WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid power tower

  1. Transient Simulation Of A Solar-Hybrid Tower Power Plant With Open Volumetric Receiver At The Location Barstow

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this work the transient simulations of four hybrid solar tower power plant concepts with open-volumetric receiver technology for a location in Barstow-Daggett, USA, are presented. The open-volumetric receiver uses ambient air as heat transfer fluid and the hybridization is realized with a gas turbine. The Rankine cycle is heated by solar-heated air and/or by the gas turbine’s flue gases. The plant can be operated in solar-only, hybrid parallel or combined cycle-only mode as well a...

  2. Hybrid Tower, Designing Soft Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    predictions about the inherent interdependency and material dependent performance of the hybrid structure and (2) the inter-scalar design strategies for specification and fabrication. The first investigation focuses on the design pipelines developed between the implementation of realtime physics...... (membrane reinforcement strategy) and micro scale (design of bespoke textile membrane). The paper concludes with a post construction analysis. Comparing structural and environmental data, the predicted and the actual performance of tower are evaluated and discussed....

  3. Survey of power tower technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Dasgupta, S.

    1980-05-01

    The history of the power tower programs is reviewed, and attention is given to the current state of heliostat, receiver, and storage design. Economic considerations are discussed, as are simulation studies and implications. Also dealt with are alternate applications for the power tower and some financing and energy aspects of solar electric conversion. It is noted that with a national commitment to solar energy, the power tower concept could generate 40 GW of electricity and double this amount in process heat by the year 2000. Calculations show an energy amplification factor of 20 for solar energy plants; that is, the ratio of the electric energy produced over the lifetime of a power plant to the thermal energy required to produce the plant.

  4. Integration of Small Solar tower Systems into Distributed Power Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-paks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leadings to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begum. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostat configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs.

  5. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  6. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  7. Feasibility Study on High Concentrating Photovoltaic Power Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohberger, Dirk; Jaus, Joachim; Wiesenfarth, Maike; Schramek, Philipp; Bett, Andreas W.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis on the concept of high concentrating PV power towers. A feasibility study is conducted in order to evaluate the future potential of this technology. Objective of the analysis is to provide an improved basis for establishing research and development priorities for the PV power tower concept. Performance assessments and cost calculations for a 1 MW prototype PV tower power are derived. Based on the assumption of a highly homogeneously illuminated receiver, levelized costs of electricity of 0.29 €/kWh have been calculated for a prototype PV tower power.

  8. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A. (U.S. Department of Energy); Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  9. Distributed power from solar tower systems : a MIUS approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M.J.; Tellez, F.M.; Blanco, M. [CIEMAT/DER-PSA, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, V. [AICIA, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Seville (Spain); Baonza, F. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Madrid (Spain). Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica; Berger, S. [Ecole Nat. des Ponts et Chaussees, Marne-la-Vallee (France)

    1999-07-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration into communities and energy islands for local power supply (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, ecoparks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small solar tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leading to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begun. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The main questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and how to make them feasible. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36 MW plant and its integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostat configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with a solar tower producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. (Author)

  10. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  11. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  12. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    OpenAIRE

    RAMOS, A.; RAMOS, F.

    2012-01-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of...

  13. Legionella control in power station cooling towers using oxidising biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Christian; Rawlinson, Julia; Killeen, Paul [Ecolab PTY LTD, Ascot, WA (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Power stations have used oxidising biocides such as chlorine or bromine for many years to control microbial growth in their cooling towers. In this paper Ecolab trademark looks at the direct effect halogen concentration has on Legionella populations in order to determine the most effective halogenation rate required to ensure that the site key performance indicator (KPI) of < 100 colony-forming units (cfu) per mL can be maintained. (orig.)

  14. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Ramos, F.

    2012-09-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of the algorithms and the resulting designs are studied for two typical cases. We describe a method to evaluate the impact of design variables in the plant performance. This method will tell us what variables are key to the optimal plant design and which ones are less important. This information can be used to further improve the plant design and to accelerate the optimization procedure.

  15. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A

    2012-01-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of the algorithms and the resulting designs are studied for two typical cases. We describe a method to evaluate the impact of design variables in the plant performance. This method will tell us what variables are key to the optimal plant design and which ones are less important. This information can be used to further improve the plant design and to accelerate the optimization procedure.

  16. The Effect Analysis of Strain Rate on Power Transmission Tower-Line System under Seismic Excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Li Tian; Wenming Wang; Hui Qian

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results sho...

  17. Power fluctuation and power loss of wind turbines due to wind shear and tower shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Binrong; Wei, Sha; Wei, Kexiang; Yang, Wenxian; Peng, Zhike; Chu, Fulei

    2017-09-01

    The magnitude and stability of power output are two key indices of wind turbines. This study investigates the effects of wind shear and tower shadow on power output in terms of power fluctuation and power loss to estimate the capacity and quality of the power generated by a wind turbine. First, wind speed models, particularly the wind shear model and the tower shadow model, are described in detail. The widely accepted tower shadow model is modified in view of the cone-shaped towers of modern large-scale wind turbines. Power fluctuation and power loss due to wind shear and tower shadow are analyzed by performing theoretical calculations and case analysis within the framework of a modified version of blade element momentum theory. Results indicate that power fluctuation is mainly caused by tower shadow, whereas power loss is primarily induced by wind shear. Under steady wind conditions, power loss can be divided into wind farm loss and rotor loss. Wind farm loss is constant at 3 α(3 α-1) R 2/(8 H 2). By contrast, rotor loss is strongly influenced by the wind turbine control strategies and wind speed. That is, when the wind speed is measured in a region where a variable-speed controller works, the rotor loss stabilizes around zero, but when the wind speed is measured in a region where the blade pitch controller works, the rotor loss increases as the wind speed intensifies. The results of this study can serve as a reference for accurate power estimation and strategy development to mitigate the fluctuations in aerodynamic loads and power output due to wind shear and tower shadow.

  18. Power fluctuation and power loss of wind turbines due to wind shear and tower shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Binrong; Wei, Sha; Wei, Kexiang; Yang, Wenxian; Peng, Zhike; Chu, Fulei

    2017-05-01

    The magnitude and stability of power output are two key indices of wind turbines. This study investigates the effects of wind shear and tower shadow on power output in terms of power fluctuation and power loss to estimate the capacity and quality of the power generated by a wind turbine. First, wind speed models, particularly the wind shear model and the tower shadow model, are described in detail. The widely accepted tower shadow model is modified in view of the cone-shaped towers of modern large-scale wind turbines. Power fluctuation and power loss due to wind shear and tower shadow are analyzed by performing theoretical calculations and case analysis within the framework of a modified version of blade element momentum theory. Results indicate that power fluctuation is mainly caused by tower shadow, whereas power loss is primarily induced by wind shear. Under steady wind conditions, power loss can be divided into wind farm loss and rotor loss. Wind farm loss is constant at 3α(3α-1)R 2/(8H 2). By contrast, rotor loss is strongly influenced by the wind turbine control strategies and wind speed. That is, when the wind speed is measured in a region where a variable-speed controller works, the rotor loss stabilizes around zero, but when the wind speed is measured in a region where the blade pitch controller works, the rotor loss increases as the wind speed intensifies. The results of this study can serve as a reference for accurate power estimation and strategy development to mitigate the fluctuations in aerodynamic loads and power output due to wind shear and tower shadow.

  19. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  20. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  1. Hybrid power semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-10-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  2. 基于复合控制的塔式太阳能跟踪控制装置设计%Design of tracking controller in solar power tower based on hybrid control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘屹; 曲凤挺; 郭家忠; 王子健; 曾乐才

    2016-01-01

    针对塔式太阳能热发电站中定日镜跟踪装置的跟踪精度不高、构建成本较大等问题,提出采用将遗传算法的选择机制与吸热塔能量变化的反馈机制相结合的方式对光热电站的太阳能跟踪控制系统进行改进.在光热电站的少数几台定日镜上配备光电检测元件,并以其控制角度为基准控制其他定日镜的角度调整.采用DSP(digital signal processing)为控制核心,完成了跟踪控制器的通讯框架及控制系统的硬件电路设计.实验表明,该方案在保证光热电站整体控制精度的基础上,减少了光电检测元件安装数量和电站构建成本,并保证了视日轨迹跟踪控制时的自动调整能力.%With the problems of low tracking accuracy and high construction cost of the heliostat tracker in the solar thermal power tower,the combination of the selection mechanism of genetic algorithm and the feedback mechanism of energy changes in the heat absorption tower was proposed to improve the tracking controller.Optoelectronic sensors were equipped in a few of heliostats.Based on these heliostat control angles,the angles of the other heliostats were adjusted.The communication framework and the circuit of tracking controller were designed using DSP as the control core.Experimental results showed that the proposed solar tracking controller could reduce the number of optoelectronic sensor and the construction cost of solar thermal power plant without reducing the overall control precision of the solar thermal power tower.At the same time,the control system had the ability of automatic adjustment when its tracking control depended on the trajectory of the sun.

  3. The behaviour of the power transmission tower subjected to horizontal support’s movements

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Q.; Yuan, G.; Z. Huang; Ye, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, two half-scaled test tower models for a typical 110 kV single-circuit power transmission tower were designed and fabricated. The scaled test tower models were tested under the horizontal support’s stretching (tensile) and compressive movements with the normal working loading conditions. The deformations of the tested tower models and stresses within the different bracing members were fully measured. A large amount of comprehensive test data was generated. Also a finite element ...

  4. Application of Lead Viscoelastic Dampers to Wind Vibration Control on Big-Span Power Transmission Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zheng-ping; LI Li; YIN Peng; DUAN Song-tao

    2008-01-01

    To study the wind vibration response of power transmission tower, the lead viscoelastic dampers (LVDs) were applied to a cup tower. With time history analysis method, the displacement, velocity, acceleration and force response of the tower was calculated and analyzed. The results show that the control effect of lead viscoelastic dampers is very good, and the damping ratio can reach 20% or more when they are applied to the tower head.

  5. Structural engineering developments in power plant cooling tower construction. 100 years of natural draught cooling towers - from tower cooler to cooling tower. Bautechnische Entwicklungen im Kraftwerkskuehlturmbau. 100 Jahre Naturzugkuehltuerme - vom Kaminkuehler zum Kuehlkamin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damjakob, H.; Depe, T.; Vrangos, V. (Balcke-Duerr AG, Ratingen (Germany))

    1992-06-01

    Almost exactly 100 years ago, tower-type structures were first used for the production of artificial ventilation for cooling purposes. The shell of these so-called tower coolers, today known as 'natural draught cooling towers', was, from the outset, the subject of multiple structural engineering develepments in respect of design, material, construction and statistical calculation. These developments have been stimulated especially by the spasmodic increase in dimensions in the application of power plant cooling towers and, more recently, in connection with ecological requirements. (orig.).

  6. Radiation Testing of PICA at the Solar Power Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratory's Solar Power Tower was used to irradiate specimens of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), in order to evaluate whether this thermal protection system material responded differently to potential shock layer radiative heating than to convective heating. Tests were run at 50, 100 and 150 Watts per square centimeter levels of concentrated solar radiation. Experimental results are presented both from spectral measurements on 1- 10 mm thick specimens of PICA, as well as from in-depth temperature measurements on instrumented thicker test specimens. Both spectral measurements and measured in-depth temperature profiles showed that, although it is a porous, low-density material, PICA does not exhibit problematic transparency to the tested high levels of NIR radiation, for all pragmatic cm-to-inch scale thicknesses. PICA acted as a surface absorber to efficiently absorb the incident visible and near infrared incident radiation in the top 2 millimeter layer in the Solar Power Tower tests up to 150 Watts per square centimeter.

  7. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  8. System and method for aligning heliostats of a solar power tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar power tower heliostat alignment system and method that includes a solar power tower with a focal area, a plurality of heliostats that each reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower, an off-focal area location substantially close to the focal area of the solar power tower, a communication link between the off-focal area location and a misaligned heliostat, and a processor that interprets the communication between the off-focal area location and the misaligned heliostat to identify the misaligned heliostat from the plurality of heliostats and that determines a correction for the identified misaligned heliostat to realign the misaligned heliostat to reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower.

  9. Closed-loop control for power tower heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Mark R.

    2011-10-01

    In a Power Tower solar thermal power plant, alignment and control of the heliostats constitutes one of the largest costs of both time and money. This is especially the case in systems where individual heliostats are small (~1m2). I describe a closed-loop control system that generates the required feedback by inducing small mechanical vibrations in the heliostat reflector surface using piezoelectric actuators. These vibrations induce time-dependent changes in the reflected wavefront that can be detected by photosensors surrounding the thermal receiver target. Time and frequency encoding of the vibrations allows identification of a misaligned heliostat from among the thousands in the system. Corrections can then be applied to bring the reflected beam onto the receiver target. This technique can, in principle, control thousands of heliostats simultaneously.Outdoor testing of a small-scale model of this system has confirmed that such a system is effective and can achieve milliradian tracking accuracy. If such a system were implemented in a commercial plant, it could relax the accuracy specification required of the heliostats as well as provide an automated alignment and calibration system. This could significantly reduce the installed cost of the heliostat field.

  10. The Tower: Modelling, Analysis and Construction of Bending Active Tensile Membrane Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden Deleuran, Anders; Schmeck, Michel; Charles Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    as combining two or more structural concepts and materials together to create a stronger whole. The paper presents the methods used and developed for design, simulation, evaluation and production, as well as the challenges and obstacles to overcome to build a complex hybrid tower structure in an outside......The project is the result of an interdisciplinary research collaboration between CITA, KET and Fibrenamics exploring the design of integrated hybrid structures employing bending active elements and tensile membranes with bespoke material properties and detailing. Hybrid structures are defined here...

