without a 3D reconstruction, the devised strategy that combines adaptive masking and standard single-particle 3D reconstruction approach has overcome the hurdle of electron-dense elements interference, and is generally applicable to cryo-EM structural characterization of most, if not all, hybrid nanomaterials with electron-dense components.

  12. Electronic band structure effects in monolayer, bilayer, and hybrid graphene structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Conor

    Since its discovery in 2005, graphene has been the focus of intense theoretical and experimental study owing to its unique two-dimensional band structure and related electronic properties. In this thesis, we explore the electronic properties of graphene structures from several perspectives including the magnetoelectrical transport properties of monolayer graphene, gap engineering and measurements in bilayer graphene, and anomalous quantum oscillation in the monolayer-bilayer graphene hybrids. We also explored the device implications of our findings, and the application of some experimental techniques developed for the graphene work to the study of a complex oxide, Ca3Ru2O7, exhibiting properties of strongly correlated electrons. Graphene's high mobility and ballistic transport over device length scales, make it suitable for numerous applications. However, two big challenges remain in the way: maintaining high mobility in fabricated devices, and engineering a band gap to make graphene compatible with logical electronics and various optical devices. We address the first challenge by experimentally evaluating mobilities in scalable monolayer graphene-based field effect transistors (FETs) and dielectric-covered Hall bars. We find that the mobility is limited in these devices, and is roughly inversely proportional to doping. By considering interaction of graphene's Dirac fermions with local charged impurities at the interface between graphene and the top-gate dielectric, we find that Coulomb scattering is responsible for degraded mobility. Even in the cleanest devices, a band gap is still desirable for electronic applications of graphene. We address this challenge by probing the band structure of bilayer graphene, in which a field-tunable energy band gap has been theoretically proposed. We use planar tunneling spectroscopy of exfoliated bilayer graphene flakes demonstrate both measurement and control of the energy band gap. We find that both the Fermi level and

  13. Vernalization response of domesticated× wild chickpea progeny is subject to strong genotype by environment interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernalization insensitivity is a key feature of domesticated chickpea and its genetic basis is not well understood. We studied vernalization response among hybrid progeny derived from two domesticated x wild crosses. The wild parents are vernalization sensitive, late flowering genotypes while both d...

  14. Stability of hybrid modes of a single-component electron plasma containing an admixture of background gas ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliseyev, Yu. N.

    2014-05-01

    The spectrum of eigenmodes of a waveguide completely filled with a cold electron plasma containing a small admixture of ions produced due to electron-impact ionization of background gas atoms is calculated numerically. The calculations were performed within the entire range of allowable values of the radial electric and longitudinal magnetic fields for both magnetized and unmagnetized ions by using the earlier derived nonlocal dispersion relation [Plasma Phys. Rep. 36, 563 (2010)]. The spectrum consists of three families of electron modes with frequencies equal to the Doppler-shifted upper and lower hybrid frequencies and modified ion cyclotron (MIC) modes. When the Doppler shift caused by electron rotation in the crossed electric and magnetic fields compensates for the hybrid frequency, the electron modes become low-frequency modes and interact with the ion modes. For m = 1, only the lower hybrid modes can be low-frequency ones, whereas at m ≥ 2, both lower and upper hybrid modes can be low-frequency ones. The spectrum of modes having the azimuthal number m = 2 is thoroughly analyzed. It is shown that, in this case, the lower hybrid modes behave similar to the m = 1 modes. The dispersion curves of the upper hybrid modes intersect with all harmonics of the MIC frequency (positive, negative, and zero) and are unstable in the vicinities of the intersections. The maximum value of the instability growth rate is several times higher than the ion plasma frequency. The MIC modes are unstable within a wide range of the field strengths, and their growth rates are two orders of magnitude slower. Instabilities are caused by the relative motion of electrons and ions (the transverse current) and the anisotropy of the ion distribution function.

  15. Donor–acceptor graphene-based hybrid materials facilitating photo-induced electron-transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Stergiou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene research and in particular the topic of chemical functionalization of graphene has exploded in the last decade. The main aim is to increase the solubility and thereby enhance the processability of the material, which is otherwise insoluble and inapplicable for technological applications when stacked in the form of graphite. To this end, initially, graphite was oxidized under harsh conditions to yield exfoliated graphene oxide sheets that are soluble in aqueous media and amenable to chemical modifications due to the presence of carboxylic acid groups at the edges of the lattice. However, it was obvious that the high-defect framework of graphene oxide cannot be readily utilized in applications that are governed by charge-transfer processes, for example, in solar cells. Alternatively, exfoliated graphene has been applied toward the realization of some donor–acceptor hybrid materials with photo- and/or electro-active components. The main body of research regarding obtaining donor–acceptor hybrid materials based on graphene to facilitate charge-transfer phenomena, which is reviewed here, concerns the incorporation of porphyrins and phthalocyanines onto graphene sheets. Through illustrative schemes, the preparation and most importantly the photophysical properties of such graphene-based ensembles will be described. Important parameters, such as the generation of the charge-separated state upon photoexcitation of the organic electron donor, the lifetimes of the charge-separation and charge-recombination as well as the incident-photon-to-current efficiency value for some donor–acceptor graphene-based hybrids, will be discussed.

  16. Highly transparent, low-haze, hybrid cellulose nanopaper as electrodes for flexible electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2016-06-01

    Paper is an excellent candidate to replace plastics as a substrate for flexible electronics due to its low cost, renewability and flexibility. Cellulose nanopaper (CNP), a new type of paper made of nanosized cellulose fibers, is a promising substrate material for transparent and flexible electrodes due to its potentially high transparency and high mechanical strength. Although CNP substrates can achieve high transparency, they are still characterized by high diffuse transmittance and small direct transmittance, resulting in high optical haze of the substrates. In this study, we proposed a simple methodology for large-scale production of high-transparency, low-haze CNP comprising both long cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and short cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). By varying the CNC/CNF ratio in the hybrid CNP, we could tailor its total transmittance, direct transmittance and diffuse transmittance. By increasing the CNC content, the optical haze of the hybrid CNP could be decreased and its transparency could be increased. The direct transmittance and optical haze of the CNP were 75.1% and 10.0%, respectively, greatly improved from the values of previously reported CNP (31.1% and 62.0%, respectively). Transparent, flexible electrodes were fabricated by coating the hybrid CNP with silver nanowires (AgNWs). The electrodes showed a low sheet resistance (minimum 1.2 Ω sq-1) and a high total transmittance (maximum of 82.5%). The electrodes were used to make a light emitting diode (LED) assembly to demonstrate their potential use in flexible displays. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Making hybrid [n]-rotaxanes as supramolecular arrays of molecular electron spin qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Antonio; Ferrando-Soria, Jesus; Pineda, Eufemio Moreno; Tuna, Floriana; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J.; Knappke, Christiane; Ujma, Jakub; Muryn, Christopher A.; Timco, Grigore A.; Barran, Perdita E.; Ardavan, Arzhang; Winpenny, Richard E. P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processing (QIP) would require that the individual units involved--qubits--communicate to other qubits while retaining their identity. In many ways this resembles the way supramolecular chemistry brings together individual molecules into interlocked structures, where the assembly has one identity but where the individual components are still recognizable. Here a fully modular supramolecular strategy has been to link hybrid organic-inorganic [2]- and [3]-rotaxanes into still larger [4]-, [5]- and [7]-rotaxanes. The ring components are heterometallic octanuclear [Cr7NiF8(O2CtBu)16]- coordination cages and the thread components template the formation of the ring about the organic axle, and are further functionalized to act as a ligand, which leads to large supramolecular arrays of these heterometallic rings. As the rings have been proposed as qubits for QIP, the strategy provides a possible route towards scalable molecular electron spin devices for QIP. Double electron-electron resonance experiments demonstrate inter-qubit interactions suitable for mediating two-qubit quantum logic gates.

  18. Enhancing Intrinsic Stability of Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cell by Strong, yet Balanced, Electronic Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Bentria, El Tayeb; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

    2016-07-01

    In the past few years, the meteoric development of hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSC) astonished the community. The efficiency has already reached the level needed for commercialization; however, the instability hinders its deployment on the market. Here, we report a mechanism to chemically stabilize PSC absorbers. We propose to replace the widely used methylammonium cation (CH3NH3+) by alternative molecular cations allowing an enhanced electronic coupling between the cation and the PbI6 octahedra while maintaining the band gap energy within the suitable range for solar cells. The mechanism exploits establishing a balance between the electronegativity of the materials’ constituents and the resulting ionic electrostatic interactions. The calculations demonstrate the concept of enhancing the electronic coupling, and hence the stability, by exploring the stabilizing features of CH3PH3+, CH3SH2+, and SH3+ cations, among several other possible candidates. Chemical stability enhancement hence results from a strong, yet balanced, electronic coupling between the cation and the halides in the octahedron. This shall unlock the hindering instability problem for PSCs and allow them to hit the market as a serious low-cost competitor to silicon based solar cell technologies.

  19. Enhancing Intrinsic Stability of Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cell by Strong, yet Balanced, Electronic Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Bentria, El Tayeb; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the meteoric development of hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSC) astonished the community. The efficiency has already reached the level needed for commercialization; however, the instability hinders its deployment on the market. Here, we report a mechanism to chemically stabilize PSC absorbers. We propose to replace the widely used methylammonium cation (CH3NH3+) by alternative molecular cations allowing an enhanced electronic coupling between the cation and the PbI6 octahedra while maintaining the band gap energy within the suitable range for solar cells. The mechanism exploits establishing a balance between the electronegativity of the materials’ constituents and the resulting ionic electrostatic interactions. The calculations demonstrate the concept of enhancing the electronic coupling, and hence the stability, by exploring the stabilizing features of CH3PH3+, CH3SH2+, and SH3+ cations, among several other possible candidates. Chemical stability enhancement hence results from a strong, yet balanced, electronic coupling between the cation and the halides in the octahedron. This shall unlock the hindering instability problem for PSCs and allow them to hit the market as a serious low-cost competitor to silicon based solar cell technologies. PMID:27457130

  20. Design guidelines for use of adhesives in hybrid microcircuits. [for electronic equipment in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, S. V.; Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the use of adhesives in the assembly of hybrid microcircuits offers advantages over other bonding methods, there currently does not exist a set of guidelines for the selection of adhesives which will insure that hybrid microcircuits assembled with them will meet the long use-life, high-reliability requirements of electronic equipment for space applications. This study was directed to the identification of the properties of electrically insulative adhesives that potentially could cause problems in such an application, and to the development of evaluation tests to quantify these properties and thus form the basis for establishing suitable guidelines and, ultimately, specifications. Bond strength, outgassing after cure, and corrosivity were selected for detailed attention since they are considered to be especially critical. Introductory discussion includes enumeration and brief comments on the properties of adhesives considered to be important for the proposed application, a general review of polymeric types of adhesives, and identification of the major types of adhesives commercially available and specifically designed for microelectronic use. The specific tests developed to evaluate bond strength, outgassing after cure, and corrosivity are discussed in detail, and comparative results obtained for selected adhesives representative of the major types are given.

  1. Electron beam energy stabilization using a neural network hybrid controller at the Australian Synchrotron Linac.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E.; Morgan, M. J.; Biedron, S. G.; LeBlanc, G.; Wu, J. (OTD-ESE); (Monash Univ.); (Australian Synchrotron Project); (SLAC National Accelerator Lab.)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a neural network hybrid controller for energy stabilization at the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The structure of the controller consists of a neural network (NNET) feed forward control, augmented by a conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) feedback controller to ensure stability of the system. The system is provided with past states of the machine in order to predict its future state, and therefore apply appropriate feed forward control. The NNET is able to cancel multiple frequency jitter in real-time. When it is not performing optimally due to jitter changes, the system can successfully be augmented by the PI controller to attenuate the remaining perturbations. With a view to control the energy and bunch length at the FERMI{at}Elettra Free Electron Laser (FEL), the present study considers a neural network hybrid feed forward-feedback type of control to rectify limitations related to feedback systems, such as poor response for high jitter frequencies or limited bandwidth, while ensuring robustness of control. The Australian Synchrotron Linac is equipped with a beam position monitor (BPM), that was provided by Sincrotrone Trieste from a former transport line thus allowing energy measurements and energy control experiments. The present study will consequently focus on correcting energy jitter induced by variations in klystron phase and voltage.

  2. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Copyright 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  3. 3D hybrid simulations with gyrokinetic particle ions and fluid electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belova, E.V.; Park, W.; Fu, G.Y. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Strauss, H.R. [New York Univ., NY (United States); Sugiyama, L.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The previous hybrid MHD/particle model (MH3D-K code) represented energetic ions as gyrokinetic (or drift-kinetic) particles coupled to MHD equations using the pressure or current coupling scheme. A small energetic to bulk ion density ratio was assumed, n{sub h}/n{sub b} {much_lt} 1, allowing the neglect of the energetic ion perpendicular inertia in the momentum equation and the use of MHD Ohm`s law E = {minus}v{sub b} {times} B. A generalization of this model in which all ions are treated as gyrokinetic/drift-kinetic particles and fluid description is used for the electron dynamics is considered in this paper.

  4. More stable hybrid organic solar cells deposited on amorphous Si electron transfer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samiee, Mehran; Modtland, Brian; Dalal, Vikram L., E-mail: vdalal@iastate.edu [Iowa State University, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Aidarkhanov, Damir [Nazarbayev University, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2014-05-26

    We report on defect densities, performance, and stability of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells produced using n-doped inorganic amorphous silicon-carbide layers as the electron transport layer (ETL). The organic material was poly-3-hexyl-thiophene (P3HT) and heterojunction was formed using phenyl-C{sub 71}-Butyric-Acid-Methyl Ester (PCBM). For comparison, inverted solar cells fabricated using Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as ETL were fabricated. Defect densities and subgap quantum efficiency curves were found to be nearly identical for both types of cells. The cells were subjected to 2xsun illumination and it was found that the cells produced using doped a-Si as ETL were much more stable than the cells produced using Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  5. The Detection of Defects in Optical Fibers Using a Hybrid Opto-electronic Correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yange; LIU Wei; ZHANG Yimo; ZHOU Ge

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid opto-electronic correlator for detecting defects in optical fibers is proposed. After the light from a He-Ne laser being expanded and filtered it is not collimated but directly passes a Fourier transform lens and illuminates a reference fiber and a test fiber at the same input plane. The Fourier transform spectrum of the two fibers is therefore obtained at the rear focal plane of the lens, where it is sampled via a CCD array connected with a computer through a frame grabber. The computer performs filter, inverse Fourier transform and setting threshold operation on classification. The system is an equivalent of joint transform correlator with a Fourier lens of long focal length. The experiment results for optical fibers having incoordinate defects are presented. The results indicate that the system can be used for fiber defect detection, and has the advantages of high identification, compact configuration, easy adjustment and flexible manipulation.

  6. Reação de híbridos, linhagens e progênies de pimentão à requeima causada por Phytophthora capsici e ao mosaico amarelo causado por Pepper yellow mosaic vírus (PepYMV Reaction of hybrids, lines and progenies of sweet pepper the blight caused by Phytophthora capsici and to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildon Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2007-02-01

    . PIM-013 e MYR-29 são fontes de resistência promissoras a P. capsici PepYMV, respectivamente, para serem utilizadas no desenvolvimento de híbridos com resistência a esses patógenos.Resistance to pepper blight induced by Phytophthora capsici and to yellow mosaic caused by a potyvirus species (PepYMV are two priorities of most pepper (Capsicum annuum L. breeding programmes in Brazil. The reactions of three commercial hybrids (Magali-R, Atenas F1, and Fortuna Super F1 to both P. capsici and PepYMV was studied, along with those of 20 experimental hybrids, 6 inbred lines and two F2:4 progenies from the Universidade Federal of Lavras pepper breeding programme. Trials in randomized complete block designs were carried out independently for each of the pathogens, with four and two replications, respectively. Each replications comprised 8 plants in 128-cell speeding styrofoam trays, kept in plastic-covered greenhouses protected with screen at the sides. Evaluation of symptoms was made from the 4th to the 14th and from the 15 th to the 40th day after inoculation (DAI for P. capsici and PepYMV, respectively. Inoculation with P. capsici was made by dispensing 5mL of a 10(4 zoospore.mL-1 solution at the soil around the base of each plant. PepYMV was mechanically inoculated from extracts of previously infected leaves of TNN tobacco. Hybrids Magali-R and Fortuna Super were susceptible to P. capsici, while the hybrid Atenas, the access Criollo de Morellos 334, the progeny PIX-030 pl#03-2 and PIX-030 pl#06-3 (both originated from crosses with Criollo de Morellos, and the line PIM-013 were resistant. Among the experimental hybrids, three were also resistant to P. capsici, all three having PIM-013 as one of the parental lines. Resistance to PepYMV was found in Criollo de Morellos 334, progeny PIX-030 pl#03-2 and PIX-030 pl#06-3, and in the commercial hybrid Magali, besides 6 other experimental hybrids having line MYR-29 as one of the parental ines. The only treatment with resistance

  7. Cross-Linkable and Dual Functional Hybrid Polymeric Electron Transporting Layer for High-Performance Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheng; Hu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Kai; Yin, Qingwu; Jiang, Xiaofang; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong

    2017-06-20

    A cross-linkable dual functional polymer hybrid electron transport layer (ETL) is developed by simply adding an amino-functionalized polymer dopant (PN4N) and a light crosslinker into a commercialized n-type semiconductor (N2200) matrix. It is found that the resulting hybrid ETL not only has a good solvent resistance, facilitating multilayers device fabrication but also exhibits much improved electron transporting/extraction properties due to the doping between PN4N and N2200. As a result, by using PTB7-Th:PC71 BM blend as an active layer, the inverted device based on the hybrid ETL can yield a prominent power conversion efficiency of around 10.07%. More interestingly, photovoltaic property studies of bilayer devices suggest that the absorption of the hybrid ETL contributes to photocurrent and hence the hybrid ETL simultaneously acts as both cathode interlayer material and an electron acceptor. The resulting inverted polymer solar cells function like a novel device architectures with a combination of a bulk heterojunction device and miniature bilayer devices. This work provides new insights on function of ETLs and may be open up a new direction for the design of new ETL materials and novel device architectures to further improve device performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Analysis of Upper Hybrid Wave Growth Rates From Measured Electron Distributions; An Encounter With the Source of Auroral Roar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, S. R.; Kletzing, C. A.; Labelle, J. W.; Samara, M.; Yoon, P. H.

    2005-12-01

    In January of 2003, the High Bandwidth Auroral Rocket (HIBAR) passed through two regions of strong upper hybrid wave emission associated with the approximate matching of the upper hybrid frequency to twice the electron cyclotron frequency (fuh = 2 fce) (Samara 2004) These types of emission are believed to be the source of the HF auroral roar often observed by ground based receivers. The current model theorizes that the free space 0-mode waves observed on the ground are produced through mode conversion of strong emission of Z-mode, or upper hybrid waves. The relativistic electron cyclotron maser exhibits significant growth rates for the Z-mode when the local upper hybrid frequency is just below (~1%) twice the electron cyclotron frequency and with the appropriately unstable electron distribution (Yoon 1996, Yoon 1998, Yoon 2000). Though auroral roar is frequently observed from the ground, the source region has rarely been identified in-situ and even more rarely with sufficient bandwidth to analyze the underlying physical processes. Analysis of the electron distributions from HIBAR show good agreement with the theoretical distributions used by Yoon:98. HIBAR encountered three separate regions where fuh ≍ 2 fce, two of these regions include strong upper hybrid emission, while the third is void of upper hybrid wave activity. The measured particle distributions demonstrate that, in the two regions with wave emission, the relativistic electron cyclotron maser instability produces Z mode wave growth rates at least an order of magnitude greater than the electron collision frequency. In the third region without wave emission, the growth rates are much smaller in both amplitude and the extent of occurance. Samara, M., J. LaBelle, C. A. Kletzing, and S. R. Bounds, Rocket observations of structured upper hybrid wave at fuh=2fce, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L22804, doi:10.1029/2004GL021043. Yoon, P. H., A. T. Weatherwax, and T. J. Rosenberg, Lower ionospheric cyclotron maser

  9. Electronic and vibrational properties of transition metal-oxides: Comparison of GGA, GGA + U, and hybrid approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sumeet C.; Xu, Xu; Williamson, Izaak; Nelson, Eric B.; Li, Lan

    2017-02-01

    We estimate the Hubbard parameters for density-functional-theory (DFT) + U calculations of ZrO2, HfO2, TiO2, and NiO based on calibrating the electronic structure obtained from hybrid functional methods. The electronic density of states is used to assess the parameters and the values thus derived are employed for the full electron and phonon dispersion comparisons. The resulting values account for experimental band gaps and electron correlations that are computationally much less demanding to treat within the simpler DFT + U framework than with the typically more accurate yet expensive hybrid functional methods. Limitations of +U scheme is indicated towards describing TiO2 and HfO2 phase-stability.

  10. Hybrid nanowire ion-to-electron transducers for integrated bioelectronic circuitry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrad, Damon J.; Mostert, Bernard; Meredith, Paul; Micolich, Adam P.

    2016-09-01

    A key task in bioelectronics is the transduction between ionic/protonic signals and electronic signals at high fidelity. This is a considerable challenge since the two carrier types exhibit intrinsically different physics. We present our work on a new class of organic-inorganic transducing interface utilising semiconducting InAs and GaAs nanowires directly gated with a proton transporting hygroscopic polymer consisting of undoped polyethylene oxide (PEO) patterned to nanoscale dimensions by a newly developed electron-beam lithography process [1]. Remarkably, we find our undoped PEO polymer electrolyte gate dielectric [2] gives equivalent electrical performance to the more traditionally used LiClO4-doped PEO [3], with an ionic conductivity three orders of magnitude higher than previously reported for undoped PEO [4]. The observed behaviour is consistent with proton conduction in PEO. We attribute our undoped PEO-based devices' performance to the small external surface and high surface-to-volume ratio of both the nanowire conducting channel and patterned PEO dielectric in our devices, as well as the enhanced hydration afforded by device processing and atmospheric conditions. In addition to studying the basic transducing mechanisms, we also demonstrate high-fidelity ionic to electronic conversion of a.c. signals at frequencies up to 50 Hz. Moreover, by combining complementary n- and p-type transducers we demonstrate functional hybrid ionic-electronic circuits can achieve logic (NOT operation), and with some further engineering of the nanowire contacts, potentially also amplification. Our device structures have significant potential to be scaled towards realising integrated bioelectronic circuitry. [1] D.J. Carrad et al., Nano Letters 14, 94 (2014). [2] D.J. Carrad et al., Manuscript in preparation (2016). [3] S.H. Kim et al., Advanced Materials 25, 1822 (2013). [4] S.K. Fullerton-Shirey et al., Macromolecules 42, 2142 (2009).

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF VEGF mRNA IN BREAST CANCER WITH NONRADIOACTIVE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION AT ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC LEVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王医术; 林; 王心蕊; 李一雷; 吴珊; 张丽红

    2002-01-01

    Object: To localize the mRNA coding for VEGF at Ultrastractural level in human breast cancer by using digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probes. Methods: Nonradio- active in situ hybridization at electron microscopic level was employed to detected VEGF mRNA in breast cancer. Result: Cancer cells and endothelial cell of angiogensis show dark color in experiment sections. No dark color can be found in control sections. Positive hybridization signals showed dark dot and were locatedin various compartments of the breast cancer cell and endothelial cell in experiment section. No labeling was observed in control sections. In experiment sections, the staining appeared concentrated in cytoplasm and nucleus of the breast cancer cell and endothelial cell. Conclusion: Nonradioactive in situ hybridization at electron microscopic level is efficient for direct observation of the target site mRNA of VEGF in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  12. Envelope Soliton in Multi-ion Plasma and Ion-Ion Hybrid Wave Excited by Energetic Electron Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-Yu; HUANG Guang-Li

    2001-01-01

    Another envelope soliton event below the H+ gyrofrequency and localized density depletion has been discoveredin the low auroral region (~1760 kin) by the Freja satellite. This envelope soliton has a characteristic frequencyat ~190 Hz, which is also close to the resonance frequency of hydrogen ion-oxygen ion hybrid wave. This event iscorrelated in time with the observations of the sharp increase of the ratio of oxygen ion density to hydrogen andwith the electron energization along the magnetic field. A theoretical model on the ion-ion hybrid wave excitedby an energetic electron beam has also been presented. It is found that the ion-ion hybrid wave is mainly excitedby the Cherenkov instability in the auroral region.

  13. Hybrid exchange-correlation functional for accurate prediction of the electronic and structural properties of ferroelectric oxides

    OpenAIRE

    D., I. Bilc; R., Orlando; R., Shaltaf; G., M. Rignanese; J., Íñiguez; Ph., Ghosez

    2008-01-01

    Using a linear combination of atomic orbitals approach, we report a systematic comparison of various Density Functional Theory (DFT) and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals for the prediction of the electronic and structural properties of prototypical ferroelectric oxides. It is found that none of the available functionals is able to provide, at the same time, accurate electronic and structural properties of the cubic and tetragonal phases of BaTiO$_3$ and PbTiO$_3$. Some, although not al...

  14. A segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics for a PET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Chesi, Enrico Guido; Joram, C; Mathot, S; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, P; Ciocia, F; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Vilardi, I; Argentieri, A; Corsi, F; Dragone, A; Pasqua, D

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and test results of a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics. Both the photodetector and its VLSI readout electronics are custom designed and have been tailored to the requirements of a recently proposed novel geometrical concept of a Positron Emission Tomograph. Emphasis is put on the PET specific features of the device. The detector has been fabricated in the photocathode facility at CERN.

  15. Magnon, phonon, and electron temperature profiles and the spin Seebeck effect in magnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreier, M.; Kamra, A.; Weiler, M.; Xiao, J.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S.T.B.

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the phonon, electron, and magnon temperature profiles in yttrium iron garnet/platinum bilayers by diffusive theory with appropriate boundary conditions, in particular taking into account interfacial thermal resistances. Our calculations show that in thin film hybrids, the interface magn

  16. N-type polymers as electron extraction layers in hybrid perovskite solar cells with improved ambient stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, S.; Chen, Z.; Fang, H. -H.; ten Brink, G. H.; Bartesaghi, D.; Adjokatse, S.; Koster, L. J. A.; Kooi, B. J.; Facchetti, A.; Loi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We studied three n-type polymers of the naphthalenediimide-bithiophene family as electron extraction layers (EELs) in hybrid perovskite solar cells. The recombination mechanism in these devices is found to be heavily influenced by the EEL transport properties. The maximum efficiency of the devices u

  17. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization of experimental Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli infection in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian; Boye, Mette

    2000-01-01

    Two groups of six 8-week-old pigs were challenged with 1X10(9) cfu Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli or Serpulina intermedia daily for 3 consecutive days to study the pathology of porcine colonic spirochetosis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH...

  18. Self-powered textile for wearable electronics by hybridizing fiber-shaped nanogenerators, solar cells, and supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhen; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Jie; Zi, Yunlong; Xu, Weidong; Deng, Jianan; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Xin; Hu, Chenguo; Zhu, Liping; Sun, Xuhui; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-10-01

    Wearable electronics fabricated on lightweight and flexible substrate are believed to have great potential for portable devices, but their applications are limited by the life span of their batteries. We propose a hybridized self-charging power textile system with the aim of simultaneously collecting outdoor sunshine and random body motion energies and then storing them in an energy storage unit. Both of the harvested energies can be easily converted into electricity by using fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (for solar energy) and fiber-shaped triboelectric nanogenerators (for random body motion energy) and then further stored as chemical energy in fiber-shaped supercapacitors. Because of the all-fiber-shaped structure of the entire system, our proposed hybridized self-charging textile system can be easily woven into electronic textiles to fabricate smart clothes to sustainably operate mobile or wearable electronics.

  19. ARTICLE - Inbreeding depression in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Krieger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate inbreeding depression (DE in castor bean. From a population derived from the Guarani cultivar, 60 mother plants were sampled. Three types of progenies were obtained from each one: from self-pollination (AU, from crosses (CR and from open pollination (PL. Grain yield of the progenies was evaluated in two locations. There was a strong interaction of progenies x locations, which led to obtaining estimates within each location. Broad variation was observed in inbreeding depression, with mean values of 6.7% and 13.4%, comparing AU progenies with PL progenies. It was observed that the population has high potential for selecting promising inbred lines. The frequency of mother plants generating progenies with simultaneous high general combination capacity and low inbreeding depression was low. Recurrent selection will increase the occurrence of parent plants associating these two properties, which is necessary for obtaining superior synthetic varieties.

  20. Organic-inorganic semiconductor hybrid systems. Structure, morphology, and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Helou, Mira

    2012-08-22

    This dissertation addresses the preparation and characterization of hybrid semiconducting systems combining organic with inorganic materials. Characterization methods used included to determine the structure, morphology, and thermal stability comprised X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). One organic-inorganic semiconducting system was pentacene (C{sub 22}H{sub 14}) and zinc oxide. This interface was investigated in detail for pentacene on an oxygen-terminated zinc oxide surface, i.e. ZnO(000 anti 1). An extended study on the promising p-n junction was carried out for pentacene on ZnO with different orientations which exhibit different chemical and structural characteristics: ZnO(000 anti 1), ZnO(0001), and ZnO(10 anti 10). Moreover, the organic crystal structure of pentacene was selectively tuned by carefully choosing the substrate temperature. This defined interface with a physisorbed pentacene layer on ZnO was characterized by optical absorption which depends on the temperature of the measured system, the pentacene film thickness, and the molecular orientation and packing. The high quality of the pentacene films allowed in one case to characterize the Davydov splitting by linear polarized light focused on a single crystallite. Another subject in the field of organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprised conjugated dithiols used as self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for immobilizing semiconducting CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Au substrates. It was demonstrated that an appropriate selection and preparation of the conjugated SAMs is crucial for building up a light-addressable potentiometric sensor with a sufficient efficiency. An optimized electron transfer was achieved with SAMs of long range ordering, high stability, and adequate conductivity. This was examined for different linkers and was best for stilbenedithiol immobilized in solution at higher temperatures. Due

  1. A tapered undulator experiment at the ELBE far infrared hybrid-resonator oscillator free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgekar, V; Lehnert, U; Michel, P

    2012-01-01

    A tapered undulator experiment was carried out at the ELBE far-infrared free electron laser (FEL). The oscillator FEL makes use of a hybrid optical resonator. The main motivation was to see whether the presence of a dispersive medium in the form of a waveguide in the resonator has any effect on the outcome. The FEL saturated power and the wavelength shifts have been measured as a function of both positive as well as negative undulator field amplitude tapering. In contrast to the typical high-gain FELs where positive tapering proves beneficial for the output power we observed an improvement of performance at negative taper. During the same experiments we studied the characteristics of the detuning curves. The width of the curves indicates a maximum small signal gain for zero taper while the output peak power increases with negative taper. The saturated power output, the detuning curve characteristics, and the wavelength shifts agrees with the theoretical predictions. Details of the experiment are presented.

  2. Characterization by fluorescence and electron microscopy in situ hybridization of a double Y isochromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetni, R.; Lemieux, N.; Richer, C.L. [Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1996-06-14

    A patient with mixed gonadal dysgenesis and Y isochromosomes I(Y) is described. Lymphocyte cultures from peripheral blood contained a high proportion of 45,X cells and several other cell lines with two different marker chromosomes (mars). These markers had either a monocentric (mar1) or a dicentric appearance (mar2). Following high-resolution GTG, RBG, QFQ, and CBG bandings, five cell lines were identified; 45,X/46,X, + mar1/46,X, + mar2/47,X, + mar1x2/47,X + mar2x2. The percentages were 66/6/26/1/1%, respectively. Chromosome banding analyses were insufficient for characterization of the markers. In situ hybridization of specific probes for the Y centromere and its short arm showed, both in fluorescence and electron microscopy (ENT), two different Y rearrangements. Mar1 is an isochromosome for the short arm i(Yp) and mar2 is a dicentric which was shown by EM to be a double isochromosome Yp, inv dup i(Yp). The breakpoint producing mar1 is within the centromere and the one producing mar2 is within one of the short arms of the Y isochromosome. The findings of different cell populations in peripheral blood lymphocytes indicate the postzygotic instability of this i(Yp). 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Electron field emission characteristics of graphene/carbon nanotubes hybrid field emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Leifeng, E-mail: chlf@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); He, Hong; Yu, Hua; Cao, Yiqi [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Da, E-mail: leida126@126.com [Ordos College of Inner Mongolia University, Inner Mongolia University, Ordos 017000 (China); Menggen, QiQiGe [Ordos College of Inner Mongolia University, Inner Mongolia University, Ordos 017000 (China); Wu, Chaoxing; Hu, Liqin [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The graphene (GP) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) hybrid nanostructure emitter was constructed by a larger scale electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The field emission (FE) performance of the hybrid emitter is greatly improved compared with that of only GP or MCNTs emitter. The low turn-on electric field (EF), the low threshold EF and the reliability FE properties are obtained from the hybrid emitter. The better FE properties result from the improved electrical properties. For further enhancement FE of hybrids, Ag Nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated on the hybrids and FE characteristics were also studied. These studies indicate that we can use the hybrid nanostructure to improve conductivity and contact resistance, which results in enhancement of the FE properties.

  4. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  5. First Principles Study on the Electronic Structure and Interface Stability of Hybrid Silicene/Fluorosilicene Nanoribbons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Q G; Zhang, J F; Ao, Z M; Wu, Y P

    2015-01-01

    The interface stability of hybrid silicene/fluorosilicene nanoribbons (SFNRs) has been investigated by using density functional theory calculations, where fluorosilicene is the fully fluorinated silicene...

  6. Estimation of human dose to radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimo, Michikuni [Gifu Coll. of Medical Technology, Sekiichi, Gifu (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the paper is the estimation of the effective dose due to radon progeny for Japanese population. The estimation was performed by a modified UNSCEAR equation. The equation was needed the radon concentration annual occupancy time and the tidal volume on Japanese people and the dose conversion coefficient are needed. Furthermore, not only these figures but also unattached fraction and aerosol distribution data obtained in Japan and the factor related to the Japanese living style were used in the calculation. We used following figures as representative value in Japan; radon concentration: 13(6 - 25) Bq/m{sup 3} indoors and 6.7(3.5 - 13) Bq/m{sup 3} outdoors; the equilibrium factor: 0.45(0.35 - 0.57) indoors and 0.70(0.50 - 0.90) outdoors; the occupancy factor: 0.87 indoors, 0.09 outdoors and 0.04 in vehicle for male and 0.91 indoors, 0.06 outdoors and 0.03 in vehicle for female; the tidal volume: 7,000 (4,000 - 8,000) m{sup 3} for male, 6,200 (3,500 - 7,500) m{sup 3} for female. The effective doses due to radon progeny were estimated to be 0.45 mSv/y for male and 0.40 mSv/y for female, and the variance was -80 - +130%. These values were 1/2 - 1/3 as small as values shown by UNSCEAR 1993 Report and estimated by ICRP Publication 65. (author)

  7. Highly efficient hybrid photovoltaics based on hyperbranched three-dimensional TiO2 electron transporting materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2015-03-23

    A 3D hyperbranched TiO2 electron transporting material is demonstrated, which exhibits superior carrier transport and lifetime, as well as excellent infiltration, leading to highly efficient mesostructured hybrid solar cells, such as lead-halide perovskites (15.5%) and dye-sensitized solar cells (11.2%). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Electron-transporting small molecule/ o-xylene hybrid additives to boost the performance of simplified inverted polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dashan; Cao, Huan; Zhang, Jidong

    2017-05-01

    Electron-transporting small molecule bathophenanthroline (Bphen) together with o-xylene has been used as hybrid additives to improve the performance of simplified inverted polymer solar cells employing ITO alone as cathode and photoactive layer based on polymer [[2,6'-4,8-di(5-ethylhexylthienyl)benzo[1,2-b;3,3-b] dithiophene] [3-fluoro-2[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  9. Applications of a silicon photodiode detector for radon progeny measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Voytchev, M; Chambaudet, A; Georgiev, G; Iovtchev, M

    1999-01-01

    An application of our developed silicon photodiode detector for radon progeny measurements is presented in this paper. It was determined the deposition velocity for free (3.6+-0.7)x10 sup - sup 3 m s sup - sup 1 and attached (1.0+-0.5)x10 sup - sup 5 m s sup - sup 1 fraction of short living radon progeny.

  10. Long-Range Interfacial Electrochemical Electron Transfer of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Azurin-Gold Nanoparticle Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Palle Skovhus; Chi, Qijin; Zhang, Jingdong

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared a "hybrid" of the blue copper protein azurin (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a 3 nm gold nanoparticle (AuNP). The AuNP/azurin hybrid was assembled on a Au(111)-electrode surface in a two-step process. The AuNP was first attached to the Au(111) electrode via Au-S chemisorption of a 4...

  11. Hybrid (particle in cell-fluid) simulation of ion-acoustic soliton generation including super-thermal and trapped electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nopoush, M.; Abbasi, H. [Faculty of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P. O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    The present paper is devoted to the simulation of the nonlinear disintegration of a localized perturbation into an ion-acoustic soliton in a plasma. Recently, this problem was studied by a simple model [H. Abbasi et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 095007 (2008)]. The main assumptions were (i) in the electron velocity distribution function (DF), the ion-acoustic soliton velocity was neglected in comparison to the electron thermal velocity, (ii) on the ion-acoustic evolution time-scale, the electron velocity DF was assumed to be stationary, and (iii) the calculation was restricted to the small amplitude case. In order to generalize the model, one has to consider the evolution of the electron velocity DF for finite amplitudes. For this purpose, a one dimensional electrostatic hybrid code, particle in cell (PIC)-fluid, was designed. It simulates the electrons dynamics by the PIC method and the cold ions dynamics by the fluid equations. The plasma contains a population of super-thermal electrons and, therefore, a Lorentzian (kappa) velocity DF is used to model the high energy tail in the electron velocity DF. Electron trapping is included in the simulation in view of their nonlinear resonant interaction with the localized perturbation. A Gaussian initial perturbation is used to model the localized perturbation. The influence of both the trapped and the super-thermal electrons on this process is studied and compared with the previous model.

  12. Electron energy distribution functions and negative ion concentrations in tandem and hybrid multicusp negative hydrogen ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, M.B. (Dublin City Univ. (Ireland). Dept. of Physics); Bacal, M. (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises); Graham, W.G. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK). School of Mathematics and Physics)

    1991-03-14

    The second derivative of a Langmuir probe characteristic is used to establish the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in both a tandem and hybrid multicusp H{sup -} ion source. Moveable probes are used to establish the spatial variation of the EEDF. The negative ion density is measured by laser induced photo-detachment. In the case of the hybrid source the EEDF consists of a cold Maxwellian in the central region of the source; the electron temperature increases with increasing discharge current (rising from 0.3 eV at 1 A to 1.2 eV at 50 A when the pressure is 0.4 Pa). A hot electron tail exists in the EEDF of the driver region adjacent to each filament which is shown to consist of a distinct group of primary electrons at low pressure (0.08 Pa) but becomes degraded mainly through inelastic collisions at higher pressures (0.27 Pa). The tandem source, on the other hand, has a single driver region which extends throughout the central region. The primary electron confinement times are much longer so that even at the lowest pressure considered (0.07 Pa) the primaries are degraded. In both cases the measured EEDF at specific locations and values of discharge operating parameters are used to establish the rate coefficients for the processes of importance in H{sup -} production and destruction. (author).

  13. Tomography of the fast electron Bremsstrahlung emission during lower hybrid current drive on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peysson, Y.; Imbeaux, F. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1999-04-01

    A new tomography dedicated to detailed studies of the fast electron Bremsstrahlung emission in the hard X-ray (HXR) energy range between 20 and 200 keV during lower hybrid (LH) current drive experiments on the TORE SUPRA tokamak [Equipe TORE SUPRA, in Proceedings of the 15. Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Seville (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1995), 1, AIEA-CN-60 / A1-5, p. 105] is presented. Radiation detection is performed by cadmium telluride(CdTe) semiconductors, which have most of the desirable features for a powerful diagnosing of magnetically confined hot plasmas - compact size, high X-ray stopping efficiency, fast timing characteristics, good energy resolution, no sensitivity to magnetic field, reasonable susceptibility to performance degradation from neutron/{gamma}-induced damages. This instrument is made of two independent cameras viewing a poloidal cross-section of the plasma, with respectively 21 and 38 detectors. A coarse spectrometry - 8 energy channels - is carried out for each chord, with an energy resolution of 20 keV. The spatial resolution in the core of the plasma is 4-5 cm, while the time sampling may be lowered down to of 2-4 ms. Powerful inversion techniques based on maximum entropy or regularization algorithms take fully advantage of the large number of line-integrated measurements for very robust estimates of the local HXR profiles as a function of time and photon energy. A detailed account of main characteristics and performances of the diagnostic is reported as well as preliminary results on LH current drive experiments. (authors)

  14. Nature of electron correlation and hybridization in NixCu1−xMnSb Heusler alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sarkar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structure of Heusler alloys having mixed magnetic phases, comprising of vicinal anti-ferromagnetic and ferromagnetic orders, is of great significance. We present the results of an electronic structure study on NixCu1−xMnSb Heusler alloys, using Mn-2p core-level photoemission spectroscopy. Room temperature data in the paramagnetic phase reveal a non-monotonic variation of both electron correlation strength and conduction-band hybridization such that the former enhances while the latter weakens for compositions showing a mixed phase relative to compositions at the phase boundaries to the ordered phases. The results suggest a possible electronic driving force for settling mixed-magnetic phases.

  15. Dynamics of the electron thermal diffusivity at improved energy confinement during lower hybrid plasma heating in the FT-2 tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouprienko, D. V.; Altukhov, A. B.; Gurchenko, A. D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Kantor, M. Yu.; Lashkul, S. I.; Esipov, L. A.

    2010-05-01

    The dynamics of electron heat transport at improved energy confinement during lower hybrid plasma heating in the FT-2 tokamak was studied experimentally. Evolution of the profiles of the electron temperature and density was thoroughly investigated under conditions of fast variation in the plasma parameters. The energy balance in the electron channel is calculated with the help of the ASTRA code by using the measured plasma parameters. Correlation is revealed between the dynamics of electron heat transport and the behavior of small-scale drift turbulence measured using the enhanced scattering correlation diagnostics. The suppression of heat transfer and turbulence agrees well with the increase in the shear of poloidal plasma rotation calculated from experimental data in the neoclassical approximation.

