WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid pressure-gravity modes

  1. Driving and damping mechanisms in hybrid pressure-gravity modes pulsators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupret, M A [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, CNRS UMR 8109, 5 place J. Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Miglio, A; Montalban, J; Noels, A [Institut d' Astrophysique et Geophysique, Universite de Liege (Belgium); Grigahcene, A [CRAAG - Algiers Observatory BP 63 Bouzareah 16340, Algiers (Algeria)], E-mail: MA.dupret@obspm.fr

    2008-10-15

    We study the energetic aspects of hybrid pressure-gravity modes pulsations. The case of hybrid {beta} Cephei-SPB pulsators is considered with special attention. In addition to the already known sensitivity of the driving mechanism to the heavy elements mixture (mainly the iron abundance), we show that the characteristics of the propagation and evanescent regions play also a major role, determining the extension of the stable gap in the frequency domain between the unstable low order pressure and high order gravity modes. Finally, we consider the case of hybrid {delta} Sct-{gamma} Dor pulsators.

  2. Critical cladding radius for hybrid cladding modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, Romain; Leduc, Dominique; Lupi, Cyril; Lecieux, Yann

    2018-05-01

    In this article we explore some properties of the cladding modes guided by a step-index optical fiber. We show that the hybrid modes can be grouped by pairs and that it exists a critical cladding radius for which the modes of a pair share the same electromagnetic structure. We propose a robust method to determine the critical cladding radius and use it to perform a statistical study on the influence of the characteristics of the fiber on the critical cladding radius. Finally we show the importance of the critical cladding radius with respect to the coupling coefficient between the core mode and the cladding modes inside a long period grating.

  3. Mode conversion in hybrid optical fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2012-04-01

    Designing of all in-line fiber optic systems with a supercontinuum light source gives some issues. The use of a standard single mode fiber (SMF) as an input do not secure single mode transmission in full wavelength range. In the paper, the experimental results of the tested hybrid fiber optic coupler were presented. It was manufactured by fusing a standard single mode fiber (SMF28) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process is based on the standard fused biconical taper technique. Two types of large mode area fibers (LMA8 and LAM10 NKT Photonics) with different air holes arrangements were used as the photonic crystal fiber. Spectral characteristics within the range of 800 nm - 1700 nm were presented. All process was optimized to obtain a mode conversion between SMF and PCF and to reach a single mode transmission in the PCF output of the coupler.

  4. Simulation and Analysis of the Hybrid Operating Mode in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Budny, R.V.; Indireshkumar, K.

    2005-01-01

    The hybrid operating mode in ITER is examined with 0D systems analysis, 1.5D discharge scenario simulations using TSC and TRANSP, and the ideal MHD stability is discussed. The hybrid mode has the potential to provide very long pulses and significant neutron fluence if the physics regime can be produced in ITER. This paper reports progress in establishing the physics basis and engineering limitation for the hybrid mode in ITER

  5. Nonlinear spatial mode imaging of hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Degenerate spontaneous four wave mixing is studied for the rst time in a large mode area hybrid photonic crystal ber, where light con nement is achieved by combined index- and bandgap guiding. Four wave mixing products are generated on the edges of the bandgaps, which is veri ed by numerical and ...... and experimental results. Since the core mode is in resonance with cladding modes near the bandedges an unconventional measurement technique is used, in this work named nonlinear spatial mode imaging....

  6. Mode coupling in hybrid square-rectangular lasers for single mode operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiu-Wen; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Weng, Hai-Zhong; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Mode coupling between a square microcavity and a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is proposed and demonstrated for realizing single mode lasers. The modulations of the mode Q factor as simulation results are observed and single mode operation is obtained with a side mode suppression ratio of 46 dB and a single mode fiber coupling loss of 3.2 dB for an AlGaInAs/InP hybrid laser as a 300-μm-length and 1.5-μm-wide FP cavity connected to a vertex of a 10-μm-side square microcavity. Furthermore, tunable single mode operation is demonstrated with a continuous wavelength tuning range over 10 nm. The simple hybrid structure may shed light on practical applications of whispering-gallery mode microcavities in large-scale photonic integrated circuits and optical communication and interconnection.

  7. General motors front wheel drive 2-mode hybrid transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, James [General Motors Corp., Pontiac, MI (United States). New Transmission Products Group.; Holmes, Alan G. [General Motors Corp., Pontiac, MI (United States). Powertrain Hybrid Architecture

    2009-07-01

    General Motors now expands the application of two-mode hybrid technology to front wheel drive vehicles with the development of a hybrid electric transmission packaged into essentially the same space as a conventional automatic transmission for front wheel drive. This was accomplished using a space-efficient arrangement based on two planetary gear sets and electric motor-generators with large internal diameters. A combination of damper and hydraulically-controlled clutch allow comfortable shutdown and restarting of large-displacement engines in front wheel drive vehicles. The hybrid system delivers electric low-speed urban driving, two continuously variable ranges of transmission speed ratios, four fixed transmission speed ratios, electric acceleration boosting, and regenerative braking. In the first vehicle application, the two-mode hybrid helps to reduce vehicle fuel consumption by approximately one-third. (orig.)

  8. Nonlinear effects on mode-converted lower-hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    Nonlinear ponderomotive force effects on mode-converted lower-hybrid waves are considered. The nonlinear distortion of these waves is shown to be governed by the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The threshold condition for self-focusing and filamentation is derived

  9. Monolithic Hybrid and Passive Mode-Locked 40GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, M. G.; Larsson, David; Rae, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time hybrid and passive mode-locking jitter performance is investigated in 40GHz quantum-dot mode-locked lasers. Record low passive mode-locking jitter of 219fs is presented, along with promising hybrid mode-locking results of 124fs.......For the first time hybrid and passive mode-locking jitter performance is investigated in 40GHz quantum-dot mode-locked lasers. Record low passive mode-locking jitter of 219fs is presented, along with promising hybrid mode-locking results of 124fs....

  10. Hybrid Surface Plasmon Polariton Modes of Subwavelength Nanowire Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    -localized gap plasmon mode are studied depending on the vacuum wavelength. In order to directly compare resonators, where metal and semiconductor nanowires are employed, we consider the two resonators, both including silver slab and magnesium fluoride gap region, as is shown in figure. The two compared......We perform Comsol simulations of two types of hybrid plasmonic resonator configurations, similar to those proposed for nanowire plasmonic laser in [1] and [2]. In both references the nanowire - based plasmonic resonators are studied, which overall sizes are larger than the wavelength in vacuum....... However, it is advantageous for the nanolaser to have subwavelength sizes at least in two dimensions. Therefore, we study the two configurations and the hybrid mode behavior in the case, where resonator sizes are smaller than the half of the wavelength in vacuum. First, we assume finite dimensions...

  11. Development of a hybrid mode linear transformer driver stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Liangji; Tian, Qing; Guo, Fan; Wang, Lingyun; Qing, Yanling; Zhao, Yue; Dai, Yingmin; Han, Wenhui; Chen, Lin; Xie, Weiping

    2018-02-01

    At present, the mainstream technologies of primary power sources of large pulse power devices adopt Marx or linear transformer driver (LTD) designs. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of these two types of circuit topologies, the concept of a hybrid mode LTD stage based on Marx branches is proposed. The analysis shows that the hybrid mode LTD stage can realize the following goals: (a) to reduce the energy and power handled by the basic components (switch and capacitor) to lengthen their lifetime; (b) to reduce the requirements of the multipath synchronous trigger system; and (c) to improve the maintainability of the LTD stage by using independent Marx generators instead of "traditional LTD bricks." To verify the technique, a hybrid mode LTD stage consisting of 50 branches (four-stage compact Marx generators) was designed, manufactured and tested. The stage has a radius of about 3.3 m and a height of 0.6 m. The single Marx circuit's load current is about 21 kA, with a rise time of ˜90 ns (10%-90%), under the conditions of capacitors charged to ±40 kV and a 6.9 Ω matched load. The whole stage's load current is ˜1 MA , with a rise time of ˜112 ns (10%-90%), when the capacitors are charged to ±45 kV and the matched load is 0.14 Ω .

  12. Effect of toroidicity during lower hybrid mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyopoulos, S.; Mahajan, S.

    1985-11-01

    The effect of toroidicity during lower hybrid mode conversion is examined by treating the wave propagation in an inhomogeneous medium as an eigenvalue problem for ω 2 (m,n),m,n poloidal and toroidal wave numbers. Since the frequency regime near ω 2 = ω/sub LH/ 2 is an accumulation point for the eigenvalue spectrum, the degenerate perturbation technique must be applied. The toroidal eigenmodes are constructed by a zeroth order superposition of monochromatic solutions with different poloidal dependence m, thus they generically exhibit a wide spectrum in k/sub parallel/ for given fixed ω 2 even for small inverse aspect ratio epsilon. In case that the average is in the neighborhood of k/sub min/, the minimum wave number for accessibility of the mode conversion regime, it is expected that excitation of toroidal modes rather than geometric optics will determine the wave coupling to the plasma

  13. Development of a multi-mode hybrid electric bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmans, M.J. [Overland Custom Coach, Thorndale, ON (Canada); Bland, C. [BET Services Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes the development of an energy efficient, low floor, 28 foot hybrid electric bus for use as an airport shuttle bus or other specialized transit operations. A multi-mode concept was also adopted to include the capability of operating in battery-only drive, engine-only drive or a range of hybrid electric drive modes. The electric drivetrain was powered by a battery pack or a combination of a battery pack and an internal combustion engine-powered electric generator. The participating companies in this project include Overland Custom Coach, BET Services Inc., Siemens and Transport Canada. The technical feasibility study was described with reference to duty cycles, performance issues, vehicle weight, mechanical drive issues, brakes, suspension, powertrain cooling, heating, ventilation, electrical system, batteries and control system. The commercial feasibility was also described in terms of capital and operating costs. Results of the prototype tests validate the possibilities of zero or reduced emission transit in real world applications. 25 tabs., 32 figs.

  14. Multi-dimensional conversion to the ion-hybrid mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, E.R.; Kaufman, A.N.; Brizard, A.J.; Morehead, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    We first demonstrate that the dispersion matrix for linear conversion of a magnetosonic wave to an ion-hybrid wave (as in a D-T plasma) can be congruently transformed to Friedland's normal form. As a result, this conversion can be represented as a two-step process of successive linear conversions in phase space. We then proceed to study the multi-dimensional case of tokamak geometry. After fourier transforming the toroidal dependence, we deal with the two-dimensional poloidal xy-plane and the two-dimensional k x k y -plane, forming a four-dimensional phase space. The dispersion manifolds for the magnetosonic wave [D M (x, k) = 0] and the ion-hybrid wave [D H (x, k) = 0] are each three-dimensional. (Their intersection, on which mode conversion occurs, is two-dimensional.) The incident magnetosonic wave (radiated by an antenna) is a two-dimensional set of rays (a lagrangian manifold): k(x) = ∇θ(x), with θ(x) the phase of the magnetosonic wave. When these rays pierce the ion-hybrid dispersion manifold, they convert to a set of ion-hybrid rays. Then, when those rays intersect the magnetosonic dispersion manifold, they convert to a set of open-quotes reflectedclose quotes magnetosonic rays. This set of rays is distinct from the set of incident rays that have been reflected by the inner surface of the tokamak plasma. As a result, the total destructive interference that can occur in the one-dimensional case may become only partial. We explore the implications of this startling phenomenon both analytically and geometrically

  15. Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2014-01-01

    Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. Different FWM processes are observed, phasematching between fiber modes of orthogonal polarization, intermodal phasematching across bandgaps, and intramodal...

  16. Comparison of hybrid and baseline ELMy H-mode confinement in JET with the carbon wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, M. N. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Challis, C.; Osborne, T.; Snyder, P. B.; Alper, B.; Angioni, C.; Bourdelle, C.; Buratti, P.; Crisanti, F.; Giovannozzi, E.; Giroud, C.; Groebner, R.; Hobirk, J.; Jenkins, I.; Joffrin, E.; Leyland, M. J.; Lomas, P.; Mantica, P.; McDonald, D.; Nunes, I.; Rimini, F.; Saarelma, S.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; P. de Vries,; Zarzoso, D.

    2013-01-01

    The confinement in JET baseline type I ELMy H-mode plasmas is compared to that in so-called hybrid H-modes in a database study of 112 plasmas in JET with the carbon fibre composite (CFC) wall. The baseline plasmas typically have beta(Nu) similar to 1.5-2, H-98 similar to 1, whereas the hybrid

  17. Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yang; Chao Wang; Quanrang Zhang; Xiaolong He

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-dow...

  18. A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Qijing; Chen, Daru; Wu, Genzhu; Peng, Baojin; Xu, Jiancheng

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid plasmonic microcavity which is composed of a silver nanoring and a silica toroidal microcavity. The hybrid mode of the proposed hybrid plasmonic microcavity due to the coupling between the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and the dielectric mode is demonstrated with a high quality factor (>1000) and an ultrasmall mode volume (∼0.8 μm 3 ). This microcavity shows great potential in fundamental studies of nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) and applications in low-threshold plasmonic microlasers. (paper)

  19. Stabilization of ion temperature gradient driven modes by lower hybrid wave in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuley, Animesh; Tripathi, V. K.

    2009-01-01

    A gyrokinetic formalism has been developed to study lower hybrid wave stabilization of ion temperature gradient driven modes, responsible for anomalous ion transport in the inner region of tokamak. The parametric coupling between lower hybrid and drift waves produce lower hybrid sideband waves. The pump and the sidebands exert a ponderomotive force on electrons, modifying the eigenfrequency of the drift wave and influencing the growth rate. The longer wavelength drift waves are destabilized by the lower hybrid wave while the shorter wavelengths are suppressed. The requiste lower hybrid power is in the range of ∼900 kW at 4.6 GHz.

  20. Global Hybrid Simulations of Energetic Particle-driven Modes in Toroidal Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, G.Y.; Breslau, J.; Fredrickson, E.; Park, W.; Strauss, H.R.

    2004-01-01

    Global hybrid simulations of energetic particle-driven MHD modes have been carried out for tokamaks and spherical tokamaks using the hybrid code M3D. The numerical results for the National Spherical Tokamak Experiments (NSTX) show that Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes are excited by beam ions with their frequencies consistent with the experimental observations. Nonlinear simulations indicate that the n=2 mode frequency chirps down as the mode moves out radially. For ITER, it is shown that the alpha-particle effects are strongly stabilizing for internal kink mode when central safety factor q(0) is sufficiently close to unity. However, the elongation of ITER plasma shape reduces the stabilization significantly

  1. Intermodal parametric gain of degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2013-01-01

    Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process.......Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process....

  2. Investigation of lower hybrid current drive during H-mode in EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Miao-Hui; Ding Bo-Jiang; Kong Er-Hua; Zhang Lei; Zhang Xin-Jun; Qian Jin-Ping; Yan Ning; Han Xiao-Feng; Shan Jia-Fang; Liu Fu-Kun; Wang Mao; Xu Han-Dong; Wan Bao-Nian

    2011-01-01

    H-mode discharges with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) alone are achieved in EAST divertor plasma over a wide parameter range. These H-mode discharges are characterized by a sudden drop in D α emission and a spontaneous rise in main plasma density. Good lower hybrid (LH) coupling during H-mode is obtained by putting the plasma close to the antenna and by injecting D 2 gas from a pipe near the grill mouse. The analysis of lower hybrid current drive properties shows that the LH deposition profile shifts off axis during H-mode, and current drive (CD) efficiency decreases due to the increase in density. Modeling results of H-mode discharges with a general ray tracing code GENRAY are reported. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  3. Disturbance observer-based adaptive sliding mode hybrid projective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayub Khan

    2018-04-21

    Apr 21, 2018 ... systems, the effect of external disturbances, energy fluc- tuation and other such ...... When we apply the above proposed strategy to achieve hybrid projective ..... ory and intelligent control (Springer, 2016) pp. 681–. 697.

  4. Low-frequency dust-lower-hybrid modes in a dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.

    1995-10-01

    The existence of low-frequency dust-lower-hybrid modes in a magnetized dusty plasma has been examined. These modes arise on account of the inequalities of charge and number densities of electrons, ions, and dust particles, and finite Larmor radius effects in a dusty plasma. (author). 14 refs

  5. Full wave simulations of fast wave mode conversion and lower hybrid wave propagation in tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, J.C.; Bonoli, P.T.; Brambilla, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast wave (FW) studies of mode conversion (MC) processes at the ion-ion hybrid layer in toroidal plasmas must capture the disparate scales of the FW and mode converted ion Bernstein and ion cyclotron waves. Correct modeling of the MC layer requires resolving wavelengths on the order of k...

  6. Onset of Bonding Plasmon Hybridization Preceded by Gap Modes in Dielectric Splitting of Metal Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maj; Bochenkov, Vladimir; Ogaki, Ryosuke

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric splitting of nanoscale disks was studied experimentally and via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations through systematic introduction of multiple ultrathin dielectric layers. Tunable, hybridized dark bonding modes were seen with first-order gap modes preceding the appearance...

  7. Influence of field and geometric configurations on the mode conversion characteristics of hybrid waves in a magnetoplasma slab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The mode conversion characteristics of hybrid surface waves are investigated in a magneto dusty plasma slab. • Upper- and lower-hybrid waves are found for the symmetric mode when the magnetic field is parallel to the slab surfaces. • The hybrid property of the surface waves disappears for the anti-symmetric mode. • The variations of the surface hybrid waves with the change of field and geometric configurations are also discussed. - Abstract: We explore the mode conversion characteristics of electrostatic hybrid surface waves due to the magnetic field orientation in a magnetoplasma slab. We obtain the dispersion relations for the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of hybrid surface waves for two different magnetic field configurations: parallel and perpendicular. For the parallel magnetic field configuration, we have found that the symmetric mode propagates as upper- and lower-hybrid waves. However, the hybrid characteristics disappear and two non-hybrid waves are produced for the anti-symmetric mode. For the perpendicular magnetic field configuration, however, the anti-symmetric mode propagates as the upper- and lower-hybrid waves and the symmetric mode produces two non-hybrid branches of waves.

  8. Influence of field and geometric configurations on the mode conversion characteristics of hybrid waves in a magnetoplasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The mode conversion characteristics of hybrid surface waves are investigated in a magneto dusty plasma slab. • Upper- and lower-hybrid waves are found for the symmetric mode when the magnetic field is parallel to the slab surfaces. • The hybrid property of the surface waves disappears for the anti-symmetric mode. • The variations of the surface hybrid waves with the change of field and geometric configurations are also discussed. - Abstract: We explore the mode conversion characteristics of electrostatic hybrid surface waves due to the magnetic field orientation in a magnetoplasma slab. We obtain the dispersion relations for the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of hybrid surface waves for two different magnetic field configurations: parallel and perpendicular. For the parallel magnetic field configuration, we have found that the symmetric mode propagates as upper- and lower-hybrid waves. However, the hybrid characteristics disappear and two non-hybrid waves are produced for the anti-symmetric mode. For the perpendicular magnetic field configuration, however, the anti-symmetric mode propagates as the upper- and lower-hybrid waves and the symmetric mode produces two non-hybrid branches of waves.

  9. Flow shear stabilization of hybrid electron-ion drift mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, L.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a model of sheared flow stabilization on hybrid electron-ion drift mode is proposed. At first, in the presence of dissipative trapped electrons, there exists an intrinsic oscillation mode in tokamak plasmas, namely hybrid dissipative trapped electron-ion temperature gradient mode (hereafter, called as hybrid electron-ion drift mode). This conclusion is in agreement with the observations in the simulated tokamak experiment on the CLM. Then, it is found that the coupling between the sheared flows and dissipative trapped electrons is proposed as the stabilization mechanism of both toroidal sheared flow and poloidal sheared flow on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode, that is, similar to the stabilizing effect of poloidal sheared flow on edge plasmas in tokamaks, in the presence of both dissipative trapped electrons and toroidal sheared flow, large toroidal sheared flow is always a strong stabilizing effect on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode in internal transport barrier location, too. This result is consistent with the experimental observations in JT-60U. (author)

  10. Flow shear stabilization of hybrid electron-ion drift mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model of sheared flow stabilization on hybrid electron-ion drift mode is proposed. At first, in the presence of dissipative trapped electrons, there exists an intrinsic oscillation mode in tokamak plasmas, namely hybrid dissipative trapped electron-ion temperature gradient mode (hereafter, called as hybrid electron-ion drift mode). This conclusion is in agreement with the observations in the simulated tokamak experiment on the CLM. Then, it is found that the coupling between the sheared flows and dissipative trapped electrons is proposed as the stabilization mechanism of both toroidal sheared flow and poloidal sheared flow on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode, that is, similar to the stabilizing effect of poloidal sheared flow on edge plasmas in tokamaks, in the presence of both dissipative trapped electrons and toroidal sheared flow, large toroidal sheared flow is always a strong stabilizing effect on the hybrid electron-ion drift mode in internal transport barrier location, too. This result is consistent with the experimental observations in JT-60U. (author)

  11. Tearing modes in tokamaks with lower hybrid current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.

    1990-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of current drive on the tearing modes in the semi-collisional regime is analyzed using the drift-kinetic equation. A collisional operator is developed to model electron parallel conductivity. For the pure tearing modes the linear and quasilinear growth rates in the Rutherford regimes have been found to have roughly the same forms with a modified resistivity as without current drive. One interesting result is the prediction of a new instability. This instability, driven by the current gradient inside the tearing mode layer, is possibly related to MHD behavior observed in these experiments. 9 refs

  12. Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-down and motor braking forces. The control strategy of type two is achieved by simultaneously changing the target braking torque during different mode switch stages and controlling the motor to participate in active coordination control. Finally, the torque coordination control strategy is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink, and the results show that the proposed control strategy has a good effect in reducing the braking torque fluctuation and vehicle shocks during braking mode switches.

  13. Enhanced coupling of the fast wave to electrons through mode conversion to the ion hybrid wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Fuchs, V.; Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.

    1996-07-01

    The mode conversion of the fast compressional Alfven wave to the ion hybrid wave is analyzed with particular reference to a plasma with two ion species present in approximately equal proportions. Two configurations are considered, the first referring to the usual resonance-cut-off case and the second to a cut-off-resonance-cut-off situation. The optimum conditions for maximising the mode converted energy are given. The second order fast wave equation is generalised to include the effect of the parallel electric field. Hence, all ion and electron loss mechanisms for the fast wave are incorporated, including mode conversion at the two-ion hybrid resonance. The significance of the approximate equality of the two ion species concentrations is that the mode converted ion hybrid wave is damped only by the electrons. The damping of the ion hybrid wave is described with the aid of the local dispersion relation and by means of a toroidal ray tracing code. In particular, the ray tracing calculation shows that the mode converted energy is totally absorbed by the electrons close to the two-ion hybrid resonance. The generalised fast wave equation is solved to determine how much energy is lost from the fast wave, incident from the low field side, before it encounters the two-ion hybrid resonance. For comparable concentrations of the two ion species, the mode converted power can be separated from the power directly absorbed by the ions and electrons from the fast wave. This allows the conditions to be ascertained under which strong electron heating through mode conversion dominates the direct dissipation of the fast wave. (UK)

  14. Study on modes of energy action in laser-induction hybrid cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yongjun; Zeng Xiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    The shape and microstructure in laser-induction hybrid cladding were investigated, in which the cladding material was provided by means of three different methods including the powder feeding, cold pre-placed coating (CPPC) and thermal pre-placed coating (TPPC). Moreover, the modes of energy action in laser-induction hybrid cladding were also studied. The results indicate that the cladding material supplying method has an important influence on the shape and microstructure of coating. The influence is decided by the mode of energy action in laser-induction hybrid cladding. During the TPPC hybrid cladding of Ni-based alloy, the laser and induction heating are mainly performed on coating. During the CPPC hybrid cladding of Ni-based alloy, the laser and induction heating are mainly performed on coating and substrate surface, respectively. In powder feeding hybrid cladding, a part of laser is absorbed by the powder particles directly, while the other part of laser penetrating powder cloud radiates on the molten pool. Meanwhile, the induction heating is entirely performed on the substrate. In addition, the wetting property on the interface is improved and the metallurgical bond between the coating and substrate is much easier to form. Therefore, the powder feeding laser-induction hybrid cladding has the highest cladding efficiency and the best bond property among three hybrid cladding methods.

  15. Hybrid-mode interleaved boost converter design for fuel cell electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Huiqing; Su, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A high power interleaved boost converter is designed for a 150 kW high-power fuel cell electric vehicle application. • A hybrid-mode scheme is used: Mode I and mode II are used with each boost converter operating in continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode. • Boundary conditions for different modes are determined with respect to switching duty ratio and load conditions. • With the proposed scheme, the power density is improved by 44.2% and 34.3% in terms of the converter volume and weight. - Abstract: For Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, DC-DC power converters are essential to provide energy storage buffers between fuel cell stacks and the traction system because fuel cells show characteristics of low-voltage high-current output and wide output voltage variation. This paper presents a hybrid-mode two-phase interleaved boost converter for fuel cell electric vehicle application in order to improve the power density, minimize the input current ripple, and enhance the system efficiency. Two operation modes are adopted in the practical design: mode I and mode II are used with each boost converter operating in continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode. The operation, design and control of the interleaved boost converter for different operating modes are discussed with their equivalent circuits. The boundary conditions are distinguished with respect to switching duty ratio and load conditions. Transitions between continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode are illustrated for the whole duty ratio range. The expressions for inductor current ripple, input current ripple and output voltage ripple are derived and verified by simulation and experimental tests. The efficiency and power density improvements are illustrated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed design scheme.

  16. Control and fault diagnosis based sliding mode observer of a multicellular converter: Hybrid approach

    KAUST Repository

    Benzineb, Omar

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the diagnosis of a three cell converter is developed. The hybrid nature of the system represented by the presence of continuous and discrete dynamics is taken into account in the control design. The idea is based on using a hybrid control and an observer-type sliding mode to generate residuals from the observation errors of the system. The simulation results are presented at the end to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach. © 2013 FEI STU.

  17. Mode transition coordinated control for a compound power-split hybrid car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Tong; Li, Mengna

    2017-03-01

    With a compound power-split transmission directly connected to the engine in hybrid cars, dramatic fluctuations in engine output torque result in noticeable jerks when the car is in mode transition from electric drive mode to hybrid drive mode. This study designed a mode transition coordinated control strategy, and verified that strategy's effectiveness with both simulations and experiments. Firstly, the mode transition process was analyzed, and ride comfort issues during the mode transition process were demonstrated. Secondly, engine ripple torque was modeled using the measured cylinder pumping pressure when the engine was not in operation. The complete dynamic plant model of the power-split hybrid car was deduced, and its effectiveness was validated by a comparison of experimental and simulation results. Thirdly, a coordinated control strategy was designed to determine the desired engine torque, motor torque, and the moment of fuel injection. Active damping control with two degrees of freedom, based on reference output shaft speed estimation, was designed to mitigate driveline speed oscillations. Carrier torque estimation based on transmission kinematics and dynamics was used to suppress torque disturbance during engine cranking. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy effectively suppressed vehicle jerks and improved ride comfort during mode transition.

  18. Mode conversion of lower hybrid waves at high ion cyclotron harmonics. Appendix F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.; Cho, S.

    1985-05-01

    The problem of ion cyclotron harmonic absorption for a lower hybrid wave is shown to be a mode conversion problem. A new form of the dispersion relation is developed and then expanded to get a differential equation identical to that for the second harmonic problem. The validity of this model is restricted to the region far from the lower hybrid resonance layer. It is shown that mode couplings occur among the incident cold wave and two other waves, and the tunneling factor becomes singular there

  19. Strong toroidal effects on tokamak tearing mode stability in the hybrid and conventional scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, C J; Connor, J W; Cowley, S C; Gimblett, C G; Hastie, R J; Hender, T C; Martin, T J

    2012-01-01

    The hybrid scenario is thought to be an important mode of operation for the ITER tokamak. Analytic and numerical calculations demonstrate that toroidal effects at finite β have a strong influence on tearing mode stability of hybrid modes. Indeed, they persist in the large aspect ratio limit, R/a → ∞. A similar strong coupling effect is found between the m = 1, n = 1 harmonic and the m = 2, n = 1 harmonic if the minimum safety factor is less than unity. In both cases the tearing stability index, Δ′ increases rapidly as β approaches ideal marginal stability, providing a potential explanation for the onset of linearly unstable tearing modes. The numerical calculations have used an improved version of the T7 code (Fitzpatrick et al 1993 Nucl. Fusion 33 1533), and complete agreement is obtained with the analytic theory for this demanding test of the code. (paper)

  20. Mode Shift Control for a Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicle with Power-Split Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that power-split transmission (PST is considered to be a major powertrain technology for hybrid heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, the development and application of PST in the HDVs make mode shift control an essential aspect of powertrain system design. This paper presents a shift schedule design and torque control strategy for a hybrid HDV with PST during mode shift, intended to reduce the output torque variation and improve the shift quality (SQ. Firstly, detailed dynamic models of the hybrid HDV are developed to analyze the mode shift characteristics. Then, a gear shift schedule calculation method including a dynamic shift schedule and an economic shift schedule is provided. Based on the dynamic models and the designed shift schedule, a mode shift performance simulator is built using MATLAB/Simulink, and simulations are carried out. Through analysis of the dynamic equations, it is seen that the inertia torques of the motor–generator lead to the occurrence of transition torque. To avoid the unwanted transition torque, we use a mode shift control strategy that coordinates the motor–generator torque to compensate for the transition torque. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the output torque variation during mode shift is effectively reduced by the proposed control strategy, thereby improving the SQ.

  1. Hybrid empirical mode decomposition- ARIMA for forecasting exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadan, Siti Sarah; Shabri, Ani; Ismail, Shuhaida

    2015-02-01

    This paper studied the forecasting of monthly Malaysian Ringgit (MYR)/ United State Dollar (USD) exchange rates using the hybrid of two methods which are the empirical model decomposition (EMD) and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). MYR is pegged to USD during the Asian financial crisis causing the exchange rates are fixed to 3.800 from 2nd of September 1998 until 21st of July 2005. Thus, the chosen data in this paper is the post-July 2005 data, starting from August 2005 to July 2010. The comparative study using root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) showed that the EMD-ARIMA outperformed the single-ARIMA and the random walk benchmark model.

  2. Mode conversion of fast Alfvacute en waves at the ion endash ion hybrid resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.; Schultz, S.D.; Fuchs, V.

    1996-01-01

    Substantial radio-frequency power in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies can be effectively coupled to a tokamak plasma from poloidal current strap antennas at the plasma edge. If there exists an ion endash ion hybrid resonance inside the plasma, then some of the power from the antenna, delivered into the plasma by fast Alfvacute en waves, can be mode converted to ion-Bernstein waves. In tokamak confinement fields the mode-converted ion-Bernstein waves can damp effectively and locally on electrons [A. K. Ram and A. Bers, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1059 (1991)]. The usual mode-conversion analysis that studies the propagation of fast Alfvacute en waves in the immediate vicinity of the ion endash ion hybrid resonance is extended to include the propagation and reflection of the fast Alfvacute en waves on the high magnetic-field side of the ion endash ion hybrid resonance. It is shown that there exist plasma conditions for which the entire fast Alfvacute en wave power incident on the ion endash ion hybrid resonance can be converted to ion-Bernstein waves. In this extended analysis of the mode conversion process, the fast Alfvacute en waves can be envisioned as being coupled to an internal plasma resonator. This resonator extends from the low magnetic-field cutoff near the ion endash ion hybrid resonance to the high magnetic-field cutoff. The condition for 100% mode conversion corresponds to a critical coupling of the fast Alfvacute en waves to this internal resonator. As an example, the appropriate plasma conditions for 100% mode conversion are determined for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [R. Majeski et al., Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on RF Power in Plasmas, Palm Springs (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1995), Vol. 355, p. 63] experimental parameters. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. Tamm-plasmon and surface-plasmon hybrid-mode based refractometry in photonic bandgap structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ritwick; Srivastava, Triranjita; Jha, Rajan

    2014-02-15

    The transverse magnetic (TM) polarized hybrid modes formed as a consequence of coupling between Tamm plasmon polariton (TM-TPP) mode and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode exhibit interesting dispersive features for realizing a highly sensitive and accurate surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. We found that the TM-TPP modes, formed at the interface of distributed Bragg reflector and metal, are strongly dispersive as compared to SPP modes at optical frequencies. This causes an appreciably narrow interaction bandwidth between TM-TPP and SPP modes, which leads to highly accurate sensing. In addition, appropriate tailoring of dispersion characteristics of TM-TPP as well as SPP modes could ensure high sensitivity of a novel SPR platform. By suitably designing the Au/TiO₂/SiO₂-based geometry, we propose a TM-TPP/SPP hybrid-mode sensor and achieve a sensitivity ≥900  nm/RIU with high detection accuracy (≥30  μm⁻¹) for analyte refractive indices varying between 1.330 and 1.345 in 600-700 nm wavelength range. The possibility to achieve desired dispersive behavior in any spectral band makes the sensing configuration an extremely attractive candidate to design sensors depending on the availability of optical sources.

  4. Dust-cyclotron and dust-lower-hybrid modes in self-gravitating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cantly modifies the dispersion properties of these two electrostatic modes. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical dusty plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems and cometary tails, are briefly mentioned. Keywords. Dusty plasmas; dust-cyclotron waves; dust-lower-hybrid waves.

  5. Hybrid code simulation on mode conversion in the second harmonic ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, K.; Takeuchi, S.; Matsumoto, M.; Sugihara, R.

    1985-01-01

    ICRF second harmonic heating of a single-species plasma is studied by using a 1-1/2 dimensional quasi-neutral hybrid code. Mode conversion, transmission and reflection of the magnetosonic waves are confirmed, both for the high- and low-field-side excitations. The ion heating by waves propagating perpendicularly to the static magnetic field is also observed

  6. A net normal dispersion all-fiber laser using a hybrid mode-locking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bo; Martinez, Amos; Yamashita, Shinji; Set, Sze Yun; Goh, Chee Seong

    2014-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an all-fiber, dispersion-mapped, erbium-doped fiber laser with net normal dispersion generating dissipative solitons. The laser is mode-locked by a hybrid mode-locking mechanism consisting of a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror and a carbon nanotube saturable absorber. We achieve self-starting, mode-locked operation generating 2.75 nJ pulses at a fundamental repetition rate of 10.22 MHz with remarkable long term stability. (letter)

  7. Single mode operation of a hybrid optically pumped D2O far infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, D.C.; Siegrist, M.R.

    1990-04-01

    We have achieved single mode operation in a hybrid optically pumped D 2 O far infrared laser. The active volume of the resonator was divided into two sections separated by a thin plastic foil. The larger section served as the main gain medium and the shorter section as mode selective element. The vapor pressure in the smaller volume was either very low or alternatively about 3 times higher than the pressure in the main part. In both cases single mode operation was achieved without any reduction of the total output energy. (author) 13 refs., 7 figs

  8. Detecting Urban Transport Modes Using a Hybrid Knowledge Driven Framework from GPS Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Deb Das

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transport mode information is essential for understanding people’s movement behavior and travel demand estimation. Current approaches extract travel information once the travel is complete. Such approaches are limited in terms of generating just-in-time information for a number of mobility based applications, e.g., real time mode specific patronage estimation. In order to detect the transport modalities from GPS trajectories, various machine learning approaches have already been explored. However, the majority of them produce only a single conclusion from a given set of evidences, ignoring the uncertainty of any mode classification. Also, the existing machine learning approaches fall short in explaining their reasoning scheme. In contrast, a fuzzy expert system can explain its reasoning scheme in a human readable format along with a provision of inferring different outcome possibilities, but lacks the adaptivity and learning ability of machine learning. In this paper, a novel hybrid knowledge driven framework is developed by integrating a fuzzy logic and a neural network to complement each other’s limitations. Thus the aim of this paper is to automate the tuning process in order to generate an intelligent hybrid model that can perform effectively in near-real time mode detection using GPS trajectory. Tests demonstrate that a hybrid knowledge driven model works better than a purely knowledge driven model and at per the machine learning models in the context of transport mode detection.

  9. Dephasing of LO-phonon-plasmon hybrid modes in n-type GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, F.; Ganikhanov, F.; Bogani, F.

    1997-11-01

    The relaxation dynamics of coherent phononlike LO-phonon-plasmon hybrid modes is investigated in n-doped GaAs using an infrared time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering technique. Measurements performed for different crystal temperatures in the range 10-300 K as a function of the electron density injected by doping show a large reduction of the hybrid mode dephasing time compared to the bare LO-phonon one for densities larger than 1016 cm-3. The results are interpreted in terms of coherent decay of the LO-phonon-plasmon mixed mode in the weak-coupling regime and yield information on the plasmon and electron relaxation. The estimated average electron momentum relaxation times are smaller than those deduced from Hall mobility measurements, as expected from our theoretical model.