  11. Brayton-Cycle Baseload Power Tower CSP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Bruce [Wilson Solarpower Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The primary objectives of Phase 2 of this Project were:1. Engineer, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing on a low-pressure, air-heating solar receiver capable of powering a microturbine system to produce 300kWe while the sun is shining while simultaneously storing enough energy thermally to power the system for up to 13 hours thereafter. 2. Cycle-test a high-temperature super alloy, Haynes HR214, to determine its efficacy for the system’s high-temperature heat exchanger. 3. Engineer the thermal energy storage system. This Phase 2 followed Wilson’s Phase 1, which primarily was an engineering feasibility study to determine a practical and innovative approach to a full Brayton-cycle system configuration that could meet DOE’s targets. Below is a summary table of the DOE targets with Wilson’s Phase 1 Project results. The results showed that a Brayton system with an innovative (low pressure) solar receiver with ~13 hours of dry (i.e., not phase change materials or molten salts but rather firebrick, stone, or ceramics) has the potential to meet or exceed DOE targets. Such systems would consist of pre-engineered, standardized, factory-produced modules to minimize on-site costs while driving down costs through mass production. System sizes most carefully analyzed were in the range of 300 kWe to 2 MWe. Such systems would also use off-the-shelf towers, blowers, piping, microturbine packages, and heliostats. Per DOE’s instructions, LCOEs are based on the elevation and DNI levels of Daggett, CA, for a 100 MWe power plant following 2 GWe of factory production of the various system components.

  12. Jülich solar power tower - system behavior during downtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Torsten; Göhring, Felix; Stadler, Hannes; Doerbeck, Till

    2017-06-01

    At the Jülich Solar Power Tower, two new shut-off dampers have been installed in the hot air piping system in order to reduce thermal losses during downtime of the plant. The thermodynamic behavior of the thermal energy storage and the steam boiler has been investigated with respect to heat losses after shut-down of the plant. Also, the change of temperature and the pressure drop at both shut-off dampers during downtime has been analyzed. Results show that for the storage, a reduction of thermal losses can be achieved by closing the damper overnight. Regarding the steam boiler, no improvements on heat losses were observed. If only two of the four storage chambers have been charged during operation, heat transfer between the chambers is observed after shut-down. It is concluded that natural convection is not the main source of thermal overnight losses, however, it can be lowered thanks to the dampers. Heat conduction and convectional heat transfer at the surfaces also contribute to the decrease of thermal energy, which can be lowered by thicker insulation layers in the future.

  13. Brayton-Cycle Baseload Power Tower CSP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Bruce

    2013-12-31

    The primary objectives of Phase 2 of this Project were: 1. Engineer, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing on a low-pressure, air-heating solar receiver capable of powering a microturbine system to produce 300kWe while the sun is shining while simultaneously storing enough energy thermally to power the system for up to 13 hours thereafter. 2. Cycle-test a high-temperature super alloy, Haynes HR214, to determine its efficacy for the system’s high-temperature heat exchanger. 3. Engineer the thermal energy storage system This Phase 2 followed Wilson’s Phase 1, which primarily was an engineering feasibility study to determine a practical and innovative approach to a full Brayton-cycle system configuration that could meet DOE’s targets. Below is a summary table of the DOE targets with Wilson’s Phase 1 Project results. The results showed that a Brayton system with an innovative (low pressure) solar receiver with ~13 hours of dry (i.e., not phase change materials or molten salts but rather firebrick, stone, or ceramics) has the potential to meet or exceed DOE targets. Such systems would consist of pre-engineered, standardized, factory-produced modules to minimize on-site costs while driving down costs through mass production. System sizes most carefully analyzed were in the range of 300 kWe to 2 MWe. Such systems would also use off-the-shelf towers, blowers, piping, microturbine packages, and heliostats. Per DOE’s instructions, LCOEs are based on the elevation and DNI levels of Daggett, CA, for a 100 MWe power plant following 2 GWe of factory production of the various system components. Success criteria DOE targets Wilson system LCOE DOE’s gas price $6.75/MBtu 9 cents/kWh 7.7 cents/kWh LCOE Current gas price $4.71/MBtu NA 6.9 cents/kWh Capacity factor 75% (6500hr) 75-100% Solar fraction 85% (5585hr) >5585hr Receiver cost $170/kWe $50/kWe Thermal storage cost $20/kWhth $13/kWhth Heliostat cost $120/m2 $89.8/m2

  14. A modular restoration tower for electric power line transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolazzi, L.C.; Pereira, J.C.; Leonel, C.E.L.; Rocha, G.B.; Bianchezzi, V.; Mendes, F. [Universidade Federal Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: lauro@grante.ufsc.br, jcarlos@grante.ufsc.br; Luz, R.L. [ELETROSUL Centrais Eletricas S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], Email: rluz@eletrosul.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The main target of this R and D project is to develop an restoration tower for electric energy lines transmission. Whereas these towers should present the main features like transport facility, easiest assembling associated with a low cost of manufacture, it was applied the single-column tower concepts supported by stays, modularized, framed and articulated at the base. The concepts used for this development was a design methodology. From the different definition situations of load, numerical models have been developed focusing the design to the best of structural element arrangements of its modules. Then, tests were performed in laboratory to determine the module structural performance for different work load situations. These tests served to identify inconsistencies in the numerical models and proposed adjustments in its design to improve its performance on the strength and stability. (author)

  15. Variation of Tower Footing Resistance on the Lightning Surge Propagation through Overhead Power Distribution Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUT, E. L.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the effects of electromagnetic transients generated by lightning on power distribution lines, considering the influence of tower footing resistance variation. Both types of lightning stroke, direct and induced, are considered. The model of a 20 kV three-phase overhead power distribution line is performed considering a simple line circuit with triangle canopy and 50/8 mm2 Ol-Al conductors. The model of the power distribution line is done considering a Multistory tower model. New concepts regarding lightning assessment through Electromagnetic Transients program and Finite Element Method are implemented. The simulations are performed based on a time domain analysis, considering the lightning stroke as an electromagnetic perturbation within frequency range of 10-100 kHz. A contribution to value creation is the design of the Multistory tower model, used for electromagnetic transients analysis for medium voltage power distribution lines. Excepting previous research, current study was done by considering the variation of tower footing resistance of the tower, between 4-35 ohms. The novelty of the study is the analysis of the dependency determined by the variation of tower footing resistance on the lightning surge propagation through power distribution networks and subsequent consumers.

  16. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  17. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system.

  18. Analysis of the evaporative towers cooling system of a coal-fired power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling system of a 110 MW coal-fired power plant located in central Serbia, where eight evaporative towers cool down the plant. An updated research on the evaporative tower cooling system has been carried out to show the theoretical analysis of the tower heat and mass balance, taking into account the sensible and latent heat exchanged during the processes which occur inside these towers. Power plants which are using wet cooling towers for cooling condenser cooling water have higher design temperature of cooling water, thus the designed condensing pressure is higher compared to plants with a once-through cooling system. Daily and seasonal changes further deteriorate energy efficiency of these plants, so it can be concluded that these plants have up to 5% less efficiency compared to systems with once-through cooling. The whole analysis permitted to evaluate the optimal conditions, as far as the operation of the towers is concerned, and to suggest an improvement of the plant. Since plant energy efficiency improvement has become a quite common issue today, the evaluation of the cooling system operation was conducted under the hypothesis of an increase in the plant overall energy efficiency due to low cost improvement in cooling tower system.

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of wildlife detection and observation technologies at a solar power tower facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert H.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Preston, Todd M.; Wellik, Mike J.; Cryan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light (“solar flux”) in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world’s largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert H; Valdez, Ernest W; Preston, Todd M; Wellik, Michael J; Cryan, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light ("solar flux") in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world's largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  1. Hybrid power plants; Thermische Hybridkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschy, I. [ALSTOM Power Support, Mannheim (Germany). Bereiche Forschung und Entwicklung/Ingenieurdienstleistungen; Franke, U. [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany). Thermodynamik

    2002-07-01

    New German laws concerning the use of biomass and other renewable energy sources have improved the conditions for power generation with renewable energies. A promising alternative to common small-scale (combined-heat-and-) power plants could be found in so-called hybrid power plants which use renewable energies and fossil fuels in combination. A thermodynamic process analysis shows how to determine the renewable energies' portion of a hybrid power plant's total output. [German] Mit den veraenderten gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen erhoeht sich die Motivation, regenerative Energiequellen zur Stromerzeugung zu nutzen. Neben dem exklusiven Einsatz in kleineren (Heiz-) Kraftwerken bietet sich die gemeinsame Nutzung mit fossilen Energietraegern in sogenannten Hybridkraftwerken an. Hier stellt sich die Frage, wie der Anteil der regenerativen Energien an der Gesamt-Stromproduktion des Hybridkraftwerkes zu ermitteln ist. Eine thermodynamische Prozessanalyse kann darueber Aufschluss geben.

  2. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    A hybrid magnetic approach, merging two different magnetic core properites such as ferrite and iron powder cores, is an effective solution for power converter applications. It can offer similar magnetic properties to that of magnetic powder cores but showing less copper loss than powder cores...

  3. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    . In order to prevent ferrite core saturation, placing an effective air gap within the ferrite core is a key method to obtain optimum hybrid magnetic performance. Furthermore, a relatively large inductance at low loading current is an excellent way to minimze power loss in order to achieve high efficiency...

  4. Life cycle assessment of a power tower concentrating solar plant and the impacts of key design alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Michael B; Heath, Garvin A; Burkhardt, John J; Turchi, Craig S

    2013-06-04

    A hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate four sustainability metrics over the life cycle of a power tower concentrating solar power (CSP) facility: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). The reference design is for a dry-cooled, 106 MW(net) power tower facility located near Tucson, AZ that uses a mixture of mined nitrate salts as the heat transfer fluid and storage medium, a two-tank thermal energy storage system designed for six hours of full load-equivalent storage, and receives auxiliary power from the local electric grid. A thermocline-based storage system, synthetically derived salts, and natural gas auxiliary power are evaluated as design alternatives. Over its life cycle, the reference plant is estimated to have GHG emissions of 37 g CO2eq/kWh, consume 1.4 L/kWh of water and 0.49 MJ/kWh of energy, and have an EPBT of 15 months. Using synthetic salts is estimated to increase GHG emissions by 12%, CED by 7%, and water consumption by 4% compared to mined salts. Natural gas auxiliary power results in greater than 10% decreases in GHG emissions, water consumption, and CED. The thermocline design is most advantageous when coupled with the use of synthetic salts.

  5. Shake table testing of a multi-tower connected hybrid structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Ying; Lu Xilin; Lu Wensheng; He Zhijun

    2009-01-01

    Many single-tower reinforced concrete core wall-steel frame (RCC-SF) buildings have been built in China, but there are no buildings of different-height multi-tower hybrid system. A multi-tower RCC-SF tall building was thus studied because of its structural complexity and irregularity. First, a 1/15 scaled model structure was designed and tested on the shake table under minor, moderate, and major earthquake levels. Then, the dynamic responses of the model structure were interpreted to those of the prototype structure according to the similitude theory. Experimental results demonstrate that, despite the complexity of the structure, the lateral deformation bends as the "bending type" and the RC core walls contribute more than the steel frames to resist seismic loads. The maximum inter-story drift of the complex building under minor earthquakes is slightly beyond the elastic limitation specified in the Chinese code, and meets code requirements under major earthquakes. From the test results some suggestions are provided that could contribute favorable effect on the seismic behavior and the displacement of the building.

  6. Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale Wind Power Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Grid connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources due to wind speed variations, the wind shear and the tower shadow effects. The fluctuating power may be able to excite the power system oscillation at a frequency close to the natural oscillation frequency of a power system. This paper presents a simulation model of a variable speed wind farm with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) and fullscale back-to-back converters in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. In ...

  7. Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    presents a simulation model of a variable speed wind farm with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) and fullscale back-to-back converters in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. In this paper, the impacts of wind shear and tower shadow effects on the small signal stability of power...

  8. Variation of Tower Footing Resistance on the Lightning Surge Propagation through Overhead Power Distribution Lines

    OpenAIRE

    MARIUT, E. L.; HELEREA, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the effects of electromagnetic transients generated by lightning on power distribution lines, considering the influence of tower footing resistance variation. Both types of lightning stroke, direct and induced, are considered. The model of a 20 kV three-phase overhead power distribution line is performed considering a simple line circuit with triangle canopy and 50/8 mm2 Ol-Al conductors. The model of the power distribution line is done consid...

  9. Wind-induced vibration control of long-span power transmission towers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Peng; LI Li; HU Liang-xia

    2009-01-01

    We investigated wind-induced vibration control of long-span power transmission towers based on a case study of the Jingdongnan-Nanyang-Jingmen 1000 kV transmission line project in P. R. China. The height of the cup tower is 181 m with a ground elevation of 47 m, which makes it a super flexible and wind-sensitive structure. Therefore, we should analyze the wind-resistant capacity of the system. We simulated applicable transverse fluctuating wind velocity field, developed a lead-rubber damper (LRD) for controlling wind-induced vibration of long-span transmission towers, deduced LRD calculation model parameter, and researched the best layout scheme and installation method of LRD. To calculate the wind-induced response of tower-line coupling system in seven layout schemes, we used the time history analysis method, and obtained the efficiencies of wind-induced vibration control. LRD deformation research proved that the damp of all LRDs was efficient under the designed wind velocity when they were laid along the edge of tower heads. We studied the controlling efficiency resulting from only applying stiffness to the tower poles where the dampers used to be laid under the designed wind velocity. The results show that the controlling efficiency was not ideal when the stiffness is increased on the poles only. Therefore, LRD should contribute to both the stiffness and damp of a structure to effectively reduce the dynamic response of a tower-line coupling system under strong winds. We also discussed the controlling efficiency of LRD under static winds. The results show that there was little difference between displacements derived by the finite element time history method and those obtained by static wind method conducted by a design institute. This means the simulation on space relevant wind velocity field was accurate and reasonable.