  16. Photovoltaics: Highly Efficient Hybrid Photovoltaics Based on Hyperbranched Three-Dimensional TiO 2 Electron Transporting Materials (Adv. Mater. 18/2015)

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed hybrid photovoltaics are a potentially disruptive third-generation solar cell technology. On page 2859, A. Amassian and co-workers demonstrate that an electrospun hyperbranched electron-transporting material is capable of achieving highly efficient hybrid solar cells across different platforms, including lead-halide perovskites (15.5%) and dye-sensitized solar cells (11.2%).

  17. Redox-active organometallics: magnetic and electronic couplings through carbon-silicon hybrid molecular connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Paul; Justaud, Frederic; Cador, Olivier; Hapiot, Philippe; Rigaut, Stéphane; Toupet, Loïc; Ouahab, Lahcène; Stueger, Harald; Hamon, Jean-René; Lapinte, Claude

    2008-12-24

    Treatment of the triflate complex Cp*(dppe)FeOTf [12; Cp* = eta(5)-C(5)(CH(3))(5), dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane, OTf = CF(3)SO(3)] with an excess of HC[triple bond]C-(Si(CH(3))(2))(x)-C[triple bond]CH (x = 2-4) in diethyl ether provides the binuclear bis(vinylidene) derivatives [Cp*(dppe)Fe=C=CH(Si(CH(3))(2))(x)CH=C=Fe(dppe)Cp*][OTf](2) (x = 2, 13; x = 3, 14; x = 4, 15), which were isolated as ochre solids and rapidly characterized by FT-IR, (1)H, (31)P, and (13)C NMR spectroscopies. The complexes 13-15 were reacted with potassium tert-butoxide to afford the bis(alkynediyl) complexes [Cp*(dppe)Fe-C[triple bond]C(Si(CH(3))(2))(x)C[triple bond]C-Fe(dppe)Cp*] (x = 2, 1; x = 3, 2; x = 4, 3), which were isolated as orange powders in yields ranging from 76 to 91%. The IR, cyclic voltammetry, and UV-vis data obtained for 1-3 and the X-ray crystal structures determined for 1 and 3 reveal the importance of the sigma-pi conjugation (hyperconjugation) between the Si-Si sigma bond and the adjacent C[triple bond]C pi-symmetric orbitals in the description of the electronic structure of the ground state of these complexes. When reacted at low temperature with 2 equiv of [(C(5)H(5))(2)Fe]X or AgX [X = BPh(4), B(3,5-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3))(4))], compounds 1-3 provide 1[X](2), 2[X](2), and 3[X](2), which can be isolated and stored below -20 degrees C. EPR spectroscopy and magnetization measurements established that the superexchange interaction propagates through the Si-Si bonds (J = -0.97(2) cm(-1) for 3[X](2)). UV-vis-near-IR spectra were obtained with an optically transparent thin-layer electrosynthetic (OTTLE) cell for 1-3[OTf](n) (n = 0-2). A band with a maximum that increases from 6400 cm(-1) (1[OTf]) to 8500 cm(-1) (3[OTf]) observed for the mixed-valence species was ascribed to intervalence charge transfer evidencing photodriven electron transfer through the carbon-silicon hybrid connectors with H(ab) parameters ranging from 64 to 285 cm(-1).

  18. Fabrication and interfacial electronic structure studies on polypyrrole/TiO2 nano hybrid systems for photovoltaic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ganesan Mohan; Kawakita, Jin; Jayavel, Ramasamy

    2011-05-01

    The progress in studying the interfacial electronic structures of the developing new class of hybrid organic/inorganic material systems have envisaged a new dimension into the field of photovoltaics, which could be of great help in understanding the nature of charge transfer in them. In this regard, electropolymerization of pyrrole monomers have been carried out at room temperature on the surface of TiO2 working electrodes (assisted by UV radiations) and their interfacial electronic structure has been studied as a function of the applied photo anodic potentials. The formation of polypyrrole deposits has been ensured using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Surface analysis of the hybrid matrix revealed the tendency of polymer molecules to cover up the spherical surface of TiO2 nanoparticles that could help in improving the light absorption rate. Signals (bands) corresponding to pyrrole molecules observed in the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements have been correlated with the polaronic states formed and identified to shift as a function of the applied photo anodic potentials, revealing the decrease in work function of the hybrid system to take place (confirmed using cyclic voltammetry measurements). The decreasing trend in the work function elucidates the adjustment in electronic structure of the system (hybrid materials possessing smaller work functions are generally preferred for photovoltaic studies). The aforementioned behavioural aspects have been reasoned with the increase in overpotential values for polarization, from the decrease in up-take rate of the anionic dopant, which increases the current density values, thereby modifying the conductivity of the systems.

  19. Protonic/electronic hybrid oxide transistor gated by chitosan and its full-swing low voltage inverter applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Jin Yu [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory High Gravity Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn; Xiao, Hui [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Yuan, Zhi Guo, E-mail: ncityzg@163.com [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory High Gravity Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2015-12-21

    Modulation of charge carrier density in condensed materials based on ionic/electronic interaction has attracted much attention. Here, protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by chitosan based electrolyte were obtained. The chitosan-based electrolyte illustrates a high proton conductivity and an extremely strong proton gating behavior. The transistor illustrates good electrical performances at a low operating voltage of ∼1.0 V such as on/off ratio of ∼3 × 10{sup 7}, subthreshold swing of ∼65 mV/dec, threshold voltage of ∼0.3 V, and mobility of ∼7 cm{sup 2}/V s. Good positive gate bias stress stabilities are obtained. Furthermore, a low voltage driven resistor-loaded inverter was built by using an IZO transistor in series with a load resistor, exhibiting a linear relationship between the voltage gain and the supplied voltage. The inverter is also used for decreasing noises of input signals. The protonic/electronic hybrid IZO transistors have potential applications in biochemical sensors and portable electronics.

  20. Medium-energy electrons and heavy ions in Jupiter's magnetosphere - Effects of lower hybrid wave-particle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    A theory of medium-energy (about keV) electrons and heavy ions in Jupiter's magnetosphere is presented. Lower hybrid waves are generated by the combined effects of a ring instability of neutral wind pickup ions and the modified two-stream instability associated with transport of cool Iogenic plasma. The quasi-linear energy diffusion coefficient for lower hybrid wave-particle interactions is evaluated, and several solutions to the diffusion equation are given. Calculations based on measured wave properties show that the noise substantially modifies the particle distribution functions. The effects are to accelerate superthermal ions and electrons to keV energies and to thermalize the pickup ions on time scales comparable to the particle residence time. The S(2+)/S(+) ratio at medium energies is a measure of the relative contribution from Iogenic thermal plasma and neutral wind ions, and this important quantity should be determined from future measurements. The theory also predicts a preferential acceleration of heavy ions with an accleration time that scales inversely with the root of the ion mass. Electrons accelerated by the process contribute to further reionization of the neutral wind by electron impact, thus providing a possible confirmation of Alfven's critical velocity effect in the Jovian magnetosphere.

  1. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sgouros, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Effect of primary electron drift on the negative ion efficiency of a volume hybrid multicusp H[sup [minus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courteille, C.; Bruneteau, J.; Valckx, F.P.G.; Sledziewski, Z.; Bacal, M. (Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises, Laboratoire du CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France))

    1992-10-05

    A new, large, hybrid volume negative ion source is described. Observations of curvature and [ital grad] [ital B] primary electron drift in the multicusp magnetic field are reported. The direction of the electron drift changes from one filament to the neighboring one, because of the change in the direction of the magnetic field. For a given discharge current the extracted negative ion current and the plasma density at the center of the extraction region are affected by the direction of the primary electron drift of the active filaments. It was shown, however, that the negative ion current is controlled by the plasma density at the center of the extraction region. A trajectory calculation, effected in the guiding center approximation, allows to estimate the average drift velocity.

  3. Ti/Au Cathode for Electronic transport material-free organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tongfei; Chen, Jian; Zheng, Jianqiang; Li, Xinhua; Zhou, Bukang; Cao, Huaxiang; Wang, Yuqi

    2016-12-01

    We have fabricated organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell that uses a Ti/Au multilayer as cathode and does not use electron transport materials, and achieved the highest power conversion efficiency close to 13% with high reproducibility and hysteresis-free photocurrent curves. Our cell has a Schottky planar heterojunction structure (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/Ti/Au), in which the Ti insertion layer isolate the perovskite and Au layers, thus proving good contact between the Au and perovskite and increasing the cells’ shunt resistance greatly. Moreover, the Ti/Au cathode in direct contact with hybrid perovskite showed no reaction for a long-term exposure to the air, and can provide sufficient protection and avoid the perovskite and PEDOT:PSS layers contact with moisture. Hence, the Ti/Au based devices retain about 70% of their original efficiency after 300 h storage in the ambient environment.

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Kai

    2016-02-07

    Organic and inorganic hybrid perovskites (e.g., CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3)), with advantages of facile processing, tunable bandgaps, and superior charge-transfer properties, have emerged as a new class of revolutionary optoelectronic semiconductors promising for various applications. Perovskite solar cells constructed with a variety of configurations have demonstrated unprecedented progress in efficiency, reaching about 20% from multiple groups after only several years of active research. A key to this success is the development of various solution-synthesis and film-deposition techniques for controlling the morphology and composition of hybrid perovskites. The rapid progress in material synthesis and device fabrication has also promoted the development of other optoelectronic applications including light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and transistors. Both experimental and theoretical investigations on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have enabled some critical fundamental understandings of this material system. Recent studies have also demonstrated progress in addressing the potential stability issue, which has been identified as a main challenge for future research on halide perovskites. Here, we review recent progress on hybrid perovskites including basic chemical and crystal structures, chemical synthesis of bulk/nanocrystals and thin films with their chemical and physical properties, device configurations, operation principles for various optoelectronic applications (with a focus on solar cells), and photophysics of charge-carrier dynamics. We also discuss the importance of further understanding of the fundamental properties of hybrid perovskites, especially those related to chemical and structural stabilities.

  5. Driving electrocatalytic activity by interface electronic structure control in a metalloprotein hybrid catalyst for efficient hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sushant Kumar; Deb, Pritam; Ghosh, Arghya

    2016-08-17

    The rational design of metalloprotein hybrid structures and precise calculations for understanding the role of the interfacial electronic structure in regulating the HER activity of water splitting sites and their microscopic effect for obtaining robust hydrogen evolution possess great promise for developing highly efficient nano-bio hybrid HER catalysts. Here, we employ high-accuracy linear-scaling density functional theory calculations using a near-complete basis set and a minimal parameter implicit solvent model within the self-consistent calculations, on silver (Ag) ions assimilated on bacteriorhodopsin (bR) at specific binding sites. Geometry optimization indicates the formation of active sites at the interface of the metalloprotein complex and the density of states reflects the metallic nature of the active sites. The reduced value of the canonical orbital gap indicates the state of dynamic nature after Ag ion assimilation on active sites and smooth electron transfer. These incorporated active protein sites are more efficient in electrolytic splitting of water than pristine sites due to their low value of Gibbs free energy for the HER in terms of hydrogen coverages. Volcano plot analysis and the free energy diagram are compared for understanding the hydrogen evolution efficiency. Moreover, the essential role of the interfacial electronic properties in regulating the HER catalytic activity of water splitting sites and enhancing the efficiency is elucidated.

  6. Applications of the Hybrid Theory to the Scattering of Electrons from HE+ and Li++ and Resonances in these Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Anand K.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of the hybrid theory to the scattering of electrons from Ile+ and Li++ and resonances in these systems, A. K. Bhatia, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center- The Hybrid theory of electron-hydrogen elastic scattering [I] is applied to the S-wave scattering of electrons from He+ and Li++. In this method, both short-range and long-range correlations are included in the Schrodinger equation at the same time. Phase shifts obtained in this calculation have rigorous lower bounds to the exact phase shifts and they are compared with those obtained using the Feshbach projection operator formalism [2], the close-coupling approach [3], and Harris-Nesbet method [4]. The agreement among all the calculations is very good. These systems have doubly-excited or Feshbach resonances embedded in the continuum. The resonance parameters for the lowest ' S resonances in He and Li+ are calculated and they are compared with the results obtained using the Feshbach projection operator formalism [5,6]. It is concluded that accurate resonance parameters can be obtained by the present method, which has the advantage of including corrections due to neighboring resonances and the continuum in which these resonances are embedded.

  7. ORNL TNS program: microwave start-up of tokamak plasmas near electron cyclotron and upper hybrid resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Y. K.M.; Borowski, S. K.

    1977-12-01

    The scenario of toroidal plasma start-up with microwave initiation and heating near the electron cyclotron frequency is suggested and examined here. We assume microwave irradiation from the high field side and an anomalously large absorption of the extraordinary waves near the upper hybrid resonance. The dominant electron energy losses are assumed to be due to magnetic field curvature and parallel drifts, ionization of neutrals, cooling by ions, and radiation by low Z impurities. It is shown by particle and energy balance considerations that electron temperatures around 250 eV and densities of 10/sup 12/ to 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ can be maintained, at least in a narrow region near the upper hybrid resonance, with modest microwave powers in the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX) (120 kW at 28 GHz) and The Next Step (TNS) (0.57 MW at 120 GHz). The loop voltages required for start-up from these initial plasmas are also estimated. It is shown that the loop voltage can be reduced by a factor of five to ten from that for unassisted start-up without an increase in the resistive loss in volt-seconds. If this reduction in loop voltage is verified in the ISX experiments, substantial savings in the cost of power supplies for the ohmic heating (OH) and equilibrium field (EF) coils can be realized in future large tokamaks.

  8. Controlled growth of carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid materials for flexible and transparent conductors and electron field emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Dung; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Chen, Szu-Ying; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2012-01-21

    We report a versatile synthetic process based on rapid heating and cooling chemical vapor deposition for the growth of carbon nanotube (CNT)-graphene hybrid materials where the thickness of graphene and density of CNTs are properly controlled. Graphene films are demonstrated as an efficient barrier layer for preventing poisoning of iron nanoparticles, which catalyze the growth of CNTs on copper substrates. Based on this method, the opto-electronic and field emission properties of graphene integrated with CNTs can be remarkably tailored. A graphene film exhibits a sheet resistance of 2.15 kΩ sq(-1) with a transmittance of 85.6% (at 550 nm), while a CNT-graphene hybrid film shows an improved sheet resistance of 420 Ω sq(-1) with an optical transmittance of 72.9%. Moreover, CNT-graphene films are demonstrated as effective electron field emitters with low turn-on and threshold electric fields of 2.9 and 3.3 V μm(-1), respectively. The development of CNT-graphene films with a wide range of tunable properties presented in this study shows promising applications in flexible opto-electronic, energy, and sensor devices.

  9. 3D electrostatic gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion simulation of lower-hybrid drift instability of Harris current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Tummel, Kurt; Chen, Liu

    2016-07-01

    The eigenmode stability properties of three-dimensional lower-hybrid-drift-instabilities (LHDI) in a Harris current sheet with a small but finite guide magnetic field have been systematically studied by employing the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation model with a realistic ion-to-electron mass ratio mi/me . In contrast to the fully kinetic PIC simulation scheme, the fast electron cyclotron motion and plasma oscillations are systematically removed in the GeFi model, and hence one can employ the realistic mi/me . The GeFi simulations are benchmarked against and show excellent agreement with both the fully kinetic PIC simulation and the analytical eigenmode theory. Our studies indicate that, for small wavenumbers, ky, along the current direction, the most unstable eigenmodes are peaked at the location where k →.B → =0 , consistent with previous analytical and simulation studies. Here, B → is the equilibrium magnetic field and k → is the wavevector perpendicular to the nonuniformity direction. As ky increases, however, the most unstable eigenmodes are found to be peaked at k →.B → ≠0 . In addition, the simulation results indicate that varying mi/me , the current sheet width, and the guide magnetic field can affect the stability of LHDI. Simulations with the varying mass ratio confirm the lower hybrid frequency and wave number scalings.

  10. Genetic Variation Among Open-Pollinated Progeny of Eastern Cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Farmer

    1970-01-01

    Improvement programs in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) are most frequently designed to produce genetically superior clones for direct commercial use. This paper describes a progeny test to assess genetic variability on which selection might be based.

  11. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblasts after alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-02-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G2-PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. mFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration.

  12. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblast after alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2012-01-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G2-PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. MFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration. PMID:23503090

  13. IDENTIFIKASI GEN AROMA PADA PROGENI-PROGENI BACKCROSS ANTARA VARIETAS CIHERANG DENGAN PANDAN WANGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djarot Sasongko Hami Seno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted PCR has been considered as the most potential method for fragrant selection. RM223 is the only suitable marker to identify mutated badh2 gene of Pandan Wangi. This research applies RM223-assisted PCR in the introgression of fragrant gene (mutated badh2 of Pandan Wangi variety, to engineer non-transgenic fragrant variety with good agronomic traits as those of Ciherang. Gene introduction was carried out through site-directed crossing; Pandan Wangi was crossed and backcrossed to Ciherang until heterozygot BC5F1, followed by selfing to obtain homozygot BC5F2. RM223-assisted selection was conducted in each cross and backcross generation. RM223 was able to identify native, mutated and heterozygot badh2 of Ciherang, Pandan Wangi, and their cross/backcross progenies, respectively. Therefore, the introgression of mutated badh2 within progenies were observed, as well as the statues of badh2 gene (native/mutated and alleles (homozygot/heterozygot. Further backcross and selfing to obtain BC5F2 is in progress

  14. Multivariate and Clustering Analysis in Sweet Tamarind Seedling Progenies

    OpenAIRE

    D. Saraladevi, V. Ponnuswami, R.M. Vijayakumar and S.Chitra

    2010-01-01

    Seventy eight seedling progenies of a sweet tamarind type collected from Dindigul region were planted at HorticulturalCollege and Research Institute, Periyakulam during September 2005. These seedling progenies in pre bearing stagewere evaluated to assess the variability existing in respect of growth parameters viz., tree height, girth and canopyspread. Among the three characters studied, canopy spread exhibited highest correlation with girth (0.61) than treeheight (0.21). Tree height having h...

  15. Study of the hybrid controller electronics for the nano-stabilization of mechanical vibrations of CLIC quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Carmona, P; Collette, C; Esposito, M; Guinchard, M; Janssens, S; Kuzmin, A; Moron Ballester, R

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve the required levels of luminosity in the CLIC linear collider, mechanical stabilization of quadrupoles to the nanometre level is required. The paper describes a design of hybrid electronics combining an analogue controller and digital communication with the main machine controller. The choice of local analogue control ensures the required low latency while still keeping sufficiently low noise level. Furthermore, it reduces the power consumption, rack space and cost. Sensitivity to radiation single events upsets is reduced compared to a digital controller. The digital part is required for fine tuning and real time monitoring via digitization of critical parameters.

  16. A camera for imaging hard x-rays from suprathermal electrons during lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Goeler, S.; Kaita, R.; Bernabei, S.; Davis, W.; Fishman, H.; Gettelfinger, G.; Ignat, D.; Roney, P.; Stevens, J.; Stodiek, W. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Jones, S.; Paoletti, F. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center); Petravich, G. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics); Rimini,

    1993-05-01

    During lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), suprathermal electrons are generated that emit hard X-ray bremsstrahlung. A pinhole camera has been installed on the PBX-M tokamak that records 128 [times] 128 pixel images of the bremsstrahlung with a 3 ms time resolution. This camera has identified hollow radiation profiles on PBX-M, indicating off-axis current drive. The detector is a 9in. dia. intensifier. A detailed account of the construction of the Hard X-ray Camera, its operation, and its performance is given.

  17. Biometrical analysis and selection of tetraploid progenies of Panicum maximum using mixed model methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Rosangela Maria Simeão

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters and to predict the genetic and genotypic values of the selection candidates obtained from intraspecific crosses in Panicum maximum as well as the performance of the hybrid progeny of the existing and projected crosses. Seventy-nine intraspecific hybrids obtained from artificial crosses among five apomictic and three sexual autotetraploid individuals were evaluated in a clonal test with two replications and ten plants per plot. Green matter yield, total and leaf dry matter yields and leaf percentage were evaluated in five cuts per year during three years. Genetic parameters were estimated and breeding and genotypic values were predicted using the restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure (REML/BLUP. The dominant genetic variance was estimated by adjusting the effect of full-sib families. Low magnitude individual narrow sense heritabilities (0.02-0.05, individual broad sense heritabilities (0.14-0.20 and repeatability measured on an individual basis (0.15-0.21 were obtained. Dominance effects for all evaluated characteristics indicated that breeding strategies that explore heterosis must be adopted. Less than 5% increase in the parameter repeatability was obtained for a three-year evaluation period and may be the criterion to determine the maximum number of years of evaluation to be adopted, without compromising gain per cycle of selection. The identification of hybrid candidates for future cultivars and of those that can be incorporated into the breeding program was based on the genotypic and breeding values, respectively. The prediction of the performance of the hybrid progeny, based on the breeding values of the progenitors, permitted the identification of the best crosses and indicated the best parents to use in crosses.

  18. Ultrafast electron transfer from low band gap conjugated polymer to quantum dots in hybrid photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, Elsa; Greaney, Matthew J.; Thornbury, William; Brutchey, Richard L.; Bradforth, Stephen E.

    2014-09-01

    Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is used in conjunction with chemical doping experiments to study the photo-generation of charges in hybrid thin films composed of PCPDTBT and CdSe quantum dots. We show how we use chemical doping experiments to de-convolute the spectral signatures of the transient states in the near infrared.

  19. Understanding the electronic structure of CdSe quantum dot-fullerene (C60) hybrid nanostructure for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sunandan; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Sarkar, Pranab

    2014-09-01

    By using the density-functional tight binding method, we studied the electronic structure of CdSe quantum dot(QD)-buckminsterfullerene (C60) hybrid systems as a function of both the size of the QD and concentration of the fullerene molecule. Our calculation reveals that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level of the hybrid CdSeQD-C60 systems lies on the fullerene moiety, whereas the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level lies either on the QD or the fullerene depending on size of the CdSe QD. We explored the possibility of engineering the energy level alignment by varying the size of the CdSe QD. With increase in size of the QD, the HOMO level is shifted upward and crosses the HOMO level of the C60-thiol molecule resulting transition from the type-I to type-II band energy alignment. The density of states and charge density plot support these types of band gap engineering of the CdSe-C60 hybrid systems. This type II band alignment indicates the possibility of application of this nanohybrid for photovoltaic purpose.

  20. Efficient Electron Collection in Hybrid Polymer Solar Cells: In-Situ-Generated ZnO/Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Scaffolded by a TiO2 Nanorod Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Pin; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2013-06-06

    A nanoarchitectural hybrid polymer solar cell, integrating the ordered and the bulk heterojunction hybrid polymer solar cells, is fabricated by infiltrating the diethylzinc/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solution into the interstices of the TiO2 nanorod (NR) array. An inorganic network composed of tiny ZnO nanocrystals is constructed in the in-situ-generated hybrid within the interstice of the single-crystalline TiO2 NRs. The TiO2 NR array, which possesses a longer electron lifetime and an appropriate electron-transport rate, serves not only as an electron transporter/collector extended from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode to sustain the efficient electron collection but also as a scaffold to hold the sufficient amount of ZnO/P3HT hybrid. The in-situ-generated ZnO/P3HT hybrid layer with superior charge separation efficiency can therefore be thickened in the presence of a TiO2 NR array for increasing the light-harvesting efficiency. A notable efficiency of 2.46% is therefore attained in the TiO2 NR-ZnO/P3HT hybrid solar cell.

  1. Screened Hybrid and DFT + U Studies of the Structural, Electronic, and Optical Properties of U3O8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Xiaodong; Martin, Richard L.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Rudin, Sven P.; Batista, Enrique R.; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2012-11-26

    A systematic comparison of the structures and electronic and optical properties of U3O8 in the c2mm, P¯62m, and P21/m structures (the α, β, and γ phases, respectively) is performed using density functional theory + U (PBE + U) and the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof screened hybrid functional (HSE). The relationship between the semiconducting C2mm phase of U3O8 and the high temperature, metallic P¯62m phase is explored in more detail. Our calculated results show that the HSE functional gives a better description of the electronic and optical properties when compared with available experimental data for the α and β phases, but neither approach does particularly well for the high pressure γ phase.

  2. Screened hybrid and DFT + U studies of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of U3O8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Martin, Richard L.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Rudin, Sven P.; Batista, Enrique R.; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic comparison of the structures and electronic and optical properties of U3O8 in the c2mm, P\\bar {6}2 m, and P21/m structures (the α, β, and γ phases, respectively) is performed using density functional theory + U (PBE + U) and the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof screened hybrid functional (HSE). The relationship between the semiconducting C2mm phase of U3O8 and the high temperature, metallic P\\bar {6}2 m phase is explored in more detail. Our calculated results show that the HSE functional gives a better description of the electronic and optical properties when compared with available experimental data for the α and β phases, but neither approach does particularly well for the high pressure γ phase.

  3. Hybrids of organic molecules and flat, oxide-free silicon: high-density monolayers, electronic properties, and functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Calder, Steven; Yaffe, Omer; Cahen, David; Haick, Hossam; Kronik, Leeor; Zuilhof, Han

    2012-07-03

    Since the first report of Si-C bound organic monolayers on oxide-free Si almost two decades ago, a substantial amount of research has focused on studying the fundamental mechanical and electronic properties of these Si/molecule surfaces and interfaces. This feature article covers three closely related topics, including recent advances in achieving high-density organic monolayers (i.e., atomic coverage >55%) on oxide-free Si(111) substrates, an overview of progress in the fundamental understanding of the energetics and electronic properties of hybrid Si/molecule systems, and a brief summary of recent examples of subsequent functionalization on these high-density monolayers, which can significantly expand the range of applicability. Taken together, these topics provide an overview of the present status of this active area of research.

  4. Electronic and optical properties of (U,Th)O2 compound from screened hybrid density functional studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chongjie; Yang, Yu; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Ping

    2016-04-01

    The electronic structure and optical properties for the (U,Th)O2 compound are systematically studied by employing the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerh method (HSE) of screened hybrid density functional. The electronic band gap of (U,Th)O2 is predicted to be 3.06 eV, in the middle of the values of UO2 and ThO2. Based on wavefunction analysis, we conclude (U,Th)O2 to be a Mott insulator in its ground state. The frequency dependent dielectric functions and optical properties are then calculated and compared with those of ThO2 and UO2. At the visible light frequency range, the adsorption coefficients for ThO2, UO2 and (U,Th)O2 are totally different, which gives an accessible method to predict the proportion of U atoms in an arbitrary unknown (U,Th)O2 compounds from the adsorption spectrum of visible lights.

  5. Tuning the electronic hybridization in the heavy fermion cage compound YbFe2Zn20 with Cd doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Baez, M.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Avila, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The tuning of the electronic properties of heavy fermion compounds by chemical substitution provides excellent opportunities for further understanding the physics of hybridized ions in crystal lattices. Here we present an investigation on the effects of Cd doping in flux-grown single crystals of the complex intermetallic cage compound YbFe2Zn20, which has been described as a heavy fermion with a Sommerfeld coefficient of 535 mJ mol-1 · K-2. The substitution of Cd for Zn disturbs the system by expanding the unit cell and, in this case, the size of the Zn cages that surround the Yb and Fe. With an increasing amount of Cd, the hybridization between the Yb 4f electrons and the conduction electrons is weakened, as shown by a decrease in the Sommerfeld coefficient, which should be accompanied by a valence shift of the Yb3+ due to the negative chemical pressure effect. This scenario is also supported by the low temperature DC magnetic susceptibility, which is gradually suppressed and shows an increment of the Kondo temperature, based on a shift to higher temperatures of the characteristic broad susceptibility peak. Furthermore, the DC resistivity decreases with the isoelectronic substitution of Cd for Zn, contrary to expectations in an increasingly disordered system, and implying that the valence shift is not related to charge carrier doping. The combined results demonstrate the excellent complementarity between positive physical pressure and negative chemical pressure, and point to a rich playground for exploring the physics and chemistry of strongly correlated electron systems in the general family of Zn20 compounds, despite their structural complexity.

  6. Implications of orbital hybridization on the electronic properties of doped quantum dots: the case of Cu:CdSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Joshua T.; Forsythe, Kyle; Hutchins, Jamie; Meulenberg, Robert W.

    2016-04-13

    This paper investigates how chemical dopants affect the electronic properties of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and why a model that incorporates the concepts of orbital hybridization must be used to understand these properties. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements show that copper dopants in CdSe QDs occur primarily through a statistical doping mechanism. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) experiments provide a detailed insight on the valence band (VB) structure of doped and undoped QDs. Using UPS measurements, we are able to observe photoemission from the Cu d-levels above VB maximum of the QDs which allows a complete picture of the energy band landscape of these materials. This information provides insights into many of the physical properties of doped QDs, including the highly debated near-infrared photoluminescence in Cu doped CdSe QDs. We show that all our results point to a common theme of orbital hybridization in Cu doped CdSe QDs which leads to optically and electronically active states below the conduction band minimum. Our model is supported from current–voltage measurements of doped and undoped materials, which exhibit Schottky to Ohmic behavior with Cu doping, suggestive of a tuning of the lowest energy states near the Fermi level.

  7. Alteration of mitochondrial genomes containing atpA genes in the sexual progeny of cybrids between Raphanus sativus cms line and Brassica napus cv. Westar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T; Imamura, J

    1992-09-01

    We have investigated the fate of the mitochondrial genomes of cybrids derived from "donor-recipient" protoplast fusion between X-irradiated Raphanus sativus (cms line) and iodoacetamide-treated Brassica napus cv. Westar. Two out of ten fusion products were male-sterile with the diploid chromosome number of B. napus. The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the cybrids and their progeny were further analyzed by DNA-DNA hybridizaion using the pea mitochondrial ATPase subunit gene (atpA) as a probe. One cybrid, 18-3, had a 3.0 kb fragment characteristic of B. napus and a 2.0 kb non-parental fragment when the BamHI-digested DNA was hybridized with the probe. In the first-backcrossed progeny of this cybrid, the hybridization pattern was not stably inherited. A 4.0 kb radish fragment, not detectable in the cybrid, appeared in one of the BC1 generation siblings, and the 2.0 kb non-parental fragment was lost in another. The hybridization patterns in BC1 progeny siblings of cybrid 12-9 were also varied. The alteration of mtDNA in the cybrid progeny continued to the BC2 generation. There was no clear evidence of a heteroplasmic state or of sub-stoichiometric molecules in the mt genome of cybrid 18-3. A possible cause of the observed alteration in the mt genome is discussed.

  8. Design of Passive Analog Electronic Circuits Using Hybrid Modified UMDA algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Slezak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid evolutionary passive analog circuits synthesis method based on modified Univariate Marginal Distribution Algorithm (UMDA and a local search algorithm is proposed in the paper. The modification of the UMDA algorithm which allows to specify the maximum number of the nodes and the maximum number of the components of the synthesized circuit is proposed. The proposed hybrid approach efficiently reduces the number of the objective function evaluations. The modified UMDA algorithm is used for synthesis of the topology and the local search algorithm is used for determination of the parameters of the components of the designed circuit. As an example the proposed method is applied to a problem of synthesis of the fractional capacitor circuit.

  9. First Principles Study on the Electronic Structure and Interface Stability of Hybrid Silicene/Fluorosilicene Nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Q G; Zhang, J. F.; Ao, Z. M.; Y. P. Wu

    2015-01-01

    The interface stability of hybrid silicene/fluorosilicene nanoribbons (SFNRs) has been investigated by using density functional theory calculations, where fluorosilicene is the fully fluorinated silicene. It is found that the diffusion of F atoms at the zigzag and armchair interfaces of SFNRs is endothermic, and the corresponding minimum energy barriers are respectively 1.66 and 1.56?eV, which are remarkably higher than the minimum diffusion energy barrier of one F atom and two F atoms on pri...

  10. Carbon and metal nanotube hybrid structures on graphene as efficient electron field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Kwang; Lee, Byung Yang; Lee, Hyungwoo; Cho, Dong-guk; Arif, Muhammad; Kim, Kyu Young; Choi, Young Jin; Hong, Seunghun

    2016-07-01

    We report a facile and efficient method for the fabrication of highly-flexible field emission devices by forming tubular hybrid structures based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nickel nanotubes (Ni NTs) on graphene-based flexible substrates. By employing an infiltration process in anodic alumina oxide (AAO) templates followed by Ni electrodeposition, we could fabricate CNT-wrapped Ni NT/graphene hybrid structures. During the electrodeposition process, the CNTs served as Ni nucleation sites, resulting in a large-area array of high aspect-ratio field emitters composed of CNT-wrapped Ni NT hybrid structures. As a proof of concepts, we demonstrate that high-quality flexible field emission devices can be simply fabricated using our method. Remarkably, our proto-type field emission devices exhibited a current density higher by two orders of magnitude compared to other devices fabricated by previous methods, while maintaining its structural integrity in various bending deformations. This novel fabrication strategy can be utilized in various applications such as optoelectronic devices, sensors and energy storage devices.

  11. Hybrid matrix method for stable numerical analysis of the propagation of Dirac electrons in gapless bilayer graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Torres, J. A.; Pernas-Salomón, R.; Pérez-Álvarez, R.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2016-05-01

    Gapless bilayer graphene (GBG), like monolayer graphene, is a material system with unique properties, such as anti-Klein tunneling and intrinsic Fano resonances. These properties rely on the gapless parabolic dispersion relation and the chiral nature of bilayer graphene electrons. In addition, propagating and evanescent electron states coexist inherently in this material, giving rise to these exotic properties. In this sense, bilayer graphene is unique, since in most material systems in which Fano resonance phenomena are manifested an external source that provides extended states is required. However, from a numerical standpoint, the presence of evanescent-divergent states in the eigenfunctions linear superposition representing the Dirac spinors, leads to a numerical degradation (the so called Ωd problem) in the practical applications of the standard Coefficient Transfer Matrix (K) method used to study charge transport properties in Bilayer Graphene based multi-barrier systems. We present here a straightforward procedure based in the hybrid compliance-stiffness matrix method (H) that can overcome this numerical degradation. Our results show that in contrast to standard matrix method, the proposed H method is suitable to study the transmission and transport properties of electrons in GBG superlattice since it remains numerically stable regardless the size of the superlattice and the range of values taken by the input parameters: the energy and angle of the incident electrons, the barrier height and the thickness and number of barriers. We show that the matrix determinant can be used as a test of the numerical accuracy in real calculations.

  12. Measurements of thoron and radon progeny concentrations in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lei; Liu Cuihong; Guo Qiuju [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: qjguo@pku.edu.cn

    2008-12-15

    It has been reported that thoron levels in China are above the world average and may therefore make a significant contribution to the natural background radiation dose. We therefore conducted a pilot study of concentrations of both thoron and radon progeny during the spring of 2006 in the Beijing area, China. A new type of portable 24 h integrating monitor with a CR-39 detector was used during the survey. Seventy dwellings and eight outdoor sites were measured during the survey. For country houses built of red bricks and slurry, the average equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC) of thoron and radon were 1.02 {+-} 0.48 and 16.41 {+-} 9.02 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively, whereas for city dwellings built of cement blocks and floor slabs, the results were 0.48 {+-} 0.47 and 11.50 {+-} 6.99 Bq m{sup -3} for thoron and radon, respectively. For outdoor air, concentrations of thoron and radon progeny were 0.29 {+-} 0.28 and 7.05 {+-} 2.68 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. Radiation exposures from thoron and radon progeny were also evaluated; the ratio of dose contribution from thoron progeny to that of radon progeny was evaluated to be 28% and 17% in country houses and city dwellings, respectively. (note)

  13. Hybrid Simulation of Laser-Plasma Interactions and Fast Electron Transport in Inhomogeneous Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B I; Kemp, A; Divol, L

    2009-05-27

    A new framework is introduced for kinetic simulation of laser-plasma interactions in an inhomogenous plasma motivated by the goal of performing integrated kinetic simulations of fast-ignition laser fusion. The algorithm addresses the propagation and absorption of an intense electromagnetic wave in an ionized plasma leading to the generation and transport of an energetic electron component. The energetic electrons propagate farther into the plasma to much higher densities where Coulomb collisions become important. The high-density plasma supports an energetic electron current, return currents, self-consistent electric fields associated with maintaining quasi-neutrality, and self-consistent magnetic fields due to the currents. Collisions of the electrons and ions are calculated accurately to track the energetic electrons and model their interactions with the background plasma. Up to a density well above critical density, where the laser electromagnetic field is evanescent, Maxwell's equations are solved with a conventional particle-based, finite-difference scheme. In the higher-density plasma, Maxwell's equations are solved using an Ohm's law neglecting the inertia of the background electrons with the option of omitting the displacement current in Ampere's law. Particle equations of motion with binary collisions are solved for all electrons and ions throughout the system using weighted particles to resolve the density gradient efficiently. The algorithm is analyzed and demonstrated in simulation examples. The simulation scheme introduced here achieves significantly improved efficiencies.

  14. Electronic Interfacing Between a Living Cell and a Nanodevice: A Bio-Nano Hybrid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraf, Ravi F. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2013-12-31

    The primary goal of this program was to couple physical electronics with live cells to leverage the highly sophisticated functions of a biological system to ultimately create advanced functionality. The study was built on a unique self-assembled architecture of nanoparticles that exhibits transport properties that are sensitive to single-electron charge modulation. At room temperature, the energy of switching due to single-electron charge modulation was in the range of 4 to 100 kT. The structure invented in the principal investigator’s lab is a two-dimensional (2D) network of one-dimensional (1D) necklaces of 10 nm Au nanoparticles. The electron transport through the necklace network is regulated by quantum mechanical single-electron traps. As a result of the single electron traps, the all metal nanoparticle network array displays a conduction band gap. Fundamental studies on the transport properties of the network in air and water were studied to regulate the band gap by tailoring the network structure to demonstrate the first electrochemical single electron transistor operating in water. Cells were interfaced with the network to observe electrochemical activity in a cell during photosynthesis and single viral infection.

  15. Effects of APTEOS content and electron beam irradiation on physical and separation properties of hybrid nylon-66 membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linggawati, A. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohammad, A.W., E-mail: wahabm@eng.ukm.my [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Leo, C.P. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, S.P.S., Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid nylon-66 membranes were prepared using APTEOS and modified by EB irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer APTEOS increase the formation of cellular pores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EB irradiation causes the growth of dense layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 10 wt% of APTEOS and irradiation at 70 kGy shows satisfactory separation of salt. - Abstract: Nylon-66 contains functional groups which form hydrogen bonds with inorganic silica networks and allow the creation of hybrid membranes. As a typical semicrystalline polymer, nylon-66 can be crosslinked through electron beam (EB) irradiation to form nanofiltration membranes. The effects of {gamma}-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane (APTEOS) and EB irradiation on the physical and separation properties of nylon-66 membranes were studied in this work. Hybrid nylon-66 membranes were prepared by adding an APTEOS solution (5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt%) into nylon-66 which was dissolved in formic acid. Before air drying, membranes were irradiated at 60 kGy, 70 kGy and 80 kGy. More cellular pores were formed in nylon-66 membranes with the addition of APTEOS. However, increased irradiation dose caused the formation of a dense layer in nylon-66 membranes. Crosslinked silica in nylon-66 membranes was confirmed by FT-IR and DMA, while XRD results showed that there was a high degree of crystallinity in some membranes after irradiation. With improvements in membrane pore size and the ratio of membrane thickness to porosity, nylon-66 membrane with 10 wt% of APTEOS irradiated at 70 kGy exhibited satisfactory permeability, excellent removal of neutral solutes and improved rejection of divalent ions.

  16. Conducting polymer-coated Physarum polycephalum towards the synthesis of bio-hybrid electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B. J. P.; Mayne, R.; Adamatzky, A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a generic method for the production of functionalized coatings on biological substrates. The specific method described involves the functionalization of the living plasmodial stage of Physarum polycephalum with the conducting organic polymer polypyrrole. The simple method involves localized treatment of tube sections with a solution of ferric chloride, followed by exposure to the vapour or a liquid solution of the pyrrole monomer. This technique enables the production of surface-coated conducting plasmodial tubes of certain lengths to be formed at specific points. Measurement of the electrical resistance of a 1 cm functionalized tube gave a value of 100 k? . The use of this selective functionalization technique means that the majority of the growing plasmodium remains unfunctionalized and living; thus, a true hybrid device is formed. It can be seen how a range of functionalized polymers and materials whereby a chemical activator, for the formation of the product (or the pre-cursor) can be added to P. polycephalum (or other organisms) followed by reaction to form a hybrid material.

  17. Electronic structure modeling of InAs/GaSb superlattices with hybrid density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, T.; Modine, N. A.; Krishna, S.

    2017-03-01

    The application of first-principles calculations holds promise for greatly improving our understanding of semiconductor superlattices. Developing a procedure to accurately predict band gaps using hybrid density functional theory lays the groundwork for future studies investigating more nuanced properties of these structures. Our approach allows a priori prediction of the properties of SLS structures using only the band gaps of the constituent materials. Furthermore, it should enable direct investigation of the effects of interface structure, e.g., intermixing or ordering at the interface, on SLS properties. In this paper, we present band gap data for various InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice structures calculated using the generalized Kohn-Sham formulation of density functional theory. A PBE0-type hybrid functional was used, and the portion of the exact exchange was tuned to fit the band gaps of the binary compounds InAs and GaSb with the best agreement to bulk experimental values obtained with 18% of the exact exchange. The heterostructures considered in this study are 6 monolayer (ML) InAs/6 ML GaSb, 8 ML InAs/8 ML GaSb and 10 ML InAs/10 ML GaSb with deviations from the experimental band gaps ranging from 3% to 11%.