  10. Dust-cyclotron and dust-lower-hybrid modes in self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A.A.

    1999-07-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made of two new ultra-low-frequency electrostatic modes, namely, dust-cyclotron mode and dust-lower-hybrid mode, propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field, in a self-gravitating magnetized two fluid dusty plasma system. It has been shown that the effect of the self-gravitational force, acting on both dust grains and ions, significantly modifies the dispersion properties of both of these two electrostatic modes. It is also found that under certain conditions, this self-gravitational effect can destabilize these ultra-low-frequency electrostatic modes. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical dusty plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems and cometary tails, are briefly mentioned. (author)

  11. Strong electron dissipation by a mode converted ion hybrid (Bernstein) wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Ram, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The fast wave approximation, extended to include the effects of electron dissipation, is used to calculate the power mode converted to the ion hybrid (Bernstein) wave in the vicinity of the ion hybrid resonance. The power absorbed from the fast wave by ion cyclotron damping and by electron Landau and transit time damping (including cross terms) is also calculated. The fast wave equation is solved for either the Budden configuration of a cut-off-resonance pair or the triplet configuration of cut-off-resonance-cut-off. The fraction mode converted is compared for the triplet case and the Budden multi-pass situation. The electron damping rate of the ion hybrid wave is obtained from the local dispersion relation and a ray tracing code is used to calculate the damping of the mode converted ion hybrid wave by the electrons as it propagates away from the resonance. Quantitative results for a range of conditions relevant to JET, TFTR and ITER are given. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Reliability and Failure Modes of a Hybrid Ceramic Abutment Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nelson Rfa; Teixeira, Hellen S; Silveira, Lucas M; Bonfante, Estevam A; Coelho, Paulo G; Thompson, Van P

    2018-01-01

    A ceramic and metal abutment prototype was fatigue tested to determine the probability of survival at various loads. Lithium disilicate CAD-milled abutments (n = 24) were cemented to titanium sleeve inserts and then screw attached to titanium fixtures. The assembly was then embedded at a 30° angle in polymethylmethacrylate. Each (n = 24) was restored with a resin-cemented machined lithium disilicate all-ceramic central incisor crown. Single load (lingual-incisal contact) to failure was determined for three specimens. Fatigue testing (n = 21) was conducted employing the step-stress method with lingual mouth motion loading. Failures were recorded, and reliability calculations were performed using proprietary software. Probability Weibull curves were calculated with 90% confidence bounds. Fracture modes were classified with a stereomicroscope, and representative samples imaged with scanning electron microscopy. Fatigue results indicated that the limiting factor in the current design is the fatigue strength of the abutment screw, where screw fracture often leads to failure of the abutment metal sleeve and/or cracking in the implant fixture. Reliability for completion of a mission at 200 N load for 50K cycles was 0.38 (0.52% to 0.25 90% CI) and for 100K cycles was only 0.12 (0.26 to 0.05)-only 12% predicted to survive. These results are similar to those from previous studies on metal to metal abutment/fixture systems where screw failure is a limitation. No ceramic crown or ceramic abutment initiated fractures occurred, supporting the research hypothesis. The limiting factor in performance was the screw failure in the metal-to-metal connection between the prototyped abutment and the fixture, indicating that this configuration should function clinically with no abutment ceramic complications. The combined ceramic with titanium sleeve abutment prototype performance was limited by the fatigue degradation of the abutment screw. In fatigue, no ceramic crown or ceramic

  13. Study on control of defect mode in hybrid mirror chirped porous silicon photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Luo, Pei; Han, Yangyang; Cui, Xingning; He, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Based on the optical resonance principle and the tight-binding theory, a hybrid mirror chirped porous silicon photonic crystal is proposed. The control of the defect mode in hybrid mirror chirped porous silicon photonic crystal is studied. Through the numerical simulation, the control regulations of the defect modes resulted by the number of the periodical layers for the fundamental unit and the cascading number of the chirped structures are analyzed, and the split and the degeneration of the defect modes resulted by the change of the relative location between the mirror structures and the quasi-mirror structures are discussed. The simulation results show that the band gap would be broadened with the increase of the chirp quantity and the layer number of unilateral chirp. Adjusting the structural parameters of the hybrid mirror structure, the multimode characteristics will occur in the band gap. The more the cascading number of the chirped units, the more the number of the filtering channels will be. In addition, with the increase of the relative location between the mirror structures and the quasi-mirror structures, the degeneration of the defect modes will occur and can obtain high Q value. The structure can provide effective theoretical references for the design the multi-channel filters and high Q value sensors.

  14. A hybrid discrete choice model to assess the effect of awareness and attitude towards environmentally friendly travel modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sottile, Eleonora; Meloni, Italo; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    The need to reduce private vehicle use has led to the development of soft measures aimed at re-educating car users through information processes that raise their awareness regarding the benefits of environmentally friendly modes, encouraging them to voluntarily change their mode choice behaviour......&R) instead of their car, we estimated a hybrid mode choice model....

  15. Free chattering hybrid sliding mode control for a class of non-linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Niknam, Taher; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    In current study, in order to find the control of general uncertain nonlinear systems, a new optimal hybrid control approach called Optimal General Type II Fuzzy Sliding Mode (OGT2FSM) is presented. In order to estimate unknown nonlinear activities in monitoring dynamic uncertainties, the benefits...... on the same topic, which are an Adaptive Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller (AGT2FLC) and Conventional Sliding Mode Controller (CSMC), to assess the efficiency of the suggested controller. The suggested control scheme is finally used to the Electric Vehicles type as a case study. Results of simulation...

  16. Restraining approach for the spurious kinematic modes in hybrid equilibrium element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, F.

    2013-10-01

    The present paper proposes a rigorous approach for the elimination of spurious kinematic modes in hybrid equilibrium elements, for three well known mesh patches. The approach is based on the identification of the dependent equations in the set of inter-element and boundary equilibrium equations of the sides involved in the spurious kinematic mode. Then the kinematic variables related to the dependent equations are reciprocally constrained and, by application of master slave elimination method, the set of inter-element equilibrium equations is reduced to full rank. The elastic solutions produced by means of the proposed approach verify the homogeneous, the inter-element and the boundary equilibrium equations. Hybrid stress formulation is developed in a rigorous mathematical setting. The results of linear elastic analysis obtained by the proposed approach and by classical displacement based method are compared for some structural examples.

  17. Mode of inheritance for fruit firmness in tomato hybrids of F1 generation (Lycoperscum esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sušić Zoran

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Present day program for tomato selection are aimed at creating the genotypes with firm fruit. The fruits with this quality surfer from minor injuries while being harvested and transported, which directly affects their better consumption purpose. By crossing seven divergent tomato genotypes that differed among themselves in fruit firmness, and by applying the method of full diallel without reciprocal crossings, we obtained 21 hybrids of F1 generation. Upon analyzing the components of the genetic variance we found out that dominant genes prevailed in inheriting this feature. Considering all the crossing combinations together, it could be concluded that super dominance was the mode of inheritance recorded in Fl generation. The hybrid combination obtained by crossing the two hybrids with the best general combining ability (V-100 x No-10 was characterized by the best specific combining ability. .

  18. Tungsten transport in JET H-mode plasmas in hybrid scenario, experimental observations and modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angioni, C.; Mantica, P.; Pütterich, T.; Valisa, M.; Baruzzo, M.; Belli, A.E.; Belo, P.; Casson, F.J.; Challis, C.; Drewelow, P.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N.; Hender, T.C.; Hobirk, J.; Koskela, T.; Lauro Taroni, L.; Maggi, C.F.; Mlynář, Jan; Odstrčil, T.; Reinke, M.L.; Romanelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 8 (2014), 083028-083028 ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : heavy impurity transport * H-mode hybrid scenario * neoclassical and turbulent transport Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/54/8/083028/pdf/0029-5515_54_8_083028.pdf

  19. Diverse Strategies for Diverse Learners: Action Learning in a Hybrid Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmarie Strydom

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an action research study during which a flexible or hybrid approach to delivering an Information and Communication Technology competency course is implemented in the preparation of student teachers. The course incorporates Web-based course-content delivery, face-to-face classroom meetings to satisfy the need for human interaction, a variety of assessment methods, as well as recognition of prior learning. The objectives are to accommodate learning diversity, make learning focused and achievable for each learner, allow for intervention if the learning outcomes are not met, and focus on and guide the learning process, i.e. teach learners how to learn. This paper reports on the perspectives and experiences of two groups of first year learners, namely student teachers who attended a hybrid ICT course and first year learners who attended an e-learning ICT course. It was found that the success rate of the hybrid mode ICT course was significantly higher than that of the similar e-learning ICT course. The hybrid mode ICT course also enabled the learners to become self-directed to a higher degree.

  20. Passive, active, and hybrid mode-locking in a self-optimized ultrafast diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloush, M. Ali; Pilny, Rouven H.; Brenner, Carsten; Klehr, Andreas; Knigge, Andrea; Tränkle, Günther; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2018-02-01

    Semiconductor lasers are promising sources for generating ultrashort pulses. They are directly electrically pumped, allow for a compact design, and therefore they are cost-effective alternatives to established solid-state systems. Additionally, their emission wavelength depends on the bandgap which can be tuned by changing the semiconductor materials. Theoretically, the obtained pulse width can be few tens of femtoseconds. However, the generated pulses are typically in the range of several hundred femtoseconds only. Recently, it was shown that by implementing a spatial light modulator (SLM) for phase and amplitude control inside the resonator the optical bandwidth can be optimized. Consequently, by using an external pulse compressor shorter pulses can be obtained. We present a Fourier-Transform-External-Cavity setup which utilizes an ultrafast edge-emitting diode laser. The used InGaAsP diode is 1 mm long and emits at a center wavelength of 850 nm. We investigate the best conditions for passive, active and hybrid mode-locking operation using the method of self-adaptive pulse shaping. For passive mode-locking, the bandwidth is increased from 2.34 nm to 7.2 nm and ultrashort pulses with a pulse width of 216 fs are achieved after external pulse compression. For active and hybrid mode-locking, we also increased the bandwidth. It is increased from 0.26 nm to 5.06 nm for active mode-locking and from 3.21 nm to 8.7 nm for hybrid mode-locking. As the pulse width is strongly correlated with the bandwidth of the laser, we expect further reduction in the pulse duration by increasing the bandwidth.

  1. A hybrid filtering method based on a novel empirical mode decomposition for friction signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chengwei; Zhan, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    During a measurement, the measured signal usually contains noise. To remove the noise and preserve the important feature of the signal, we introduce a hybrid filtering method that uses a new intrinsic mode function (NIMF) and a modified Hausdorff distance. The NIMF is defined as the difference between the noisy signal and each intrinsic mode function (IMF), which is obtained by empirical mode decomposition (EMD), ensemble EMD, complementary ensemble EMD, or complete ensemble EMD with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN). The relevant mode selecting is based on the similarity between the first NIMF and the rest of the NIMFs. With this filtering method, the EMD and improved versions are used to filter the simulation and friction signals. The friction signal between an airplane tire and the runaway is recorded during a simulated airplane touchdown and features spikes of various amplitudes and noise. The filtering effectiveness of the four hybrid filtering methods are compared and discussed. The results show that the filtering method based on CEEMDAN outperforms other signal filtering methods. (paper)

  2. Hybrid Alfvén resonant mode generation in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Tomo-Hiko

    2012-01-01

    Feedback unstable Alfvén waves involving global field-line oscillations and the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) were comprehensively studied to clarify their properties of frequency dispersion, growth rate, and eigenfunctions. It is discovered that a new mode called here the hybrid Alfvén resonant (HAR) mode can be destabilized in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system with a realistic Alfvén velocity profile. The HAR mode found in a high frequency range over 0.3 Hz is caused by coupling of IAR modes with strong dispersion and magnetospheric cavity resonances. The harmonic relation of HAR eigenfrequencies is characterized by a constant frequency shift from those of IAR modes. The three modes are robustly found even if effects of two-fluid process and ionospheric collision are taken into account and thus are anticipated to be detected by magnetic field observations in a frequency range of 0.3–1 Hz in auroral and polar-cap regions.

  3. Dynamic investigation of mode transition in inductively coupled plasma with a hybrid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shuxia; Gao Fei; Wang Younian

    2009-01-01

    Industrial inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources are always operated in low gas pressure 10-100 mTorr, therefore in order to accurately investigate the mode transition of ICP, we developed our pure fluid model (2009 J. Appl. Phys. 105 083306) into a hybrid fluid/Monte Carlo (MC) model, where the MC part is exploited to take in more dynamic characteristics of electrons and self-consistently calculate the rate coefficients and electron temperature used in the fluid module, and more crucially to study the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) evolution with mode transition. Due to the introduction of the nonlocal property of the electrons at relatively low pressures, the dependences of the plasma density on the coil current, including the mode transitions, are distinctly different at low and high pressures when simulated by this improved hybrid model (HM), while the trends for different pressures obtained from the original pure fluid model (PFM) are the same in all cases. Furthermore, the computed peaks of the electron density profile by the HM shift from the discharge centre in the E mode to the intense inductive field heating area (about half of the radius of the reaction chamber under the dielectric window) in H mode. In addition, the electron temperature profiles of two modes under different pressures simulated by HM are totally higher than the results of PFM. When the pressure is low, there is a minimum exhibited in the bulk plasma of the electron temperature profiles of the E mode, and along with the mode transition the distribution area of low temperature is substantially reduced. Moreover, this phenomenon disappears when the gas pressure is increased. Accompanied by this, the calculated EEDF of the E mode in the low pressure also demonstrates an absolutely dominant low energy electron fraction (about ≤5 eV); while transforming to the H discharge most of the electrons carry an energy of 1-10 eV. The tendencies of the calculated EEDF evolution with

  4. Hybrid Systems of Distributed Generation with Renewable Sources: Modeling and Analysis of Their Operational Modes in Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gashimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to modeling and simulation of operational hybrid system modes of the distributed generation comprising conventional sources – modular diesel generators, gas-turbine power units; and renewable sources – wind and solar power plants. Operational modes of the hybrid system have been investigated under conditions of electrical connection with electric power system and in case of its isolated operation. As a consequence

  5. Propagation and radiation characteristics of the circular electric, circular magnetic and hybrid waveguide modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crenn, J.P.

    1996-06-01

    The field distributions and propagation constants of the circular electric, circular magnetic and hybrid modes of oversized waveguides are expressed, taking the effects of walls into account. The near and far field patterns are derived in the case of real wall functions. It is shown that, for very oversized waveguides, the terms containing wall functions can be ignored in the calculations, and it results that the expressions of fields and propagation constants become independent of the types of waveguides. An application to corrugated waveguides for Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating experiments shows the variations of the radiation characteristics versus geometric parameters of the corrugations and determines the ranges of interest for these parameters. (author)

  6. Research on hybrid transmission mode for HVDC with optimal thermal power and renewable energy combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Yan, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hongfu

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of renewable energy in Northwest China, curtailment phenomena is becoming more and more serve owing to lack of adjustment ability and enough transmission capacity. Based on the existing HVDC projects, exploring the hybrid transmission mode associated with thermal power and renewable power will be necessary and important. This paper has proposed a method on optimal thermal power and renewable energy combination for HVDC lines, based on multi-scheme comparison. Having established the mathematic model for electric power balance in time series mode, ten different schemes have been picked for figuring out the suitable one by test simulation. By the proposed related discriminated principle, including generation device utilization hours, renewable energy electricity proportion and curtailment level, the recommendation scheme has been found. The result has also validated the efficiency of the method.

  7. Degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers, in which photonic bandgap guidance and index guidance is combined. Calculations show the parametric gain is maximum on the edge of a photonic bandgap, for a large range of pump...... wavelengths. The FWM products are observed on the edges of a transmission band experimentally, in good agreement with the numerical results. Thereby the bandedges can be used to control the spectral positions of FWM products through a proper fiber design. The parametric gain control combined with a large mode...... area fiber design potentially allows for power scaling of light at wavelengths not easily accessible with e.g. rare earth ions....

  8. Hybrid rib-slot-rib plasmonic waveguide with deep-subwavelength mode confinement and long propagation length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hybrid plasmonic waveguide where a combined rib-slot-rib structure is added on the metal substrate within a low-index gap region. The optical properties of the quasi-TM fundamental mode are numerically calculated using the finite element method. Compared to the traditional hybrid plasmonic waveguide, our designed waveguiding structure can support modes with tighter confinement and longer propagation length, by properly adjusting the geometry of the rib-slot-rib structure and the gap height. In details, it can provide the hybrid mode with mode area λ2/12000 and reasonable propagation distance 23.78 μm, simultaneously. Its excellent optical performance can facilitate potential applications in ultra-compact nanophotonic devices and circuits.

  9. Definition, analysis and experimental investigation of operation modes in hydrogen-renewable-based power plants incorporating hybrid energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, L.; Pino, F.J.; Guerra, J.; Rosa, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A conceptual analysis of operation modes in energy storage plants is presented. • Key Performance Indicators to select operation modes are provided. • The approach has been applied to a laboratory hybrid power plant. • The methodology provides guidance for the operation of hybrid power plants. - Abstract: This paper is concerned with Operating Modes in hybrid renewable energy-based power plants with hydrogen as the intermediate energy storage medium. Six operation modes are defined according to plant topology and the possibility of operating electrolyzer and fuel cell at steady-power or partial load. A methodology for the evaluation of plant performance is presented throughout this paper. The approach includes a set of simulations over a fully validated model, which are run in order to compare the proposed operation modes in various weather conditions. Conclusions are drawn from the simulation stage using a set of Key Performance Indicators defined in this paper. This analysis yields the conclusion that certain modes are more appropriate from technical and practical standpoints when they are implemented in a real plant. From the results of the simulation assessment, selected operating modes are applied to an experimental hydrogen-based pilot plant to illustrate and validate the performance of the proposed operation modes. Experimental results confirmed the simulation study, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each operation mode in terms of performance and equipment durability.

  10. Dynamic model updating based on strain mode shape and natural frequency using hybrid pattern search technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Yang, Zhichun; Wang, Le; Ouyang, Yan; Zhang, Xinping

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at providing a precise dynamic structural finite element (FE) model for dynamic strength evaluation in addition to dynamic analysis. A dynamic FE model updating method is presented to correct the uncertain parameters of the FE model of a structure using strain mode shapes and natural frequencies. The strain mode shape, which is sensitive to local changes in structure, is used instead of the displacement mode for enhancing model updating. The coordinate strain modal assurance criterion is developed to evaluate the correlation level at each coordinate over the experimental and the analytical strain mode shapes. Moreover, the natural frequencies which provide the global information of the structure are used to guarantee the accuracy of modal properties of the global model. Then, the weighted summation of the natural frequency residual and the coordinate strain modal assurance criterion residual is used as the objective function in the proposed dynamic FE model updating procedure. The hybrid genetic/pattern-search optimization algorithm is adopted to perform the dynamic FE model updating procedure. Numerical simulation and model updating experiment for a clamped-clamped beam are performed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the present method. The results show that the proposed method can be used to update the uncertain parameters with good robustness. And the updated dynamic FE model of the beam structure, which can correctly predict both the natural frequencies and the local dynamic strains, is reliable for the following dynamic analysis and dynamic strength evaluation.

  11. Model predictive control of an air suspension system with damping multi-mode switching damper based on hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Yuan, Chaochun; Cai, Yingfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Long

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the hybrid modeling and the model predictive control of an air suspension system with damping multi-mode switching damper. Unlike traditional damper with continuously adjustable damping, in this study, a new damper with four discrete damping modes is applied to vehicle semi-active air suspension. The new damper can achieve different damping modes by just controlling the on-off statuses of two solenoid valves, which makes its damping adjustment more efficient and more reliable. However, since the damping mode switching induces different modes of operation, the air suspension system with the new damper poses challenging hybrid control problem. To model both the continuous/discrete dynamics and the switching between different damping modes, the framework of mixed logical dynamical (MLD) systems is used to establish the system hybrid model. Based on the resulting hybrid dynamical model, the system control problem is recast as a model predictive control (MPC) problem, which allows us to optimize the switching sequences of the damping modes by taking into account the suspension performance requirements. Numerical simulations results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control method finally.

  12. Coordination Control Strategy for AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids in Stand-Alone Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Riana Aryani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in DC microgrids is rapidly increasing along with the improvement of DC power technology because of its advantages. To support the integration process of DC microgrids with the existing AC utility grids, the form of hybrid AC/DC microgrids is considered for higher power conversion efficiency, lower component cost and better power quality. In the system, AC and DC portions are connected through interlink bidirectional AC/DC converters (IC with a proper control system and power management. In the stand-alone operation mode of AC/DC hybrid microgrids, the control of power injection through the IC is crucial in order to maintain the system security. This paper mainly deals with a coordination control strategy of IC and a battery energy storage system (BESS converter under stand-alone operation. A coordinated control strategy for the IC, which considers the state of charge (SOC level of BESS and the load shedding scheme as the last resort, is proposed to obtain better power sharing between AC and DC subgrids. The scheme will be tested with a hybrid AC/DC microgrid, using the tool of the PSCAD/EMTDC software.

  13. A Control Strategy for Mode Transition with Gear Shifting in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuhyun Sim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mode transition from electric propulsion mode to hybrid propulsion mode is important with regard to the power management strategy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. This is because mode transitions can occur frequently depending on the power management strategies and driving cycles, and because inadequate mode transitions worsen the fuel efficiency and drivability. A pre-transmission parallel PHEV uses a clutch between the internal combustion engine (ICE and the electric motor (EM to connect or disconnect the power source of the ICE for a mode transition. The mode transition requires additional energy consumption for clutch speed synchronization, and is accompanied by a drivetrain shock due to clutch engagement. This paper proposes a control strategy for the mode transition with gear-shifting to resolve the problems of energy consumption and drivetrain shock. Through the development of a PHEV performance simulator, we analyze the mode transition characteristics and propose a control strategy considering the vehicle acceleration and gear state. The control strategy reduces the duration required for the mode transition by moving the start time of the mode transition. This helps to improve energy efficiency while maintaining adequate drivability.

  14. Effect of Wave Accessibility on Lower Hybrid Wave Current Drive in Experimental Advanced Superconductor Tokamak with H-Mode Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin-Xia; Xiang Nong; Gan Chun-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the wave accessibility condition on the lower hybrid current drive in the experimental advanced superconductor Tokamak (EAST) plasma with H-mode operation is studied. Based on a simplified model, a mode conversion layer of the lower hybrid wave between the fast wave branch and the slow wave branch is proved to exist in the plasma periphery for typical EAST H-mode parameters. Under the framework of the lower hybrid wave simulation code (LSC), the wave ray trajectory and the associated current drive are calculated numerically. The results show that the wave accessibility condition plays an important role on the lower hybrid current drive in EAST plasma. For wave rays with parallel refractive index n ‖ = 2.1 or n ‖ = 2.5 launched from the outside midplane, the wave rays may penetrate the core plasma due to the toroidal geometry effect, while numerous reflections of the wave ray trajectories in the plasma periphery occur. However, low current drive efficiency is obtained. Meanwhile, the wave accessibility condition is improved if a higher confined magnetic field is applied. The simulation results show that for plasma parameters under present EAST H-mode operation, a significant lower hybrid wave current drive could be obtained for the wave spectrum with peak value n ‖ = 2.1 if a toroidal magnetic field B T = 2.5 T is applied. (paper)

  15. Electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves scattering from planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength

  16. A triple hybrid micropower generator with simultaneous multi-mode energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluşan, H.; Chamanian, S.; Pathirana, W. P. M. R.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2018-01-01

    This study presents a triple hybrid energy harvesting system that combines harvested power from thermoelectric (TE), vibration-based electromagnetic (EM) and piezoelectric (PZT) harvesters into a single DC supply. A power management circuit is designed and implemented in 180 nm standard CMOS technology based on the distinct requirements of each harvester, and is terminated with a Schottky diode to avoid reverse current flow. The system topology hence supports simultaneous power generation and delivery from low and high frequency vibrations as well as temperature differences in the environment. The ultra-low DC voltage harvested from TE generator is boosted with a cross-coupled charge-pump driven by an LC oscillator with fully-integrated center-tapped differential inductors. The EM harvester output was rectified with a self-powered and low drop-out AC/DC doubler circuit. The PZT interface electronics benefits from peak-to-peak cycle of the harvested voltage through a negative voltage converter followed by synchronous power extraction and DC-to-DC conversion through internal switches, and an external inductor. The hybrid system was tested with a wearable in-house EM energy harvester placed wrist of a jogger, a commercial low volume PZT harvester, and DC supply as the TE generator output. The system generates more than 1.2 V output for load resistances higher than 50 kΩ, which corresponds to 24 μW to power wearable sensors. Simultaneous multi-mode operation achieves higher voltage and power compared to stand-alone harvesting circuits, and generates up to 110 μW of output power. This is the first hybrid harvester circuit that simultaneously extracts energy from three independent sources, and delivers a single DC output.

  17. Hybrid silicon mode-locked laser with improved RF power by impedance matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossoun, Bassem; Derickson, Dennis; Srinivasan, Sudharsanan; Bowers, John

    2015-02-01

    We design and discuss an impedance matching solution for a hybrid silicon mode-locked laser diode (MLLD) to improve peak optical power coming from the device. In order to develop an impedance matching solution, a thorough measurement and analysis of the MLLD as a function of bias on each of the laser segments was carried out. A passive component impedance matching network was designed at the operating frequency of 20 GHz to optimize RF power delivery to the laser. The hybrid silicon laser was packaged together in a module including the impedance matching circuit. The impedance matching design resulted in a 6 dB (electrical) improvement in the detected modulation spectrum power, as well as approximately a 10 dB phase noise improvement, from the MLLD. Also, looking ahead to possible future work, we discuss a Step Recovery Diode (SRD) driven impulse generator, which wave-shapes the RF drive to achieve efficient injection. This novel technique addresses the time varying impedance of the absorber as the optical pulse passes through it, to provide optimum optical pulse shaping.

  18. Study on H-mode access at low density with lower hybrid current drive and lithium-wall coatings on the EAST superconducting tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.; Li, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    The first high-confinement mode (H-mode) with type-III edge localized modes at an H factor of HIPB98(y,2) ~ 1 has been obtained with about 1 MW lower hybrid wave power on the EAST superconducting tokamak. The first H-mode plasma appeared after wall conditioning by lithium (Li) evaporation before ...

  19. Control of equipment isolation system using wavelet-based hybrid sliding mode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shieh-Kung; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2017-04-01

    Critical non-structural equipment, including life-saving equipment in hospitals, circuit breakers, computers, high technology instrumentations, etc., is vulnerable to strong earthquakes, and on top of that, the failure of the vibration-sensitive equipment will cause severe economic loss. In order to protect vibration-sensitive equipment or machinery against strong earthquakes, various innovative control algorithms are developed to compensate the internal forces that to be applied. These new or improved control strategies, such as the control algorithms based on optimal control theory and sliding mode control (SMC), are also developed for structures engineering as a key element in smart structure technology. The optimal control theory, one of the most common methodologies in feedback control, finds control forces through achieving a certain optimal criterion by minimizing a cost function. For example, the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) was the most popular control algorithm over the past three decades, and a number of modifications have been proposed to increase the efficiency of classical LQR algorithm. However, except to the advantage of simplicity and ease of implementation, LQR are susceptible to parameter uncertainty and modeling error due to complex nature of civil structures. Different from LQR control, a robust and easy to be implemented control algorithm, SMC has also been studied. SMC is a nonlinear control methodology that forces the structural system to slide along surfaces or boundaries; hence this control algorithm is naturally robust with respect to parametric uncertainties of a structure. Early attempts at protecting vibration-sensitive equipment were based on the use of existing control algorithms as described above. However, in recent years, researchers have tried to renew the existing control algorithms or developing a new control algorithm to adapt the complex nature of civil structures which include the control of both structures and non

  20. High-Power Hybrid Mode-Locked External Cavity Semiconductor Laser Using Tapered Amplifier with Large Tunability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schmitt-Sody

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on hybrid mode-locked laser operation of a tapered semiconductor amplifier in an external ring cavity, generating pulses as short as 0.5 ps at 88.1 MHz with an average power of 60 mW. The mode locking is achieved through a combination of a multiple quantum well saturable absorber (>10% modulation depth and an RF current modulation. This designed laser has 20 nm tuning bandwidth in continuous wave and 10 nm tuning bandwidth in mode locking around 786 nm center wavelength at constant temperature.

  1. Exploring the Influence of Attitudes to Walking and Cycling on Commute Mode Choice Using a Hybrid Choice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport-related problems, such as automobile dependence, traffic congestion, and greenhouse emissions, lead to a great burden on the environment. In developing countries like China, in order to improve the air quality, promoting sustainable travel modes to reduce the automobile usage is gradually recognized as an emerging national concern. Though there are many studies related to the physically active modes (e.g., walking and cycling, the research on the influence of attitudes to active modes on travel behavior is limited, especially in China. To fill up this gap, this paper focuses on examining the impact of attitudes to walking and cycling on commute mode choice. Using the survey data collected in China cities, an integrated discrete choice model and the structural equation model are proposed. By applying the hybrid choice model, not only the role of the latent attitude played in travel mode choice, but also the indirect effects of social factors on travel mode choice are obtained. The comparison indicates that the hybrid choice model outperforms the traditional model. This study is expected to provide a better understanding for urban planners on the influential factors of green travel modes.

  2. Electrically driven hybrid Si/III-V Fabry-Pérot lasers based on adiabatic mode transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bakir, B; Descos, A; Olivier, N; Bordel, D; Grosse, P; Augendre, E; Fulbert, L; Fedeli, J M

    2011-05-23

    We report the first demonstration of an electrically driven hybrid silicon/III-V laser based on adiabatic mode transformers. The hybrid structure is formed by two vertically superimposed waveguides separated by a 100-nm-thick SiO2 layer. The top waveguide, fabricated in an InP/InGaAsP-based heterostructure, serves to provide optical gain. The bottom Si-waveguides system, which supports all optical functions, is constituted by two tapered rib-waveguides (mode transformers), two distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and a surface-grating coupler. The supermodes of this hybrid structure are controlled by an appropriate design of the tapers located at the edges of the gain region. In the middle part of the device almost all the field resides in the III-V waveguide so that the optical mode experiences maximal gain, while in regions near the III-V facets, mode transformers ensure an efficient transfer of the power flow towards Si-waveguides. The investigated device operates under quasi-continuous wave regime. The room temperature threshold current is 100 mA, the side-mode suppression ratio is as high as 20 dB, and the fiber-coupled output power is ~7 mW.

  3. Disturbance observer-based adaptive sliding mode hybrid projective synchronisation of identical fractional-order financial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayub; Tyagi, Arti

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we have studied the hybrid projective synchronisation for incommensurate, integer and commensurate fractional-order financial systems with unknown disturbance. To tackle the problem of unknown bounded disturbance, fractional-order disturbance observer is designed to approximate the unknown disturbance. Further, we have introduced simple sliding mode surface and designed adaptive sliding mode controllers incorporating with the designed fractional-order disturbance observer to achieve a bounded hybrid projective synchronisation between two identical fractional-order financial model with different initial conditions. It is shown that the slave system with disturbance can be synchronised with the projection of the master system generated through state transformation. Simulation results are presented to ensure the validity and effectiveness of the proposed sliding mode control scheme in the presence of external bounded unknown disturbance. Also, synchronisation error for commensurate, integer and incommensurate fractional-order financial systems is studied in numerical simulation.

  4. Mode identification using stochastic hybrid models with applications to conflict detection and resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri Kouzehgarani, Asal

    2009-12-01

    Most models of aircraft trajectories are non-linear and stochastic in nature; and their internal parameters are often poorly defined. The ability to model, simulate and analyze realistic air traffic management conflict detection scenarios in a scalable, composable, multi-aircraft fashion is an extremely difficult endeavor. Accurate techniques for aircraft mode detection are critical in order to enable the precise projection of aircraft conflicts, and for the enactment of altitude separation resolution strategies. Conflict detection is an inherently probabilistic endeavor; our ability to detect conflicts in a timely and accurate manner over a fixed time horizon is traded off against the increased human workload created by false alarms---that is, situations that would not develop into an actual conflict, or would resolve naturally in the appropriate time horizon-thereby introducing a measure of probabilistic uncertainty in any decision aid fashioned to assist air traffic controllers. The interaction of the continuous dynamics of the aircraft, used for prediction purposes, with the discrete conflict detection logic gives rise to the hybrid nature of the overall system. The introduction of the probabilistic element, common to decision alerting and aiding devices, places the conflict detection and resolution problem in the domain of probabilistic hybrid phenomena. A hidden Markov model (HMM) has two stochastic components: a finite-state Markov chain and a finite set of output probability distributions. In other words an unobservable stochastic process (hidden) that can only be observed through another set of stochastic processes that generate the sequence of observations. The problem of self separation in distributed air traffic management reduces to the ability of aircraft to communicate state information to neighboring aircraft, as well as model the evolution of aircraft trajectories between communications, in the presence of probabilistic uncertain dynamics as well

  5. A robust H∞ control-based hierarchical mode transition control system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Jiao, Xiaohong; Li, Liang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Chen, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    To realize a fast and smooth operating mode transition process from electric driving mode to engine-on driving mode, this paper presents a novel robust hierarchical mode transition control method for a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB) with pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain. Firstly, the mode transition process is divided into five stages to clearly describe the powertrain dynamics. Based on the dynamics models of powertrain and clutch actuating mechanism, a hierarchical control structure including two robust H∞ controllers in both upper layer and lower layer is proposed. In upper layer, the demand clutch torque can be calculated by a robust H∞controller considering the clutch engaging time and the vehicle jerk. While in lower layer a robust tracking controller with L2-gain is designed to perform the accurate position tracking control, especially when the parameters uncertainties and external disturbance occur in the clutch actuating mechanism. Simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test are carried out in a traditional driving condition of PHEB. Results show that the proposed hierarchical control approach can obtain the good control performance: mode transition time is greatly reduced with the acceptable jerk. Meanwhile, the designed control system shows the obvious robustness with the uncertain parameters and disturbance. Therefore, the proposed approach may offer a theoretical reference for the actual vehicle controller.

  6. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Simple Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel, L.; Brown, Clifford, A.; Walker, Bruce, E.

    2012-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the Langley Research Center s 14- by 22-Foot wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full three-dimensional 5.8 percent scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8 percent rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of candidate engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft and to provide a database for shielding code validation. A range of frequencies, and a parametric study of modes were generated from exhaust and inlet nacelle configurations. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 in. Two planes perpendicular to the axis of the nacelle (in its 0 orientation) and three planes parallel were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed five sweeps, for a total span of 160 in. acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Level, and integrated Power Levels are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct modal structure.

  7. A fission-fusion hybrid reactor in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Mark; Parker, Ronald R.; Forget, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    This work develops a conceptual design for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor operating in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with a subcritical natural or depleted uranium pebble bed blanket. A liquid lithium-lead alloy breeds enough tritium to replenish that consumed by the D-T fusion reaction. The fission blanket augments the fusion power such that the fusion core itself need not have a high power gain, thus allowing for fully non-inductive (steady-state) low confinement mode (L-mode) operation at relatively small physical dimensions. A neutron transport Monte Carlo code models the natural uranium fission blanket. Maximizing the fission power gain while breeding sufficient tritium allows for the selection of an optimal set of blanket parameters, which yields a maximum prudent fission power gain of approximately 7. A 0-D tokamak model suffices to analyze approximate tokamak operating conditions. This fission blanket would allow the fusion component of a hybrid reactor with the same dimensions as ITER to operate in steady-state L-mode very comfortably with a fusion power gain of 6.7 and a thermal fusion power of 2.1 GW. Taking this further can determine the approximate minimum scale for a steady-state L-mode tokamak hybrid reactor, which is a major radius of 5.2 m and an aspect ratio of 2.8. This minimum scale device operates barely within the steady-state L-mode realm with a thermal fusion power of 1.7 GW. Basic thermal hydraulic analysis demonstrates that pressurized helium could cool the pebble bed fission blanket with a flow rate below 10 m/s. The Brayton cycle thermal efficiency is 41%. This reactor, dubbed the Steady-state L-mode non-Enriched Uranium Tokamak Hybrid (SLEUTH), with its very fast neutron spectrum, could be superior to pure fission reactors in terms of breeding fissile fuel and transmuting deleterious fission products. It would likely function best as a prolific plutonium breeder, and the plutonium it produces could actually be more

  8. Influence of Li conditioning on Lower Hybrid Current Drive efficiency in H-mode and L- mode plasmas on EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goniche Marc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower hybrid current drive efficiency on the EAST tokamak is estimated on a large database of low loop voltage discharges (VL of these discharges, can account for the high efficiency according to the expected scaling with Zeff and . Modelling with a ray-tracing code coupled to a Fokker-Planck solver supports this result, assuming that the fast electron transport is reduced in the zero loop voltage discharge with high efficiency.

  9. Optimal control of mode transition for four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle with dry dual-clutch transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Lei, Dan; Chen, Jiayi; Li, Hangyu

    2018-05-01

    When the four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) equipped with a dry dual clutch transmission (DCT) is in the mode transition process from pure electrical rear wheel drive to front wheel drive with engine or hybrid drive, the problem of vehicle longitudinal jerk is prominent. A mode transition robust control algorithm which resists external disturbance and model parameter fluctuation has been developed, by taking full advantage of fast and accurate torque (or speed) response of three electrical power sources and getting the clutch of DCT fully involved in the mode transition process. Firstly, models of key components of driveline system have been established, and the model of five-degrees-of-freedom vehicle longitudinal dynamics has been built by using a Uni-Tire model. Next, a multistage optimal control method has been produced to realize the decision of engine torque and clutch-transmitted torque. The sliding-mode control strategy for measurable disturbance has been proposed at the stage of engine speed dragged up. Meanwhile, the double tracking control architecture that integrates the model calculating feedforward control with H∞ robust feedback control has been presented at the stage of speed synchronization. Finally, the results from Matlab/Simulink software and hardware-in-the-loop test both demonstrate that the proposed control strategy for mode transition can not only coordinate the torque among different power sources and clutch while minimizing vehicle longitudinal jerk, but also provide strong robustness to model uncertainties and external disturbance.

  10. Analysis of hybrid mode-locking of two-section quantum dot lasers operating at 1.5 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Martijn J R; Salumbides, Edcel J; Renault, Amandine; Bente, Erwin A J M; Oei, Yok-Siang; Smit, Meint K; van Veldhoven, René; Nötzel, Richard; Eikema, Kjeld S E; Ubachs, Wim

    2009-09-28

    For the first time a detailed study of hybrid mode-locking in two-section InAs/InP quantum dot Fabry-Pérot-type lasers is presented. The output pulses have a typical upchirp of approximately 8 ps/nm, leading to very elongated pulses. The mechanism leading to this typical pulse shape and the phase noise is investigated by detailed radio-frequency and optical spectral studies as well as time-domain studies. The pulse shaping mechanism in these lasers is found to be fundamentally different than the mechanism observed in conventional mode-locked laser diodes, based on quantum well gain or bulk material.

  11. Modification of ordinary-mode reflectometry system to detect lower-hybrid waves in Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S. G.; Shiraiwa, S.; Parker, R. R.; Dominguez, A.; Kramer, G. J.; Marmar, E. S.

    2012-10-01

    Backscattering experiments to detect lower-hybrid (LH) waves have been performed in Alcator C-Mod, using the two modified channels (60 GHz and 75 GHz) of an ordinary-mode reflectometry system with newly developed spectral recorders that can continuously monitor spectral power at a target frequency. The change in the baseline of the spectral recorder during the LH wave injection is highly correlated to the strength of the X-mode non-thermal electron cyclotron emission. In high density plasmas where an anomalous drop in the lower hybrid current drive efficiency is observed, the observed backscattered signals are expected to be generated near the last closed flux surface, demonstrating the presence of LH waves within the plasma. This experimental technique can be useful in identifying spatially localized LH electric fields in the periphery of high-density plasmas.