  10. State of the art cooling tower technology in geothermal power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, K.P. [Marley Cooling Tower Company, Overland Park, KS (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Several cooling tower design configurations, including crossflow and counterflow, splash and film filled, have been used in geothermal applications over the years with varying degrees of longterm success. This paper examines the special water quality conditions expected in geothermal power generation, describes the current theory on materials and fill types most suitable for this application, and relates field experience to the theory. The goal is to arrive at current, but evolving {open_quotes}best practice{close_quotes} application rules for cooling tower designs in geothermal application. This means providing the most economically and thermally efficient cooling towers to end users, and having those selections provide good long-term system viability with reasonable maintenance practices.

  11. Study on Seismic Control of Power Transmission Tower-Line Coupled System under Multicomponent Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic control of power transmission tower-line coupled system subjected to multicomponent excitations is studied in this paper. The schematic of tuned mass damper is introduced, and equations of motion of a system with tuned mass damper under multi-component excitations are proposed. Three-dimensional finite tower-line system models are created based on practical engineering in studying the response of this system without and with control. The time domain analysis takes into account geometric nonlinearity due to finite deformation. The optimal design of the transmission tower-line system with tuned mass damper is obtained according to different mass ratio. The effects of wave travel, coherency loss, and different site conditions on the system without and with control are investigated, respectively.

  12. Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Pacheco; Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk

    2011-09-20

    A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.

  13. Conceptual Design of Hybrid Safety Features for NPP by Utilizing Solar Updraft Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sub Lee [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Yong Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyo Chan; Park, Youn Won [BEES, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, hybrid safety features for NPP with solar updraft tower (SUT) is conceptually suggested to cope with loss of ultimate heat sink accident. The hybrid safety features utilizing SUT target NPPs in seashore of Arabian Gulf. Usually NPPs are constructed near seashore to utilize sea water as an ultimate heat sink. Residual heat or decay heat of nuclear reactor will diffuse into the ocean through the condenser. NPPs in Middle East are expected to be placed in seashore of Arabian Gulf. The NPP site of Barakah is an actual example. For NPPs in seashore of Arabian Gulf, an additional safety concern should be considered. Arabian Gulf is the largest oil transporting route in the world. The oil spill risk in Arabian Gulf will be the largest simultaneously. Unfortunately, not like other oceans, Arabian Gulf is a kind of closed ocean which does not have strong ocean currents connected to out of the gulf. If once oil spill is occurred, its influence can be propagated more than our expectation. The spilled oil also can affect to NPPs in seashore by covering surfaces of condenser. It will directly cause loss of ultimate heat sink. The hybrid safety features of SUT system are expected to aid normal operation of safety system and mitigate consequence of severe accident. Detail analysis and technology development is ongoing now.

  14. Design considerations for concentrating solar power tower systems employing molten salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-09-01

    The Solar Two Project was a United States Department of Energy sponsored project operated from 1996 to 1999 to demonstrate the coupling of a solar power tower with a molten nitrate salt as a heat transfer media and for thermal storage. Over all, the Solar Two Project was very successful; however many operational challenges were encountered. In this work, the major problems encountered in operation of the Solar Two facility were evaluated and alternative technologies identified for use in a future solar power tower operating with a steam Rankine power cycle. Many of the major problems encountered can be addressed with new technologies that were not available a decade ago. These new technologies include better thermal insulation, analytical equipment, pumps and values specifically designed for molten nitrate salts, and gaskets resistant to thermal cycling and advanced equipment designs.

  15. FORIDA Towers - Analysis of UHPFRC Tower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Rom; Dollerup, Niels; Damkilde, Lars

    This report is a detailed analysis of the UHPFRC tower in the hybrid wind turbine tower. The analysis of the UHPFRC tower includes a validation of the Service Limit State (SLS) for both characteristic and frequent load cases, the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and the Fatigue load state. The analysis...

  16. Cooling Tower Engineering in Thermal Power Generation%火力发电冷却塔工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳

    2014-01-01

    This paper expounds the working principle of thermal power cooling tower and introduces the construction scheme and safety facilities of the cooling tower.%阐述火力发电冷却塔的工作原理。同时,说明冷却塔施工作业方案及安全设施。

  17. A Spanish 'power tower' solar system - Project CESA-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Torralbo, A.; Hernandez Gonzalvez, C.; Ortiz Roses, C.; Avellaner Lacal, J.; Sanchez, F.

    1984-02-01

    Attention is given to the design features, development and construction status, and performance capabilities of the CESA-1 solar thermal central receiver system project. The heliostat field includes 300 units of two different types, and the central receiver is of water-steam cavity type. Power conversion is by means of a regenerative Rankine cycle whose primary component is a turbogenerator with multistage condensing turbine. A molten salt sensible heat storage system is incorporated. Detailed specifications are given for all operating parameters.

  18. Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

  19. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  20. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Effect of heliostat size on the levelized cost of electricity for power towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidaparthi, Arvind; Hoffmann, Jaap

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of heliostat size on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for power tower plants. These effects are analyzed in a power tower with a net capacity of 100 MWe, 8 hours of thermal energy storage and a solar multiple of 1.8 in Upington, South Africa. A large, medium and a small size heliostat with a total area of 115.56 m2, 43.3 m2 and 15.67 m2 respectively are considered for comparison. A radial-staggered pattern and an external cylindrical receiver are considered for the heliostat field layouts. The optical performance of the optimized heliostat field layouts has been evaluated by the Hermite (analytical) method using SolarPILOT, a tool used for the generation and optimization of the heliostat field layout. The heliostat cost per unit is calculated separately for the three different heliostat sizes and the effects due to size scaling, learning curve benefits and the price index is included. The annual operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are estimated separately for the three heliostat fields, where the number of personnel required in the field is determined by the number of heliostats in the field. The LCOE values are used as a figure of merit to compare the different heliostat sizes. The results, which include the economic and the optical performance along with the annual O&M costs, indicate that lowest LCOE values are achieved by the medium size heliostat with an area of 43.3 m2 for this configuration. This study will help power tower developers determine the optimal heliostat size for power tower plants currently in the development stage.

  2. Startup of Pumping Units in Process Water Supplies with Cooling Towers at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, V. V., E-mail: vberlin@rinet.ru; Murav’ev, O. A., E-mail: muraviov1954@mail.ru; Golubev, A. V., E-mail: electronik@inbox.ru [National Research University “Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Aspects of the startup of pumping units in the cooling and process water supply systems for thermal and nuclear power plants with cooling towers, the startup stages, and the limits imposed on the extreme parameters during transients are discussed.

  3. Simulation and Evaluation of Small Scale Solar Power Tower Performance under Malaysia Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamil, A. M.; Gilani, S. I.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.

    2013-06-01

    Solar energy is the most available, clean, and inexpensive source of energy among the other renewable sources of energy. Malaysia is an encouraging location for the development of solar energy systems due to abundant sunshine (10 hours daily with average solar energy received between 1400 and 1900 kWh/m2). In this paper the design of heliostat field of 3 dual-axis heliostat units located in Ipoh, Malaysia is introduced. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the sun position and calculate the cosine losses in the field. The study includes calculating the incident solar power to a fixed target on the tower by analysing the tower height and ground distance between the heliostat and the tower base. The cosine efficiency was found for each heliostat according to the sun movement. TRNSYS software was used to simulate the cosine efficiencies and field hourly incident solar power input to the fixed target. The results show the heliostat field parameters and the total incident solar input to the receiver.

  4. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  5. Dynamic characteristics of power-tower space stations with 15-foot truss bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    A power tower space station concept which generates power with photovoltaic arrays and where the truss structure has a bay size of 15 ft is described. Rigid body and flexible body dynamic characteristics are presented for a 75-kW Initial Operating Capability (IOC) and 150-kW and 300-kW growth stations. The transient response of the IOC and 300-kW growth stations to shuttle dock, orbit reboost, and mobile remote manipulator system translation loads are studied. Displacements, accelerations, and bending moments at various locations on the IOC and 300-kW growth stations are presented.

  6. Experimental evaluation of the wind effects on an operating power transmission tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Static and dynamic effects on power transmission towers can be evaluated by methodologies available in codes, which suggest the use of linear static analysis. By using numerical simulations, it is possible to observe the strong influence of the geometric nonlinear behavior of transmission cables. Dynamic effects also strongly influence this behavior, with the possibility of resonance between the cables and the structure, but up to the moment, the existent analysis procedures have not been completely validated on an experimental basis. In order to validate a complete analysis methodology, experimental procedures are proposed for a suspension tower of a 138kV transmission line in use. A tridimensional anemometer was installed on this structure in order to measure the values and directions of wind speeds. Simultaneous strain values were collected on the main elements of the tower through optical extensometers. Optical sensor technology with Fiber Bragg Gratings was used, due to the characteristic of immunity to the electromagnetic field occasioned by high electric currents. The string swing angle was evaluated through a high-resolution camera and a tridimensional accelerometer. With this instrumentation, it is possible to create a complete database that correlates wind speeds with the responses of the structural set. At the moment, 5 months of data have been collected and the instrumentation is in the final testing phase and synchronized. After this step, real-time measurements will be performed.

  7. Calculation of Electric Field at Ground Surface and ADSS Cable Prepared Hanging Point near EHV Power Transmission Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model of the 750kV tower is established by CDEGS software which is based on the Method Of Moment. The power frequency electric field distribution on the ground is achieved by software calculation and field-measuring. The validity of the calculation is proved when compare the calculation and experiment results. The model also can be used to calculate the electric field in prepared hanging points on the tower. Results show that the electric field distribution on the ground surface around the tower and prepared hanging points are meet the standard by calculation and experiment.

  8. Cooling Tower Optimization A Simple Way to Generate Green Megawatts and to Increase the Efficiency of a Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.

    2014-07-01

    The profitability of nuclear power plants is worldwide challenged by low electricity prices. One hand low cost shale gas is offering a low price electricity production , other hand additional taxes on fuel are reducing the operating income of nuclear power stations. The optimization of cooling towers can help to increase the efficiency and profit of a nuclear power plant. (Author)

  9. An evaluation of possible next-generation high temperature molten-salt power towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2011-12-01

    Since completion of the Solar Two molten-salt power tower demonstration in 1999, the solar industry has been developing initial commercial-scale projects that are 3 to 14 times larger. Like Solar Two, these initial plants will power subcritical steam-Rankine cycles using molten salt with a temperature of 565 C. The main question explored in this study is whether there is significant economic benefit to develop future molten-salt plants that operate at a higher receiver outlet temperature. Higher temperatures would allow the use of supercritical steam cycles that achieve an improved efficiency relative to today's subcritical cycle ({approx}50% versus {approx}42%). The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of a 565 C subcritical baseline plant was compared with possible future-generation plants that operate at 600 or 650 C. The analysis suggests that {approx}8% reduction in LCOE can be expected by raising salt temperature to 650 C. However, most of that benefit can be achieved by raising the temperature to only 600 C. Several other important insights regarding possible next-generation power towers were also drawn: (1) the evaluation of receiver-tube materials that are capable of higher fluxes and temperatures, (2) suggested plant reliability improvements based on a detailed evaluation of the Solar Two experience, and (3) a thorough evaluation of analysis uncertainties.

  10. Optical performance considerations for analysis and simulation of power tower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidaparthi, Arvind; Landman, Willem; Hoffmann, Jaap; Dinter, Frank

    2017-06-01

    South Africa has implemented a `time of day' tariff structure for concentrating solar power plants in the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme. It is hypothesised that payment allocation factors for the `time of day' and the `time of use' dispatch schedule influence the optimal heliostat field layout. SolarPILOT software is used to generate and optimize the heliostat field layout of a 100 MWe power tower plant in Upington, South Africa with 8 hours of thermal energy storage in the SunShot scenario with a high receiver thermal efficiency of 90%. A large size heliostat with a total area of 115.56 m2 and an external cylindrical receiver are considered for the heliostat field layout. A subset of 12 days is simulated on an hourly basis to achieve convergence and to take seasonal, daily and hourly weather variability into account. During the optimization of a heliostat field layout, the heliostats are ranked and selected according to a performance metric. In this study, two field layouts are compared based on two different performance metrics, namely: power delivered to the receiver and the time of use weighted power. The optical performance is simulated using both the Hermite (analytical) and the Monte-Carlo Ray-Tracing methods. By accounting for the TOU weighted power, it is found that the LCOE increases from 0.1831 /kWh to 0.1870 /kWh using the Hermite (analytical) method. Similarly, when MCRT techniques are used for the optical characterization, the LCOE value increases from 0.1781 /kWh to 0.1832 /kWh. It is recommended that payment allocation factors and the tariff structure for the time of day be included when comparing field layouts with other layout generation and optimization strategies. This study will be useful for power tower developers in identifying practices to be included in the optical characterization of their heliostat field layouts for better simulation results.

  11. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  12. Simulation and experimental research of 1MWe solar tower power plant in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Xu, Ershu

    2016-05-01

    The establishment of a reliable simulation system for a solar tower power plant can greatly increase the economic and safety performance of the whole system. In this paper, a dynamic model of the 1MWe Solar Tower Power Plant at Badaling in Beijing is developed based on the "STAR-90" simulation platform, including the heliostat field, the central receiver system (water/steam), etc. The dynamic behavior of the global CSP plant can be simulated. In order to verify the validity of simulation system, a complete experimental process was synchronously simulated by repeating the same operating steps based on the simulation platform, including the locations and number of heliostats, the mass flow of the feed water, etc. According to the simulation and experimental results, some important parameters are taken out to make a deep comparison. The results show that there is good alignment between the simulations and the experimental results and that the error range can be acceptable considering the error of the models. In the end, a comprehensive and deep analysis on the error source is carried out according to the comparative results.

  13. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  14. Wind-solar Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Fei

    2014-01-01

    In the development and utilization of new energy sources, the solar energy and wind energy are paid more attention by various countries, and have become a new field of energy development and utilization of the highest level, the most mature technology, the most widely used and commercial development conditions for new energy. But both the traditional wind power system and solar power system have the characteristic of energy instability. Therefore, wind-solar hybrid power system was proposed i...