  18. Observation of {sup 222}Rn progeny-and {sup 220}Rn progeny-loaded aerosols by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Lam, J.H.C. [The Univ., of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zhau, Q.F. [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China)

    2002-07-01

    Atomic force microscopy is becoming a powerful tool for the study of nuclear tracks in materials such as CR-39. Coupled with its capability of observing near nm aerosol particles, we have utilized the AFM to observe the radon progeny-loaded aerosol particles deposited on surfaces of CR-39 and to observe the corresponding etch pits produced by the {alpha} -particles emitted from the radon progenies. A special platform was built so that after the aerosol particles on the CR-39 have been scanned and recorded, the CR-39 can be etched and then scanned for the etch pits at the same location. Both {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progenies were used in the study. The progenies were generated by the appropriate radon sources and mixed with aerosol particles generated by aerosol generators. The aerosol size distributions were analyzed by a scanning mobility particle sizer. Some of the limitations and difficulties of the technique will be described. The results enable us to examine the attachment process including multiple attachments of radon progenies on aerosols.

  19. Hybrid Orbital and Numerical Grid Representationfor Electronic Continuum Processes: Double Photoionization of Atomic Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Frank L; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N

    2010-04-19

    A general approach for ab initio calculations of electronic continuum processes is described in which the many-electron wave function is expanded using a combination of orbitals at short range and the finite-element discrete variable representation(FEM-DVR) at larger distances. The orbital portion of the basis allows the efficient construction of many-electron configurations in which some of the electrons are bound, but because the orbitals are constructed from an underlying FEM-DVR grid, the calculation of two-electron integrals retains the efficiency of the primitive FEM-DVR approach. As an example, double photoionization of beryllium is treated in a calculation in which the 1s{sup 2} core is frozen. This approach extends the use of exterior complex scaling (ECS) successfully applied to helium and H{sub 2} to calculations with two active electrons on more complicated targets. Integrated, energy-differential and triply-differential cross sections are exhibited, and the results agree well with other theoretical investigations.

  20. An enhanced security solution for electronic medical records based on AES hybrid technique with SOAP/XML and SHA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiah, M L Mat; Nabi, Mohamed S; Zaidan, B B; Zaidan, A A

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to provide security solutions for implementing electronic medical records (EMRs). E-Health organizations could utilize the proposed method and implement recommended solutions in medical/health systems. Majority of the required security features of EMRs were noted. The methods used were tested against each of these security features. In implementing the system, the combination that satisfied all of the security features of EMRs was selected. Secure implementation and management of EMRs facilitate the safeguarding of the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of e-health organization systems. Health practitioners, patients, and visitors can use the information system facilities safely and with confidence anytime and anywhere. After critically reviewing security and data transmission methods, a new hybrid method was proposed to be implemented on EMR systems. This method will enhance the robustness, security, and integration of EMR systems. The hybrid of simple object access protocol/extensible markup language (XML) with advanced encryption standard and secure hash algorithm version 1 has achieved the security requirements of an EMR system with the capability of integrating with other systems through the design of XML messages.

  1. Behavior of {sup 220}Rn progeny in diffusion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikezic, D. [Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovic 12, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia)]. E-mail: nikezic@kg.ac.yu; Stevanovic, N. [Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovic 12, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia)

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of {sup 220}Rn (thoron) within the cylindrical diffusion chamber decreases exponentially with the distance from the entry filter. The first {sup 220}Rn progeny {sup 216}Po follows its parent due to its very short half life. Other {sup 220}Rn progeny are almost completely deposited, but the deposition is not uniform. Deposition occurs on all internal surfaces of cylinder including vertical wall as well as its bases. Deposition on the upper and lower base is enhanced in the middle and drops toward to the end while the deposition on 'vertical' wall is larger closer to the entry membrane.

  2. Current international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Keizo [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1996-12-01

    The international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny was held between the EML of USDOE and several Japanese organisations, using the radon test chamber installed in EML. Japanese results of radon concentration by the active method using the ionization chamber or scintillation cell and the passive method using the solid track detector were about 5% small compared to that of EML. On the results of radon progeny, there were not any large systematic differences between EML and Japanese participants in spite of wide range of deviation except for the results at the condition of low aerosol density. (author)

  3. Calculation of two-centre two-electron integrals over Slater-type orbitals revisited. I. Coulomb and hybrid integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Lesiuk, Michał

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, which constitutes the first part of the series, we consider calculation of two-centre Coulomb and hybrid integrals over Slater-type orbitals (STOs). General formulae for these integrals are derived with no restrictions on the values of the quantum numbers and nonlinear parameters. Direct integration over the coordinates of one of the electrons leaves us with the set of overlap-like integrals which are evaluated by using two distinct methods. The first one is based on the transformation to the ellipsoidal coordinates system and the second utilises a recursive scheme for consecutive increase of the angular momenta in the integrand. In both methods simple one-dimensional numerical integrations are used in order to avoid severe digital erosion connected with the straightforward use of the alternative analytical formulae. It is discussed that the numerical integration does not introduce a large computational overhead since the integrands are well-behaved functions, calculated recursively with decent...

  4. Femtosecond timing-jitter between photo-cathode laser and ultra-short electron bunches by means of hybrid compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, R.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Castorina, G.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Di Giovenale, D.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Giorgianni, F.; Giribono, A.; Li, W.; Lupi, S.; Mostacci, A.; Petrarca, M.; Piersanti, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Romeo, S.; Scifo, J.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.

    2016-08-01

    The generation of ultra-short electron bunches with ultra-low timing-jitter relative to the photo-cathode (PC) laser has been experimentally proved for the first time at the SPARC_LAB test-facility (INFN-LNF, Frascati) exploiting a two-stage hybrid compression scheme. The first stage employs RF-based compression (velocity-bunching), which shortens the bunch and imprints an energy chirp on it. The second stage is performed in a non-isochronous dogleg line, where the compression is completed resulting in a final bunch duration below 90 fs (rms). At the same time, the beam arrival timing-jitter with respect to the PC laser has been measured to be lower than 20 fs (rms). The reported results have been validated with numerical simulations.

  5. Femtosecond timing-jitter between photo-cathode laser and ultra-short electron bunches by means of hybrid compression

    CERN Document Server

    Pompili, Riccardo; Bellaveglia, M; Biagioni, A; Castorina, G; Chiadroni, E; Cianchi, A; Croia, M; Di Giovenale, D; Ferrario, M; Filippi, F; Gallo, A; Gatti, G; Giorgianni, F; Giribono, A; Li, W; Lupi, S; Mostacci, A; Petrarca, M; Piersanti, L; Di Pirro, G; Romeo, S; Scifo, J; Shpakov, V; Vaccarezza, C; Villa, F

    2017-01-01

    The generation of ultra-short electron bunches with ultra-low timing-jitter relative to the photo-cathode (PC) laser has been experimentally proved for the first time at the SPARC_LAB test-facility (INFN-LNF, Frascati) exploiting a two-stage hybrid compression scheme. The first stage employs RF-based compression (velocity-bunching), which shortens the bunch and imprints an energy chirp on it. The second stage is performed in a non-isochronous dogleg line, where the compression is completed resulting in a final bunch duration below 90 fs (rms). At the same time, the beam arrival timing-jitter with respect to the PC laser has been measured to be lower than 20 fs (rms). The reported results have been validated with numerical simulations.

  6. Research Update: Relativistic origin of slow electron-hole recombination in hybrid halide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarhoosh, Pooya; McKechnie, Scott; Frost, Jarvist M.; Walsh, Aron; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI) exhibits long minority-carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths. We show that slow recombination originates from a spin-split indirect-gap. Large internal electric fields act on spin-orbit-coupled band extrema, shifting band-edges to inequivalent wavevectors, making the fundamental gap indirect. From a description of photoluminescence within the quasiparticle self-consistent GW approximation for MAPI, CdTe, and GaAs, we predict carrier lifetime as a function of light intensity and temperature. At operating conditions we find radiative recombination in MAPI is reduced by a factor of more than 350 compared to direct gap behavior. The indirect gap is retained with dynamic disorder.

  7. Research Update: Relativistic origin of slow electron-hole recombination in hybrid halide perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooya Azarhoosh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI exhibits long minority-carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths. We show that slow recombination originates from a spin-split indirect-gap. Large internal electric fields act on spin-orbit-coupled band extrema, shifting band-edges to inequivalent wavevectors, making the fundamental gap indirect. From a description of photoluminescence within the quasiparticle self-consistent GW approximation for MAPI, CdTe, and GaAs, we predict carrier lifetime as a function of light intensity and temperature. At operating conditions we find radiative recombination in MAPI is reduced by a factor of more than 350 compared to direct gap behavior. The indirect gap is retained with dynamic disorder.

  8. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, free-standing electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on-demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function. PMID:26974408

  9. Graphene/MoS2 hybrid technology for large-scale two-dimensional electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Ling, Xi; Santos, Elton J G; Shin, Yong Cheol; Lin, Yuxuan; Dubey, Madan; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Kong, Jing; Wang, Han; Palacios, Tomás

    2014-06-11

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest in the past few years as a new toolbox for electronics. This family of materials includes, among others, metallic graphene, semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (such as MoS2), and insulating boron nitride. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel technology for constructing large-scale electronic systems based on graphene/molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) heterostructures grown by chemical vapor deposition. We have fabricated high-performance devices and circuits based on this heterostructure, where MoS2 is used as the transistor channel and graphene as contact electrodes and circuit interconnects. We provide a systematic comparison of the graphene/MoS2 heterojunction contact to more traditional MoS2-metal junctions, as well as a theoretical investigation, using density functional theory, of the origin of the Schottky barrier height. The tunability of the graphene work function with electrostatic doping significantly improves the ohmic contact to MoS2. These high-performance large-scale devices and circuits based on this 2D heterostructure pave the way for practical flexible transparent electronics.

  10. Interface Engineering for Organic Electronics; Manufacturing of Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Molecular Crystal Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Veen, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are at the basis of Organic Electronics. Objective of this dissertation is “to fabricate high-quality organic molecular single-crystal devices”, to explore the intrinsic properties of organic semiconductors. To achieve this, the in situ fabrication of complete field-effect

  11. Flow Regime Transition in Inner Grooved Minichannel Cold Plates for Cooling Hybrid Electric Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    system to create a military base microgrid (1). There are several motivations for replacing the traditional internal combustion (IC) motors and...appropriate control electronics, several HEVs can form a microgrid with a robust source of utility power (1). This use of HEVs can reduce the need for

  12. Multiplex PCR, amplicon size and hybridization efficiency on the NanoChip electronic microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Sanchez, Juan J; Morling, Niels

    2004-01-01

    We tested the SNP typing protocol developed for the NanoChip electronic microarray by analyzing the four Y chromosome loci SRY1532, SRY8299, TAT, and 92R7. Amplicons of different lengths containing the same locus were purified and addressed to the NanoChip array and fluorescently labelled reporter...

  13. Thoron and thoron progeny measurements in German clay houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, S; Meisenberg, O; Feistenauer, P; Tschiersch, J

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, elevated thoron concentrations were found in houses built of unfired clay. In this study experiments were carried out in 17 traditional and modern clay houses in Germany to obtain an overview of indoor thoron in such houses. Long-term measurements over an 8-week period were performed using a newly developed Unattended Battery-Operated Progeny Measurement Device (UBPM) for measuring thoron progeny. This instrument uses a high-voltage electric field to precipitate radon and thoron progeny on nuclear track detectors. Additional active and passive measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny were performed. The equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration was found to be between 2 and 10 Bq m(-3). Gas concentrations were found to be between 20 and 160 Bq m(-3) for radon and between 10 and 90 Bq m(-3) for thoron 20 cm from the wall. The thoron exposure contributes significantly to the inhalation dose of the dwellers (0.6-4 mSv a(-1)).

  14. Selection of carioca common bean progenies resistant to white mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Sérgio Batista Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A backcross breeding program between commercial common bean cultivars (VC3 and M20 and sources of resistance(Ex-Rico 23 and G122 was conducted with a view toward selecting carioca (beige with brown stripes progenies resistant to whitemold. Forty-eight progenies (27 F2:6 BC1 and 21 F1:5 BC2 were evaluated for yield, growth habit, grain type and pathogen responseby two methodologies for assessment (“straw test” and “oxalic acid”. The methods were effective in discriminating the progenies,showing differing results, for they may assess different resistance mechanisms. Thus, they should be used together. Simultaneousselection for yield, growth habit, grain type and white mold resistance proved to be viable. The most appropriate strategy was to uselower intensities of selection and prioritize traits such as resistance and grain type, which are essential for commercial acceptance.Two progenies proved their superiority for the breeding program for they combine the traits of resistance and favorable grain type.

  15. In-situ spectroscopy and nanoscale electronics in superconductor-topological insulator hybrid devices: a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngabonziza, Prosper

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, we presented a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study on superconductor topological insulator hybrid devices. Understanding of the electronic properties of topological insulators (TIs), their preparation in high quality thin film form and their interaction with o

  16. Electron hybridization and anharmonic thermal vibration effect on structure transition of SrTiO3 at high-pressure and low-temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takamitsu; Ahart, Muhtar; Mao, Ho-kwang; Suzuki, Takeyuki

    2017-01-01

    We execute electron density analysis of SrTiO3 at low temperatures up 80 K and high pressures up to 11.88 GPa using X-ray single-crystal diffraction and ab initio quantum chemical molecular orbital (MO) calculation. By changing pressures, the cubic SrTiO3 with perovskite structure goes through a antiferroelastic distortion to tetragonal symmetry above the critical pressure Pc=7 GPa with c/a1 and increasing with lowering temperature. Difference Fourier (D-F) synthesis experimentally proves the residual electron densities Δρ(xyz) are associated with two different effects: electron hybridization bonding electron and anharmonic thermal vibration atoms. The d-p-π hybridization between Ti(3d) and O(2p) orbitals is confirmed in the residual electron density, which is deformed from the ideal spherical density conducted by the atomic scattering factor fi using Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. MO calculation also reveals the electron hybridization. Anharmonic thermal vibration of atoms yields a large effect to the structure transition. Mulliken charges analysis of MO calculation indicates much smaller charges than their formal ionic charges. Their ionicity increases from cubic to tetragonal above Pc and below Tc.

  17. Microstructure, chemistry, and electronic structure of natural hybrid composites in abalone shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srot, Vesna; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Salzberger, Ute; Koch, Christoph T; Hahn, Kersten; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A

    2013-05-01

    The crystal structure and chemical composition at the inorganic/inorganic and inorganic/organic interfaces in abalone shell (genus Haliotis) were investigated using advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Electron energy-loss near-edge structures (ELNES) of Ca-M2,3, C-K, Ca-L2,3, O-K and low-loss EEL spectra acquired from aragonite and calcite are distinctly different. When comparing biogenic with inorganic material for aragonite, only minor differences in C-K fine structures could be detected. The crystal structure of the mineral bridges was confirmed by ELNES experiments. ELNES and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) experiments of regular and self-healed interfaces between nacreous aragonite and prismatic calcite reveal relatively rough transitions. In this work, the importance of TEM specimen preparation and specimen damage on structural features is discussed.

  18. Electronic and mechanical properties of hybrid graphene/h-BN nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooja,, E-mail: j.poojaa1228@gmail.com; Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Physics Department, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla-171005 (India); Kumar, Ashok [Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Thakur, Anil [Physics Department, Govt. Collage Solan, Himachal Pradesh-173212 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The electronic and mechanical properties of one-dimensional super lattice which are composed of controlled domain size of graphene and h-BN nanoribbons with saturated and unsaturated edges are studied by means of the first-principles method. The results show that the studied zigzag- nanoribbons (Z-GBNNR) with unsaturated edges are half-metallic, while they transform into non-magnetic semiconductor on hydrogen passivations. On the other hand the band-gap of armchair-edges nanoribbons (A-GBNNR) get enhanced by the edges saturation. Furthermore, unsaturated edges A-GBNNR and saturated edges Z-GBNNR are found mechanically more stable. These results provide a fingerprint for their use in spintronics and electronics devices.

  19. Role of microstructure in the electron-hole interaction of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancini, Giulia; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Frost, Jarvist M.; Barker, Alex J.; de Bastiani, Michele; Gandini, Marina; Marras, Sergio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Walsh, Aron; Petrozza, Annamaria

    2015-10-01

    Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites have demonstrated high power conversion efficiencies in solar cells and promising performance in a wide range of optoelectronic devices. The existence and stability of bound electron-hole pairs in these materials and their role in the operation of devices with different architectures remains a controversial issue. Here we demonstrate, through a combination of optical spectroscopy and multiscale modelling as a function of the degree of polycrystallinity and temperature, that the electron-hole interaction is sensitive to the microstructure of the material. The long-range order is disrupted by polycrystalline disorder and the variations in electrostatic potential found for smaller crystals suppress exciton formation, while larger crystals of the same composition demonstrate an unambiguous excitonic state. We conclude that fabrication procedures and morphology strongly influence perovskite behaviour, with both free carrier and excitonic regimes possible, with strong implications for optoelectronic devices.

  20. Hybrid optical-electrochemical electronic nose system based on Zn-porphyrin and multi-walled carbon nanotube composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladsomboon, Sumana; Lutz, Mario; Pogfay, Tawee; Puntheeranurak, Theeraporn; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we have enhanced the capability of an e-nose system based on combined optical and electrochemical transduction within a single gas sensor array. The optical part of this e-nose is based on detection of the absorption changes of light emitted from eight light emitting diodes (LEDs) as measured by a CMOS photo-detector. The electrochemical part works by measuring the change in electrical resistivity of the sensing materials upon contact with the sample vapor. Zinc-5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin (ZnTPP) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite was used as the sensing materials based on its good optoelectronic properties. This sensing layer was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscope and tested with various VOC vapors. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate the electronic properties and interaction energies between ZnTPP and analyte molecules. It can be clearly seen that this hybrid optical-electrochemical electronic nose system can classify the vapor of different volatile organic compounds.

  1. Electronic, structural, and thermodynamic properties of mixed actinide dioxides (U, Pu, Am) O2 from hybrid density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Ray, Asok K.

    2010-03-01

    As a continuation of our studies of pure actinide metals using hybrid density functional theory,footnotetextR. Atta-Fynn and A. K. Ray, Europhysics Letters, 85, 27008-p1- p6 (2009); Chemical Physics Letters, 482, 223-227 (2009). we present here a systematic study of the electronic and geometric structure properties of mixed actinide dioxides, U0.5Pu0.5O2, U0.5Am0.5O2, Pu0.5Am0.5 O2 and U0.8Pu0.2O2. The fraction of exact Hartree-Fock exchange used was 40%. To investigate the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the ground state electronic and geometric structure properties, computations have been carried out at two theoretical levels, one at the scalar-relativistic level with no spin-orbit coupling and one at the fully relativistic level with spin-orbit coupling. Thermodynamic properties have been calculated by a coupling of first-principles calculation and lattice dynamics.

  2. Defects Energetics and Electronic Properties of Li Doped ZnO: A Hybrid Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Sun; You-song Gu; Xue-qiang Wang; Yue Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The electronic properties and stability of Li-doped ZnO with various defects have been studied by calculating the electronic structures and defect formation energies via first-principles calculations using hybrid Hartree-Fock and density functional methods.The results from formation energy calculations show that Li pair complexes have the lowest formation energy in most circumstances and they consume most of the Li content in Li doped ZnO,which make the p-type conductance hard to obtain.The formation of Li pair complexes is the main obstacle to realize p-type conductance in Li doped ZnO.However,the formation energy of Lizn decreases as environment changes from Zn-rich to O-rich and becomes more stable than that of Li-pair complexes at highly O-rich environment.Therefore,p-type conductance can be obtained by Li doped ZnO grown or post annealed in oxygen rich atmosphere.

  3. Spin-triplet electron transport in hybrid superconductor heterostructures with a composite ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheyerman, A. E., E-mail: karen@hitech.cplire.ru; Constantinian, K. Y.; Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Kislinskii, Yu. V.; Shadrin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation); Kalabukhov, A. V. [Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden); Khaydukov, Yu. N. [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Hybrid YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−x}/SrRuO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/Au-Nb superconductor mesastructures with a composite manganite-ruthenate ferromagnetic interlayer are studied using electrophysical, magnetic, and microwave methods. The supercurrent in the mesastructure is observed when the interlayer thickness is much larger than the coherence length of ferromagnetic materials. The peak on the dependence of the critical current density on the interlayer material thickness corresponds to the coherence length, which is in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions for a system with spit-triplet superconducting correlations. The magnetic-field dependence of the critical current is determined by penetration of magnetic flux quanta and by the magnetic domain structure, as well as by the field dependence of disorientation of the magnetization vectors of the layers in the composite magnetic interlayer. It is found that the supercurrent exists in magnetic fields two orders of magnitude stronger than the field corresponding to entry of a magnetic flux quantum into the mesastructure. The current-phase relation (CPR) of the supercurrent of mesastructures is investigated upon a change in the magnetic field from zero to 30 Oe; the ratio of the second CPR harmonic to the first, determined from the dependence of the Shapiro steps on the microwave radiation amplitude, does not exceed 50%.

  4. A hybrid electronic tongue for direct classification of baby liquid foods with or without gluten

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, António M.; Dias, L. G.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Machado, A.A.S.C.

    2011-01-01

    People suffering from celiac disease are gluten intolerant and inadvertent ingestion of gluten proteins must be avoided. Several techniques have been proposed to detect/quantify gluten proteins in foodstuffs: immunochemical methods, mass tandem spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction as well as gluten sensors [1]. Recently, a potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) with lipo/polymeric membranes has been used to detect gliadins, which are gluten proteins, in foodstuffs [2]. How...

  5. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  6. Hybrid-PIC modeling of laser-plasma interactions and hot electron generation in gold hohlraum walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, C.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Rose, D. V.; Golovkin, I. E.

    2017-06-01

    The walls of the hohlraum used in experiments at the national ignition facility are heated by laser beams with intensities ˜ 10 15 W/cm2, a wavelength of ˜ 1 / 3 μm, and pulse lengths on the order of a ns, with collisional absorption believed to be the primary heating mechanism. X-rays generated by the hot ablated plasma at the gold walls are then used to implode a target in the hohlraum interior. In addition to the collisional absorption of laser energy at the walls, non-linear laser-plasma interactions (LPI), such as stimulated Raman scattering and two plasmon decay, are believed to generate a population of supra-thermal electrons which, if present in the hohlraum, can have a deleterious effect on target implosion. We describe results of hohlraum modeling using a hybrid particle-in-cell code. To enable this work, new particle-based algorithms for a multiple-ion magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) treatment, and a particle-based ray-tracing model were developed. The use of such hybrid methods relaxes the requirement to resolve the laser wavelength, and allows for relatively large-scale hohlraum simulations with a reasonable number of cells. But the non-linear effects which are believed to be the cause of hot electron generation can only be captured by fully kinetic simulations with good resolution of the laser wavelength. For this reason, we employ a two-tiered approach to hohlraum modeling. Large-scale simulations of the collisional absorption process can be conducted using the fast quasi-neutral MHD algorithm with fluid particle species. From these simulations, we can observe the time evolution of the hohlraum walls and characterize the density and temperature profiles. From these results, we can transition to smaller-scale highly resolved simulations using traditional kinetic particle-in-cell methods, from which we can fully model all of the non-linear laser-plasma interactions, as well as assess the details of the electron distribution function. We find that vacuum

  7. Tolerância ao florescimento precoce e características comerciais de progênies F4 de alface do cruzamento Regina 71 x Salinas 88 = Tolerance to precocious flowering and commerical traits of F4 progenies of hybrid Regina 71 x Salinas 88 lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Sandes de Carvalho Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A alface é uma espécie cujas plantas possuem grande variabilidade no que diz respeito à forma, cor e textura das folhas, caracterizando diferentes tipos comerciais. O grupo folhas lisas ainda se mantém como um dos mais consumidos. A caracterização do tipo de folha é essencial no desenvolvimento de um programa de melhoramento,principalmente, quando a população segregante é oriunda de parentais contrastantes para o caráter. Além disso, a maior parte das cultivares utilizada é sensível ao calor, emitindo a haste floral precocemente. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características comercias de progênies F4 de alface e a sua tolerância ao calor, visando obter cultivares com folha lisa tolerantes ao florescimento precoce, resistentes aos nematóides e ao LMV. Avaliaram-se 22 progênies F4 originadas do cruzamento envolvendo as cultivares ‘Regina 71’ e ‘Salinas 88’, previamente selecionadas para tolerância ao calor, resistência aos nematóides das galhas e ao LMV (lettuce mosaic virus. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados os tipos de limbo e borda foliares, formação de cabeça e número de dias para a primeira antese. Dentre as 22 progênies avaliadas, três mostraram-semais promissoras à obtenção de linhagens de alface de folhas lisas resistentes ao calor, nematóides das galhas e ao LMV.The lettuce is a plant that features great variability in form, color and texture. The butterleaf variety had remained one of themost consumed lettuce types. The evaluation of leaf type for commercial characters is essential for the development of any improvement program, especially when the parents are divergent types. Furthermore, most cultivars are susceptible to heat. Thus, the objective of the present work was to evaluate F4 progenies of butterleaf lettuce, aiming to select new genotypes for nematode resistance, tolerance to heat and LMV. Twenty-two F3:4 progenieswere

  8. {ital s} -{ital p} Hybridization and Electron Shell Structures in Aluminum Clusters: A Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Wu, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, L. [Department of Physics, Washington State University, 2710 University Drive, Richland, Washington 99352-1671 (United States)]|[W. R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MS K8-88, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Using photoelectron spectroscopy of size-selected Al{sub x}{sup {minus}} (x=1{endash}162) clusters, we studied the electronic structure evolution of Al{sub x} and observed that the Al 3s - and 3p -derived bands evolve and broaden with cluster size and begin to overlap at Al{sub 9} . Direct spectroscopic signatures were obtained for electron shell structures with spherical shell closings at Al{sub 11}{sup {minus}} , Al{sub 13}{sup {minus}} , Al{sub 19}{sup {minus}} , Al{sub 23}{sup {minus}} , Al{sub 35}{sup {minus}} , Al{sub 37}{sup {minus}} , Al{sub 46} , Al{sub 52} , Al{sub 55}{sup {minus}} , Al{sub 56} , Al{sub 66} , and Al{sub 73}{sup {minus}} . The electron shell effect diminishes above Al{sub 75} and new spectral features appearing in Al{sub x}{sup {minus}} (x{gt}100) suggest a possible geometrical packing effect in large clusters. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Defining the nature of human pluripotent stem cell progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michaela Patterson; David N Chan; Iris Ha; Dana Case; Yongyan Cui; Ben Van Handel; Hanna KA Mikkola; William E Lowry

    2012-01-01

    While it is clear that human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can differentiate to generate a panoply of various cell types,it is unknown how closely in vitro development mirrors that which occurs in vivo.To determine whether human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) make equivalent progeny,and whether either makes cells that are analogous to tissue-derived cells,we performed comprehensive transcriptome profiling of purified PSC derivatives and their tissue-derived counterparts.Expression profiling demonstrated that hESCs and hiPSCs make nearly identical progeny for the neural,hepatic,and mesenchymal lineages,and an absence of re-expression from exogenous reprogramming factors in hiPSC progeny.However,when compared to a tissuederived counterpart,the progeny of both hESCs and hiPSCs maintained expression of a subset of genes normally associated with early mammalian development,regardless of the type of cell generated.While pluripotent genes (OCT4,SOX2,REX1,and NANOG) appeared to be silenced immediately upon differentiation from hPSCs,genes normally unique to early embryos (LIN28A,LIN28B,DPPA4,and others) were not fully silenced in hPSC derivatives.These data and evidence from expression patterns in early human fetal tissue (3-16 weeks of development) suggest that the differentiated progeny of hPSCs are reflective of very early human development (< 6 weeks).These findings provide support for the idea that hPSCs can serve as useful in vitro models of early human development,but also raise important issues for disease modeling and the clinical application of hPSC derivatives.

  10. Photon counting performance measurements of transfer electron InGaAsP photocathode hybrid photomultiplier tubes at 1064 nm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Krainak, Michael A.; Hasselbrack, William B.; La Rue, Ross A.

    2007-05-01

    We report the test results of a hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) with a transfer electron (TE) InGaAsP photocathode and GaAs Schottky avalanche photodiode (APD) anode. Unlike Geiger mode InGaAsP APDs, these HPMTs (also known as intensified photodiode (IPD), vacuum APD, or hybrid photodetector) operate in linear mode without the need for quenching and gating. Their greatest advantages are wide dynamic range, high speed, large photosensitive area, and potential for photon counting and analog detection dual mode operation. The photon detection efficiency we measured was 25% at 1064 nm wavelength with a dark count rate of 60,000/s at -22 degrees Celsius. The output pulse width in response to a single photon detection is about 0.9 ns. The maximum count rate was 90 Mcts/s and was limited solely by the speed of the discriminator used in the measurement (10 ns dead time). The spectral response of these devices extended from 900 to 1300 nm. We also measured the HPMT response to 60 ps laser pulses. The average output pulse amplitude increased monotonically with the input pulse energy, which suggested that we can resolve photon number in an incident pulse. The jitter of the HPMT output was found to be about 0.5 ns standard deviation and depended on bias voltage applied to the TE photocathode. To our knowledge, these HPMTs are the most sensitive non gating photon detectors at 1064 nm wavelength, and they will have many applications in laser altimeters, atmospheric lidars, and free space laser communication systems.

  11. Incorporation of the electron energy equation into the hybrid Monte Carlo - fluid model for glow discharge: the applicability and reliability of the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylenceoglu, Ender; Rafatov, Ismail; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly

    2016-09-01

    A modification of the conventional hybrid Monte Carlo - fluid model for glow discharge, which incorporates the electron energy equation, is considered. In the proposed model electrons are separated into two groups, namely, high energetic fast and low energetic slow (bulk) electrons. Density profiles of ions, slow electrons, and meta-stable particles are determined from the solution of corresponding continuity equations. Fast electrons, which are responsible for ionization and excitation events in the discharge, are simulated by the Monte-Carlo method. The temperature profile for slow electrons is obtained from the solution of the energy balance equation. The transport (mobility and diffusion) coefficients as well as the reaction rates for slow electrons are determined as functions of the electron temperature. Test calculations are carried out for the direct current glow discharge in argon within two-dimensional geometry. Comparison of the computed results with those obtained from the conventional fluid and hybrid models and the experimental data is done, the applicability and reliability of the proposed model is studied in details.

  12. A hybrid approach to simulation of electron transfer in complex molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubař, Tomáš; Elstner, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Electron transfer (ET) reactions in biomolecular systems represent an important class of processes at the interface of physics, chemistry and biology. The theoretical description of these reactions constitutes a huge challenge because extensive systems require a quantum-mechanical treatment and a broad range of time scales are involved. Thus, only small model systems may be investigated with the modern density functional theory techniques combined with non-adiabatic dynamics algorithms. On the other hand, model calculations based on Marcus's seminal theory describe the ET involving several assumptions that may not always be met. We review a multi-scale method that combines a non-adiabatic propagation scheme and a linear scaling quantum-chemical method with a molecular mechanics force field in such a way that an unbiased description of the dynamics of excess electron is achieved and the number of degrees of freedom is reduced effectively at the same time. ET reactions taking nanoseconds in systems with hundreds of quantum atoms can be simulated, bridging the gap between non-adiabatic ab initio simulations and model approaches such as the Marcus theory. A major recent application is hole transfer in DNA, which represents an archetypal ET reaction in a polarizable medium. Ongoing work focuses on hole transfer in proteins, peptides and organic semi-conductors. PMID:23883952

  13. Bionano donor-acceptor hybrids of porphyrin, ssDNA, and semiconductive single-wall carbon nanotubes for electron transfer via porphyrin excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Francis; Das, Sushanta K; Zandler, Melvin E; Sandanayaka, Atula S D; Ito, Osamu

    2011-12-14

    Photoinduced electron transfer in self-assemblies of porphyrins ion-paired with ssDNA wrapped around single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has been reported. To accomplish the three-component hybrids, two kinds of diameter-sorted semiconducting SWCNT(n,m)s of different diameter ((n,m) = (6,5) and (7,6)) and free-base or zinc porphyrin bearing peripheral positive charges ((TMPyP(+))M (tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin); M = Zn and H(2)) serving as light-absorbing photoactive materials are utilized. The donor-acceptor hybrids are held by ion-pairing between the negatively charged phosphate groups of ssDNA on the surface of the SWCNT and the positively charged at the ring periphery porphyrin macrocycle. The newly assembled bionano donor-acceptor hybrids have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopic methods. Photoinduced electron transfer from the excited singlet porphyrin to the SWCNTs directly and/or via ssDNA as an electron mediator has been established by performing systematic studies involving the steady-state and time-resolved emission as well as the transient absorption studies. Higher charge-separation efficiency has been successfully demonstrated by the selection of the appropriate semiconductive SWCNTs with the right band gap, in addition to the aid of ssDNA as the electron mediator. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Low-temperature electronic transport in one-dimensional hybrid systems: Metal cluster embedded carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Caterina

    The investigation of the electronic and magnetotransport properties at low temperature in individual MWNT with embedded clusters are here presented. The majority of studies of transport in MWNT reported in literature has been carried out on arc-discharge grown tubes, generally considered "clean" and defect-free. In this project, individual MWNT grown in alumina template are used; these tubes are highly disordered compared for example to arc-discharge ones, conditions that dramatically will impact the charge transport. As-fabricated devices are in general highly resistive. A large decrease in the value of the device resistance can be achieved through a controlled and fast high-bias sweep method (HBT) across the sample. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that this method induces a metal (platinum) decoration of the MWNT surface as a consequence of the large amount of Joule heating developed during the sweep. Temperature dependence study (5wires. DFT calculations show that the enhancement in conductance can be explained in term of enhanced density of states around the Fermi energy due to presence of platinum on the wall. Magneto-transport measurements carried out up to a value of magnetic field up to |5|T show a clear dependence from the energy (i.e. applied bias). A nearly symmetric and monotonically increasing positive magneto-conductance is observed in the range of the applied field, confirming the presence of weak localization in the system. A small but distinct Rashba spin-orbit scattering effect in the magneto-conductance in the low-field regime (|B|<.5T) is found and attributed to the surface decoration. Electronic and magnetotransport measurements independently confirm the 1D nature of the transport in the system. "Zero-field" measurements were performed on magnetic cluster-embedded MWNT-based devices (FM-MWNT). Temperature dependence of the conductance reveals a Luttinger liquid type of behavior in the range of investigated temperatures but no

  15. Karyotype Analysis of the Hybrid Snakehead (Channa maculata♀ × C. argus ♂ ) and Its Inbred Progeny (F2)%杂交鳢(斑鳢♀×乌鳢♂)及其自交后代细胞核型初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苏; 朱新平; 陈昆慈; 赵建; 李凯彬; 潘德博

    2011-01-01

    对杂交鳢(斑鳢♀×乌鳢♂)(Channa maculata ♀×C.argus ♂)及其自交后代的细胞核型进行了初步分析.结果表明,杂交鳢染色体数目为2n=45,核型公式为3m+4sm+6st+32t,染色体臂数(NF)为52;杂交鳢自繁后代群体存在两种染色体核型,一是染色体数目为45,核型公式为3m+4sm+6st+32t,NF=52,另一种为染色体数目44,核型公式为2m+4sm+6st+32t,NF=50.经对比分析,在F2群体中,染色体数目为45的核型公式与杂交鳢相似,而染色体数目为44的与杂交鳢相比少了一条中部着丝点的染色体.推测杂交鳢减数分裂可能会产生染色体数目分别为23条和22条的两种配子.%The diploid chromosome number and karyotype of Hybrid Snakehead ( Chanma maculata ♀ × C.argus ♂ ) and its inbreeding population (F2) were studied by somatic cells in vivo culture. The results indicated that the diploid chromosome number of hybrid snakehead was 2n = 45, karyotype formula was 3m +4sm + 6st + 32t,and arm number (NF) was 52. The inbreeding population (F2) had two kinds of karyotype, a sort of diploid chromosome number 2n = 45, and karyotype formula 3m + 4sm + 6st + 32t, NF = 52; and the other diploid chromosome number 2n = 44, and karyotype formula 2m + 4sm + 6st + 32t, NF = 50. The comparative analysis showed that the karyotype formula of F2 (2n = 45 ) was consistent with that of hybrid snakehead,however there was a metacentric chromosome missed in chromosome of some F2 individuals ( 2n = 44 )compared to hybrid snakehead. Therefore,it can be speculated that hybrid snakehead may produce two kinds of generative cells with 23 and 22 chromosomes, respectively.

  16. Spatial sorting promotes the spread of maladaptive hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Winsor H.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive hybridization is causing loss of biodiversity worldwide. The spread of such introgression can occur even when hybrids have reduced Darwinian fitness, which decreases the frequency of hybrids due to low survival or reproduction through time. This paradox can be partially explained by spatial sorting, where genotypes associated with dispersal increase in frequency at the edge of expansion, fueling further expansion and allowing invasive hybrids to increase in frequency through space rather than time. Furthermore, because all progeny of a hybrid will be hybrids (i.e., will possess genes from both parental taxa), nonnative admixture in invaded populations can increase even when most hybrid progeny do not survive. Broader understanding of spatial sorting is needed to protect native biodiversity.

  17. Hermetically sealable package for hybrid solid-state electronic devices and the like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wilson N. (Inventor); Gray, Ormal E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A light-weight, inexpensively fabricated, hermetically sealable, repairable package for small electronic or electromechanical units, having multiple connections, is described. A molded ring frame of polyamide-imide plastic (Torlon) is attached along one edge to a base plate formed of a highly heat conducting material, such as aluminum or copper. Bores are placed through a base plate within the area of the edge surface of ring frame which result in an attachment of the ring frame to the base plate during molding. Electrical leads are molded into the ring frame. The leads are L-shaped gold-plated copper wires imbedded within widened portions of the side wall of the ring frame. Within the plastic ring frame wall the leads are bent (typically, though not necessarily at 90 deg) so that they project into the interior volume of the ring frame for connection to the solid state devices.

  18. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Ambade, Rohan B.; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-02-01

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs.In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM

  19. Development of a Progeny Marker for Steelhead; A Thesis submitted to Oregon State University.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippentower, Gene E. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if strontium chloride could be used to create a trans-generational otolith mark in steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). I completed two strontium injection trials and a survey of juvenile steelhead from various steelhead hatcheries. The two trials measured Sr:Ca ratios in otoliths in response to injections and the survey measured the natural variation in Sr:Ca ratios in otoliths of juvenile hatchery steelhead in response to the natural variation. In 2003, adult female Wallowa River, Oregon O. mykiss, were captured at the hatchery and evenly divided between a control group and two treatment groups. These females received an intraperitoneal injection of 1cc/500 g of body weight of a physiologically isotonic solution (0.9% saline) containing concentrations of 0 (control), 1000, or 5000 parts per million (ppm) of strontium chloride hexahydrate (SrCl2* 6H2O). Females were housed in a single outdoor tank until spawned artificially, and a distinct external tag identified each female within each treatment group. In 2004, female steelhead were captured throughout the duration of the adult returns to the Umatilla River basin and injected with 0, 1000, 5000, or 20,000-ppm strontium. In both trials, progeny of fish treated with strontium had significantly higher Sr:Ca ratios in the primordial region of their otoliths as measured using an electron wavelength dispersive microprobe. There was no difference in fertilization rates of eggs and survival rates of fry among treatment groups. Progeny from treated mothers were on average larger than progeny of untreated mothers. The Sr:Ca ratios in otoliths collected from various populations of steelhead were greater than the control values measured in both injections studies. This study suggests that the marking technique works and the utility for such a technique could be used for empirical observations in determining the relative fitness of progeny of adult hatchery origin fish

  20. Selection of Arabic coffee progenies with rust resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hiroshi Sera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to select high-yielding coffee progenies with resistance to coffee leaf rust for the State of Paraná (Brazil. Field experiments in a randomized block design were carried out in Itaguajé and Congonhinhas. Yield, vegetative vigor and rust resistance of nine progenies of Arabic coffee and three check cultivars were evaluated. Many genotypes derived from “Sarchimor” and “Catucaí” were susceptible. Three coffee genotypes of Sarchimor germplasm and the F6 generation of genotype “Catuaí x (Catuaí x BA-10 coffee” were selected to advance generations and are promising to become new cultivars for being higher-yielding than ‘IAPAR 59’ and ‘Tupi IAC 1669-33’ and having a large number of plants with complete rust resistance.

  1. Prediction of genetic gains from selection in Arabica coffee progenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Baião de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gains from selection for yield were estimated in Arabica coffee progenies carrying rust-resistance genes. Theexperiment in augmented block design was installed in Três Pontas, state of Minas Gerais. Three blocks were established with sixplants per plot, spaced 3.50 x 0.90 m, in 96 regular (F2 progenies and two control treatments. The plant response to rust wasevaluated on a grade scale in 2008. Yield (bags per hectare was estimated in the growing seasons 2005 to 2008. Significantdifferences between treatments for yield were observed in all harvests, except 2005. The presence of genetic variability amongprogenies allowed significant gain from selection for yield. Under the experimental conditions of this study, selection for yield can beperformed in the first high-yield year, without major losses compared to genetic gain from selection for yield when based on the meanof four harvests.

  2. Behavior of radon progeny in low frequency electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, K; Yamamoto, T

    1999-01-01

    Whether the electro-magnetic (EM) fields are carcinogenic or not still remains to be discussed from scientific point of view. Recently a possibility was pointed out that increased deposition of radon progeny in the EM-fields should enhance exposure dose to internal body. We investigated the behavior of charged sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn progeny and aerosols containing them by measuring the pattern and the magnitude of the deposition rate of decay products on both CR-39 track detectors and imaging plates under various conditions. We concluded that the attachment to wire cables should be increased mainly by electric component of low frequency EM-fields and possibly by electric field induced by strong changing magnetic ones.

  3. A Hybrid MCDM Model for Improving the Electronic Health Record to Better Serve Client Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. H. Liou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the electronic health record (EHR is a promising innovation in the healthcare industry, the implementation of EHR has been relatively slow. A theoretical structure for the exploration and improvement of this usage of EHR is proposed. Incorporating the theoretical structure of TOE (technology-organization-environment, we apply the DEMATEL (decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory technique to illustrate the influence-matrix and to construct the INRM (influential network relationship map. Based on this DEMATEL influence matrix and the fundamental concepts of ANP (Analytic Hierarchy Process, we derive influential weights for the criteria. These influential weights are then combined with the modified VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje method to find ways to understand and enhance the usage of EHR technology. The outcome demonstrates that our model can not only be used for implementation of EHR technology, but can also be applied to analyze the gaps in performance between the aspiration level and present performance values in individual criterion/dimension.