  12. Research on a Novel Exciting Method for a Sandwich Transducer Operating in Longitudinal-Bending Hybrid Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel exciting method for a sandwich type piezoelectric transducer operating in longitudinal-bending hybrid vibration modes is proposed and discussed, in which the piezoelectric elements for the excitations of the longitudinal and bending vibrations share the same axial location, but correspond to different partitions. Whole-piece type piezoelectric plates with three separated partitions are used, in which the center partitions generate the first longitudinal vibration, while the upper and lower partitions produce the second bending vibration. Detailed comparisons between the proposed exciting method and the traditional one were accomplished by finite element method (FEM calculations, which were further verified by experiments. Compared with the traditional exciting method using independent longitudinal ceramics and bending ceramics, the proposed method achieves higher electromechanical coupling factors and larger vibration amplitudes, especially for the bending vibration mode. This novel exciting method for longitudinal-bending hybrid vibrations has not changed the structural dimensions of the sandwich transducer, but markedly improves the mechanical output ability, which makes it very helpful and meaningful in designing new piezoelectric actuators operated in longitudinal-bending hybrid vibration modes.

  13. Ion beam generated modes in the lower hybrid frequency range in a laboratory magnetoplasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S.; Gekelman, W. N.; Colestock, P. L.; Pribyl, P.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of waves by ion ring distributions is of great importance in many instances in space plasmas. They occur naturally in the magnetosphere through the interaction with substorms, or they can be man-made in ionospheric experiments by photo-ionization of neutral atoms injected perpendicular to the earth's magnetic field. The interaction of a fast ion beam with a low β plasma has been studied in the laboratory. Experiments were performed at the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The experiments were done in a Helium plasma (n ≃ 1012 \\ cm-3, B0 = 1000 G - 1800 G, fpe}/f{ce ≃ 1 - 5, Te = 0.25\\ eV, vte ≤ vA). The ion beam \\cite{Tripathi_ionbeam} is a Helium beam with energies ranging from 5 keV to 18 keV. The fast ion velocity is on the order of the Alfvén velocity. The beam is injected from the end of the machine, and spirals down the linear device. Waves were observed below fci in the shear Alfvén wave regime, and in a broad spectrum above fci in the lower hybrid frequency range, the focus of this paper. The wave spectra have distinct peaks close to ion cyclotron harmonics, extending out to the 100th harmonic in some cases. The wave generation was studied for various magnetic fields and background plasma densities, as well as for different beam energies and pitch angles. The waves were measured with 3-axis electric and magnetic probes. Detailed measurements of the perpendicular mode structure will be shown. Langmuir probes were used to measure density and temperature evolution due to the beam-plasma interaction. Retarding field energy analyzers captured the ion beam profiles. The work was performed at the LArge Plasma Device at the Basic Plasma Science Facility (BaPSF) at UCLA, funded by DOE/NSF.

  14. A Hybrid Circuit for Spoof Surface Plasmons and Spatial Waveguide Modes to Reach Controllable Band-Pass Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hao Chi; Wu, Han; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-11-10

    We propose a hybrid circuit for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and spatial waveguide modes to develop new microwave devices. The hybrid circuit includes a spoof SPP waveguide made of two anti-symmetric corrugated metallic strips and a traditional substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). From dispersion relations, we show that the electromagnetic waves only can propagate through the hybrid circuit when the operating frequency is less than the cut-off frequency of the SPP waveguide and greater than the cut-off frequency of SIW, generating efficient band-pass filters. We demonstrate that the pass band is controllable in a large range by designing the geometrical parameters of SPP waveguide and SIW. Full-wave simulations are provided to show the large adjustability of filters, including ultra wideband and narrowband filters. We fabricate a sample of the new hybrid device in the microwave frequencies, and measurement results have excellent agreements to numerical simulations, demonstrating excellent filtering characteristics such as low loss, high efficiency, and good square ratio. The proposed hybrid circuit gives important potential to accelerate the development of plasmonic integrated functional devices and circuits in both microwave and terahertz frequencies.

  15. Impulse Response of a 36-Core Few-Mode Photonic Lantern Hybrid Spatial-Multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Mendinueta, José Manuel Delgado; Klaus, Werner

    2017-01-01

    multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) equalization, provided mode-dependent loss (MDL) is small [3]. Furthermore, mode scrambling at the transmitter improves tolerance to MDL and maximizes system capacity if all supported modes are used to transmit information [3]. Thus, the MDL and mode mixing properties...... significant mode mixing to take place at the multicore few-mode fiber splice. Furthermore, insertion loss and MDL of the system are further analyzed.......Space division multiplexing (SDM) using fibers with multiple cores and/or supporting multiple modes has become an essential technology to support Pbit/s transmissions in a single fiber [1,2]. Despite significant mode-mixing in few-mode fibers (FMF), the original signals can be recovered through...

  16. Communication: Effect of accidental mode degeneracy on Raman intensity in 2D materials: Hybrid functional study of bilayer phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2016-07-14

    Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as A{sub g}{sup 2} and B{sub 2u}, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B{sub 2u} and A{sub g}{sup 2} modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B{sub 2u}-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy.

  17. Pneumatic-Combustion Hybrid Engine: A Study of the Effect of the Valvetrain Sophistication on Pneumatic Modes Moteur hybride pneumatique: une étude de l’effet de la complexité de la distribution sur les modes pneumatiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brejaud P.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although internal combustion engines display high overall maximum global efficiencies, this potential cannot be fully exploited in automotive applications: in real conditions, the average engine load (and thus efficiency is quite low and the kinetic energy during a braking phase is lost. This work presents a hybrid pneumatic-combustion engine and the associated thermodynamic cycles, which is able to store and recover energy in the form of compressed air. The study focuses on the two major pneumatic modes: pneumatic pump mode and pneumatic motor mode. For each of them, three valvetrain technologies are considered: 4-stroke mode, 4-stroke mode with one camshaft disengaged, and 2-stroke fully variable. The concept can be adapted to SI or CI engines. In any case the valvetrain technology is the key to best fuel economy. A kinematic model of the charging valve’s actuator is introduced, and implemented in a quasi dimensional model of the pneumatic-combustion hybrid engine. Simulation results are presented for each pneumatic mode, for each valvetrain technology, in order to determine the best valve train configuration, and to show the impact of the kinematic valve actuator on the performance of the engine The tradeoffs between valvetrain sophistication and fuel economy will be presented for each case. Bien que le rendement total d’un moteur à combustion interne soit élevé, ce potentiel ne peut être pleinement exploité sur une automobile : dans les conditions réelles d’utilisation, la charge moteur moyenne (et donc le rendement est souvent faible. De plus, l’énergie cinétique en phase de freinage est totalement dissipée sous forme de chaleur. Cet article présente un concept de moteur hybride pneumatique, et les cycles thermodynamiques associés, capable de stocker de l’énergie (et de la réutiliser sous forme d’air comprimé. Le concept est adaptable au moteur à allumage commandé aussi bien qu’au moteur à allumage par

  18. High-current electron beam coupling to hybrid waveguide and plasma modes in a dielectric Cherenkov maser with a plasma layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlapakovski, Anatoli S.

    2002-01-01

    The linear theory of a dielectric Cherenkov maser with a plasma layer has been developed. The dispersion relation has been derived for the model of infinitely thin, fully magnetized, monoenergetic hollow electron beam, in the axisymmetric case. The results of the numerical solution of the dispersion relation and the analysis of the beam coupling to hybrid waves, both hybrid waveguide and hybrid plasma modes, are presented. For the hybrid waveguide mode, spatial growth rate dependences on frequency at different plasma densities demonstrate improvement in gain for moderate densities, but strong shifting the amplification band and narrowing the bandwidth. For the hybrid plasma mode, the case of mildly relativistic, 200-250 keV beams is of interest, so that the wave phase velocity is just slightly greater than the speed of light in a dielectric medium. It has been shown that depending on beam and plasma parameters, the hybrid plasma mode can be separated from the hybrid waveguide mode, or be coupled to it through the beam resulting in strong gain increase, or exhibit a flat gain vs frequency dependence over a very broad band. The parameters, at which the -3 dB bandwidth calculated for 30 dB peak gain exceeds an octave, have been found

  19. Conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid emissions to electromagnetic O and X mode waves in the Earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budden, K.G.; Jones, D.

    1987-01-01

    The linear conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid emissions via the Z mode to electromagnetic ordinary (O) mode waves has for some time been invoked for the source of Terrestrial and Saturnian myriametric and Jovian kilometric radiations. The conversion occurs by virtue of the emissions' propagation in concentration gradients, and for it to be efficient it is necessary for the gradient to be normal to the ambient magnetic field. Suitable concentration gradients are believed to occur at the plasmapause and at the magnetopause. Ray theory predicts only O mode production whereas full wave theory in a cold plasma shows that both O and X (extraordinary) mode are produced, their relative intensities depending on the plasma parameters. Full wave theory in a warm plasma, besides yielding more accurate information on the O and X modes also provides an insight into the effect of conversion on the source plasma wave. Results obtained from these three levels of theory are compared using plasma parameters derived from wave experiments on spacecraft

  20. Conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid emissions to electromagnetic O and X mode waves in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budden, K.G.; Jones, D.

    1987-02-01

    The linear conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid emissions via the Z mode to electromagnetic ordinary (O) mode waves has for some time been invoked for the source of Terrestrial and Saturnian myriametric and Jovian kilometric radiations. The conversion occurs by virtue of the emissions' propagation in concentration gradients, and for it to be efficient it is necessary for the gradient to be normal to the ambient magnetic field. Suitable concentration gradients are believed to occur at the plasmapause and at the magnetopause. Ray theory predicts only O mode production whereas full wave theory in a cold plasma shows that both O and X (extraordinary) mode are produced, their relative intensities depending on the plasma parameters. Full wave theory in a warm plasma, besides yielding more accurate information on the O and X modes also provides an insight into the effect of conversion on the source plasma wave. Results obtained from these three levels of theory are compared using plasma parameters derived from wave experiments on spacecraft.

  1. Dual-wavelength passive and hybrid mode-locking of 3, 4.5 and 10 GHz InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahvili, M.S.; Du, L.; Heck, M.J.R.; Nötzel, R.; Smit, M.K.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an investigation of passive and hybrid mode-locking in Fabry-Pérot type two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers that show dual wavelength operation. Over the whole current and voltage range for mode-locking of these lasers, the optical output spectra show two distinct lobes. The two

  2. Systematic analysis of whistler-mode emissions below the lower hybrid frequency based on the data of the Cluster project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, F.; Santolik, O.; Gereova, K.; Macusova, E.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2003-12-01

    We report results of a systematic analysis of equatorial noise below the local lower hybrid frequency. Our analysis is based on the entire data set collected by the STAFF-SA instruments on board the Cluster spacecraft during the first two years of operation (2001 - 2002). We compare intensities of equatorial noise with other whistler-mode emissions, for example with chorus or hiss. The results indicate that these emissions can play a significant role in the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. Using the multipoint measurement we show considerable spatio-temporal variations of the wave intensity.

  3. Hybrid Ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber amplifier for long wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Poli, Federica

    2012-01-01

    A large-mode-area Ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier with build-in gain shaping is presented. The fiber cladding consists of a hexagonal lattice of air holes, where three rows are replaced with circular high-index inclusions. Seven missing air holes define the large-mode-area core. ...

  4. Bandwidth based methodology for designing a hybrid energy storage system for a series hybrid electric vehicle with limited all electric mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Masood

    The cost and fuel economy of hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) are significantly dependent on the power-train energy storage system (ESS). A series HEV with a minimal all-electric mode (AEM) permits minimizing the size and cost of the ESS. This manuscript, pursuing the minimal size tactic, introduces a bandwidth based methodology for designing an efficient ESS. First, for a mid-size reference vehicle, a parametric study is carried out over various minimal-size ESSs, both hybrid (HESS) and non-hybrid (ESS), for finding the highest fuel economy. The results show that a specific type of high power battery with 4.5 kWh capacity can be selected as the winning candidate to study for further minimization. In a second study, following the twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance, a sports car class Series-HEV (SHEV) was considered as a potential application which requires even more ESS minimization. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size compared to 4.5 kWh, because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the allowed battery size in the mid-size study by volume. Therefore, an advanced bandwidth-based controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ model to be realized with a light ESS. The result allows a SHEV to be realized with 1.13 kWh ESS capacity. In a third study, the objective is to find optimum SHEV designs with minimal AEM assumption which cover the design space between the fuel economies in the mid-size car study and the sports car study. Maximizing FE while minimizing ESS cost is more aligned with customer acceptance in the current state of market. The techniques applied to manage the power flow between energy sources of the power-train significantly affect the results of this optimization. A Pareto Frontier, including ESS cost and FE, for a SHEV with limited AEM, is introduced using an advanced bandwidth-based control strategy teamed up with duty ratio control. This controller

  5. MOSFET-BJT hybrid mode of the gated lateral bipolar junction transistor for C-reactive protein detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Heng; Kwon, Hyurk-Choon; Yeom, Se-Hyuk; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2011-10-15

    In this study, we propose a novel biosensor based on a gated lateral bipolar junction transistor (BJT) for biomaterial detection. The gated lateral BJT can function as both a BJT and a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with both the emitter and source, and the collector and drain, coupled. C-reactive protein (CRP), which is an important disease marker in clinical examinations, can be detected using the proposed device. In the MOSFET-BJT hybrid mode, the sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility of the gated lateral BJT for biosensors were evaluated in this study. According to the results, in the MOSFET-BJT hybrid mode, the gated lateral BJT shows good selectivity and reproducibility. Changes in the emitter (source) current of the device for CRP antigen detection were approximately 0.65, 0.72, and 0.80 μA/decade at base currents of -50, -30, and -10 μA, respectively. The proposed device has significant application in the detection of certain biomaterials that require a dilution process using a common biosensor, such as a MOSFET-based biosensor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hybrid determination of mixed-mode stress intensity factors on discontinuous finite-width plate by finite element and photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Tae Hyun; Chen, Lei; Hong, Dong Pyo

    2011-01-01

    For isotropic material structure, the stress in the vicinity of crack tip is generally much higher than the stress far away from it. This phenomenon usually leads to stress concentration and fracture of structure. Previous researches and studies show that the stress intensity factor is one of most important parameter for crack growth and propagation. This paper provides a convenient numerical method, which is called hybrid photoelasticity method, to accurately determine the stress field distribution in the vicinity of crack tip and mixed-mode stress intensity factors. The model was simulated by finite element method and isochromatic data along straight lines far away from the crack tip were calculated. By using the isochromatic data obtained from finite element method and a conformal mapping procedure, stress components and photoelastic fringes in the hybrid region were calculated. To easily compare calculated photoelastic fringes with experiment results, the fringe patterns were reconstructed, doubled and sharpened. Good agreement shows that the method presented in this paper is reliable and convenient. This method can then directly be applied to obtain mixed mode stress intensity factors from the experimentally measured isochromatic data along the straight lines

  7. A Hybrid Forecasting Model Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and the Cuckoo Search Algorithm: A Case Study for Power Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiani Heng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power load forecasting always plays a considerable role in the management of a power system, as accurate forecasting provides a guarantee for the daily operation of the power grid. It has been widely demonstrated in forecasting that hybrid forecasts can improve forecast performance compared with individual forecasts. In this paper, a hybrid forecasting approach, comprising Empirical Mode Decomposition, CSA (Cuckoo Search Algorithm, and WNN (Wavelet Neural Network, is proposed. This approach constructs a more valid forecasting structure and more stable results than traditional ANN (Artificial Neural Network models such as BPNN (Back Propagation Neural Network, GABPNN (Back Propagation Neural Network Optimized by Genetic Algorithm, and WNN. To evaluate the forecasting performance of the proposed model, a half-hourly power load in New South Wales of Australia is used as a case study in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid model is not only simple but also able to satisfactorily approximate the actual power load and can be an effective tool in planning and dispatch for smart grids.

  8. Improved Hybrid Fireworks Algorithm-Based Parameter Optimization in High-Order Sliding Mode Control of Hypersonic Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the nonlinear hypersonic vehicle (HV dynamics, achieving a satisfactory tracking control performance under uncertainties is always a challenge. The high-order sliding mode control (HOSMC method with strong robustness has been applied to HVs. However, there are few methods for determining suitable HOSMC parameters for an efficacious control of HV, given that the uncertainties are randomly distributed. In this study, we introduce a hybrid fireworks algorithm- (FWA- based parameter optimization into HV control design to satisfy the design requirements with high probability. First, the complex relation between design parameters and the cost function that evaluates the likelihood of system instability and violation of design requirements is modeled via stochastic robustness analysis. Subsequently, we propose an efficient hybrid FWA to solve the complex optimization problem concerning the uncertainties. The efficiency of the proposed hybrid FWA-based optimization method is demonstrated in the search of the optimal HV controller, in which the proposed method exhibits a better performance when compared with other algorithms.

  9. MPC-based energy management with adaptive Markov-chain prediction for a dual-mode hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG; ChangLe; DING; Feng; WANG; WeiDa; HE; Wei; QI; YunLong

    2017-01-01

    The and energy to management strategy battery is state an important part of a hybrid electrical vehicle design.It is used to improve various fuel economy sustain a proper of charge an by controlling control the power components is while satisfying to constraints and driving demands.However,achieving optimal and performance challenging due the nonlinearities of the hybrid powertrain,conflicting vehicle the time varying constraints,the dilemma capable in which controller control complexity and real-time capability are generally objectives.In this paper,a of real-time cascaded complies strategy is proposed for a dual-mode hybrid electric that considers controller based nonlinearities based the system model and with all time-varying with constraints.sampling The strategy consists of a supervisory controller on a non-linear predictive control short(MPC)sampling a long time with future strategy interval and a coordinating on linear model predictive based control with a time interval to deal different load dynamics of the system.The Additionally,a novel data methodology using adaptive Markov chains to predict demand is introduced.predictive future information is used to improve controller cycles performance.conducted.The The proposed is implemented validity on a real test-bed approach and experimental trials using economy unknown is driving are results other demonstrate the of the proposed and show that fuel significantly improved compared with methods.

  10. MPC-based energy management with adaptive Markov-chain prediction for a dual-mode hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG ChangLe; DING Feng; WANG WeiDa; HE Wei; QI YunLong

    2017-01-01

    The energy management strategy is an important part of a hybrid electrical vehicle design.It is used to improve fuel economy and to sustain a proper battery state of charge by controlling the power components while satisfying various constraints and driving demands.However,achieving an optimal control performance is challenging due to the nonlinearities of the hybrid powertrain,the time varying constraints,and the dilemma in which controller complexity and real-time capability are generally conflicting objectives.In this paper,a real-time capable cascaded control strategy is proposed for a dual-mode hybrid electric vehicle that considers nonlinearities of the system and complies with all time-varying constraints.The strategy consists of a supervisory controller based on a non-linear model predictive control (MPC) with a long sampling time interval and a coordinating controller based on linear model predictive control with a short sampling time interval to deal with different dynamics of the system.Additionally,a novel data based methodology using adaptive Markov chains to predict future load demand is introduced.The predictive future information is used to improve controller performance.The proposed strategy is implemented on a real test-bed and experimental trials using unknown driving cycles are conducted.The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach and show that fuel economy is significantly improved compared with other methods.

  11. Rare hybrid swarm of Pilosella polymastix × P. officinarum: cytotype structure and modes of reproduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulec, František; Krahulcová, Anna; Hlaváček, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2014), s. 179-192 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363; GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : chromosome numbers * hybrid swarm composition * reproductive models Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2014

  12. COOPERATIVE MODE OF ELECTRIC MOTOR AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OPERATION IN THE CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the authors proposed a method to control the car, which is converted into a hybrid one. The electric motor and combustion engine operate alternately in the car. They proposed a device for implementing this method and a circuit design for the device in question. They also calculated the dynamics of the vehicle under the joint acceleration.

  13. Control and fault diagnosis based sliding mode observer of a multicellular converter: Hybrid approach

    KAUST Repository

    Benzineb, Omar; Taibi, Fateh; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Boucherit, Mohamed Seghir; Tadjine, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    control and an observer-type sliding mode to generate residuals from the observation errors of the system. The simulation results are presented at the end to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach. © 2013 FEI STU.

  14. Dual mode linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller for an isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system with superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thameem Ansari, M.Md.; Velusami, S.

    2010-01-01

    A design of dual mode linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller for an isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system with superconducting magnetic energy storage unit is proposed in this paper. The design methodology of dual mode linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller is a hybrid model based on the concepts of linguistic hedges and hybrid genetic algorithm-simulated annealing algorithms. The linguistic hedge operators are used to adjust the shape of the system membership functions dynamically and can speed up the control result to fit the system demand. The hybrid genetic algorithm-simulated annealing algorithm is adopted to search the optimal linguistic hedge combination in the linguistic hedge module. Dual mode concept is also incorporated in the proposed controller because it can improve the system performance. The system with the proposed controller was simulated and the frequency deviation resulting from a step load disturbance is presented. The comparison of the proportional plus integral controller, fuzzy logic controller and the proposed dual mode linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller shows that, with the application of the proposed controller, the system performance is improved significantly. The proposed controller is also found to be less sensitive to the changes in the parameters of the system and also robust under different operating modes of the hybrid power system.

  15. Combining ability and mode of inheritance of stem thickness in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench F1 hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pataki Imre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was determination of mode of inheritance, gene effects components of genetic variance, combining abilities, average contribution of lines and testers and their interactions in expression of stem thickness in forage sorghum F1 generation. Method line x tester was applied. Material comprised of eight genetically divergent A-inbred lines of grain sorghum three R lines-testers of Sudan grass and twenty-four F1 hybrids obtained by crossing lines with testers. Among tested genotypes there were significant differences in mean values of stem thickness. Analysis of variance of combining abilities showed that there were highly significant differences for general combining abilities (GCA and specific combining abilities (SCA non-additive component of genetic variance (dominance and epistasis had greater portion in total genetic variance for stem thickness. During the first research year, interaction between inbred maternal line with testers had the largest contribution in expression of stem thickness of F1 hybrid at both locations, while in the second year at location Rimski Šančevi the largest contribution belongs to lines and at location Mačvanski Prnjavor the largest contribution belongs to testers. Assessment of combining abilities showed that these inbred lines of grain sorghum can be used as mothers: SS-1 646, SS-1 688 and S-8 682 in breeding forage sorghum for thicker stem. According to SCA, promising forage sorghum hybrids are S-8 682 x ST-R lin H and P-21 656 x C-198. This research can be of importance for developing new high-yielding forage sorghum hybrids.

  16. Lower hybrid heating associated with mode conversion on the Wisconsin octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, T.L.

    1979-08-01

    This thesis addresses the following key issues in the lower hybrid frequency range: 1. What are the importent physics aspects of wave propagation and heating in an experimental situation. 2. How effective is plasma heating in the complex magnetic field configuration of the octupole. Experimental work is accomplished by launching 1-10ms pulses of up to 40kW of radio frequency power at 140MHz corresponding to the hot plasma lower hybrid resonance in the octupole. A diploe antenna which is moveable radially and is also rotatable couples wave power to the plasma. Coupling efficiencies greater than 95% are achieved by proper antenna placement near the edge of the plasma radial density profile

  17. Lower hybrid heating associated with mode conversion on the Wisconsin toroidal octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, T.L.; Scharer, J.E.

    1980-09-01

    Wave heating experiments and wave propagation measurements in the lower hybrid range of frequencies are described. A T antenna launches up to 40 kW of wave power at 140 MHz with better than 95% coupling efficiency. Ion temperature increases of ΔT/sub i/ = 37 eV are measured with ΔT/sub parallel//T/sub io/ = 12. Ion heating is strongly localized near the lower hybrid turning point for a peak value of (k/sub parallel//ω)(KT/sub i//m/sub e/)/sup 1/2/ approx. = 0.3 corresponding to an upshifted k/sub parallel/ spectrum. Wavelength measurements indicate that the upshift in k/sub parallel/ occurs in the interior of the plasma. Other wave measurements show the existence of a large amplitude weakly damped fast wave component in addition to the slow wave

  18. Dual-mode ultraflow access networks: a hybrid solution for the access bottleneck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazovsky, Leonid G.; Shen, Thomas Shunrong; Dhaini, Ahmad R.; Yin, Shuang; De Leenheer, Marc; Detwiler, Benjamin A.

    2013-12-01

    Optical Flow Switching (OFS) is a promising solution for large Internet data transfers. In this paper, we introduce UltraFlow Access, a novel optical access network architecture that offers dual-mode service to its end-users: IP and OFS. With UltraFlow Access, we design and implement a new dual-mode control plane and a new dual-mode network stack to ensure efficient connection setup and reliable and optimal data transmission. We study the impact of the UltraFlow system's design on the network throughput. Our experimental results show that with an optimized system design, near optimal (around 10 Gb/s) OFS data throughput can be attained when the line rate is 10Gb/s.

  19. 850-nm hybrid fiber/free-space optical communications using orbital angular momentum modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Light beams can carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated to the helicity of their phasefronts. These OAM modes can be employed to encode information onto a laser beam for transmitting not only in a fiber link but also in a free-space optical (FSO) one. Regarding this latter scenario, FSO...... communications are considered as an alternative and promising mean complementing the traditional optical communications in many applications where the use of fiber cable is not justified. This next generation FSO communication systems have attracted much interest recently, and the inclusion of beams carrying OAM...... modes can be seen as an efficient solution to increase the capacity and the security in the link. In this paper, we discuss an experimental demonstration of a proposal for next generation FSO communication system where a light beam carrying different OAM modes and affected by M turbulence is coupled...

  20. Hybrid UWB and WiMAX radio-over-multi-mode fibre for in-building optical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J; Llorente, R

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the use of hybrid WiMedia-defined ultra-wideband (UWB) and IEEE 802.16d WiMAX radio-over-fibre is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for multi-mode based in-building optical networks with the advantage of great immunity to optical transmission impairments. In the proposed approach, spectral coexistence of both signals must be achieved with negligible mutual interference. The experimental study performed addressed an indoor configuration with 50 μm multi-mode fibres (MMF) and 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) transmitters. The results indicate that the impact of the wireless convergence in radio-over-multi-mode fibre (RoMMF) is significant for UWB transmissions, mainly due to MMF dispersion and electrooptical (EO) devices with limited bandwidth. On the other hand, WiMAX transmission is feasible for a 300 m MMF and 30 m wireless link in the presence of UWB, with −31 dBm WiMAX EVM. (paper)

  1. Optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with hybrid mode-locking and a broad tunable range of repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honglei; Wu, Xuejian; Zhang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Shijie; Yang, Lijun; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2016-12-01

    We present an optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with a broad repetition rate tuning range based on a hybrid mode-locked oscillator. We lock two comb modes to narrow-linewidth reference lasers in turn to investigate the best performance of control loops. The control bandwidth of fast and slow piezoelectric transducers reaches 70 kHz, while that of pump current modulation with phase-lead compensation is extended to 32 kHz, exceeding laser intrinsic response. Eventually, simultaneous lock of both loops is realized to totally phase-stabilize the comb, which will facilitate precision dual-comb spectroscopy, laser ranging, and timing distribution. In addition, a 1.8-MHz span of the repetition rate is achieved by an automatic optical delay line that is helpful in manufacturing a secondary comb with a similar repetition rate. The oscillator is housed in a homemade temperature-controlled box with an accuracy of ±0.02  K, which not only keeps high signal-to-noise ratio of the beat notes with reference lasers, but also guarantees self-starting at the same mode-locking every time.

  2. A study of quasi-mode parametric excitations in lower-hybrid heating of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalon, E.; Bers, A.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed linear and non-linear analysis of quasi-mode parametric excitations relevant to experiments in supplementary heating of tokamak plasmas is presented. The linear analysis includes the full ion-cyclotron harmonic quasi-mode spectrum. The non-linear analysis, considering depletion of the pump electric field, is applied to the recent Alcator A heating experiment. Because of the very different characteristics of a tokamak plasma near the wall (in the shadow of the limiter) and inside, the quasi-mode excitations are studied independently for the plasma edge and the main bulk of the plasma, and for two typical regimes in overall density, the low (peak in density, n 0 =1.5x10 14 cm -3 ) and high (n 0 =5x10 14 cm -3 ) density regimes. At the edge of the plasma and for the low-density regime, it is found that higher nsub(z)(nsub(z)=cksub(z)/ω) than those predicted by the linear theory are strongly excited. Inside the plasma, the excitation of higher wave numbers is also significant. These results indicate that a large amount of the RF-power may not penetrate to the plasma centre, but will rather be either Landau-damped on the electrons or mode-converted into thermal modes, close to the plasma edge. Moreover, for sufficiently high peaks in density, it is found that all the RF-power is mode-converted before reaching the plasma centre. Inside the plasma, the power density of the excited sideband fields is shown to be always very small in comparison with their excitation at the plasma edge. (author)

  3. The 8 MW lower hybrid electron mode system for the additional heating of the plasma of the FTU Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.; De Marco, F.; Ferro, C.; Mirizzi, F.; Papitto, P.; Santini, F.; Segre, S.E.; Sassi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The ''Electron Mode'' regime of LH Heating, based on the same physics as the current drive, has been extensively studied and experimentally tested especially with respect to the relation between frequency and density limit. These results have largely contributed to the decision to build a CD system on TORE SUPRA. Based on the same motivations, the Lower Hybrid 'Electron Mode' Heating (frequency: 8 ''Electron Mode'' Heating (frequency: 8 GHz), has been chosen to heat the plasma of the FTU Tokamak. The RF power required (8 MW at 8 GHz) will be produced by 16 gyrotron oscillators (500 KW unit power) feeding 16 grill couplers installed on 8 equatorial ports of FTU. The dc power supplies will be ,odularly built to be compatible even with completely different sort of tubes (e.g. for IRCH). The transmission lines between the generators and the grills will be circular oversized waveguides to reduce the losses to less than 1 dB. Each grill will consist of an 8x8 matrix of rectangular waveguides pressurized and terminated by thik (one wavelength) alumina windows facing the grill mouth. Gyrotron availability has been verified through studies conducted by the two major manufacturers presently on the market. Preliminary quotations and delivery times have been obtained. The design of the grill couplers has been supplemented by a study contract with an industrial research laboratory which is producing a prototype structure and ceramic windows with very promising results. Microwave mode converters and power dividers for the transmission system have been designed and prototypes are being built and will be tested shortly. An 8 GHz, 25 KW cw test bench has been already commissioned and will be used to test all the microwave components. The power level is more than adequate also to process single channels of the coupling structures

  4. Effect of Substrate, Feeding Mode and Number of Stages on the Performance of Hybrid Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Herrera-Melián

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid constructed wetland mesocosm has been used for the treatment of raw urban wastewater. The first stage was a mulch-based, subsurface, horizontal flow constructed wetland (HF. The HF achieved good removals of COD (61%; 54 g/m2·day and Total Suspended Solids (84%; 29 g/m2·day. The second stage was composed of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF that were employed to study the effect of substrate (gravel vs. mulch, feeding mode (continuous vs. intermittent and the number of stages (1 vs. 2 on performance. High hydraulic and organic surface loadings (513–583 L/m2·day and 103–118 g/m2·day of COD were applied to the reactors. The mulch was more efficient than gravel for all the parameters analyzed. The continuous feeding allowed a 3 to 6-fold reduction of the surface area required.

  5. A Hybrid Scheme Motion Controller by Sliding Mode and Two-Degree-of-Freedom Controls to Minimize the Chattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Keng Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliding mode control (SMC is rapped for the chattering due to high gain control. However, high gain control causes the system robust. For developing a system with robustness of SMC, a servo motor motion controller combining the two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF system and SMC is proposed. The discussed motion type is point-to-point control with the constraint of trapezoid velocity profile. SMC is designed to guide the motor motion to follow a predefined trail, and the inner 2DOF system is used to compensate the deterioration due to the adoption of load observer. The proposed hybrid system is realized on a PC-based motion controller, and the validness is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  6. Qualitative: Python Tool for MT Quality Estimation Supporting Server Mode and Hybrid MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramidis Eleftherios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the development contributions of the last two years to our Python opensource Quality Estimation tool, a tool that can function in both experiment-mode and online web-service mode. The latest version provides a new MT interface, which communicates with SMT and rule-based translation engines and supports on-the-fly sentence selection. Additionally, we present an improved Machine Learning interface allowing more efficient communication with several state-of-the-art toolkits. Additions also include a more informative training process, a Python re-implementation of QuEst baseline features, a new LM toolkit integration, an additional PCFG parser and alignments of syntactic nodes.

  7. On sliding mode observer for a hybrid three-cell converter

    KAUST Repository

    Khelouat, Samir

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a sliding mode observer to estimate the capacitor voltages of the 3-cell converter. New concept recently introduced, based on geometrical condition for observability analysis is used. The convergence of estimation error based on the solution of an LMI system is shown. Finally, illustrative results are given in order to show the efficiency of the designed observer. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Toroidal effects on propagation, damping, and linear mode conversion of lower hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat, D.W.

    1980-09-01

    A common simplifying assumption made in the consideration of radio-frequency heating of tokamaks near the lower hybrid frequency is that the wave-length imposed by the coupling device parallel to the magnetic field is not modified by gradients along the field. In the present calculation, the parallel wave-length is allowed to vary, and important effects are found on wave penetration and damping if the toroidal aspect ratio (R/sub major//r/sub minor/) is less than approx. 5. The calculation shows that heating at the center of a small aspect ratio torus is inhibited by a decrease of k/sub parallel/ if waves are launched at the outside, and that it may be possible to change the plasma current via electron Landau damping with a coupler of symmetric power spectrum by placing the coupler at the top (or bottom) of the torus

  9. Heavy impurity confinement in hybrid operation scenario plasmas with a rotating 1/1 continuous mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, M.; Graves, J. P.; Nicolas, T.; Cooper, W. A.; Garbet, X.; Pfefferlé, D.

    2017-12-01

    In future tokamaks like ITER with tungsten walls, it is imperative to control tungsten accumulation in the core of operational plasmas, especially since tungsten accumulation can lead to radiative collapse and disruption. We investigate the behavior of tungsten trace impurities in a JET-like hybrid scenario with both axisymmetric and saturated 1/1 ideal helical core in the presence of strong plasma rotation. For this purpose, we obtain the equilibria from VMEC and use VENUS-LEVIS, a guiding-center orbit-following code, to follow heavy impurity particles. In this work, VENUS-LEVIS has been modified to account for strong plasma flows with associated neoclassical effects arising from such flows. We find that the combination of helical core and plasma rotation augments the standard neoclassical inward pinch compared to axisymmetry, and leads to a strong inward pinch of impurities towards the magnetic axis despite the strong outward diffusion provided by the centrifugal force, as frequently observed in experiments.

  10. Analysis of hybrid mode-locking of two-section quantum dot lasers operating at 1.5 μm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, M.J.R.; Salumbides, E.J.; Renault, A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Oei, Y.S.; Smit, M.K.; Veldhoven, van P.J.; Nötzel, R.; Eikema, K.S.E.; Ubachs, W.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time a detailed study of hybrid mode-locking in two- section InAs/InP quantum dot Fabry-Pérot-type lasers is presented. The output pulses have a typical upchirp of approximately 8 ps/nm, leading to very elongated pulses. The mechanism leading to this typical pulse shape and the phase

  11. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostecki, R.; Zhang, X.; Ross Jr., P.N.; Kong, F.; Sloop, S.; Kerr, J.B.; Striebel, K.; Cairns, E.; McLarnon, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program seeks to aid the development of high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Nine 18650-size ATD baseline cells were tested under a variety of conditions. The cells consisted of a carbon anode, LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 cathode and DEC-EC-LiPF 6 electrolyte, and they were engineered for high-power applications. Selected instrumental techniques such as synchrotron IR microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gas chromatography, etc. were used to characterize the anode, cathode, current collectors and electrolyte from these cells. The goal was to identify detrimental processes which lead to battery failure under a high-current cycling regime as well as during storage at elevated temperatures. The diagnostic results suggest that the following factors contribute to the cell power loss: (a) SEI deterioration and non-uniformity on the anode, (b) morphology changes, increase of impedance and phase separation on the cathode, (c) pitting corrosion on the cathode Al current collector, and (d) decomposition of the LiPF 6 salt in the electrolyte at elevated temperature

  12. Hybrid finite element/waveguide mode analysis of passive RF devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Daniel T.

    1993-07-01

    A numerical solution for time-harmonic electromagnetic fields in two-port passive radio frequency (RF) devices has been developed, implemented in a computer code, and validated. Vector finite elements are used to represent the fields in the device interior, and field continuity across waveguide apertures is enforced by matching the interior solution to a sum of waveguide modes. Consequently, the mesh may end at the aperture instead of extending into the waveguide. The report discusses the variational formulation and its reduction to a linear system using Galerkin's method. It describes the computer code, including its interface to commercial CAD software used for geometry generation. It presents validation results for waveguide discontinuities, coaxial transitions, and microstrip circuits. They demonstrate that the method is an effective and versatile tool for predicting the performance of passive RF devices.

  13. Fuzzy-based failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) of a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and gas turbine system for marine propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junkeon; Noh, Yeelyong; Park, Sung Ho; Choi, Byung Il; Chang, Daejun

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a fuzzy-based FMEA (failure mode and effect analysis) for a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell and gas turbine system for liquefied hydrogen tankers. An FMEA-based regulatory framework is adopted to analyze the non-conventional propulsion system and to understand the risk picture of the system. Since the participants of the FMEA rely on their subjective and qualitative experiences, the conventional FMEA used for identifying failures that affect system performance inevitably involves inherent uncertainties. A fuzzy-based FMEA is introduced to express such uncertainties appropriately and to provide flexible access to a risk picture for a new system using fuzzy modeling. The hybrid system has 35 components and has 70 potential failure modes, respectively. Significant failure modes occur in the fuel cell stack and rotary machine. The fuzzy risk priority number is used to validate the crisp risk priority number in the FMEA.