  15. Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, D.

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of these Guidelines is to provide direction for conducting performance acceptance testing for large power tower solar systems that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The recommendations have been developed under a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontract and reviewed by stakeholders representing concerned organizations and interests throughout the concentrating solar power (CSP) community. An earlier NREL report provided similar guidelines for parabolic trough systems. These Guidelines recommend certain methods, instrumentation, equipment operating requirements, and calculation methods. When tests are run in accordance with these Guidelines, we expect that the test results will yield a valid indication of the actual performance of the tested equipment. But these are only recommendations--to be carefully considered by the contractual parties involved in the Acceptance Tests--and we expect that modifications may be required to fit the particular characteristics of a specific project.

  16. Power Quality Application of Hybrid Drivetrain

    OpenAIRE

    Rassõlkin, Anton; Hõimoja, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the power conditioning features of hybrid powertrain, especially regarding diesel-electric locomotives. Equipped with an embarked energy buffer for diesel generator support and utility grid interface, such a locomotive can be considered as a plug-in series hybrid vehicle. The driveline inductive components, like generator and motor windings, and capacitive components like dc link capacitors can be used to provide STATCOM functions, and the energy buffer can be u...

  17. Seismic Response of Power Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of power transmission tower-line system subjected to spatially varying base excitations is studied in this paper. The transmission towers are modeled by beam elements while the transmission lines are modeled by cable elements that account for the nonlinear geometry of the cables. The real multistation data from SMART-1 are used to analyze the system response subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The seismic input waves for vertical and horizontal ground motions are also generated based on the Code for Design of Seismic of Electrical Installations. Both the incoherency of seismic waves and wave travel effects are accounted for. The nonlinear time history analytical method is used in the analysis. The effects of boundary conditions, ground motion spatial variations, the incident angle of the seismic wave, coherency loss, and wave travel on the system are investigated. The results show that the uniform ground motion at all supports of system does not provide the most critical case for the response calculations.

  18. Reliability assessment of an OVH HV power line truss transmission tower subjected to seismic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Karol; Jakubowska, Patrycja; Soltysik, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    The study focuses on the reliability of a transmission tower OS24 ON150 + 10, an element of an OVH HV power line, under seismic loading. In order to describe the seismic force, the real-life recording of the horizontal component of the El Centro earthquake was adopted. The amplitude and the period of this excitation are assumed random, their variation is described by Weibull distribution. The possible space state of the phenomenon is given in the form of a structural response surface (RSM methodology), approximated by an ANOVA table with directional sampling (DS) points. Four design limit states are considered: stress limit criterion for a natural load combination, criterion for an accidental combination (one-sided cable snap), vertical and horizontal translation criteria. According to these cases the HLRF reliability index β is used for structural safety assessment. The RSM approach is well suited for the analysis - it is numerically efficient, not excessively time consuming, indicating a high confidence level. Given the problem conditions, the seismic excitation is shown the sufficient trigger to the loss of load-bearing capacity or stability of the tower.

  19. Technical analysis and optimization of a high concentrating photovoltaic power tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Karolina Ordóñez; Heimsath, Anna; Wiesenfarth, Maike; Schöttl, Peter; Nitz, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Based on the results of previous research, a technical study on a 1 MW prototype photovoltaic power tower is presented in this contribution. Some options to optimize the heliostat field were assessed to improve the optical efficiency and yearly energy output. Aiming strategies to create a highly homogeneous radiant flux distribution on the PV receiver and additional optimization options were analyzed. A significant improvement compared to earlier results and an annual mean optical efficiency of 54.7 % was achieved. The cost calculation for the improved system resulted in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of 0.19 €/kWh for the exemplary location Seville, Spain. Assumptions for further improvements and heliostat field cost reduction showed an additional cost reduction potential to 0.08 €/kWh.

  20. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  1. Effect of Tower Shadow and Wind Shear in a Wind Farm on AC Tie-Line Power Oscillations of Interconnected Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Jin; Hu, Weihao; Wang, Xiaoru

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a frequency domain approach for evaluating the impact of tower shadow and wind shear effects (TSWS) on tie-line power oscillations. A simplified frequency domain model of an interconnected power system with a wind farm is developed. The transfer function, which relates the ti...

  2. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  3. Coherence Effects on the Power and Tower Loads of a 7 × 2 MW Multi-Rotor Wind Turbine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Yoshida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A multi-rotor system (MRS, in which multiple wind turbines are placed on one tower, is a promising concept for super-large wind turbines at over 10 MW due to the cost and weight advantages. The coherence effects on an MRS were investigated in this study. Although a wide range of coherences were measured so far, a decay constant of C = 12 is recommended in the IEC61400-1 standard. Dynamic simulations were performed for a 14-MW MRS, which consists of seven 2-MW turbines and includes wind models with three different coherences. Although the results show that a larger coherence increases the output power and the collective loads due to tower base fore-aft bending, it reduces the differential loads due to tower-base torque and tower-top nodding. The most significant case is the fatigue damage due to tower base fore-aft bending, which was more than doubled between the decay constants of C = 6 and C = 12. The present results indicate that the coherence should be defined carefully in the design of large-scale MRSs because its effect on them is not straightforward.

  4. CSP parabolic trough and power tower performance analysis through the Southern African universities radiometric network (SAURAN) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidaparthi, A. S.; Dall, E. P.; Hoffmann, J. E.; Dinter, F.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the performance of parabolic trough and power tower technologies by selecting two radiometric stations in different geographic locations, with approximately equal annual direct normal irradiance (DNI) values, but with different monthly DNI distributions. The two stations chosen for this study are situated at the University of Free State, Bloemfontein, Free State Province and in Vanrhynsdorp, Western Cape Province. The annual measured DNI values for both these locations in South Africa are in the range of 2500-2700 kWh/m2. The comparison between the different monthly DNI distributions of these selected sites includes an assessment of annual hourly data in order to study the performance analysis of the most mature concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies, namely parabolic trough and power tower plants. The weather data has been obtained from the Southern African Universities Radiometric Network (SAURAN). A comparison between the different monthly DNI distributions of these selected sites includes the assessment of hourly data. Selection of these radiometric stations has also been done on the basis that they have been operational for at least one year. The first year that most SAURAN stations have been online for at least one year is 2014, thus data from this year has been considered. The annual performance analysis shows that parabolic trough plants have a higher energy yield in Vanrhynsdorp while power tower plants seem to be more suitable for Bloemfontein. Power tower plants in both the locations have a higher annual energy yield when compared with parabolic trough plants. A parabolic trough power plant in Vanrhynsdorp in the Western Cape Province has very low monthly electricity generation in the winter months of May, June, July and August. This is partly due to the higher cosine losses in the parabolic trough `one-axis' tracking systems and lower DNI values in the winter months. However, a power tower plant in

  5. Hybrid power technology for remote military facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.N.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) operates hundreds of test, evaluation, and training facilities across the US and abroad. Due to the nature of their missions, these facilities are often remote and isolated from the utility grid. The preferred choice for power at these facilities has historically been manned diesel generators. The DoD Photovoltaic Review Committee, estimates that on the order of 350 million gallons of diesel fuel is burned each year to generate the 2000 GWh of electricity required to operate these remote military facilities. Other federal agencies, including the National Park Service and the USDA Forest Service use diesel generators for remote power needs as well. The generation of power diesel generators is both expensive and detrimental to the environment. The augmentation of power from diesel generators with power processing and battery energy storage enhances the efficiency and utilization of the generator resulting in lower fuel consumption and lower generator run- time in proportion to the amount of renewables added. The hybrid technology can both reduce the cost of power and reduce environmental degradation at remote DoD facilities. This paper describes the expected performance and economics of photovoltaic/diesel hybrid systems. Capabilities and status of systems now being installed at DoD facilities are presented along with financing mechanisms available within DoD.

  6. Structural Design Considerations for Tubular Power Tower Receivers Operating at 650 Degrees C: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neises, T. W.; Wagner, M. J.; Gray, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    Research of advanced power cycles has shown supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles may have thermal efficiency benefits relative to steam cycles at temperatures around 500 - 700 degrees C. To realize these benefits for CSP, it is necessary to increase the maximum outlet temperature of current tower designs. Research at NREL is investigating a concept that uses high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide as the heat transfer fluid to achieve a 650 degrees C receiver outlet temperature. At these operating conditions, creep becomes an important factor in the design of a tubular receiver and contemporary design assumptions for both solar and traditional boiler applications must be revisited and revised. This paper discusses lessons learned for high-pressure, high-temperature tubular receiver design. An analysis of a simplified receiver tube is discussed, and the results show the limiting stress mechanisms in the tube and the impact on the maximum allowable flux as design parameters vary. Results of this preliminary analysis indicate an underlying trade-off between tube thickness and the maximum allowable flux on the tube. Future work will expand the scope of design variables considered and attempt to optimize the design based on cost and performance metrics.

  7. Elastic Dynamic Stability of Big-Span Power Transmission Tower Subjected to Seismic Excitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hang; LI Li; FANG Qin-han; YE Kun

    2009-01-01

    By combining the time-history response analysis and the eigenvalue buckling analysis,this paper developed a computational procedure to study the elastic dynamic stability of a transmission tower by APDL language in ANSYS.The influences of different input directions of seismic excitations and damping ratio on the elastic dynamic stability of tower were discussed.The following conclusions were obtained:(1) Longitudinal direction of the transmission lines is the worst input direction of seismic excitation for the transmission tower.(2) Dead load has no significant effect on the critical load and the occurrence time of buckling.(3) Vertical input of seismic excitations has no great effect on the dynamic stability of the transmission tower.(4) Damping effect has an influence on the dynamic stability of the transmission tower; however,the inherent characteristics of dynamic buckling is not changed.

  8. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  9. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  10. A comprehensive optical characterization of a porous open volumetric air receiver in a solar power tower

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Yu; He, Ya-Ling; Cheng, Ze-Dong

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive optical model for a solar power tower with an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR) was developed and validated in this work. Based on the model, the optical characteristics of the OVAR were studied. Firstly, the detailed distributions of the non-uniform solar flux (qsr) on the aperture and the solar source (Ssr) in the OVAR were studied. The incident flux was found to be relatively uniform across the aperture for a single OVAR. However the incident angle of the rays varies between 0o and 42o, which indicates that the parallel assumption of the rays is not appropriate at this condition. Furthermore, the Ssr in the absorber decreases from the inlet to the outlet, and the maximum source (Ssr,max) of 2.414X108 Wm-3 appears at the inlet. Moreover, the Ssr,max was found to appear at the region near the wall rather than the center of the receiver as usual for the combined effect of the non-parallel incident rays and the diffuse reflection on the wall. The revelation of this phenomenon could offer help...

  11. Strong Magnetic Units for a Wind Power Tower Inspection and Maintenance Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshan Gao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For developing a climbing robot which is used to inspect and maintain a wind power tower, the magnetic unit is one of the key components. Based on analysis of the working conditions of the robot, the approach in this paper is to use four common kinds of magnetic units for adapting to the conical surface. The magnetic circuit of these units is given by theory analysis and is simulated using ANSYS. Moreover, the magnetic force is analysed in detail and the results prove that the magnetic force is greatly influenced by the gap between the unit and the wall surface. In this paper, the design procedures and selection criteria based on the analytical results are given. Meanwhile, these units are compared with each other with the aid of ANSYS. From the results of this comparison, it can be ascertained that the unit using Installation C has the better performance. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the magnetic unit using Installation C is verified by a prototype. The simulations and experiments show that the magnetic unit can allow the robot to keep in contact with the conical wall surface as well as the plane wall surface.

  12. A new method for the design of the heliostat field layout for solar tower power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiudong; Lu, Zhenwu; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Hongxing [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Wang, Zhifeng; Yao, Zhihao [The Key Laboratory of Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic System, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-09-15

    A new method for the design of the heliostat field layout for solar tower power plant is proposed. In the new method, the heliostat boundary is constrained by the receiver geometrical aperture and the efficiency factor which is the product of the annual cosine efficiency and the annual atmospheric transmission efficiency of heliostat. With the new method, the annual interception efficiency does not need to be calculated when places the heliostats, therefore the total time of design and optimization is saved significantly. Based on the new method, a new code for heliostat field layout design (HFLD) has been developed and a new heliostat field layout for the PS10 plant at the PS10 location has been designed by using the new code. Compared with current PS10 layout, the new designed heliostats have the same optical efficiency but with a faster response speed. In addition, to evaluate the feasibility of crops growth on the field land under heliostats, a new calculation method for the annual sunshine duration on the land surface is proposed as well. (author)

  13. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  14. A comparison of cooling tower systems. Analysis of high-efficiency closed hybrid-medium counter-current cooling system; Koeltorensystemen vergeleken. Analyse hoog rendement gesloten hybride-mediumterugkoeler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, H.T. [Heat Transfer Holland, Zuidwolde (Netherlands)

    2008-03-15

    Cooling towers are also utilized in climate technique to dispose of process heat. Water use, the added chemicals and the cleaning cost constitute the largest debit items in exploitation. Open wet cooling towers use water all through the year. The closed hybrid medium blast cooler only uses water in the summer. (mk) [Dutch] Koeltorens worden, ook in de klimaattechniek, ingezet om proceswarmte af te voeren. Het waterverbruik, de toegevoegde chemicalien en de schoonmaakkosten behoren tot de grotere kostenposten in de exploitatie. Open natte koeltorens verbruiken het hele jaar door water. De gesloten hybride-mediumterugkoeler verbruikt alleen water in de zomer.