  4. Electronic Tongue Based on Nanostructured Hybrid Films of Gold Nanoparticles and Phthalocyanines for Milk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza A. Mercante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of gold nanoparticles combined with other organic and inorganic materials for designing nanostructured films has demonstrated their versatility for various applications, including optoelectronic devices and chemical sensors. In this study, we reported the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles stabilized with poly(allylamine hydrochloride (Au@PAH NPs, as well as the capability of this material to form multilayer Layer-by-Layer (LbL nanostructured films with metal tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (MTsPc. Film growth was monitored by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Once LbL films have been applied as active layers in chemical sensors, Au@PAH/MTsPc and PAH/MTsPc LbL films were used in an electronic tongue system for milk analysis regarding fat content. The capacitance data were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, revealing the role played by the gold nanoparticles on the LbL films electrical properties, enabling this kind of system to be used for analyzing complex matrices such as milk without any prior pretreatment.

  5. Surface Electronic Structure of Hybrid Organo Lead Bromide Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Komesu, Takashi

    2016-08-24

    The electronic structure and band dispersion of methylammonium lead bromide, CH3NH3PbBr3, has been investigated through a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES), as well as theoretical modeling based on density functional theory. The experimental band structures are consistent with the density functional calculations. The results demonstrate the presence of a dispersive valence band in MAPbBr3 that peaks at the M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The results also indicate that the surface termination of the CH3NH3PbBr3 is the methylammonium bromide (CH3NH3Br) layer. We find our results support models that predict a heavier hole effective mass in the region of -0.23 to -0.26 me, along the Γ (surface Brillouin center) to M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The surface appears to be n-type as a result of an excess of lead in the surface region. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  6. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayer TiO(x) for efficient electron acceptor in polymer hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunbum; Lee, Chanwoo; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Cho, Chul-Hee; Cho, Jinhan; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2010-11-16

    We demonstrate that TiO(x) nanocomposite films fabricated using electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly improve the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells compared to conventional TiO(x) films fabricated via the sol-gel process. For this study, titanium precursor/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) multilayer films were first deposited onto indium tin oxide-coated glass to produce TiO(x) nanocomposites (TiO(x)NC). The specific effect of the LbL processed TiO(x) on photovoltaic performance was investigated using the planar bilayer TiO(x)NC and highly regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solar cells, and the P3HT/LbL TiO(x)NC solar cells showed a dramatic increase in power efficiency, particularly in terms of the short current density and fill factor. The improved efficiency of this device is mainly due to the difference in the chemical composition of the LbL TiO(x)NC films, including the much higher Ti(3+)/Ti(4+) ratio and the highly reactive facets of crystals as demonstrated by XPS and XRD measurement, thus enhancing the electron transfer between electron donors and acceptors. In addition, the grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) study revealed the presence of more highly oriented P3HT stacks parallel to the substrate on the LbL TiO(x)NC film compared to those on the sol-gel TiO(x) films, possibly influencing the hole mobility of P3HT and the energy transfer near and at the interface between the P3HT and TiO(x) layers. The results of this study demonstrate that this approach is a promising one for the design of hybrid solar cells with improved efficiency.

  7. Heterogeneous oligonucleotide-hybridization assay based on hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence of a rhodamine label at oxide-coated aluminum and silicon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spehar-Deleze, Anna-Maria [Laboratory of Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland) and Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Kemistintie 1, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland)]. E-mail: anna-maria.spehar@unine.ch; Suomi, Johanna [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Kemistintie 1, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Jiang Qinghong [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Kemistintie 1, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Rooij, Nico de [Laboratory of Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Koudelka-Hep, Milena [Laboratory of Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Kulmala, Sakari [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Kemistintie 1, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland)

    2006-07-28

    This paper describes a heterogeneous oligonucleotide-hybridization assay based on hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence (HECL) of a rhodamine label. Thin oxide-film coated aluminum and silicon electrodes were modified with an aminosilane layer and derivatized with short, 15-mer oligonucleotides via diisothiocyanate coupling. Target oligonucleotides were conjugated with tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) dye at their amino modified 5' end and hybridization was detected using HECL of TAMRA. Preliminary results indicate sensitivity down to picomolar level and low nonspecific adsorption. The sensitivity was better on oxide-coated silicon compared to oxide-coated aluminum electrodes and two-base pair mismatched hybrids were successfully discriminated. The experimental results presented here might be useful for the design of disposable electrochemiluminescent DNA biosensors.

  8. Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J.; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Bergen, Werner G.; Dodson, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, ...

  9. Selection of arabica coffee progenies tolerant to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Lara Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to high temperatures, practically all coffee farms in the state of Rondonia are of the C. canephora species. Thus, importing arabica coffee from other states becomes necessary for composition of blends, as well as for the specialty or gourmet coffee market. The purpose of this study was to select arabica coffee genotypes that exhibit satisfactory agronomic performance under high temperature conditions. The experiment was conducted in OuroPreto do Oeste, RO, Brazil, with mean annual temperature of 25.8°C and mean annual rainfall of 2300mm year-1. The experiment was composed of 114 arabica coffee genotypes, with 103 progenies and eleven control cultivars, provided by EPAMIG. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replications, spacing of 3.0x1.0 meters and five plants per plot. All the crop seasons showed significant difference for the green coffee yield trait. In joint analysis, significant differences were detected among progenies and control cultivars. In the average of the four harvests, green coffee yield was 32.38 bags ha-1. The cultivars 'CatuaíVermelho IAC 15', 'Obatã IAC 1669-20' and 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SLCAK' stood out, achieving yields greater than 40 bags ha-1. The gain obtained from selection was 14.33 bags ha-1, which is equivalent to an increase of 44.04% in production of green coffee. The progeny H514-7-10-6-2-3-9 stood out with an average yield of 51.20 bags ha-1. In regard to maturation cycle, 56% of the progenies were classified as early maturity and 44% as medium maturity. Late maturity genotypes were not observed

  10. The nature of electronic excitations at the metal-bioorganic interface illustrated on histidine-silver hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanader, Željka; Mitrić, Roland; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta; Bellina, Bruno; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2014-01-21

    We present a joint theoretical and experimental study of the structure selective optical properties of cationic and anionic histidine-silver complexes with Ag and Ag3 which were prepared in the gas phase using mass spectroscopy coupled to electrospray ion source. Our TDDFT calculations provide general insight into the nature of electronic excitations at the metal-bioorganic interface that involve π-π* excitation within bioorganic subunits, charge transfer between two subunits and intrametallic excitations. The binding of silver to histidine, one of the most important amino acids, induces red shift in the optical absorption of protonated histidine particularly for anionic species. The presence of the smallest metallic subunit Ag3 increases the intensity of low energy transitions of histidine illustrating a metal cluster-induced enhancement of absorption of biomolecules in hybrid systems. Comparison of calculated absorption spectra with experimental photofragmentation yield provides structural assignment of the measured spectroscopic patterns. Our findings may serve to establish silver-labeling as the tool for the detection of histidine or histidine-tagged proteins.

  11. New adders using hybrid circuit consisting of three-gate single-electron transistors (TG-SETs) and MOSFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, YunSeop; Choi, JungBum

    2007-11-01

    A half-adder (HA) and a full-adder (FA) using hybrid circuits combining three-gate single-electron transistors (TG-SETs) with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) are proposed. The proposed HA consists of three TG-SETs, two enhanced-mode NMOSFETs, and two depletion-mode NMOSFETs, and the proposed FA consists of eight TG-SETs, two enhanced-mode NMOSFETs, and two depletion-mode NMOSFETs. The complexities in the HA and the FA are 7 and 12, respectively, and the worst-case delays in the HA and the FA are 1.48 ns and 2.25 ns, respectively. Compared with the conventional CMOS FA with 0.35 microm technology, the proposed FA can be constructed with 0.43 of devices, and can operate with 3.5 of worst-case delay, 1/534 of average power consumption, and 1/152 of power-delay-product (PDP). The proposed HA and FA can be operated as a half-subtractor (HS) and a full-subtractor (FS) in the case when the levels of the control gates in the HA and the FA are fitly determined. The basic operations of the proposed HA and the proposed FA have been successfully confirmed through SPICE circuit simulation based on the physical device model of TG-SETs.

  12. Effects of nonmetal doping on electronic structures of NaNbO3 based on hybrid density functional calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haifeng; Lan, Benyue; Zhang, Chengliang; Ye, Enjia; Nie, Yanguang; Bian, Baoan

    2016-10-01

    The influences of a series of anion doping on the electronic structures of sodium niobate (NaNbO3) have been systematically investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the hybrid B3LYP functional. As for B(C,P)-doped NaNbO3, the isolated B 2p (C 2p, P 3p) states were formed above the valence band maximum (VBM) of NaNbO3, which were too weak to mix with O 2p states and thus produced band gap narrowing. While the band gap of NaNbO3 was slightly narrowed after F doping. As for S-doped NaNbO3, the S 3p states mixed with O 2p states well and thus reduced the band gap energy. According to the calculation results, we tentatively put forward that S doping would be appropriate for single anion doping NaNbO3, while the B(C,P) elements would be suitable candidates for co-doping NaNbO3.

  13. Phytochemical profile of morphologically selected yerba-mate progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Teresa Valduga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil is a native South American species. Plant progenies are populations that differ in terms of their productivity, morphology and phytochemical profile. This study aimed to determine the concentration of primary and secondary metabolites, such as antioxidants, in leaves, of yerba-mate progenies selected based on morphological characteristics. We evaluated the centesimal composition of secondary metabolites in the leaves of five yerba-mate plants. Methylxanthines and phenolic compounds were determined by UPLC-PDA, and antioxidant activity by measuring DPPH scavenging. Significant differences were found in centesimal composition and the contents of caffeine, theobromine, rutin and chlorogenic acid, as well as antioxidant activities, in selected progenies. The IC50 values were correlated with the chlorogenic acid levels (r2 = 0.5242 and soluble content (r2 = 0.7686. The morphological characteristics observed in yerba-mate leaves can be used as a tool for plant selection, to obtain matrices with different phytochemical profiles as a genetic material source.

  14. Progeny Clustering: A Method to Identify Biological Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenyue W.; Kornblau, Steven M.; Slater, John H.; Qutub, Amina A.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the optimal number of clusters is a major challenge in applying cluster analysis to any type of dataset, especially to biomedical datasets, which are high-dimensional and complex. Here, we introduce an improved method, Progeny Clustering, which is stability-based and exceptionally efficient in computing, to find the ideal number of clusters. The algorithm employs a novel Progeny Sampling method to reconstruct cluster identity, a co-occurrence probability matrix to assess the clustering stability, and a set of reference datasets to overcome inherent biases in the algorithm and data space. Our method was shown successful and robust when applied to two synthetic datasets (datasets of two-dimensions and ten-dimensions containing eight dimensions of pure noise), two standard biological datasets (the Iris dataset and Rat CNS dataset) and two biological datasets (a cell phenotype dataset and an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reverse phase protein array (RPPA) dataset). Progeny Clustering outperformed some popular clustering evaluation methods in the ten-dimensional synthetic dataset as well as in the cell phenotype dataset, and it was the only method that successfully discovered clinically meaningful patient groupings in the AML RPPA dataset. PMID:26267476

  15. {sup 220}Rn and its progeny in dwellings of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: chang.kyu.kim@iaea.org; Kim, Young-Jae; Lee, Hwa-Yong; Chang, Byung-Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, P.O. Box 114, Yusong, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Tokonami, Shinji [Radon Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Concentrations of {sup 220}Rn and its progeny were measured in 450 dwellings from 2002 to 2004 using two kinds of simple passive {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn monitors, Radopot{sup TM} and {sup 220}Rn progeny monitor. The annual arithmetic mean (AM) and geometric mean (GM) of {sup 220}Rn concentrations were 40.4 and 10.7Bqm{sup -3}, respectively. The annual arithmetic mean (AM) of EEC{sub Tn} concentration was 0.89{+-}0.70Bqm{sup -3}, and the annual geometric mean (GM) was 0.60Bqm{sup -3} (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.78Bqm{sup -3}). The concentrations of {sup 220}Rn in Korean-style houses built with mud block were about two times higher than those in apartments. The average annual effective dose due to inhalation exposure to {sup 220}Rn and its progeny in dwellings was 0.25mSvy{sup -1}.

  16. Characteristics of electron cyclotron resonance plasma formed by lower hybrid current drive grill antenna

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Sharma; S L Rao; K Mishra; R G Trivedi; D Bora

    2008-03-01

    A 3.7 GHz system, which is meant for LHCD experiments on ADITYA tokamak, is used for producing ECR discharge. The ECR discharge is produced by setting the appropriate resonance magnetic field of 0.13 T, with hydrogen at a fill pressure of about 5 × 10-5 Torr. The RF powe r, up to 10 kW (of which ∼ 50% is reflected back), with a typical pulse length of 50 ms, is injected into the vacuum chamber of the ADITYA tokamak by a LHCD grill antenna and is used for plasma formation. The average coupled RF power density (the RF power/a typical volume of the plasma) is estimated to be ∼ 5 kW/m3. When the ECR appears inside the tokamak chamber for the given pumping frequency ( = 3.7 GHz) a plasma with a density () ∼ 4 × 1016 m-3 and electron temperature ∼ 8 eV is produced. The density and temperature during the RF pulse are measured by sets of Langmuir probes, located toroidally, on either side of the antenna. signals are also monitored to detect ionization. An estimate of density and temperature based on simple theoretical calculation agrees well with our experimental measurements. The plasma produced by the above mechanism is further used to characterize the ECR-assisted low voltage Ohmic start-up discharges. During this part of the experiments, Ohmic plasma is formed using capacitor banks. The plasma loop voltage is gradually decreased, till the discharge ceases to form. The same is repeated in the presence of ECR-formed plasma (RF pre-ionization), formed 10 ms prior to the loop voltage. We have observed that (with LHCD-induced) ECR-assisted Ohmic start-up discharges is reliably and repeatedly obtained with reduced loop voltage requirement and breakdown time decreases substantially. The current ramp-up rates also decrease with reduced loop voltage operation. These studies established that ECR plasma formed with LHCD system exhibits similar characteristics as reported earlier by dedicated ECR systems. This experiment also addresses the issue of whether ECR plasma

  17. Comparison of growth and immunity of hybrid and backcrossing progenies between Northern snakehead Channa argus and Taiwan snakehead C. maculate%斑鳢与乌鳢杂交及回交子代生长和免疫指标的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 吕子君; 曾运丁; 邹记兴

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Northern snakehead Channa argus ( A) ,Taiwan snakehead C. maculate ( M) and their recipro-cal cross and backcross hybrids(MA, AM) with body weight of (68. 34±6. 26)g were raised in cages disposed in the same pond for 90 d. Then feeding, growth performance[ survival rate, specific growth rate( SGR) , total weight gain, and food conversion ratio(FCR)], immunity[activities of lysozyme(LZM), acid phosphatase (ACP), su-peroxide dismutase( SOD) , and glutathione peroxidase( SGH-PX) , and contents of hydroxyl radical, and malonal-dehyde( MDA) ] and digestion ( pepsin, trypsin, lipase, and amylase) were studied in snakehead AA, MM and their hybrids including AM( AA♀×MM♂) , MA( MM♀×AA♂) , AMA( AA♀×MA♂) , MMA( MM♀×MA♂) , MAA(MA♀×AA♂), MAM(MA♀×MM♂),and MAMA(MA♀×MA♂) to breed new snakehead which was characterized by high survival rate, good growth, better disease resistance and high feed conversion efficiency. The results showed that the MM showed significantly higher survival rate(82. 33%) than the snakehead in other groups (P0. 05). The find-ings suggested that the order of growth and immunity heterosis is ranged as hybrid groups ( MA, AM )>parent groups( MM, AA)>backcross groups ( AMA,MMA,MAA,MAM) ,in which MA is optimal for wide culture.%为选育出成活率高、生长速度快、抗病能力强、饲料利用率高的鳢,以乌鳢Channa argus ( A)、斑鳢Channa maculate ( M)和杂交鳢(乌鳢♂×斑鳢♀, MA)各自进行自交、反交和回交繁殖出的9种鳢为试验对象,养殖90 d后,比较了9种鳢的生长、免疫和消化指标。结果表明:(1)在生长方面,斑鳢的自交组合(MM)存活率为82.33%,显著优于其他组合(P0.05)。综合考虑9种组合鳢的生长性能和免疫指标,发现乌鳢与斑鳢杂交组优于其自交组,自交组优于杂交鳢的回交组和自交组,其中,最符合选育目标的是MA,适宜大面积推广。

  18. Mated progeny production is a biomarker of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Christopher L; Dietrich, Nicholas; Chen, Junfang; Xiong, Chengjie; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2013-12-09

    The relationships between reproduction and aging are important for understanding the mechanisms of aging and evaluating evolutionary theories of aging. To investigate the effects of progeny production on reproductive and somatic aging, we conducted longitudinal studies of Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites. For mated wild-type animals that were not sperm limited and survived past the end of the reproductive period, high levels of cross-progeny production were positively correlated with delayed reproductive and somatic aging. In this group of animals, individuals that generated more cross progeny also reproduced and lived longer than individuals that generated fewer cross progeny. These results indicate that progeny production does not accelerate reproductive or somatic aging. This longitudinal study demonstrated that cumulative cross progeny production through day four is an early-stage biomarker that is a positive predictor of longevity. Furthermore, in mated animals, high levels of early cross progeny production were positively correlated with high levels of late cross progeny production, indicating that early progeny production does not accelerate reproductive aging. The relationships between progeny production and aging were further evaluated by comparing self-fertile hermaphrodites that generated relatively few self progeny with mated hermaphrodites that generated many cross progeny. The timing of age-related somatic degeneration was similar in these groups, suggesting progeny production does not accelerate somatic aging. These studies rigorously define relationships between progeny production, reproductive aging, and somatic aging and identify new biomarkers of C. elegans aging. These results indicate that some mechanisms or pathways control age-related degeneration of both reproductive and somatic tissues in C. elegans.

  19. Organic electronic materials: Recent advances in the dft description of the ground and excited states using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Körzdörfer, Thomas

    2014-11-18

    Density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TD-DFT) are powerful tools enabling the theoretical prediction of the ground- and excited-state properties of organic electronic materials with reasonable accuracy at affordable computational costs. Due to their excellent accuracy-to-numerical-costs ratio, semilocal and global hybrid functionals such as B3LYP have become the workhorse for geometry optimizations and the prediction of vibrational spectra in modern theoretical organic chemistry. Despite the overwhelming success of these out-of-the-box functionals for such applications, the computational treatment of electronic and structural properties that are of particular interest in organic electronic materials sometimes reveals severe and qualitative failures of such functionals. Important examples include the overestimation of conjugation, torsional barriers, and electronic coupling as well as the underestimation of bond-length alternations or excited-state energies in low-band-gap polymers.In this Account, we highlight how these failures can be traced back to the delocalization error inherent to semilocal and global hybrid functionals, which leads to the spurious delocalization of electron densities and an overestimation of conjugation. The delocalization error for systems and functionals of interest can be quantified by allowing for fractional occupation of the highest occupied molecular orbital. It can be minimized by using long-range corrected hybrid functionals and a nonempirical tuning procedure for the range-separation parameter.We then review the benefits and drawbacks of using tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals for the description of the ground and excited states of π-conjugated systems. In particular, we show that this approach provides for robust and efficient means of characterizing the electronic couplings in organic mixed-valence systems, for the calculation of accurate torsional barriers at the polymer limit, and for the

  20. Synthesis, and crystal and electronic structure of sodium metal phosphate for use as a hybrid capacitor in non-aqueous electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Manickam Minakshi; Watcharatharapong, Teeraphat; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev; Duraisamy, Shanmughasundaram; Rao, Penki Tirupathi; Munichandraiah, Nookala

    2015-12-14

    Energy storage devices based on sodium have been considered as an alternative to traditional lithium based systems because of the natural abundance, cost effectiveness and low environmental impact of sodium. Their synthesis, and crystal and electronic properties have been discussed, because of the importance of electronic conductivity in supercapacitors for high rate applications. The density of states of a mixed sodium transition metal phosphate (maricite, NaMn(1/3)Co(1/3)Ni(1/3)PO4) has been determined with the ab initio generalized gradient approximation (GGA)+Hubbard term (U) method. The computed results for the mixed maricite are compared with the band gap of the parent NaFePO4 and the electrochemical experimental results are in good agreement. A mixed sodium transition metal phosphate served as an active electrode material for a hybrid supercapacitor. The hybrid device (maricite versus carbon) in a non-aqueous electrolyte shows redox peaks in the cyclic voltammograms and asymmetric profiles in the charge-discharge curves while exhibiting a specific capacitance of 40 F g(-1) and these processes are found to be quasi-reversible. After long term cycling, the device exhibits excellent capacity retention (95%) and coulombic efficiency (92%). The presence of carbon and the nanocomposite morphology, identified through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, ensures the high rate capability while offering possibilities to develop new cathode materials for sodium hybrid devices.

  1. Direct spectroscopic evidence of ultrafast electron transfer from a low band gap polymer to CdSe quantum dots in hybrid photovoltaic thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, Elsa; Greaney, Matthew J; Brutchey, Richard L; Bradforth, Stephen E

    2013-12-11

    Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is used to study charge transfer dynamics in hybrid films composed of the low band gap polymer PCPDTBT and CdSe quantum dots capped with tert-butylthiol ligands. By selectively exciting the polymer, a spectral signature for electrons on the quantum dots appears on ultrafast time scales (≲ 65 fs), which indicates ultrafast electron transfer. From this time scale, the coupling between the polymer chains and the quantum dots is estimated to be J ≳ 17 meV. The reduced quantum dot acceptors exhibit an unambiguous spectral bleach signature, whose amplitude allows for the first direct calculation of the absolute electron transfer yield in a hybrid solar cell (82 ± 5%). We also show that a limitation of the hybrid system is rapid and measurable geminate recombination due to the small separation of the initial charge pair. The fast recombination is consistent with the internal quantum efficiency of the corresponding solar cell. We therefore have identified and quantified a main loss mechanism in this type of third generation solar cell.

  2. FY1995 study of electronic coservice project which used Optical-Smart Hybrid Card; 1995 nendo hikari IC hybrid card wo mochiite katei kara ukeru gyosei denshika service project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As one of advanced multi media service, We can think about electoronization-network changing of the public coservice. that the official system provides. It can be expected to improve the life environment for a nation by the electronization. The purpose of this research is to clarify the off-line administration of an individual information and the issue on security. We constructed the experimental system using the Internet and Optical-IC hybrid card that an individual information is administrated. The system provides the following services. (1) On-stop moving service (2) Electronic certificate publishing service (3) Electronic ticket publishing service We have mounted client terminals at Fuchu city hall, Yokohama city hall, and Keio University, and made field experimentation. (NEDO)

  3. Kinetic Cascade in Solar-wind Turbulence: 3D3V Hybrid-kinetic Simulations with Electron Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Silvio Sergio; Servidio, Sergio; Califano, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the nature of the turbulent fluctuations below the ion gyroradius in solar-wind (SW) turbulence is a great challenge. Recent studies have been mostly in favor of kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW)-type fluctuations, but other kinds of fluctuations with characteristics typical of magnetosonic, whistler, and ion-Bernstein modes could also play a role depending on the plasma parameters. Here, we investigate the properties of the subproton-scale cascade with high-resolution hybrid-kinetic simulations of freely decaying turbulence in 3D3V phase space, including electron inertia effects. Two proton plasma beta are explored: the “intermediate” β p = 1 and “low” β p = 0.2 regimes, both typically observed in the SW and corona. The magnetic energy spectum exhibits {k}\\perp -8/3 and {k}\\parallel -7/2 power laws at β p = 1, while they are slightly steeper at β p = 0.2. Nevertheless, both regimes develop a spectral anisotropy consistent with {k}\\parallel ∼ {k}\\perp 2/3 at {k}\\perp {ρ }p> 1 and pronounced small-scale intermittency. In this context, we find that the kinetic-scale cascade is dominated by KAW-like fluctuations at β p = 1, whereas the low-β case presents a more complex scenario suggesting the simultaneous presence of different types of fluctuations. In both regimes, however, a possible role of the ion-Bernstein-type fluctuations at the smallest scales cannot be excluded.

  4. Electronic structures and phonon free energies of LaCoO3 using hybrid-exchange density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Finnis, M. W.; Harrison, N. M.

    2013-03-01

    Hybrid-exchange density functional theory has been used to model the electronic structure of LaCoO3. Based on a rhombohedral unit cell of R3¯c symmetry containing two Co atoms we find a mixed spin phase, comprising alternating low and high spin Co+3 ions, with a total energy at 0 K just 57 meV per formula unit above that of a nonmagnetic semiconducting ground state. In the mixed spin phase the high-spin Co+3 ions have spin moments of 3.1μB and the state is insulating with a band gap of 2.2 eV. Our calculations suggest that the effective on-site Coulomb repulsion energy Ueff on Co+3 ions is spin dependent. The Ueff on Co+3 ions is 7.1 eV and 8.5 eV for the nonmagnetic ground state and for the magnetic high spin state, respectively. For the mixed spin state, two different Ueff are estimated for two Co+3 ions in the unit cell having different spin states, 8.0 eV for the high-spin Co+3 ion and 7.0 eV for the low-spin Co+3 ion. An estimate of the harmonic phonon free energy suggests that this mixed spin phase would become the more stable phase as the temperature increases, which is consistent with experimental evidence. An alternative intermediate spin state is higher in energy at all temperatures.

  5. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds : (NH4)(2)CuCl4, (CH3NH3)(2)CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)(2)CuCl4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zolfaghari, P.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions (NH4)(2)CuCl4

  6. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds : (NH4)(2)CuCl4, (CH3NH3)(2)CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)(2)CuCl4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zolfaghari, P.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions

  7. Comparison of outdoor activity size distributions of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University (Egypt)]. E-mail: amermohamed6@hotmail.com; El-Hussein, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University (Egypt)

    2005-06-01

    Inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny from the domestic environment contributes the greatest fraction of the natural radiation exposure to the public. Dosimetric models are most often used in the assessment of human lung doses due to inhaled radioactivity because of the difficulty in making direct measurements. These models require information about the parameters of activity size distributions of thoron and radon progeny. The present study presents measured data on the attached and unattached activity size distributions of thoron and radon progeny in outdoor air in El-Minia, Egypt. The attached fraction was collected using a low-pressure Berner cascade impactor technique. A screen diffusion battery was used for collecting the unattached fraction. Most of the attached activities for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny were associated with aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The activity size distribution of thoron progeny was found to be shifted to slightly smaller particle size compared to radon progeny.

  8. Relevance of unilateral and bilateral sexual polyploidization in relation to intergenomic recombination and introgression in Lilium species hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadeem Khan, M.; Barba Gonzalez, R.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual polyploids were induced in diploid (2n = 2x = 24) interspecific F1 hybrids of Longiflorum × Asiatic (LA) and Oriental × Asiatic (OA) Lilium hybrids by backcrossing to Asiatic (AA) parents as well as by sib-mating of the F1 LA hybrids. A majority of the BC1 progenies were triploid and the prog

  9. Sudetic larch in Germany - Results of provenance and progeny research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisgerber, H. [Forest Centre for Management Planning, Research and Ecology, Hann Muenden (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    There are only a few older sources of Sudetic larch in Germany. They distinguish themselves by outstanding growth and low susceptibility to canker. This impression was confirmed by results of provenance research. The Sudetic larch tested in comparison with numerous other provenances proved to be fast-growing, site-tolerant, to a large extent insusceptible to canker, with straight but also slightly to moderately curved stems. The Sudetic provenances behave remarkably uniformly as regards these characteristics. In addition to provenance research investigations have been going on for a long time in Germany into individual differences within the Sudetic larch populations. A report is given on the results of progeny tests from free and controlled pollination, using the example of a seed orchard consisting of 54 clones. We point also to possibilities for improving stem quality by selection steps. The results of provenance and progeny research on Sudetic larch are in the meantime being put to use to a large extent in practical forestry. The forest administrations of various federal lands recommend the use of reproductive material of Sudetic origin and from seed orchards. 20 refs, 3 figs

  10. New tools for radon progeny hazard prevention in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skowronek, J.; Kajdasz, R.; Strzesniewicz, Z. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland). Laboratory of Radiometry

    2001-07-01

    The described project is an example of prevention actions performed under real conditions in one of Polish coal mine. This project, titled Prevention Of The Short Lived Radon Progeny Hazard was carried out by 'Nadwislanska Splka Weglowa' S.A., 'Ziemowit' Colliery and Central Mining Institute. The scientific part of the research was financed by Scientific Research Committee in Warsaw and the institutional part by Mining Plant 'Ziemowit'. The aim of the project was to give the mining industry a set of instruments what would enable it to influence the level of the radon progeny hazard on every stage of work, starting from planning the exploitation, prevention of radon secretion from orogene to the elimination of radon from the air by means of filtration. The project was completed successfully and its results have been instituted in Nadwislanska Splka Weglowa S.A. and Mining Plant 'Ziemowit'. The research has been made during 1994-6, and investments during 1996-7. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Unattached fraction of radon progeny in Polish coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubacz, K.; Chalupnik, S. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland). Laboratory of Radiometry

    2001-07-01

    The system of the monitoring of the radiation hazard in Polish underground mines is based on the monitoring of the workplaces. As the routine instrument, a device called ALFA-31is used to measure the radon progeny concentration in air. This unit proceeds together with the cyclone, the separator of the respirable fraction in the dust sampler. The cyclone causes the cut-off of unattached fraction of the short lived radon progeny that can play a very important role in the investigations of the adequate dose from this source of radiation hazard. Measurements of the unattached fraction were done with help of the alpha spectroscopy system and special kind of metal grids called diffusion battery screens that are designated to separate the unattached fraction. Results of the survey show that the average ratio of unattached to attached fractions is at level 3-5% in Polish coal mines. But it may cause the significant increase in the dose equivalent, due to these calculations at least 15-20% in comparison with dose equivalent caused by attached fraction 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Effect of Rashba and Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Couplings on Electron Spin Polarization in a Hybrid Magnetic-Electric Barrier Nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Peng; Lu, Mao-Wang; Huang, Xin-Hong; Tang, Qiang; Zhou, Yong-Long

    2017-04-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on the spin-dependent electron transport in a hybrid magnetic-electric barrier nanostructure with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings, which can be experimentally realized by depositing a ferromagnetic strip and a Schottky metal strip on top of a semiconductor heterostructure. The spin-orbit coupling-dependent transmission coefficient, conductance, and spin polarization are calculated by solving the Schrödinger equation exactly with the help of the transfer-matrix method. We find that both the magnitude and sign of the electron spin polarization vary strongly with the spin-orbit coupling strength. Thus, the degree of electron spin polarization can be manipulated by properly adjusting the spin-orbit coupling strength, and such a nanosystem can be employed as a controllable spin filter for spintronics applications.

  13. Design Features of a Planar Hybrid/Permanent Magnet Strong Focusing Undulator for Free Electron Laser (FEL) And Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatchyn, Roman; /SLAC

    2011-09-09

    Insertion devices for Angstrom-wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifiers driven by multi-GeV electron beams generally require distributed focusing substantially stronger than their own natural focusing fields. Over the last several years a wide variety of focusing schemes and configurations have been proposed for undulators of this class, ranging from conventional current-driven quadrupoles external to the undulator magnets to permanent magnet (PM) lattices inserted into the insertion device gap. In this paper we present design studies of a flexible high-field hybrid/PM undulator with strong superimposed planar PM focusing proposed for a 1.5 Angstrom Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) driven by an electron beam with a 1 mm-mr normalized emittance. Attainable field parameters, tuning modes, and potential applications of the proposed structure are discussed.

  14. A Novel Hybrid Ultramicrotomy/FIB-SEM Technique: Preparation of Serial Electron-Transparent Thin Sections of a Hayabusa Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese space agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission returned the first particulate samples (typically SEM). Using a diamond trim knife, the epoxy surrounding the grain is removed on 3 sides (to within a few microns of the grain); the depth of material removed extends well below the bottom of the particle. The sample is attached to an SEM pin mount, the epoxy coated with conductive paint, and the entire assembly coated with approx. 40nm of carbon to eliminate sample charging during FIB work. A protective carbon cap is placed according to the plan for the 15 FIB sections. The central 'spine' of the cap runs perpendicular to the front of the sample, and the 'ribs' protruding from either side run parallel. Each rib indicates the location of a planned FIB section, and the spine contains the final two planned sections. We use a cap with a 4 micron-wide spine and 2micron-wide ribs that have ?3.5 micron of space between them (narrower cuts result in too much re-deposition of material inside the trenches). Using a 30kV, 3nA ion-beam we expose the front surface of the grain and commence milling trenches between sections. Rather than using the typical C-cut to prepare the sample for lift-out, an L-cut is used instead, leaving the sample connected by an interior tab. tab. Sections are lifted out, attached to TEM grids and thinned to electron transparency. TEM analyses show that our hybrid technique preserves both interior and edge features, including surface modifications from exposure to the space environment, such as damaged rims that form in response to solar wind implantation effects and adhering grains. In addition, the FIB sections provide larger areas that are free of fractures and chatter effects in comparison to the microtome thin sections, thus enabling more accurate measurements of solar flare particle track densities that are used to determine the surface exposure age of the particles.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Different Finishing and Polishing Devices on Nanofilled, Microfilled, and Hybrid Composite: A Scanning Electron Microscopy and Profilometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rishi D; Raisingani, Deepak; Mathur, Rachit

    2016-01-01

    The continuous development of esthetically acceptable adhesive restorative material has made a variety of tooth-colored materials available for clinical use. The advent of visible light polymerizing resin and the use of finer filler particles permit resin composites to be polished to higher degree. The effect of polishing systems on surface finish has been reported to be material-dependent, and the effectiveness of these systems was mostly product-dependent. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of finishing and polishing systems on the surface roughness of nanofilled, microfilled, and hybrid composite restorative materials available in the market. How to cite this article Yadav RD, Raisingani D, Jindal D, Mathur R. A Comparative Analysis of Different Finishing and Polishing Devices on Nanofilled, Microfilled, and Hybrid Composite: A Scanning Electron Microscopy and Profilometric Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):201-208. PMID:27843250

  16. Self-consistent kinetic simulations of lower hybrid drift instability resulting in electron current driven by fusion products in tokamak plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, J W S; Dendy, R O

    2010-01-01

    We present particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of minority energetic protons in deuterium plasmas, which demonstrate a collective instability responsible for emission near the lower hybrid frequency and its harmonics. The simulations capture the lower hybrid drift instability in a regime relevant to tokamak fusion plasmas, and show further that the excited electromagnetic fields collectively and collisionlessly couple free energy from the protons to directed electron motion. This results in an asymmetric tail antiparallel to the magnetic field. We focus on obliquely propagating modes under conditions approximating the outer mid-plane edge in a large tokamak, through which there pass confined centrally born fusion products on banana orbits that have large radial excursions. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic relativistic PIC code representing all vector field quantities and particle velocities in three dimensions as functions of a single spatial dimension is used to model this situation, by evolving the in...

  17. Maternal-engineered nanomaterial exposure disrupts progeny cardiac function and bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Quincy A; Nichols, Cody E; Shepherd, Danielle L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; McLaughlin, Sarah L; Stricker, Janelle C; Rellick, Stephanie L; Pinti, Mark V; Abukabda, Alaeddin B; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Stine, Seth M; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Hollander, John M

    2017-03-01

    Nanomaterial production is expanding as new industrial and consumer applications are introduced. Nevertheless, the impacts of exposure to these compounds are not fully realized. The present study was designed to determine whether gestational nano-sized titanium dioxide exposure impacts cardiac and metabolic function of developing progeny. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to nano-aerosols (~10 mg/m(3), 130- to 150-nm count median aerodynamic diameter) for 7-8 nonconsecutive days, beginning at gestational day 5-6 Physiological and bioenergetic effects on heart function and cardiomyocytes across three time points, fetal (gestational day 20), neonatal (4-10 days), and young adult (6-12 wk), were evaluated. Functional analysis utilizing echocardiography, speckle-tracking based strain, and cardiomyocyte contractility, coupled with mitochondrial energetics, revealed effects of nano-exposure. Maternal exposed progeny demonstrated a decrease in E- and A-wave velocities, with a 15% higher E-to-A ratio than controls. Myocytes isolated from exposed animals exhibited ~30% decrease in total contractility, departure velocity, and area of contraction. Bioenergetic analysis revealed a significant increase in proton leak across all ages, accompanied by decreases in metabolic function, including basal respiration, maximal respiration, and spare capacity. Finally, electron transport chain complex I and IV activities were negatively impacted in the exposed group, which may be linked to a metabolic shift. Molecular data suggest that an increase in fatty acid metabolism, uncoupling, and cellular stress proteins may be associated with functional deficits of the heart. In conclusion, gestational nano-exposure significantly impairs the functional capabilities of the heart through cardiomyocyte impairment, which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cardiac function is evaluated, for the first time, in progeny following maternal nanomaterial inhalation. The

  18. Bipolar resistive switching properties of Ti-CuO/(hexafluoro-hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene)-Cu hybrid interface device: Influence of electronic nature of organic layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bharti; Mehta, B. R.; Varandani, Deepak [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Govind [Surface Physics Group, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Narita, A.; Feng, X.; Muellen, K. [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-05-28

    This study reports the change in the structural and junction properties of Ti-CuO-Cu structure on incorporation of a 2-dimensional (2D) organic layer comprising of n-type hexafluoro-hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (6F-HBC). A bipolar resistive switching is observed in the device having interface between sputter deposited copper oxide (CuO) and vacuum sublimated 6F-HBC hybrid interface. The CuO/6F-HBC hybrid interface exhibits rectifying I-V characteristics in complete contrast to the ohmic and rectifying characteristics of junctions based on individual 6F-HBC and CuO layers. Large change in resistive switching property from unipolar resistive switching in CuO/HBC to bipolar resistive switching in CuO/6F-HBC interface was observed. At the CuO/6F-HBC interface, C1s peak corresponding to fluorinated carbon is shifted by 0.68 eV towards higher binding energy (BE) side and O1s peak due to non-lattice oxygen is shifted by 0.6 eV towards lower BE, confirming the interaction of O{sup 2-} ion in CuO with fluorinated carbon atoms in 6F-HBC at the hybrid interface. Correlation between conductive atomic force microscopy images and atomic force microscopy topography images, I-V characteristics in conducting, non-conducting, and pristine regions along with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results establishes the important role of hybrid interface to determining the resistive switching properties. This study demonstrates that the resistive switching and interface properties of a hybrid device based on inorganic and organic 2D materials can be modified by changing the electronic properties of organic layer by attaching suitable functional groups.

  19. Particle-in-cell simulations of an alpha channeling scenario: electron current drive arising from lower hybrid drift instability of fusion-born ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James; Chapman, Sandra; Dendy, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of fusion-born protons in deuterium plasmas demonstrate a key alpha channeling phenomenon for tokamak fusion plasmas. We focus on obliquely propagating modes at the plasma edge, excited by centrally born fusion products on banana orbits, known to be responsible for observations of ion cyclotron emission in JET and TFTR. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic 1D3V PIC code evolves a ring-beam distribution of 3MeV protons in a 10keV thermal deuterium-electron plasma with realistic mass ratio. A collective instability occurs, giving rise to electromagnetic field activity in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. Waves spontaneously excited by this lower hybrid drift instability undergo Landau damping on resonant electrons, drawing out an asymmetric tail in the distribution of electron parallel velocities, which constitutes a net current. These simulations demonstrate a key building block of some alpha channeling scenarios: the direct collisionless coupling of fusion product energy into a form which can help sustain the equilibrium of the tokamak.

  20. All eggs are not equal: the maternal environment affects progeny reproduction and developmental fate in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Harvey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal effects on progeny traits are common and these can profoundly alter progeny life history. Maternal effects can be adaptive, representing attempts to appropriately match offspring phenotype to the expected environment and are often mediated via trade-offs between progeny number and quality. Here we have investigated the effect of maternal food availability on progeny life history in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The maternal environment affects both reproductive traits and progeny development. Comparisons of the progeny of worms from high and low maternal food environments indicates that low maternal food availability reduces progeny reproduction in good environments, increases progeny reproduction in poor environments and decreases the likelihood that progeny will develop as dauer larvae. These analyses also indicate that the effects on progeny are not a simple consequence of changes in maternal body size, but are associated with an increase in the size of eggs produced by worms at low maternal food availabilities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the maternal environment affects both progeny reproduction and development in C. elegans and therefore that all progeny are not equal. The observed effects are consistent with changes to egg provisioning, which are beneficial in harsh environments, and of changes to progeny development, which are beneficial in harsh environments and detrimental in benign environments. These changes in progeny life history suggest that mothers in poor quality environments may be producing larger eggs that are better suited to poor conditions.

  1. Variation Analysis of Seed and Seedling Traits of Cross Combination Progenies in Populus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-five species and hybrids in Populus were used as parents, and 26 cross combinations, including more than 5 000 seedlings, were obtained by artificial cross breeding. The length of infructescence, number of seeds per infructescence, thousand-seed weight, germination rate of seeds among these cross combinations were tested. The results indicated that the cross combinational effects were significant for these traits, and demonstrated that the length of infructescence, thousand-seed weight were positively affected by female parent. In addition, seedling height, diameter above ground, diameter at breast height (DBH) of 17 cross combination progenies were investigated. The analysis of mean and standard deviation of these three traits showed that seedling height, diameter above ground, DBH had extensive variation among combinations and individuals within combination. Variance analysis and estimate of heritability indicated that the three traits had wide variation and were controlled by heredity. It was feasible to select superior cross combinations and seedlings. Further more, the result of multiple comparison showed that P. deltoides 'Lux' × P. deltoides 'D324', P. ussuriensis cl. 'U4' × P. deltoides 'T66', P. ussuriensis cl. 'U4' × P. deltoides 'T26', P. deltoides 'Lux' × P. ussuriensis cl. 'U3', (P. tomentosa × P. bolleana) × (P. alba × P. glandulosa), (P. alba × P. tomentosa) × (P. alba × P. glandulosa ), and (P. alba × P. glandulosa 'No. 2') × P. tomentosa 'Lumao 50' were superior cross combinations with higher growth rate. Finally, 123 elite seedlings were selected for further test.