  14. Hybrid PD and effective multi-mode positive position feedback control for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Jun-qiang; Wei, Yan-ding; Yang, Yi-ling; Xie, Feng-ran

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid control strategy for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator is presented in this paper. It consists of a proportional derivative controller to realize motion control, and an effective multi-mode positive position feedback (EMPPF) controller to suppress the multi-mode vibration. Rather than treat each mode equally as the standard multi-mode PPF, the essence of the EMPPF is that control forces of different modes are applied according to the mode parameters of the respective modes, so the vibration modes with less vibration energy receive fewer control forces. Stability conditions for the close loop system are established through stability analysis. Optimal parameters of the EMPPF controller are obtained using the method of root locus analysis. The performance of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by simulation and experiments. Experimental results show that the first two vibration modes of the manipulator are effectively suppressed. The setting time of the setup descends approximately 55%, reaching 3.12 s from 5.67 s. (paper)

  15. Hybrid PD and effective multi-mode positive position feedback control for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jun-qiang; Wei, Yan-ding; Yang, Yi-ling; Xie, Feng-ran

    2015-03-01

    A hybrid control strategy for slewing and vibration suppression of a smart flexible manipulator is presented in this paper. It consists of a proportional derivative controller to realize motion control, and an effective multi-mode positive position feedback (EMPPF) controller to suppress the multi-mode vibration. Rather than treat each mode equally as the standard multi-mode PPF, the essence of the EMPPF is that control forces of different modes are applied according to the mode parameters of the respective modes, so the vibration modes with less vibration energy receive fewer control forces. Stability conditions for the close loop system are established through stability analysis. Optimal parameters of the EMPPF controller are obtained using the method of root locus analysis. The performance of the proposed strategy is demonstrated by simulation and experiments. Experimental results show that the first two vibration modes of the manipulator are effectively suppressed. The setting time of the setup descends approximately 55%, reaching 3.12 s from 5.67 s.

  16. Design of High-Voltage Switch-Mode Power Amplifier Based on Digital-Controlled Hybrid Multilevel Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional Class-A, Class-B, and Class-AB amplifiers, Class-D amplifier, also known as switching amplifier, employs pulse width modulation (PWM technology and solid-state switching devices, capable of achieving much higher efficiency. However, PWM-based switching amplifier is usually designed for low-voltage application, offering a maximum output voltage of several hundred Volts. Therefore, a step-up transformer is indispensably adopted in PWM-based Class-D amplifier to produce high-voltage output. In this paper, a switching amplifier without step-up transformer is developed based on digital pulse step modulation (PSM and hybrid multilevel converter. Under the control of input signal, cascaded power converters with separate DC sources operate in PSM switch mode to directly generate high-voltage and high-power output. The relevant topological structure, operating principle, and design scheme are introduced. Finally, a prototype system is built, which can provide power up to 1400 Watts and peak voltage up to ±1700 Volts. And the performance, including efficiency, linearity, and distortion, is evaluated by experimental tests.

  17. A comparison of student outcomes in a physical therapy neurologic rehabilitation course based on delivery mode: hybrid vs traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneri, Diana A; Gannotti, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Physical therapy (PT) educators have been charged by the American Physical Therapy Association's Vision 2020 with the aim of developing critically reflective knowledge about teaching and learning using innovative teaching methods. Computer-assisted learning (CAL) affords the opportunity to supplement face-to-face teaching methods. The purpose of this study was to compare student performance and preferred instruction mode between a hybrid model using CAL modules and a traditional lecture-based model. The posttest-only control design used mixed methods to assess two successive student cohorts (2011 and 2012). Cohort 1 was instructed using only traditional teaching methods of lecture and laboratory experiences, while Cohort 2 was taught using both traditional teaching methods and the CAL modules created for 10 content areas. Students viewed each CAL module after the in-class lecture, prior to the corresponding laboratory. Student performance was assessed with weekly 10-question quizzes. One-minute papers and focus group discussions were administered to Cohort 2 to gauge satisfaction and perceptions of the CAL modules. Results revealed that the mean quiz grades for Cohort 2 were higher than those for Cohort 1, 86.1 vs 80.4. When comparing final exam grades and final grades for the course between groups, a statistically significant difference exists with the final exam grade, pInnovative, interactive, and varied teaching methodologies will serve to better engage students as lifelong learners.

  18. Development of Real-Time Dual-Display Handheld and Bench-Top Hybrid-Mode SD-OCTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hyun Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a dual-display handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT system for retina and optic-nerve-head diagnosis beyond the volunteer motion constraints is reported. The developed system is portable and easily movable, containing the compact portable OCT system that includes the handheld probe and computer. Eye posterior chambers were diagnosed using the handheld probe, and the probe could be fixed to the bench-top cradle depending on the volunteers’ physical condition. The images obtained using this handheld probe were displayed in real time on the computer monitor and on a small secondary built-in monitor; the displayed images were saved using the handheld probe’s built-in button. Large-scale signal-processing procedures such as k-domain linearization, fast Fourier transform (FFT, and log-scaling signal processing can be rapidly applied using graphics-processing-unit (GPU accelerated processing rather than central-processing-unit (CPU processing. The Labview-based system resolution is 1,024 × 512 pixels, and the frame rate is 56 frames/s, useful for real-time display. The 3D images of the posterior chambers including the retina, optic-nerve head, blood vessels, and optic nerve were composed using real-time displayed images with 500 × 500 × 500 pixel resolution. A handheld and bench-top hybrid mode with a dual-display handheld OCT was developed to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method.

  19. Dual-wavelength passive and hybrid mode-locking of 3, 4.5 and 10 GHz InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvili, M S; Du, L; Heck, M J R; Nötzel, R; Smit, M K; Bente, E A J M

    2012-03-26

    We present an investigation of passive and hybrid mode-locking in Fabry-Pérot type two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers that show dual wavelength operation. Over the whole current and voltage range for mode-locking of these lasers, the optical output spectra show two distinct lobes. The two lobes provide a coherent bandwidth and are verified to lead to two synchronized optical pulses. The generated optical pulses are elongated in time due to a chirp which shows opposite signs over the two spectral lobes. Self-induced mode-locking in the single-section laser shows that the dual-wavelength spectra correspond to emission from ground state. In the hybrid mode-locking regime, a map of locking range is presented by measuring the values of timing jitter for several values of power and frequency of the external electrical modulating signal. An overview of the systematic behavior of InAs/InP(100) quantum dot mode-locked lasers is presented as conclusion.

  20. Magnetic topology changes induced by lower hybrid waves and their profound effect on edge-localized modes in the EAST tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Gong, X Z; Gan, K F; Gauthier, E; Wang, L; Rack, M; Wang, Y M; Zeng, L; Denner, P; Wingen, A; Lv, B; Ding, B J; Chen, R; Hu, L Q; Hu, J S; Liu, F K; Jie, Y X; Pearson, J; Qian, J P; Shan, J F; Shen, B; Shi, T H; Sun, Y; Wang, F D; Wang, H Q; Wang, M; Wu, Z W; Zhang, S B; Zhang, T; Zhang, X J; Yan, N; Xu, G S; Guo, H Y; Wan, B N; Li, J G

    2013-06-07

    Strong mitigation of edge-localized modes has been observed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, when lower hybrid waves (LHWs) are applied to H-mode plasmas with ion cyclotron resonant heating. This has been demonstrated to be due to the formation of helical current filaments flowing along field lines in the scrape-off layer induced by LHW. This leads to the splitting of the outer divertor strike points during LHWs similar to previous observations with resonant magnetic perturbations. The change in the magnetic topology has been qualitatively modeled by considering helical current filaments in a field-line-tracing code.

  1. A Novel Hybrid Data-Driven Model for Daily Land Surface Temperature Forecasting Using Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xike Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Daily land surface temperature (LST forecasting is of great significance for application in climate-related, agricultural, eco-environmental, or industrial studies. Hybrid data-driven prediction models using Ensemble Empirical Mode Composition (EEMD coupled with Machine Learning (ML algorithms are useful for achieving these purposes because they can reduce the difficulty of modeling, require less history data, are easy to develop, and are less complex than physical models. In this article, a computationally simple, less data-intensive, fast and efficient novel hybrid data-driven model called the EEMD Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM neural network, namely EEMD-LSTM, is proposed to reduce the difficulty of modeling and to improve prediction accuracy. The daily LST data series from the Mapoling and Zhijaing stations in the Dongting Lake basin, central south China, from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2016 is used as a case study. The EEMD is firstly employed to decompose the original daily LST data series into many Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs and a single residue item. Then, the Partial Autocorrelation Function (PACF is used to obtain the number of input data sample points for LSTM models. Next, the LSTM models are constructed to predict the decompositions. All the predicted results of the decompositions are aggregated as the final daily LST. Finally, the prediction performance of the hybrid EEMD-LSTM model is assessed in terms of the Mean Square Error (MSE, Mean Absolute Error (MAE, Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Pearson Correlation Coefficient (CC and Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (NSCE. To validate the hybrid data-driven model, the hybrid EEMD-LSTM model is compared with the Recurrent Neural Network (RNN, LSTM and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD coupled with RNN, EMD-LSTM and EEMD-RNN models, and their comparison results demonstrate that the hybrid EEMD-LSTM model performs better than the other

  2. A Novel Hybrid Data-Driven Model for Daily Land Surface Temperature Forecasting Using Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xike; Zhang, Qiuwen; Zhang, Gui; Nie, Zhiping; Gui, Zifan; Que, Huafei

    2018-05-21

    Daily land surface temperature (LST) forecasting is of great significance for application in climate-related, agricultural, eco-environmental, or industrial studies. Hybrid data-driven prediction models using Ensemble Empirical Mode Composition (EEMD) coupled with Machine Learning (ML) algorithms are useful for achieving these purposes because they can reduce the difficulty of modeling, require less history data, are easy to develop, and are less complex than physical models. In this article, a computationally simple, less data-intensive, fast and efficient novel hybrid data-driven model called the EEMD Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network, namely EEMD-LSTM, is proposed to reduce the difficulty of modeling and to improve prediction accuracy. The daily LST data series from the Mapoling and Zhijaing stations in the Dongting Lake basin, central south China, from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2016 is used as a case study. The EEMD is firstly employed to decompose the original daily LST data series into many Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) and a single residue item. Then, the Partial Autocorrelation Function (PACF) is used to obtain the number of input data sample points for LSTM models. Next, the LSTM models are constructed to predict the decompositions. All the predicted results of the decompositions are aggregated as the final daily LST. Finally, the prediction performance of the hybrid EEMD-LSTM model is assessed in terms of the Mean Square Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Pearson Correlation Coefficient (CC) and Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (NSCE). To validate the hybrid data-driven model, the hybrid EEMD-LSTM model is compared with the Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), LSTM and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) coupled with RNN, EMD-LSTM and EEMD-RNN models, and their comparison results demonstrate that the hybrid EEMD-LSTM model performs better than the other five

  3. Observation of the X-mode anomalous absorption in the plasma filament associated with the two upper-hybrid-plasmon decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonchik Leanid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong anomalous absorption of the X-mode wave associated with the two upper-hybrid-plasmon decay in the plasma at density higher than the UH resonance value for the half frequency of the pump by means of optical and microwave diagnostics is observed. The threshold and growth rate of the anomalous phenomena are estimated and compared to the theory predictions. The low frequency waves excited in plasma are investigated using the enhanced scattering diagnostics.

  4. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Typical Turbofan Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Brown, Cliff; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14x22 wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8% scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8% rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft using the projected signature of the engine currently proposed for the HWB. The modal structures at the rating points were generated from inlet and exhaust nacelle configurations - a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface and vertical control surfaces with correct plan form shapes were also tested to determine their additional impact on shielding. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 inches. Two planes perpendicular, and two planes parallel, to the axis of the nacelle were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed 4 sweeps, for a total span of 168 inches acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Levels, and integrated Power Levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct mode power levels.

  5. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Typical Turbofan Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel l.; Brown, Clifford A.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14- by 22-ft wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8 percent scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8 percent rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft using the projected signature of the engine currently proposed for the HWB. The modal structures at the rating points were generated from inlet and exhaust nacelle configurations--a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface and vertical control surfaces with correct plan form shapes were also tested to determine their additional impact on shielding. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 in. Two planes perpendicular, and two planes parallel, to the axis of the nacelle were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed four sweeps, for a total span of 168 in. acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Levels, and integrated Power Levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct mode power levels

  6. Comparative mode of action of novel hybrid peptide CS-1a and its rearranged amphipathic analogue CS-2a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Seema; Bisht, Gopal S; Rawat, Diwan S; Maiti, Souvik; Pasha, Santosh

    2012-10-01

    Cell selective, naturally occurring, host defence cationic peptides present a good template for the design of novel peptides with the aim of achieving a short length with improved antimicrobial potency and selectivity. A novel, short peptide CS-1a (14 residues) was derived using a sequence hybridization approach on sarcotoxin I (39 residues) and cecropin B (35 residues). The sequence of CS-1a was rearranged to enhance amphipathicity with the help of a Schiffer-Edmundson diagram to obtain CS-2a. Both peptides showed good antibacterial activity in the concentration range 4-16 μg·mL(-1) against susceptible as well as drug-resistant bacterial strains, including the clinically relevant pathogens Acenatobacter sp. and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The major thrust of these peptides is their nonhaemolytic activity against human red blood cells up to a high concentration of 512 μg·mL(-1). Compared to CS-1a, amphipathic peptide CS-2a showed a more pronounced α-helical conformation, along with a better membrane insertion depth in bacterial mimic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) small unilamellar vesicles. With equivalent lipid-binding affinity, the two peptides assumed different pathways of membrane disruption, as demonstrated by calcein leakage and the results of transmission electron microscopy on model bacterial mimic large unilamellar vesicles. Extending the work from model membranes to intact Escherichia coli cells, differences in membrane perturbation were visible in microscopic images of peptide-treated E. coli. The present study describes two novel short peptides with potent activity, cell selectivity and divergent modes of action that will aid in the future design of peptides with better therapeutic potential. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  7. Rapid radiations of both kiwifruit hybrid lineages and their parents shed light on a two-layer mode of species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Qiong; Song, Chi; Zhong, Caihong; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ying; Yao, Xiaohong; Wang, Zupeng; Zeng, Shaohua; Wang, Ying; Guo, Yangtao; Wang, Shuaibin; Li, Xinwei; Li, Li; Liu, Chunyan; McCann, Honour C; He, Weiming; Niu, Yan; Chen, Min; Du, Liuwen; Gong, Junjie; Datson, Paul M; Hilario, Elena; Huang, Hongwen

    2017-07-01

    Reticulate speciation caused by interspecific hybridization is now recognized as an important mechanism in the creation of biological diversity. However, depicting the patterns of phylogenetic networks for lineages that have undergone interspecific gene flow is challenging. Here we sequenced 25 taxa representing natural diversity in the genus Actinidia with an average mapping depth of 26× on the reference genome to reconstruct their reticulate history. We found evidence, including significant gene tree discordance, cytonuclear conflicts, and changes in genome-wide heterozygosity across taxa, collectively supporting extensive reticulation in the genus. Furthermore, at least two separate parental species pairs were involved in the repeated origin of the hybrid lineages, in some of which a further phase of syngameon was triggered. On the basis of the elucidated hybridization relationships, we obtained a highly resolved backbone phylogeny consisting of taxa exhibiting no evidence of hybrid origin. The backbone taxa have distinct demographic histories and are the product of recent rounds of rapid radiations via sorting of ancestral variation under variable climatic and ecological conditions. Our results suggest a mode for consecutive plant diversification through two layers of radiations, consisting of the rapid evolution of backbone lineages and the formation of hybrid swarms derived from these lineages. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Transient Oscillations Analysis and Modified Control Strategy for Seamless Mode Transfer in Micro-Grids: A Wind-PV-ES Hybrid System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the micro-grid associated with new and clean energies, the smooth switching between grid-connected and islanded operation modes of the micro-grid is a key issue that needs to be addressed urgently. In traditional solutions, V/f (Voltage/frequency control is adopted for the master micro sources when the micro-grid works in islanded mode, while PQ (real and reactive power control is adopted when in grid-connected mode. However, when the two controllers switch when mode transfer occurs, transient oscillations usually occur and thereafter the dynamic response will be degraded. This paper considers an archetypical micro-grid with Wind-PV-ES (Wind, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage hybrid system, which forms the basis of our case study. The underlying reason for such transient oscillation is analyzed in this paper. Thereafter a modified control strategy for seamless mode transfer is designed and implemented. An improved PQ control method is designed by which the output of the PQ controller always synchronously tracks the output of the V/f controller for micro-grid switches from islanded mode to grid-connected; furthermore, a dq rotating coordinate synchronization based V/f control method is proposed for transition from grid-connected mode to islanded mode. Finally, experiments and analysis are undertaken on some basic and important operating cases; the results in our case study indicate that the modified control strategy is effective in dominating the micro-grid during mode transfer and thus yielding significantly better performances.

  9. Software and Hardware control of a hybrid robot for switching between leg-type and wheel-type modes

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Wagner Tanaka; Okada, Tokuji; Mahmoud, Abeer; Shimizu, Toshimi

    2011-01-01

    One of the objectives of the paper is to describe the hybrid robot PEOPLER-II (Perpendicularly Oriented Planetary Legged Robot) with regard to switching between leg-type and wheel-type. Our robot has an easier design and control system than other hybrid robots. The software and hardware control in the process of performing five robot tasks are considered. These are the walking, rolling, switching, turning and spinning. In the switching task, we show the control method based on minimization of...

  10. Gravity Modes Reveal the Internal Rotation of a Post-mass-transfer Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti Hybrid Pulsator in Kepler Eclipsing Binary KIC 9592855

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    We report the discovery of a post-mass-transfer Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti hybrid pulsator in the eclipsing binary KIC 9592855. This binary has a circular orbit, an orbital period of 1.2 days, and contains two stars of almost identical masses ({M}1=1.72 {M}⊙ ,{M}2=1.71 {M}⊙ ). However, the cooler secondary star is more evolved ({R}2=1.96 {R}⊙ ), while the hotter primary is still on the zero-age-main-sequence ({R}1=1.53 {R}⊙ ). Coeval models from single-star evolution cannot explain the observed masses and radii, and binary evolution with mass-transfer needs to be invoked. After subtracting the binary light curve, the Fourier spectrum shows low-order pressure-mode pulsations, and more dominantly, a cluster of low-frequency gravity modes at about 2 day-1. These g-modes are nearly equally spaced in period, and the period spacing pattern has a negative slope. We identify these g-modes as prograde dipole modes and find that they stem from the secondary star. The frequency range of unstable p-modes also agrees with that of the secondary. We derive the internal rotation rate of the convective core and the asymptotic period spacing from the observed g-modes. The resulting values suggest that the core and envelope rotate nearly uniformly, i.e., their rotation rates are both similar to the orbital frequency of this synchronized binary.

  11. An Aerial Robot for Rice Farm Quality Inspection With Type-2 Fuzzy Neural Networks Tuned by Particle Swarm Optimization-Sliding Mode Control Hybrid Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camci, Efe; Kripalan, Devesh Raju; Ma, Linlu

    2017-01-01

    , an autonomous quality inspection over rice farms is proposed by employing quadcopters. Real-time control of these vehicles, however, is still challenging as they exhibit highly nonlinear behavior especially for agile maneuvers. What is more, these vehicles have to operate under uncertain working conditions...... particle swarm optimization-sliding mode control (PSO-SMC) theory-based hybrid algorithm is proposed for the training of T2-FNNs. In particular, continuous version of PSO is adopted for the identification of the antecedent part of T2-FNNs while SMCbased update rules are utilized for online learning...

  12. 110 GHz hybrid mode-locked fiber laser with enhanced extinction ratio based on nonlinear silicon-on-insulator micro-ring-resonator (SOI MRR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Hsu, Yung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yang, Ling-Gang; Lai, Yin-Chieh; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Tsang, Hon-Ki

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new 110 GHz high-repetition-rate hybrid mode-locked fiber laser using a silicon-on-insulator microring-resonator (SOI MRR) acting as the optical nonlinear element and optical comb filter simultaneously. By incorporating a phase modulator (PM) that is electrically driven at a fraction of the harmonic frequency, an enhanced extinction ratio (ER) of the optical pulses can be produced. The ER of the optical pulse train increases from 3 dB to 10 dB. As the PM is only electrically driven by the signal at a fraction of the harmonic frequency, in this case 22 GHz (110 GHz/5 GHz), a low bandwidth PM and driving circuit can be used. The mode-locked pulse width and the 3 dB spectral bandwidth of the proposed mode-locked fiber laser are measured, showing that the optical pulses are nearly transform limited. Moreover, stability evaluation for an hour is performed, showing that the proposed laser can achieve stable mode-locking without the need for optical feedback or any other stabilization mechanism. (letter)

  13. Fast ion stabilization of the ion temperature gradient driven modes in the Joint European Torus hybrid-scenario plasmas: a trigger mechanism for internal transport barrier formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, M; Zocco, A [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Crisanti, F, E-mail: Michele.Romanelli@ccfe.ac.u [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Understanding and modelling turbulent transport in thermonuclear fusion plasmas are crucial for designing and optimizing the operational scenarios of future fusion reactors. In this context, plasmas exhibiting state transitions, such as the formation of an internal transport barrier (ITB), are particularly interesting since they can shed light on transport physics and offer the opportunity to test different turbulence suppression models. In this paper, we focus on the modelling of ITB formation in the Joint European Torus (JET) [1] hybrid-scenario plasmas, where, due to the monotonic safety factor profile, magnetic shear stabilization cannot be invoked to explain the transition. The turbulence suppression mechanism investigated here relies on the increase in the plasma pressure gradient in the presence of a minority of energetic ions. Microstability analysis of the ion temperature gradient driven modes (ITG) in the presence of a fast-hydrogen minority shows that energetic ions accelerated by the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system (hydrogen, n{sub H,fast}/n{sub D,thermal} up to 10%, T{sub H,fast}/T{sub D,thermal} up to 30) can increase the pressure gradient enough to stabilize the ITG modes driven by the gradient of the thermal ions (deuterium). Numerical analysis shows that, by increasing the temperature of the energetic ions, electrostatic ITG modes are gradually replaced by nearly electrostatic modes with tearing parity at progressively longer wavelengths. The growth rate of the microtearing modes is found to be lower than that of the ITG modes and comparable to the local E x B-velocity shearing rate. The above mechanism is proposed as a possible trigger for the formation of ITBs in this type of discharges.

  14. Developmental instability, hybridization and heterozygosity in stick insects of the genus Bacillus (Insecta; Phasmatodea) with different modes of reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, D.H.; Pertoldi, C.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Several genetic factors are assumed to influence developmental instability (DI). One is the level of heterozygosity, with higher levels often being associated with decreased DI; another is genetic incompatibility in hybrids, which in several cases has been shown to increase DI. The genus Bacillus...

  15. Modal–Physical Hybrid System Identification of High-rise Building via Subspace and Inverse-Mode Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Fujita

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A system identification (SI problem of high-rise buildings is investigated under restricted data environments. The shear and bending stiffnesses of a shear-bending model (SB model representing the high-rise buildings are identified via the smart combination of the subspace and inverse-mode methods. Since the shear and bending stiffnesses of the SB model can be identified in the inverse-mode method by using the lowest mode of horizontal displacements and floor rotation angles, the lowest mode of the objective building is identified first by using the subspace method. Identification of the lowest mode is performed by using the amplitude of transfer functions derived in the subspace method. Considering the resolution in measuring the floor rotation angles in lower stories, floor rotation angles in most stories are predicted from the floor rotation angle at the top floor. An empirical equation of floor rotation angles is proposed by investigating those for various building models. From the viewpoint of application of the present SI method to practical situations, a non-simultaneous measurement system is also proposed. In order to investigate the reliability and accuracy of the proposed SI method, a 10-story building frame subjected to micro-tremor is examined.

  16. Multiple-bunch-length operating mode design for a storage ring using hybrid low alpha and harmonic cavity method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Weiwei, E-mail: gaomqr@mail.ustc.edu.cn [College of Mathematics and Physics, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 (China); Wang, Lin; Li, Heting [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)

    2017-03-11

    In this paper we design a simultaneous three bunch length operating mode at the HLS-II (Hefei Light Source II) storage ring by installing two harmonic cavities and minimizing the momentum compaction factor. The short bunches (2.6 mm) presented in this work will meet the requirement of coherent millimeter-wave and sub-THz radiation experiments, while the long bunches (20 mm) will efficiently increase the total beam current. Therefore, this multiple-bunch-length operating mode allows present synchrotron users and coherent millimeter-wave users (or sub THz users) to carry out their experiments simultaneously. Since the relatively low energy characteristic of HLS-II we achieve the multiple-bunch-length operating mode without multicell superconducting RF cavities, which is technically feasible.

  17. A Multiobjective Robust Scheduling Optimization Mode for Multienergy Hybrid System Integrated by Wind Power, Solar Photovoltaic Power, and Pumped Storage Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plant (WPP, photovoltaic generators (PV, cell-gas turbine (CGT, and pumped storage power station (PHSP are integrated into multienergy hybrid system (MEHS. Firstly, this paper presents MEHS structure and constructs a scheduling model with the objective functions of maximum economic benefit and minimum power output fluctuation. Secondly, in order to relieve the uncertainty influence of WPP and PV on system, robust stochastic theory is introduced to describe uncertainty and propose a multiobjective stochastic scheduling optimization mode by transforming constraint conditions with uncertain variables. Finally, a 9.6 MW WPP, a 6.5 MW PV, three CGT units, and an upper reservoir with 10 MW·h equivalent capacity are chosen as simulation system. The results show MEHS system can achieve the best operation result by using the multienergy hybrid generation characteristic. PHSP could shave peak and fill valley of load curve by optimizing pumping storage and inflowing generating behaviors based on the load supply and demand status and the available power of WPP and PV. Robust coefficients can relieve the uncertainty of WPP and PV and provide flexible scheduling decision tools for decision-makers with different risk attitudes by setting different robust coefficients, which could maximize economic benefits and minimize operation risks at the same time.

  18. Suppression of tungsten accumulation during ELMy H-mode by lower hybrid wave heating in the EAST tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available EAST tokamak has been equipped with upper tungsten divertor since 2014. The tungsten accumulation has been often observed in NBI-heated H-mode discharges suggesting deleterious tungsten confinement in the plasma core. It causes not only H-L back transition but also plasma disruption in several discharges. Suppression of the tungsten accumulation is therefore the most important issue in EAST to achieve a long pulse H-mode discharge. In order to study the tungsten behavior in the long pulse discharge, tungsten spectra have been measured at 20–140Å. The tungsten density, nw, is evaluated from the intensity of tungsten unresolved transition array (W-UTA in a wavelength range of 45–70Å which is composed of several ionization stages of tungsten, e.g. W27+-W45+ at Te0∼2.5keV. It is found that the tungsten accumulation can be suppressed when the 4.6GHz LHW with PLHW∼0.8MW is superimposed on the NBI phase (PNBI= 1.9MW. During the superimposed phase the ELM frequency, fELM, increases from ∼30Hz to ∼60Hz and the tungsten density is halved compared to the NBI-heated discharge. The H-mode discharge can be thus steadily sustained for longer period. It is found that the nw is a large function of the ratio of LHW power to the total injection power, PLHW/(PLHW+PNBI, and the nw can be reduced, at least, in an order of magnitude smaller than that in NBI-heated discharges at PLHW/(PLHW+PNBI≥0.8. The result strongly suggests a possible way toward the steady H-mode discharge.

  19. A hybrid electromagnetism-like algorithm for a multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sadeghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two different sub-problems are considered to solve a resource constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP, namely i assignment of modes to tasks and ii scheduling of these tasks in order to minimize the makespan of the project. The modified electromagnetism-like algorithm deals with the first problem to create an assignment of modes to activities. This list is used to generate a project schedule. When a new assignment is made, it is necessary to fix all mode dependent requirements of the project activities and to generate a random schedule with the serial SGS method. A local search will optimize the sequence of the activities. Also in this paper, a new penalty function has been proposed for solutions which are infeasible with respect to non-renewable resources. Performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with the best algorithms published so far on the basis of CPU time and number of generated schedules stopping criteria. Reported results indicate excellent performance of the algorithm.

  20. Multiobjective Synergistic Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles under Different Grid-Connected Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Ju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote grid’s wind power absorptive capacity and to overcome the adverse impacts of wind power on the stable operation of power system, this paper establishes benefit contrastive analysis models of wind power and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs under the optimization goal of minimum coal consumption and pollutant emission considering multigrid connected modes. Then, a two-step adaptive solving algorithm is put forward to get the optimal system operation scheme with the highest membership degree based on the improved ε constraints method and fuzzy decision theory. Thirdly, the IEEE36 nodes 10-unit system is used as the simulation system. Finally, the sensitive analysis for PHEV’s grid connected number is made. The result shows the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective to solve the model. PHEV’s grid connection could achieve load shifting effect and promote wind power grid connection. Especially, the optimization goals reach the optimum in fully optimal charging mode. As PHEV’s number increases, both abandoned wind and thermal power generation cost would decrease and the peak and valley difference of load curve would gradually be reduced.

  1. Characterization of continuous and pulsed emission modes of a hybrid micro focus x-ray source for medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin [Center for Biomedical Engineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Rong, John X. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Wu, Xizeng [Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35249 (United States); Liu, Hong, E-mail: liu@ou.edu [Center for Biomedical Engineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterize a micro focus x-ray tube that can operate in both continuous and pulsed emission modes. The micro focus x-ray source (Model L9181-06, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) has a varying focal spot size ranging from 16 µm to 50 µm as the source output power changes from 10 to 39 W. We measured the source output, beam quality, focal spot sizes, kV accuracy, spectra shapes and spatial resolution. Source output was measured using an ionization chamber for various tube voltages (kVs) with varying current (µA) and distances. The beam quality was measured in terms of half value layer (HVL), kV accuracy was measured with a non-invasive kV meter, and the spectra was measured using a compact integrated spectrometer system. The focal spot sizes were measured using a slit method with a CCD detector with a pixel pitch of 22 µm. The spatial resolution was quantitatively measured using the slit method with a CMOS flat panel detector with a 50 µm pixel pitch, and compared to the qualitative results obtained by imaging a contrast bar pattern. The focal spot sizes in the vertical direction were smaller than that of the horizontal direction, the impact of which was visible when comparing the spatial resolution values. Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam quality, spectra shape and spatial resolution effects. There were no significantly large differences, thus providing the motivation for future studies to design and develop stable and robust cone beam imaging systems for various diagnostic applications. - Highlights: • A micro focus x-ray source that operates in both continuous and pulse emission modes was quantitatively characterized. • The source output, beam quality, focal spot measurements, kV accuracy, spectra analyses and spatial resolution were measured. • Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam

  2. Characterization of continuous and pulsed emission modes of a hybrid micro focus x-ray source for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin; Rong, John X.; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterize a micro focus x-ray tube that can operate in both continuous and pulsed emission modes. The micro focus x-ray source (Model L9181-06, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) has a varying focal spot size ranging from 16 µm to 50 µm as the source output power changes from 10 to 39 W. We measured the source output, beam quality, focal spot sizes, kV accuracy, spectra shapes and spatial resolution. Source output was measured using an ionization chamber for various tube voltages (kVs) with varying current (µA) and distances. The beam quality was measured in terms of half value layer (HVL), kV accuracy was measured with a non-invasive kV meter, and the spectra was measured using a compact integrated spectrometer system. The focal spot sizes were measured using a slit method with a CCD detector with a pixel pitch of 22 µm. The spatial resolution was quantitatively measured using the slit method with a CMOS flat panel detector with a 50 µm pixel pitch, and compared to the qualitative results obtained by imaging a contrast bar pattern. The focal spot sizes in the vertical direction were smaller than that of the horizontal direction, the impact of which was visible when comparing the spatial resolution values. Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam quality, spectra shape and spatial resolution effects. There were no significantly large differences, thus providing the motivation for future studies to design and develop stable and robust cone beam imaging systems for various diagnostic applications. - Highlights: • A micro focus x-ray source that operates in both continuous and pulse emission modes was quantitatively characterized. • The source output, beam quality, focal spot measurements, kV accuracy, spectra analyses and spatial resolution were measured. • Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam

  3. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  4. Observation of a new turbulence-driven limit-cycle state in H-modes with lower hybrid current drive and lithium-wall conditioning in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.Q.; Xu, G.S.; Guo, H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    The first high confinement H-mode plasma has been obtained in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with about 1 MW lower hybrid current drive after wall conditioning by lithium evaporation and real-time injection of Li powder. Following the L–H transition, a small-amplitude, low...

  5. Effects of air jet duration and timing on the combustion characteristics of high-pressure air jet controlled compression ignition combustion mode in a hybrid pneumatic engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Wuqiang; Meng, Xiangyu; Tian, Jiangping; Tian, Hua; Cui, Jingchen; Feng, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3-D CFD model of the power cylinder in HPE was developed. • High-pressure air JCCI combustion mode includes two-stage high-temperature reaction. • The combustion phasing of the pre-mixture is controllable via the SOJ timing. • There exists an optimum SOJ timing for obtaining the highest combustion efficiency and shortest burning duration. - Abstract: The high-pressure air jet controlled compression ignition (JCCI) combustion mode was employed to control the premixed diesel compression ignition combustion phasing by using the compound thermodynamic cycle under all operating conditions, which is accomplished in a hybrid pneumatic engine (HPE). A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation coupled with reduced n-heptane chemical kinetics mechanism has been applied to investigate the effects of high-pressure air jet duration and the start of jet (SOJ) timing on the combustion characteristics in the power cylinder of HPE. By sweeping the high-pressure air jet durations from 6 to 14 °CA and SOJ timings from −12 °CA ATDC to the top dead center (TDC) under the air jet temperatures of 400 and 500 K, respectively, the low- and high-temperature reactions, combustion efficiency, as well as the combustion phasing and burning duration have been analyzed in detail. The results illustrated that a longer air jet duration results in a higher peak in the first-stage high-temperature reaction, and the short air jet duration of 6 °CA can lead to a higher combustion efficiency. The SOJ timing sweep results showed that there exists an optimum timing for obtaining the highest combustion efficiency and shortest burning duration.

  6. One-pot preparation of a mixed-mode organic-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column and its application in determination of endogenous gibberellins in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Hao, Yan-Hong; Ding, Jun; Xu, Sheng-Nan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-10-16

    A newly improved one-pot method, based on "thiol-ene" click chemistry and sol-gel approach in microemulsion system, was developed for the preparation of C8/PO(OH)2-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column. The prepared monolith possesses large specific surface area, narrow mesopore size distribution and high column efficiency. The monolithic column was demonstrated to have cation exchange/reversed-phase (CX/RP) mixed-mode retention for analytes on nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). On the basis of the developed nano-LC system with MS detector coupled to pipette tip solid phase extraction (PT-SPE) and derivatization process, we then realized simultaneous determination of 10 gibberellins (GAs) with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.003-0.025 ng/mL). Furthermore, 6 endogenous GAs in only 5mg rice leaves (fresh weight) were successfully detected and quantified. The developed PT-SPE-nano-LC-MS strategy may offer promising applications in the determination of low abundant bioactive molecules from complex matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. One-dimensional full wave treatment of mode conversion process at the ion-ion hybrid resonance in a bounded tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, I.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; NGuyen, F.

    1998-09-01

    A consistent picture of the mode conversion (MC) process at the ion-ion hybrid resonance in a bounded plasma of a tokamak is discussed, which clarifies the role of the global fast wave interference and cavity effects in the determination of the MC efficiency. This picture is supported by simulations with one-dimensional full wave kinetic code 'VICE'. The concept of the 'global resonator', formed by the R = n 2 || boundary cutoffs [B. Saoutic et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1647 (1996)], is justified, as well as the importance of a proper tunneling factor choice η cr = 0.22 [A. K. Ram et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 1976 (1996)]. The MC scheme behavior appears to be very sensitive to the MC layer position relative to the global wave field pattern, i.e. to the local value of 'poloidal' electric field at the resonance. Optimal MC regimes are found to be attainable without requirement of a particular parallel wavenumber choice. (author)

  8. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  9. Controlling the shapes and sizes of metallic nanoantennas for detection of biological molecules using hybridization phase of plasmon resonances and photonic lattice modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Rithvik R.; Sharp, Christina; Wing, Waylin J.; Sadeghi, Seyed M.

    2018-02-01

    Chemical sensing based on Localized Surface Plasmonic Resonances (LSPR) and the ultra-sharp optical features of surface lattice resonances (SLR) of arrays of metallic nanoantennas have attracted much attention. Recently we studied biosensing based on the transition between LSPR and SLR (hybridization phase), demonstrating significantly higher refractive index sensitivity than each of these resonances individually. In this contribution we study the impact of size and shape of the metallic nanoantennas on the hybridization process and the way they influence application of this process for biosensing, wherein miniscule variation of the refractive index of the environment leads to dramatic changes in the spectral properties of the arrays.

  10. Excitation of THz hybrid modes in an elliptical dielectric rod waveguide with a cold collisionless unmagnetized plasma column by an annular electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Z., E-mail: z.rahmani@kashanu.ac.ir; Safari, S. [Department of Laser and Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heidari-Semiromi, E. [Department of Condense Matter, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves propagating in an elliptical plasma waveguide with a cold collisionless unmagnetized plasma column and a dielectric rod is studied analytically. The frequency spectrum of the hybrid waves and the growth rate for excitation of the waves by a thin annular relativistic elliptical electron beam (TAREEB) is obtained. The effects of relative permittivity constant of dielectric rod, geometrical dimensions, plasma frequency, accelerating voltage, and current density of TAREEB on the growth rate and frequency spectra of the waveguide will be investigated.

  11. A Coordinated Control for Photovoltaic Generators and Energy Storages in Low-Voltage AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids under Islanded Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of renewable generators can be a significant challenge due to the fluctuation of their power generation. Energy storage (ES units are one solution to improve power supply quality and guarantee system stability. In this paper, a hybrid microgrid is built based on photovoltaic (PV generator and ES; and coordinated control is proposed and developed to achieve power management in a decentralized manner. This control scheme contains three different droop strategies according to characteristics of PV and ES. First, the modified droop control is proposed for PV, which can take full utilization of renewable energy and avoid regulating output active power frequently. Second, to maintain the direct current (DC bus voltage stability, a novel droop control incorporating a constant power band is presented for DC-side ES. Third, a cascade droop control is designed for alternating current (AC-side ES. Thus, the ES lifetime is prolonged. Moreover, interlinking converters (ICs provide a bridge between AC/DC buses in a hybrid microgrid. The power control of IC is enabled when the AC- or DC-side suffer from active power demand shortage. In particular, if the AC microgrid does not satisfy the reactive power demand, IC then acts as a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is verified by simulations.