  15. Surge currents and voltages at the low voltage power mains during lightning strike to a GSM tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowska, Renata [Bialystok Technical University (Poland)], E-mail: remark@pb.edu.pl

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical calculations of lightning surge currents and voltages in the low voltage power mains system connected to a free standing GSM base station. Direct lightning strike to GSM tower was studied. The analysis concerned the current that flows to the transformer station through AC power mains, the potential difference between the grounding systems of the GSM and the transformer stations and the voltage differences between phase and PE conductors of the power mains underground cable at both the GSM and the transformer sides. The calculations were performed using a numerical program based on the electromagnetic field theory and the method of moments. (author)

  16. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  17. Optimization procedure for design of heliostat field layout of a 1MWe solar tower thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiudong; Lu, Zhenwu; Lin, Zi; Zhang, Hongxin; Ni, Zhengguo

    2008-03-01

    A procedure for designing and optimizing heliostat field layout of solar tower thermal power plant is developed. The ray tracing is used for the calculation of the optical efficiency of field. The mathematical theory of the calculation is derived. The parametric search algorithm, which allows variation of the field parameters within a specified range, is used for the optimization of field. The field layout is made automatically according to the no-blocking loss condition and the heliostats are located at the positions where the annual incident cosine value is higher. In this way, the blocking and cosine losses are lowered. Because the optimization of the distance between fore-and-aft two rows of heliostat is avoided, the computer time is reduced effectively. Using this procedure the heliostat field of a 1MWe solar tower power plant was designed. Four modes of layout including North-South cornfield, North-South stagger, Radial cornfield and Radial stagger were experimented and optimized respectively. The comparison of the field efficiency for the four optimized results was made. It is concluded that the North-South cornfield layout is the optimal decision for the 1MWe solar tower power plant.

  18. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hajizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid power system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMIULINK environment and different operating conditions have been considered to evaluate the response of power management strategy.

  19. Hybrid high power femtosecond laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunov, V. I.; Petrov, V. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Design of a high-power femtosecond laser system based on hybrid chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technique developed by us is presented. The goal of the hybrid principle is the use of the parametric and laser amplification methods in chirped pulse amplifiers. It makes it possible to amplify the low-cycle pulses with a duration of <= fs to terawatt power with a high contrast and high conversion efficiency of the pump radiation. In a created system the Ti:Sapphire laser with 10 fs pulses at 810 nm and output energy about 1-3 nJ will be used like seed source. The oscillator pulses were stretched to duration of about 500 ps by an all-reflective grating stretcher. Then the stretched pulses are injected into a nondegenerate noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) on the two BBO crystals. After amplification in NOPA the residual pump was used in a bow-tie four pass amplifier with hybrid active medium (based on Al II0 3:Ti 3+ and BeAl IIO 4:Ti 3+ crystals). The final stage of the amplification system consists of two channels, namely NIR (820 nm) and short-VIS (410 nm). Numerical simulation has shown that the terawatt level of output power can be achieved also in a short-VIS channel at the pumping of the double-crystal BBO NOPA by the radiation of the fourth harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm. Experimentally parametric amplification in BBO crystals of 30-50 fs pulses were investigated and optimized using SPIDER technique and single-shot autocomelator for the realization of shortest duration 40 fs.

  20. Performance of the Towers of Hanoi task and cortical electroencephalographic power changes associated with infancy, adolescence, and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Miguel Ángel; Hernández González, Marisela; Rizo Martínez, Lucía Ester; Robles Aguirre, Francisco Abelardo

    2013-11-01

    The executive functions, which depend on the adequate maturation and functioning of the prefrontal cortex and its connection to posterior zones, follow a process of development as age increases. This work studied changes in the absolute power (AP) of EEG activity recorded in the prefrontal and parietal areas during the performance of the Tower of Hanoi task in children, adolescents, and young adults. Three groups of healthy male subjects such as G1, 11-13; G2, 18-20; and G3, 26-30, years of age were recorded at the F3, F4, P3, and P4 derivations under two conditions: basal and performance of the Towers of Hanoi task. The majority of subjects in G1 failed to complete the task in the allotted time (7 min), while those in G2 and G3 were able to resolve the task quickly and efficiently. During the Towers of Hanoi task, G1 showed an increase of AP in the delta band only in the frontal areas, with a decrease in the alpha1 and alpha2 sub-bands only at the parietal derivations, while G2 and G3 were characterized by an increase of AP in the delta band and a decreased AP in the alpha1 and alpha2 sub-bands in all derivations. These data demonstrate that during the performance of the Towers of Hanoi task, the prefrontal and parietal areas show a characteristic EEG pattern in relation to age. It is probable that the AP patterns obtained in G2 and G3 are associated with the functional changes at cortical levels that adolescents and early adults require to achieve an adequate and fast performance of the Towers of Hanoi task.

  1. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  2. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten; Muley, Nishant

    2013-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600ÀC were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580ÀC, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320ÀC) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600ÀC and the other 565ÀC. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565ÀC. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  3. High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    M) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 9-11 DEARBORN, MICHIGAN HIGH TEMPERATURE POWER CONVERTERS FOR MILITARY HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES ABSTRACT...SUBTITLE High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...public release High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles Page 2 of 8 I. INTRODUCTION Today, wide bandgap devices

  4. Solar thermal power & gas turbine hybrid design with molten salt storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Fernando; Wiesenberg, Ralf; Santana, Domingo

    2017-06-01

    Taking into consideration the need to decelerate the global climatic change, power generation has to shift from burning fossil fuel to renewable energy source in short medium period of time. In this work, we are presenting a new model of a solar-gas natural hybrid power cycle with the main aim of decoupling the solar generation system from the gas turbine system. The objective is to have high solar power contribution compared to conventional ISCC plants [2], producing firm and dispatchable electricity at the same time. The decoupling is motivated by the low solar contribution reached by the ISCC, which is technically limited to maximum of 15%, [4]. In our case, we have implemented a solar tower with molten salts as working fluid. Central receiver systems get higher performance than others systems, like parabolic trough technology [1], due to the higher temperature achieved in the heat transferred fluid HTF, close to 560°C.

  5. A hybrid electromechanical solid state switch for ac power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Bidirectional thyristor coupled to a series of actuator driven electromechanical contacts generates hybrid electromechanical solid state switch for ac power control. Device is useful in power control applications where zero crossover switching is required.

  6. Mechanical Properties of UHPFRC Joint for FORIDA Wind Turbine Tower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    FORIDA Development, Vestas and Aalborg University are currently undertaking the project “FORIDA Hybrid Towers – The towers for next generation of wind turbines”, aiming to develop a new wind turbine tower structure (The FORIDA Tower) for very tall turbines. The tower is going to be a hybrid...... of materials combining steel and Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC), applied as precast units. The FORIDA Tower is competitive regarding price, design, flexibility and durability....

  7. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); O' Sullivan, G. (Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  8. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  9. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power u

  10. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing water filtration device has features that can be developed to be more useful and functional during emergency situations. The project’s development has been aided by following provisions in PEC, NEC, NEMA and Philippine National Standard for Safe Drinking Water provide standards for the construction of the project. These standards protect both the prototype and the user. These also served as guide for the maintenance of every component. The design of the portable hybrid powered water filtration device shows that the project has more advanced features such as portability and the power supply used such as photovoltaic module solar cells and manually operated generator. This also shows its effectiveness and reliability based on the results of discharging test, water quality test and water production test. Based on analysis of the overall financial aspects, the machine can be profitable and the amount of revenue and operating cost will increase as years pass. Using the proper machine/ tools and methods of fabrication helps in easy assembly of the project. The materials and components used are cost effective and efficient. The best time for charging the battery using solar panel is 9:00 am onwards while the hand crank generator is too slow because the generated current is little. The water filtration device is very efficient regarding the operating hours and water production. The machine may have a great effect to society and economy in generation of clean available water at less cost.

  11. Acidity of vapor plume from cooling tower mixed with flue gases emitted from coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Korszun, Katarzyna; Fudala, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Acidity of products resulting from the reaction of flue gas components emitted from a coal-fired power plant with water contained in a vapor plume from a wet cooling tower was analyzed in a close vicinity of a power plant (710 m from the stack and 315 m from the cooling tower). Samples of this mixture were collected using a precipitation funnel where components of the mixed plumes were discharged from the atmosphere with the rainfall. To identify situations when the precipitation occurred at the same time as the wind directed the mixed vapor and flue gas plumes above the precipitation funnel, an ultrasound anemometer designed for 3D measurements of the wind field located near the funnel was used. Precipitation samples of extremely high acidity were identified - about 5% of samples collected during 12 months showed the acidity below pH=3 and the lowest recorded pH was 1.4. During the measurement period the value of pH characterizing the background acidity of the precipitation was about 6. The main outcome of this study was to demonstrate a very high, and so far completely underestimated, potential of occurrence of episodes of extremely acid depositions in the immediate vicinity of a coal-fired power plant.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL WATER SUPPLY WITH COOLING TOWERS FOR HEAT POWER PLANTS TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS PERFECTION. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Olpinskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of calculation of economic efficiency that can be universal and is suitable for feasibility study of modernization of irrigation and water distribution system of cooling towers has been developed. The method takes into account the effect of lower pressure exhaust steam in the condenser by lowering the temperature of the cooling water outlet of a cooling tower that aims at improvement of technical and economic indicators of heat power plants. The practical results of the modernization of irrigation and water distribution system of a cooling tower are presented. As a result, the application of new irrigation and water distribution systems of cooling towers will make it possible to increase the cooling efficiency by more than 4 оС and, therefore, to obtain the fuel savings by improving the vacuum in the turbine condensers. In addition, the available capacity of CHP in the summer period is increased. The results of the work, the experience of modernization of irrigation and water distribution systems of the Gomel CHP-2 cooling towers system, as well as the and methods of calculating of its efficiency can be disseminated for upgrading similar facilities at the power plants of the Belarusian energy system. Some measures are prosed to improve recycling systems, cooling towers and their structures; such measures might significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of technical water supply systems of heat power plants.

  13. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcicki, F. R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of several areas in modem society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that flow through the ground to close the loop between neighboring towers. Stray currents originate in the lightning rod cables of the power line towers, induced by the strong electromagnetic and electric fields of the energized power lines. The intensity and direction of those currents were measured, indicating substantial values of both their AC and DC components. The potential of the tower ground system, measured in the perpendicular direction of the main axis of the power line, was plotted as a function of the distance to the tower base. The results clearly indicated the tendency to corrosive attack in the anodic towers as reflected by the slope of the plot, whereas no signs of corrosion could be found in the reverse slope, confirming the visual inspection of the foundation. The profile of the potential plots could be changed providing the electric insulation of the lightning rod cable.

    Con el crecimiento de varias áreas en la sociedad moderna, la necesidad de generar y conducir la energía eléctrica a las grandes ciudades ha aumentado enormemente. La energía, normalmente, se transporta por cables sostenidos por torres de energía con base de acero galvanizado. Cuando las bases son subterráneas, pueden ocasionar altas tasas de corrosión. Estas, normalmente, se detectan por la medida convencional del potencial empleando un electrodo de referencia de Cu/CuSO4. Se cree que la corrosión es el resultado de corrientes perdidas que fluyen a través de la

  14. Hybrid simulation: an active power filter case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Garcés

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid simulation concept consisting of a combination of computer simulation and laboratory tests. This approach is a cost effective alternative to physically testing the whole system and allows better understanding of complex coupled systems.This paper describes implementing an active power filter (APF hybrid prototype where the source system and load are implemented as a real-time simulation and the system of static power converter acting as an active power filter is implemented in physical hardware. It also confirmed the hybrid simulation results by implementing the simulation in MATLAB-Simulink regarding the same system implemented during the active power filter analysis and design stage.

  15. Solar tower enhanced natural draft dry cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiqiang; Xu, Yan; Acosta-Iborra, Alberto; Santana, Domingo

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants are located in desert areas where the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) value is very high. Since water resource is scarcely available, mechanical draft cooing technology is commonly used, with power consumption of mechanical fans being approximately 2% of the total power generated. Today, there is only one solar power plant (Khi Solar One in South Africa) uses a condenser installed in a Natural Draft Cooling (NDC) tower that avoids the windage loss of water occurring in wet cooling towers. Although, Khi Solar One is a cavity receiver power tower, the receivers can be hung onto the NDC tower. This paper looks at a novel integration of a NDC tower into an external molten salt receiver of a solar power plant, which is one of a largest commercial molten salt tower in China, with 100MWe power capacity. In this configuration study, the NDC tower surrounds the concrete tower of the receiver concentrically. In this way, the receiver concrete tower is the central support of the NDC tower, which consists of cable networks that are fixed to the concrete tower and suspended at a certain height over the floor. The cable networks support the shell of the NDC tower. To perform a preliminary analysis of the behavior of this novel configuration, two cases of numerical simulation in three dimensional (3D) models have been solved using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code, ANSYS Fluent 6.3. The results show that the integration of the NDC tower into an external central receiver tower is feasible. Additionally, the total heat transfer rate is not reduced but slightly increases when the molten salt receiver is in operation because of the additional natural draft induced by the high temperature of the receiver.

  16. Tower Camera

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The tower camera in Barrow provides hourly images of ground surrounding the tower. These images may be used to determine fractional snow cover as winter arrives, for...

  17. The Power Quality Compensation Strategy for Power Distribution System Based on Hybrid Parallel Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid DEHINI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main aim is to confront the performance of shunt active power filter (SAPF and the shunt hybrid active power filter (SHAPF to achieve flexibility and reliability of the filter devices. Both of the two devices used the classical proportional-integral controller for pulse generation to trigger the inventers MOSFET’s. In the adopted hybrid active filter there is a passive power filter with high power rating to filter the low order harmonies and one active filter with low power rating to filter the other high order harmonies. In order to investigate the effectiveness of (SHAPF, the studies have been accomplished using simulation with the MATLAB-SIMULINK. The results show That (SHAPF is more effective than (SAPF, and has lower cost.

  18. Particle tower technology applied to metallurgic plants and peak-time boosting of steam power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsbeck, Lars; Buck, Reiner; Prosin, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Using solar tower technology with ceramic particles as heat transfer and storage medium to preheat scrap for induction furnaces in foundries provides solar generated heat to save electricity. With such a system an unsubsidized payback time of only 4 years is achieved for a 70000t/a foundry in Brazil. The same system can be also used for heat treatment of metals. If electricity is used to heat inert atmospheres a favorable economic performance is also achievable for the particle system. The storage in a particle system enables solar boosting to be restricted to only peak times, enabling an interesting business case opportunity.