  2. Leafy head formation of the progenies of transgenic plants of Chinese cabbage with exogenous auxin genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The experiment was performed to evaluate the progenies of plant lines transgenic for auxin synthesis genes derived from Ri T-DNA. Four lines of the transgenic plants were self-crossed and the foreign auxin genes in plants of T5 generation were confirmed by Southern hybridization. Two lines, D1232 and D1653, showed earlier folding of expanding leaves than untransformed line and therefore had early initiation of leafy head. Leaf cuttings derived from plant of transgenic line D1653 produced more adventitious roots than the control whereas the cuttings from folding leaves had much more roots than rosette leaves at folding stage, and the cuttings from head leaves had more roots than rosette leaves at heading stage. It is demonstrated that early folding of transgenic leaf may be caused by the relatively higher concentration of auxin. These plant lines with auxin transgenes can be used for the study of hormonal regulation in differentiation and development of plant organs and for the breeding of new variety with rapid growth trait.

  3. Leafy head formation of the progenies of transgenic plants of Chinese cabbage with exogenous auxin genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEYUKE; WANXINXUE; 等

    2000-01-01

    The experiment was performed to evaluate the progenies of plant lines transgenic for auxin synthesis genes derived from Ri T-DNA.Four lines of the transgenic plants were self-crossed and the foreign auxin genes in plants of T5 generation were confirmed by Southern hybridization.Two lines,D1232 and D1653,showed earlier folding of expanding leaves than untransformed line and therefore had early initiation of leafy head.Leaf cuttings derived from plant of transgenic line D1653 produced more adventitious roots than the control whereas the cuttings from folding leaves had much more roots than rosette leaves at folding stage,and the cuttings from head leaves had more roots than rosette leaves at heading stage.It is demonstrated that early folding of transgenic leaf may be caused by the relatively higher concentration of auxin.These plant lines with auxin transgenes can be used for the study of hormonal regulation in differentiation and development of plant orgens and for the breeding of new variety with rapid growth trait.

  4. Genetic analysis of abnormal male sexual development in Aedes aegypti and Ae. mascarensis backcross progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, L R; Rai, K S

    1982-01-01

    When male hybrids of Aedes aegypti females and A. mascarensis males were backcrossed to A. aegypti females, 32.8 percent of the male progeny exhibited abnormal sexual development, including failure of the terminalia to rotate, a split sternite of the eighth abdominal segment with partially duplicated telomeres, or feminization that gives rise to sterile intersexes. Observations made on three morphological marker loci and five isozyme loci with characteristic electromorphs in the two parental species suggested that when the sex-determining M locus is derived from A. mascarensis and the chromosome regions including s, LDH, and lDH2 on chromosome 2 and blt and 6PGD on chromosome 3 are homozygous for genes from A. aegypti, the frequency of abnormal sexual development is increased. An even greater percentage of males suffer aberrant development if recombination also occurs between the M and re locus of chromosome 1. The data suggest that genes on chromosome 2 control normal development of the male terminalia, genes on chromosome 3 control sexual differentiation, and the entire process is controlled by genes on chromosome 1 that are linked to, but not identical with, the M locus.

  5. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (♀)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (♂), and RCC (2n=100) (♀)×blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (♂) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×CC (♂), bisexual fertile F3–F18 allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×BSB (♂), different ploidy fishes were obtained, including

  6. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ShaoJun

    2010-04-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (male), and RCC (2n=100) (female) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (male) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (female) x CC (male), bisexual fertile F(3)-F(18) allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (female) x BSB (male), different ploidy fishes were

  7. Note: Easy-to-maintain electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering apparatus featuring hybrid waveguide and coaxial cables for microwave delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Housei

    2016-06-01

    The branched-waveguide electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering apparatus places quartz windows for transmitting microwaves into the plasma source not in the line of sight of the target. However, the quartz windows must be replaced after some time of operation. For maintenance, the loop waveguide branching from the T-junction must be dismounted and re-assembled accurately, which is a time-consuming job. We investigated substituting the waveguide branches with two sets of coaxial cables and waveguide/coaxial cable converters to simplify assembly as far as connection and disconnection go. The resulting hybrid system worked well for the purposes of plasma generation and film deposition.

  8. Transgenerational effects of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Smitha K; Rea, Harriett C; Perez-Polo, J R

    2013-10-01

    Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) affects 60% of low birth weight infants and up to 40% of preterm births. Cell death and brain injury after HI have been shown to cause long-lasting behavioral deficits. By using a battery of behavioral tests on second generation 3-week-old rodents, we found that neonatal HI is associated with behavioral outcomes in the progeny of HI-affected parents. Our results suggest an epigenetic transfer mechanism of some of the neurological symptoms associated with neonatal HI. Elucidating the transfer of brain injury to the next generation after HI calls attention to the risks associated with HI injury and the need for proper treatment to reverse these effects. Assessing the devastating extent of HI's reach serves as a cautionary tale to the risks associated with neonatal HI, and provides an incentive to create improved therapeutic measures to treat HI.

  9. First detection of radon progeny recoil tracks by MIMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffard, Q.; Santos, D.; Guillaudin, O.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Descombes, T.; Fourel, C.; Muraz, J.-F.; Lebreton, L.; Maire, D.; Colas, P.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I.; Busto, J.; Fouchez, D.; Brunner, J.; Tao, C.

    2017-06-01

    The MIMAC experiment is a μ-TPC project for directional dark matter search. Directional detection strategy is based on the measurement of the WIMP flux anisotropy due to the solar system motion with respect to the dark matter halo. The main purpose of MIMAC project is the measurement of nuclear recoil energy and 3D direction from the WIMP elastic scattering on target nuclei. Since June 2012 a bi-chamber prototype is operating at the Modane underground laboratory. In this paper, we report the first ionization energy and 3D track observations of NRs produced by the radon progeny. This measurement shows the capability of the MIMAC detector and opens the possibility to explore the low energy recoil directionality signature.

  10. First detection of tracks of radon progeny recoils by MIMAC

    CERN Document Server

    Riffard, Q; Bosson, G; Bourrion, O; Descombes, T; Fourel, C; Guillaudin, O; Muraz, J -F; Colas, P; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Giomataris, I; Busto, J; Fouchez, D; Tao, C; Lebreton, L; Maire, D

    2015-01-01

    The MIMAC experiment is a $\\mu$-TPC matrix project for directional dark matter search. Directional detection is a strategy based on the measurement of the WIMP flux anisotropy due to the solar system motion with respect to the dark matter halo. The main purpose of MIMAC project is the measurement of the energy and the direction of nuclear recoils in 3D produced by elastic scattering of WIMPs. Since June 2012 a bi-chamber prototype is operating at the Modane underground laboratory. In this paper, we report the first ionization energy and 3D track observations of nuclear recoils produced by the radon progeny. This measurement shows the capability of the MIMAC detector and opens the possibility to explore the low energy recoil directionality signature.

  11. Thoron progeny size distribution in monazite storage facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozina, Marina; Zhukovsky, Michael; Ekidin, Aleksey; Vasyanovich, Maksim

    2014-11-01

    Field experiments in the atmosphere of monazite warehouses with a high content of (220)Rn progeny concentration were conducted. Size distribution of aerosol particles was measured with the combined use of diffusion battery with varied capture elements and cascade impactor. Four (212)Pb aerosol modes were detected-three in the ultrafine region (aerosol median thermodynamic diameters ∼0.3, 1 and 5 nm) and one with an aerosol median aerodynamic diameter of 500 nm. The activity fraction of aerosol particles with the size <10 nm is nearly 20-25 %. The dose conversion factor for EEC₂₂₀Rn exposure, obtained on the basis of the aerosol size distribution and existing research data on lung absorption types of (212)Pb aerosols, is close to 180 nSv per Bq h m(-3).

  12. Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Bergen, Werner G; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, engineering and disease treatment. The dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, the multipotent capacity of DFAT cells and comparisons and contrasts with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are discussed in this review. PMID:23991357

  13. Radon progeny deposition in track-detection diffusion chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Pressyanov, D; Simeonov, G

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity dependence for cylindrical diffusion chambers that are used for radon track-detection measurements on the deposition fraction of radon progeny atoms has been theoretically studied (sensitivity is the ratio: area track density/integrated sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn activity concentration). Experimentally, the sensitivity values of both the metal- and plastic-made chambers were determined. Results indicate that the experimental sensitivity for metal chambers is in accordance with the theoretical model while a deviation of 15% is observed for plastic chambers. The uncertainty in the sensitivity values that is related to possible variations of the diffusion coefficient for sup 2 sup 1 sup 8 Po atoms was estimated to be less than 10%. (author)

  14. RADON PROGENY AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL FOR DOSIMETRY OF NANOAEROSOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzer, Lev; Ruzer, Lev S.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-02-25

    The study of aerosol exposure and dosimetry measurements and related quantitation of health effects are important to the understanding of the consequences of air pollution, and are discussed widely in the scientific literature. During the last 10 years the need to correlate aerosol exposure and biological effects has become especially important due to rapid development of a new, revolutionary industry ?-- nanotechnology. Nanoproduct commerce is predicted to top $1 trillion by 2015. Quantitative assessment of aerosol particle behavior in air and in lung deposition, and dosimetry in different parts of the lung, particularly for nanoaerosols, remains poor despite several decades of study. Direct measurements on humans are still needed in order to validate the hollow cast, animal studies, and lung deposition modeling. We discuss here the use of nanoscale radon decay products as an experimental tool in the study of local deposition and lung dosimetry for nanoaerosols. The issue of the safe use of radon progeny in such measurements is discussed based on a comparison of measured exposure in 3 settings: general population, miners, and in a human experiment conducted at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. One of the properties of radon progeny is that they consist partly of 1 nm radioactive particles called unattached activity; having extremely small size and high diffusion coefficients, these particles can be potentially useful as radioactive tracers in the study of nanometer-sized aerosols. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the unattached activity and aerosol particle surface area, together with a description of its calibration and method for measurement of the unattached fraction.

  15. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature r

  16. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature

  17. Synthesis of and evidence for electronic communication within heteromultimetallic Tetrakis(NCN-pincer metal) - (Metallo)porphyrin Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, B.M.J.M.; Tooke, D.M.; Lutz, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; Spek, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156517566; Jenneskens, L.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071635246; van Koten, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073839191; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166032646

    2010-01-01

    Several heteromultimetallic pincer-porphyrin hybrids have been prepared in excellent yields by stepwise metalation of a general precursor, [2H(Br(NCN))4], which was designed in such a way so as to guarantee selectivity for either the porphyrin or pincer sites during themetalation steps. First, ameta

  18. The Digital electronic Guideline Library (DeGeL): a hybrid framework for representation and use of clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Yuval; Young, Ohad; Shalom, Erez; Mayaffit, Alon; Moskovitch, Robert; Hessing, Alon; Galperin, Maya

    2004-01-01

    We propose to present a poster (and potentially also a demonstration of the implemented system) summarizing the current state of our work on a hybrid, multiple-format representation of clinical guidelines that facilitates conversion of guidelines from free text to a formal representation. We describe a distributed Web-based architecture (DeGeL) and a set of tools using the hybrid representation. The tools enable performing tasks such as guideline specification, semantic markup, search, retrieval, visualization, eligibility determination, runtime application and retrospective quality assessment. The representation includes four parallel formats: Free text (one or more original sources); semistructured text (labeled by the target guideline-ontology semantic labels); semiformal text (which includes some control specification); and a formal, machine-executable representation. The specification, indexing, search, retrieval, and browsing tools are essentially independent of the ontology chosen for guideline representation, but editing the semi-formal and formal formats requires ontology-specific tools, which we have developed in the case of the Asbru guideline-specification language. The four formats support increasingly sophisticated computational tasks. The hybrid guidelines are stored in a Web-based library. All tools, such as for runtime guideline application or retrospective quality assessment, are designed to operate on all representations. We demonstrate the hybrid framework by providing examples from the semantic markup and search tools.

  19. Improved photochromic properties on viologen-based inorganic-organic hybrids by using π-conjugated substituents as electron donors and stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Guang; Xu, Gang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lu, Gang; Li, Pei-Xin; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2013-02-04

    A series of inorganic-organic hybrid compounds L(2)(Bi(2)Cl(10)) (L = HMV(2+) = N-proton-N'-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium for 1, L = HBzV(2+) = N-proton-N'-benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinium for 2, and L = HPeV(2+) = N-proton-N'-phenethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium for 3) have been successfully synthesized by an in situ solvothermal reaction. Compounds 1-3, with the same metal halide as anions but different asymmetric viologen molecules as cations, are ideal model compounds for investigating the detailed effect of different photochromically active molecules on the photochromic properties of the hybrids. Compound 1 shows no photochromic behavior, but compounds 2 and 3 possess photochromism and show a faster photoresponse rate than other reported viologen metal halide hybrids. Studies on the relationship between the structure and photochromic behavior clearly reveal that π-conjugated substituents could be used to improve the photoresponsibility and enrich the developed color efficiently and that the π···π interaction among organic components may not only be a powerful factor to stabilize the viologen monocation radical but also act as the second path of electron transfer from the π-conjugated substituent to the viologen cation for the photochromic process, which significantly influences the photochromic properties.

  20. Relation of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn between progenies of mate-tree and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Cava Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mate tea tree (Ilex Paraguariensis St. Hil. has considerable growth in acid a low fertility soils. The knowledge of soil and plant relation will contribute to genetic improvement programs, as highly capable progenies in nutrient acquisition may be selected. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interference of provenance and, or progenies, in relations established among the extractable contents of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn, via Mehlich-1 (1:10; and EDTA (1%, with the corresponding contents in the mate tea tree leaves. In the experiment two provenances, Ivaí-PR and Barão de Cotegipe-RS, with five progenies each considered as treatments. The samples were distributed in four randomized blocks, totalizing 120 plant leaf samples, related to 120 soil samples of a Red Distrophic Latosol. The results were analyzed and fitted in regression equations. In Ivaí provenance Zn and Mn from the soil correlated with their contents in the leaves for progeny 04, for both extracts. For provenances 08 and 10, soil Mn via EDTA correlated with leaf Mn contents, while via Mehlich-1 only for progeny 10. In the provenance of Barão de Cotegipe, the correlations between soil and leaves for Zn, Fe and Cu occurred for the EDTA extract in the progenies 61, 65 and 69 respectively. For Mn and Cu, via Melich-1 the correlations occurred for progenies 53 and 69 respectively, and still for Cu, via EDTA, for progeny 53.

  1. Prediction of barley progeny performance in the presence of genotype-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, J.W.; Dourleijn, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of European two-row spring barley and their parents were tested in six environments in the Netherlands to investigate the prediction of progeny yield level, yield variance, stability level and stability variance, based on parent information. Progeny y

  2. Deposition pattern of inhaled radon progeny size distribution in human lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the important factors controlling the distribution of radiation dose to the different portions of the human respiratory tract is the deposition pattern of radon progeny containing aerosol. Based on the activity size distribution parameters of radon progeny, which were measured in Minia University, the deposition behavior of radon progeny (attached and unattached has been studied by using a stochastic deposition model. The attached fraction was collected using a low pressure Berner cascade impactor technique. A screen diffusion battery was used for collecting the unattached fraction. Most of the attached activities for 222Rn progeny were associated with aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The bronchial deposition fraction of particles in the size range of attached radon progeny was found to be lower than those of unattached progeny. The effect of radon progeny deposition by adult male has been also studied for various levels of physical exertion. An increase in the breathing rate was found to decrease the fraction with which inhaled progeny were deposited in the bronchi. As the ventilation rate increases from 0.54 to 1.5 m3 h−1, the average deposition fraction of airway generation 1 through 8 are expected to decrease by 22% for 1.4 nm particles and by 38% for 150 nm particles.

  3. First-principles hybrid functional study of the electronic structure and charge carrier mobility in perovskite CH3NH3SnI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Juan; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Chen, Chang-Wen; Wang, Lin-Zhi; Liu, Biao; Cai, Meng-Qiu

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the electronic properties and carrier mobility of perovskite CH3NH3SnI3 as a solar cell absorber by using the hybrid functional method. The calculated result shows that the electron and hole mobilities have anisotropies with a large magnitude of 1.4 × 104 cm2·V-1·s-1 along the y direction. In view of the huge difference between hole and electron mobilities, the perovskite CH3NH3SnI3 can be considered as a p-type semiconductor. We also discover a relationship between the effective mass anisotropy and electronic occupation anisotropy. The above results can provide reliable guidance for its experimental applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51172067), the Hunan Provincial Natural Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, China (Grant No. 13JJ1013), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20130161110036), and the New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-12-0171.D).

  4. Nonlinear electronic excitations in crystalline solids using meta-generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functional in time-dependent density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shunsuke A.; Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Shinohara, Yasushi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    We develop methods to calculate electron dynamics in crystalline solids in real-time time-dependent density functional theory employing exchange-correlation potentials which reproduce band gap energies of dielectrics; a meta-generalized gradient approximation was proposed by Tran and Blaha [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 226401 (2009)] (TBm-BJ) and a hybrid functional was proposed by Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8207 (2003)] (HSE). In time evolution calculations employing the TB-mBJ potential, we have found it necessary to adopt the predictor-corrector step for a stable time evolution. We have developed a method to evaluate electronic excitation energy without referring to the energy functional which is unknown for the TB-mBJ potential. For the HSE functional, we have developed a method for the operation of the Fock-like term in Fourier space to facilitate efficient use of massive parallel computers equipped with graphic processing units. We compare electronic excitations in silicon and germanium induced by femtosecond laser pulses using the TB-mBJ, HSE, and a simple local density approximation (LDA). At low laser intensities, electronic excitations are found to be sensitive to the band gap energy: they are close to each other using TB-mBJ and HSE and are much smaller in LDA. At high laser intensities close to the damage threshold, electronic excitation energies do not differ much among the three cases.

  5. Nonlinear electronic excitations in crystalline solids using meta-generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functional in time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shunsuke A. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yasutaka [Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Department of Medical and General Sciences, Nihon Institute of Medical Science, 1276 Shimogawara, Moroyama-Machi, Iruma-Gun, Saitama 350-0435 (Japan); Shinohara, Yasushi [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, 06120 Halle (Germany); Yabana, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2015-12-14

    We develop methods to calculate electron dynamics in crystalline solids in real-time time-dependent density functional theory employing exchange-correlation potentials which reproduce band gap energies of dielectrics; a meta-generalized gradient approximation was proposed by Tran and Blaha [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 226401 (2009)] (TBm-BJ) and a hybrid functional was proposed by Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8207 (2003)] (HSE). In time evolution calculations employing the TB-mBJ potential, we have found it necessary to adopt the predictor-corrector step for a stable time evolution. We have developed a method to evaluate electronic excitation energy without referring to the energy functional which is unknown for the TB-mBJ potential. For the HSE functional, we have developed a method for the operation of the Fock-like term in Fourier space to facilitate efficient use of massive parallel computers equipped with graphic processing units. We compare electronic excitations in silicon and germanium induced by femtosecond laser pulses using the TB-mBJ, HSE, and a simple local density approximation (LDA). At low laser intensities, electronic excitations are found to be sensitive to the band gap energy: they are close to each other using TB-mBJ and HSE and are much smaller in LDA. At high laser intensities close to the damage threshold, electronic excitation energies do not differ much among the three cases.

  6. Comparative analysis and evolutionary significance of the HMG1 gene in crucian carp,blunt snout bream,and their polyploid progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Liu; Zhen Liu; Shaojun Liu; Liangguo Liu; Cuiping You; Lin Chen; Huan Zhong; Yun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The full-length mRNA of the high mobility group protein 1 coding gene (HMG1) was obtained by RACE-PCR from red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.),blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala),and their triploid and tetraploid progeny.The sequence contained an open reading frame of 579 nucleotides coding for 193 amino acids.The nucleotide identity of HMG1 was higher between the tetraploid hybrid and the maternal red crucian carp (99%) than between the tetraploid hybrid and the paternal blunt snout bream (97%).The nucleotide identity between the triploid hybrids and each parent (95%) was lower than that between the parents (98%).The protein identity between the tetraploid hybrid and each parent (100%) was higher than that between the triploid hybrid and each parent (97%).Our results suggest that interspecific hybridization generates a shock to the HMG1 gene in triploid hybrids,causing divergence of nucleotides.The HMG1 protein of the tetraploid hybrids was consistent with that of its parents,which reduced the barrier of cross incompatibility between alleles,providing the basis for the bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids forming a new polyploid species in nature.The secondary and tertiary structures of the HMG1 protein contain eight helices,three switches,two DNA-binding domains in the N-terminus,and a long acidic tail in the C-terminus.Together,these data suggest that the HMG1 protein plays a role of protein-DNA interactions,facilitating various DNA-dependent activities in the nucleus.We also investigated the phylogeny of fish,amphibian,reptilian,bird,and mammalian HMG1 proteins.Our results suggest that HMG1 is an ancestral protein that has been highly conserved.These data provide clues as to how interspecific hybridization may form polyploid hybrids.

  7. Optimizing the number of progenies and replications in plant breeding experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís da Silva Filho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A determination criterion was proposed for the number of replications, r, and of evaluated progenies, Nr, given P experimentalplots, with Nr=P/r, and n progenies to be selected; its application was discussed in the selection of progenies of bulk populations,derived from two homozygous parents. For a known heritability at the plot level, h20, there is a critical n below which the gain isgreater with selection evaluating P/(r+1 progenies in r+1 than P/r progenies in r replications. Different h20 scenarios were simulatedin the F2 and F∞ generations, assuming no dominance. It was demonstrated that at any h20 , if n > 18.5% of P, larger gains are obtainedby assuming Nr = P, showing that the augmented block design could be used in the early stages of breeding programs. The higher h20,the higher must be the selection intensity to justify the use of additional replications.

  8. Genetic variability in progenies of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden for resistance to Puccinia psidii

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    Cleber da Silva Pinto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the genetic variability in progenies of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden for resistance against rust (Puccinia psidii. Field experiments were installed in two regions with different soil-climatic conditions. Open-pollinated progenies were established in a randomized complete block design. Sixty and 48 progenies were evaluated under field conditions at two sites, respectively, with six replications and eight trees per plot. In another experiment in a controlled environment, 53 progenies were evaluated in randomized blocks with six replications and nine plants per plot. The following traits were evaluated: plant height, severity of pest attack and the most susceptible stage to the leaf disease. The genetic variability for rust resistance in the E. dunnii population under study was high, with a genetic coefficient of variation of 36.07%; 7% of the evaluated progenies were rust-resistant. It indicates a high potential for selection and breeding of the species.

  9. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XII - Variabilidade em linhas puras de café Coffee breeding: XII - Variability within isogenic coffee progenies

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    H. Antunes Filho

    1957-01-01

    the hybrid between those duplicated plants (H 1934. Among the remaining 13 entries of this trial more attention was given to the following progenies of Red Bourbon coffee: 959, S0 from open pollinated seeds taken in a private farm; 43-18-11, selfed S3 from a selected plant; 43-7-7-15 and 43-7-19-13, selfed S4 progenies of similar pedigrees. Plant height was measured for all entries five years after transplantation to the field. It was observed that the F1 did not show heterosis for this characteristic, its average height being intermediate between those of the two isogenic progenies. The within plot variance presented by the F1 is equal to that of one of the pure lines and close to that of the other. The average height presented by the S3 and the S4 progenies originally derived from plant C 43 suggests that successive selfing does not reduce plant height (Table 3. Total yields in kilograms of riped fruits of individual plants were recorded for the first three years of crops. The mean yield of the F1 is higher than those of the two isogenic lines, although this difference is not significant. The within plot variance of yields is smaller for the F1 than for the two pure lines, but again the differences are not significant. When separate analyses were made for the annual crops of the three isogenic progenies, it was seen that the smallest within plot variance was presented by the F1 in two of the three years. The within plot variances for the total yields of the S3 and S4 progenies were higher than those presented by the isogenic progenies, showing a tendency to become larger with successive selfings (Tables 4 and 5. Observations were also made on the percentages of three different seed types produced by coffee plants, namely, the flat, normal seeds, "moca" (peaberry and "concha" seeds. "Moca" seeds result from the development of a single ovule after a precocious abortion of the second ovule in the ovary. "Concha" seeds are those born from independent ovules which may

  10. 3D-hybrid material design with electron/lithium-ion dual-conductivity for high-performance Li-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Tan, Rui; Yang, Jie; Wang, Kai; Gao, Rongtan; Liu, Dong; Liu, Yidong; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2017-02-01

    We report a novel 3D-hybrid cathode material with three-dimensional (3D) N-GO/CNT framework to load sulfur (77.6 wt %), and sulfonated polyaniline (SPANI) of coating layer. Used as a cathode material, it possesses a high capacity (1196 mAh g-1@0.3 A g-1@1.6 mg cm-2), excellent charging-discharging rate (680 mAh g-1@7.5 A g-1) and long-life performance (maintaining 71.1% capacity over 450 cycles), which is mainly attributed to the benefits of excellent electronic/Li-ionic dual-conductivity and confinement effect of the 3D-hybrid N-GO/CNT framework coated by self-doping conducting polymer SPANI. Thus, a 3D sulfur cathode modified with electronic/Li-ionic dual-conduction network can significantly enhance the electrochemical performance and stability, and this novel type of material is very promising for commercial applications that require high energy and power density, long life, and excellent abuse tolerance.

  11. Development of an integrated sampler based on direct {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn progeny sensors in flow-mode for estimating unattached/attached progeny concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Rosaline, E-mail: rosaline@barc.gov.i [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S. [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2009-11-15

    A flow-mode integrated sampler consisting of a wire-mesh and filter-paper array along with passive solid state nuclear track detectors has been developed for estimating unattached and attached fraction of {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn progeny concentration. The essential element of this sampler is the direct {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn progeny sensor (DRPS/DTPS), which is an absorber-mounted-LR115 type nuclear track detector that selectively registers the alpha particles emitted from the progeny deposited on its surface. During sampling at a specified flow-rate, the unattached progeny is captured on the wire-mesh; while the attached progeny gets transmitted and is captured on the filter-paper. The alpha particles emitted by the deposited progeny atoms are registered on the sensors placed at a specified distance facing the wire-mesh and the filter-paper, respectively. The various steps involved in the development of this flow-mode direct progeny sampler such as the optimization of the sampling rate and the distance between the sensor and the deposition substrate are discussed. The sensitivity factor of the DTPS-loaded sampler for {sup 220}Rn progeny deposited on the wire-mesh and filter-paper is found to be 23.77 +- 0.64 (track cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) (Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1} and 22.30 +- 0.18 (track cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) (Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1}, respectively; while that of DRPS-loaded sampler for {sup 222}Rn progeny deposition, is 3.03 +- 0.14 (track cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) (Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1} and 2.08 +- 0.07 (track cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) (Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1}, respectively. The highlight of this flow-mode sampler is its high sensitivity and that it utilizes the passive technique for estimating the unattached and attached progeny concentration, thus doing away with the alpha counting procedures.

  12. Development of a genome-wide multiple duplex-SSR protocol and its applications for the identification of selfed progeny in switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Linglong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum is a herbaceous crop for the cellulosic biofuel feedstock development in the USA and Europe. As switchgrass is a naturally outcrossing species, accurate identification of selfed progeny is important to producing inbreds, which can be used in the production of heterotic hybrids. Development of a technically reliable, time-saving and easily used marker system is needed to quantify and characterize breeding origin of progeny plants of targeted parents. Results Genome-wide screening of 915 mapped microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR markers was conducted, and 842 (92.0% produced clear and scorable bands on a pooled DNA sample of eight switchgrass varieties. A total of 166 primer pairs were selected on the basis of their relatively even distribution in switchgrass genome and PCR amplification quality on 16 tetraploid genotypes. Mean polymorphic information content value for the 166 markers was 0.810 ranging from 0.116 to 0.959. From them, a core set of 48 loci, which had been mapped on 17 linkage groups, was further tested and optimized to develop 24 sets of duplex markers. Most of (up to 87.5% targeted, but non-allelic amplicons within each duplex were separated by more than 10-bp. Using the established duplex PCR protocol, selfing ratio (i.e., selfed/all progeny x100% was identified as 0% for a randomly selected open-pollinated ‘Kanlow’ genotype grown in the field, 15.4% for 22 field-grown plants of bagged inflorescences, and 77.3% for a selected plant grown in a growth chamber. Conclusions The study developed a duplex SSR-based PCR protocol consisting of 48 markers, providing ample choices of non-tightly-linked loci in switchgrass whole genome, and representing a powerful, time-saving and easily used method for the identification of selfed progeny in switchgrass. The protocol should be a valuable tool in switchgrass breeding efforts.

  13. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in different ploidy levels cross-breeding of lily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available 21 crossing were conducted between Asiatic Lily with different ploidy levels, the results showed that the interploidy hybridization between diploid and tetraploid lilies was not as successful as intraploidy hybridization. Regardless of male sterility, triploid lilies could be used as female parents in the hybridization which the progenies were aneuploidy. 3x×4x crosses could be cultured more successfully than 3x×2x crosses. 45S rDNA was mapped on the chromosomes of seven Lilium species and their progenies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. FISH revealed six to sixteen 45S rDNA gene loci, and normally the sites were not in pairs. The asymmetry indexes of LA (Longiflorum hybrids × Asiatic hybrids hybrids was higher than Asiatic hybrids, the evolution degree was LA hybrids > Asiatic hybrids. 45S rDNA distributed variably on chromosome 1-10 and 12 among Asiatic hybrids. Chromosome 1 had invariable sites of 45S rDNA in all Asiatic hybrids, which could be considered as the characteristic of Asiatic hybrids. LA hybrid 'Freya' had two sites of 45S rDNA on one homologous chromosome 5, and also it could be found in the progenies. The karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA as probe were applied to identify the different genotypes of 9 hybrids. Typical chromosomes with parental signal sites could be observed in all the genotypes of hybrids, it was confirmed that all the hybrids were true.

  14. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sagar, D V; Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to radon, (222)Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, (220)Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to (220)Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of (220)Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha, India presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper.

  15. Maternal Diet and Insulin-Like Signaling Control Intergenerational Plasticity of Progeny Size and Starvation Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Hibshman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal effects of environmental conditions produce intergenerational phenotypic plasticity. Adaptive value of these effects depends on appropriate anticipation of environmental conditions in the next generation, and mismatch between conditions may contribute to disease. However, regulation of intergenerational plasticity is poorly understood. Dietary restriction (DR delays aging but maternal effects have not been investigated. We demonstrate maternal effects of DR in the roundworm C. elegans. Worms cultured in DR produce fewer but larger progeny. Nutrient availability is assessed in late larvae and young adults, rather than affecting a set point in young larvae, and maternal age independently affects progeny size. Reduced signaling through the insulin-like receptor daf-2/InsR in the maternal soma causes constitutively large progeny, and its effector daf-16/FoxO is required for this effect. nhr-49/Hnf4, pha-4/FoxA, and skn-1/Nrf also regulate progeny-size plasticity. Genetic analysis suggests that insulin-like signaling controls progeny size in part through regulation of nhr-49/Hnf4, and that pha-4/FoxA and skn-1/Nrf function in parallel to insulin-like signaling and nhr-49/Hnf4. Furthermore, progeny of DR worms are buffered from adverse consequences of early-larval starvation, growing faster and producing more offspring than progeny of worms fed ad libitum. These results suggest a fitness advantage when mothers and their progeny experience nutrient stress, compared to an environmental mismatch where only progeny are stressed. This work reveals maternal provisioning as an organismal response to DR, demonstrates potentially adaptive intergenerational phenotypic plasticity, and identifies conserved pathways mediating these effects.

  16. Effect of the electric field pattern on the generation of fast electrons in front of lower hybrid launchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valade, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.valade@cea.fr; Ekedahl, Annika; Colas, Laurent; Goniche, Marc; Hillairet, Julien [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Fuchs, Vladimir; Petrzilka, Vaclav [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Li, Miaohui; Zhang, Bin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-12-10

    The effect of the detailed waveguide spectrum on the electron acceleration has been studied for the 3.7 GHz LHCD launchers in Tore Supra, i.e. the ITER-like passive-active multijunction (PAM) launcher and the fully-active-multijunction (FAM) launcher, using test electron modelling technique. The detailed launched antenna wave spectrum is used as input to the code that computes the dynamics of the electrons in the electric field. Comparison with the LHCD launchers in EAST, operating at 2.45 GHz and 4.6 GHz, has also been made. The simulations show that the PAM-design generates lower flux of fast electrons than FAM-launchers, this could be the consequence of the wider waveguide of PAM-launcher (14.65 mm for Tore-Supra) than FAM-launcher (8 mm for Tore-Supra)

  17. High current density and longtime stable field electron transfer from large-area densely arrayed graphene nanosheet-carbon nanotube hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian-Hua; Cheng, Lin; Wang, Fan-Jie; Li, Guo-Zheng; Li, De-Jun; Cheng, Guo-An

    2014-12-10

    Achieving high current and longtime stable field emission from large area (larger than 1 mm(2)), densely arrayed emitters is of great importance in applications for vacuum electron sources. We report here the preparation of graphene nanosheet-carbon nanotube (GNS-CNT) hybrids by following a process of iron ion prebombardment on Si wafers, catalyst-free growth of GNSs on CNTs, and high-temperature annealing. Structural observations indicate that the iron ion prebombardment influences the growth of CNTs quite limitedly, and the self-assembled GNSs sparsely distributed on the tips of CNTs with their sharp edges unfolded outside. The field emission study indicates that the maximum emission current density (Jmax) is gradually promoted after these treatments, and the composition with GNSs is helpful for decreasing the operation fields of CNTs. An optimal Jmax up to 85.10 mA/cm(2) is achieved from a 4.65 mm(2) GNS-CNT sample, far larger than 7.41 mA/cm(2) for the as-grown CNTs. This great increase of Jmax is ascribed to the reinforced adhesion of GNS-CNT hybrids to substrates. We propose a rough calculation and find that this adhesion is promoted by 7.37 times after the three-step processing. We consider that both the ion prebombardment produced rough surface and the wrapping of CNT foot by catalyst residuals during thermal processing are responsible for this enhanced adhesion. Furthermore, the three-step prepared GNS-CNT hybrids present excellent field emission stability at high emission current densities (larger than 20 mA/cm(2)) after being perfectly aged.

  18. A hybrid electron and photon IMRT planning technique that lowers normal tissue integral patient dose using standard hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosca, Florin

    2012-06-01

    To present a mixed electron and photon IMRT planning technique using electron beams with an energy range of 6-22 MeV and standard hardware that minimizes integral dose to patients for targets as deep as 7.5 cm. Ten brain cases, two lung, a thyroid, an abdominal, and a parotid case were planned using two planning techniques: a photon-only IMRT (IMRT) versus a mixed modality treatment (E+IMRT) that includes an enface electron beam and a photon IMRT portion that ensures a uniform target coverage. The electron beam is delivered using a regular cutout placed in an electron cone. The electron energy was chosen to provide a good trade-off between minimizing integral dose and generating a uniform, deliverable plan. The authors choose electron energies that cover the deepest part of PTV with the 65%-70% isodose line. The normal tissue integral dose, the dose for ring structures around the PTV, and the volumes of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isosurfaces were used to compare the dose distributions generated by the two planning techniques. The normal tissue integral dose was lowered by about 20% by the E+IMRT plans compared to the photon-only IMRT ones for most studied cases. With the exception of lungs, the dose reduction associated to the E+IMRT plans was more pronounced further away from the target. The average dose ratio delivered to the 0-2 cm and the 2-4 cm ring structures for brain patients for the two planning techniques were 89.6% and 70.8%, respectively. The enhanced dose sparing away from the target for the brain patients can also be observed in the ratio of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isodose line volumes for the two techniques, which decreases from 85.5% to 72.6% and further to 65.1%, respectively. For lungs, the lateral electron beams used in the E+IMRT plans were perpendicular to the mostly anterior/posterior photon beams, generating much more conformal plans. The authors proved that even using the existing electron delivery hardware, a mixed electron/photon planning

  19. Selecting elephant grass families and progenies to produce bioenergy through mixed models (REML/BLUP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E V; Daher, R F; Dos Santos, A; Vivas, M; Machado, J C; Gravina, G do A; de Souza, Y P; Vidal, A K; Rocha, A Dos S; Freitas, R S

    2017-05-18

    Brazil has great potential to produce bioenergy since it is located in a tropical region that receives high incidence of solar energy and presents favorable climatic conditions for such purpose. However, the use of bioenergy in the country is below its productivity potential. The aim of the current study was to select full-sib progenies and families of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum S.) to optimize phenotypes relevant to bioenergy production through mixed models (REML/BLUP). The circulating diallel-based crossing of ten elephant grass genotypes was performed. An experimental design using the randomized block methodology, with three repetitions, was set to assess both the hybrids and the parents. Each plot comprised 14-m rows, 1.40 m spacing between rows, and 1.40 m spacing between plants. The number of tillers, plant height, culm diameter, fresh biomass production, dry biomass rate, and the dry biomass production were assessed. Genetic-statistical analyses were performed through mixed models (REML/BLUP). The genetic variance in the assessed families was explained through additive genetic effects and dominance genetic effects; the dominance variance was prevalent. Families such as Capim Cana D'África x Guaçu/I.Z.2, Cameroon x Cuba-115, CPAC x Cuba-115, Cameroon x Guaçu/I.Z.2, and IAC-Campinas x CPAC showed the highest dry biomass production. The family derived from the crossing between Cana D'África and Guaçu/I.Z.2 showed the largest number of potential individuals for traits such as plant height, culm diameter, fresh biomass production, dry biomass production, and dry biomass rate. The individual 5 in the family Cana D'África x Guaçu/I.Z.2, planted in blocks 1 and 2, showed the highest dry biomass production.

  20. Functional separation of oxidation–reduction reactions and electron transport in PtRu/ND and conductive additive hybrid electrocatalysts during methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yanhui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Bian, Linyan [College of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China); Lu, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zang, Jianbing, E-mail: jbzang@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Functional separation of reactions and electron transport in PtRu/ND + AB (or CNT). • A conductive network was formed after the addition of AB or CNT. • PtRu/ND + AB (or CNT) exhibited enhanced activity and stability than PtRu/ND. - Abstract: Undoped nanodiamond (ND) supported PtRu (PtRu/ND) electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation reactions (MOR) in direct methanol fuel cells was prepared by a microwave-assisted polyol reduction method. Sp{sup 3}-bonded ND possesses high electrochemical stability but low conductivity, while sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon nanomaterials with high conductivity are prone to oxidation. Therefore, the functions of the supporting material were separated in this study. ND (sp{sup 3}), as a support, and AB or CNTs (sp{sup 2}), as a conductive additive, were combined to form the hybrid electrocatalysts PtRu/ND + AB and PtRu/ND + CNT for MOR. The morphology of the electrocatalysts was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical measurements were performed using an electrochemical workstation. The results indicated that the electrocatalytic activity of PtRu/ND for MOR was improved with the addition of AB or CNTs as a conductive additive. Moreover, adding CNTs to PtRu/ND as a conductive additive showed better electrocatalytic activities than adding AB, which can be ascribed to the better electron-transfer ability of CNTs.

  1. Interfacial electronic structure and charge transfer of hybrid graphene quantum dot and graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposites: insights into high efficiency for photocatalytic solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zuju; Sa, Rongjian; Li, Qiaohong; Wu, Kechen

    2016-01-14

    New metal-free carbon nanodot/carbon nitride (C3N4) nanocomposites have shown to exhibit high efficiency for photocatalytic solar water splitting. (J. Liu, et al., Science, 2015, 347, 970) However, the mechanism underlying the ultrahigh performance of these nanocomposites and consequently the possibilities for further improvements are not at present clear. In this work, we performed hybrid functional calculations and included long-range dispersion corrections to accurately characterize the interfacial electron coupling of the graphene quantum dot-graphitic carbon nitride composites (Gdot/g-C3N4). The results revealed that the band gap of Gdot/g-C3N4 could be engineered by changing the lateral size of Gdots. In particular, the C24H12/g-C3N4 composites present an ideal band gap of 1.92 eV to harvest a large part of solar light. More interestingly, a type-II heterojunction is formed at the interface of the Gdot/g-C3N4 composites, a desirable feature for enhanced photocatalytic activity. The charge redistribution at the interface leads to strong electron depletion above the Gdot sheet and electron accumulation below the g-C3N4 monolayer, potentially facilitating the separation of H2O oxidation and reduction reactions. Furthermore, we suggested that the photocatalytic performance of the Gdot/g-C3N4 nanocomposites can be further improved by decreasing the thickness of Gdots and tuning the size of Gdots.

  2. Hybrid functional study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of S-doped ZnO with and without neutral vacancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debbichi, M., E-mail: mourad_fsm@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de la matière condensée et nanosciences, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Sakhraoui, T. [Laboratoire de la matière condensée et nanosciences, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Debbichi, L. [Institut Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303, Université de Bourgogne-CNRS, 21078 Dijon (France); Said, M. [Laboratoire de la matière condensée et nanosciences, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •S-doped ZnO have been investigated by DFT and EPM. •Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained by HSE (α = 0.28) functional on lattice parameters and band gap energy. •Zn vacancy introduced in S doped ZnO is studied by HSE to determine its electronic and magnetic properties. -- Abstract: The structural and electronic properties of S-doped ZnO are investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and empirical pseudopotential method (EPM). Using the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional with an adjusted mixing coefficient α, we obtain a good agreement on lattice parameters and band gap energy with the available experimental data. We have also investigate the Zn-vacancy effects on the electronic and magnetic properties of S-doped ZnO. Our calculations demonstrate that S impurity prefers to be close to the cation vacancy in the apical position. The magnetic analysis with the HSE functional shows a triplet state character with a total magnetic moment of 1.81 μ{sub B}, which is mainly arises from the p-orbitals of the atoms around the Zn-vacancy (15% from S, 12% from Zn and 73% from O-atoms). The substitution of S by an isovalent atom decreases the total magnetic moments of the system and weakens the local triplet state without destroying it.