  12. Wide Angle of Incidence-Insensitive Polarization-Independent THz Metamaterial Absorber for Both TE and TM Mode Based on Plasmon Hybridizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Tao Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-wide-angle THz metamaterial absorber (MA utilizing sixteen-circular-sector (SCR resonator for both transverse electric (TE and transverse magnetic (TM mode is designed and investigated numerically. At normal incidence, the absorptivity of the proposed MA is higher than 93.7% at 9.05 THz for different polarization angles, due to the rotational symmetry structure of the unit cell. Under oblique incidence, the absorptivity can still exceed 90%, even when the incident angle is up to 70° for both TE and TM mode. Especially, the frequency variation in TE mode is less than 0.25% for different incident angles from 0° to 70°. The electric field (Ez distributions are used to explain the absorption mechanism. Numerical simulation results show that the high absorption with wide-angle independence stems from fundamental dipole resonance and gap surface plasmons. The broadband deep-infrared MA is also obtained by stacking three metal-dielectric layers. The designed MA has great potential in bolometric pixel elements, biomedical sensors, THz imaging, and solar cells.

  13. Metropolitian area network services comprised of virtual local area networks running over hybrid fiber-coax and asynchronous transfer mode technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, William S.

    1995-11-01

    Since 1990 there has been a rapid increase in the demand for communication services, especially local and wide area network (LAN/WAN) oriented services. With the introduction of the DFB laser transmitter, hybrid-fiber-coax (HFC) cable plant designs, ATM transport technologies and rf modems, new LAN/WAN services can now be defined and marketed to residential and business customers over existing cable TV systems. The term metropolitan area network (MAN) can be used to describe this overall network. This paper discusses the technical components needed to provision these services as well as provides some perspectives on integration issues. Architecture at the headend and in the backbone is discussed, as well as specific service definitions and the technology issues associated with each. The TCP/IP protocol is suggested as a primary protocol to be used throughout the MAN.

  14. A Coordinated Control for Photovoltaic Generators and Energy Storages in Low-Voltage AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids under Islanded Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Hou, Xiaochao; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable generators can be a significant challenge due to the fluctuation of their power generation. Energy storage (ES) units are one solution to improve power supply quality and guarantee system stability. In this paper, a hybrid microgrid is built based...... on photovoltaic (PV) generator and ES; and coordinated control is proposed and developed to achieve power management in a decentralized manner. This control scheme contains three different droop strategies according to characteristics of PV and ES. First, the modified droop control is proposed for PV, which can...... take full utilization of renewable energy and avoid regulating output active power frequently. Second, to maintain the direct current (DC) bus voltage stability, a novel droop control incorporating a constant power band is presented for DC-side ES. Third, a cascade droop control is designed...

  15. Parametric decay below the upper hybrid frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, E; Krause, K; Schlueter, H [Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik 2

    1977-03-21

    Parametric decay of the upper hybrid mode is observed between the electron cyclotron frequency and its first two harmonics. The decay products are identified as electron Bernstein and ion acoustic mode. The diagnostic results confirm the relevant dispersion relations.

  16. Electric powertrain modeling of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle and development of a power distribution algorithm based on driving mode recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Junghwan; Park, Yeongseop; Sunwoo, Myoungho [Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea)

    2010-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel fuzzy controller based on an adaptive membership function for optimum power management of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV). In the first phase, an electric powertrain model of the FCHEV is derived and a fuzzy controller is proposed. Then, the fuzzy controller is optimized using a genetic algorithm. The optimization process is accomplished through simulation for a given driving cycle. Since, however, the optimized result may vary according to the applied driving cycle for optimization, it is impossible for one optimized result to cover various driving cycles. In the second phase, an adaptive membership function based on a stochastic approach is proposed to guarantee optimum performance from the presented fuzzy controller, even though the driving cycle changes. This controller is referred to as the 'Stochastic fuzzy controller' (SFC) in this study. The SFC employs a stochastic approach where membership functions can be transformed statistically using a probability evaluated from driving pattern recognition. Then, driving cycle analysis is performed through off-line simulation and hardware in a loop simulation (HILS) test for four driving cycles. Finally, the SFC shows the best performance in terms of minimum fuel consumption and state-of-charge (SoC) maintenance. (author)

  17. Preparation of a long-alkyl-chain-based hybrid monolithic column with mixed-mode interactions using a "one-pot" process for pressurized capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Haixia; Zhao, Heqing; Qin, Wenfei; Xie, Zenghong

    2017-12-01

    A simple "one-pot" approach for the preparation of a new vinyl-functionalized organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column is described. In this improved method, the hydrolyzed alkoxysilanes of tetramethoxysilane and triethoxyvinylsilane were used as precursors for the synthesis of a silica-based monolith, while 1-hexadecene and sodium ethylenesulfonate were used as vinyl functional monomers along with azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The effects of reaction temperature, urea content, and composition of organic monomers on the column properties (e.g. morphology, mechanical stability, and chromatographic performance) were investigated. The monolithic column was used for the separation of neutral solutes by reversed-phase pressurized capillary. Furthermore, the monolith can separate various aromatic amines, which indicated its excellent cation-exchange capability and hydrophobic interactions. The baseline separation of the aromatic amines was obtained with a column efficiency of up to 78 000 plates/m. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Single-mode fiber laser based on core-cladding mode conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Schülzgen, Axel; Peyghambarian, N

    2008-02-15

    A single-mode fiber laser based on an intracavity core-cladding mode conversion is demonstrated. The fiber laser consists of an Er-doped active fiber and two fiber Bragg gratings. One Bragg grating is a core-cladding mode converter, and the other Bragg grating is a narrowband high reflector that selects the lasing wavelength. Coupling a single core mode and a single cladding mode by the grating mode converter, the laser operates as a hybrid single-mode laser. This approach for designing a laser cavity provides a much larger mode area than conventional large-mode-area step-index fibers.

  19. 太阳能与地源热泵复合系统的优化配置与运行方式%Optimizing configuring and running-mode of solar energy and ground-source heat pump hybrid systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓梅; 张昕宇; 邹瑜; 郑瑞澄

    2011-01-01

    以某实际工程为例,对太阳能系统与地源热泵系统联合运行时的优化配置与运行方式进行了模拟分析.得到结论:要优先利用太阳能系统;对太阳能资源要梯级利用;尽可能增大太阳能集热器面积,提高太阳能直接利用的可能性;单位面积太阳能集热器成本为250元/m2左右比较合适.%With a project, simulates and analyses optimizing configuring and running-mode of the hybrid system. Concludes that the solar energy system should be prior to the ground-source heat pump system in operation, the utilization of solar energy resource should be the way according to the energy grade, a possibly larger solar collector area is good for direct utilization of solar energy, and the solar collector cost of 250 RMB per square meter is appropriate.

  20. A simple theory of linear mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, R.A.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Woods, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is given of the basic theory of linear mode conversion involving the construction of differential equations for the mode amplitudes based on the properties of the dispersion relation in the neighbourhood of the mode conversion point. As an example the transmission coefficient for tunneling from the upper hybrid resonance through the evanescent region to the adjacent cut-off is treated. 7 refs, 3 figs

  1. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a ω is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, Q/sub xy/, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  2. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a(ω) is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  3. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained s...

  4. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  5. The tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.; Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    At a time when the potential benefits of various energy options are being seriously evaluated in many countries through-out the world, it is both timely and important to evaluate the practical application of fusion reactors for their economical production of nuclear fissile fuels from fertile fuels. The fusion hybrid reactor represents a concept that could assure the availability of adequate fuel supplies for a proven nuclear technology and have the potential of being an electrical energy source as opposed to an energy consumer as are the present fuel enrichment processes. Westinghouse Fusion Power Systems Department, under Contract No. EG-77-C-02-4544 with the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, has developed a preliminary conceptual design for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) Plants. To the depth this study has been performed, no insurmountable technical problems have been identified. The study has provided a basis for reasonable cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources. A nearer-term concept is also defined using a beam driven fusion driver in lieu of the longer term ignited operating mode. (orig.)

  6. Spin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarde, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of spectra of (p,n) reactions showed that they were very selective in exciting spin modes. Charge exchange reactions at intermediate energies give important new understanding of the M1-type of excitations and of the spin structure of continuum p spectra in general. In this paper, the author discusses three charge exchange reactions: (p,n); ( 3 H,t); and (d,2p) at several targets. Low-lying states and the Δ region are discussed separately. Finally, the charge exchange reaction with heavy ion beams is briefly discussed. (G.J.P./Auth.)

  7. Nonlinear MHD and energetic particle modes in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    The M3D code has been applied to ideal, resistive, two fluid, and hybrid simulations of compact quasi axisymmetric stellarators. When beta exceeds a threshold, low poloidal mode number (m=6∼18) modes grow exponentially, clearly distinguishable from the equilibrium evolution. Simulations of NCSX have beta limits are significantly higher than the infinite mode number ballooning limits. In the presence of resistivity, these modes occur well below the ideal limit. Their growth rate scaling with resistivity is similar to tearing modes. With sufficient viscosity, the growth rate becomes slow enough to allow calculations of magnetic island evolution. Hybrid gyrokinetic simulations with energetic particles indicate that global shear Alfven TAE - like modes can be destabilized in stellarators. Computations in a two - period compact stellarator obtained a predominantly n=1 toroidal mode with about the expected TAE frequency. Work is in progress to study fast ion-driven Alfven modes in NCSX. (author)

  8. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  9. Microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.

    1990-01-01

    A serious degradation of confinement with additional heating is commonly observed on most tokamaks. The microtearing modes could provide an explanation for this experimental fact. They are driven linearly unstable by diamagnetism in collisional regimes, but it may be shown that the collisions in non linear regimes provide a small diffusion coefficient which can be only significant at the plasme edge. In the bulk of the plasma, the microtearing turbulence could play a basic role if it is unstable in the collisionless regime. While it is linearly stable without collisions, it could be driven unstable in realistic regimes by the radial diffusion it induces. To study this effect, we have used a model where the non linear action of the modes on a given helicity component is represented by a diffusion operator. They are found unstable for reasonable β p =2μ o nT/B 2 p , with a special radial profile of the potential vector A. The problem arises the validity of this model where non linearities in the trajectories behaviour are replaced by the diffusion which broadens resonances. To test this procedure, we calculate the actual electron distribution function when it is determined by the ergodicity of the field lines. We compute the correlations of the distribution function with the magnetic perturbation and compare them with the analytical expressions derived from the resonance broadening model. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs

  10. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  11. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  12. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  13. Depth of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Induced Air Shower Maxima Measured by the Telescope Array Black Rock and Long Ridge FADC Fluorescence Detectors and Surface Array in Hybrid Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; di Matteo, A.; Fujii, T.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, M.; Furlich, G.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jeong, H. M.; Jeong, S. M.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kishigami, S.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lee, K. H.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Mayta, R.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, R.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Oda, H.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Okuda, T.; Omura, Y.; Ono, M.; Onogi, R.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sahara, R.; Saito, K.; Saito, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Seki, T.; Sekino, K.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Wong, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhezher, Y.; Zundel, Z.; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) observatory utilizes fluorescence detectors and surface detectors (SDs) to observe air showers produced by ultra high energy cosmic rays in Earth’s atmosphere. Cosmic-ray events observed in this way are termed hybrid data. The depth of air shower maximum is related to the mass of the primary particle that generates the shower. This paper reports on shower maxima data collected over 8.5 yr using the Black Rock Mesa and Long Ridge fluorescence detectors in conjunction with the array of SDs. We compare the means and standard deviations of the observed {X}\\max distributions with Monte Carlo {X}\\max distributions of unmixed protons, helium, nitrogen, and iron, all generated using the QGSJet II-04 hadronic model. We also perform an unbinned maximum likelihood test of the observed data, which is subjected to variable systematic shifting of the data {X}\\max distributions to allow us to test the full distributions, and compare them to the Monte Carlo to see which elements are not compatible with the observed data. For all energy bins, QGSJet II-04 protons are found to be compatible with TA hybrid data at the 95% confidence level after some systematic {X}\\max shifting of the data. Three other QGSJet II-04 elements are found to be compatible using the same test procedure in an energy range limited to the highest energies where data statistics are sparse.

  14. Gasoline hybrid pneumatic engine for efficient vehicle powertrain hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The largest applied convertors in passenger cars are the internal combustion engines – gasoline, diesel, adapted also for operating on alternative fuels and hybrid modes. The number of components that are necessary to realize modern future propulsion system is inexorably increasing. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the compressed air is investigated as an innovative solu...

  15. Control system for a hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ali K.; Demirovic, Besim; Gupta, Pinaki; Kaminsky, Lawrence A.

    2014-09-09

    A vehicle includes a powertrain with an engine, first and second torque machines, and a hybrid transmission. A method for operating the vehicle includes operating the engine in an unfueled state, releasing an off-going clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a first continuously variable mode, and applying a friction braking torque to a wheel of the vehicle to compensate for an increase in an output torque of the hybrid transmission resulting from releasing the off-going clutch. Subsequent to releasing the off-going clutch, an oncoming clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a second continuously variable mode is synchronized. Subsequent to synchronization of the oncoming clutch, the oncoming clutch is engaged.

  16. Low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a nonuniform magnetized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.K.; Duha, S.S.; Mamun, A.A.

    2004-07-01

    A self-consistent and general description of obliquely propagating low frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a inhomogeneous, magnetized dusty plasma system has been presented. A number of different situations, which correspond to different low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes, namely, dust-acoustic mode, dust-drift mode, dust-cyclotron mode, dust-lower-hybrid mode, and other associated modes (such as, accelerated and retarded dust-acoustic modes, accelerated and retarded dust-lower-hybrid modes, etc.), have also been investigated. It has been shown that the effects of obliqueness and inhomogeneities in plasma particle number densities introduce new electrostatic dust modes as well as significantly modify the dispersion properties of the other low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical dusty plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems and cometary tails, are briefly mentioned. (author)

  17. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  18. Formes coopératives hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    la coopérative sociale. Il s’agit d’un modèle doublement « hybride », tant par son mode de gouvernance que par la diversité de ses pourvoyeurs de ressources. D’autres formes hybrides de coopératives se sont développées au cours de ces dernières années, en particulier dans le secteur des coopératives...

  19. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.S. Veras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza–Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  20. Nonlinear mode coupling in rotating stars and the r-mode instability in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, A.K.; Arras, P.; Flanagan, E.E.; Teukolsky, S.A.; Wasserman, I.

    2002-01-01

    entirely and the coupling of two r modes to one hybrid, or r-g rotational, mode vanishes to zeroth order in rotation frequency. The coupling of any three rotational modes vanishes to zeroth order in compressibility and in Ω. In nonzero-buoyancy stars, coupling of the r modes to each other vanishes to zeroth order in Ω. Couplings to regular modes (those modes whose frequencies are finite in the limit Ω→0), such as f modes, are not zero, but since the natural frequencies of these modes are relatively large in the slow rotation limit compared to those of the r modes, energy transfer to those modes is not expected to be efficient

  1. Investigation of a Novel Coaxial Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain for Mining Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the different working conditions and specification requirements of mining trucks when compared to commercial passenger vehicles, better fuel efficiency of mining trucks could lead to more significant economic benefits. Therefore, investigating a hybrid transmission system becomes essential. A coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain system for mining trucks is presented in this paper. The system is characterized as comprising an engine, a generator (MG1, a motor (MC2, two sets of planetary gears, and a clutch (CL1. There are six primary operation modes for the hybrid system including the electric motor mode, the engine mode, the hybrid electric mode, the hybrid and assist mode, the regenerative mode, and the stationary charging mode. The mathematical model of the coaxial power-split hybrid system is established according to the requirements of vehicle dynamic performance and fuel economy performance in a given driving cycle. A hybrid vehicle model based on a rule-based control strategy is established to evaluate the fuel economy. Compared with the Toyota Hybrid System (THS and the conventional mechanical vehicle system using a diesel engine, the simulation results based on an enterprise project indicate that the proposed hybrid system can enhance the vehicle’s fuel economy by 8.21% and 22.45%, respectively, during the given mining driving cycle. The simulation results can be used as a reference to study the feasibility of the proposed coaxial hybrid system whose full potential needs to be further investigated by adopting non-causal control strategies.

  2. Frequency Stability of Hierarchically Controlled Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydropower Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid photovolvaic battery-hydropower microgrids can increase electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. In those microgrids with grid-connected and islanded modes capabilities, seamless transition between both modes is needed as well. However, the different resources with conve......Hybrid photovolvaic battery-hydropower microgrids can increase electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. In those microgrids with grid-connected and islanded modes capabilities, seamless transition between both modes is needed as well. However, the different resources...

  3. Nonlinear hybridization of the fundamental eigenmodes of microscopic ferromagnetic ellipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V E; Buchmeier, M; Rott, K; Krzysteczko, P; Münchenberger, J; Reiss, G; Demokritov, S O

    2010-05-28

    We have studied experimentally with high spatial resolution the nonlinear eigenmodes of microscopic Permalloy elliptical elements. We show that the nonlinearity affects the frequencies of the edge and the center modes in an essentially different way. This leads to repulsion of corresponding resonances and to nonlinear mode hybridization resulting in qualitative modifications of the spatial characteristics of the modes. We find that the nonlinear counterparts of the edge and the center modes simultaneously exhibit features specific for both their linear analogues.

  4. Nonlinear Hybridization of the Fundamental Eigenmodes of Microscopic Ferromagnetic Ellipses

    OpenAIRE

    Demidov, V. E.; Buchmeier, M.; Rott, Karsten; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Münchenberger, Jana; Reiss, Günter; Demokritov, S. O.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied experimentally with high spatial resolution the nonlinear eigenmodes of microscopic Permalloy elliptical elements. We show that the nonlinearity affects the frequencies of the edge and the center modes in an essentially different way. This leads to repulsion of corresponding resonances and to nonlinear mode hybridization resulting in qualitative modifications of the spatial characteristics of the modes. We find that the nonlinear counterparts of the edge and the center modes s...

  5. Optimum phase noise reduction and repetition rate tuning in quantum-dot mode-locked lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habruseva, T. [CAPPA, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Aston University, Aston Triangle, B4 7ET Birmingham (United Kingdom); Arsenijević, D.; Kleinert, M.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Huyet, G.; Hegarty, S. P. [CAPPA, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-01-13

    Competing approaches exist, which allow control of phase noise and frequency tuning in mode-locked lasers, but no judgement of pros and cons based on a comparative analysis was presented yet. Here, we compare results of hybrid mode-locking, hybrid mode-locking with optical injection seeding, and sideband optical injection seeding performed on the same quantum dot laser under identical bias conditions. We achieved the lowest integrated jitter of 121 fs and a record large radio-frequency (RF) tuning range of 342 MHz with sideband injection seeding of the passively mode-locked laser. The combination of hybrid mode-locking together with optical injection-locking resulted in 240 fs integrated jitter and a RF tuning range of 167 MHz. Using conventional hybrid mode-locking, the integrated jitter and the RF tuning range were 620 fs and 10 MHz, respectively.

  6. Optimum phase noise reduction and repetition rate tuning in quantum-dot mode-locked lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habruseva, T.; Arsenijević, D.; Kleinert, M.; Bimberg, D.; Huyet, G.; Hegarty, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Competing approaches exist, which allow control of phase noise and frequency tuning in mode-locked lasers, but no judgement of pros and cons based on a comparative analysis was presented yet. Here, we compare results of hybrid mode-locking, hybrid mode-locking with optical injection seeding, and sideband optical injection seeding performed on the same quantum dot laser under identical bias conditions. We achieved the lowest integrated jitter of 121 fs and a record large radio-frequency (RF) tuning range of 342 MHz with sideband injection seeding of the passively mode-locked laser. The combination of hybrid mode-locking together with optical injection-locking resulted in 240 fs integrated jitter and a RF tuning range of 167 MHz. Using conventional hybrid mode-locking, the integrated jitter and the RF tuning range were 620 fs and 10 MHz, respectively

  7. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  8. Energy and fuel efficient parallel mild hybrids for urban roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, Ajay; Ashok, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and fuel savings depend on battery charge variations and the vehicle speed parameters. • Indian urban conditions provide lot of scope for energy and fuel savings in mild hybrids. • Energy saving strategy has lower payback periods than the fuel saving one in mild hybrids. • Sensitivity to parameter variations is the least for energy saving strategy in a mild hybrid. - Abstract: Fuel economy improvements and battery energy savings can promote the adoption of parallel mild hybrids for urban driving conditions. The aim of this study is to establish these benefits through two operating modes: an energy saving mode and a fuel saving mode. The performances of a typical parallel mild hybrid using these modes were analysed over urban driving cycles, in the US, Europe, and India, with a particular focus on the Indian urban conditions. The energy pack available from the proposed energy-saving operating mode, in addition to the energy already available from the conventional mode, was observed to be the highest for the representative urban driving cycle of the US. The extra energy pack available was found to be approximately 21.9 times that available from the conventional mode. By employing the proposed fuel saving operating mode, the fuel economy improvement achievable in New York City was observed to be approximately 22.69% of the fuel economy with the conventional strategy. The energy saving strategy was found to possess the lowest payback periods and highest immunity to variations in various cost parameters.

  9. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  10. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system

  11. ON THE STABILIZATION OF THE LINEAR HYBRID SYSTEM STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The linear control hybrid system, consisting of a fi- nite set of subsystems (modes having different dimensions, is considered. The moments of reset time are determined by some complementary function – evolutionary time. This function satisfies the special complementary ordinary differential equation. The mode stabilization problem is solved for some class of piecewise linear controls. The method of stabilization relies on the set of invariant planes, the existence of which is due to the special form of the hybrid system.

  12. New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.

  13. New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Benmansour, K.; Boucherit, M. S.; Tadjine, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.

  14. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    “hubris” that is so much taken for granted in contemporary science and engineering discourses and practices with a sense of cooperation and social responsibility. The book portrays the history of science and technology as an underlying tension between hubris – literally the ambition to “play god...... an alternative approach, devoting special attention to the role played by social and cultural movements in the making of science and technology. They show how social and cultural movements, from the Renaissance of the late 15th century to the environmental and global justice movements of our time, have provided......” on the part of many a scientist and engineer and neglect the consequences - and a hybrid imagination, connecting scientific “facts” and technological “artifacts” with cultural understanding. The book concludes with chapters on the recent transformations in the modes of scientific and technological production...

  15. Analysis and evaluation of hybrid scooter transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, Kuen-Bao [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Formosa University, 64 Wunhua Road, Huwei, Yuenlin 63208 (China)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents a new design concept of transmissions for the hybrid scooters. These transmissions consist of a one-degree-of-freedom planetary gear train and a two-degree-of-freedom planetary gear train to from a split power system and to combine the power of two power sources, a gasoline engine and an electric motor. In order to maximize the performance and reduce emissions, the transmissions can provide a hybrid scooter to run five operating modes: electric motor mode; engine mode; engine/charging mode; power mode, and regenerative braking mode. The main advantages of the transmissions proposed in this paper include the use of only one electric motor/generator, need not use clutch/brake for the shift of the operating modes, and high efficiency. The kinematics, power flow, and mechanical efficiency analyzes are performed; and according to these results, the evaluation of transmission power performances are accomplished. (author)

  16. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  17. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  18. Higher order modes of coupled optical fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeyev, C N; Yavorsky, M A; Boklag, N A

    2010-01-01

    The structure of hybrid higher order modes of two coupled weakly guiding identical optical fibres is studied. On the basis of perturbation theory with degeneracy for the vector wave equation expressions for modes with azimuthal angular number l ≥ 1 are obtained that allow for the spin–orbit interaction. The spectra of polarization corrections to the scalar propagation constants are calculated in a wide range of distances between the fibres. The limiting cases of widely and closely spaced fibres are studied. The obtained results can be used for studying the tunnelling of optical vortices in directional couplers and in matters concerned with information security

  19. Mode-locked silicon evanescent lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Brian R; Fang, Alexander W; Cohen, Oded; Bowers, John E

    2007-09-03

    We demonstrate electrically pumped lasers on silicon that produce pulses at repetition rates up to 40 GHz. The mode locked lasers generate 4 ps pulses with low jitter and extinction ratios above 18 dB, making them suitable for data and telecommunication transmitters and for clock generation and distribution. Results of both passive and hybrid mode locking are discussed. This type of device could enable new silicon based integrated technologies, such as optical time division multiplexing (OTDM), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and optical code division multiple access (OCDMA).

  20. Magnon dark modes and gradient memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhu, Na; Marquardt, Florian; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X

    2015-11-16

    Extensive efforts have been expended in developing hybrid quantum systems to overcome the short coherence time of superconducting circuits by introducing the naturally long-lived spin degree of freedom. Among all the possible materials, single-crystal yttrium iron garnet has shown up recently as a promising candidate for hybrid systems, and various highly coherent interactions, including strong and even ultrastrong coupling, have been demonstrated. One distinct advantage in these systems is that spins form well-defined magnon modes, which allows flexible and precise tuning. Here we demonstrate that by dissipation engineering, a non-Markovian interaction dynamics between the magnon and the microwave cavity photon can be achieved. Such a process enables us to build a magnon gradient memory to store information in the magnon dark modes, which decouple from the microwave cavity and thus preserve a long lifetime. Our findings provide a promising approach for developing long-lifetime, multimode quantum memories.

  1. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  3. Features of the repetition frequency of edge localized modes in EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, M.; Xiao, C.; Xu, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the features of the edge localized modes (ELMs) observed in the 2010 experimental campaign on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The first high-confinement mode (H-mode) at an H-factor of HIPB98(y, 2)~1 has been obtained with about 1 MW lower hybrid wave...

  4. H-mode physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae.

    1991-06-01

    After the discovery of the H-mode in ASDEX ( a tokamak in Germany ) the transition between the L-mode ( Low confinement mode ) and H-mode ( High confinement mode ) has been observed in many tokamaks in the world. The H-mode has made a breakthrough in improving the plasma parameters and has been recognized to be a universal phenomena. Since its discovery, the extensive studies both in experiments and in theory have been made. The research on H-mode has been casting new problems of an anomalous transport across the magnetic surface. This series of lectures will provide a brief review of experiments for explaining H-mode and a model theory of H-mode transition based on the electric field bifurcation. If the time is available, a new theoretical model of the temporal evolution of the H-mode will be given. (author)

  5. Nonlocal study of ultimate plasmon hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    the transition from separated dimers via touching dimers to finally overlapping dimers. In particular, we focus on the touching case, showing a fundamental limit on the hybridization of the bonding plasmon modes due to nonlocality. Using transformation optics, we determine a simple analytical equation...

  6. Stochastic hybrid systems with renewal transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro Tome Antunes, D.J.; Hespanha, J.P.; Silvestre, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider Stochastic Hybrid Systems (SHSs) for which the lengths of times that the system stays in each mode are independent random variables with given distributions. We propose an analysis framework based on a set of Volterra renewal-type equations, which allows us to compute any statistical

  7. Student Preferences for a Hybrid Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Gerald P.; Ghosh, Soumen

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions face demands to develop and deliver course content through alternate modes of delivery. A variety of course designs have emerged in recent years. One of these is the hybrid or blended course design model where face-to-face instruction is combined with online instruction. Researchers have found negligible differences…

  8. Topological zero modes in Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilger, H.

    1994-08-01

    We present an improvement of global Metropolis updating steps, the instanton hits, used in a hybrid Monte Carlo simulation of the two-flavor Schwinger model with staggered fermions. These hits are designed to change the topological sector of the gauge field. In order to match these hits to an unquenched simulation with pseudofermions, the approximate zero mode structure of the lattice Dirac operator has to be considered explicitly. (orig.)

  9. Graphene-based hybrid plasmonic modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Tae Kim, Jin

    2015-01-01

    A graphene-based hybrid plasmonic modulator is designed based on an asymmetric double-electrode plasmonic waveguide structure. The photonic device consists of a monolayer graphene, a thin metal strip, and a thin dielectric layer that is inserted between the grapheme and the metal strip. By electrically tuning the graphene’s refractive index, the propagation loss of the hybrid long-range surface plasmon polariton strip mode in the proposed graphene-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide is switchable, and hence the intensity of the guided modes is modulated. The highest modulation depth is observed at the graphene’s epsilon-near-zero region. The device characteristics are characterized over the entire C-band (1.530–1.565 μm). (paper)

  10. Nonlinear MHD and energetic particle modes in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.; Fu, G.Y.; Park, W.; Breslau, J.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) project carries out simulation studies of plasmas using multiple levels of physics, geometry and grid models. The M3D code has been applied to ideal, resistive, two fluid, and hybrid simulations of compact quasi axisymmetric stellarators. When β exceeds a threshold, moderate toroidal mode number (n ∼ 10) modes grow exponentially, clearly distinguishable from the equilibrium evolution. The β limits are significantly higher than the infinite mode number ballooning limits. In the presence of resistivity, these modes occur well below the ideal limit. Their growth rate scaling with resistivity is similar to tearing modes. At low resistivity, the modes couple to resistive interchanges, which are unstable in most stellarators. Two fluid simulations with M3D show that resistive modes can be stabilized by diamagnetic drift. The two fluid computations are done with a realistic value of the Hall parameter, the ratio of ion skin depth to major radius. Hybrid gyrokinetic simulations with energetic particles indicate that global shear Alfven TAE - like modes can be destabilized in stellarators. Computations in a two-period compact stellarator obtained a predominantly n=1 toroidal mode with the expected TAE frequency. It is found that TAE modes are more stable in the two-period compact stellarator that in a tokamak with the same q and pressure profiles. M3D combines a two dimensional unstructured mesh with finite element discretization in poloidal planes, and fourth order finite differencing in the toroidal direction. (author)

  11. Hybrid simulations of current-carrying instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas with sheared axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, Vladimir I.; Makhin, Volodymyr; Bauer, Bruno S.; Hellinger, Petr; Travnicek, Pavel; Fiala, Vladimir; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel

    2002-01-01

    The development of instabilities in z-pinch plasmas has been studied with three-dimensional (3D) hybrid simulations. Plasma equilibria without and with sheared axial flow have been considered. Results from the linear phase of the hybrid simulations compare well with linear Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations for sausage modes. The hybrid simulations show that sheared axial flow has a stabilizing effect on the development of both sausage and kink modes

  12. Analysis on Cultivating Strategic Emerging Industries by Public-Pivate Partnerships Mode: Based on Hybrid Organization Theory%战略性新兴产业公私合作制培育模式分析:基于混合组织的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋波; 傅元章; 史占中

    2013-01-01

    基于战略性新兴产业的社会效益和经济效益双重目标,本文从混合组织理论的视角,在交易成本理论框架下探讨战略性新兴产业公私合作制的培育模式.首先,在PEST(政治、经济、社会、技术)框架下分析战略性新兴产业公私合作制培育的环境要素;其次,基于中间层组织理论分析其生成机制;最后,结合公私合作制模式的优势,针对战略性新兴产业公私合作制培育的具体措施给出相关建议.%As the dual goals in social and economic benefits of the strategic emerging industries, this paper explores the public-private partnerships (PPPs) mode of developing strategic emerging industries under transaction cost theory framework from the perspective of hybrid organization theory. First, the institutional factors of PPPs development in cultivating strategic emerging industries are presented under PEST ( Politics, Economics, Society, Technology) framework. Then, the formation mechanism is analyzed based on intermediary organization theory. Finally, some operation issues in developing strategic emerging industries are discussed connected with advantages of PPPs.

  13. Information transmission on hybrid networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongbin; Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Li, Jie; Ji, Bo; Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos M.

    2018-01-01

    Many real-world communication networks often have hybrid nature with both fixed nodes and moving modes, such as the mobile phone networks mainly composed of fixed base stations and mobile phones. In this paper, we discuss the information transmission process on the hybrid networks with both fixed and mobile nodes. The fixed nodes (base stations) are connected as a spatial lattice on the plane forming the information-carrying backbone, while the mobile nodes (users), which are the sources and destinations of information packets, connect to their current nearest fixed nodes respectively to deliver and receive information packets. We observe the phase transition of traffic load in the hybrid network when the packet generation rate goes from below and then above a critical value, which measures the network capacity of packets delivery. We obtain the optimal speed of moving nodes leading to the maximum network capacity. We further improve the network capacity by rewiring the fixed nodes and by considering the current load of fixed nodes during packets transmission. Our purpose is to optimize the network capacity of hybrid networks from the perspective of network science, and provide some insights for the construction of future communication infrastructures.

  14. THE ELECTRIC DRIVE FOR A CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bazhinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of converting a car with an internal combustion engine and manual transmission in a hybrid is regarded. Is regarded the technique of choosing the parameters of the electric and simple technical solution to achieve the efficient operation of the brushless electric motor in the traction mode and into recovery mode.

  15. Lower hybrid waves instability in a velocity–sheared inhomogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electrostatic linear kinetic analysis of velocity-sheared inhomogeneous charged dust streaming parallel to a magnetic field in plasma is presented. Excited mode and the growth rates are derived in the lower hybrid-like mode regime, with collisional effects included. In the case where the drift velocity u is very small the ...

  16. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  17. A Structural Model Decomposition Framework for Hybrid Systems Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of practical systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete modes of behavior, each defined by a set of continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task very challenging. In this work, we present a new modeling and diagnosis framework for hybrid systems. Models are composed from sets of user-defined components using a compositional modeling approach. Submodels for residual generation are then generated for a given mode, and reconfigured efficiently when the mode changes. Efficient reconfiguration is established by exploiting causality information within the hybrid system models. The submodels can then be used for fault diagnosis based on residual generation and analysis. We demonstrate the efficient causality reassignment, submodel reconfiguration, and residual generation for fault diagnosis using an electrical circuit case study.

  18. Lower hybrid current drive in shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A time dependent lower hybrid current drive tokamak simulation code has been developed. This code combines the BALDUR tokamak simulation code and the Bonoli/Englade lower hybrid current drive code and permits the study of the interaction of lower hybrid current drive with neutral beam heating in shaped cross-section plasmas. The code is time dependent and includes the beam driven and bootstrap currents in addition to the current driven by the lower hybrid system. Examples of simulations are shown for the PBX-M experiment which include the effect of cross section shaping on current drive, ballooning mode stabilization by current profile control and sawtooth stabilization. A critical question in current drive calculations is the radial transport of the energetic electrons. The authors have developed a response function technique to calculate radial transport in the presence of an electric field. The consequences of the combined influences of radial diffusion and electric field acceleration are discussed

  19. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systems – systems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  20. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Inmaculada; San Martin, Jose Javier; Aperribay, Victor; Eguia, Pablo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda. de Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations to form hybrid systems, including hydrogen, renewable energies, gas cycles, vapour cycles or both. Nowadays, these technologies are mainly used for energy production in electrical microgrids. Some examples of these technologies are: hybridization processes of fuel cells with wind turbines and photovoltaic plants, cogeneration and trigeneration processes that can be configured with fuel cell technologies, etc. This paper reviews and analyses the main characteristics of electrical microgrids and the systems based on fuel cells for polygeneration and hybridization processes. (author)

  1. Heating tokamaks via the ion-cyclotron and ion-ion hybrid resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, F.W.

    1977-04-01

    For the ion-ion hybrid resonance it is shown that: (1) the energy absorption occurs via a sequence of mode conversions; (2) a poloidal field component normal to the ion-ion hybrid mode conversion surface strongly influences the mode conversion process so that roughly equal electron and ion heating occurs in the present proton-deuterium experiments, while solely electron heating is predicted to prevail in deuterium-tritium reactors; (3) the ion-ion hybrid resonance suppresses toroidal eigenmodes; and (4) wave absorption in minority fundamental ion-cyclotron heating experiments will be dominated by ion-ion hybrid mode conversion absorption for minority concentrations exceeding roughly 1 percent. For the ion-cyclotron resonance, it is shown that: (1) ion-cyclotron mode conversion leads to surface electron heating; and (2) ion-cyclotron mode conversion absorption dominates fundamental ion-cyclotron absorption thereby preventing efficient ion heating

  2. Hybrid Bridge Structures Made of Frp Composite and Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajchel, Mateusz; Siwowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Despite many advantages over the conventional construction materials, the contemporary development of FRP composites in bridge engineering is limited due to high initial cost, low stiffness (in case of glass fibers) and sudden composite failure mode. In order to reduce the given limitations, mixed (hybrid) solutions connecting the FRP composites and conventional construction materials, including concrete, have been tested in many countries for 20 years. Shaping the hybrid structures based on the attributes of particular materials, aims to increase stiffness and reduce cost without losing the carrying capacity, lightness and easiness of bridges that includes such hybrid girders, and to avoid the sudden dangerous failure mode. In the following article, the authors described examples of hybrid road bridges made of FRP composite and concrete within the time of 20 years and presented the first Polish hybrid FRP-concrete road bridge. Also, the directions of further research, necessary to spread these innovative, advanced and sustainable bridge structures were indicated.

  3. Boron/aluminum graphite/resin advanced fiber composite hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Fabrication feasibility and potential of an adhesively bonded metal and resin matrix fiber-composite hybrid are determined as an advanced material for aerospace and other structural applications. The results show that using this hybrid concept makes possible a composite design which, when compared with nonhybrid composites, has greater transverse strength, transverse stiffness, and impact resistance with only a small penalty on density and longitudinal properties. The results also show that laminate theory is suitable for predicting the structural response of such hybrids. The sequence of fracture modes indicates that these types of hybrids can be readily designed to meet fail-safe requirements.