  19. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhenhua [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles. (author)

  20. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  1. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  2. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  3. IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL WATER SUPPLY WITH COOLING TOWERS FOR STEAM POWER PLANTS TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS PERFECTION. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Olpinskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the temperature of cooling water and increase the efficiency of use of power resources the main directions of modernization of systems of technical water supply with cooling towers at steam power plants are presented. The problems of operation of irrigation systems and water distribution systems of cooling towers are reviewed. The design of heat and mass transfer devices, their shortcomings and the impact on the cooling ability of the cooling tower are also under analysis. The use of droplet heat and mass transfer device based on the lattice polypropylene virtually eliminates the shortcomings of the film and droplet-film heat and mass transfer devices of the cooling tower, increasing lifetime, and improving the reliability and efficiency of the operation of the main equipment of thermal power plants. The design of the water distribution devices of cooling towers is also considered. It is noted that the most effective are water-spattering low-pressure nozzles made of polypropylene that provides uniform dispersion of water and are of a high reliability and durability.

  4. A new code for the design and analysis of the heliostat field layout for power tower system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiudong; Lu, Zhenwu; Yu, Weixing [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Wang, Zhifeng [The Key Laboratory of Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic system, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A new code for the design and analysis of the heliostat field layout for power tower system is developed. In the new code, a new method for the heliostat field layout is proposed based on the edge ray principle of nonimaging optics. The heliostat field boundary is constrained by the tower height, the receiver tilt angle and size and the heliostat efficiency factor which is the product of the annual cosine efficiency and the annual atmospheric transmission efficiency. With the new method, the heliostat can be placed with a higher efficiency and a faster response speed of the design and optimization can be obtained. A new module for the analysis of the aspherical heliostat is created in the new code. A new toroidal heliostat field is designed and analyzed by using the new code. Compared with the spherical heliostat, the solar image radius of the field is reduced by about 30% by using the toroidal heliostat if the mirror shape and the tracking are ideal. In addition, to maximize the utilization of land, suitable crops can be considered to be planted under heliostats. To evaluate the feasibility of the crop growth, a method for calculating the annual distribution of sunshine duration on the land surface is developed as well. (author)

  5. Hybrid Engine Powered City Car: Fuzzy Controlled Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, AKM; Hawlader, MNA; Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a fuzzy controlled hybrid engine powered car. The car is powered by the lithium ion battery capacity of 1000 Wh is charged by the 50 cc hybrid engine and power regenerative mode. The engine is operated with lean mixture at 3000 rpm to charge the battery. The regenerative mode that connects with the engine generates electrical power of 500-600 W for the deceleration of car from 90 km/h to 20 km/h. The regenerated electrical power has been used to power the air-conditioning system and to meet the other electrical power. The battery power only used to propel the car. The regenerative power also found charging the battery for longer operation about 40 minutes and more. The design flexibility of this vehicle starts with whole-vehicle integration based on radical light weighting, drag reduction, and accessory efficiency. The energy efficient hybrid engine cut carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (N2O) emission about 70-80% as the loads on the crankshaft such as cam-follower and its associated rotating components are replaced by electromagnetic systems, and the flywheel, alternator and starter motor are replaced by a motor generator. The vehicle was tested and found that it was able to travel 70 km/litre with the power of hybrid engine.

  6. A three-degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator for concentrated solar power towers: Modeling, simulation and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ashitava; Shyam, R. B. Ashith

    2016-05-01

    There is an increased thrust to harvest solar energy in India to meet increasing energy requirements and to minimize imported fossil fuels. In a solar power tower system, an array of tracking mirrors or heliostats are used to concentrate the incident solar energy on an elevated stationary receiver and then the thermal energy converted to electricity using a heat engine. The conventional method of tracking are the Azimuth-Elevation (Az-El) or Target-Aligned (T-A) mount. In both the cases, the mirror is rotated about two mutually perpendicular axes and is supported at the center using a pedestal which is fixed to the ground. In this paper, a three degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator, namely the 3-RPS, is proposed for tracking the sun in a solar power tower system. We present modeling, simulation and design of the 3-RPS parallel manipulator and show its advantages over conventional Az-El and T-A mounts. The 3-RPS manipulator consists of three rotary (R), three prismatic (P) and three spherical (S) joints and the mirror assembly is mounted at three points in contrast to the Az-El and T-A mounts. The kinematic equations for sun tracking are derived for the 3-RPS manipulator and from the simulations, we obtain the range of motion of the rotary, prismatic and spherical joints. Since the mirror assembly is mounted at three points, the wind load and self-weight are distributed and as a consequence, the deflections due to loading are smaller than in conventional mounts. It is shown that the weight of the supporting structure is between 15% and 65% less than that of conventional systems. Hence, even though one additional actuator is used, the larger area mirrors can be used and costs can be reduced.

  7. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  8. Tall towers for large wind turbines. Report from Vindforsk project V-342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Staffan; Lyrner, Tomas; Hassanzadeh, Manouchehr; Stalin, Thomas; Johansson, John

    2010-07-15

    joints both longitudinally and laterally. Such a tower is transported as the separate cut, bent, drilled and painted steel plates, which are assembled at the turbine site. Also pretensioned concrete towers have a long history in wind power, starting with in-situ built slip formed towers. Today most concrete towers are assembled from prefabricated elements, cast in sizes allowing road transportation. The advantages of the concrete towers are concentrated to the lower parts, which are capable of absorbing large moments in an economical way. Therefore hybrid towers are appearing on the market, with a concrete part for the lower section and a conventional steel shell tower for the upper. From the present study one can draw a quite firm conclusion that hybrid towers generally are more economical than pure concrete ones. Due to the very large base width, lattice towers reveal the lowest weights and investments of all towers. The advantages are counteracted by disadvantages that may be equally strong. The number of bolts is very high and they need periodic checking. The dynamic properties are hard to control. During icing conditions large accumulation of ice in extreme cases may endanger the turbine. An acceptable level of safety for the maintenance personnel may be hard to maintain. And finally the visual qualities are controversial. Wood has been used as a construction material for wind turbine blades for decades, but only recently considered for wind turbine towers. This may seem strange, since towers should be a less demanding application than blades. Wood is also in general known to be an economical construction material resistant to fatigue and buckling. The so far only large wind turbine tower of wood is designed by a German company for a 1,5 MW wind turbine. In this report the wooden towers were studied less extensively than the others, due to the less developed and known technology especially regarding joints. From the study one can draw a general conclusion that it is

  9. Evaluating the potential energy of a heliostat field and solar receiver of solar tower power plants in the southern region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Kadhim Al-Dualimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A prior study on the performance of high-efficient models for a heliostat field and solar receiver at various candidate locations (e.g., certain regions in the south of Turkey helped determine suitable locations for installing solar tower power plant units. This study considered the fact that solar tower power plants are affected by the working conditions of a particular site, which helps realize the highest performance of the solar power tower plant. An optimized heliostat field consisting of 2650 SENER heliostats and a model of a solar receiver based on the data obtained using Gemasolar in Seville, Spain, was used as a reference in this work. Each heliostat position is specified using an optimization algorithm that refines previously proposed models, and two parameters are added to this model to further optimize the heliostat layout. Then, a sample analytical thermal model is used for predicting the radiative and convective heat losses from the receiver system. Article History: Received March 13rd 2016; Received in revised form Jun 22nd 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available onlineHow to Cite This Article: Ra'ad, K, M, A. and Mehmet, S, S. (2016, Evaluating the potential energy of a heliostat field and solar receiver of solar tower power plants in the southern region of Turkey. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 151-161, http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.151-161

  10. Application of Noise Reduction Technology in Cooling Tower to Power Plant%冷却塔声源降噪技术在电厂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金康华; 居国腾

    2016-01-01

    Based on the noise analysis of characteristics and frequency spectrums in a 5500 m2 Reverse Flow Natural-Ventilation Cooling Tower of Power Plants. By an application example of noise control equipment and technology,A new method for noise control of the cooling tower is proposed.%通过对某电厂5500 m2逆流式自然通风冷却塔的噪声特点和频谱分析,以声源降噪设备和技术应用实例,提出了一种冷却塔噪声治理的新办法。

  11. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station located at west arise, Oromia. All the necessary modeling, simulation, and techno-economic evaluation are carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software. The best optimal system configurations namely PV/Battery and PV/Wind/Battery hybrid systems are compared with the conventional stand-alone diesel generator (DG system. Findings indicated that PV array and battery is the most economically viable option with the total net present cost (NPC of $\\$$57,508 and per unit cost of electricity (COE of $\\$$0.355. Simulation results show that the hybrid energy systems can minimize the power generation cost significantly and can decrease CO2 emissions as compared to the traditional diesel generator only. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to analysis the effects of probable variation in solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price and average annual energy usage of the system load in the optimal system configurations.

  12. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ninić Neven; Klarin Branko; Tolj Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen usi...

  13. Ultralight Solar Powered Hybrid Research Drone

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    A planetary research drone is proposed, which is capable for vertical takeoff and landing. A hybrid flight concept utilizing static lift enables the exploration over ground. The static lift is achieved with a lighter than CO2 gas like air, He or H2.

  14. A hybrid approach to space power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholdston, E. W.; Janik, D. F.; Newton, K. A.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional control systems have traditionally been utilized for space-based power designs. However, the use of expert systems is becoming important for NASA applications. Rocketdyne has been pursuing the development of expert systems to aid and enhance control designs of space-based power systems. The need for integrated expert systems is vital for the development of autonomous power systems.

  15. Control approach for comfortable power shifting in hybrid transmissions - ML 450 hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger Zetina, Siegfried; Neiss, Konstantin [Daimler AG, Hybrid Development Center, Troy, MI (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The comfortable shifting control in a luxury class vehicle is extremely important, due to competitive automatic transmissions with torque converters; clutch automated manual transmissions and dual clutch transmissions. Hybrid transmissions play a key role in comfort and performance enhancement while at the same time being fuel efficient with the aid of electric machines and battery packs. Here, the alternative to conventional add-on hybrid power head transmissions: the power split hybrid transmission is studied. As a practical example, the Two Mode of the Hybrid Development Center is used within the ML450 Hybrid. For achieving a smooth shifting, there are model based algorithms needed. As objective measure to evaluate the shifting the VDV (Vibration Dose Value) is used. (orig.)

  16. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  17. Advanced power cycles and configurations for solar towers: Modeling and optimization of the decoupled solar combined cycle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Olcoz, Asier; Sorbet, Fco. Javier

    2017-06-01

    CSP technologies are essential to allow large shares of renewables into the grid due to their unique ability to cope with the large variability of the energy resource by means of technically and economically feasible thermal energy storage (TES) systems. However, there is still the need and sought to achieve technological breakthroughs towards cost reductions and increased efficiencies. For this, research on advanced power cycles, like the Decoupled Solar Combined Cycle (DSCC) is, are regarded as a key objective. The DSCC concept is, basically, a Combined Brayton-Rankine cycle in which the bottoming cycle is decoupled from the operation of the topping cycle by means of an intermediate storage system. According to this concept, one or several solar towers driving a solar air receiver and a Gas Turbine (Brayton cycle) feed through their exhaust gasses a single storage system and bottoming cycle. This general concept benefits from a large flexibility in its design. On the one hand, different possible schemes related to number and configuration of solar towers, storage systems media and configuration, bottoming cycles, etc. are possible. On the other, within a specific scheme a large number of design parameters can be optimized, including the solar field size, the operating temperatures and pressures of the receiver, the power of the Brayton and Rankine cycles, the storage capacity and others. Heretofore, DSCC plants have been analyzed by means of simple steady-state models with pre-stablished operating parameters in the power cycles. In this work, a detailed transient simulation model for DSCC plants has been developed and is used to analyze different DSCC plant schemes. For each of the analyzed plant schemes, a sensitivity analysis and selection of the main design parameters is carried out. Results show that an increase in annual solar to electric efficiency of 30% (from 12.91 to 16.78) can be achieved by using two bottoming Rankine cycles at two different

  18. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  19. Power Quality Improvement Using Hybrid Power Flow Controller in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manidhar Thula ,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the applicability of Hybrid Power Flow Controller (HPFC as an alternative to Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC for improvement of power system performance. UPFC is a flexible AC transmission system (FACTS device containing two switching converters, one in series and one in shunt. To configure the HPFC, one of the switching converters of the UPFC is replaced by thyristor controlled variable impedances, thus reducing the cost. In this paper, the HPFC has been configured by multilevel Voltage Source Converter (VSC used for the shunt compensation branches and a thyristor controlled variable impedance used for series compensation. It is shown that with suitable control the HPFC can inject a voltage of required magnitude in series with the line at any desired angle, just like UPFC. This helps in providing compensation equivalent to UPFC and improving the steady state stability limits of the power system.

  20. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  1. Simulation Analysis on Power Frequency Electric Field at Ground Surface Near EHV Power Transmission Tower%超高压输电线路铁塔附近地面工频电场仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永明; 范与舟; 徐禄文

    2013-01-01

    根据铁塔实际结构和导线抛物线方程,建立了铁塔附近三维电场计算模型.基于模拟电荷法分析了500 kV输电线路铁塔周围地面上的工频电场分布,分析了铁塔对其附近电场环境的影响,并讨论了影响电场计算结果的因素.研究结果表明:铁塔对其附近地面电场有一定屏蔽作用,电场强度在铁塔下方显著降低且在金属构架处产生畸变;铁塔的影响范围和铁塔高度及塔基尺寸有关;铁塔构架等效半径、线单元剖分段数以及铁塔不同简化模型都会影响计算结果.%Based on actual structure of power transmission tower and parabolic equation of transmission lines,a three-dimensional model to compute power frequency electric field at ground surface near transmission tower is built.According to charge simulation method,the distribution of power frequency electric field at ground surface near 500kV transmission tower as well as the impacts of transmission tower on nearby electric field is analyzed,and the factors impacting computational results of electric field are discussed.Research results show that there is a certain screening effect of transmission tower on ground surface electric field nearby the tower,so the electric field intensity beneath the tower decreases obviously and electric field distortion appears at the positions where metal frameworks are erected.The impacting area is related to the height of the tower and the size of tower foundation; computational result of electric field will be impacted by the equivalent radius of tower framework,the number of line segments and different simplified models of the tower.