  3. Structural, electronic and energetic properties of giant icosahedral fullerenes up to C6000: insights from an ab initio hybrid DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Yves; De La Pierre, Marco; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M; Orlando, Roberto; Dovesi, Roberto

    2014-07-14

    The properties of the (n,n) icosahedral family of carbon fullerenes up to n = 10 (6000 atoms) have been investigated through ab initio quantum-mechanical simulation by using a Gaussian type basis set of double zeta quality with polarization functions (84,000 atomic orbitals for the largest case), the hybrid B3LYP functional and the CRYSTAL14 code featuring generalization of symmetry treatment. The geometry of giant fullerenes shows hybrid features, between a polyhedron and a sphere; as n increases, it approaches the former. Hexagon rings at face centres take a planar, graphene-like configuration; the 12 pentagon rings at vertices impose, however, a severe structural constraint to which hexagon rings at the edges must adapt smoothly, adopting a bent (rather than sharp) transversal profile and an inward longitudinal curvature. The HOMO and LUMO electronic levels, as well as the band gap, are well described using power laws. The gap is predicted to become zero for n ≥ 34 (69,360 atoms). The atomic excess energy with respect to the ideal graphene sheet goes to zero following the log(Nat)/Nat law, which is well described through the continuum elastic theory applied to graphene; the limits for the adopted model are briefly outlined. Compared to larger fullerenes of the series, C60 shows unique features with respect to all the considered properties; C240 presents minor structural and energetic peculiarities, too.

  4. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds: (NH₄)₂CuCl₄, (CH₃NH₃)₂CuCl₄ and (C₂H₅NH₃)₂CuCl₄.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, P; de Wijs, G A; de Groot, R A

    2013-07-24

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions (NH4)2CuCl4, (CH3NH3)2CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)2CuCl4 are investigated for the first time with density functional theory plus on-site Coulomb interaction. A strong Coulomb interaction on the copper causes a relatively weak exchange coupling within the layers of the octahedral network, in good agreement with experiment. The character of the exchange interaction (responsible for magnetic behavior) is analyzed. The calculations reveal that (C2H5NH3)2CuCl4 has the strongest Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion in comparison with the two other compounds. The easy axis of magnetization is investigated, showing a weak anisotropic interaction between inter-layer Cu(2+) ions in the (C2H5NH3)2CuCl4 structure. Orbital ordering is concluded from our partial density of states calculations: a cooperation of the JT distortion with an antiferro-distortive pattern.

  5. First principle study of electronic and optical properties of molecular ion (BF4- ) substituted hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Shalu; Singh, Poorva

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskites have garnered significant research interest due to the extraordinary increase in energy conversion efficiency as witnessed in photovoltaic devices based on CH3NH3PbI3. An experimental report has shown that the substitution of BF4- in the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 can lead to the high efficiency for solar cell. Employing first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we have studied several different perovskites CH3NH3PbI3 , CH3NH3PbI2BF4, CH3NH3PbI(BF4)2, CH3NH3Pb(BF4)3 and examined their electronic structure and optical properties.

  6. ZnO Nanorods on a LaAlO 3 -SrTiO 3 Interface: Hybrid 1D-2D Diodes with Engineered Electronic Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Ashok

    2015-12-28

    Integrating nanomaterials with different dimensionalities and properties is a versatile approach toward realizing new functionalities in advanced devices. Here, a novel diode-type heterostructure is reported consisting of 1D semiconducting ZnO nanorods and 2D metallic LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interface. Tunable insulator-to-metal transitions, absent in the individual components, are observed as a result of the competing temperature-dependent conduction mechanisms. Detailed transport analysis reveals direct tunneling at low bias, Fowler-Nordheim tunneling at high forward bias, and Zener breakdown at high reverse bias. Our results highlight the rich electronic properties of such artificial diodes with hybrid dimensionalities, and the design principle may be generalized to other nanomaterials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. ZnO Nanorods on a LaAlO3 -SrTiO3 Interface: Hybrid 1D-2D Diodes with Engineered Electronic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Ashok; Lin, Weinan; Yao, Yingbang; Ding, Junfeng; Lourembam, James; Wu, Tom

    2016-02-10

    Integrating nanomaterials with different dimensionalities and properties is a versatile approach toward realizing new functionalities in advanced devices. Here, a novel diode-type heterostructure is reported consisting of 1D semiconducting ZnO nanorods and 2D metallic LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interface. Tunable insulator-to-metal transitions, absent in the individual components, are observed as a result of the competing temperature-dependent conduction mechanisms. Detailed transport analysis reveals direct tunneling at low bias, Fowler-Nordheim tunneling at high forward bias, and Zener breakdown at high reverse bias. Our results highlight the rich electronic properties of such artificial diodes with hybrid dimensionalities, and the design principle may be generalized to other nanomaterials.

  8. Application of P-wave Hybrid Theory to the Scattering of Electrons from He+ and Resonances in He and H ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    The P-wave hybrid theory of electron-hydrogen elastic scattering [Phys. Rev. A 85, 052708 (2012)] is applied to the P-wave scattering from He ion. In this method, both short-range and long-range correlations are included in the Schroedinger equation at the same time, by using a combination of a modified method of polarized orbitals and the optical potential formalism. The short-correlation functions are of Hylleraas type. It is found that the phase shifts are not significantly affected by the modification of the target function by a method similar to the method of polarized orbitals and they are close to the phase shifts calculated earlier by Bhatia [Phys. Rev. A 69, 032714 (2004)]. This indicates that the correlation function is general enough to include the target distortion (polarization) in the presence of the incident electron. The important fact is that in the present calculation, to obtain similar results only a 20-term correlation function is needed in the wave function compared to the 220- term wave function required in the above-mentioned calculation. Results for the phase shifts, obtained in the present hybrid formalism, are rigorous lower bounds to the exact phase shifts. The lowest P-wave resonances in He atom and hydrogen ion have been calculated and compared with the results obtained using the Feshbach projection operator formalism [Phys. Rev. A, 11, 2018 (1975)]. It is concluded that accurate resonance parameters can be obtained by the present method, which has the advantage of including corrections due to neighboring resonances, bound states and the continuum in which these resonance are embedded.

  9. Structural and electronic properties of hybrid perovskites for high-efficiency thin-film photovoltaics from first-principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Brivio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of perovskite solar cells recently exceeded 15% solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency for small-area devices. The fundamental properties of the active absorber layers, hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites formed from mixing metal and organic halides [e.g., (NH4PbI3 and (CH3NH3PbI3], are largely unknown. The materials are semiconductors with direct band gaps at the boundary of the first Brillouin zone. The calculated dielectric constants and band gaps show an orientation dependence, with a low barrier for rotation of the organic cations. Due to the electric dipole of the methylammonium cation, a photoferroic effect may be accessible, which could enhance carrier collection.

  10. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. MEASUREMENT OF RADON, THORON AND THEIR PROGENY CONCENTRATIONS IN THE DWELLINGS OF PAURI GARHWAL, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Veena; Dutt, Sanjay; Yadav, Manjulata; Mishra, Rosaline; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that inhalation of radon, thoron and their progeny contributes more than 50 % of natural background radiation dose to human being. The time-integrated passive measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were carried out in the dwellings of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India. The measurements of radon and thoron concentrations were performed by LR-115 detector-based single-entry pin-hole dosemeter, while for the measurement of progeny concentrations, LR-115 deposition-based direct radon and thoron progeny sensors technique was used. The experimental techniques and results obtained are discussed in detail. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Radon and thoron progeny concentration variability in relation to meteorological conditions at Bucharest (Romania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciu, Adriana Celestina [National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, Section for Radioprotection and Radiological Emergencies, Libertatii 14 Blvd, Bucharest 5 (Romania)]. E-mail: adriana.baciu@cncan.ro

    2005-07-01

    The paper presents results of natural radioactivity levels in the atmosphere obtained for a 5 years period (1994-1999) at the Bucharest Environmental Radioactivity Surveillance Station (BERSS). The variability of radon and thoron progeny activity concentrations is analysed in relation to the local dynamics of the meteorological parameters (wind speed, air temperature, air pressure, cloud cover, relative humidity). The radon and thoron progeny concentrations display a daily and seasonal variation, with the highest values in the early morning and the lowest values in the afternoon. The outdoor radon progeny concentrations show maximum values in autumn and minimum values in spring-summer. The outdoor thoron progeny concentrations display maximum values in autumn and minimum values in winter. Significant statistical correlations with the meteorological parameters were obtained. The study on the temporal variability of natural atmospheric radioactivity near Bucharest is a starting point for further assessment of the radiological consequences resulting from human activities.

  13. [Genetic polymorphism of clones and their seed progeny in the scotch pine clone plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Demkovich, A E

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variation at 12 allozyme loci (10 of them being polymorphic ones) has been studied in the archive-clone plantation of 23 Pinus sylvestris plus-trees and their seed progeny in the south-east of Ukraine. More than a half of clones had 4-8 heterozygous loci, whereas their seed progeny was marked by a lower variation than maternal trees. Seed progeny was obtained at a high outcrossing rate (t(m) = 95%). The clone progeny was characterized by a high percentage of abnormal allele segregation in megagametophytes. There was also a high frequency of significant deviation in distribution of seed embryo genotypes from the theoretically expected one according to the Hardy-Weinberg law.

  14. Changes to DNA methylation and homologous recombination frequency in the progeny of stressed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migicovsky, Zoë; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2013-02-01

    Plants undergo changes in response to biotic and abiotic stresses that help them adjust and survive. Some of these changes may even be passed on to progeny and eventually lead to adaptive evolution. Transgenerational changes in response to stress include alterations in DNA methylation and changes in homologous recombination frequency (HRF). The progeny of plants that were stressed often show elevated HRF as well as genomic hypermethylation, although specific loci that are beneficial in times of stress may be hypomethylated. One of the possible mechanisms responsible for passing the memory to the progeny involves small interfering RNAs; Dicer-like proteins, DCL2 and DCL3, are in part required for this process. However, while epigenetic modifications are often present in the untreated progeny of stressed plants, they are not usually sustained for multiple unexposed generations. Still, transgenerational inheritance of such changes has already begun to provide evidence for an important role of epigenetics in enhancing stress resistance.

  15. RAPD-based genetic analysis of offsprings from the sexual cross using allotetraploid citrus somatic hybrid as pollen parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI HuaLin; DENG XiuXin

    2007-01-01

    Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, ChinaThirty-one polymorphic decamer primers were selected to genotype 92 progenies from the cross between Yiben No,4, a monoembryonic diploid F1 hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv Huanongbendizao tangerine and C. ichangensis Swingle, and [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough lemon], an allotetraploid somatic hybrid of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Hamlin and C. jambhiri Lush cv. Rough Lemon. x2(Chi-square) analysis of RAPD markers in the progenies indicated they were randomly transmitted from the four donor parents, without significant difference between the diploids and triploids. However,these progenies were clustered into three major groups using dendrogram constructed by UPGMA,skewed to three parents in certain degrees, 15 (13 triploids and 2 diploids) to Hamlin, 16 (9 and 7) to Yiben No. 4, and 61 (57 and 4) to [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough Lemon] from which genomic contribution was predominant in progenies, respectively.

  16. RAPD-based genetic analysis of offsprings from the sexual cross using allotetraploid citrus somatic hybrid as pollen parent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-one polymorphic decamer primers were selected to genotype 92 progenies from the cross be- tween Yiben No.4, a monoembryonic diploid F1 hybrid of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv Huanongbendizao tangerine and C. ichangensis Swingle, and [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough lemon], an allotetraploid somatic hybrid of Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Hamlin and C. jambhiri Lush cv. Rough Lemon. χ2 (Chi-square) analysis of RAPD markers in the progenies indicated they were randomly transmitted from the four donor parents, without significant difference between the diploids and triploids. However, these progenies were clustered into three major groups using dendrogram constructed by UPGMA, skewed to three parents in certain degrees, 15 (13 triploids and 2 diploids) to Hamlin, 16 (9 and 7) to Yiben No. 4, and 61 (57 and 4) to [Hamlin sweet orange + Rough Lemon] from which genomic contribu- tion was predominant in progenies, respectively.

  17. Melhoramento do cafeeiro XV: variabilidade observada em progênies de café Coffee breeding XV: variability observed in coffee progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1959-01-01

    progresso. Os dados também explicam o motivo da baixa correlação freqüentemente verificada entre a produção das plantas matrizes e de suas respectivas progênies. O estudo comparativo de todos os tratamentos mostrou a existência de uma razoável correlação entre o bom aspecto vegetativo e a produtividade das progênies. Notou-se. também, que o Mundo Novo é realmente bastante produtivo, o que confirma os resultados já obtidos sobre o valor econômico dessa variedade comercial de café.Numerous coffee progenies, particularly of the bourbon variety of Coffea arabica, have been analysed during these last 25 years in the Central Experiment Station, Campinas. It has been observed that the variability of total yield of ripe fruits among the plants of the coffee progenies that have been harvested for 12 to 15 consecutive years, is usually very large. Variability of the same order has also been observed among F1 generation plants obtained by crossing selected coffee trees. Four Si progenies and three F1 generations were selected in order to investigate the main causes of this variation. In each S1 progeny and F1 hybrid, plants were selected with the lowest and highest yields (table 2 and also a plant with yield close to the median class; these were selfed in order to obtain S2 and F2 generations. These S2 and F2 progenies were planted in a comparative trial, where also new S1 and F1 generations of the same coffee trees, as well as progenies of selected coffee plants belonging to the other commercial varieties as "Yellow Bourbon" and "Mundo Novo", were included. The trial comprised 56 treatments planted in 20 randomized blocks, each plot consisting of a single coffee tree. The results of the first four harvests (1955-1958 and of the measurements of tree height and vigor are summarized in table 3. The data indicate that the large variation observed among the members of a Bourbon coffee progeny seems to be due mainly to environmental influences, since no differences were

  18. The Influence of Radon (Gas and Progeny) and Weather Conditions on Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, J L; Benito, G; Saez, J C; Navarro, N; Alvarez, A; Quiñones, J

    2016-08-13

    The purpose of this study is to identify the influence of radon (gas and progeny) on the ambient dose equivalent rate measured at the reference station ESMERALDA, where continuous measurements of the ambient dose equivalent rate (every 10 min) combined with activity concentration measurements of radon gas and radon progeny as well as meteorological parameters have been collected. This study has been performed using a correlation study based on a principal components analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.

  19. The hESC line Envy expresses high levels of GFP in all differentiated progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Magdaline; Dottori, Mirella; Ng, Elizabeth; Hawes, Susan M; Sourris, Koula; Jamshidi, Pegah; Pera, Martin F; Elefanty, Andrew G; Stanley, Edouard G

    2005-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been advanced as a potential source of cells for use in cell replacement therapies. The ability to identify hESCs and their differentiated progeny readily in transplantation experiments will facilitate the analysis of hESC potential and function in vivo. We have generated a hESC line designated 'Envy', in which robust levels of green fluorescent protein (GFP) are expressed in stem cells and all differentiated progeny.

  20. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Sofia; Aparicio, Abelardo; Albaladejo, Rafael G.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity) has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth. PMID:27835658

  1. Multifunctional Inverse Opal-Like TiO2 Electron Transport Layer for Efficient Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Yang, Shuang; Zheng, Yi Chu; Chen, Ying; Hou, Yu; Yang, Xiao Hua; Yang, Hua Gui

    2015-09-01

    A novel multifunctional inverse opal-like TiO2 electron transport layer (IOT-ETL) is designed to replace the traditional compact layer and mesoporous scaffold layer in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Improved light harvesting efficiency and charge transporting performance in IOT-ETL based PSCs yield high power conversion efficiency of 13.11%.

  2. Nickel sulfate induces numerous defects in Caenorhabditis elegans that can also be transferred to progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dayong [Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education (China)], E-mail: dayongw@seu.edu.cn; Wang Yang [Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education (China)

    2008-02-15

    Whether the multiple biological toxicities from nickel exposure could be transferred to progeny has not been clarified. In this report, we explored the Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze the multiple toxicities of nickel and their possibly transferable properties. The nickel toxicity caused multiple biological defects in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, most of these toxicities could be transferred and could be only partially rescued in progeny. Some specific phenotypes in progeny were also found to exhibit no obvious rescue phenotypes or to show even more severe defects than their parents. The defects caused by nickel exposure could be classified into four groups according to their transferring properties. That is, the defects caused by nickel exposure could be largely, or partially, or unable to be rescued, or became even more severe in progeny animals. Therefore, most of the nickel exposure-caused defects can be transferred from parents to their progeny to different degrees in C. elegans. - Nickel exposure can cause multi-biological toxicities and these defects can be transferred from parents to their progeny in C. elegans.

  3. Effect of pollination mode on progeny of Panicum coloratum var. makarikariense: Implications for conservation and breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena V. Armando

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Panicum coloratum var. makarikariense, a perennial grass native to Africa, is adapted to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions with potential to be used as forage in tropical and semi-arid regions around the world. Our objective was to understand how the pollination mode affects viable seed production and further survival of the progeny. We evaluated self- and open-pollinated progenies from different accessions by measuring the seed production of the parents and their germination performance, germination rate and seedling survival. Parents and progeny were also fingerprinted with Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR. Progeny produced through open-pollination resulted in significantly more filled seeds and superior seedling survival than self-pollination. These results indicate that accessions studied here rely heavily on cross-pollination, whereas the contribution of self-pollinated offspring to the population is likely to be low. SSR profiles showed that, on average, 85% of the progeny (arising from cross-pollination possessed paternal specific markers and 100% of them were genetically different from the maternal genotype. All plants examined had 4x = 36 chromosomes. Overall, our findings indicate that var. makarikariense is able to generate highly polymorphic progeny through segregation and recombination. This study provides reference information for the formulation of appropriate strategies for pasture germplasm management, conservation and development of breeding programs. 

  4. Prediction of direct and indirect genetic gains and genotypic correlations in rubber tree progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Khusala Verardi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic parameters, genotypic and phenotypic correlations, and direct and indirect genetic gains among and within rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis progenies. The experiment was set up at the Municipality of Jaú, SP, Brazil. A randomized complete block design was used, with 22 treatments (progenies, 6 replicates, and 10 plants per plot at a spacing of 3x3 m. Three‑year‑old progenies were assessed for girth, rubber yield, and bark thickness by direct and indirect gains and genotypic correlations. The number of latex vessel rings showed the best correlations, correlating positively and significantly with girth and bark thickness. Selection gains among progenies were greater than within progeny for all the variables analyzed. Total gains obtained were high, especially for girth increase and rubber yield, which were 93.38 and 105.95%, respectively. Young progeny selection can maximize the expected genetic gains, reducing the rubber tree selection cycle.

  5. Multicentre clinical trials' data management: a hybrid solution to exploit the strengths of electronic data capture and electronic health records systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccaro, Paolo; Dentone, Chiara; Fenoglio, Daniela; Giacomini, Mauro

    2013-12-01

    Clinical Trials (CTs) are indispensable instruments for evidence-based medicine and frequently necessitate the management, sharing and analysis of large amounts of data amongst partners in different locations. To effectively satisfy these requirements, the proposed solution combines a web platform and a Clinical Data Management System (CDMS) to exploit the strengths of Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Electronic Data Capture (EDC) systems. The core of the proposal is a relational database which has high data structuring characteristics and utilises biomedical controlled vocabularies (e.g. LOINC and ICD). In addition, units and normality ranges were collected for data comparison through the application of the Z-score transformation. The obtained CDMS preserves the EDC's flexibility and user autonomy and permits the creation of patient cohorts, as in the EHR. Accordingly, clinical information, after the initial recording, is available for different simultaneous multicentre CTs. Furthermore, interface runtime controls guarantee high data quality during data entering processes. Currently, the proposed system has been developed in the HIV and eye diseases fields in Italy. The proposed solution is flexible and suitable to perform multicentre research within a varying range of medical domains. In the future, the automatic importation of information from hospitals has been planned through an HL7 standard interface which would improve both data quantity and quality.

  6. ZrO2/TiO2 Electron Collection Layer for Efficient Meso-Superstructured Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía Escobar, Mario Alejandro; Pathak, Sandeep; Liu, Jiewei; Snaith, Henry J; Jaramillo, Franklin

    2017-01-25

    Since the first reports of efficient organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells in 2012, an explosion of research activity has emerged around the world, which has led to a rise in the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) to over 20%. Despite the impressive efficiency, a key area of the device which remains suboptimal is the electron extraction layer and its interface with the photoactive perovskite. Here, we implement an electron collection "bilayer" composed of a thin layer of zirconia coated with titania, sitting upon the transparent conductive oxide fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). With this double collection layer we have reached up to 17.9% power conversion efficiency, delivering a stabilized power output (SPO) of 17.0%, measured under simulated AM 1.5 sunlight of 100 mW cm(-2) irradiance. Finally, we propose a mechanism of the charge transfer processes within the fabricated architectures in order to explain the obtained performance of the devices.

  7. Theoretical and experimental investigations of optical, structural and electronic properties of the lower-dimensional hybrid [NH3-(CH2)10-NH3]ZnCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mrabet, R.; Kassou, S.; Tahiri, O.; Belaaraj, A.; Guionneau, P.

    2016-10-01

    In the current study, a combination between theoretical and experimental studies has been made for the hybrid perovskite [NH3-(CH2)10-NH3]ZnCl4. The density functional theory (DFT) was performed to investigate structural and electronic properties of the tilted compound. A local approximation (LDA) and semi-local approach (GGA) were employed. The results are obtained using, respectively, the local exchange correlation functional of Perdew-Wang 92 (PW92) and semi local functional of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). The optimized cell parameters are in good agreement with the experimental results. Electronic properties have been studied through the calculation of band structures and density of state (DOS), while structural properties are investigated by geometry optimization of the cell. Fritz-Haber-Institute (FHI) pseudopotentials were employed to perform all calculations. The optical diffuse reflectance spectra was mesured and applied to deduce the refractive index ( n), the extinction coefficient ( k), the absorption coefficient (α), the real and imaginary dielectric permittivity parts (ɛr,ɛi)) and the optical band gap energy Eg. The optical band gap energy value shows good consistent with that obtained from DFT calculations and reveals the insulating behavior of the material.

  8. A hybrid functional study of the electronic and optical properties of tetragonal PbO-type phase of ZnO under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingbo [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); School of Mathematics and Physics, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Wen, Yanwei [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rongchen@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology and School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Shan, Bin, E-mail: bshan@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • HSE was used to study the electronic and optical properties of new B10 ZnO phase. • Band gap is ranging from 6.08 to 7.06 eV under high pressure from 236 to 316 GPa. • The optical constants undergo a blue shift with the increasing pressure. -- Abstract: To extend our knowledge on the tetragonal PbO-type (B10) phase of ZnO under high pressure, we used the hybrid functional theory to calculate its electronic and optical properties. Our calculations indicate that the B10 phase is a transparent insulator and has an indirect band gap ranging from 6.08 to 7.06 eV with pressure increasing from 236 to 316 GPa. The B10 phase under 236 GPa has excellent dielectric properties except metallic behaviors at around 25 and 37 eV photon excitation. We found a blue shift in optical properties of the B10 phase with the increase of pressure.

  9. Ground-state phase diagram, fermionic entanglement and kinetically-induced frustration in a hybrid ladder with localized spins and mobile electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R. C. P.; Pereira, M. S. S.; de Oliveira, I. N.; Strečka, J.; Lyra, M. L.

    2017-09-01

    We introduce an exactly solvable hybrid spin-ladder model containing localized nodal Ising spins and interstitial mobile electrons, which are allowed to perform a quantum-mechanical hopping between the ladder’s legs. The quantum-mechanical hopping process induces an antiferromagnetic coupling between the ladder’s legs that competes with a direct exchange coupling of the nodal spins. The model is exactly mapped onto the Ising spin ladder with temperature-dependent two- and four-spin interactions, which is subsequently solved using the transfer-matrix technique. We report the ground-state phase diagram and compute the fermionic concurrence to characterize the quantum entanglement between the pair of interstitial mobile electrons. We further provide a detailed analysis of the local spin ordering including the pair and four-spin correlation functions around an elementary plaquette, as well as, the local ordering diagrams. It is shown that a complex sequence of distinct local orderings and frustrated correlations takes place when the model parameters drive the investigated system close to a zero-temperature triple coexistence point.

  10. A hybrid digital-signature and zero-watermarking approach for authentication and protection of sensitive electronic documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayan, Omar; Kabir, Muhammad N; Alginahi, Yasser M

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints.

  11. A Hybrid Digital-Signature and Zero-Watermarking Approach for Authentication and Protection of Sensitive Electronic Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Tayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints.

  12. A hybrid method for protection against threats to a network infrastructure for an electronic warfare management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byłak, Michał; RóŻański, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    The article presents the concept of ensuring the security of network information infrastructure for the management of Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. The concept takes into account the reactive and proactive tools against threats. An overview of the methods used to support the safety of IT networks and information sources about threats is presented. Integration of mechanisms that allow for effective intrusion detection and rapid response to threats in a network has been proposed. The architecture of the research environment is also presented.

  13. OPTESIM, a versatile toolbox for numerical simulation of electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) that features hybrid optimization and statistical assessment of parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Hernandez-Guzman, Jessica; Warncke, Kurt

    2009-09-01

    Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) is a technique of pulsed-electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The analyis of ESEEM data to extract information about the nuclear and electronic structure of a disordered (powder) paramagnetic system requires accurate and efficient numerical simulations. A single coupled nucleus of known nuclear g value (g(N)) and spin I=1 can have up to eight adjustable parameters in the nuclear part of the spin Hamiltonian. We have developed OPTESIM, an ESEEM simulation toolbox, for automated numerical simulation of powder two- and three-pulse one-dimensional ESEEM for arbitrary number (N) and type (I, g(N)) of coupled nuclei, and arbitrary mutual orientations of the hyperfine tensor principal axis systems for N>1. OPTESIM is based in the Matlab environment, and includes the following features: (1) a fast algorithm for translation of the spin Hamiltonian into simulated ESEEM, (2) different optimization methods that can be hybridized to achieve an efficient coarse-to-fine grained search of the parameter space and convergence to a global minimum, (3) statistical analysis of the simulation parameters, which allows the identification of simultaneous confidence regions at specific confidence levels. OPTESIM also includes a geometry-preserving spherical averaging algorithm as default for N>1, and global optimization over multiple experimental conditions, such as the dephasing time (tau) for three-pulse ESEEM, and external magnetic field values. Application examples for simulation of (14)N coupling (N=1, N=2) in biological and chemical model paramagnets are included. Automated, optimized simulations by using OPTESIM lead to a convergence on dramatically shorter time scales, relative to manual simulations.

  14. Amorphous Tin Oxide as a Low-Temperature-Processed Electron-Transport Layer for Organic and Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Barbe, Jeremy

    2017-02-08

    Chemical bath deposition (CBD) of tin oxide (SnO) thin films as an electron-transport layer (ETL) in a planar-heterojunction n-i-p organohalide lead perovskite and organic bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is reported. The amorphous SnO (a-SnO) films are grown from a nontoxic aqueous bath of tin chloride at a very low temperature (55 °C) and do not require postannealing treatment to work very effectively as an ETL in a planar-heterojunction n-i-p organohalide lead perovskite or organic BHJ solar cells, in lieu of the commonly used ETL materials titanium oxide (TiO) and zinc oxide (ZnO), respectively. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements on the glass/indium-tin oxide (ITO)/SnO/methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI)/2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene device stack indicate that extraction of photogenerated electrons is facilitated by a perfect alignment of the conduction bands at the SnO/MAPbI interface, while the deep valence band of SnO ensures strong hole-blocking properties. Despite exhibiting very low electron mobility, the excellent interfacial energetics combined with high transparency (E > 4 eV) and uniform substrate coverage make the a-SnO ETL prepared by CBD an excellent candidate for the potentially low-cost and large-scale fabrication of organohalide lead perovskite and organic photovoltaics.

  15. Liquid Water- and Heat-Resistant Hybrid Perovskite Photovoltaics via an Inverted ALD Oxide Electron Extraction Layer Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Soo; Cao, Duyen H; Buchholz, D Bruce; Emery, Jonathan D; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Martinson, Alex B F

    2016-12-14

    Despite rapid advances in conversion efficiency (>22%), the environmental stability of perovskite solar cells remains a substantial barrier to commercialization. Here, we show a significant improvement in the stability of inverted perovskite solar cells against liquid water and high operating temperature (100 °C) by integrating an ultrathin amorphous oxide electron extraction layer via atomic layer deposition (ALD). These unencapsulated inverted devices exhibit a stable operation over at least 10 h when subjected to high thermal stress (100 °C) in ambient environments, as well as upon direct contact with a droplet of water without further encapsulation.

  16. Inhalation dose due to radon, thoron, and progenies in dwellings of a hill station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, R

    2017-02-01

    The general public spends a major portion of their time in an indoor environment and hence receives a considerable amount of radiation. Knowledge about indoor radiation is important in order to arrive at the actual effective dose received by residents. The indoor radon, thoron, and progeny concentrations observed in the present study were found to vary with seasons of a given year. The highest and lowest indoor average radon, thoron, and progeny levels were observed during winter and summer seasons, respectively. The concentrations of indoor radon, thoron, and progenies were found to vary with the type of houses. The highest (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and progeny concentrations were observed in mud houses and the lowest values were recorded in wooden houses. The indoor (222)Rn concentration correlated well with concentration of its grandparent (238)U in underlying soil with a correlation coefficient of 0.87. The correlation between indoor (220)Rn and (232)Th in the underlying soil was found to be 0.64. The estimated effective doses received by the general public in the present study due to indoor radon and thoron were 1.49 ± 0.49 and 1.30 ± 0.53 mSv/year, respectively. The annual effective doses due to radon and thoron progenies were estimated as 0.76 ± 0.27 and 0.47 ± 0.23 mSv/year, respectively. The contributions from (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and corresponding progenies to the annual effective doses received were 37, 32, 19, and 12%, respectively. The general public living in the study area receives an inhalation dose of 4.02 mSv/year due to indoor radon, thoron, and progenies, which were found to be less than the action limit of ICRP 2009.

  17. Perovskite oxide SrTiO3 as an efficient electron transporter for hybrid perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Ashok

    2014-12-11

    In this work, we explored perovskite oxide SrTiO3 (STO) for the first time as the electron-transporting layer in organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells. The steady-state photoluminescence (PL) quenching and transient absorption experiments revealed efficient photoelectron transfer from CH3NH3PbI3-xClx to STO. Perovskite solar cells with meso-STO exhibit an open circuit voltage of 1.01 V, which is 25% higher than the value of 0.81 V achieved in the control device with the conventional meso-TiO2. In addition, an increase of 17% in the fill factor was achieved by tailoring the thickness of the meso-STO layer. We found that the application of STO leads to uniform perovskite layers with large grains and complete surface coverage, leading to a high shunt resistance and improved performance. These findings suggest STO as a competitive candidate as electron transport material in organometal perovskite solar cells.

  18. Photoinduced electron transfer pathways in hydrogen-evolving reduced graphene oxide-boosted hybrid nano-bio catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Dimitrijevic, Nada M; Chang, Angela Y; Schaller, Richard D; Liu, Yuzi; Rajh, Tijana; Rozhkova, Elena A

    2014-08-26

    Photocatalytic production of clean hydrogen fuels using water and sunlight has attracted remarkable attention due to the increasing global energy demand. Natural and synthetic dyes can be utilized to sensitize semiconductors for solar energy transformation using visible light. In this study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and a membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) were employed as building modules to harness visible light by a Pt/TiO2 nanocatalyst. Introduction of the rGO boosts the nano-bio catalyst performance that results in hydrogen production rates of approximately 11.24 mmol of H2 (μmol protein)(-1) h(-1). Photoelectrochemical measurements show a 9-fold increase in photocurrent density when TiO2 electrodes were modified with rGO and bR. Electron paramagnetic resonance and transient absorption spectroscopy demonstrate an interfacial charge transfer from the photoexcited rGO to the semiconductor under visible light.

  19. General combining ability for volume growth of open-pollinated progenies of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.U. Han

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic quality of plus trees selected phenotypically is generally determined by progeny tests in a breeding program. For the progeny test, there are a few limitations; all plus trees are not selected in the same year, seed collection does not occur in the same year due to flowering irregularity, unequal availability of progenies among families, and so on. Such limitations reflect spatial and temporal variation in the establishment of progeny test trials. Thus, one should develop a method of standardization in order to apply genetic information (i.e., general combining ability from the progeny tests into genetic thinning or establishment of improved seed orchard. In this study, we developed a method for standardization to estimate general combining ability (GCA based on the standard-site adjustment system. The method developed took the age of progeny and the number of test sites into account, which was based on the standard deviation of volume index (Height x DBH2 among different ages, sites and replications. Also, we used different weight values depending on the number of test sites and replications, and the age of trials. This method might give a general base on which to generalize the spatial and temporal variation in progeny tests. On the basis of the method, we estimated theGCA of 244 open-pollinated families of Pinus koraiensis that were tested at four sites (Gunpo, Chuncheon, Kangryuong and Chungwonestablished from 1975 to 1994. Among 244 families, KW15 (0115 family showed the highest GCA value, while KW28 (0128 familyrevealed the lowest GCA value. Each family had different GCA values depending on the age of progenies as well as sites. Although there are some needs to consider on gene-ecology for accurate results, the method we reported could be useful to estimate the GCA values of progenies tested under different ages and sites.

  20. General combining ability for volume growth of open-pollinated progenies of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.U. Han

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic quality of plus trees selected phenotypically is generally determined by progeny tests in a breeding program. For the progeny test, there are a few limitations; all plus trees are not selected in the same year, seed collection does not occur in the same year due to flowering irregularity, unequal availability of progenies among families, and so on. Such limitations reflect spatial and temporal variation in the establishment of progeny test trials. Thus, one should develop a method of standardization in order to apply genetic information (i.e., general combining ability from the progeny tests into genetic thinning or establishment of improved seed orchard. In this study, we developed a method for standardization to estimate general combining ability (GCA based on the standard-site adjustment system. The method developed took the age of progeny and the number of test sites into account, which was based on the standard deviation of volume index (Height x DBH2 among different ages, sites and replications. Also, we used different weight values depending on the number of test sites and replications, and the age of trials. This method might give a general base on which to generalize the spatial and temporal variation in progeny tests. On the basis of the method, we estimated theGCA of 244 open-pollinated families of Pinus koraiensis that were tested at four sites (Gunpo, Chuncheon, Kangryuong and Chungwonestablished from 1975 to 1994. Among 244 families, KW15 (0115 family showed the highest GCA value, while KW28 (0128 familyrevealed the lowest GCA value. Each family had different GCA values depending on the age of progenies as well as sites. Although there are some needs to consider on gene-ecology for accurate results, the method we reported could be useful to estimate the GCA values of progenies tested under different ages and sites.

  1. A stable hybrid containing haploid genomes of two obligate diploid Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Uttara; Mohamed, Aiyaz; Kakade, Pallavi; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Sadhale, Parag P; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2013-08-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are diploid, predominantly asexual human-pathogenic yeasts. In this study, we constructed tetraploid (4n) strains of C. albicans of the same or different lineages by spheroplast fusion. Induction of chromosome loss in the tetraploid C. albicans generated diploid or near-diploid progeny strains but did not produce any haploid progeny. We also constructed stable heterotetraploid somatic hybrid strains (2n + 2n) of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by spheroplast fusion. Heterodiploid (n + n) progeny hybrids were obtained after inducing chromosome loss in a stable heterotetraploid hybrid. To identify a subset of hybrid heterodiploid progeny strains carrying at least one copy of all chromosomes of both species, unique centromere sequences of various chromosomes of each species were used as markers in PCR analysis. The reduction of chromosome content was confirmed by a comparative genome hybridization (CGH) assay. The hybrid strains were found to be stably propagated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays with antibodies against centromere-specific histones (C. albicans Cse4/C. dubliniensis Cse4) revealed that the centromere identity of chromosomes of each species is maintained in the hybrid genomes of the heterotetraploid and heterodiploid strains. Thus, our results suggest that the diploid genome content is not obligatory for the survival of either C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. In keeping with the recent discovery of the existence of haploid C. albicans strains, the heterodiploid strains of our study can be excellent tools for further species-specific genome elimination, yielding true haploid progeny of C. albicans or C. dubliniensis in future.

  2. Allopolyploid speciation and ongoing backcrossing between diploid progenitor and tetraploid progeny lineages in the Achillea millefolium species complex: analyses of single-copy nuclear genes and genomic AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrendorfer Friedrich

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the flowering plants, many polyploid species complexes display evolutionary radiation. This could be facilitated by gene flow between otherwise separate evolutionary lineages in contact zones. Achillea collina is a widespread tetraploid species within the Achillea millefolium polyploid complex (Asteraceae-Anthemideae. It is morphologically intermediate between the relic diploids, A. setacea-2x in xeric and A. asplenifolia-2x in humid habitats, and often grows in close contact with either of them. By analyzing DNA sequences of two single-copy nuclear genes and the genomic AFLP data, we assess the allopolyploid origin of A. collina-4x from ancestors corresponding to A. setacea-2x and A. asplenifolia-2x, and the ongoing backcross introgression between these diploid progenitor and tetraploid progeny lineages. Results In both the ncpGS and the PgiC gene tree, haplotype sequences of the diploid A. setacea-2x and A. asplenifolia-2x group into two clades corresponding to the two species, though lineage sorting seems incomplete for the PgiC gene. In contrast, A. collina-4x and its suspected backcross plants show homeologous gene copies: sequences from the same tetraploid individual plant are placed in both diploid clades. Semi-congruent splits of an AFLP Neighbor Net link not only A. collina-4x to both diploid species, but some 4x individuals in a polymorphic population with mixed ploidy levels to A. setacea-2x on one hand and to A. collina-4x on the other, indicating allopolyploid speciation as well as hybridization across ploidal levels. Conclusions The findings of this study clearly demonstrate the hybrid origin of Achillea collina-4x, the ongoing backcrossing between the diploid progenitor and their tetraploid progeny lineages. Such repeated hybridizations are likely the cause of the great genetic and phenotypic variation and ecological differentiation of the polyploid taxa in Achillea millefolium agg.

  3. QTL mapping for European corn borer resistance ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.), agronomic and forage quality traits of testcross progenies in early-maturing European maize ( Zea mays L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papst, C; Bohn, M; Utz, H F; Melchinger, A E; Klein, D; Eder, J

    2004-05-01

    In hybrid breeding the performance of lines in hybrid combinations is more important than their performance per se. Little information is available on the correlation between individual line and testcross (TC) performances for the resistance to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Marker assisted selection (MAS) will be successful only if quantitative trait loci (QTL) found in F(2) derived lines for ECB resistance are still expressed in hybrid combinations. The objectives of our study were: (1) to identify and characterize QTL for ECB resistance as well as agronomic and forage quality traits in a population of testcrossed F(2:3) families; (2) to evaluate the consistency of QTL for per se and TC performances; and (3) to determine the association between per se and TC performances of F(2:3) lines for these traits. Two hundred and four F(2:3) lines were derived from the cross between maize lines D06 (resistant) and D408 (susceptible). These lines were crossed to D171 and the TC progenies were evaluated for ECB resistance and agronomic performance in two locations in 2000 and 2001. Using these TC progenies, six QTL for stalk damage rating (SDR) were found. These QTL explained 27.4% of the genotypic variance in a simultaneous fit. Three QTL for SDR were detected consistently for per se and TC performance. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations were low for per se and TC performance for SDR. Correlations between SDR and quality traits were not significant. Based on these results, we conclude that MAS will not be an efficient method for improving SDR. However, new molecular tools might provide the opportunity to use QTL data as a first step to identify genes involved in ECB resistance. Efficient MAS procedures might then be based on markers designed to trace and to combine specific genes and their alleles in elite maize breeding germplasm.

  4. Measurement of the deposited activity of the short-lived radon progeny in the human respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezzu, G.; Butterweck-Dempewolf, G.; Schuler, C. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Div. for Radiation Protection and Waste Management

    1998-12-31

    Volunteers were exposed in the radon chamber at Paul Scherrer Institut to an atmosphere enriched with highly unattached radon progeny. The deposited radon progeny activity in the respiratory tract of the volunteers was determined using a low level in-vivo counter. The detector arrangement and its calibration for the measurement of deposited radon progeny activity is described and the results for a mouth and a nose breathing volunteer are presented. For the nose breathing volunteer 55% of the deposited radon progeny activity was located in the head and the remaining 45% in the chest whereas for the mouth breathing volunteer 25% was located in the head and the remaining 75% in the chest. A mean clearance half-life for the deposited radon progeny from the respiratory tract of (2{+-}1) h was obtained from the analyses of the temporal behaviour of the deposited radon progeny activity in the head. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of the unattached fraction of indoor radon progeny and its contribution to dose: a pilot study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiuju; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Lu

    2012-12-01

    The unattached fraction of radon progeny (f(p)) is one of the most important factors for accurate evaluation of the effective dose from a unit of radon exposure, and it may vary greatly in different environments. For precise evaluation of the indoor radon exposure dose and the influence of unattached radon progeny, a pilot survey of f(p) in different environments was carried out in China with a portable and integrating monitor. The dose conversion factors for radon progeny are calculated with LUDEP(®) code, and the dose contributions from the unattached and the attached radon progenies were simultaneously evaluated based on the results of field measurements. The results show that even though the concentrations of radon progeny vary significantly among different indoor environments, the variations of f(p) seem relatively small (9.3-16.9%). The dose contribution from unattached radon progeny is generally larger (30.2-46.2%) in an indoor environment.

  6. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Monokaryotic Progeny Strains of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Min Ah; Yun, Yeo Hong; Oh, Youn-Lee; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-03-01

    To promote the selection of promising monokaryotic strains of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during breeding, 61 progeny strains derived from basidiospores of two different lines of dikaryotic parental strains, ASI1038 and ASI1346, were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing of the intergenic spacer I (IGS I) region in their rDNA and by extracellular enzyme assays. Nineteen different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 1,301 to 1,348 bp, were present among twenty ASI1346-derived progeny strains, while 15 different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 700 to 1,347 bp, were present among twenty ASI1038-derived progeny strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the IGS sequences revealed that different clades were present in both the ASI10388- and ASI1346-derived progeny strains. Plating assays of seven kinds of extracellular enzymes (β-glucosidase, avicelase, CM-cellulase, amylase, pectinase, xylanase, and protease) also revealed apparent variation in the ability to produce extracellular enzymes among the 40 tested progeny strains from both parental A. bisporus strains. Overall, this study demonstrates that characterization of IGS I regions and extracellular enzymes is useful for the assessment of the substrate-degrading ability and heterogenicity of A. bisporus monokaryotic strains.