  4. Glueballs, hybrids, multiquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klempt, Eberhard [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaet, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: klempt@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Zaitsev, Alexander [Institute for High-Energy Physics, Moscow Region, RU-142284 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2007-12-15

    -channel resonances. Hybrids with non-exotic quantum numbers should appear as additional states. Light-quark mesons exhibit a spectrum of (squared) masses which are proportional to the sum of orbital angular momentum and radial quantum numbers. Two states do not fall under this classification. They are discussed as hybrid candidates. The concept of multiquark states has received revived interest due to new resonances in the spectrum of states with open and hidden charm. The new states are surprisingly narrow and their masses and their decay modes often do not agree with simple quark-model expectations. Lattice gauge theories have made strong claims that glueballs and hybrids should appear in the meson spectrum. However, the existence of a scalar glueball, at least with a reasonable width, is highly questionable. It is possible that hybrids will turn up in complex multibody final states even though so far, no convincing case has been made for them by experimental data. Lattice gauge theories fail to identify the nonet of scalar mesons. Thus, at the present status of approximations, lattice gauge theories seem not to provide a trustworthy guide into unknown territory in meson spectroscopy.

  5. Heteroplasmon hybridization in stacked complementary plasmo-photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Choi, Bongseok

    2015-03-11

    We constructed plasmo-photonic crystals in which efficient light-trapping, plasmonic resonances couple with photonic guided resonances of large density of states and high-quality factor. We have numerically and experimentally shown that heteroplasmon hybrid modes emerge in stacked complementary (SC) plasmo-photonic crystals. The resonant electromagnetic-field distributions evidence that the two hybrid modes originate from two different heteroplasmons, exhibiting a large energy splitting of 300 meV. We further revealed a series of plasmo-photonic modes in the SC crystals.

  6. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  7. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  8. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  9. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  10. Interaction of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya, Y.; Schmidt, G.

    1979-01-01

    A fully developed tearing mode modifies the magnetic field profile. The effect of this profile modification on the linear growth rate of a different tearing mode in a slab and cylindrical geometry is investigated

  11. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  12. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  13. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  14. Analysis of Mode I and Mode II Crack Growth Arrest Mechanism with Z-Fibre Pins in Composite Laminated Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevan Kumar, N.; Ramesh Babu, P.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the numerical study of the mode I and mode II interlaminar crack growth arrest in hybrid laminated curved composite stiffened joint with Z-fibre reinforcement. A FE model of hybrid laminated skin-stiffener joint reinforced with Z-pins is developed to investigate the effect of Z- fibre pins on mode I and mode II crack growth where the delamination is embedded inbetween the skin and stiffener interface. A finite element model was developed using S4R element of a 4-node doubly curved thick shell elements to model the composite laminates and non linear interface elements to simulate the reinforcements. The numerical analyses revealed that Z-fibre pinning were effective in suppressing the delamination growth when propagated due to applied loads. Therefore, the Z-fibre technique effectively improves the crack growth resistance and hence arrests or delays crack growth extension.

  15. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  16. Bernstein modes in a non-neutral plasma column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel; Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents theory and numerical calculations of electrostatic Bernstein modes in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma column. These modes rely on finite Larmor radius effects to propagate radially across the column until they are reflected when their frequency matches the upper hybrid frequency. This reflection sets up an internal normal mode on the column and also mode-couples to the electrostatic surface cyclotron wave (which allows the normal mode to be excited and observed using external electrodes). Numerical results predicting the mode spectra, using a novel linear Vlasov code on a cylindrical grid, are presented and compared to an analytical Wentzel Kramers Brillouin (WKB) theory. A previous version of the theory [D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Plasmas 20(4), 042120 (2013)] expanded the plasma response in powers of 1/B, approximating the local upper hybrid frequency, and consequently, its frequency predictions are spuriously shifted with respect to the numerical results presented here. A new version of the WKB theory avoids this approximation using the exact cold fluid plasma response and does a better job of reproducing the numerical frequency spectrum. The effect of multiple ion species on the mode spectrum is also considered, to make contact with experiments that observe cyclotron modes in a multi-species pure ion plasma [M. Affolter et al., Phys. Plasmas 22(5), 055701 (2015)].

  17. An attempt at MHD mode control by feedback modulation of L.H. driven current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlange, F.; Vallet, J.C

    1986-01-01

    MHD activity in Tokamak discharges with lower hybrid current drive has distinct features which can be used to stabilize tearing modes. A way of reducing the m=2 tearing mode was recently proposed, consisting in driving more current at the 0 point of the islands than at the X point, by means of amplitude modulated lower hybrid waves. The way it was tested in Petula is presented here

  18. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  19. Mechanisms of Surface-Mediated DNA Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy was employed in conjunction with resonance energy transfer (RET) to observe the dynamic behavior of donor-labeled ssDNA at the interface between aqueous solution and a solid surface decorated with complementary acceptor-labeled ssDNA. At least 100 000 molecular trajectories were determined for both complementary strands and negative control ssDNA. RET was used to identify trajectory segments corresponding to the hybridized state. The vast majority of molecules from solution adsorbed nonspecifically to the surface, where a brief two-dimensional search was performed with a 7% chance of hybridization. Successful hybridization events occurred with a characteristic search time of ∼0.1 s, and unsuccessful searches resulted in desorption from the surface, ultimately repeating the adsorption and search process. Hybridization was reversible, and two distinct modes of melting (i.e., dehybridization) were observed, corresponding to long-lived (∼15 s) and short-lived (∼1.4 s) hybridized time intervals. A strand that melted back onto the surface could rehybridize after a brief search or desorb from the interface. These mechanistic observations provide guidance for technologies that involve DNA interactions in the near-surface region, suggesting a need to design surfaces that both enhance the complex multidimensional search process and stabilize the hybridized state. PMID:24708278

  20. Applying hybridity: rhythms of the Hajj, Tumblr, and Snowden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O'Connor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybridity has long been a contested term, critiqued as elitist and contradictory. This paper begins by arguing that hybridity has been debated too often and applied too seldom. It takes the premise that hybridity is an everyday fact of life and accordingly it should be articulated in academic works as a mode of analysis. In acknowledging works that call for the utilization of hybridity’s analytical potential this work applies hybridity to the analysis of three disparate topics, the modern pilgrimage to Mecca or hajj, the social networking and blogging platform Tumblr, and the Edward Snowden affair. Hybridity is contrasted with Lefebvre’s rhythmanalysis and applied as a conjoined conceptual focus on these issues. In each scenario a variety of hybrid connections are presented and situated in Bauman’s liquid modernity. These representations of hybridity highlight the manifold dimensions of the concept itself, that it can be superficial, political, celebrated, progressive, and mundane. Rather than dismiss the conceptual complexities of hybridity this paper calls for a harnessing of the broad scope of inference that hybridity presents in application. Working with hybridity thus provides a way to link topics and work organically between multiple disciplines.

  1. Double-mode pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    Double mode pulsation is a very pervasive phenomenon in stars all over the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In order of increasing radius, examples are: ZZ Ceti stars, the sun, the delta Scuti stars, RR Lyrae variables, the β Cephei variables and those related to them, Cepheids, and maybe even the Mira stars. These many modes have been interpreted as both radial and nonradial modes, but in many cases the actual mode has not been clearly identified. Yellow giants seem to be the most simple pulsators with a large majority of the RR Lyrae variables and Cepheids showing only one pulsation period. We limit this review to those very few cases for classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables which display two modes. For these we know many facts about these stars, but the actual cause of the pulsation in two modes simultaneously remains unknown

  2. Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, R.; Burrow, J. A.; Mekonen, S. M.; Sarangan, A.; Mathews, J.; Agha, I.; Searles, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a highly flexible planar terahertz metamaterial (MM) comprised of three-gap split-ring resonators. The keys to achieve EIT in this system are the frequency detuning and hybridization processes between two bright modes coexisting in the same unit cell as opposed to bright-dark modes. We present experimental verification of two bright modes coupling for a terahertz EIT-MM in the context of numerical results and theoretical analysis based on a coupled Lorentz oscillator model. In addition, a hybrid variation of the EIT-MM is proposed and implemented numerically to dynamically tune the EIT window by incorporating photosensitive silicon pads in the split gap region of the resonators. As a result, this hybrid MM enables the active optical control of a transition from the on state (EIT mode) to the off state (dipole mode).

  3. Nonlinear hybrid simulation of internal kink with beam ion effects in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei; Sheng, Zheng-Mao [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fu, G. Y.; Tobias, Benjamin [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Zeeland, Michael Van [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Wang, Feng [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-04-15

    In DIII-D sawteething plasmas, long-lived (1,1) kink modes are often observed between sawtooth crashes. The saturated kink modes have two distinct frequencies. The mode with higher frequency transits to a fishbone-like mode with sufficient on-axis neutral beam power. In this work, hybrid simulations with the global kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K have been carried out to investigate the linear stability and nonlinear dynamics of the n = 1 mode with effects of energetic beam ions for a typical DIII-D discharge where both saturated kink mode and fishbone were observed. Linear simulation results show that the n = 1 internal kink mode is unstable in MHD limit. However, with kinetic effects of beam ions, a fishbone-like mode is excited with mode frequency about a few kHz depending on beam pressure profile. The mode frequency is higher at higher beam power and/or narrower radial profile consistent with the experimental observation. Nonlinear simulations have been performed to investigate mode saturation as well as energetic particle transport. The nonlinear MHD simulations show that the unstable kink mode becomes a saturated kink mode after a sawtooth crash. With beam ion effects, the fishbone-like mode can also transit to a saturated kink mode with a small but finite mode frequency. These results are consistent with the experimental observation of saturated kink mode between sawtooth crashes.

  4. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  5. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  6. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  7. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  8. Antipastorialism : Resistant Georgic Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Abolitionists, women, Afro-British slaves, and those who protested land enclosure developed a multivalent, resistant mode of writing, which I name 'antipastoralism', that countered orthodox, poetical...

  9. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  10. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  11. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  12. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. Microwaves integrated circuits: hybrids and monolithics - fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Pinto, J.K. da

    1983-01-01

    Several types of microwave integrated circuits are presented together with comments about technologies and fabrication processes; advantages and disadvantages in their utilization are analysed. Basic structures, propagation modes, materials used and major steps in the construction of hybrid thin film and monolithic microwave integrated circuits are described. Important technological applications are revised and main activities of the microelectronics lab. of the University of Sao Paulo (Brazil) in the field of hybrid and monolithic microwave integrated circuits are summarized. (C.L.B.) [pt

  14. Excursions through KK modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki [Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal University,Manipal, Karnataka 576104 (India)

    2016-07-07

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  15. Excursions through KK modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  16. Event-triggered hybrid control based on multi-Agent systems for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-xia; Liu, Bin; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focused on a multi-agent system based event-triggered hybrid control for intelligently restructuring the operating mode of an microgrid (MG) to ensure the energy supply with high security, stability and cost effectiveness. Due to the microgrid is composed of different types...... of distributed energy resources, thus it is typical hybrid dynamic network. Considering the complex hybrid behaviors, a hierarchical decentralized coordinated control scheme is firstly constructed based on multi-agent sys-tem, then, the hybrid model of the microgrid is built by using differential hybrid Petri...

  17. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  18. Electromagnetic Properties Analysis on Hybrid-driven System of Electromagnetic Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Han, Bingyuan; Bei, Shaoyi

    2018-01-01

    The hybrid-driven system made of permanent-and electromagnets applied in the electromagnetic motor was analyzed, equivalent magnetic circuit was used to establish the mathematical models of hybrid-driven system, based on the models of hybrid-driven system, the air gap flux, air-gap magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force was proposed. Taking the air-gap magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force as main research object, the hybrid-driven system was researched. Electromagnetic properties of hybrid-driven system with different working current modes is studied preliminary. The results shown that analysis based on hybrid-driven system can improve the air-gap magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force more effectively and can also guarantee the output stability, the effectiveness and feasibility of the hybrid-driven system are verified, which proved theoretical basis for the design of hybrid-driven system.

  19. Kinetic slow mode-type solitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Baumgärtel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional hybrid code simulations are presented, carried out in order both to study solitary waves of the slow mode branch in an isotropic, collisionless, medium-β plasma (βi=0.25 and to test the fluid based soliton interpretation of Cluster observed strong magnetic depressions (Stasiewicz et al., 2003; Stasiewicz, 2004 against kinetic theory. In the simulations, a variety of strongly oblique, large amplitude, solitons are seen, including solitons with Alfvenic polarization, similar to those predicted by the Hall-MHD theory, and robust, almost non-propagating, solitary structures of slow magnetosonic type with strong magnetic field depressions and perpendicular ion heating, which have no counterpart in fluid theory. The results support the soliton-based interpretation of the Cluster observations, but reveal substantial deficiencies of Hall-MHD theory in describing slow mode-type solitons in a plasma of moderate beta.

  20. Comparison of Several Modes in Simple ARC Second-Order Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Rybin

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the popular, multiple-feedback, ARC single opamp, highpass second-order filter is proposed in several types of modes, namely voltage, current and hybrid ones. These modes are studied and compared in detail. Computer experimental results are given supporting the theory.

  1. 35 GHz passive mode-locking of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers at 1.3 μm with Fourier-limited pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntz, M.; Fiol, G.; Laemmlin, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report 35 GHz passive mode-locking and 20 GHz hybrid mode-locking of quantum dot (QD) lasers at 1.3 ìm. Our investigations show ultrafast absorber recovery times and for the first time transform-limited mode-locked pulses.......We report 35 GHz passive mode-locking and 20 GHz hybrid mode-locking of quantum dot (QD) lasers at 1.3 ìm. Our investigations show ultrafast absorber recovery times and for the first time transform-limited mode-locked pulses....

  2. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  3. MAS Based Event-Triggered Hybrid Control for Smart Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chunxia; Liu, Bin; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused on an advanced control for autonomous microgrids. In order to improve the performance regarding security and stability, a hierarchical decentralized coordinated control scheme is proposed based on multi-agents structure. Moreover, corresponding to the multi-mode and the hybrid...... haracteristics of microgrids, an event-triggered hybrid control, including three kinds of switching controls, is designed to intelligently reconstruct operation mode when the security stability assessment indexes or the constraint conditions are violated. The validity of proposed control scheme is demonstrated...

  4. Generation of auroral kilometric radiation in upper hybrid wave-lower hybrid soliton interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottelette, R.; Dubouloz, N.; Treumann, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Sporadic bursts of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) associated with strong bursty electrostatic turbulence in the vicinity of the lower hybrid frequency have been frequently recorded in the AKR source region by the Viking satellite. The variation time scale of these emissions is typically 1 s, long enough for lower hybrid waves to grow to amplitudes of several hundred millivolts per meter and to evolve nonlinearly into solitons. On the basis on these observations it is suggested that formation of lower hybrid solitons may play a role in the generation of AKR. A theoretical model is proposed which is based on the direct acceleration of electrons in the combined lower hybrid soliton and upper hybrid wave fields. The solitons act as sporadic, localized antennas allowing for efficient conversions of the electrostatic energy stored in upper hybrid waves into electromagnetic radiation at a frequency above the X mode cutoff. Excitation of lower hybrid waves is due to the presence of energetic electron beams in the auroral zone found to be associated with steep plasma density gradients. Upper hybrid waves can be excited by a population of energetic electrons with loss cone distributions. The power of the electromagnetic radiation obtained is only noticeable in regions where the plasma frequency is less than the electron gyrofrequency. The theory predicts spectral power densities of the order of 10 -11 to 10 -9 W m -2 Hz -1 in the source region, in good agreement with the Viking observations. The sporadic nature of the radiation derives from lower hybrid soliton collapses which occur on ∼1-s time scales

  5. Effect of modes interaction on the resistive wall mode stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Longxi; Wu Bin

    2013-01-01

    Effects of modes interaction on the resistive wall mode (RWM) stability are studied. When considering the modes interaction effects, the linear growth rate of the most unstable (3, 1) mode decreases. After linear evolution, the RWM saturates at the nonlinear phase. The saturation can be attributed to flux piling up on the resistive wall. When some modes exist, the (3, 1) mode saturates at lower level compared with single mode evolution. Meanwhile, the magnetic energy of the (5, 2) mode increases correspondingly, but the magnetic energy saturation level of the (2, 1) mode changes weakly. (authors)

  6. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  7. Surface modes in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic surface modes are present at all surfaces and interfaces between material of different dielectric properties. These modes have very important effects on numerous physical quantities: adhesion, capillary force, step formation and crystal growth, the Casimir effect etc. They cause surface tension and wetting and they give rise to forces which are important e.g. for the stability of colloids.This book is a useful and elegant approach to the topic, showing how the concept of electromagnetic modes can be developed as a unifying theme for a range of condensed matter physics. The

  8. Study of complex modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrnak, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors

  9. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  10. Simulation of Hybrid Photovoltaic Solar Assisted Loop Heat Pipe/Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid photovoltaic solar assisted loop heat pipe/heat pump (PV-SALHP/HP water heater system has been developed and numerically studied. The system is the combination of loop heat pipe (LHP mode and heat pump (HP mode, and the two modes can be run separately or compositely according to the weather conditions. The performances of independent heat pump (HP mode and hybrid loop heat pipe/heat pump (LHP/HP mode were simulated and compared. Simulation results showed that on typical sunny days in spring or autumn, using LHP/HP mode could save 40.6% power consumption than HP mode. In addition, the optimal switchover from LHP mode to HP mode was analyzed in different weather conditions for energy saving and the all-year round operating performances of the system were also simulated. The simulation results showed that hybrid LHP/HP mode should be utilized to save electricity on sunny days from March to November and the system can rely on LHP mode alone without any power consumption in July and August. When solar radiation and ambient temperature are low in winter, HP mode should be used

  11. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  12. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  13. Quark-interaction in the 1-mode QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendel, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    We explain first the field operators in the N-mode representation. We choose the Hamiltonian formulation in temporal gauge. We come then across an intrinsic instability of the canonical formulation of the N-mode idea. The following chapter deals with the overvoming of the instability. It is shown that the generator of the instability carries simultaneously already the dynamical element of its cancelling. This transformation, which performs this, is of the BCS type and contains as quasi particles just the mesonic hybrid states already mentioned for instance by Pottinger and Warner. We come thereby across a second instability, which occurs in the limit of vanishing chromomagnetic contribution B 2 . The chapter concludes with a variational analysis of the transformed Hamiltonian operator. The following chapter deals first with the phenomenological results on the existence of hybride mesons and other oxotic quark-gluon states, as they occur in canonical way in the N-mode model with BCS transformations. We show for this reason, how the transformation can be extended to the spin degrees of freedom and calculate the resulting pairing interaction energies of quarks and antiquarks. In the last chapter we finally enter possible many-mode formulations and sketch thereby methods, which allow in a relatively simple way to conclude from the hitherto 1-mode results to certain N-mode analoga. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  15. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  16. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhanwal, N; Ezhilarasi, P N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2015-07-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with hybrid heating mode (H-1 and H-2, hybrid oven) on the quality characteristics of bread as against conventional heating mode (C-1, pilot scale oven; C-2, hybrid oven) was studied. The results showed that breads baked in hybrid heating mode (H-2) had higher moisture content (28.87%), higher volume (670 cm(3)), lower crumb firmness value (374.6 g), and overall quality score (67.0) comparable to conventional baking process (68.5). Moreover, bread baked in hybrid heating mode showed 28% reduction in baking time.

  17. Hybrid and Blended Learning: Modifying Pedagogy across Path, Pace, Time, and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, W. Ian; Pytash, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid or blended learning is defined as a pedagogical approach that includes a combination of face-to-face instruction with computer-mediated instruction. The terms "blended learning", "hybrid learning", and "mixed-mode learning" are used interchangeably in current research; however, in the United States,…

  18. Parametric decay instability near the upper hybrid resonance in magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Kjer; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate parametric decay of an electromagnetic pump wave into two electrostatic daughter waves, particularly an X-mode pump wave decaying into a warm upper hybrid wave (a limit of an electron Bernstein wave) and a warm lower hybrid wave. We describe the general theory...

  19. Integrating Quality Matters into Hybrid Course Design: A Principles of Marketing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the idea that the success of hybrid or online delivery modes is more a function of course design than delivery media. This article describes a case study of a hybrid Principles of Marketing course that implemented a comprehensive redesign based on design principles espoused by the Quality Matters Program, a center for…

  20. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion

  1. Propagating annular modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, A.; Plumb, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The leading "annular mode", defined as the dominant EOF of surface pressure or of zonal mean zonal wind variability, appears as a dipolar structure straddling the mean midlatitude jet and thus seems to describe north-south wobbling of the jet latitude. However, extratropical zonal wind anomalies frequently tend to migrate poleward. This behavior can be described by the first two EOFs, the first (AM1) being the dipolar structure, and the second (AM2) having a tripolar structure centered on the mean jet. Taken in isolation, AM1 thus describes a north-south wobbling of the jet position, while AM2 describes a strengthening and narrowing of the jet. However, despite the fact that they are spatially orthogonal, and their corresponding time series temporally orthogonal, AM1 and AM2 are not independent, but show significant lag-correlations which reveal the propagation. The EOFs are not modes of the underlying dynamical system governing the zonal flow evolution. The true modes can be estimated using principal oscillation pattern (POP) analysis. In the troposphere, the leading POPs manifest themselves as a pair of complex conjugate structures with conjugate eigenvalues thus, in reality, constituting a single, complex, mode that describes propagating anomalies. Even though the principal components associated with the two leading EOFs decay at different rates, each decays faster than the true mode. These facts have implications for eddy feedback and the susceptibility of the mode to external perturbations. If one interprets the annular modes as the modes of the system, then simple theory predicts that the response to steady forcing will usually be dominated by AM1 (with the longest time scale). However, such arguments should really be applied to the true modes. Experiments with a simplified GCM show that climate response to perturbations do not necessarily have AM1 structures. Implications of these results for stratosphere-troposphere interactions are explored. The POP

  2. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  3. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  6. Permutation on hybrid natural inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Erlich, Joshua; Ramos, Raymundo; Sher, Marc

    2014-09-01

    We analyze a model of hybrid natural inflation based on the smallest non-Abelian discrete group S3. Leading invariant terms in the scalar potential have an accidental global symmetry that is spontaneously broken, providing a pseudo-Goldstone boson that is identified as the inflaton. The S3 symmetry restricts both the form of the inflaton potential and the couplings of the inflaton field to the waterfall fields responsible for the end of inflation. We identify viable points in the model parameter space. Although the power in tensor modes is small in most of the parameter space of the model, we identify parameter choices that yield potentially observable values of r without super-Planckian initial values of the inflaton field.

  7. Hybrid inflation along waterfall trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clesse, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    We identify a new inflationary regime for which more than 60 e-folds are generated classically during the waterfall phase occurring after the usual hybrid inflation. By performing a Bayesian Monte-Carlo-Markov-Chain analysis, this scenario is shown to take place in a large part of the parameter space of the model. When this occurs, the observable perturbation modes leave the Hubble radius during waterfall inflation. The power spectrum of adiabatic perturbations is red, possibly in agreement with CMB constraints. Particular attention has been given to study only the regions for which quantum backreactions do not affect the classical dynamics. Implications concerning the preheating and the absence of topological defects in our Universe are discussed.

  8. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, E.; Floether, F. F. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Bennett, A. J., E-mail: anthony.bennet@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Shields, A. J. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Lee, J. P. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-26

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO{sub 2} cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  9. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  10. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  11. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  13. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  14. Collective Lyapunov modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazumasa A; Chaté, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    We show, using covariant Lyapunov vectors in addition to standard Lyapunov analysis, that there exists a set of collective Lyapunov modes in large chaotic systems exhibiting collective dynamics. Associated with delocalized Lyapunov vectors, they act collectively on the trajectory and hence characterize the instability of its collective dynamics. We further develop, for globally coupled systems, a connection between these collective modes and the Lyapunov modes in the corresponding Perron–Frobenius equation. We thereby address the fundamental question of the effective dimension of collective dynamics and discuss the extensivity of chaos in the presence of collective dynamics. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  15. General coupled mode theory in non-Hermitian waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Chen, Yuntian

    2015-08-24

    In the presence of loss and gain, the coupled mode equation on describing the mode hybridization of various waveguides or cavities, or cavities coupled to waveguides becomes intrinsically non-Hermitian. In such non-Hermitian waveguides, the standard coupled mode theory fails. We generalize the coupled mode theory with a properly defined inner product based on reaction conservation. We apply our theory to the non-Hermitian parity-time symmetric waveguides, and obtain excellent agreement with results obtained by finite element fullwave simulations. The theory presented here is typically formulated in space to study coupling between waveguides, which can be transformed into time domain by proper reformulation to study coupling between non-Hermitian resonators. Our theory has the strength of studying non-Hermitian optical systems with inclusion of the full vector fields, thus is useful to study and design non-Hermitian devices that support asymmetric and even nonreciprocal light propagations.

  16. Saturated ideal modes in advanced tokamak regimes in MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, I.T.; Hua, M.-D.; Pinches, S.D.; Akers, R.J.; Field, A.R.; Hastie, R.J.; Michael, C.A.; Graves, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    MAST plasmas with a safety factor above unity and a profile with either weakly reversed shear or broad low-shear regions, regularly exhibit long-lived saturated ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The toroidal rotation is flattened in the presence of such perturbations and the fast ion losses are enhanced. These ideal modes, distinguished as such by the notable lack of islands or signs of reconnection, are driven unstable as the safety factor approaches unity. This could be of significance for advanced scenarios, or hybrid scenarios which aim to keep the safety factor just above rational surfaces associated with deleterious resistive MHD instabilities, especially in spherical tokamaks which are more susceptible to such ideal internal modes. The role of rotation, fast ions and ion diamagnetic effects in determining the marginal mode stability is discussed, as well as the role of instabilities with higher toroidal mode numbers as the safety factor evolves to lower values.

  17. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie

    2014-01-01

    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  18. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33......) for current confinement into the active layer (34). An air-gap layer (102) may be provided between the upper reflector (15) and the SOI wafer (50) acting as a substrate. The lower reflector may be designed as a high-contrast grating (51) by etching....

  19. Performance and energy management of a novel full hybrid electric powertrain system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Cheng-Ta; Hung, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the performance and energy management between a novel full hybrid electric powertrain and a traditional power-split hybrid system. The developed planetary gearset and dual clutch configuration provides five operation modes. Equations for the torque and speed of power sources for the planetary gearset and dual clutch system and the Toyota Hybrid System are firstly derived. By giving vehicle performance of gradability, maximal speeds in hybrid and pure electric modes, the power sources of the 210 kg target vehicle are: a 125 cc engine and two 1.8 kW motor and generator. The optimal tank-to-wheel efficiencies, ratios of circulating power, and operation points at specific vehicle speeds and out loads are calculated. Simulation results show that the dual-motor electric vehicle mode offers superior performance regarding electric drive; the low capacity of the battery is conducive to reducing manufacturing and maintenance costs; the tank-to-wheel efficiency is mainly operated above 20% while the power split electronic-continuously-variable-transmission mode is the major operation mode, and a maximum of 17% fuel economy improvement is achieved compared with the Toyota Hybrid System in most of the vehicle speed ranges. The outstanding performance warrants further real-system development, especially regarding the implementation in plug-in and sport hybrid powertrain designs. - Highlights: • An innovative power split hybrid powertrain was designed. • Dual-motor electric-vehicle mode highlighted for plug-in function. • Power circulation ratios and five driving modes were analyzed. • Global search method utilized for optimal energy management. • Maximal 17+% fuel improvement compared to Toyota Hybrid System

  20. Model-based health monitoring of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Low, Chang Boon; Arogeti, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Offers in-depth comprehensive study on health monitoring for hybrid systems Includes new concepts, such as GARR, mode tracking and multiple failure prognosis Contains many examples, making the developed techniques easily understandable and accessible Introduces state-of-the-art algorithms and methodologies from experienced researchers

  1. Hybrid plasmonic waveguides formed by metal coating of dielectric ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr; Choudhury, Sajid; Saha, Soham

    2017-01-01

    Bound hybrid plasmon-polariton modes supported by waveguides, which are formed by gold coating of ridges etched into a silica substrate, are analyzed using numerical simulations and investigated experimentally using near-field microscopy at telecom wavelengths (1425-1625 nm). Drastic modification...

  2. Final Technical Report for Terabit-scale hybrid networking project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, Malathi [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-12-12

    This report describes our accomplishments and activities for the project titled Terabit-Scale Hybrid Networking. The key accomplishment is that we developed, tested and deployed an Alpha Flow Characterization System (AFCS) in ESnet. It is being run in production mode since Sept. 2015. Also, a new QoS class was added to ESnet5 to support alpha flows.

  3. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  4. Mirror hybrid reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid reactor studies are reviewed. The optimization of the point design and work on a reference design are described. The status of the nuclear analysis of fast spectrum blankets, systems studies for fissile fuel producing hybrid reactor, and the mechanical design of the machine are reviewed

  5. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  6. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  7. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  8. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  9. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  10. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  11. State-of-the-art assessment of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and available literature. The data given include: (1) information and data base (electric and hybrid vehicle systems descriptions, sources of vehicle data and information, and sources of component data); (2) electric vehicles (theoretical background, electric vehicle track tests, user experience, literature data, and summary of electric vehicle status); (3) electric vehicle components (tires, differentials, transmissions, traction motors, controllers, batteries, battery chargers, and component summary); and (4) hybrid vehicles (types of hybrid vehicles, operating modes, hybrid vehicles components, and hybrid vehicles performance characteristics).

  12. Circuit QED with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruloff, Stefan; Taketani, Bruno; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We're working on the theory of metamaterials providing some interesting results. The negative refraction index causes an opposite orientation of the wave vector k and the Poynting vector S of the travelling waves. Hence the metamaterial has a falling dispersion relation ∂ω(k)/∂k < 0 implying that low frequencies correspond to short wavelengths. Metamaterials are simulated by left-handed transmission lines consisting of discrete arrays of series capacitors and parallel inductors to ground. Unusual physics arises when right-and left-handed transmission lines are coupled forming a hybrid metamaterial transmission line. E.g. if a qubit is placed in front of a hybrid metamaterial transmission line terminated in an open circuit, the spontaneous emission rate is weakened or unaffected depending on the transition frequency of the qubit. Some other research interests are the general analysis of metamaterial cavities and the mode structure of hybrid metamaterial cavities for QND readout of multi-qubit operators. Especially the precise answer to the question about the definition of the mode volume of a metamaterial cavity is one of our primary goals.

  13. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  14. Hybrid functional pseudopotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.

  15. A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for trucks: Analysis of direct and indirect hybrid configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Baltzer, Sidney; Gnörich, Bruno; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for heavy duty vehicles is reported. • Comparison of direct and indirect hybrids using representative load profiles. • Evaluation based on validated fuel cell system and battery models. • Indirect hybrid with constant fuel cell load yields 29.3% hybrid system efficiency. • Fuel cell should be pre-heated using waste heat from the diesel engine during drive. - Abstract: The idling operation of engines in heavy duty vehicles to cover electricity demand during layovers entails significant fuel consumption and corresponding emissions. Indeed, this mode of operation is highly inefficient and a noteworthy contributor to the transportation sector’s aggregate carbon dioxide emissions. Here, a potential solution to this wasteful practice is outlined in the form of a hybrid battery-fuel cell system for application as an auxiliary power unit for trucks. Drawing on experimentally-validated fuel cell and battery models, several possible hybrid concepts are evaluated and direct and indirect hybrid configurations analyzed using a representative load profile. The results indicate that a direct hybrid configuration is only applicable if the load demand profile does not deviate strongly from the assumed profile. Operation of an indirect hybrid with a constant fuel cell load yields the greatest hybrid system efficiency, at 29.3%, while battery size could be reduced by 87% if the fuel cell is operated at the highest dynamics. Maximum efficiency in truck applications can be achieved by pre-heating the system prior to operation using exhaust heat from the motor, which increased system efficiency from 25.3% to 28.1%, including start-up. These findings confirm that hybrid systems could offer enormous fuel savings and constitute a sizeable step on the path toward energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly heavy duty vehicles that does not necessitate a fuel switch.

  16. Transition to H-mode by energetic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae.

    1992-07-01

    Effect of the electron loss due to the toroidal ripple on an H-mode transition is studied. When energetic electrons exist in tokamaks, e.g., in the case of the current drive by lower hybrid (LH) waves, the edge electric field can show the bifurcation to the more positive value. In this state, both the electron loss and ion loss (such as loss cone loss) are reduced. The criterion for the transition is derived. Comparison with H-mode in JT-60 LH plasma shows a qualitative agreement. (author)

  17. Magnetic modes in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.A.

    1990-04-01

    A first discussion of reciprocal propagation of magnetic modes in a superlattice is presented. In the absence of an applied external magnetic field a superllatice made of alternate layers of the type antiferromagnetic-non-magnetic materials presents effects similar to those of phonons in a dielectric superlattice. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  18. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  19. Thermal Operating Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel SAIC Company

    2002-01-01

    Higher and lower temperature operating modes (e.g., above and below the boiling point of water) are alternative approaches to managing the heat produced by the radioactive decay of spent nuclear fuel. Current analyses indicate that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site is likely to comply with applicable safety standards regardless of the particular thermal operating mode. Both modes have potential advantages and disadvantages. With a higher temperature operating mode (HTOM), waste packages (WPs) can be placed closer together. This reduces the number of drifts, the required emplacement area, construction costs, and occupational risks to construction workers. In addition, the HTOM would minimize the amount of water that might contact the waste for hundreds of years after closure. On the other hand, higher temperatures introduce uncertainties in the understanding of the long-term performance of the repository because of uncertainties in the thermal effects on WP lifetime and the near-field environment around the drifts. A lower temperature operating mode (LTOM) has the potential to reduce uncertainties in long-term performance of the repository by limiting the effects of temperature on WP lifetime and on the near-field environment around the drifts. Depending on the combination of operating parameters, a LTOM could require construction of additional drifts, a larger emplacement area, increased construction costs, increased occupational risks to construction works, and a longer period of ventilation than a HTOM. The repository design for the potential Yucca Mountain site is flexible and can be constructed and operated in various operating modes to achieve specific technical objectives, accommodate future policy decisions, and use of new information. For example, the flexible design can be operated across a range of temperatures and can be tailored to achieve specific thermal requirements in the future. To accommodate future policy decisions, the repository can be

  20. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  1. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  2. Faculty Perceptions of Pedagogical Considerations in the Design of Hybrid Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeghalef, Salma

    2016-01-01

    Changes in student demographics and in technology are driving American higher education to embrace innovative instruction. The hybrid mode of instruction is providing a learning modality that offers the flexibility and convenience of online learning without losing the benefits of a face-to-face learning environment. This mode of instruction is…

  3. Experimental study of parametric decay close to the upper hybrid frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, E; Krause, K; Schlueter, H [Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-04-01

    In He, Ne, and Ar plasmas the parametric decay of the electromagnetic upper hybrid mode is studied in the range between the electron cyclotron frequency and its first two harmonics. The pump wave is excited by outside antennae. The decay products are identified as electron Bernstein and ion acoustic modes.

  4. Chirp of monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, M.; Bischoff, S.; Franck, Thorkild

    1997-01-01

    Spectrally resolved streak camera measurements of picosecond pulses emitted by hybridly colliding pulse mode-locked (CPM) laser diodes are presented in this letter. Depending on the modulation frequency both blue-chirped (upchirped) and red-chirped (downchirped) pulses can be observed. The two...... different regimes and the transition between them are characterized experimentally and the behavior is explained on the basis of our model for the CPM laser dynamics. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  5. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  6. Bond graph model-based fault diagnosis of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a bond graph model-based approach to fault diagnosis in mechatronic systems appropriately represented by a hybrid model. The book begins by giving a survey of the fundamentals of fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, then recalls state-of-art developments referring to latest publications, and goes on to discuss various bond graph representations of hybrid system models, equations formulation for switched systems, and simulation of their dynamic behavior. The structured text: • focuses on bond graph model-based fault detection and isolation in hybrid systems; • addresses isolation of multiple parametric faults in hybrid systems; • considers system mode identification; • provides a number of elaborated case studies that consider fault scenarios for switched power electronic systems commonly used in a variety of applications; and • indicates that bond graph modelling can also be used for failure prognosis. In order to facilitate the understanding of fault diagnosis and the presented...

  7. Hybrid epidemics--a case study on computer worm conficker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwang Zhang

    Full Text Available Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm's effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols.

  8. Hybrid epidemics--a case study on computer worm conficker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm's effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols.

  9. Hybrid Epidemics—A Case Study on Computer Worm Conficker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm’s spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm’s effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols. PMID:25978309

  10. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g., nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries.

  11. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczur-Uermoessy, G. [DAUG Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft, Esslingen (Germany)

    1998-03-30

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g. nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries. (orig.)

  12. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  13. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  14. Towers of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  15. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  16. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  17. Investigation of Υ Dor - δ Sct hybrid stars based on high precission space photometry and complementary ground based spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareter, M.

    2013-01-01

    Stellar pulsation carries information on the physical condition within the star. While pressure modes (p modes) probe the outer layers of a star, gravity modes (g modes) penetrate deep into the radiative zone and thus carry valuable information on the physical conditions there. gamma Dor stars are stars that pulsate in such modes, apart from white dwarfs and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars. Therefore, these stars are important test benches for stellar evolution and pulsation theory. delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrids are stars that pulsate like gamma Dor stars with g modes but also with p modes as the delta Sct stars do. This makes them even more suited for asteroseismology. The CoRoT long runs offer a great opportunity to analyse a large sample of stars observed homogeneously, uninterrupted and long time base of about 150 days, which is practically unachievable with ground based observation. Since space missions avoid the scintillation caused by the Earth's atmosphere, they allow to detect stellar oscillations on a sub-millimagnitude level even for stars as faint as 15th magnitude. The photometric data is supplemented by AAOmega classification spectroscopy, allowing to determine effective tem- peratures and surface gravity. With these data a statistical approach was adopted to describe the pulsation behaviour gamma Dor and delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrid stars. A temperature - period relation was found for gamma Dor and delta Sct stars, but none for delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrid stars, when considering their strongest g mode or p mode, respectively. The instability domain of hybrid stars is equal to that of delta Sct stars and is not con- fined to the overlapping region of the delta Sct and gamma Dor IS in the Hertzsprung- Russell diagram. Hybrid stars behave differently in the g mode regime than gamma Dor stars, which poses a serious question on how to define properly a delta Sct - gamma Dor hybrid. The convective flux blocking mechanism is supposed to work for stars

  18. Regularized quasinormal modes for plasmonic resonators and open cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamandar Dezfouli, Mohsen; Hughes, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Optical mode theory and analysis of open cavities and plasmonic particles is an essential component of optical resonator physics, offering considerable insight and efficiency for connecting to classical and quantum optical properties such as the Purcell effect. However, obtaining the dissipative modes in normalized form for arbitrarily shaped open-cavity systems is notoriously difficult, often involving complex spatial integrations, even after performing the necessary full space solutions to Maxwell's equations. The formal solutions are termed quasinormal modes, which are known to diverge in space, and additional techniques are frequently required to obtain more accurate field representations in the far field. In this work, we introduce a finite-difference time-domain technique that can be used to obtain normalized quasinormal modes using a simple dipole-excitation source, and an inverse Green function technique, in real frequency space, without having to perform any spatial integrations. Moreover, we show how these modes are naturally regularized to ensure the correct field decay behavior in the far field, and thus can be used at any position within and outside the resonator. We term these modes "regularized quasinormal modes" and show the reliability and generality of the theory by studying the generalized Purcell factor of dipole emitters near metallic nanoresonators, hybrid devices with metal nanoparticles coupled to dielectric waveguides, as well as coupled cavity-waveguides in photonic crystals slabs. We also directly compare our results with full-dipole simulations of Maxwell's equations without any approximations, and show excellent agreement.