  2. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during t...

  3. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  4. Probabilistic Wind Power Forecasting with Hybrid Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Song, Yonghua; Xu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    probabilities of prediction errors provide an alternative yet effective solution. This article proposes a hybrid artificial neural network approach to generate prediction intervals of wind power. An extreme learning machine is applied to conduct point prediction of wind power and estimate model uncertainties...... via a bootstrap technique. Subsequently, the maximum likelihood estimation method is employed to construct a distinct neural network to estimate the noise variance of forecasting results. The proposed approach has been tested on multi-step forecasting of high-resolution (10-min) wind power using...... actual wind power data from Denmark. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid artificial neural network approach is effective and efficient for probabilistic forecasting of wind power and has high potential in practical applications....

  5. Hybrid Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Ejea, J. B.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper explores a power conditioning unit for photovoltaic/hydrogen based energy systems. Similar power conversion techniques, compared to traditional space power systems, are applied. An S4R regulator is devised with an unregulated battery bus as primary output and a secondary path to feed and electrolyser. A modular fuel cell converter completes the system and it operates when photovoltaic energy is not available or load demand exceeds solar power, i. e. like a traditional BDR. An ancillary battery keeps the unregulated bus voltage distributed in the system and it also aids the fuel cell during transients or start-up due to its limited speed. A 1kW breadboard has been designed and implemented to corroborate the proposed system.

  6. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Power Cutting System for Roadheader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrohydraulic hybrid power cutting transmission system for roadheader under specific working condition was proposed in this paper. The overall model for the new system composed of an electric motor model, a hydraulic pump-motor model, a torsional planetary set model, and a hybrid power train model was established. The working mode characteristics were simulated under the conditions of taking the effect of cutting picks into account. The advantages of new hybrid power cutting system about the dynamic response under shock load were investigated compared with the traditional cutting system. The results illustrated that the hybrid power system had an obvious cushioning in terms of the dynamic load of cutting electric motor and planetary gear set. Besides, the hydraulic motor could provide an auxiliary power to improve the performance of the electric motor. With further analysis, a dynamic load was found to have a high relation to the stiffness and damping of coupling in the transmission train. The results could be a useful guide for the design of cutting transmission of roadheader.

  7. Cooling tower restoration in the joint nuclear power station Neckar 1; Kuehlturmsanierung im Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, G. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Braeuning, G. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Dekker, G. [Marley Kuehlturm GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany). Bereich Vertrieb neuer Kuhlturm-Anlagen

    1996-11-01

    Since the starting operation of the Power Station GKN I (Joint Nuclear Power Station Neckar I) in the year 1976, the cell cooler of the plant was, except for those cases in which continuous-flow cooling was possible, continually in operation. Aim of the restoration, after an operational time of 17 years, is a further constructional and thermal service life of about 15 to 20 years. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit der Inbetriebnahme des Kraftwerkes GKN I im Jahr 1976 war der Zellenkuehler der Anlage bis auf die Faelle, in denen Durchlaufkuehlung moeglich war, ununterbrochen in Betrieb. Ziel der Sanierung nach ueber 17jaehriger Betriebszeit ist eine weitere bauliche und thermische Nutzungsdauer von etwa 15 bis 20 Jahren. (orig.)

  8. Photovoltaic / Diesel / Battery Hybrid Power Supply System

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available electricity being allocated to the more important urban sector. The relatively low energy demand in rural areas does not compensate the cost of long-range transmission lines from the national grid. This justifies the use of more decentralised forms of power...

  9. Solar tower power plant using a particle-heated steam generator: Modeling and parametric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Michael; Bartsch, Philipp; Pointner, Harald; Zunft, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Within the framework of the project HiTExStor II, a system model for the entire power plant consisting of volumetric air receiver, air-sand heat exchanger, sand storage system, steam generator and water-steam cycle was implemented in software "Ebsilon Professional". As a steam generator, the two technologies fluidized bed cooler and moving bed heat exchangers were considered. Physical models for the non-conventional power plant components as air- sand heat exchanger, fluidized bed coolers and moving bed heat exchanger had to be created and implemented in the simulation environment. Using the simulation model for the power plant, the individual components and subassemblies have been designed and the operating parameters were optimized in extensive parametric studies in terms of the essential degrees of freedom. The annual net electricity output for different systems was determined in annual performance calculations at a selected location (Huelva, Spain) using the optimized values for the studied parameters. The solution with moderate regenerative feed water heating has been found the most advantageous. Furthermore, the system with moving bed heat exchanger prevails over the system with fluidized bed cooler due to a 6 % higher net electricity yield.

  10. Development of power transmission tower monitoring system. Landslide detection by GPS carrier sensor; Soden tetto ijo kanshi system no kaihatsu. GPS carrier sensor ni yoru jisuberi kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In order to reduce labor required for monitoring, patrolling, and checking anomalies in power transmission towers, a development has been made on a remotely controlled monitoring system that can detect landslides easily by detecting carrier waves from the global positioning system (GPS) in combination with use of cellular phones. The present system does not use code signals from the GPS, but receives carrier waves used for its transmission at two locations, measures precisely the phase difference therein, and calculates a very small change in the distance between two points from difference in arrival time of the waves. Receivers are placed at base points (substations) and GPS measuring points (transmission towers). Pocket bells are called from a personal computer at the maintenance location (a power center) during observation, and power is supplied into the receivers from solar cells. The data of GPS carrier waves received at both locations are transmitted to the power center through a cellular phone. The phase difference is calculated and the amount of movement is displayed on the personal computer screen to carry out remote surveillance. A measurement of accuracy of about 1 cm may be realized. Demonstration tests have begun in 1995 at towers installed in the Shiga plateau district where landslide occurs frequently, and the feasibility of the system was verified. 5 figs.

  11. Design and control of hybrid active power filters

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Chi-Seng

    2014-01-01

    Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters presents an overview of the current quality problems and their compensators. To get a balance between the system cost and performance, hybrid active power filters (HAPFs) are valuable. The book presents the coverage of resonance phenomena prevention capability, filtering performance and system robustness analysis of HAPF; nonlinear inverter current slope characteristics and their linear operation region requirement analysis of the hysteresis PWM for the HAPF; minimum inverter capacity design procedure of HAPF, adaptive dc-link voltage controller for the HAPF and the real design example of a 220V 10kVA HAPF, in which the system performance analysis method, minimum dc voltage deduction concept and adaptive dc voltage idea can be further extended into the other active compensators, such as APF, static synchronous compensator STATCOM, etc. This book will benefit researchers, graduate students, and electrical power engineers in the field of power-quality compensati...

  12. Virtueller Tower

    OpenAIRE

    Fürstenau, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Es wird ein Überblick über den Stand der Forschung und Entwicklung zum Remote Tower Experimentalsystem gegeben, des im Rahmen des DLR-Projekts RapTOr am Forschungsflughafen Braunschweig aufgebaut wird.

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  14. THERMOELECTRIC AND MICROBATTERY HYBRID SYSTEM WITH ITS POWER MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920); International audience; Integration of a power source with a MEMS to obtain an autonomous or remote system is a very challenging task. Such a device is currently being developed. It consists in hybriding an energy storage system (thin film solid state battery) with a scavenging energy system (thermogenerator) in a very small volume. It requires also power management to both control charge of the batt...

  15. Load flow computations in hybrid transmission - distributed power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wobbes, E.D.; Lahaye, D.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    We interconnect transmission and distribution power systems and perform load flow computations in the hybrid network. In the largest example we managed to build, fifty copies of a distribution network consisting of fifteen nodes is connected to the UCTE study model, resulting in a system consisting

  16. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the "energy hub" formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case.

  17. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos [Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the ''energy hub'' formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case. (author)

  18. ADОPTIVE CONTROL OF THE HYBRID VEHICLE POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive control of the hybrid vehicle power unit, which makes it possible to minimize the quality criterion under constraints on the state parameters and the control vector is considered. A formal statement of the optimization problem is given. The solution of this problem by the method of neural network control based on the adaptive criticism is considered.

  19. Bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS) for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Mourad, S.; Have, P. ten

    1999-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) the requirements on batteries for energy storage are completely different from those in battery powered electric vehicles (BEV's). In order to come to a succesful development of HEV's, beside fullfilling the technical requirements, the battery has to have a long

  20. Bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS) for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Mourad, S.; Have, P. ten

    1999-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) the requirements on batteries for energy storage are completely different from those in battery powered electric vehicles (BEV's). In order to come to a succesful development of HEV's, beside fullfilling the technical requirements, the battery has to have a long l

  1. Bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS) for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.

    1998-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV's) the requirements on batteries for energy storage are completely different from those in battery powered electric vehicles (BEV's). In order to come to a succesful development of HEV's, beside fullfilling the technical requirements, the battery has to have a long l

  2. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, J.; Kwok, P.

    2017-04-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices, such as emergency devices or remote sensors that need to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries sometimes require more than 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources are needed to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper, the development of a hybrid reserve power source that is constructed by integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery to provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  3. Piezoelectric-based hybrid reserve power sources for munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Jahangir; Pereira, Carlos M.; Feng, Dake

    2016-05-01

    Reserve power sources are used extensively in munitions and other devices such as emergency devices or remote sensors that have to be powered only once and for a relatively short duration. Current chemical reserve power sources, including thermal batteries and liquid reserve batteries require sometimes in excess of 100 msec to become fully activated. In many applications, however, electrical energy is required in a few msec following the launch event. In such applications, other power sources have to be provided to provide power until the reserve battery is fully activated. The amount of electrical energy that is required by most munitions before chemical reserve batteries are fully activated is generally small and can be provided by properly designed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting devices. In this paper the development of a hybrid reserve power source obtained by the integration of a piezoelectric-based energy harvesting device with a reserve battery that can provide power almost instantaneously upon munitions firing or other similar events is being reported. A review of the state of the art in piezoelectric-based electrical energy harvesting methods and devices and their charge collection electronics for use in the developed hybrid power sources is also provided together with the results of testing of the piezoelectric component of the power source and its electronic safety and charge collection electronics.

  4. Development and simulation of a hydrogen production plant on a solar power tower; Entwicklung und Simulation einer Wasserstofferzeugungsanlage auf einem Solarturm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeck, Jan-Peter

    2012-08-29

    The purpose of the present project was to develop and qualify a test plant for thermochemical hydrogen production on a solar power tower and to create and validate a systems and control model as well as an operating strategy for this purpose. [German] Ziel der Arbeit war, eine Testanlage zur thermochemischen Wasserstofferzeugung auf einem Solarturmsystem zu entwickeln und zu qualifizieren, sowie ein System- und Regelungsmodell und eine Betriebsstrategie dafuer zu erstellen und zu validieren.

  5. 塔式太阳能发电系统定日镜控制研究%Research on Heliostat Control System of Solar Power Tower Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐丽婵; 陆宇; 汤雪华

    2014-01-01

    As environmental pollution and resource waste becoming increasingly obvious, the importance of the new energy has been more and more apparent. As a representative of the new energy, solar energy has been widely used. The tower plants have the highest concentration ratio in the solar thermal power generation technology, which is the reason why tower plants can operate of a higher temperature, so that it can give higher efficiency and more power of the system. Therefore, solar tower power generation has a good application prospect.%随着环境污染和资源浪费问题的日益突出,新能源的重要性已越来越明显。太阳能作为新能源家族中的代表能源已广泛成为人们所利用的对象。在太阳能热发电技术中,塔式发电系统的聚光比最高,因此塔式发电系统可以进行更高温度的运行,从而导致更高的系统效率以及更多的电力产出。因此,太阳能塔式发电有着良好的应用前景。

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  7. Solar central receiver hybrid - A cost effective future power alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshore, D. G.; Bolton, C. N.; Montague, J. E.

    1980-05-01

    System analyses and conceptual designs of solar central receiver hybrid concepts using molten salt (60% NaNO3, 40% KNO3 by weight) and fossil fired nonsolar energy sources (coal, oil, or gas) have been performed. Analyses have developed plant configurations with various solar energy storage capacities and fossil fuels. Economic analyses support the final configuration selection based on minimization of the cost of energy produced from the plant. A 500 MWe commercial plant size installed for a 1990 initial year of operation is competitive with new coal, oil, and nuclear power generation sources. This hybrid plant will save an estimated 5 million barrels of oil per year.

  8. A Hybrid Optimization Method for Reactive Power and Voltage Control Considering Power Loss Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengxi; Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method to optimally control the voltage and reactive power with minimum power loss in transmission grid. This approach is used for the Danish automatic voltage control (AVC) system which is typically a non-linear non-convex problem mixed with both continu...

  9. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in a combined heat and power generation (CHP case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency as well as economic parameters show that hybrid power plants are more efficient compared to conventional CHP concepts or separate use of the energy sources.