  7. Variability of Norway spruce morphometric characteristics in progeny tests in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an analysis of morphometric characteristics of Norway spruce seedlings in the progeny tests in Bosnia and Herzegovina, localities: Drinić and Srebrenica. Progeny tests were established by using seedlings originating from six natural populations from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Seedling height, root collar and whorl distance from the ground, which represents seedling heights in 2011, 2012 and 2013 were measured. The results indicate statistically significant differences between the analyzed characteristics of the observed population. Especially interesting are the populations Potoci and Olovo, which showed the highest growth during the observed period in both progeny tests. The impact of the drought in 2013 can be seen in the progeny test in Srebrenica where height growth in 2013 was lower by more than 50% in comparison to 2012. The impact of drought in the progeny test in Drinić was not observed. The research provides the baseline when selecting the starting population, where the rapid growth of seedlings is set as the main goal.

  8. Dose estimation derived from the exposure to radon, thoron and their progeny in the indoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R. C.; Prasad, Mukesh; Kandari, Tushar; Pant, Preeti; Bossew, Peter; Mishra, Rosaline; Tokonami, S.

    2016-08-01

    The annual exposure to indoor radon, thoron and their progeny imparts a major contribution to inhalation doses received by the public. In this study, we report results of time integrated passive measurements of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations that were carried out in Garhwal Himalaya with the aim of investigating significant health risk to the dwellers in the region. The measurements were performed using recently developed LR-115 detector based techniques. The experimentally determined values of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were used to estimate total annual inhalation dose and annual effective doses. The equilibrium factors for radon and thoron were also determined from the observed data. The estimated value of total annual inhalation dose was found to be 1.8 ± 0.7 mSv/y. The estimated values of the annual effective dose were found to be 1.2 ± 0.5 mSv/y and 0.5 ± 0.3 mSv/y, respectively. The estimated values of radiation doses suggest no important health risk due to exposure of radon, thoron and progeny in the study area. The contribution of indoor thoron and its progeny to total inhalation dose ranges between 13–52% with mean value of 30%. Thus thoron cannot be neglected when assessing radiation doses.

  9. Phenotypic and Behavioral Defects Induced by Iron Exposure Can Be Transferred to Progeny in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YA-OU HU; YANG WANG; BO-PING YE; DA-YONG WANG

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has showed that excess iron accumulation is harmful to reproduction and even promotes death;however,whether the multiple biological toxicity of iron (Fe) exposure could be transferred to progeny remains unknown.The present study used Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze the multiple toxicities of iron exposure and their possible transferable properties.Methods Three concentrations of iron sulfate solution (2.5μmol/L,75μmol/L,and 200 lamol/L) were used.The endpoints of lifespan,body size,generation time,brood size,head thrash and body bend frequencies,and chemotaxis plasticity were selected to investigate Fe toxicity and its effect on progeny in Caenorhabditis elegans.Results The Fe toxicity could cause multiple biological defects in a dose-dependent manner by affecting different endpoints in nematodes.Most of the multiple biological defects and behavior toxicities could be transferred from Fe-exposed Caenorhabditis elegans to their progeny.Compared to the parents,no recovery phenotypes were observed for some of the defects in the progeny,such as body bend frequency and life span.We further summarized the defects caused by Fe exposure into 2 groups according to their transferable properties.Conclusion Our results suggest that Fe exposure could cause multiple biological defects,and most of these severe defects could be transferred from Fe exposed nematodes to their progeny.

  10. Dose estimation derived from the exposure to radon, thoron and their progeny in the indoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R. C.; Prasad, Mukesh; Kandari, Tushar; Pant, Preeti; Bossew, Peter; Mishra, Rosaline; Tokonami, S.

    2016-01-01

    The annual exposure to indoor radon, thoron and their progeny imparts a major contribution to inhalation doses received by the public. In this study, we report results of time integrated passive measurements of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations that were carried out in Garhwal Himalaya with the aim of investigating significant health risk to the dwellers in the region. The measurements were performed using recently developed LR-115 detector based techniques. The experimentally determined values of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were used to estimate total annual inhalation dose and annual effective doses. The equilibrium factors for radon and thoron were also determined from the observed data. The estimated value of total annual inhalation dose was found to be 1.8 ± 0.7 mSv/y. The estimated values of the annual effective dose were found to be 1.2 ± 0.5 mSv/y and 0.5 ± 0.3 mSv/y, respectively. The estimated values of radiation doses suggest no important health risk due to exposure of radon, thoron and progeny in the study area. The contribution of indoor thoron and its progeny to total inhalation dose ranges between 13–52% with mean value of 30%. Thus thoron cannot be neglected when assessing radiation doses. PMID:27499492

  11. Direct measurement of attachment of {sup 220}Rn progeny on aerosols by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C. E-mail: jkcleung@hku.hk; Tso, M.Y.W.; Lam, J.H.C.; Zhau, Q.F

    2003-08-11

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is becoming a powerful tool for the study of nuclear tracks in materials such as CR-39. Coupled with its capability of observing near nm aerosol particles, we have utilized the AFM to observe the radon progeny-loaded aerosol particles deposited on surfaces of CR-39 and to observe the corresponding etch pits produced by the {alpha}-particles emitted from the radon progenies. A special platform was built so that after the aerosol particles on the CR-39 have been scanned and recorded, the CR-39 can be etched and then scanned for the etch pits at the same location. Both {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progenies were used in the study. The progenies were generated by the appropriate radon sources and mixed with aerosol particles generated by aerosol generators. The aerosol size distributions were analyzed by a scanning mobility particle sizer. Some of the limitations and difficulties of the technique will be described. The results enable us to examine the attachment process including multiple attachments of radon progenies on aerosols.

  12. Insect-resistant transgenic cabbage plants and their progenies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛慧珠; 唐惕; 曹湘玲; 白永延; 郭培福; 符文俊

    1996-01-01

    An insecticidal crystal protein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis was transferred into cabbage genome with the method of Agrobacterium infection. Cotyledons with petioles as explants were cocultivated with Agrobacterial suspension. Calli generated at the basis of petiole were subjected to selection on the MS medium containing 15-30 mg/L kanamycin (Km). About 5% explants produced calli growing continuously on the selective medium. Green shoots appeared on these calli when they were transplanted onto medium with Km and 6-BA for plant differentiation. The shoots were separated and cultivated on medium with kanamycin. About 80% shoots were rooted. Non-transformed control calli could not give normal shoots and roots and brownized and died gradually. Larvae of Pieris rapae showed poisonous symptoms: growth inhibition and mortality when fed with the leaf of the transgenic plants. About 80% of regenerated plants showed positive hybridization bands when their DNA were probed with crystal protein sequence of Bacillu

  13. Energetic stability, oxidation states, and electronic structure of Bi-doped NaTaO3: a first-principles hybrid functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Paul H; Behtash, Maziar; Yang, Kesong

    2016-01-14

    We studied the defect formation energies, oxidation states of the dopants, and electronic structures of Bi-doped NaTaO3 using first-principles hybrid density functional theory calculations. Three possible structural models, including Bi-doped NaTaO3 with Bi at the Na site (Bi@Na), with Bi at the Ta site (Bi@Ta), and with Bi at both Na and Ta sites [Bi@(Na,Ta)], are constructed. Our results show that the preferred doping sites of Bi are strongly related to the preparation conditions of NaTaO3. It is energetically more favorable to form a Bi@Na structure under Na-poor conditions, to form a Bi@Ta structure under Na-rich conditions, and to form a Bi@(Na,Ta) structure under mildly Na-rich conditions. The Bi@Na doped model shows an n-type conducting character along with an expected blueshift of the optical absorption edge, in which the Bi atoms exist as Bi(3+) (6s(2)6p(0)). The Bi@Ta doped model has empty gap states consisting of Bi 6s states in its band gap, which can lead to visible-light absorption via the electron transition among the valence band, the conduction band, and the gap states. The Bi dopant is present as a Bi(5+) ion in this model, consistent with the experimental results. In contrast, the Bi@(Na,Ta) doped model has occupied gap states consisting of Bi 6s states in its band gap, and thus visible-light absorption is also expected in this system due to electron excitation from these occupied states to the conduction band, in which the Bi dopants exist as Bi(3+) ions. Our first-principles electronic structure calculations revealed the relationship between the Bi doping sites and the material preparation conditions, and clarified the oxidation states of Bi dopants in NaTaO3 as well as the origin of different visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen evolution behaviors in Bi@Ta and Bi@(Na,Ta) doped NaTaO3. This work can provide a useful reference for preparing a Bi-doped NaTaO3 photocatalyst with desired doping sites.

  14. Real-space and plane-wave hybrid method for electronic structure calculations for two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, V. Nam; Le, H. Anh; Vu, V. Thieu

    2017-04-01

    We propose a computational approach to combining the plane-wave method and the real-space treatment to describe the periodic variation in the material plane and the decay of wave functions from the material surfaces. The proposed approach is natural for two-dimensional material systems and thus may circumvent some intrinsic limitations involving the artificial replication of material layers in traditional supercell methods. In particular, we show that the proposed method is easy to implement and, especially, computationally effective since low-cost computational algorithms, such as iterative and recursive techniques, can be used to treat matrices with block tridiagonal structure. Using this approach we show first-principles features that supplement the current knowledge of some fundamental issues in bilayer graphene systems, including the coupling between the two graphene layers, the preservation of the σ band of monolayer graphene in the electronic structure of the bilayer system, and the differences in low-energy band structure between the AA- and AB-stacked configurations.

  15. A zero dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite ZnCl4 based: Synthesis, crystal structure, UV-vis, and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mrabet, Rajae; Kassou, Said; Tahiri, Obaida; Belaaraj, Abdesselam; El Ammari, Lahcen; Saadi, Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    A low dimensional hybrid perovskite-like system [H3Nsbnd (CH2)8sbnd NH3]ZnCl4 was synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the crystal structure. The compound crystallizes into triclinic system P-1 space group with mutually surrounded inorganic (ZnCl4)-2 organic (H3Nsbnd (CH2)8sbnd NH3) entities, and the following unit cell parameters: a = 6.9998(1) Å, b = 10.7846(2) Å, c = 11.0332(2) Å, α = 83.1730(10)°, β = 82.0490(10)°, γ = 73.2820(10)°, V = 787.27(2) Å3 and Z = 2. The optical band gap deduced from UV-visible spectroscopy was found to be 4.9 eV. Hirshfeld surface analysis shows the importance of hydrogen bonding interactions to ensure the cohesion of the studied crystal. The band structures and electronic properties, such as total and partial densities of state, were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) using a local LDA and semi local GGA approaches. The obtained results reveal the insulating behavior of the material.

  16. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, P.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report covers the second year of the 28 month grant current grant to Clarkson University to study the chemical and physical behavior of the polonium 218 atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. Two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical process that affect the progeny's atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. This report describes the progress toward achieving these objectives.

  17. Comparative study of various techniques for environmental radon, thoron and progeny measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R C; Prasad, Mukesh; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Gusain, G S; Mishra, Rosaline; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    Long-term average concentrations of radon, thoron and progeny were measured in normal and high background radiation areas in India using different techniques. Radon, thoron and progeny concentrations were measured using Raduet, Pin-Hole dosimeter, deposition-based CR-39 and deposition-based direct radon/thoron progeny sensor (DRPS/DTPS) detector system. All these techniques were used at a same time inside an individual dwelling. Radon concentration was recorded higher than thoron concentration in Garhwal Homes (NBRA) while thoron concentration was found relatively higher in the houses of Chhatarpur area (HBRA) in Odisha, India. The values measured with the CR-39 detector-based technique were found comparable with the values measured with the LR-115 detector-based technique. The comparisons of results using various techniques and their usefulness in radiation measurements are discussed in detail.

  18. AFLP marking and polymorphism among progenies of Gymnema sylvestre: an important medicinal plant of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda Abbaker; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Bahl, Janak Raj; Darokar, Mahendra P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2011-11-01

    The level of polymorphism among twelve selected progenies of Gymnema sylvestre was investigated through AFLP markers by multiplexing PCR reactions using 64 (8x8) primer combinations. Fourteen primer combinations were selected as the most suitable combination for G. sylvestre. Analysis of the 12 progenies with these 14 primer pairs produced 1689 fragments of which 972 (57.5%) were polymorphic and 485 (28.7%) were unique to a particular genotype. The number of fragments produced by individual primer pairs was in the range of 55 to 225. Out of these, polymorphic fragments were in the range of 34 (E-ACC/M-CAC) to 157 (E-AGG/M-CAG) and unique bands observed were 8 (E-ACC / M-CAC) to 69 (E-AGG/M-CAC). Different primer combinations detected different levels of polymorphism, ranging from 33% (E-AGG/ M-CAC) to 69.8% (E-AGG/ M-CAC). From the observations, it appears that the primer combinations E-AGG/M-CAC, E-AGG/CTG, E-AGG/CAG and E-ACA/CAT were the most informative for the detection of polymorphism among the progenies compared with others, since they produced a high number of unique fragments. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.212 to 0.731. High similarity was observed between progeny S8 and S9 (73%) and high divergence between progenies S3 and S11. Among the selected progeny, S9 was found to be the most similar to the parent (63%), while genotype S11 was the most distant (36.9%).

  19. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  20. Response of resistant breeding lines of tomato germplasm and their progenies with Seedathip3 to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus, Thailand isolate (TYLCTHV-[2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornubol Chomdej

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomato germplasm accessions; FLA456-4, FLA591-15, H24, CLN2443A, CLN2443B, CLN2443C, TLB111, TLB182-1, TLB111-F6-4-1, TLB130-F6-3-1 and TLB134-F6-8-1 from the Asian Vegetable Research Development Center (AVRDC, Taiwan, were screened for resistance to the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus, Thailand isolate (TYLCTHV-[2]. The accessions expressing the resistant genotype were then crossed to the TYLCV-susceptible female parent, Seedathip3 (SD3, to produce F1 hybrids. Tomato parents and their F1 progenies were inoculated with TYLCTHV-[2] at 3 weeks of seedling age using viruliferous whitefly (Bemisia tabaci as the inoculation vector. Disease response of the seedling was rated according to the incidence and severity of the development of yellowing and curling symptoms. The presence of TYLCTHV-[2] in the inoculated plants was confirmed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. AVRDC tomato parental lines: H24, FLA591-15 and FLA456-4 expressed mild or no symptoms after one month inoculation. Progeny of crosses between the AVRDC donor parental lines and susceptible Thai cultivars showed intermediate tolerance to TYLCTHV-[2] infection. This indicated that resistance was incompletely dominant.

  1. A family business: stem cell progeny join the niche to regulate homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Fuchs, Elaine

    2012-01-23

    Stem cell niches, the discrete microenvironments in which the stem cells reside, play a dominant part in regulating stem cell activity and behaviours. Recent studies suggest that committed stem cell progeny become indispensable components of the niche in a wide range of stem cell systems. These unexpected niche inhabitants provide versatile feedback signals to their stem cell parents. Together with other heterologous cell types that constitute the niche, they contribute to the dynamics of the microenvironment. As progeny are often located in close proximity to stem cell niches, similar feedback regulations may be the underlying principles shared by different stem cell systems.

  2. Electrical capacitance as a predictor of root dry weight in shrub willow (Salix; Salicaceae) parents and progeny1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Craig H.; Smart, Lawrence B.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Root biomass is an important trait often disregarded in woody perennial selection due to the challenge and expense of accurately and efficiently measuring large populations. In this study, we aim to develop a simple method that can predict root dry weight within a diverse shrub willow (Salix) breeding population representing species hybrids and their parents using root electrical capacitance (REC). Methods: The REC method was tested on plants started from cuttings and grown in pots with potting mix in the greenhouse for 11 wk to assess the relationship of REC with 24 biomass traits and its usefulness in allometric models for root and stem dry biomass. Results: Strong linear and positive correlations were found between REC and root dry biomass (r = 0.88). The total proportion of variance of root and stem dry biomass explained by predictors in multiple regression was 85% and 69%, respectively. The relative importance of predictor variables in allometric models was dominated by the contribution of REC. Discussion: This work provides an efficient and nondestructive technique to indirectly quantify root biomass of genetically diverse shrub willow progeny, which has great promise for selection of genotypes with varying root biomass and for the accurate estimation of belowground carbon sequestration. PMID:27610275

  3. Molecular Marker Assisted Selection for Yield-Enhancing Genes in the Progeny of Minghui63 × O.rufipogon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue-guang; WANG Bin; DENG Qi-yun; LIANG Feng-shan; XING Quan-hua; LI Ji-ming; XONG Yue-dong; SUN Shi-mong; GUO Bao-tai; YUAN Long-ping

    2004-01-01

    Two yield-enhancing genes (yldl.1 and yld2.1) are located on chromosomes 1 and 2 respectively in a weedy relative of cultivated rice, Oryza rufipogon. SSR markers RM9 and RM166 are closely linked with the two loci respectively. Minghui63 (MH63) has been a widely used restoration line in hybrid rice production in China during the past two decades. The F1 of cross "MH63 × O.rufipogon" was backcrossed with MH63 generation by generation. RM9 and RM166 were used to select the plants from the progeny of the backcross populations. The results were as follows: (1) In BC2F1 population, the percentage of the individuals which have RM9 and RM166 amplified bands simultaneously was 12.2%, while in the BC3F1 population, that was 16.3%. (2) Among 400individuals of BC3F1, four yield-promising plants were obtained, with yield being 30% more than that of MH63. (3) The products amplified by primer RM166 in O. rufipogon and MH63 were sequenced. It was found that the DNA fragment sequence amplified by RM166 from MH63 was 101 bp shorter than that from O. rufipogon. The 101 bp sequence is a part of an intron of the PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) gene.

  4. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  5. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  6. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bingham

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids. However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed.

  7. Determination of the electronic, dielectric, and optical properties of sillenite Bi12TiO20 and perovskite-like Bi4Ti3O12 materials from hybrid first-principle calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Lardhi, Sheikha F.

    2016-04-05

    Density functional theory calculation was conducted to determine the optoelectronic properties of bismuthtitanate sillenite (Bi12TiO20) and perovskite-like (Bi4Ti3O12) structures. The lattice parameters were experimentally obtained from Rietveld analysis. The density functional perturbation theory approach was used with the standard Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof functional and screened Coulomb hybrid Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof functional to investigate the electronic structure and absorption coefficient. Both compounds have good carrier transport properties, low effective hole and electron masses, high dielectric constant, and low exciton binding energy.

  8. Tail asymptotics for the total progeny of the critical killed branching random walk

    CERN Document Server

    Aidekon, Elie

    2009-01-01

    We consider a branching random walk on $\\mathbb{R}$ with a killing barrier at zero. At criticality, the process becomes eventually extinct, and the total progeny $Z$ is therefore finite. We show that the tail distribution of $Z$ displays a typical behaviour in $(n\\ln^2(n))^{-1}$, which confirms the prediction of Addario-Berry and Broutin.

  9. QTL analysis of the genetic architecture determining resistance to fire blight in an apple progeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calenge, F.; Drouet, D.; Weg, van de W.E.; Brisset, M.N.; Paulin, J.P.; Durel, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most destructive diseases of apple (Malus x domestica). In order to analyse the genetic determinism of resistance to fire blight in apple, a quantitative trait analysis (QTL) approach was used. A F1 progeny of 164

  10. Dietary manipulation of the sow milk does not influence the lipid absorption capacity of the progeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pierzynowski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    A control diet without supplemental fat and four diets containing 8% of coconut oil, rapeseed oil, fish oil or sunflower oil were fed to lactating sows in order to investigate the lipid absorption capacity of their progeny in terms of pancreatic enzyme activity, hormonal regulation, and bile salt...

  11. Development of calibration facility for radon and its progenies at NIM (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J C; Zheng, P H; Yang, Z J; Liu, H R; Zhang, M; Li, Z S; Zhang, L; Guo, Q J

    2015-11-01

    Accurate measurement of radon and its progenies is the basis to control the radon dose and reduce the risk of lung cancer caused. The precise calibration of measuring instrument is an important part of the quality control of measurements of the concentration of radon and radon progenies. To establish Chinese national standards and realise reliable calibrations of measuring instrument for radon and its progenies, a radon chamber with regulation capability of environmental parameters, aerosol and radon concentrations was designed and constructed at National Institute of Metrology (NIM). The chamber has a total volume of ∼20 m(3) including an exposure volume of 12.44 m(3). The radon concentration can be controlled from 12 Bq m(-3) to the maximum of 232 kBq m(-3). The regulation range of temperature, relative humidity and aerosol are 0.66 -44.39°C, 16.4 -95 %RH and 10(2) -10(6) cm(-3), respectively. The main advantages of the NIM radon chamber with respect to maintaining a stable concentration and equilibrium factor of radon progenies in a wide range through automatic regulation and control of radon and aerosol are described.

  12. Effects of activity size distribution on dose conversion factor for radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Yamada, Yuji [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    To estimate dose from radon progeny, the effective dose per unit exposure to radon progeny (dose conversion factor, DCF) is needed. A dominant parameter related to DCF is the activity size distribution of radon progeny. In the present study, the DCF was calculated in the wide range of particle diameters (0.5-20 nm [AMTD] and 20-5,000 nm [AMAD]), using a dosimetric approach. The calculations were based on a computer program, LUDEP, which implements an ICRP66 respiratory tract model. The calculated results showed that the DCF is sensitive to particle size distribution. The DCFs calculated for reference conditions in mines and homes were 13.7 mSv WLM{sup -1} and 14.3 mSv WLM{sup -1}, respectively. These values were in good agreement with those reported in a few references. The DCF calculated in the present study is useful for the dose assessment of radon progeny in places that have different aerosol characteristics. (author)

  13. Frequency of Aneuploids in Progenies of Autotriploid Barley, Hordeum Vulgare L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome counts of 863 progeny plants originating from 68 autotriploid barley plants revealed a considerable variation in chromosome numbers ranging from the diploid number (2n= 14) to 2n= 39. The most frequent groups were plants with 15 and 16 chromosomes each constituting about 27% of all pro...

  14. Inheritance of S-genotypes in Paviot × Kabaasi apricot F1 progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Tuğba Murathan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility plays an important role in the fertilization of fruit species such as apricot. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. shows gametophytic self-incompatibility, which is controlled by a multi-allelic S-locus. In this study, S-alleles of 77 F1 progenies derived from Paviot, which is one of the French local cultivars, and Kabaasi, one of the most important Turkish dried apricot cultivars, parents were identified by S-RNase intron regions polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. The results from the S-allele PCR analysis revealed that the Paviot female parent had an ScS2 genotype and the Kabaasi male parent had S1S9 alleles. Forty-three of the F1 progenies showed self-compatibility allele (Sc by having either ScS9 or ScS1 alleles. Thirty-four of the F1 progenies were self-incompatible by having either S2S1 or S2S9 alleles. The distributions of detected alleles in F1 progenies were determined as follows: ScS1 31.2%, S1S2 27.3%, ScS9 24.7% and S2S9 16.8%. The results from the study are relevant for the data obtained in apricot breeding programmes in the selection of crossing combinations and in the establishment of commercial orchards.

  15. New strategy for evaluating grain cooking quality of progenies in dry bean breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Line Carvalho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The methodology available for evaluating the cooking quality of dry beans is impractical for assessing a large number of progenies. The aims of this study were to propose a new strategy for evaluating cooking quality of grains and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters using a selection index. A total of 256 progenies of the 13thcycle of a recurrent selection program were evaluated at three locations for yield, grain type, and cooked grains. Samples of grains from each progeny were placing in a cooker and the percentage of cooked grains was assessed. The new strategy for evaluating cooking quality was efficient because it allowed a nine-fold increase in the number of progenies evaluated per unit time in comparison to available methods. The absence of association between grain yield and percentage of cooked grains or grain type indicated that it is possible to select high yielding lines with excellent grain aspect and good cooking properties using a selection index.

  16. QTL analysis of the genetic architecture determining resistance to fire blight in an apple progeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calenge, F.; Drouet, D.; Weg, van de W.E.; Brisset, M.N.; Paulin, J.P.; Durel, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most destructive diseases of apple (Malus x domestica). In order to analyse the genetic determinism of resistance to fire blight in apple, a quantitative trait analysis (QTL) approach was used. A F1 progeny of 164 individ

  17. COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF DESI PARENT CHICKENS AND THEIR FIRST PROGENY MAINTAINED ON DEEP LITTER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Sahota, B. M. Bhatti and L. A. Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to examine effect of selection process of Desi field chickens on the productive performance of Desi progeny versus their parents maintained under deep litter system. For this purpose, 300 adult pullets (about 30 weeks-old each of Desi parents and their first progeny were maintained in 4 separate pens on floor under optimal managemental conditions for experimental period of one year. The experimental birds were fed ad-libitum a balanced layer’s ration prepared at Nutrition Section of this Institute. They had free access to clean and fresh drinking water. 16 hours lighting schedule giving natural light supplemented with artificial light was followed. The results indicated significant (p<0.01 improvement in egg production, feed conversion efficiency and egg mass of Desi progeny in comparison to their parents which could be attributed to effect of breeding using selection process carried out in Desi parent. However, performance of Desi progeny in respect of egg size and mortality rate varied non-significantly from their parents. Based on the findings of this study it may be concluded that productive performance of Desi native chickens could be improved through breeding using selection technique.

  18. {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their progeny concentrations in offices in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N. E-mail: appetery@city.edu.hk; Cheung, T.; Guan, Z.J.; Mui, B.W.N.; Ng, Y.T

    2000-04-01

    An active sampling system using charcoal canisters and an HPGe {gamma}-spectrometer was employed to survey {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations in 65 offices in Hong Kong, and a traditional method was used to record simultaneously the potential {alpha}-energy concentrations (PAEC) of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny at the same sites. The mean values of gas concentration, PAEC and equilibrium factor for {sup 222}Rn were 48{+-}32 Bq m{sup -3}, 5.2{+-}5.1 mWL and 0.38{+-}0.13, respectively, and the corresponding values for {sup 220}Rn were 14{+-}7 Bq m{sup -3}, 2.7{+-}2.1 mWL and 0.050{+-}0.016. These values were in general higher than those in dwellings in Hong Kong, which was due to the poorer fresh air exchange in offices. Factors affecting the concentrations of {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their progeny were also studied. The type of air conditioners and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference show some effects on {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and progeny concentrations, while rainfall and relative humidity affect only the progeny concentrations.

  19. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Structures of 3D Lead-Halide Hybrid Perovskites and Pressure Effects on their Electronic and Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Adam; Lin, Yu; Beavers, Christine M; Voss, Johannes; Mao, Wendy L; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2016-04-27

    We report the first high-pressure single-crystal structures of hybrid perovskites. The crystalline semiconductors (MA)PbX3 (MA = CH3NH3 (+), X = Br(-) or I(-)) afford us the rare opportunity of understanding how compression modulates their structures and thereby their optoelectronic properties. Using atomic coordinates obtained from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction we track the perovskites' precise structural evolution upon compression. These structural changes correlate well with pressure-dependent single-crystal photoluminescence (PL) spectra and high-pressure bandgaps derived from density functional theory. We further observe dramatic piezochromism where the solids become lighter in color and then transition to opaque black with compression. Indeed, electronic conductivity measurements of (MA)PbI3 obtained within a diamond-anvil cell show that the material's resistivity decreases by 3 orders of magnitude between 0 and 51 GPa. The activation energy for conduction at 51 GPa is only 13.2(3) meV, suggesting that the perovskite is approaching a metallic state. Furthermore, the pressure response of mixed-halide perovskites shows new luminescent states that emerge at elevated pressures. We recently reported that the perovskites (MA)Pb(Br x I1-x )3 (0.2 solar cells employing these absorbers. Our high-pressure PL data indicate that compression can mitigate this PL redshift and may afford higher steady-state voltages from these absorbers. These studies show that pressure can significantly alter the transport and thermodynamic properties of these technologically important semiconductors.

  20. Selective sequential separation of ABS/HIPS and PVC from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue by hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonisation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2017-02-01

    The separation of plastics containing brominated flame retardants (BFR) like (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue (ASR/ESR) are a major concern for thermal recycling. In laboratory scale tests using a hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonation treatment has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics, enhancing ABS wettability and thereby promoting its separation from ASR/ESR by means of froth flotation. The water contact angles, of ABS/HIPS and PVC decreased, about 18.7°, 18.3°, and 17.9° in ASR and about 21.2°, 20.7°, and 20.0° in ESR respectively. SEM-EDS, FT-IR, and XPS analyses demonstrated a marked decrease in [Cl] and a significant increase in the number of hydrophilic groups, such as CO, CO, and (CO)O, on the PVC or ABS surface. Under froth flotation conditions at 50rpm, about 99.1% of combined fraction of ABS/HIPS in ASR samples and 99.6% of ABS/HIPS in ESR samples were separated as settled fraction. After separation, the purity of the recovered combined ABS/HIPS fraction was 96.5% and 97.6% in ASR and ESR samples respectively. Furthermore, at 150rpm a 100% PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98% and 99% purity in ASR and ESR plastics, respectively. Total recovery of non-ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics reached nearly 100% in the floating fraction. Further, this process improved the quality of recycled ASR/ESR plastics by removing surface contaminants or impurities.

  1. Biochemical evaluation of triploid progenies of diploid × tetraploid breeding populations of Camellia for genotypes rich in catechin and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourabh Kumar; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Das, Sudripta

    2013-06-01

    To verify the quality of triploid varieties of Camellia tea species at the secondary metabolite level, we tested caffeine and catechin profiles of 97 F(1) segregating progenies in two breeding populations with a common tetraploid parent and diploid parents of two geographic and varietal origins. Catechin and caffeine levels of the triploid progenies were quantified and compared against their diploid parent. Some of the progenies showed better performance than their diploid parent. Most of the progenies of the diploid C. sinensis × tetraploid cross showed heterosis for caffeine and EGCG. Progenies of the C. assamica subsp. lasiocalyx × tetraploid cross showed heterosis for +C, EC, EGC, and TC. The genomic contributions of the diploid parent seem to be the main factor in the variation between the two populations. Our studies showed quantitative enhancement of some of the quality-related parameters in tea, providing a platform to refocus on this classical breeding approach for developing quality cultivars in tea.

  2. Meiotic behavior of Brachiaria decumbens hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, V F; Pagliarini, M S; Valle, C B; Bione, N C P; Menon, M U; Mendes-Bonato, A B

    2015-10-21

    Brachiaria decumbens is a forage grass of inestimable value for livestock in Brazil due to its production of good quality forage even when planted on acid and poor soils, although it is susceptible to pasture spittlebugs. Only one cultivar, cv. Basilisk, has been used as the pollen donor in crosses with Brachiaria ruziziensis since 1988 at Embrapa Gado de Corte Research Center. Breeding within the species only became possible from 2009 when sexual accessions were successfully tetraploidized using colchicine. Three sexual genotypes were obtained and hybridization within B. decumbens was finally achieved. Here, we evaluated microspore tetrads using conventional cytology and found meiotic indexes above 78% for all three female genitors (cD24-2, cD24-27, cD24-45), but a low meiotic index (abnormal tetrad frequency and non-viable pollen grains yielded a highly significant Pearson correlation coefficient. The t-test proved significant for the progeny of cD24-45 x D62, with lower abnormalities and pollen sterility when compared to the other two progenies resulting from cD24-2 and cD24-27 crossed to D62, but these two did not differ. Apomictic hybrids such as S036 and X030 with low pollen sterility have the potential for use in cultivar development, whereas the sexual hybrids T012, X072, and X078 might be of use as female genitors in polycross blocks if they display good agronomic traits.

  3. Variability and performance evaluation of introgressed Nigerian dura x Deli dura oil palm progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, A; Rafii, M Y; Mohd Din, A; Kushairi, A; Norziha, A; Rajanaidu, N; Latif, M A; Malek, M A

    2014-04-03

    Twelve introgressed oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies of Nigerian dura x Deli dura were evaluated for bunch yield, yield attributes, bunch quality components and vegetative characters at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, in Keratong, Pahang, Malaysia. Analysis of variance revealed significant to highly significant genotypic differences, indicating sufficient genetic variability among the progenies for bunch yield and its attributes, vegetative characters and bunch quality components, except fruit to bunch ratio. Fresh fruit bunch yield ranged from 167 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1) in PK1330 to 212 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1) in PK1351, with a mean yield of 192 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1). Among the progeny, PK1313 had the highest oil to bunch ratio (19.36%), due to its high mesocarp to fruit ratio, fruit to bunch ratio and low shell to fruit ratio. Among the progenies, PK1313 produced the highest oil yield of 31.4 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1), due to a high mesocarp to fruit ratio (61.2%) and a low shell to fruit ratio (30.7%), coupled with high fruit to bunch ratio (65.6%). PK1330 was found promising for selection, as it had desirable vegetative characters, including smaller petiole cross section (27.15 cm2), short rachis length (4.83 m), short palm height (1.85 m), and the lowest leaf number (164.6), as these vegetative characters are prerequisites for selecting palms for high density planting and high yield per hectare. The genetic variability among the progenies was found to be high, indicating ample scope for further breeding, followed by selection.

  4. Measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn with a Large Size Collector of Radon Progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qifan; Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang; Wang Jun; Cheng Jianping; Liu Guilin; Zhu Li

    2003-01-01

    Radon concentrations in high background radiation areas in the south are higher than those of others in China, especially 220Rn concentration is significantly high. Therefore, measurements of 222Rn and 220 Rn concentrations should be carried out there. This paper introduces a large size collector of radon progeny and its applications. The collector is a sheet of polyvinyl chloride fiber with electrostatics of (-500 V) - ( -700 V). Its size (60 mm in diameter) is larger than those of others (26 mm in diameter) that work with the same principle. The collector is more effective to adsorb radon progeny than most of others. The equipment of ZnS(Ag) Scintillation Counting System is available for large size collectors to detect radon progeny. Therefore, its sensitivity of measurement is higher than that of others.According to the different half lives of radon progeny, and based on both theory and experiments, a formula for discrimination and calculation of 222 Rn and 220Rn concentrations is deduced. The 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were surveyed with electrostatic collectors of radon progeny on the campus of com-mercial school and some other areas in Hainan, southern China. Neither 222Rn nor 220Rn concentration was found significantly high. However, several faults underground were delineated. The collector is also used to study radon transportation. Results indicate that radon changes regularly with date when it has transported for a certain distance. Velocities of radon migration in the four media are quite different.Radon migrates more quickly in vertical tube than in the horizontal tube.

  5. Cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the sexual intergeneric hybrids between the cultivated Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus, both complete separation and partial separation of the parental genomes were found to occur during mitosis and meiosis under genetic control. The cytogenetics of these hybrids was species-specific for Brassica parents. The different chromosome behavior of hybrids with three Brassica diploids ( B. campestris , B. nigra and B. oleracea ) might contribute to the different cytogenetics of hybrids with three tetraploids ( B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata). Owing to the parental genome separation, Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with various chromosome constitutions were identifiable in the progenies of these hybrids, which were valuable for the study of the structure and evolution of Brassica genome and for the breeding of Brassica crops.

  6. Unilateral compatibility and genotypic difference in crossability in interspecific hybridization between Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Dianthus japonicus Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimura, M; Kato, J; Mii, M; Morioka, K

    2003-05-01

    Reciprocal interspecific crosses were carried out between six lines of Dianthus caryophyllus L. and one line of Dianthus japonicus Thunb. Although no seed was set when D. japonicus was used as the seed parent, six seedlings were successfully obtained from 2,380 immature ovules by applying the embryo-rescue technique. However, they showed seed parent-like morphology and no evidence for the hybridity by flow cytometry and RAPD analyses. When six lines of D. caryophyllus were used as seed parents, a total of 192 seedlings were successfully obtained without using the embryo-rescue technique. Among these seedlings, 12 out of 25 progenies obtained from the carnation line '98sp1651' were confirmed to be the hybrids. The remaining 13 progenies of this line, and the total 167 progenies obtained from the other carnation lines, had carnation-like morphology without any evidence of hybridity by flow cytometry and RAPD analyses. The progenies confirmed as hybrids had intermediate characters of the parents with respect to leaf width and flower size, but they had a uniform flower color, reddish purple, which was different from that of either parent. Since the hybrids obtained in the present study have some profitable characters such as vigorous growth in summer time, upright robust stem, broad leaves and early flowering, they are expected to be used for the breeding of carnation which is suitable for growing under the Japanese climate.

  7. Behavioure of high energy electrons on tokamak with low hybrid current drive%托卡马克中低杂波电流驱动下高能电子行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竹锦霞

    2016-01-01

    Fast electrons and runaway electrons constitute the high-energy tail of electron maxwell distribution during low hy-brid current drive. High energy fast electron can effectively carry current driving to achieve no-induced current drive due to low collision frequency. But under certain conditions,fast electron can turn into runaway electron. It will damage to the device first wall material. This paper studies fast electron distribution and the runaway electrons generation by means of fast electron bremsstrahlung array and runaway electron diagnose. The conversion phenomenon from fast electron to runaway electron can be analyzed.%在低杂波电流驱动下,快电子和逃逸电子构成了非麦克斯韦电子分布的高能尾部。高能快电子由于低的碰撞频率可以有效的携带电流来实现非感应电流驱动。但是在一定条件下,快电子可以转化为高能逃逸电子,这将对装置第一壁材料造成损伤。本文利用快电子轫致辐射测量以及逃逸电子诊断系统研究了低杂波电流驱动下快电子分布和逃逸电子的产生,并分析了快电子转化为逃逸电子的现象。

  8. Observation of a pressure-induced As-As hybridization associated with a change in the electronic state of Fe in the tetragonal phase of EuFe2As2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisao; Ikeda, Shugo; Sakaguchi, Yui; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko

    2013-01-16

    The electronic and vibrational properties of EuFe(2)As(2) in the tetragonal phase between 0 and 5 GPa have been investigated using (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and (57)Fe nuclear resonance inelastic scattering, respectively. We find a discontinuous increase of the center shift around 2.3 GPa, reflecting a change of the electronic state of Fe, and above 2.5 GPa a softening of the optical phonon modes associated with an increase of the relative volume of the FeAs(4) tetrahedron in the unit cell. Our findings reveal that an effective As-As hybridization along the c axis appears at approximately 2.3 GPa in the tetragonal phase of EuFe(2)As(2), along with a change in the electronic state of Fe, causing bulk superconductivity to appear at a low temperature. Consequently, the change in the electronic state of the Fe atom and the effective As-As hybridization play key roles in the pressure-induced superconductivity in the tetragonal phase of AFe(2)As(2).

  9. Assessment of dose due to exposure to indoor radon and thoron progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Ganesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The components of the effective dose through inhalation from radon and its progeny are important for human health since they contribute to more than 50% of the total radiation dose from natural sources. As a consequence, radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Radon and its short lived decay products (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi, 214Po present in dwellings are a radiation hazard, particularly if such sources are concentrated in the enclosed areas like poorly ventilated houses and underground mines. The indoor radon, thoron, and progeny concentrations were measured in a small hilly town of Budhakedar and the surrounding area of Tehri Garhwal, India, by using LR-115 Type II plastic track detector in a twin cup radon dosimeter. The concentrations of radon progeny were measured as the highest in winter and the lowest in summer while the thoron progeny concentration was found maximum in rainy season and minimum in autumn. The annual exposure to the potential alpha energy of radon and thoron were found to vary from 0.04 WLM to 0.69 WLM with an average value of 0.29 WLM, and 0.03 WLM to 0.37 WLM with an aver- age value of 0.16 WLM, respectively. The annual effective dose due to the exposure to indoor radon and progeny in Budhakedar homes was found to vary from 0.16 mSv to 2.72 mSv with an average value of 1.14 mSv and the effective dose due to the exposure to thoron and progeny was found to vary from 0.18 mSv to 2.49 mSv with an average value of 1.05 mSv. The results of systematic study have been obtained by considering the room as a space in which the radon and thoron levels are directly related to the dynamic and static parameters.

  10. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  11. [Autosegregation of enzyme loci in agamospermous progenies of triploid plants of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levites, E V; Kirikovich, S S

    2011-07-01

    The ratios of the phenotypic classes of glucosephosphate isomerase (GP12) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH1 and MDH2) were studied in agamospermous progenies of triploid sugar beet plants. The ratio of the phenotypic classes of these enzymes corresponds to the calculations based on the assumption of polyteny of chromosomes carrying alleles of the enzyme loci accompanied by the loss of extra copies of the alleles in the first division of a cell entering embryogenesis. An increase in the gene dosage due to polyteny leads to the appearance in the progeny with a definite frequency of alleles that were absent in the original parental plant. The notions of meiotic autosegregation and mitotic autosegregation characteristic of meiotic and mitotic agamospermy are introduced, as well as the term locus polygenotype characterizing not only the allelic composition and the number of chromosomes, but also the number of chromatids carrying alleles of the marker locus in the cell before its entry into embryogenesis.

  12. Determination of the number of years in Arabic coffee progenies selection through repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Mistro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the repeatability coefficient of grain yield in Arabic coffee and todetermine the minimal number of annual harvests required for a satisfactory level of reliability at the plant level. Theexperiment was conducted in Campinas (SP in a randomized complete block design with 21 F3RC2 progenies of Icatugermplasm, for nine years, in nine replications. The repeatability coefficients were estimated by the method of analyses ofvariance, principal components based on correlation and covariance matrices and structural analyses based on correlationmatrices. The selection of F3RC2 progenies of Icatu germplasm can be carried out with an accuracy of 80% in the three firstharvests. The repeatability coefficient estimated by the covariance matrix method was the most adequate methodology toestimate this coefficient, since it minimizes the effect of biennial bearing.

  13. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Milk Production in Dairy Cattle by Exploiting Progeny Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Pasquino, A. T.; Sargeant, L. S.; Sorensen, A.; Steele, M. R.; Zhao, X.; Womack, J. E.; Hoeschele, I.