  19. Bloch-Surface-Polariton-Based Hybrid Nanowire Structure for Subwavelength, Low-Loss Waveguiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijing Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs have been thoroughly studied in the past decades for not only sensing but also waveguiding applications. Various plasmonic device structures have been explored due to their ability to confine their optical mode to the subwavelength level. However, with the existence of metal, the large ohmic loss limits the propagation distance of the SPP and thus the scalability of such devices. Therefore, different hybrid waveguides have been proposed to overcome this shortcoming. Through fine tuning of the coupling between the SPP and a conventional waveguide mode, a hybrid mode could be excited with decent mode confinement and extended propagation distance. As an effective alternative of SPP, Bloch surface waves have been re-investigated more recently for their unique advantages. As is supported in all-dielectric structures, the optical loss for the Bloch surface wave is much lower, which stands for a much longer propagating distance. Yet, the confinement of the Bloch surface wave due to the reflections and refractions in the multilayer structure is not as tight as that of the SPP. In this work, by integrating a periodic multilayer structure that supports the Bloch surface wave with a metallic nanowire structure, a hybrid Bloch surface wave polariton could be excited. With the proposed hybrid nanowire structure, a hybrid mode is demonstrated with the deep subwavelength mode confinement and a propagation distance of tens of microns.

  20. Characteristics of edge-localized modes in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, M.; Xu, G.S.; Xiao, C.

    2012-01-01

    Edge-localized modes (ELMs) are the focus of tokamak edge physics studies because the large heat loads associated with ELMs have great impact on the divertor design of future reactor-grade tokamaks such as ITER. In the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST), the first ELMy high...... confinement modes (H-modes) were obtained with 1 MW lower hybrid wave power in conjunction with wall conditioning by lithium (Li) evaporation and real-time Li powder injection. The ELMs in EAST at this heating power are mostly type-III ELMs. They were observed close to the H-mode threshold power and produced...

  1. Control of DNA hybridization by photoswitchable molecular glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohno, Chikara; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Hybridization of DNA is one of the most intriguing events in molecular recognition and is essential for living matter to inherit life beyond generations. In addition to the function of DNA as genetic material, DNA hybridization is a key to control the function of DNA-based materials in nanoscience. Since the hybridization of two single stranded DNAs is a thermodynamically favorable process, dissociation of the once formed DNA duplex is normally unattainable under isothermal conditions. As the progress of DNA-based nanoscience, methodology to control the DNA hybridization process has become increasingly important. Besides many reports using the chemically modified DNA for the regulation of hybridization, we focused our attention on the use of a small ligand as the molecular glue for the DNA. In 2001, we reported the first designed molecule that strongly and specifically bound to the mismatched base pairs in double stranded DNA. Further studies on the mismatch binding molecules provided us a key discovery of a novel mode of the binding of a mismatch binding ligand that induced the base flipping. With these findings we proposed the concept of molecular glue for DNA for the unidirectional control of DNA hybridization and, eventually photoswitchable molecular glue for DNA, which enabled the bidirectional control of hybridization under photoirradiation. In this tutorial review, we describe in detail how we integrated the mismatch binding ligand into photoswitchable molecular glue for DNA, and the application and perspective in DNA-based nanoscience.

  2. A Low Cost Air Hybrid Concept Un concept hybride à air et à bas prix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C. Y.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The air hybrid engine absorbs the vehicle kinetic energy during braking, stores it in an air tank in the form of compressed air, and reuses it to propel a vehicle during cruising and acceleration. Capturing, storing and reusing this braking energy to give additional power can therefore improve fuel economy, particularly in cities and urban areas where the traffic conditions involve many stops and starts. In order to reuse the residual kinetic energy, the vehicle operation consists of 3 basic modes, i.e. Compression Mode (CM, Expander Mode (EM and normal firing mode. Unlike previous works, a low cost air hybrid engine has been proposed and studied. The hybrid engine operation can be realized by means of production technologies, such as VVT and valve deactivation. In this work, systematic investigation has been carried out on the performance of the hybrid engine concept through detailed gas dynamic modelling using Ricardo WAVE software. Valve timing optimization has been done for the more efficient operation of air hybrid operation and obtaining higher braking and motoring mean effective pressure for CM and EM respectively. Le moteur hybride à air absorbe l’énergie cinétique du véhicule en cas de freinage, la stocke sous forme d’air comprimé, puis la réutilise pour faire avancer le véhicule en circulation ou en accélération. Capter, stocker et réutiliser cette énergie et créer ainsi une puissance plus importante peut donc permettre de plus grandes économies de carburant, surtout en ville et zone urbaine, lorsque les conditions de circulation imposent de nombreux arrêts et démarrages. Pour pouvoir réutiliser l’énergie cinétique, on distingue trois modes de base d’utilisation du véhicule : les modes compression (MC, expansion (ME et standard. Un moteur hybride à air et à bas prix a été proposé et étudié. Un tel moteur peut être opéré par le biais de technologies de production, comme le VVT et la d

  3. Boosting Majorana Zero Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Karzig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional topological superconductors are known to host Majorana zero modes at domain walls terminating the topological phase. Their non-Abelian nature allows for processing quantum information by braiding operations that are insensitive to local perturbations, making Majorana zero modes a promising platform for topological quantum computation. Motivated by the ultimate goal of executing quantum-information processing on a finite time scale, we study domain walls moving at a constant velocity. We exploit an effective Lorentz invariance of the Hamiltonian to obtain an exact solution of the associated quasiparticle spectrum and wave functions for arbitrary velocities. Essential features of the solution have a natural interpretation in terms of the familiar relativistic effects of Lorentz contraction and time dilation. We find that the Majorana zero modes remain stable as long as the domain wall moves at subluminal velocities with respect to the effective speed of light of the system. However, the Majorana bound state dissolves into a continuous quasiparticle spectrum after the domain wall propagates at luminal or even superluminal velocities. This relativistic catastrophe implies that there is an upper limit for possible braiding frequencies even in a perfectly clean system with an arbitrarily large topological gap. We also exploit our exact solution to consider domain walls moving past static impurities present in the system.

  4. Formula hybrid SAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    User-friendly tools are needed for undergraduates to learn about component sizing, powertrain integration, and control : strategies for student competitions involving hybrid vehicles. A TK Solver tool was developed at the University of Idaho for : th...

  5. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  6. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  7. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-01-01

    for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations

  8. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order ... Reaching mode; sliding mode controlled systems; output tracking ... The uncertainty in the input distribution function g is expressed as.

  9. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  10. Toroidal mode-conversion in the ICRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaun, A.; Hellsten, T.; Chiu, S.C.

    1997-08-01

    Mode-conversion is studied in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) taking into account the toroidal geometry relevant for tokamaks. The global wavefields obtained using the gyrokinetic toroidal PENN code illustrate how the fast wave propagates to the neighborhood of the ion-ion hybrid resonance, where it is converted to a slow wave which deposits the wave energy through resonant interactions with the particles. The power deposition profiles obtained are dramatically different from the toroidal resonance absorption, showing that Budden's model is not a good approximation in the torus. Radially and poloidally localized wavefield structures characteristic of slow wave eigenmodes are predicted and could in experiments be driven to large amplitudes so as to interact efficiently with fast particles. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 48 refs

  11. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  12. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  13. Mode-to-mode energy transfers in convective patterns

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the energy transfer between various Fourier modes in a low- dimensional model for thermal convection. We have used the formalism of mode-to-mode energy transfer rate in our calculation. The evolution equations derived using this scheme is the same as those derived using the hydrodynamical ...

  14. Hybrid 3D Printing of Soft Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Alexander D; Busbee, Travis A; Boley, John William; Raney, Jordan R; Chortos, Alex; Kotikian, Arda; Berrigan, John Daniel; Durstock, Michael F; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2017-10-01

    Hybrid 3D printing is a new method for producing soft electronics that combines direct ink writing of conductive and dielectric elastomeric materials with automated pick-and-place of surface mount electronic components within an integrated additive manufacturing platform. Using this approach, insulating matrix and conductive electrode inks are directly printed in specific layouts. Passive and active electrical components are then integrated to produce the desired electronic circuitry by using an empty nozzle (in vacuum-on mode) to pick up individual components, place them onto the substrate, and then deposit them (in vacuum-off mode) in the desired location. The components are then interconnected via printed conductive traces to yield soft electronic devices that may find potential application in wearable electronics, soft robotics, and biomedical devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Generation of Z mode radiation by diffuse auroral electron precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Lyons, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The generation of Z mode waves by diffuse auroral electron precipitation is investigated assuming that a loss cone exists in the upgoing portion of the distribution due to electron interactions with the atmosphere. The waves are generated at frequencies above, but very near, the local electron cyclotron frequency omega(e) and at wave normal angles larger than 90 deg. In agreement with Hewitt et al. (1983), the group velocity is directed downward in regions where the ratio of the upper hybrid frequency omega(pe) to Omega(e) is less than 0.5, so that Z mode waves excited above a satellite propagate toward it and away from the upper hybrid resonance. Z mode waves are excited in a frequency band between Omega(e) and about 1.02 Omega(e), and with maximum growth rates of about 0.001 Omega(e). The amplification length is about 100 km, which allows Z mode waves to grow to the intensities observed by high-altitude satellites.

  16. Azimuthal decomposition of optical modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation analyses the azimuthal decomposition of optical modes. Decomposition of azimuthal modes need two steps, namely generation and decomposition. An azimuthally-varying phase (bounded by a ring-slit) placed in the spatial frequency...

  17. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  18. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  19. A hybrid flight control for a simulated raptor-30 v2 helicopter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khizer, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid flight control system for a single rotor simulated Raptor-30 V2 helicopter. Hybrid intelligent control system, combination of the conventional and intelligent control methodologies, is applied to small model helicopter. The proposed hybrid control used PID as a traditional control and fuzzy as an intelligent control so as to take the maximum advantage of advanced control theory. The helicopter model used; comes from X-Plane flight simulator and their hybrid flight control system was simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK in a simulation platform. X-Plane is also used to visualize the performance of this proposed autopilot design. Through a series of numerous experiments, the operation of hybrid control system was investigated. Results verified that the proposed hybrid control has an excellent performance at hovering flight mode. (author)

  20. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - III. Subdwarf B stars with V1093 Her and hybrid (DW Lyn) type pulsations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, M.D.; Kawaler, Stephen D.; Østensen, Roy H.

    2010-01-01

    1093 Her (PG 1716) class or a hybrid star with both short and long periods. The apparently non-binary long-period and hybrid pulsators are described here. The V1093 Her periods range from 1 to 4.5 h and are associated with g-mode pulsations. Three stars also exhibit short periods indicative of p...

  1. Experimental study into a hybrid PCCI/CI concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dijk, M.D. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of an experimental study into a hybrid combustion concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines. In this hybrid concept, at low load operating conditions, the engine is run in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode, whereas at high load

  2. Raman amplification of OAM modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Kasper; Gregg, Patrick; Galili, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The set of fibre modes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a possible basis for mode division multiplexing. In this regard, fibres supporting OAM modes have been fabricated [1], and optical communication using these fibres, has been demonstrated [2]. A vital part of any long range...

  3. ACCA College English Teaching Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates a new college English teaching mode--"ACCA" (Autonomous Cooperative Class-teaching All-round College English Teaching Mode). Integrated theories such as autonomous learning and cooperative learning into one teaching mode, "ACCA", which is being developed and advanced in practice as well, is the achievement…

  4. Fluxon modes in superconducting multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, Søren Peder

    2004-01-01

    We show how to construct fluxon modes from plasma modes in the inductively coupled stacked Josephson junctions, and consider some special cases of these fluxon modes analytically. In some cases we can find exact analytical solutions when we choose the bias current in a special way. We also consid...

  5. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  6. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the range of characteristics attainable from hybrid reactor blankets; blanket design considerations; hybrid reactor designs; alternative fuel hybrid reactors; multi-purpose hybrid reactors; and hybrid reactors and the energy economy. Hybrid reactors are driven by a fusion neutron source and include fertile and/or fissile material. The fusion component provides a copious source of fusion neutrons which interact with a subcritical fission component located adjacent to the plasma or pellet chamber. Fissile fuel and/or energy are the main products of hybrid reactors. Topics include high F/M blankets, the fissile (and tritium) breeding ratio, effects of composition on blanket properties, geometrical considerations, power density and first wall loading, variations of blanket properties with irradiation, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design considerations, safety considerations, tokamak hybrid reactors, tandem-mirror hybrid reactors, inertial confinement hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources, fissile-fuel and energy production ability, simultaneous production of combustible and fissile fuels, fusion reactors for waste transmutation and fissile breeding, nuclear pumped laser hybrid reactors, Hybrid Fuel Factories (HFFs), and scenarios for hybrid contribution. The appendix offers hybrid reactor fundamentals. Numerous references are provided

  7. Spin and isospin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Sagawa, H.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Spin and isospin modes in nuclei are investigated. We discuss some of the following topics. 1. Spin-dipole excitations in 12 C and 16 O are studied (1). Effects of tensor and spin-orbit interactions on the distribution of the strengths are investigated, and neutral current neutrino scattering cross sections in 16 O are obtained for heavy-flavor neutrinos from the supernovae. 2. Gamow-Teller (GT) and spin-dipole (SD) modes in 208 Bi are investigated. Quenching and fragmentation of the GT strength are discussed (2). SD excitations and electric dipole (E1) transitions between the GT and SD states are studied (3). Calculated E1 strengths are compared with the sum rule values obtained within the 1p-1h and 1p-1h + 2p-2h configuration spaces. 3. Coulomb displacement energy (CDE) of the IAS of 14 Be is calculated, and the effects of the halo on the CDE and the configuration of the halo state are investigated. 4. Spreading width of IAS and isospin dependence of the width are investigated (4). Our formula for the width explains very well the observed isospin dependence (5). (author)

  8. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  9. Study of a condition for the mode conversion from purely perpendicular electrostatic waves to electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaee, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: mjkalaee@ut.ac.ir [Space Physics Group, Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Katoh, Yuto, E-mail: yuto@stpp.gp.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    One of the mechanisms for generating electromagnetic plasma waves (Z-mode and LO-mode) is mode conversion from electrostatic waves into electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous plasma. Herein, we study a condition required for mode conversion of electrostatic waves propagating purely perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, by numerically solving the full dispersion relation. An approximate model is derived describing the coupling between electrostatic waves (hot plasma Bernstein mode) and Z-mode waves at the upper hybrid frequency. The model is used to study conditions required for mode conversion from electrostatic waves (electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves, including Bernstein mode) into electromagnetic plasma waves (LO-mode). It is shown that for mode conversion to occur in inhomogeneous plasma, the angle between the boundary surface and the magnetic field vector should be within a specific range. The range of the angle depends on the norm of the k vector of waves at the site of mode conversion in the inhomogeneous region. The present study reveals that inhomogeneity alone is not a sufficient condition for mode conversion from electrostatic waves to electromagnetic plasma waves and that the angle between the magnetic field and the density gradient plays an important role in the conversion process.

  10. DESIGN AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE SOLAR BIOMASS HYBRID DRYER FOR CASHEW DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Dhanuskodi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying of Cashew nut to remove testa is one of the most energy-intensive processes of cashew nut process industry. For this reason a hybrid dryer consisting of a solar flat plate collector, a biomass heater and a drying chamber is designed and fabricated. 40 kg of Cashew nut with initial moisture of 9 % is used in the experiment. The performance test of the dryer is carried out in two modes of operation: hybrid-forced convection and hybrid-natural convection. Drying time and drying efficiency during these two modes of operation are estimated and compared with the sun drying. The system is capable of attaining drying temperature between 50º and 70ºC. In the hybrid forced drying, the required moisture content of 3% is achieved within 7 hours and the average system efficiency is estimated as 5.08%. In the hybrid natural drying, the required moisture content is obtained in 9 hours and the average system efficiency is 3.17%. The fuel consumption during the drying process is 0.5 kg/hr and 0.75 kg/hr for forced mode and natural mode, respectively. The drying process in the hybrid forced mode of operation is twice faster than the sun drying. The dryer can be operated in any climatic conditions: as a solar dryer on normal sunny days, as a biomass dryer at night time and as a hybrid dryer on cloudy days. Based on the experimental study, it is concluded that the developed hybrid dryer is suitable for small scale cashew nut farmers in rural areas of developing countries.

  11. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  12. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  13. Cyclic transformation of orbital angular momentum modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlederer, Florian; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The spatial modes of photons are one realization of a QuDit, a quantum system that is described in a D-dimensional Hilbert space. In order to perform quantum information tasks with QuDits, a general class of D-dimensional unitary transformations is needed. Among these, cyclic transformations are an important special case required in many high-dimensional quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a cyclic transformation in the high-dimensional space of photonic orbital angular momentum (OAM). Using simple linear optical components, we show a successful four-fold cyclic transformation of OAM modes. Interestingly, our experimental setup was found by a computer algorithm. In addition to the four-cyclic transformation, the algorithm also found extensions to higher-dimensional cycles in a hybrid space of OAM and polarization. Besides being useful for quantum cryptography with QuDits, cyclic transformations are key for the experimental production of high-dimensional maximally entangled Bell-states. (paper)

  14. Surface tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Tomonori; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1985-10-01

    Surface tearing modes in tokamaks are studied numerically and analytically. The eigenvalue problem is solved to obtain the growth rate and the mode structure. We investigate in detail dependences of the growth rate of the m/n = 2/1 resistive MHD modes on the safety factor at the plasma surface, current profile, wall position, and resistivity. The surface tearing mode moves the plasma surface even when the wall is close to the surface. The stability diagram for these modes is presented. (author)

  15. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Social media has created new ways of communicating and has brought about a new distinctive ethos. New literacies are not simply about new technology but also about this new ethos. Many museums are embracing this ethos by what is often called participatory practices. From a sociocultural perspective...... this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both...

  16. Proposal for efficient mode converter based on cavity quantum electrodynamics dark mode in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a bimodal microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiahua [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu, Rong, E-mail: yurong321@126.com [School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Ma, Jinyong; Wu, Ying, E-mail: yingwu2@163.com [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-10-28

    The ability to engineer and convert photons between different modes in a solid-state approach has extensive technological implications not only for classical communication systems but also for future quantum networks. In this paper, we put forward a scheme for coherent mode conversion of optical photons by utilizing the intermediate coupling between a single quantum dot and a bimodal photonic crystal microcavity via a waveguide. Here, one mode of the photonic crystal microcavity is coherently driven by an external single-frequency continuous-wave laser field and the two cavity modes are not coupled to each other due to their orthogonal polarizations. The undriven cavity mode is thus not directly coupled to the input driving laser and the only way it can get light is via the quantum dot. The influences of the system parameters on the photon-conversion efficiency are analyzed in detail in the limit of weak probe field and it is found that high photon-conversion efficiency can be achieved under appropriate conditions. It is shown that the cavity dark mode, which is a superposition of the two optical modes and is decoupled from the quantum dot, can appear in such a hybrid optical system. We discuss the properties of the dark mode and indicate that the formation of the dark mode enables the efficient transfer of optical fields between the two cavity modes.

  17. Method and apparatus for executing an asynchronous clutch-to-clutch shift in a hybrid transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirovic, Besim; Gupta, Pinaki; Kaminsky, Lawrence A.; Naqvi, Ali K.; Heap, Anthony H.; Sah, Jy-Jen F.

    2014-08-12

    A hybrid transmission includes first and second electric machines. A method for operating the hybrid transmission in response to a command to execute a shift from an initial continuously variable mode to a target continuously variable mode includes increasing torque of an oncoming clutch associated with operating in the target continuously variable mode and correspondingly decreasing a torque of an off-going clutch associated with operating in the initial continuously variable mode. Upon deactivation of the off-going clutch, torque outputs of the first and second electric machines and the torque of the oncoming clutch are controlled to synchronize the oncoming clutch. Upon synchronization of the oncoming clutch, the torque for the oncoming clutch is increased and the transmission is operated in the target continuously variable mode.

  18. Hybrid III-V/silicon lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, P.; Jany, C.; Le Liepvre, A.; Accard, A.; Lamponi, M.; Make, D.; Levaufre, G.; Girard, N.; Lelarge, F.; Shen, A.; Charbonnier, P.; Mallecot, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Gentner, J.-.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Olivier, S.; Descos, A.; Ben Bakir, B.; Messaoudene, S.; Bordel, D.; Malhouitre, S.; Kopp, C.; Menezo, S.

    2014-05-01

    The lack of potent integrated light emitters is one of the bottlenecks that have so far hindered the silicon photonics platform from revolutionizing the communication market. Photonic circuits with integrated light sources have the potential to address a wide range of applications from short-distance data communication to long-haul optical transmission. Notably, the integration of lasers would allow saving large assembly costs and reduce the footprint of optoelectronic products by combining photonic and microelectronic functionalities on a single chip. Since silicon and germanium-based sources are still in their infancy, hybrid approaches using III-V semiconductor materials are currently pursued by several research laboratories in academia as well as in industry. In this paper we review recent developments of hybrid III-V/silicon lasers and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several integration schemes. The integration approach followed in our laboratory makes use of wafer-bonded III-V material on structured silicon-on-insulator substrates and is based on adiabatic mode transfers between silicon and III-V waveguides. We will highlight some of the most interesting results from devices such as wavelength-tunable lasers and AWG lasers. The good performance demonstrates that an efficient mode transfer can be achieved between III-V and silicon waveguides and encourages further research efforts in this direction.

  19. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  20. Hybrid strategies in nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Hector M; Mullen, Thomas J; Zhang Pengpeng; Dewey, Daniel C; Claridge, Shelley A; Weiss, Paul S [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: psw@cnsi.ucla.edu

    2010-03-15

    Hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies combine the registration and addressability of conventional lithographic techniques with the chemical and physical functionality enabled by intermolecular, electrostatic and/or biological interactions. This review aims to highlight and to provide a comprehensive description of recent developments in hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies that enhance existing lithographic techniques or can be used to fabricate functional chemical patterns that interact with their environment. These functional structures create new capabilities, such as the fabrication of physicochemical surfaces that can recognize and capture analytes from complex liquid or gaseous mixtures. The nanolithographic techniques we describe can be classified into three general areas: traditional lithography, soft lithography and scanning-probe lithography. The strengths and limitations of each hybrid patterning technique will be discussed, along with the current and potential applications of the resulting patterned, functional surfaces.

  1. Tunable Mechanical Metamaterials through Hybrid Kirigami Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Doh-Gyu; Bartlett, Michael D

    2018-02-21

    Inspired by the art of paper cutting, kirigami provides intriguing tools to create materials with unconventional mechanical and morphological responses. This behavior is appealing in multiple applications such as stretchable electronics and soft robotics and presents a tractable platform to study structure-property relationships in material systems. However, mechanical response is typically controlled through a single or fractal cut type patterned across an entire kirigami sheet, limiting deformation modes and tunability. Here we show how hybrid patterns of major and minor cuts creates new opportunities to introduce boundary conditions and non-prismatic beams to enable highly tunable mechanical responses. This hybrid approach reduces stiffness by a factor of ~30 while increasing ultimate strain by a factor of 2 (up to 750% strain) relative to single incision patterns. We present analytical models and generate general design criteria that is in excellent agreement with experimental data from nanoscopic to macroscopic systems. These hybrid kirigami materials create new opportunities for multifunctional materials and structures, which we demonstrate with stretchable kirigami conductors with nearly constant electrical resistance up to >400% strain and magnetoactive actuators with extremely rapid response (>10,000% strain s -1 ) and high, repeatable elongation (>300% strain).

  2. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  3. Advances in hybrid optics physical sensors for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A.

    2010-04-01

    Highlighted are novel innovations in hybrid optical design physical sensors for extreme environments. Various hybrid design compositions are proposed that are suited for a particular sensor application. Examples includes combining freespace (wireless) and fiber-optics (wired) for gas turbine sensing and combining single crystal and sintered Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials for robust extreme environment Coefficent of Thermal Expansion (CTE) matched frontend probe design. Sensor signal processing also includes the hybrid theme where for example Black-Body radiation thermometry (pyrometry) is combined with laser interferometry to provide extreme temperature measurements. The hybrid theme also operates on the optical device level where a digital optical device such as a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) is combined with an analog optical device such as an Electronically Controlled Variable Focal Length Lens (ECVFL) to deliver a smart and compressive Three Dimensional (3-D) imaging sensor for remote scene and object shape capture including both ambient light (passive) mode and active laser targeting and receive processing. Within a device level, the hybrid theme also operates via combined analog and digital control such as within a wavelength-coded variable optical delay line. These powerful hybrid design optical sensors have numerous applications in engineering and science applications from the military to the commercial/industrial sectors.

  4. Preconceptual design and assessment of a Tokamak Hybrid Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Leonard, B.R. Jr.; Aase, D.T.

    1980-09-01

    The preconceptual design of a commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (THR) power plant has been performed. The tokamak fusion driver for this hybrid is operated in the ignition mode. The D-T fusion plasma, which produces 1140 MW of power, has a major radius of 5.4 m and a minor radius of 1.0 m with an elongation of 2.0. Double null poloidal divertors are assumed for impurity control. The confining toroidal field is maintained by D-shaped Nb 3 Sn superconducting magnets with a maximum field of 12T at the coil. Three blankets with four associated fuel cycle alternatives have been combined with the ignited tokamak fusion driver. The engineering, material, and balance of plant design requirements for the THR are briefly described. Estimates of the capital, operating and maintenance, and fuel cycle costs have been made for the various driver/blanket combinations and an assessment of the market penetrability of hybrid systems is presented. An analysis has been made of the nonproliferation aspects of the hybrid and its associated fuel cycles relative to fission reactors. The current and required level of technology for both the fusion and fission components of the hybrid system has been reviewed. Licensing hybrid systems is also considered

  5. The estimation of energy efficiency for hybrid refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, Wiesław; Kozioł, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present the experimental setup and the model of the hybrid cooling system. ► We examine impact of the operating parameters of the hybrid cooling system on the energy efficiency indicators. ► A comparison of the final and the primary energy use for a combination of the cooling systems is carried out. ► We explain the relationship between the COP and PER values for the analysed cooling systems. -- Abstract: The concept of the air blast-cryogenic freezing method (ABCF) is based on an innovative hybrid refrigeration system with one common cooling space. The hybrid cooling system consists of a vapor compression refrigeration system and a cryogenic refrigeration system. The prototype experimental setup for this method on the laboratory scale is discussed. The application of the results of experimental investigations and the theoretical–empirical model makes it possible to calculate the cooling capacity as well as the final and primary energy use in the hybrid system. The energetic analysis has been carried out for the operating modes of the refrigerating systems for the required temperatures inside the cooling chamber of −5 °C, −10 °C and −15 °C. For the estimation of the energy efficiency the coefficient of performance COP and the primary energy ratio PER for the hybrid refrigeration system are proposed. A comparison of these coefficients for the vapor compression refrigeration and the cryogenic refrigeration system has also been presented.

  6. Preconceptual design and assessment of a Tokamak Hybrid Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Leonard, B.R. Jr.; Aase, D.T.

    1980-09-01

    The preconceptual design of a commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (THR) power plant has been performed. The tokamak fusion driver for this hybrid is operated in the ignition mode. The D-T fusion plasma, which produces 1140 MW of power, has a major radius of 5.4 m and a minor radius of 1.0 m with an elongation of 2.0. Double null poloidal divertors are assumed for impurity control. The confining toroidal field is maintained by D-shaped Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting magnets with a maximum field of 12T at the coil. Three blankets with four associated fuel cycle alternatives have been combined with the ignited tokamak fusion driver. The engineering, material, and balance of plant design requirements for the THR are briefly described. Estimates of the capital, operating and maintenance, and fuel cycle costs have been made for the various driver/blanket combinations and an assessment of the market penetrability of hybrid systems is presented. An analysis has been made of the nonproliferation aspects of the hybrid and its associated fuel cycles relative to fission reactors. The current and required level of technology for both the fusion and fission components of the hybrid system has been reviewed. Licensing hybrid systems is also considered.

  7. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  8. Digital Image Stabilization Method Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Relative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Hao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cameras mounted on vehicles frequently suffer from image shake due to the vehicles’ motions. To remove jitter motions and preserve intentional motions, a hybrid digital image stabilization method is proposed that uses variational mode decomposition (VMD and relative entropy (RE. In this paper, the global motion vector (GMV is initially decomposed into several narrow-banded modes by VMD. REs, which exhibit the difference of probability distribution between two modes, are then calculated to identify the intentional and jitter motion modes. Finally, the summation of the jitter motion modes constitutes jitter motions, whereas the subtraction of the resulting sum from the GMV represents the intentional motions. The proposed stabilization method is compared with several known methods, namely, medium filter (MF, Kalman filter (KF, wavelet decomposition (MD method, empirical mode decomposition (EMD-based method, and enhanced EMD-based method, to evaluate stabilization performance. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the other stabilization methods.

  9. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrying set of all hybrid hierarchical structures are element-heterogeneous whilst the structure- carrying set of all ... grams of hierarchical hybrid article structures, the nodes for those text segments that establish the hybrid status of .... der; d ∈ ArtA ⊣ G|WAr (= Artikelangabe, anhand derer das Genus (= G) und zugleich die ...

  10. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  11. Doubts about hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The natural draught wet cooling tower with a height of 160 m is considerably taller than the 80 m high hybrid cooling tower, but the latter has a considerably larger diameter. Spray losses for both types are about 4.5 kg/sec for a thermal output of 2500 MW. Apart from the pump load, the natural cooling tower requires no power. Apart from higher pump loads, the hybrid cooling tower requires power for the fans. The energy demand for this purpose is 1.5 to 3% of the nett powerstation output. For the Isar 2 nuclear powerstation this would mean a reduction in puput of about 35 MW. (orig.) [de

  12. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  13. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  14. X- and O-mode ECH breakdown and startup in TCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, D.R.; Goodman, T.P.; Pochelon, A.; Behn, R.; Cardinali, A.; Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Tran, M.Q.

    1992-02-01

    We have performed a comparative study of X- and O-mode high field side launch for ECH breakdown and startup of tokamak plasmas. We observe that X-mode power is not absorbed at the cyclotron resonance but uniquely at the upper hybrid resonance, displaced to the lower field side of the cyclotron resonance. O-mode power, however, is absorbed at the cyclotron resonance as well. We also observe that the displacement of the upper hybrid resonance to the low field side with O-mode launch is significantly smaller than with X-mode launch due to the lower densities produced at the same microwave power level. The result is a more central and less localized breakdown with O-mode launch. The breakdown characteristics of X- and O-mode launch are seen to affect the position of the initial plasma current centroid in the poloidal cross section. We observe a strong correlation between the initial current ramp and the initial plasma current position which is most likely due to the dependence of the plasma inductance, toroidal electric field, and field-line connection lengths on the plasma major radius. X-mode startup occurs further to the low field side where current ramp rates are observed to be poor. (author) 18 figs., 23 refs

  15. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  16. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  17. Plasmon hybridization in complex metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng

    With Plasmon Hybridization (PH) and Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method, we theoretically investigated the optical properties of some complex metallic nanostructures (coupled nanoparticle/wire, nanostars, nanorings and combined ring/disk nanocavity systems). We applied the analytical formulism of PH studying the plasmonic coupling of a spherical metallic nanoparticle and an infinite long cylindrical nanowire. The plasmon resonance of the coupled system is shown shifted in frequency, which highly depends on the polarization of incident light relative to the geometry of the structure. We also showed the nanoparticle serves as an efficient antenna coupling the electromagnetic radiation into the low-energy propagating wire plasmons. We performed an experimental and theoretical analysis of the optical properties of gold nanorings with different sizes and cross sections. For light polarized parallel to the ring, the optical spectrum sensitively depends on the incident angle. When light incidence is normal to the ring, two dipolar resonance is observed. As the incident light is titled, some previously dark mulipolar plasmon resonances will be excited as a consequence of the retardation. The concept of plasmon hybridization is combined with the power of brute-force numerical methods to understand the plasmonic properties of some very complicated nanostructures. We showed the plasmons of a gold nanostar are a result of hybridization of the plasmons of the core and the tips of the particle. The core serves as a nanoantenna, dramatically enhanced the optical spectrum and the field enhancement of the nanostar. We also applied this method analyzing the plasmonic modes of a nanocavity structure composed of a nanodisk with a surrounding minoring. For the concentric combination, we showed the nature of the plasmon modes can be understood as the plasmon hybrization of an individual ring and disk. The interation results in a blueshifted and broadened superradiant antibonding

  18. Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical interchip communication on board level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The large bandwidth demand in long-distance telecom networks lead to single-mode fiber interconnects as result of low dispersion, low loss and dense wavelength multiplexing possibilities. In contrast, multi-mode interconnects are suitable for much shorter lengths up to 300 meters and are promising for optical links between racks and on board level. Active optical cables based on multi-mode fiber links are at the market and research in multi-mode waveguide integration on board level is still going on. Compared to multi-mode, a single-mode waveguide has much more integration potential because of core diameters of around 20% of a multi-mode waveguide by a much larger bandwidth. But light coupling in single-mode waveguides is much more challenging because of lower coupling tolerances. Together with the silicon photonics technology, a single-mode waveguide technology on board-level will be the straight forward development goal for chip-to-chip optical interconnects integration. Such a hybrid packaging platform providing 3D optical single-mode links bridges the gap between novel photonic integrated circuits and the glass fiber based long-distance telecom networks. Following we introduce our 3D photonic packaging approach based on thin glass substrates with planar integrated optical single-mode waveguides for fiber-to-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects. This novel packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. It consists of a thin glass substrate with planar integrated singlemode waveguide circuits, optical mirrors and lenses providing an integration platform for photonic IC assembly and optical fiber interconnect. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer formats and characterizes excellent optical and high-frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. The paper presents recent results in single-mode waveguide technology on wafer level and waveguide characterization. Furthermore the integration in a

  19. Security in hybrid cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the area of hybrid cloud computing, specifically with its security. The major aim of the thesis is to analyze and compare the chosen hybrid cloud providers. For the minor aim this thesis compares the security challenges of hybrid cloud as opponent to other deployment models. In order to accomplish said aims, this thesis defines the terms cloud computing and hybrid cloud computing in its theoretical part. Furthermore the security challenges for cloud computing a...

  20. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  1. Hybrid plasmonic waveguide in a metal V-groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-xian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and investigate a type of hybrid plasmonic waveguide in a metal V-groove. A high-permittivity nanowire was placed in the metal channel covered with a dielectric film of lower permittivity. Deeper sub-wavelength confinement and much longer propagation distance were achieved in comparison with conventional channel plasmonic waveguides. The overall performance was improved as compared with the conventional hybrid plasmonic structure based on a flat metal surface. Finite element analysis showed that both the mode propagation and field profile can be adjusted by changing the nanowire radius and film thickness. Some benefits, such as a reduced scattering loss caused by the surface roughness, are also expected owing to the unique mode profile. The proposed approach has potential for application in high-level photonic integration.

  2. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een

  3. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  4. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  5. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  6. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  7. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  8. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  9. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-01-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates

  10. Hybrid quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehrawat, Arun; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Zemann, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model, part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, the controlled-z gates, and multiqubit rotations around the z axis. Every single-qubit and the controlled-z gate are realized by a respective unitary evolution, and every multiqubit rotation is executed by a single measurement on a required star graph state. The classical information processing in our model requires only an information flow vector and propagation matrices. We provide the implementation of multicontrol gates in the hybrid model. They are very useful for implementing Grover's search algorithm, which is studied as an illustrative example.

  11. Linear stability of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Hahm, T.S.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines the stability of tearing modes in a sheared slab when the width of the tearing layer is much smaller than the ion Larmor radius. The ion response is nonlocal, and the quasineutrality retains its full integal form. An expansion procedure is introduced to solve the quasineutrality equation in powers of the width of the tearing layer over the ion Larmor radius. The expansion procedure is applied to the collisionless and semi-collisional tearing modes. The first order terms in the expansion we find to be strongly stabilizing. The physics of the mode and of the stabilization is discussed. Tearing modes are observed in experiments even though the slab theory predicts stability. It is proposed that these modes grow from an equilibrium with islands at the rational surfaces. If the equilibrium islands are wider than the ion Larmor radius, the mode is unstable when Δ' is positive

  12. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer's prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The hybrid

  13. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  14. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  15. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...... phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid...

  16. Hopping mixed hybrid excitations in multiple composite quantum wire structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Tran Thai Hoa

    1995-10-01

    A structure consisting of N pairs of inorganic semiconductor and organic quantum wires is considered theoretically. In such an isolated pair of wires, while the intrawire coupling forms Wannier-Mott exciton in an inorganic semiconductor quantum wire and Frenkel exciton in an organic one, the interwire coupling gives rise to hybrid excitons residing within the pair. When N pairs of wires are packed together 2N new mixed hybrid modes appear that are the true elementary excitations and can hop throughout the whole structure. Energies and wave functions of such hopping mixed hybrid excitations are derived analytically in detail accounting for the global interwire coupling and the different polarization configurations. (author). 19 refs

  17. Ubiquity of non-diffusive momentum transport in JET H-modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisen, H.; Camenen, Y.; Salmi, A.; Versloot, T. W.; de Vries, P. C.; Maslov, M.; Tala, T.; Beurskens, M.; Giroud, C.; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2012-01-01

    A broad survey of the experimental database of neutral beam heated baseline H-modes and hybrid scenarios in the JET tokamak has established the ubiquity of non-diffusive momentum transport mechanisms in rotating plasmas. As a result of their presence, the normalized angular frequency gradient R

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  19. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Limei Cao; Wanfu Li; Limin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the ri...

  20. Anomalous electron streaming due to electrostatic modes in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, S.D.; Bers, A.; Ram, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    The motion of circulating electrons in a tokamak interacting with electrostatic waves (such as lower-hybrid waves) is given by a guiding center Hamiltonian and studied by numerical integration. The unperturbed motion of electron guiding centers is first shown to be integrable, and, in a manner similar to that used in previous works, a set of action-angle coordinates for the orbits are derived which take into account finite aspect ratio and noncircular plasma cross section. Electrostatic modes in the low-frequency, long-wavelength limit are treated as a perturbation to the guiding center Hamiltonian. The waves are generated with low integral values of the toroidal and poloidal mode numbers n and m and satisfy the approximate lower-hybrid dispersion relation k perpendicular /k parallel ∼ ω pe /ω ∼ 10 1.5 . If the number of modes is greater than three, the electron motion parallel to the magnetic field is observed to be stochastic in the phase-space region where v parallel is near the wave parallel phase velocity. On surfaces with rational values of the safety factor q, superposition of modes with degenerate values of the parallel mode number n + (m/q) is shown to result in electron streaming perpendicular to the magnetic field. The speed and direction of this radial motion are observed to have sinusoidal dependence on the poloidal angle. For models including finite magnetic-field shear, the authors find a limit to the extent of the radial streaming of the electrons. Results for the speed of the electron radial motion for typical tokamak parameters are presented

  1. Hybrid phonons in nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Ridley, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    Crystalline semiconductor nanostructures have special properties associated with electrons and lattice vibrations and their interaction, and this is the topic of the book. The result of spatial confinement of electrons is indicated in the nomenclature of nonostructures: quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots. Confinement also has a profound effect on lattice vibrations and an account of this is the prime focus. The documentation of the confinement of acoustic modes goes back to Lord Rayleigh’s work in the late nineteenth century, but no such documentation exists for optical modes. Indeed, it is only comparatively recently that any theory of the elastic properties of optical modes exists, and the account given in the book is comprehensive. A model of the lattice dynamics of the diamond lattice is given that reveals the quantitative distinction between acoustic and optical modes and the difference of connection rules that must apply at an interface. The presence of interfaces in nanostructures forces ...

  2. Optimal design of a hybridization scheme with a fuel cell using genetic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A.

    Fuel cell is one of the most dependable "green power" technologies, readily available for immediate application. It enables direct conversion of hydrogen and other gases into electric energy without any pollution of the environment. However, the efficient power generation is strictly stationary process that cannot operate under dynamic environment. Consequently, fuel cell becomes practical only within a specially designed hybridization scheme, capable of power storage and power management functions. The resultant technology could be utilized to its full potential only when both the fuel cell element and the entire hybridization scheme are optimally designed. The design optimization in engineering is among the most complex computational tasks due to its multidimensionality, nonlinearity, discontinuity and presence of constraints in the underlying optimization problem. this research aims at the optimal utilization of the fuel cell technology through the use of genetic optimization, and advance computing. This study implements genetic optimization in the definition of optimum hybridization rules for a PEM fuel cell/supercapacitor power system. PEM fuel cells exhibit high energy density but they are not intended for pulsating power draw applications. They work better in steady state operation and thus, are often hybridized. In a hybrid system, the fuel cell provides power during steady state operation while capacitors or batteries augment the power of the fuel cell during power surges. Capacitors and batteries can also be recharged when the motor is acting as a generator. Making analogies to driving cycles, three hybrid system operating modes are investigated: 'Flat' mode, 'Uphill' mode, and 'Downhill' mode. In the process of discovering the switching rules for these three modes, we also generate a model of a 30W PEM fuel cell. This study also proposes the optimum design of a 30W PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model and hybridization's switching rules are postulated

  3. The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The ?hybrid? detection mode combines the information from the two subsystems. We describe the determination of the hybrid exposure for events observed by the fluorescence telescopes in coincidence with at least one w...

  4. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking

    OpenAIRE

    Chhanwal, N.; Ezhilarasi, P. N.; Indrani, D.; Anandharamakrishnan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with h...

  5. Zero modes and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-04-26

    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  6. Normal modes of Bardeen discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdaguer, E.

    1983-01-01

    The short wavelength normal modes of self-gravitating rotating polytropic discs in the Bardeen approximation are studied. The discs' oscillations can be seen in terms of two types of modes: the p-modes whose driving forces are pressure forces and the r-modes driven by Coriolis forces. As a consequence of differential rotation coupling between the two takes place and some mixed modes appear, their properties can be studied under the assumption of weak coupling and it is seen that they avoid the crossing of the p- and r-modes. The short wavelength analysis provides a basis for the classification of the modes, which can be made by using the properties of their phase diagrams. The classification is applied to the large wavelength modes of differentially rotating discs with strong coupling and to a uniformly rotating sequence with no coupling, which have been calculated in previous papers. Many of the physical properties and qualitative features of these modes are revealed by the analysis. (author)

  7. Magnetorheological dampers in shear mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wereley, N M; Cho, J U; Choi, Y T; Choi, S B

    2008-01-01

    In this study, three types of shear mode damper using magnetorheological (MR) fluids are theoretically analyzed: linear, rotary drum, and rotary disk dampers. The damping performance of these shear mode MR dampers is characterized in terms of the damping coefficient, which is the ratio of the equivalent viscous damping at field-on status to the damping at field-off status. For these three types of shear mode MR damper, the damping coefficient or dynamic range is derived using three different constitutive models: the Bingham–plastic, biviscous, and Herschel–Bulkley models. The impact of constitutive behavior on shear mode MR dampers is theoretically presented and compared

  8. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...... key markets (China, UK and USA) as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  9. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...... markets (China, UK and USA) is used as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  10. An on-chip polarization splitter based on the radiation loss in the bending hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengwei; Rong, Kexiu; Gan, Fengyuan; Chu, Saisai; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2017-09-01

    Polarization beam splitters (PBSs) are one of the key components in the integrated photonic circuits. To increase the integration density, various complex hybrid plasmonic structures have been numerically designed to shrink the footprints of the PBSs. Here, to decrease the complexity of the small hybrid structures and the difficulty of the hybrid micro-nano fabrications, the radiation losses are utilized to experimentally demonstrate an ultra-small, broadband, and efficient PBS in a simple bending hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure. The hybrid plasmonic waveguide comprising a dielectric strip on the metal surface supports both the transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) waveguide modes. Because of the different field confinements, the TE waveguide mode has larger radiation loss than the TM waveguide mode in the bending hybrid strip waveguide. Based on the different radiation losses, the two incident waveguide modes of orthogonal polarization states are efficiently split in the proposed structure with a footprint of only about 2.2 × 2.2 μm2 on chips. Since there is no resonance or interference in the splitting process, the operation bandwidth is as broad as Δλ = 70 nm. Moreover, the utilization of the strongly confined waveguide modes instead of the bulk free-space light (with the spot size of at least a few wavelengths) as the incident source considerably increases the coupling efficiency, resulting in a low insertion loss of <3 dB.

  11. Imaging Hybrid Photon Detectors with a Reflective Photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Ferenc, D

    2000-01-01

    Modern epitaxially grown photocathodes, like GaAsP, bring a very high inherent quantum efficiency, but are rather expensive due to the complicated manufacturing and mounting process. We argue that such photocathodes could be used in reflective mode, in order to avoid the risky and expensive removal of the epitaxial growth substrate. Besides that the quantum efficiency should increase considerably. In this paper we present results of the development of large imaging Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs), particularly designed for such reflective photocathodes.

  12. Ballooning modes or Fourier modes in a toroidal plasma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Taylor, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between two different descriptions of eigenmodes in a torus is investigated. In one the eigenmodes are similar to Fourier modes in a cylinder and are highly localized near a particular rational surface. In the other they are the so-called ballooning modes that extend over many rational surfaces. Using a model that represents both drift waves and resistive interchanges the transition from one of these structures to the other is investigated. In this simplified model the transition depends on a single parameter which embodies the competition between toroidal coupling of Fourier modes (which enhances ballooning) and variation in frequency of Fourier modes from one rational surface to another (which diminishes ballooning). As the coupling is increased each Fourier mode acquires a sideband on an adjacent rational surface and these sidebands then expand across the radius to form the extended mode described by the conventional ballooning mode approximation. This analysis shows that the ballooning approximation is appropriate for drift waves in a tokamak but not for resistive interchanges in a pinch. In the latter the conventional ballooning effect is negligible but they may nevertheless show a ballooning feature. This is localized near the same rational surface as the primary Fourier mode and so does not lead to a radially extended structure

  13. Hybrid Engine Powered City Car: Fuzzy Controlled Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, AKM; Hawlader, MNA; Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a fuzzy controlled hybrid engine powered car. The car is powered by the lithium ion battery capacity of 1000 Wh is charged by the 50 cc hybrid engine and power regenerative mode. The engine is operated with lean mixture at 3000 rpm to charge the battery. The regenerative mode that connects with the engine generates electrical power of 500-600 W for the deceleration of car from 90 km/h to 20 km/h. The regenerated electrical power has been used to power the air-conditioning system and to meet the other electrical power. The battery power only used to propel the car. The regenerative power also found charging the battery for longer operation about 40 minutes and more. The design flexibility of this vehicle starts with whole-vehicle integration based on radical light weighting, drag reduction, and accessory efficiency. The energy efficient hybrid engine cut carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (N2O) emission about 70-80% as the loads on the crankshaft such as cam-follower and its associated rotating components are replaced by electromagnetic systems, and the flywheel, alternator and starter motor are replaced by a motor generator. The vehicle was tested and found that it was able to travel 70 km/litre with the power of hybrid engine.

  14. Quality control considerations for the development of the front end hybrid circuits for the CMS Outer Tracker upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gadek, Tomasz; Bonnaud, Julien Yves Robert; De Clercq, Jarne Theo; Honma, Alan; Koliatos, Alexandros; Kovacs, Mark Istvan; Luetic, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker for the HL-LHC requires the design of new double-sensor modules. They contain two high-density front end hybrid circuits, equipped with flip-chip ASICs, passives and mechanical structures. First prototype hybrids in a close-to-final form have been ordered from three manufacturers. To qualify these hybrids a test setup was built, which emulates future tracker temperature and humidity conditions, provides temporary interconnection, and implements testing features. The system was automated to minimize the testing time in view of the production phase. Failure modes, deliberately implemented in the produced hybrids, provided feedback on the system’s effectiveness.

  15. A hydraulic hybrid propulsion method for automobiles with self-adaptive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Jibin; Yuan, Shihua; Di, Chongfeng

    2016-01-01

    A hydraulic hybrid vehicle with the self-adaptive system is proposed. The mode-switching between the driving mode and the hydraulic regenerative braking mode is realised by the pressure cross-feedback control. Extensive simulated and tested results are presented. The control parameters are reduced and the energy efficiency can be increased by the self-adaptive system. The mode-switching response is fast. The response time can be adjusted by changing the controlling spool diameter of the hydraulic operated check valve in the self-adaptive system. The closing of the valve becomes faster with a smaller controlling spool diameter. The hydraulic regenerative braking mode can be achieved by changing the hydraulic transformer controlled angle. Compared with the convention electric-hydraulic system, the self-adaptive system for the hydraulic hybrid vehicle mode-switching has a higher reliability and a lower cost. The efficiency of the hydraulic regenerative braking is also increased. - Highlights: • A new hybrid system with a self-adaptive system for automobiles is presented. • The mode-switching is realised by the pressure cross-feedback control. • The energy efficiency can be increased with the self-adaptive system. • The control parameters are reduced with the self-adaptive system.

  16. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  17. Mirror hybrid reactor optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A system model of the mirror hybrid reactor has been developed. The major components of the model include (1) the reactor description, (2) a capital cost analysis, (3) various fuel management schemes, and (4) an economic analysis that includes the hybrid plus its associated fission burner reactors. The results presented describe the optimization of the mirror hybrid reactor, the objective being to minimize the cost of electricity from the hybrid fission-burner reactor complex. We have examined hybrid reactors with two types of blankets, one containing natural uranium, the other thorium. The major difference between the two optimized reactors is that the uranium hybrid is a significant net electrical power producer, whereas the thorium hybrid just about breaks even on electrical power. Our projected costs for fissile fuel production are approximately 50 $/g for 239 Pu and approximately 125 $/g for 233 U

  18. Hybrid Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sawyer; Trujillo, Skyler; Fort Lewis College Laser Group Team

    This work concerns the novel design of an inexpensive pulsed Nd:YAG laser, consisting of a hybrid Kerr Mode Lock (KLM) and Q-switch pulse. The two pulse generation systems work independently, non simultaneously of each other, thus generating the ability for the user to easily switch between ultra-short pulse widths or large energy density pulses. Traditionally, SF57 glass has been used as the Kerr medium. In this work, novel Kerr mode-locking mediums are being investigated including: tellurite compound glass (TeO2), carbon disulfide (CS2), and chalcogenide glass. These materials have a nonlinear index of refraction orders of magnitude,(n2), larger than SF57 glass. The Q-switched pulse will utilize a Pockels cell. As the two pulse generation systems cannot be operated simultaneously, the Pockels cell and Kerr medium are attached to kinematic mounts, allowing for quick interchange between systems. Pulse widths and repetition rates will vary between the two systems. A goal of 100 picosecond pulse widths are desired for the mode-locked system. A goal of 10 nanosecond pulse widths are desired for the Q-switch system, with a desired repetition rate of 50 Hz. As designed, the laser will be useful in imaging applications.

  19. Interfacial characterization of flexible hybrid electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafian, Sara; Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Stapleton, Scott

    2018-03-01

    Flexible Hybrid Electronics (FHEs) are the new generation of electronics combining flexible plastic film substrates with electronic devices. Besides the electrical features, design improvements of FHEs depend on the prediction of their mechanical and failure behavior. Debonding of electronic components from the flexible substrate is one of the most common and critical failures of these devices, therefore, the experimental determination of material and interface properties is of great importance in the prediction of failure mechanisms. Traditional interface characterization involves isolated shear and normal mode tests such as the double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch flexure (ENF) tests. However, due to the thin, flexible nature of the materials and manufacturing restrictions, tests mirroring traditional interface characterization experiments may not always be possible. The ideal goal of this research is to design experiments such that each mode of fracture is isolated. However, due to the complex nonlinear nature of the response and small geometries of FHEs, design of the proper tests to characterize the interface properties can be significantly time and cost consuming. Hence numerical modeling has been implemented to design these novel characterization experiments. This research involves loading case and specimen geometry parametric studies using numerical modeling to design future experiments where either shear or normal fracture modes are dominant. These virtual experiments will provide a foundation for designing similar tests for many different types of flexible electronics and predicting the failure mechanism independent of the specific FHE materials.

  20. Spatial-mode switchable ring fiber laser based on low mode-crosstalk all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang; Yu, Jinyi; Wang, Jianping

    2018-05-01

    We report an all-fiber ring laser that emits linearly polarized (LP) modes based on the intracavity all-fiber mode multiplexer/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX). Multiple LP modes in ring fiber laser are generated by taking advantage of mode MUX/DEMUX. The all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX are composed of cascaded mode-selective couplers (MSCs). The output lasing mode of the ring fiber laser can be switched among the three lowest-order LP modes by employing combination of a mode MUX and a simple N × 1 optical switch. The slope efficiencies, optical spectra and mode profiles are measured.

  1. A hybrid approach for short-term forecasting of wind speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatinati, Sivanagaraja; Veluvolu, Kalyana C

    2013-01-01

    We propose a hybrid method for forecasting the wind speed. The wind speed data is first decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with empirical mode decomposition. Based on the partial autocorrelation factor of the individual IMFs, adaptive methods are then employed for the prediction of IMFs. Least squares-support vector machines are employed for IMFs with weak correlation factor, and autoregressive model with Kalman filter is employed for IMFs with high correlation factor. Multistep prediction with the proposed hybrid method resulted in improved forecasting. Results with wind speed data show that the proposed method provides better forecasting compared to the existing methods.

  2. A 'hybrid space’ for peer review: can Facebook inspire new ways of thinking?

    OpenAIRE

    Head, A; Glen, N; Thompson, S

    2009-01-01

    Peer review can be broadly categorised as either the individual-based review system used to review academic papers for publication or the group peer review system \\ud used, more usefully, in student reviews of their work. Web 2.0 technologies present an opportunity to consider a hybrid of these two modes of peer review. Using the rapid \\ud communication with, and 24/7 access to, a shared online environment it is possible to identify explore a form of hybrid space between the two orthodox mode...

  3. Stochastic linear hybrid systems: Modeling, estimation, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Chze Eng

    Hybrid systems are dynamical systems which have interacting continuous state and discrete state (or mode). Accurate modeling and state estimation of hybrid systems are important in many applications. We propose a hybrid system model, known as the Stochastic Linear Hybrid System (SLHS), to describe hybrid systems with stochastic linear system dynamics in each mode and stochastic continuous-state-dependent mode transitions. We then develop a hybrid estimation algorithm, called the State-Dependent-Transition Hybrid Estimation (SDTHE) algorithm, to estimate the continuous state and discrete state of the SLHS from noisy measurements. It is shown that the SDTHE algorithm is more accurate or more computationally efficient than existing hybrid estimation algorithms. Next, we develop a performance analysis algorithm to evaluate the performance of the SDTHE algorithm in a given operating scenario. We also investigate sufficient conditions for the stability of the SDTHE algorithm. The proposed SLHS model and SDTHE algorithm are illustrated to be useful in several applications. In Air Traffic Control (ATC), to facilitate implementations of new efficient operational concepts, accurate modeling and estimation of aircraft trajectories are needed. In ATC, an aircraft's trajectory can be divided into a number of flight modes. Furthermore, as the aircraft is required to follow a given flight plan or clearance, its flight mode transitions are dependent of its continuous state. However, the flight mode transitions are also stochastic due to navigation uncertainties or unknown pilot intents. Thus, we develop an aircraft dynamics model in ATC based on the SLHS. The SDTHE algorithm is then used in aircraft tracking applications to estimate the positions/velocities of aircraft and their flight modes accurately. Next, we develop an aircraft conformance monitoring algorithm to detect any deviations of aircraft trajectories in ATC that might compromise safety. In this application, the SLHS

  4. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  5. Generation of high order modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available with the location of the Laguerre polynomial zeros. The Diffractive optical element is used to shape the TEM00 Gassian beam and force the laser to operate on a higher order TEMp0 Laguerre-Gaussian modes or high order superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes...

  6. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-06-15

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or Coleman{endash}De Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe.

  7. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or ColemanendashDe Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe

  8. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music....

  9. Mode transition of a Hall thruster discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Kentaro; Sekerak, Michael J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2014-01-01

    A Hall thruster is a cross-field plasma device used for spacecraft propulsion. An important unresolved issue in the development of Hall thrusters concerns the effect of discharge oscillations in the range of 10–30 kHz on their performance. The use of a high speed Langmuir probe system and ultra-fast imaging of the discharge plasma of a Hall thruster suggests that the discharge oscillation mode, often called the breathing mode, is strongly correlated to an axial global ionization mode. Stabilization of the global oscillation mode is achieved as the magnetic field is increased and azimuthally rotating spokes are observed. A hybrid-direct kinetic simulation that takes into account the transport of electronically excited atoms is used to model the discharge plasma of a Hall thruster. The predicted mode transition agrees with experiments in terms of the mean discharge current, the amplitude of discharge current oscillation, and the breathing mode frequency. It is observed that the stabilization of the global oscillation mode is associated with reduced electron transport that suppresses the ionization process inside the channel. As the Joule heating balances the other loss terms including the effects of wall loss and inelastic collisions, the ionization oscillation is damped, and the discharge oscillation stabilizes. A wide range of the stable operation is supported by the formation of a space charge saturated sheath that stabilizes the electron axial drift and balances the Joule heating as the magnetic field increases. Finally, it is indicated from the numerical results that there is a strong correlation between the emitted light intensity and the discharge current.

  10. General concept of a gas engine for a hybrid vehicle, operating on methanol dissociation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Aleinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Schindler, Y.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a general concept of a hybrid propulsion system, based on an SI internal combustion engine fueled by methanol dissociation products (MDP). The proposed hybrid propulsion scheme is a series hybrid, which allows the engine to be operated in an on-off mode at constant optimal regime. The engine is fed by gaseous products of methanol dissociation (mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) emerging from an on-board catalytic reformer. The general scheme and base operation features of the propulsion system are described. The benefits that may be achieved by combining the well-known idea of on-board methanol dissociation with the hybrid vehicle concept are discussed. The proposed scheme is compared with those of systems operating on gasoline, liquid methanol, hydrogen and also with the multi-regime (not hybrid) engine fed by MDP

  11. Power coordinated control method with frequency support capability for hybrid single/three-phase microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Xiaoping; Chen, Yandong; Zhou, Leming

    2018-01-01

    storage unit (ESU) are added into hybrid single/three-phase microgrid, and a power coordinated control method with frequency support capability is proposed for hybrid single/three-phase microgrid in this study. PEU is connected with three single-phase microgrids to coordinate power exchange among three...... phases and provide frequency support for hybrid microgrid. Meanwhile, a power coordinated control method based on the droop control is proposed for PEU to alleviate three-phase power imbalance and reduce voltage fluctuation of hybrid microgrid. Besides, ESU is injected into the DC-link to buffer......Due to the intermittent output power of distributed generations (DGs) and the variability of loads, voltage fluctuation and three-phase power imbalance easily occur when hybrid single/three-phase microgrid operates in islanded mode. To address these issues, the power exchange unit (PEU) and energy...

  12. Effect of exchange correlation potential on dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave in degenerate plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimza, Tripti; Sharma, Prerana

    2017-05-01

    The dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave are studied in electron-iondegenerate plasma with exchange effect in non-relativistic regime. It is found that the combined effect of Bohm potential and exchange correlation potential significantly modifies the dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave. The graphical results explicitly show the influence of degeneracy pressure, Bohm force and exchange correlation potential on the frequency of the lower hybrid mode. Present work should be of relevance for the dense astrophysical environments like white dwarfs and for laboratory experiments.

  13. Convective Heat Transfer in a Pneumatic Hybrid Engine Échange de chaleur convectif dans un moteur hybride pneumatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brejaud P.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have proven that pneumatic hybridization of an internal combustion engine is a technically viable and cost-efficient alternative to electric hybridization. Because the heat transfer process remains a first order factor while the engine operates in a motored or pneumatic mode without combustion, an accurate instantaneous heat transfer model is required in order to predict the in-cylinder pressure. This study shows that the original Woschni model is not suitable for describing the shape of the measured instantaneous heat flux versus crank angle while the engine operates in a motored pneumatic mode, because of the extinction of tumble motion near Top Dead Center (TDC. A modified form of the Woschni model is therefore proposed here that better describes the instantaneous heat flux during compression and expansion strokes, applicable to pneumatic and motored with fuel cut-off modes. First, the new constant parameter model is identified from experimental measurements performed in various motored mode conditions. Next, the pneumatic supercharged mode without combustion (ignition not performed is investigated with the new model using the same identification values as for the motored mode. This study shows that the modified model remains fully applicable to the supercharged mode, despite of a certainly modified in-cylinder aerodynamic structure created by the opening of the charging valve under a high pressure ratio. Plusieurs études ont déjà montré que le concept d’hybride pneumatique est une alternative techniquement et économiquement viable à l’hybridation électrique. Malgré l’absence de combustion lors d’un fonctionnement en mode entraîné ou pneumatique, les échanges de chaleurs convectifs restent un facteur de premier ordre sur un bilan énergétique. Il faut donc disposer d’un modèle précis d’échange de chaleur instantané afin de prévoir la pression instantanée dans un cylindre du moteur. Cette

  14. Dynamic modelling of tearing mode stabilization by RF current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Zabiego, M.; Gianakon, T.A.; Garbet, X.; Bernabei, S.

    1998-01-01

    The theory of tearing mode stabilization in toroidal plasmas by RF-driven currents that are modulated in phase with the island rotation is investigated. A time scale analysis of the phenomena involved indicates that transient effects, such as finite time response of the driven currents, island rotation during the power pulses, and the inductive response of the plasma, are intrinsically important. A dynamic model of such effects is developed, based on a 3-D Fokker-Planck code coupled to both the electric field diffusion and the island evolution equations. Extensive applications to both Electron Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid current drive in ITER are presented. (author)

  15. Sneutrino Hybrid Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We review the scenario of sneutrino hybrid inflation, where one of the singlet sneutrinos, the superpartners of the right-handed neutrinos, plays the role of the inflaton. In a minimal model of sneutrino hybrid inflation, the spectral index is given by ns ≅ 1 + 2γ. With γ = 0.025 ± 0.01 constrained by WMAP, a running spectral index vertical bar dns/dlnk vertical bar << vertical barγvertical bar and a tensor-to-scalar ratio r << γ2 are predicted. Small neutrino masses arise from the seesaw mechanism, with heavy masses for the singlet (s)neutrinos generated by the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field after inflation. The baryon asymmetry of the universe can be explained by non-thermal leptogenesis via sneutrino inflaton decay, with low reheat temperature TRH ≅ 106 GeV

  16. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness parameter ρ ... obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t ... in the universal composability (UC) framework (based on a network of secure channels, a broadcast channel, and a common reference string). It achieves the bound on the trade-off between robustness and privacy shown by Ishai et al. [CRYPTO'06] and Katz [STOC'07], the bound on fairness shown by Cleve [STOC'86...

  17. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  18. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-09-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is presented. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  19. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-01-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is given. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  20. Qualitative Fault Isolation of Hybrid Systems: A Structural Model Decomposition-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Quick and robust fault diagnosis is critical to ensuring safe operation of complex engineering systems. A large number of techniques are available to provide fault diagnosis in systems with continuous dynamics. However, many systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete behavioral modes, each with its own continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task computationally more complex due to the large number of possible system modes and the existence of autonomous mode transitions. This paper presents a qualitative fault isolation framework for hybrid systems based on structural model decomposition. The fault isolation is performed by analyzing the qualitative information of the residual deviations. However, in hybrid systems this process becomes complex due to possible existence of observation delays, which can cause observed deviations to be inconsistent with the expected deviations for the current mode in the system. The great advantage of structural model decomposition is that (i) it allows to design residuals that respond to only a subset of the faults, and (ii) every time a mode change occurs, only a subset of the residuals will need to be reconfigured, thus reducing the complexity of the reasoning process for isolation purposes. To demonstrate and test the validity of our approach, we use an electric circuit simulation as the case study.

  1. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  2. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  3. Mirror hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission hybrid is a combination of the fusion and fission processes, having features which are complementary. Fission energy is running out of readily available fuel, and fusion has extra neutrons which can be used to breed that fission fuel. Fusion would have to take on an extra burden of radioactivity, but this early application would give fusion, which does not work well enough now to make power, practical experience which may accelerate development of pure fusion

  4. The challenge of hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Caccia, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    Hybridization of pixel detector systems has to satisfy tight requirements: high yield, long term reliability, mechanical stability, thermal compliance and robustness have to go together with low passive mass added to the system, radiation hardness, flexibility in the technology end eventually low cost. The current technologies for the interconnection of the front-end chips and the sensor are reviewed and compared, together with the solutions for the interface to the far-end electronics.

  5. Modeling and control of distributed energy systems during transition between grid connected and standalone modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Md Nayeem

    Distributed generation systems (DGs) have been penetrating into our energy networks with the advancement in the renewable energy sources and energy storage elements. These systems can operate in synchronism with the utility grid referred to as the grid connected (GC) mode of operation, or work independently, referred to as the standalone (SA) mode of operation. There is a need to ensure continuous power flow during transition between GC and SA modes, referred to as the transition mode, in operating DGs. In this dissertation, efficient and effective transition control algorithms are developed for DGs operating either independently or collectively with other units. Three techniques are proposed in this dissertation to manage the proper transition operations. In the first technique, a new control algorithm is proposed for an independent DG which can operate in SA and GC modes. The proposed transition control algorithm ensures low total harmonic distortion (THD) and less voltage fluctuation during mode transitions compared to the other techniques. In the second technique, a transition control is suggested for a collective of DGs operating in a microgrid system architecture to improve the reliability of the system, reduce the cost, and provide better performance. In this technique, one of the DGs in a microgrid system, referred to as a dispatch unit , takes the additional responsibility of mode transitioning to ensure smooth transition and supply/demand balance in the microgrid. In the third technique, an alternative transition technique is proposed through hybridizing the current and droop controllers. The proposed hybrid transition control technique has higher reliability compared to the dispatch unit concept. During the GC mode, the proposed hybrid controller uses current control. During the SA mode, the hybrid controller uses droop control. During the transition mode, both of the controllers participate in formulating the inverter output voltage but with different

  6. Mode coupling trigger of neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianakon, T.A.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    Numerical studies of the nonlinear evolution of coupled magnetohydrodynamic - type tearing modes in three-dimensional toroidal geometry with neoclassical effects are presented. The inclusion of neoclassical physics introduces an additional free-energy source for the nonlinear formation of magnetic islands through the effects of a bootstrap current in Ohm's law. The neoclassical tearing mode is demonstrated to be destabilized in plasmas which are otherwise Δ' stable, albeit once a threshold island width is exceeded. A possible mechanism for exceeding or eliminating this threshold condition is demonstrated based on mode coupling due to toroidicity with a pre-existing instability at the q = 1 surface

  7. Inter-comb synchronization by mode-to-mode locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Two combs of fiber femtosecond lasers are synchronized through the optical frequency reference created by injection-locking of a diode laser to a single comb mode. Maintaining a mHz-level narrow linewidth, the optical frequency reference permits two combs to be stabilized by mode-to-mode locking with a relative stability of 1.52  ×  10-16 at 10 s with a frequency slip of 2.46 mHz. This inter-comb synchronization can be utilized for applications such as dual-comb spectroscopy or ultra-short pulse synthesis without extra narrow-linewidth lasers.

  8. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  9. Hybrid mesons (Q anti Qg) in N anti N annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.; Gutsche, T.; Faessler, A.

    1993-09-01

    N anti N annihilation reactions provide exciting possibilities to study mesonic resonances beyond the usual Q anti Q spectrum. Particularly the search for Q anti Qg mesons containing an explicit dynamical excitation of the gluon field is not promising, since hybrids are predicted to display unique features: exotic quantum numbers (J πC ) and dynamical selection rules for their decay modes. The authors have investigated the possibility of producing hybrids from p anti p atomic states in reactions of the type N anti N(L= 0,1) → π + Q anti Qg. Production rates for hybrid mesons are found to display a strong dependence on the quantum numbers and kinematical factors associated with the transition. The dependence on the orbital angular momentum L of the p anti p atomic state, accessible in p anti p annihilation at rest, would provide a striking signature for the production of hybrids. In estimating branching ratios for the formation of Q anti Qg hybrid mesons in N anti N annihilation reactions at rest, the authors have employed a microscopic model with constituent quarks and gluons in analogy to the annihilation model for the production of Q anti Q mesons

  10. Fast particle effects on the internal kink, fishbone and Alfven modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Bernabei, S.; Cheng, C.Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Hill, K.; Kaye, S.; Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Park, W.; Kusama, Y.; Shinokhara, K.; Ozeki, T.

    2001-01-01

    The issues of linear stability of low frequency perturbative and nonperturbative modes in advanced tokamak regimes are addressed based on recent developments in theory, computational methods, and progress in experiments. Perturbative codes NOVA and ORBIT are used to calculate the effects of TAEs on fast particle population in spherical tokamak NSTX. Nonperturbative analysis of chirping frequency modes in experiments on TFTR and JT-60U is presented using the kinetic code HINST, which identified such modes as a separate branch of Alfven modes - resonance TAE (R-TAE). Internal kink mode stability in the presence of fast particles is studied using the NOVA code and hybrid kinetic-MHD nonlinear code M3D. (author)

  11. KIC 3240411 - the hottest known SPB star with the asymptotic g-mode period spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczuk, Wojciech; Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2018-05-01

    We report the discovery of the hottest hybrid B-type pulsator, KIC 3240411, that exhibits the period spacing in the low-frequency range. This pattern is associated with asymptotic properties of high-order gravity (g-) modes. Our seismic modelling made simultaneously with the mode identification shows that dipole axisymmetric modes best fit the observations. Evolutionary models are computed with MESA code and pulsational models with the linear non-adiabatic code employing the traditional approximation to include the effects of rotation. The problem of mode excitation is discussed. We confirm that significant modification is indispensable to explain an instability of both pressure and gravity modes in the observed frequency ranges of KIC 3240411.

  12. Fast Particle Effects on the Internal Kink, Fishbone and Alfven Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Bernabei, S.; Cheng, C.Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Hill, K.; Kaye, S.; Kramer, G.J.; Kusama, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Nazikian, R.; Ozeki, T.; Park, W.

    2000-01-01

    The issues of linear stability of low frequency perturbative and nonperturbative modes in advanced tokamak regimes are addressed based on recent developments in theory, computational methods, and progress in experiments. Perturbative codes NOVA and ORBIT are used to calculate the effects of TAEs on fast particle population in spherical tokamak NSTX. Nonperturbative analysis of chirping frequency modes in experiments on TFTR and JT-60U is presented using the kinetic code HINST, which identified such modes as a separate branch of Alfven modes - resonance TAE (R-TAE). Internal kink mode stability in the presence of fast particles is studied using the NOVA code and hybrid kinetic-MHD nonlinear code M3D

  13. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Clutch pressure estimation for a power-split hybrid transmission using nonlinear robust observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Jianwu; Gao, Ji; Yu, Haisheng; Liu, Dong

    2018-06-01

    For a power-split hybrid transmission, using the brake clutch to realize the transition from electric drive mode to hybrid drive mode is an available strategy. Since the pressure information of the brake clutch is essential for the mode transition control, this research designs a nonlinear robust reduced-order observer to estimate the brake clutch pressure. Model uncertainties or disturbances are considered as additional inputs, thus the observer is designed in order that the error dynamics is input-to-state stable. The nonlinear characteristics of the system are expressed as the lookup tables in the observer. Moreover, the gain matrix of the observer is solved by two optimization procedures under the constraints of the linear matrix inequalities. The proposed observer is validated by offline simulation and online test, the results have shown that the observer achieves significant performance during the mode transition, as the estimation error is within a reasonable range, more importantly, it is asymptotically stable.

  15. Monitoring Biological Modes in a Bioreactor Process by Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Semcheddine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the general framework of fermentation system modeling and monitoring, focusing on the fermentation of Escherichia coli. Our main objective is to develop an algorithm for the online detection of acetate production during the culture of recombinant proteins. The analysis the fermentation process shows that it behaves like a hybrid dynamic system with commutation (since it can be represented by 5 nonlinear models. We present a strategy of fault detection based on residual generation for detecting the different actual biological modes. The residual generation is based on nonlinear analytical redundancy relations. The simulation results show that the several modes that are occulted during the bacteria cultivation can be detected by residuals using a nonlinear dynamic model and a reduced instrumentation.

  16. Tearing mode growth in a regime of weak magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyopoulos, S.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    The nonlinear growth for the m/n ≥ 2 resistive tearing mode is studied in case when the rational surface q(r 0 ) = m/n falls in a regime of weak magnetic shear, q'(r 0 ) ≅ 0. The island width is determined self-consistently from the nonlinear, zero-helicity component of the perturbed magnetic flux that provides the local shear. It is found that the magnetic perturbation keeps growing exponentially in the nonlinear regime on a hybrid resistive-Alfvenic time scale, while the island width and the vorticity grow on a much slower time scale. Accordingly, much faster release of magnetic energy results for modes growing near minima of hollow q profiles

  17. Damping Measurements of Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2010-11-01

    For azimuthally symmetric plasma modes in a magnesium ion plasma, confined in a 3 Tesla Penning-Malmberg trap with a density of n ˜10^7cm-3, we measure a damping rate of 2s-1plasma column, alters the frequency of the mode from 16 KHz to 192 KHz. The oscillatory fluid displacement is small compared to the wavelength of the mode; in contrast, the fluid velocity, δvf, can be large compared to v. The real part of the frequency satisfies a linear dispersion relation. In long thin plasmas (α> 10) these modes are Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes, and for smaller values of α they are Dubin spheroidal modes. However the damping appears to be non-linear; initially large waves have weaker exponential damping, which is not yet understood. Recent theoryootnotetextM.W. Anderson and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112110 (2007). calculates the damping of TG modes expected from viscosity due to ion-ion collisions; but the measured damping, while having a similar temperature and density dependence, is about 40 times larger than calculated. This discrepancy might be due to an external damping mechanism.

  18. Mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy and mode-synthesizing sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passian, Ali; Thundat, Thomas George; Tetard, Laurene

    2013-05-17

    A method of analyzing a sample that includes applying a first set of energies at a first set of frequencies to a sample and applying, simultaneously with the applying the first set of energies, a second set of energies at a second set of frequencies, wherein the first set of energies and the second set of energies form a multi-mode coupling. The method further includes detecting an effect of the multi-mode coupling.

  19. Dual-cavity mode converter for a fundamental mode output in an over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Zhu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    A dual-cavity TM 02 –TM 01 mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM 01 mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM 01 mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM 01 mode feedback

  20. Optimization of an experimental hybrid microgrid operation: reliability and economic issues

    OpenAIRE

    Milo, Aitor; Gaztañaga, Haizea; Etxeberria Otadui, Ion; Bilbao, Endika; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid microgrid system, composed of RES (Renewable Energy System) and CHP (Combined Heat and Power) systems together with a battery based storage system is presented. The microgrid is accompanied by a centralized energy management system (CEMS) in order to optimize the microgrid operation both in grid-connected and in stand-alone modes. In grid-connected mode the optimization of the economic exploitation of the microgrid is privileged by applying optim...