    1995-01-01

    We have exploited ``progeny testing'' to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of > 150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score >/= 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. PMID:7713441

  14. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Sargeant, L.S.; Steele, M.R.; Zhao, X. [Genmark Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pasquino, A.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    We have exploited {open_quotes}progeny testing{close_quotes} to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of >150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score {ge} 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. [Experimental analysis of the neurobiological basis of genetically determined alcohol addiction in the progeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'eva, T M; Geĭko, V V

    1990-01-01

    Experiments on 45 nonlinear albino male rats were made to investigate bioelectrogenesis of the limbic-neocortical parts of the brain, function of the systems of positive and negative reinforcement and emotional behavior of the progeny of long alcoholized animals with successive growth of the extent of alcoholism aggravation. Their different initial characteristics were discovered in intact rats as regards parents' alcoholism and in alcoholism aggravated rats, determining different mechanisms and rates of the development of pathological ethanol addiction. The pathogenic influence of "familial" alcoholism lies in the formation in the progeny of the first and fourth generations of the model of alcohol addiction anticipation, whose pathological integration is realized on the basis of the beforehand prepared model which becomes quantitatively different as a result of genetic anomalies.

  16. Maize transformation via pollen tube pathway and the inheritance of transgene in progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yongsheng; Zhai Shumei; Yang Aifang; Zhang Juren

    2005-01-01

    The herbicide-resistant gene als was introduced into maize inbred line Qi319 through pollen-tube pathway. The inheritance of transgene was studied up to T3 generation. Transformation was performed by applying plasmid DNA carrying solution on the severed styles after self-pollination, or just prior to self-pollination. e confirmed positive in T0 generation, and sixteen of them were self-bred to construct family to T3 progeny. Through PCR analysis and herbicide screening in offsn other lines the numbers of positive plants were lower than expected. Therefore,it is necessary to select large population in progeny to produce stable inherited lines when transgene was delivered by pollen tube method.

  17. Formation of diploid and triploid hybrid groupers (hybridization of Epinephelus coioides ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂) and their 5S gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Qin, Qinbo; Yang, Huirong; Li, Shuisheng; Hu, Chaoqun; Wang, Yude; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Shaojun; Lin, Haoran

    2016-10-07

    Interspecies hybridization is widely used to achieve heterosis or hybrid vigor, which has been observed and harnessed by breeders for centuries. Natural allopolyploid hybrids generally exhibit more superior heterosis than both the diploid progenies and their parental species. However, polyploid formation processes have been long ignored, the genetic basis of heterosis in polyploids remains elusive. In the present study, triploid hybrids had been demonstrated to contain two sets of chromosomes from mother species and one set from father species. Cellular polyploidization process in the embryos had been traced. The triploid hybrids might be formed by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the second meiosis stage. Four spindle centers were observed in anaphase stage of the first cell division. Three spindle centers were observed in side of cell plate after the first cell division. The 5S rDNA genes of four types of groupers were cloned and analyzed. The diploid and triploid hybrids had been proved to contain the tandem chimera structures which were recombined by maternal and paternal monomer units. The results indicated that genome re-fusion had occurred in the hybrid progenies. To further elucidate the genetic patterns of diploid and triploid hybrids, fluorescence chromosome location had been carried out, maternal 5S gene (M-386) were used as the probe. The triploid hybrids contained fewer fluorescence loci numbers than the maternal species. The results indicated that participation of paternal 5S gene in the triploid hybrid genome had degraded the match rates of M-386 probe. Our study is the first to investigate the cellular formation processes of natural allopolyploids in hybrid fish, the cellular polyploidization process may be caused by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the meiosis, and our results will provide the molecular basis of hybrid vigor in interspecies hybridization.

  18. Vesicular transport of progeny parvovirus particles through ER and Golgi regulates maturation and cytolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, Séverine; Rommelaere, Jean; Nüesch, Jürg P F

    2013-09-01

    Progeny particles of non-enveloped lytic parvoviruses were previously shown to be actively transported to the cell periphery through vesicles in a gelsolin-dependent manner. This process involves rearrangement and destruction of actin filaments, while microtubules become protected throughout the infection. Here the focus is on the intracellular egress pathway, as well as its impact on the properties and release of progeny virions. By colocalization with cellular marker proteins and specific modulation of the pathways through over-expression of variant effector genes transduced by recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors, we show that progeny PV particles become engulfed into COPII-vesicles in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are transported through the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Besides known factors like sar1, sec24, rab1, the ERM family proteins, radixin and moesin play (an) essential role(s) in the formation/loading and targeting of virus-containing COPII-vesicles. These proteins also contribute to the transport through ER and Golgi of the well described analogue of cellular proteins, the secreted Gaussia luciferase in absence of virus infection. It is therefore likely that radixin and moesin also serve for a more general function in cellular exocytosis. Finally, parvovirus egress via ER and Golgi appears to be necessary for virions to gain full infectivity through post-assembly modifications (e.g. phosphorylation). While not being absolutely required for cytolysis and progeny virus release, vesicular transport of parvoviruses through ER and Golgi significantly accelerates these processes pointing to a regulatory role of this transport pathway.

  19. Recent advances in Progeny testing program for Nili Ravi buffalo in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ghaffar; M.A Khan

    2010-01-01

    Progeny testing program was started in Nili-Ravi buffalo at Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI), Bahadurnagar, Okara in 1979-80. Initially buffalo bulls used at Livestock Experiment Station (LES) Qadirabad and Rakh Gulaman during 1964-78 were evaluated. Five out of ten at Rakh Gulaman and 10 out of 22 at Qadirabad bulls were positive. As none of these bulls were available, therefore, sons and grandsons of these bulls were selected for production of future candidate bulls. All t...

  20. Assessment of radon and its progeny concentration in Brazilian underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Talita O.; Rocha, Zildete; Araujo, Gabriela B.D. de, E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gouvea, Vandir A.; Cruz, Paulo; Siqueira, Joao B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H., E-mail: arnoheeren@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Rock, soil and water contain {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and their decay products. The distribution of these radionuclides differs in terms of activity concentration depending on the mineral type and origin. All ore processing releases long and short half-life radionuclides, mainly radon and its progeny. It is important to monitor this gas and its products in underground mines in order to assess the radiological hazards of the exposed workers. On this concern, the present work outlines the characterization of the radon and its progeny concentration in the brazilian underground mines. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. The equilibrium state between radon and its progeny was calculated. Based on these data, the annual effective dose for miners was estimated according to UNSCEAR 2000 methodology. Moreover, the contribution from the main sources to the radon level inside mines was evaluated. For this, the following detectors were used: concentration measurements of the soil gas radon were carried out by AlphaGUARD detector; {sup 226}Ra ({sup 214}Bi) specific activity in ore and soil samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector; and radon concentration in groundwater samples was performed by RAD7 detector. The radon concentration ranged from 113 to 8171 Bq.m{sup -3} and the Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration varied from 76 to 1174 Bq.m{sup -3}. The general measurement results and the estimated effective doses will be used as bases to prepare the brazilian regulatory standards. (author)

  1. Morphological and physiological responses of two coffee progenies to soil water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Paulo C; Araujo, Wagner L; Moraes, Gustavo A B K; Barros, Raimundo S; DaMatta, Fábio M

    2007-12-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint affecting growth and production of coffee. The effects of water supply on growth, biomass allocation, water relations, and gas exchange in two coffee progenies representing drought-tolerant (Siriema) and drought-sensitive (Catucaí) genotypes were compared. They were grown in 12-L pots until 4-months old, when they were submitted to two watering treatments for 60 d: plants receiving either 100% transpired water (control plants) or a fraction (about 40%) of the amount of water transpired by control plants (drought-stressed plants). Under control conditions, Siriema grew faster than Catucaí. Regardless of the watering regimes and progenies, relative growth rate (RGR) was positively correlated both with net assimilation rate (NAR) and long-term water-use efficiency (WUE), but not with differences in biomass allocation. Both progenies responded to drought stress through (i) similar decreases in both RGR and NAR with marginal, if any, changes in allocation; (ii) decreases in leaf water potential, which occurred to a greater extent in Catucaí than in Siriema, even though they have showed similar abilities to adjust osmotically and elastically; (iii) similar reductions in net photosynthesis due mainly to nonstomatal factors; and (iv) decreases in transpiration rate coupled with increased long-term WUE. However, the lower transpiration rate and the higher long-term WUE as found in Siriema relative to Catucaí under control conditions persisted under drought conditions. Overall, the major differences between these progenies were largely associated with differences in plant water use, which was likely related to the improved water status of Siriema. The possible implications of selecting coffee genotypes for high WUE are discussed.

  2. A European-wide 222Radon and 222Radon progeny comparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Schmithüsen, Dominik; Chambers, Scott; Fischer, Bernd; Gilge, Stefan; Hatakka, Juha; Kazan, Victor; Neubert, Rolf; Paatero, Jussi; Ramonet, Michel; Schlosser, Clemens; Schmid, Sabine; Vermeulen, Alex; Levin, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    A European-wide 222Radon/222Radon progeny comparison study has been conducted in order to determine correction factors that could be applied to existing atmospheric 222Radon data sets for quantitative use of this tracer in atmospheric transport model validation. Two compact and easy-to-transport Heidelberg Radon Monitors (HRM) were moved around to run for at least one month at each of the nine European measurement stations that were included in the comparison. Linear regressions between paral...

  3. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  4. Polyphenol variability in the fruits and juices of a cider apple progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Cindy F; Childebrand, Nicolas; Marnet, Nathalie; Lebail, Gildas; Dupuis, Fabrice; Laurens, François; Guilet, David; Guyot, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Polyphenols have a favourable antioxidant potential on human health, suggesting that their high content in apple is responsible for the beneficial effects of apple consumption. They are also linked to the quality of apple juices and ciders since they are predominantly responsible for astringency, bitterness and colour. Major phenolic compounds were quantified by liquid chromatography in fruits and juices from a cider apple progeny harvested for 3 years. The total content of procyanidins and their average degree of polymerisation (DPn) were also determined in fruits by phloroglucinolysis. Variability and extraction yield of these compounds were determined. The variability observed in the progeny was representative of the variability observed in many cider apple varieties. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the most extractable group, with an average extraction yield of 67%, whereas flavonols and anthocyanins were the least. This study is the first to introduce variability and extraction yields of the main phenolic compounds in both fruits and juices of a cider apple progeny. This dataset will be used for an upcoming QTL mapping study, an original approach that has never been undertaken for cider apple. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Paternal cocaine taking elicits epigenetic remodeling and memory deficits in male progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, M E; Briand, L A; Fant, B; Guercio, L A; Arreola, A C; Schmidt, H D; Sidoli, S; Han, Y; Garcia, B A; Pierce, R C

    2017-02-21

    Paternal environmental perturbations including exposure to drugs of abuse can produce profound effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring via epigenetic modifications. Here we show that adult drug-naive male offspring of cocaine-exposed sires have memory formation deficits and associated reductions in NMDA receptor-mediated hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Reduced levels of the endogenous NMDA receptor co-agonist d-serine were accompanied by increased expression of the d-serine degrading enzyme d-amino acid oxidase (Dao1) in the hippocampus of cocaine-sired male progeny. Increased Dao1 transcription was associated with enrichment of permissive epigenetic marks on histone proteins in the hippocampus of male cocaine-sired progeny, some of which were enhanced near the Dao1 locus. Finally, hippocampal administration of d-serine reversed both the memory formation and synaptic plasticity deficits. Collectively, these results demonstrate that paternal cocaine exposure produces epigenetic remodeling in the hippocampus leading to NMDA receptor-dependent memory formation and synaptic plasticity impairments only in male progeny, which has significant implications for the male descendants of chronic cocaine users.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 21 February 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.8.

  6. Genetic variation of phytochemical compounds in progenies of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Lara Cardozo Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil contains phytochemical compounds capable of preventing a number of healthproblems. Knowledge on the genetic contribution to the variability in these compounds can help to obtain mate progenies withhigher levels thereof in breeding programs. The composition of triterpene saponins, methylxanthines, chlorogenic acid andthe antioxidant activity of eight mate progenies were evaluated. Significant differences among progenies were verified incontents of triterpene saponins (0.003-0.080%, caffeine (0.226-1.377%, theobromine (0.176-0.831%, and chlorogenicacid (1.344-2.031% and in antioxidant activity (31.251-51.406%. The contents of theobromine were found to be negativelycorrelated with saponins and caffeine, and caffeine with chlorogenic acid, while theobromine was positively correlated withchlorogenic acid. The heritability values for saponins (75.09%, caffeine (75.19%, theobromine (66.87%, chlorogenic acid(52.86% and antioxidant activity (67.75% indicate the possibility of genetic gain in selection for these traits.

  7. Study on the influence of CR-39 detector size on radon progeny detection in indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L. A.; Hadler, J. C.; Lixandrão F, A. L.; Guedes, S.; Takizawa, R. H. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-11-11

    It is well known that radon daughters up to {sup 214}Po are the real contaminants to be considered in case of indoor radon contamination. Assemblies consisting of 6 circular bare sheets of CR-39, a nuclear track detector, with radius varying from 0.15 to 1.2 cm were exposed far from any material surface for periods of approximately 6 months in 13 different indoor rooms (7 workplaces and 6 dwellings), where ventilation was moderate or poor. It was observed that track density was as greater as smaller was the detector radius. Track density data were fitted using an equation deduced based on the assumption that the behavior of radon and its progeny in the air was described by Fick's Law, i.e., when the main mechanism of transport of radon progeny in the air is diffusion. As many people spend great part of their time in closed or poorly ventilated environments, the confirmation they present equilibrium between radon and its progeny is an interesting start for dosimetric calculations concerning this contamination.

  8. Pre-selecting young bulls before progeny-testing with marker-assisted BLUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Suppose that a QTL affecting milk production trait of dairy cattle has been identified, and the relative distances between the QTL and the markers are known without error. The relative efficiency of pre-selection of young bulls before progeny-testing with marker-assisted BLUP (MBLUP) over conventional progeny-testing (i.e. random selection before progeny-testing) for five generations was studied using Monte Carlo simulation. Different numbers of QTL alleles (two or infinite), initial frequencies of the favorable QTL allele (0.1 and 0.5, when the QTL has two alleles), distances between the adjacent markers (5 cM or 20 cM), and ratios of the QTL variance to the genetic variance (10%, 25%, and 50%) were considered in the simulation. The results showed that the relative efficiency of MBLUP was higher when the marker distance was 5 cM than that when the distance was 20 cM. The larger the QTL allelic effect, the lower the MBLUP efficiency. The relative superiority of MBLUP was higher when the QTL had two alleles and the frequency of the favorable QTL allele was low in the base population. The relative superiority of MBLUP decreased with the progress of generation in all cases and the decreasing rate was getting higher with the increase of marker density and QTL effect.

  9. Study on the influence of CR-39 detector size on radon progeny detection in indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L. A.; Hadler, J. C.; Lixandrão F., A. L.; Guedes, S.; Takizawa, R. H.

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that radon daughters up to 214Po are the real contaminants to be considered in case of indoor radon contamination. Assemblies consisting of 6 circular bare sheets of CR-39, a nuclear track detector, with radius varying from 0.15 to 1.2 cm were exposed far from any material surface for periods of approximately 6 months in 13 different indoor rooms (7 workplaces and 6 dwellings), where ventilation was moderate or poor. It was observed that track density was as greater as smaller was the detector radius. Track density data were fitted using an equation deduced based on the assumption that the behavior of radon and its progeny in the air was described by Fick's Law, i.e., when the main mechanism of transport of radon progeny in the air is diffusion. As many people spend great part of their time in closed or poorly ventilated environments, the confirmation they present equilibrium between radon and its progeny is an interesting start for dosimetric calculations concerning this contamination.

  10. Multivariate analysis to determine the genetic distance among backcross papaya (Carica papaya) progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Gonçalves, L S A; Berilli, A P C G; Pinto, F O; Ribeiro, E H

    2012-05-14

    Morpho-agronomic and molecular (RAPD and ISSR markers) data were used to evaluate genetic distances between papaya backcross progenies in order to help identify agronomically superior genotypes. Thirty-two papaya progenies were evaluated based on 15 morpho-agronomic characteristics, 20 ISSR and 19 RAPD primers. Manhattan, Jaccard and Gower distances were used to estimate differences based on continuous and binary data and combined analyses, respectively. Except for production, there were significant differences in the continuous variables among the genotypes. The molecular analysis revealed 193 dominant markers (ISSR and RAPD), being 53 polymorphic loci. Among the various clusters that were generated, the one based on a combined analysis of morpho-agronomic and molecular data gave the highest cophenetic correlation (0.72) compared to individual analysis, consistently allocating the progenies into six groups. We found that the Gower algorithm was more coherent in the discrimination of the genotypes, demonstrating that a combination of molecular and agronomic data is valuable for studies of genetic dissimilarity in papaya.

  11. Impact of haze-fog days to radon progeny equilibrium factor and discussion of related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Changsong; Shang, Bing; Zhang, Qingzhao; Cui, Hongxing; Wu, Yunyun; Deng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The equilibrium factor F between radon and its short-lived progenies is an important parameter to estimate radon exposure of humans. Therefore, indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its short-lived radon progeny were measured in Beijing area using a continuously measuring device, in an effort to obtain information on the F value. The results showed that the mean values of F were 0.58 ± 0.13 (0.25-0.95, n = 305) and 0.52 ± 0.12 (0.31-0.91, n = 64) for indoor and outdoor, respectively. The indoor F value during haze-fog days was higher than the typical value of 0.4 recommended by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and it was also higher than the values of 0.47 and 0.49 reported in the literature. A positive correlation was observed between indoor F values and PM2.5 concentrations (R (2) = 0.71). Since 2013, owing to frequent heavy haze-fog events in Beijing and surrounding areas, the number of the days with severe pollution remains at a high level. Future studies on the impact of the ambient fine particulate matter on indoor radon progeny equilibrium factor F could be important.

  12. Radon progeny monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility and a potential earthquake precursory signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Mendes, Virgilio B.; Azevedo, Eduardo B.

    2016-04-01

    Radon has been considered a promising earthquake precursor, the main rationale being an expected increase in radon exhalation in soil and rocks due to stress associated with the preparatory stages of an earthquake. However, the precursory nature of radon is far from being convincingly demonstrated so far. A major hindrance is the many meteorological and geophysical factors diving radon temporal variability, including the geophysical parameters influencing its emanation (grain size, moisture content, temperature), as well as the meteorological factors (atmospheric pressure, moisture, temperature, winds) influencing its mobility. Despite the challenges, radon remains one of the strongest candidates as a potential earthquake precursor, and it is of crucial importance to investigate the many factors driving its variability and its potential association with seismic events. Continuous monitoring of radon progeny is performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The Azores archipelago is associated with a complex geodynamic setting on the Azores triple junction where the American, Eurasian and African litospheric plates meet, resulting in significant seismic and volcanic activity. A considerable advantage of the monitoring site is the availability of a comprehensive dataset of concurrent meteorological observations performed at the ENA facility and freely available from the ARM data archive, enabling a detailed analysis of the environmental factors influencing the temporal variability of radon's progeny. Gamma radiation is being measured continuously every 15 minutes since May 2015. The time series of gamma radiation counts is dominated by sharp peaks lasting a few hours and

  13. Hybrid Si/TMD 2D electronic double channels fabricated using solid CVD few-layer-MoS2 stacking for Vth matching and CMOS-compatible 3DFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Min Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Stackable 3DFETs such as FinFET using hybrid Si/MoS2 channels were developed using a fully CMOS-compatible process. Adding several molecular layers (3-16 layers) of the transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD), MoS2 to Si fin and nanowire resulted in improved (+25%) Ion,n of the FinFET and nanowire FET (NWFET). The PFETs also operated effectively and the N/P device Vth are low and matched perfectly. The proposed heterogeneous Si/TMD 3DFETs can be useful in future electronics. © 2014 IEEE.

  14. GW quasiparticle band gap of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite CH$_3$NH$_3$PbI$_3$: Effect of spin-orbit interaction, semicore electrons, and self-consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano

    2014-01-01

    We study the quasiparticle band gap of the hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite CH$_3$NH$_3$PbI$_3$, using many-body perturbation theory based on the $GW$ approximation. We perform a systematic analysis of the band gap sensitivity to relativistic spin-orbit effects, to the description of semicore Pb-5$d$ and I-4$d$ electrons, and to the starting Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. We find that the inclusion of semicore states increases the calculated band gap by 0.2 eV, and self-consistency on ...

  15. Embryogenic calli induced in interspecific (Elaeis guineensis x E. oleifera hybrid zygotic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina da Silva Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybridization between oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and caiaué (E. oleifera plants is directed to obtainprogenies presenting high yields like oil palm but with reduced shoot height and resistance to lethal yellowing like caiaué.Cloning F1, BC1 and BC2 progenies can make the replication of selection trials easier. The objective of this work was to inducesomatic embryogenesis in interspecific zygotic embryos collected 100 days after pollination. Three progenies were cultivatedin an induction medium developed for Tenera (E. guineensis tp. dura x pisifera embryos. The number of embryos bearing calliand germinating was recorded and submitted to the Z test. Calli were weighted and submitted to histological analysis.Progenies differed in the number of embryos presenting plumules and calli simultaneously. By the ninth month, the apices ofincompletely developed somatic embryos were observed protruding from the surfaces of nodular calli. Highly embryogenicand friable secondary calli producing globular somatic embryos were not observed.

  16. Estimates of genetic parameters in Arabic coffee derived from the Timor hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Mistro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters of Arabic coffee progenies derived from the cross ‘Villa Sarchi’ x ‘Timor hybrid’ wereestimated in order to evaluate their potential for improvement. The experiment was installed in a random block design with tentreatments, eight replicates and eight plants per plot. The parameters cherry yield, plant height, canopy diameter, seed typesand sizes were estimated. Results demonstrated significant differences between treatments for all traits. Greatest yield gainswere achieved when the selection was performed based on plot means and in years of high yields. The variation index b wasthe best indicator of genetic variability. The progenies IAC 3786. IAC 3788, IAC 4094, IAC 4095, IAC 3425, and IAC 3429were outstanding regarding the evaluated agronomic traits, representing progenies of high agronomic potential. All progeniespresented leaf rust resistance

  17. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  18. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  19. Alteration of Terminal Heterochromatin and Chromosome Rearrangements in Derivatives of Wheat-Rye Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulan Fu; Zhenling Lv; Xiang Guo; Xiangqi Zhang; Fangpu Han

    2013-01-01

    Wheat-rye addition and substitution lines and their self progenies revealed variations in telomeric heterochromatin and centromeres.Furthermore,a mitotically unstable dicentric chromosome and stable multicentric chromosomes were observed in the progeny of a Chinese Spring-Imperial rye 3R addition line.An unstable multicentric chromosome was found in the progeny of a 6R/6D substitution line.Drastic variation of terminal heterochromatin including movement and disappearance of terminal heterochromatin occurred in the progeny of wheatrye addition line 3R,and the 5RS ditelosomic addition line.Highly stable minichromosomes were observed in the progeny of a monosomic 4R addition line,a ditelosomic 5RS addition line and a 6R/6D substitution line.Minichromosomes,with and without the FISH signals for telomeric DNA (TTTAGGG)n,derived from a monosomic 4R addition line are stable and transmissible to the next generation.The results indicated that centromeres and terminal heterochromatin can be profoundly altered in wheat-rye hybrid derivatives.

  20. Somatic hybrids of Solanum tuberosum and species of the Solanum nigrum-complex and their backcross progeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsman, K.

    2001-01-01

    The species of the Solanum nigrum-complex are wild relatives of the cultivated potato and potentially interesting sources of genetic variation. The traditional method of introgressing a specific trait from a related species is sexual hybridisation followed by recurrent backcrossing but often one or

  1. Dispersion Relation Tool for generalized lower-hybrid mode with, density gradient, equilibrium ExB drift, collisions and finite electron Larmor radius

    CERN Document Server

    Romadanov, Ivan; Frias, Winston; Chapurin, Oleksandr; Koshkarov, Oleksandr

    2016-01-01

    MATLAB solver has been developed for studies of local instabilities in partially magnetized plasmas typical for ExB discharge plasmas. Examples for the Simon-Hoh, lower-hybrid and ion-sound instabilities in Penning discharge. The detailed behavior of the local dispersion relation can be investigated, plotted and saved with this solver. It allows to include various effects, change plasma parameters and obtain eigen-frequencies as a function of the wavenumbers in x or y directions.

  2. Isozyme expression of Chinese and Japanese populations of Chlamys farreri and their reciprocal hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Taiwu; LIU Yan; SONG Linsheng; SUN Xiuqin

    2005-01-01

    Chinese and Japanese population of Chlamysfarreri and their reciprocal hybrids were surveyed in isozyme variability at 13 loci by polyacrytamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Isozyme banding patterns indicated these hybrids were diploid.Loci that were observed as being monomorphic in inbred populations of C. farreri were also found to be monomorphic in filial progeny;loci that observed to be polymorphic in parental type generations were also polymorphic in hybrid generations.Differences existed among allelic frequency of the four types of cross.Within the reciprocal hybrids the expression of malic enzyme (ME) isozyme was sufficient to distinguishing individual hybrids because of the band, Rf=0.38. However, there were no noticeable variations among all the samples to differentiate one from another. Inbreeding was likely to be the main problem in aquaculture. The introduction of new broodstock can improve the genetic diversity. Hybrid vigor has manifested to a certain extent in the present study.

  3. Effect of indoor-generated airborne particles on radon progeny dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trassierra, C. Vargas [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, FR (Italy); Stabile, L., E-mail: l.stabile@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, FR (Italy); Cardellini, F.; Morawska, L. [National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (INMRI-ENEA), Rome (Italy); Buonanno, G. [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, FR (Italy); International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Investigation of the interaction between particles and radon progeny dynamics. • Measurements of particles emitted by different indoor sources. • Tests performed in a controlled radon chamber. • Particle size strongly influences the radon progeny dynamics. • Particle surface area concentration is the key parameter of the radon-particle interaction. - Abstract: In order to investigate the interaction between radon progeny and particles, an experimental campaign was carried out in a radon chamber at the Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology, quantifying the amount of attached and unattached radon daughters present in air, as well as the equilibrium factor in the presence of particles generated through indoor sources. A fixed radon concentration was maintained, while particles were generated using incense sticks, mosquito coils and gas combustion. Aerosols were characterized in terms of particle concentrations and size distributions. Simultaneously, radon concentration and attached/unattached potential alpha energy concentration in the air were continuously monitored by two different devices, based on alpha spectroscopy techniques. The presence of particles was found to affect the attached fraction of radon decay products, in such a way that the particles acted as a sink for radionuclides. In terms of sources which emit large particles (e.g. incense, mosquito coils), which greatly increase particle surface area concentrations, the Equilibrium Factor was found to double with respect to the background level before particle generation sessions. On the contrary, the radon decay product dynamics were not influenced by gas combustion processes, mainly due to the small surface area of the particles emitted.

  4. Unreduced 3x gamete formation of allotriploid hybrid derived from the cross of Primula denticulata (4x) × P. rosea (2x) as a causal factor for producing pentaploid hybrids in the backcross with pollen of tetraploid P. denticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Mai; Kato, Juntaro; Ohashi, Hiroaki; Mii, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    A triploid hybrid, which was obtained from interspecific crosses between tetraploidPrimula denticulata (2n = 4x = 44) and P. rosea (2n = 2x = 22), successfully produced 11plants by backcrossing with pollen of tetraploid P. denticulata. Analysis of ploidy level using flow cytometry and chromosome counting in the 11 BC_1 plants revealed that all progeny had much larger DNA contents and chromosome number than both parents. In this triploid-tetraploid (3x-4x) crossing, progeny was predominantly t...

  5. Enhanced diversity and aflatoxigenicity in interspecific hybrids of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, Rodrigo A; Worthington, Carolyn J; Horn, Bruce W; Moore, Geromy G; Singh, Rakhi; Monacell, James T; Dorner, Joe W; Stone, Eric A; Xie, De-Yu; Carbone, Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the two most important aflatoxin-producing fungi responsible for the contamination of agricultural commodities worldwide. Both species are heterothallic and undergo sexual reproduction in laboratory crosses. Here we examine the possibility of interspecific matings between A. flavus and A. parasiticus. These species can be distinguished morphologically and genetically, as well as by their mycotoxin profiles. Aspergillus flavus produces both B aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), B aflatoxins or CPA alone, or neither mycotoxin; Aspergillus parasiticus produces B and G aflatoxins or the aflatoxin precursor O-methylsterigmatocystin, but not CPA. Only four of forty-five attempted interspecific crosses between opposite mating types of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were fertile and produced viable ascospores. Single ascospore strains from each cross were shown to be recombinant hybrids using multilocus genotyping and array comparative genome hybridization. Conidia of parents and their hybrid progeny were haploid and predominantly monokaryons and dikaryons based on flow cytometry. Multilocus phylogenetic inference showed that experimental hybrid progeny were grouped with naturally occurring A. flavus L strain and A. parasiticus. Higher total aflatoxin concentrations in some F1 progeny strains compared to midpoint parent aflatoxin levels indicate synergism in aflatoxin production; moreover, three progeny strains synthesized G aflatoxins that were not produced by the parents, and there was evidence of allopolyploidization in one strain. These results suggest that hybridization is an important diversifying force resulting in the genesis of novel toxin profiles in these agriculturally important fungi.

  6. Recent advances in Progeny testing program for Nili Ravi buffalo in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaffar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Progeny testing program was started in Nili-Ravi buffalo at Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara in 1979-80. Initially buffalo bulls used at Livestock Experiment Station (LES Qadirabad and Rakh Gulaman during 1964-78 were evaluated. Five out of ten at Rakh Gulaman and 10 out of 22 at Qadirabad bulls were positive. As none of these bulls were available, therefore, sons and grandsons of these bulls were selected for production of future candidate bulls. All the buffaloes at LPRI were evaluat`ed on Most Probable Producing Ability. The elite herd thus formed was used for production for future candidate bulls. Since then a continuous program is in operation at Govt. Livestock Farms and expanded to 27 field sub-centers involving private farmers in four districts Okara, Sahiwal, Faisalabad and Pakpattan. Since the initiation of this program in 1980’s, about 174 bulls have been put under progeny testing program and 137 bulls were evaluated by Daughter-Dam Comparison, out of which sixty eight buffalo bulls contributed positively in milk production of daughters. It is worth mentioning here that milk production of registered buffalo was recorded on monthly intervals in the field along with other necessary reproduction data required to compute the different traits of economic importance.Progeny testing program was started in Nili-Ravi buffalo at Livestock Production and Research Institute (LPRI, Bahadurnagar, Okara in 1979-80. Initially buffalo bulls used at Livestock Experiment Station (LES Qadirabad and Rakh Gulaman during 1964-78 were evaluated. Five out of ten at Rakh Gulaman and 10 out of 22 at Qadirabad bulls were positive. As none of these bulls were available, therefore, sons and grandsons of these bulls were selected for production of future candidate bulls. All the buffaloes at LPRI were evaluat`ed on Most Probable Producing Ability. The elite herd thus formed was used for production for future candidate bulls

  7. Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells): Potential stem cells of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Bergen, Werner G; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, engineering and disease treatment. The dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, the multipotent capacity of DFAT cells and comparisons and contrasts with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are discussed in this review.

  8. Establishment of a Multi-color Genomic in situ Hybridization Technique to Simultaneously Discriminate the Three Interspecific Hybrid Genomes in Gossypium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Guan; Kai Wang; Bao-Liang Zhou; Wang-Zhen Guo; Tian-Zhen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    To identify alien chromosomes in recipient progenies and to analyze genome components in polyploidy, a genomic In situ hybridization (GISH) technique that is suitable for cotton was developed using increased stringency conditions. The increased stringency conditions were a combination of the four factors in the following optimized state: 100:1 ratio of blocking DNA to probe, 60% formamide wash solution, 43 =C temperature wash and a 13 min wash. Under these specific conditions using gDNA from Gossypium sturtianurn (C1C1) as a probe, strong hybridization signals were only observed on chromosomes from the C1 genome in somatic cells of the hybrid F1 (G. hirsutum×G. sturtianum) (AtDtC1). Therefore, GISH was able to discriminate parental chromosomes in the hybrid. Further, we developed a multi-color GISH to simultaneously discriminate the three genomes of the above hybrid. The results repeatedly displayed the three genomes, At, Dt, and C1, and each set of chromosomes with a unique color, making them easy to identify. The power of the multi-color GISH was proven by analysis of the hexaploid hybrid F1 (G. hirsutum × G. australe) (AtAtDtDtG2G2). We believe that the powerful multi-color GISH technique could be applied extensively to analyze the genome component in polyploidy and to identify alien chromosomes in the recipient progenies.

  9. Ploidy Analysis of Chinese Old Roses and Their Progenies%中国古老月季及其后代的倍性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莲花; 小笠原利恵; 马策; 庄得凤; 浅野阳一; 福井博一

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the ploidy of Chinese old roses and their progenies.[Method] The ploidy level of 38 roses was examined by the flow cytometry.[Result] The four Chinese old roses that influenced breeding of modern roses were diploid.Since the progenies of these Chinese old roses crossed with the tetraploid European old roses were almost tetraploid,it is probable that the progenies were arisen by the unreduced gametes of the Chinese old roses.Other Chinese old roses analysed were triploid,it was presumed that triploids and diploids were intermingled in China of the 1700s and the plant hunters preferred the more fertile Chinese old roses to be introduced to Europe.Sixteen hybrids of Chinese old rose originated in China consisted of six diploids,five triploids and five tetraploids.[Conclusion] Although these diploid Chinese roses might be the progeny brought by crossing among only Chinese old roses,it was considered that triploids and tetrapioids have been arisen by crossing between European old roses and Chineseold rose.%[目的]对中国古老月季及其后代进行倍性鉴定.[方法]利用细胞流式分析仪对38个月季品种进行了倍性鉴定.[结果]对现代月季的育成起决定性作用的4种中国古老月季是二倍体.这4种古老月季和四倍体欧洲古老月季的杂交后代几乎都是四倍体,表明后代的基因可能来自中国古老月季不减数配子.试验用的其余中国古老月季是3倍体.由此可推测十八世纪中国古老月季有2倍体和3倍体,但只有可育的2倍体月季传到了欧洲.来自中国的中国古老月季的16个杂交后代品种中,6个为2倍体,5个为三倍体,其余5个是四倍体.[结论]2倍体的中国月季可能来自中国古老月季间杂交,而3倍体和4倍体可以认为是中国古老月季和欧洲古老月季的杂交后代.

  10. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  11. Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps militaris from Multi-Ascospore Isolates and Their Single Ascospore Progeny Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Interest in commercial cultivation and product development of Cordyceps species has shown a recent increase. Due to its biochemical and pharmacological effects, Cordyceps militaris, commonly known as orange caterpillar fungus, is being investigated with great interest. Cultivation of C. militaris has been practiced on a large scale in order to fulfill a demand for scientific investigation and product development. Isolates of C. militaris can be easily established from both spores and tissue. For isolation of spores, ascospores released from mature stromata are trapped in sterile medium. Multi-ascospore isolates, as well as combinations of single ascospore strains, are used for production of fruiting bodies. Progeny ascospore strains can be isolated from artificial fruiting bodies, thus, the cycle of fruiting body production can be continued for a long period of time. In this study, we examined fruiting body production from multi-ascospore isolates and their progeny strains for three generations. F1 progeny strains generally produced a larger number of fruiting bodies, compared with their mother multi-ascospore isolates; however, F2 and F3 progeny strains produced fewer fruiting bodies. Optimum preservation conditions could help to increase the vitality of the progeny strains. In order to retain the fruiting ability of the strains, further testing of various methods of preservation and different methods for isolation should be performed. PMID:22870051

  12. Impact of Co-Culturing with Fractionated Carbon-Ion-Irradiated Cancer Cells on Bystander Normal Cells and Their Progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autsavapromporn, Narongchai; Liu, Cuihua; Konishi, Teruaki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biological effects of fractionated doses versus a single dose of high-LET carbon ions in bystander normal cells, and determine the effect on their progeny using the layered tissue co-culture system. Briefly, confluent human glioblastoma (T98G) cells received a single dose of 6 Gy or three daily doses of 2 Gy carbon ions, which were then seeded on top of an insert with bystander normal skin fibroblasts (NB1RGB) growing underneath. Cells were co-cultured for 6 h or allowed to grow for 20 population doublings, then harvested and assayed for different end points. A single dose of carbon ions resulted in less damage in bystander normal NB1RGB cells than the fractionated doses. In contrast, the progeny of bystander NB1RGB cells co-cultured with T98G cells exposed to fractionated doses showed less damage than progeny from bystander cells co-cultured with single dose glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, inhibition of gap junction communication demonstrated its involvement in the stressful effects in bystander cells and their progeny. These results indicate that dose fractionation reduced the late effect of carbon-ion exposure in the progeny of bystander cells compared to the effect in the initial bystander cells.

  13. Dynamics, deterministic nature and correlations of outdoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny concentrations measured at Bacau, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuculeanu, Vasile, E-mail: cuculeanu@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Simion, Florin [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); National Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactivity Laboratory, Splaiul Independentei 294, RO-060031 Bucharest (Romania); Simion, Elena [National Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactivity Laboratory, Splaiul Independentei 294, RO-060031 Bucharest (Romania); Geicu, Anton [National Administration of Meteorology, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-15

    The long-term variation, nature and correlations of outdoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny concentrations measured during the period 1994-2009 were investigated. The time series of data were obtained within the framework of the monitoring program performed by the Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Station (ERMS) Bacau, a component part of the National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network (NERSN), coordinated by National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA). The measuring method is based on the total beta measurements of atmospheric aerosol filters, using a low background total beta counter and ({sup 90}Sr/Y) reference standard. Analysis of the time series of progeny concentrations in the low atmosphere makes evident different patterns of variation of these concentrations: diurnal, seasonal and annual. A possible relationship of progeny concentration increase with global warming is emphasized. In order to find the dominant frequency of the physical processes determining progeny concentration variability the power spectrum has been used. The deterministic nature of the time series of concentrations has been studied making use of the autocorrelation function and stationarity of the original data and of their phase randomized time series. Also, the correlations with meteorological parameters have been investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient with corresponding level of significance. - Highlights: > Radon and thoron progeny concentrations measured on a period of 16 years. > 5 h, daily, monthly and annual patterns are pointed out. > Autocorrelation functions prove non-randomness of concentrations. > Deterministic nature of time series of concentrations is demonstrated. > Correlations with meteorological data are studied.

  14. Mapping Quantitative Field Resistance Against Apple Scab in a 'Fiesta' x 'Discovery' Progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebhard, R; Koller, B; Patocchi, A; Kellerhals, M; Pfammatter, W; Jermini, M; Gessler, C

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT Breeding of resistant apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) as a disease management strategy relies on the knowledge and understanding of the underlying genetics. The availability of molecular markers and genetic linkage maps enables the detection and the analysis of major resistance genes as well as of quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to the resistance of a genotype. Such a genetic linkage map was constructed, based on a segregating population of the cross between apple cvs. Fiesta (syn. Red Pippin) and Discovery. The progeny was observed for 3 years at three different sites in Switzerland and field resistance against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) was assessed. Only a weak correlation was detected between leaf scab and fruit scab. A QTL analysis was performed, based on the genetic linkage map consisting of 804 molecular markers and covering all 17 chromosomes of apple. With the maximum likelihood-based interval mapping method, eight genomic regions were identified, six conferring resistance against leaf scab and two conferring fruit scab resistance. Although cv. Discovery showed a much stronger resistance against scab in the field, most QTL identified were attributed to the more susceptible parent 'Fiesta'. This indicated a high degree of homozygosity at the scab resistance loci in 'Discovery', preventing their detection in the progeny due to the lack of segregation.

  15. Genetic trends in the expected progeny difference of the asymptotic weight of Nelore females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía del Valle Garnero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies on weight covering the full life cycle of Zebu cattle, and there is no entire growth description or mean growth pattern for animals belonging to this breed. In order to provide such data, 1,158 Nelore females born between 1985 and 1995 were weighed 14,563 times from birth to full growth maturity, in ten herds spread over seven Brazilian states. The Von Bertalanffy, Brody, logistic and Gompertz non-linear models were used to obtain the asymptotic weights (A and the maturation rates (K. The (covariance and breeding value components for A and K were obtained by using the multiple trait derivative free restricted maximum likelihood method under the animal model. Genetic trends were calculated in function of the mean expected progeny differences (EPD for the trait (A or K divided by the number of animals according to their year of birth. The genetic trends of the expected progeny difference with reference to the date of birth of the cows were, on average, -6.5g y-1 for A and 2.0g y-1 for K, close to zero as confirmed by the low (0.0023 to 0.003 coefficient of regression values. The curve parameters are recommended as a selection criterion to reach precocity and avoid adult weight increase in the female herd.

  16. Sex determination in beetles: Production of all male progeny by Parental RNAi knockdown of transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Sex in insects is determined by a cascade of regulators ultimately controlling sex-specific splicing of a transcription factor, Doublesex (Dsx). We recently identified homolog of dsx in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tcdsx). Here, we report on the identification and characterization of a regulator of Tcdsx splicing in T. castaneum. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of T. castaneum transformer (Tctra) were identified. RNA interference-aided knockdown of Tctra in pupa or adults caused a change in sex from females to males by diverting the splicing of Tcdsx pre-mRNA to male-specific isoform. All the pupa and adults developed from Tctra dsRNA injected final instar larvae showed male-specific sexually dimorphic structures. Tctra parental RNAi caused an elimination of females from the progeny resulting in production of all male progeny. Transformer parental RNAi could be used to produce all male population for use in pest control though sterile male release methods. PMID:22924109

  17. Comparison of remote consequences in Taraxacum officinale seed progeny collected in radioactively or chemically contaminated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V; Bezel, Victor S

    2012-10-01

    We carried out a comparative study of seed progeny taken from the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) coenopopulations exposed for a long time to radioactive or chemical contamination originated from the East-Ural radioactive trace zone (EURT) or Nizhniy Tagil metallurgical combine impact zone (NTMC), respectively. Coenopopulations from EURT, NTMC and background areas significantly differ from each other with respect to the qualitative and quantitative composition of allozyme phenes. An analysis of clonal diversity showed the uniqueness of all coenopopulations in terms of their phenogenetics. P-generation seed viability was found to decrease in a similar manner as all types of the industrial stress increased. Studies of F (1)-generation variability in radio- and metal resistance by family analysis showed that seed progeny from EURT impact zone possessed high viability that, however, was accompanied by development of latent injuries resulting in low resistance to additional man-caused impacts. In F (1)-generation originated from NTMC zone, high seed viability was combined with increased resistance to provocative heavy metal and radiation exposure. No significant differences in responses to 'habitual' and 'new' factors, i.e. pre-adaptation effect, were found in samples from the contaminated areas.