  10. Evaluation and optimization of goal strategies for solar tower power plants; Bewertung und Optimierung von Zielpunktstrategien fuer solare Turmkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhomme, Boris

    2011-07-01

    The levelized costs of a solar tower power plant are mainly influenced by the operational strategy of its heliostat field. Ensuring an efficient utilization of the heliostat field during the plant operation and therewith a high overall efficiency requires an optimal aim point strategy. The objective of the present work is to develop a computer-aided method for the optimization of aim point strategies. One main prerequisite for this kind of optimization is a realistic evaluation of a given aim point configuration. For this purpose an efficient ray tracing model for a fast and precise calculation of the flux density distribution caused by heliostats is developed as a first step. It is validated by a comparison of simulated and measured flux density distributions. By coupling the ray tracing model and a physical model of a receiver any variable of the receiver model can act as optimization variable. In a second step a method for the optimization of aim point configurations is developed. By defining a finite number of fixed aims points, the present problems becomes a combinatorial optimization problem. Due to the problem complexity, an exact solution can usually not be determined. On the other hand, this allows applying algorithms for the global optimization of combinatorial problems. Accordingly the Ant Colony Optimization metaheuristic is applied and adapted to the aim point optimization problem. By means of two selected example cases the general suitability of the method for the purpose of aim point optimization is proved and the influence of different optimization parameters on the optimization process is investigated. (orig.)

  11. 塔式太阳能热发电相关技术的最新进展%The Latest Development of Solar Power Tower Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田枫; 祝雪妹

    2015-01-01

    塔式太阳能热发电是大型太阳能发电中最为经济和最具市场前景的发电方式.本文在简要介绍了塔式太阳能热发电系统的工作原理和系统组成的基础上,详述了国内外塔式太阳能电站的最新发展现状,进一步对其核心部件定日镜的形制、镜场布局及主要设备吸热器及其吸热介质等关键技术进行了重点介绍和分析,为推动塔式太阳能热发电技术在我国的推广应用提供了相应的依据和技术参考.%Solar power tower is the most economical and market potential method in large-scale solar power generation plants. In this paper,on the basis of a brief introduction to the operating principle and system composition of solar power tower,the latest developments of solar power tower plants in domestic and international are described in detail. The technologies of heliostats,heliostat layout,and solar receiver,which are the core components of a solar power plant,are introduced and analyzed for providing the basis of the promotion of the solar power system in our country.

  12. Research on hybrid power filter of 6 kV power grid in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-feng; LI Jian

    2010-01-01

    Studied the harmonic control of the 6 kV power grid in a coal mine substation.Taking harmonic suppression and reactive power compensation into account, and complying with the economic and efficient technical line of the smart grid, a new hybrid active filter was proposed and applied to the power grid in the coal mine with the advantages such as large capacity, low cost and low loss. In order to improve detection speed and reduce the succeeding errors to improve the filtering performance of the active power filter,the DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) sliding window algorithm based on coordinate transformation and improved hysteresis control method was proposed. The Matlab simulation results show that the hybrid active filter is satisfactory, can improve the grid power factor and can meet the requirements of improving the power quality in the coal mine.

  13. Integral system for computer aided design of power line transmission towers; Sistema integral para el diseno asistido por computadora de torres de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagore, Gabriel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The profitable use of the advantages offered by the computer aided design, through the integral system for the structural design of power transmission towers (SIDETT) will contribute to facilitate and improve the design of the structures that link the electric power generation centers with the consumers. [Espanol] El aprovechamiento de las ventajas que ofrece el diseno asistido por computadora, a traves del sistema integral para el diseno estructural de torres de transmision (SIDETT), contribuira a agilizar y mejorar el diseno de las estructuras que enlazan los centros de generacion de energia electrica con los consumidores.

  14. Robust Power Management Control for Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Elkhatib; Adouane, Lounis; Aitouche, Abdel; Mohammed, Walaa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust fuzzy control of energy management strategy for the stand-alone hybrid power systems. It consists of two levels named centralized fuzzy supervisory control which generates the power references for each decentralized robust fuzzy control. Hybrid power systems comprises: a photovoltaic panel and wind turbine as renewable sources, a micro turbine generator and a battery storage system. The proposed control strategy is able to satisfy the load requirements based on a fuzzy supervisor controller and manage power flows between the different energy sources and the storage unit by respecting the state of charge and the variation of wind speed and irradiance. Centralized controller is designed based on If-Then fuzzy rules to manage and optimize the hybrid power system production by generating the reference power for photovoltaic panel and wind turbine. Decentralized controller is based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and permits us to stabilize each photovoltaic panel and wind turbine in presence of disturbances and parametric uncertainties and to optimize the tracking reference which is given by the centralized controller level. The sufficient conditions stability are formulated in the format of linear matrix inequalities using the Lyapunov stability theory. The effectiveness of the proposed Strategy is finally demonstrated through a SAHPS (stand-alone hybrid power systems) to illustrate the effectiveness of the overall proposed method.

  15. Reactive power control of wind-diesel-micro-hydro hybrid power systems using matlab/simulink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, R.C.; Bhatti, T.S.; Kothari, D.P.; Bhat, S. [Birla Inst. of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies; Visvesvaraya National Inst. of Technology, Nagpur (IN). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents reactive power control of isolated wind-diesel-micro-hydro hybrid power system for realistic load disturbance using matlab/simulink. The mathematical model of the system based on matlab/simulink is developed. Reactive power control performance is compared using three different types of Static VAR Compensators (SVC). Transient responses for step plus normally distributed or band limited white noise random change in load have also been presented in this paper. (Author)

  16. Mathematical and experimental investigations on dispersion and recirculation of plumes from dry cooling towers at Wyodak Power Plant in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1976-02-01

    The study presented was conducted (1) to develop a two-dimensional mathematical simulation model for determination of plume dispersion and recirculation from an existing code; (2) to investigate experimentally and mathematically the recirculation and temperature distributions of plumes from two dry cooling towers at the Wyodak Plant in Wyoming; and (3) to elucidate the effects of wind velocity, temperature of heated effluent, adjacent cooling towers and local topography on plume dispersion and recirculation. The mathematical model is based on solution of the steady flow momentum and energy equations using the stream function-vorticity technique. Experiments were conducted in a 10-foot-wide hydraulic flume, using water as a model flow. The study shows that plume recirculation and dispersion are strongly influenced by local topography and nearby structures such as adjacent cooling towers and buildings, as well as by the ambient wind velocity and effluent exit temperature.

  17. Research of security and stability of parallel power transmission lines on the same tower in Hunan power grid%同杆并架线路对湖南电网安全稳定的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道君; 呙虎; 李晨坤

    2015-01-01

    The simulation model of 220 kV and 500 kV parallel power transmission lines on the same tower in Hunan power grid is built during two different phase faults along with disconnection of both the double-circuit transmission lines. The power flowing and transient stability are analyzed after faults. The effects on the security and stability of power system are studied when double-circuit transmission lines are disconnected on the same tower.%对湖南电网运行的220 kV和500 kV同杆并架线路,分别建立异名相故障双回线同跳的仿真模型,进行故障后的潮流分析和暂态稳定分析,重点研究同杆并架线路双回同跳对电网安全稳定的影响。

  18. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SERIES HYBRID ACTIVE POWER FILTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Some important factors for designing a series hybrid active power filter (SHAPF) are presented in this paper for the case when the load is varied in a wide range and/or the source voltage is seriously distorted. Special design of passive filters, adaptive control of parameter and multi variant control are discussed in detail. The filter is stable, has good performance, and causes small capacitive reactive current. The simulation and experimental results accorded with the theoretical analysis results.

  19. Hybrid HVDC circuit breaker with self-powered gate drives

    OpenAIRE

    Effah, Francis Boafo; Watson, Alan James; Ji, Chao; Amankwah, Emmanuel K.; Johnson, Christopher Mark; Davidson, Colin; Clare, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing electric power demand and the advent of renewable energy sources have revived the interest in high-voltage direct current (HVDC) multi-terminal networks. However, the absence of a suitable circuit breaker or fault tolerant VSC station topologies with the required characteristics (such as operating speed) have, until recently, been an obstacle in the development of large scale multi-terminal networks for HVDC. This paper presents a hybrid HVDC circuit breaker concept which...

  20. Hybrid HVDC circuit breaker with self-powered gate drives

    OpenAIRE

    Effah, Francis Boafo; Watson, Alan James; Ji, Chao; Amankwah, Emmanuel K.; Johnson, Christopher Mark; Davidson, Colin; Clare, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing electric power demand and the advent of renewable energy sources have revived the interest in high-voltage direct current (HVDC) multi-terminal networks. However, the absence of a suitable circuit breaker or fault tolerant VSC station topologies with the required characteristics (such as operating speed) have, until recently, been an obstacle in the development of large scale multi-terminal networks for HVDC. This paper presents a hybrid HVDC circuit breaker concept which ...

  1. Modeling, analysis and control of fuel cell hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung Won

    Transient performance is a key characteristic of fuel cells, that is sometimes more critical than efficiency, due to the importance of accepting unpredictable electric loads. To fulfill the transient requirement in vehicle propulsion and portable fuel cell applications, a fuel cell stack is typically coupled with a battery through a DC/DC converter to form a hybrid power system. Although many power management strategies already exist, they all rely on low level controllers that realize the power split. In this dissertation we design controllers that realize various power split strategies by directly manipulating physical actuators (low level commands). We maintain the causality of the electric dynamics (voltage and current) and investigate how the electric architecture affects the hybridization level and the power management. We first establish the performance limitations associated with a stand-alone and power-autonomous fuel cell system that is not supplemented by an additional energy storage and powers all its auxiliary components by itself. Specifically, we examine the transient performance in fuel cell power delivery as it is limited by the air supplied by a compressor driven by the fuel cell itself. The performance limitations arise from the intrinsic coupling in the fluid and electrical domain between the compressor and the fuel cell stack. Feedforward and feedback control strategies are used to demonstrate these limitations analytically and with simulations. Experimental tests on a small commercial fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) confirm the dynamics and the identified limitations. The dynamics associated with the integration of a fuel cell system and a DC/DC converter is then investigated. Decentralized and fully centralized (using linear quadratic techniques) controllers are designed to regulate the power system voltage and to prevent fuel cell oxygen starvation. Regulating these two performance variables is a difficult task and requires a compromise

  2. Improvement of Power Quality Using a Hybrid Interline UPQC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K.Elango

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed the reduced rating star connected transformer based interline unified power quality conditioner. This work comprises of unified power quality conditioner connected between the two feeders, star connected transformer and LC filter. This hybrid approach significantly improves the performance of UPQC under unbalance source voltage condition. The UPQC adopted to compensate current and voltage-quality problems of sensitive loads and suppressing the load current harmonics under distorted supply conditions. The series converter control strategy is based on the fuzzy-logic controller. The extensive simulation results have carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment power system blockset toolboxes. From the results it has shown that hybrid interline UPQC achieves superior capability of mitigating the effects of voltage sag/swell and suppressing the load current harmonics, phase current harmonics and neutral current under distorted supply conditions. To validate the results produced by the proposed method, it is compared with the conventional UPQC method and better results obtained from the hybrid approach.

  3. Scalable and Power Efficient Data Analytics for Hybrid Exascale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Alok [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Samatova, Nagiza [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, Kesheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liao, Wei-keng [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-19

    This project developed a generic and optimized set of core data analytics functions. These functions organically consolidate a broad constellation of high performance analytical pipelines. As the architectures of emerging HPC systems become inherently heterogeneous, there is a need to design algorithms for data analysis kernels accelerated on hybrid multi-node, multi-core HPC architectures comprised of a mix of CPUs, GPUs, and SSDs. Furthermore, the power-aware trend drives the advances in our performance-energy tradeoff analysis framework which enables our data analysis kernels algorithms and software to be parameterized so that users can choose the right power-performance optimizations.

  4. Optimal Power Scheduling for an Islanded Hybrid Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid is a system that integrates energy generation, energy storage, and loads and it is able to operate either in interconnected or islanded mode. Energy resources should be scheduled to supply the load properly in order to coordinate optimally the power exchange within the microgrid...... according to a defined objective function. In this paper, an optimal power scheduling for generation and demand side is presented to manage an islanded hybrid PV-wind-battery microgrid implemented in Shanghai-China. The optimization is addressed through a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) mathematical......SPACE1006) in which a scaled down model of this microgrid is emulated....

  5. PEFC stacks as power sources for hybrid propulsion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbo, P.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O. [Istituto Motori of Italian National Research Council, Via Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    In this paper the performance of two polymeric electrolyte fuel cell systems (FCS) for hybrid power trains are presented and discussed. In particular, an experimental analysis was effected on 2.4 and 20 kW stacks with the aim to investigate the energy management issues of the two FCSs for utilization as power sources in electric power trains for scooter and minibus, respectively. The stack characterizations permitted the effect of the main operative variables (temperature, pressure and stoichiometric ratio) on mean power density of cells to be evaluated. The FCS efficiency was evaluated and compared for the two traction systems, individuating the optimal operative conditions for automotive application and specifying the energy losses of the auxiliary components. The efficiency of both fuel cell systems resulted higher than 40% in a wide range of loads (100-600 mA/cm{sup 2}), with maximum values close to 50%. The experimental characterization of the two power trains was carried out on dynamic test benches, able to simulate the behaviour of the two vehicles on the European R40 driving cycle. The characterization of the two propulsion systems on R40 driving cycle evidenced that the overall efficiency was not affected significantly by the hybrid configuration adopted, as the efficiency values ranged from 27 to 29% in the different procedures analyzed. (author)

  6. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  7. Combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system for solar-thermal steam-electric power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyer, E.C.; Bourne, J.G.; Brownell, D.L.; Rose, R.M.

    1979-02-28

    The thermal performance and economics of the combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system concept for solar-thermal steam-electric plants have been evaluated. Based on the computer simulation of the operation of southwest-sited solar-thermal plants, it has been determined that the combined pond-tower concept has significant cost and performance advantages over conventional dry cooling systems. Use of a thermal storage pond as a component of the dry cooling system allows a significant reduction in the required dry cooling heat exchange capacity and the associated parasitic power consumption. Importantly, it has been concluded that the combined pond-tower dry cooling system concept can be employed to economically maintain steam condensing temperatures at levels normally achieved with conventional evaporative cooling systems. An evaluation of alternative thermal storage pond design concepts has revealed that a stratified vertical-flow cut-and-fill reservoir with conventional membrane lining and covering would yield the best overall system performance at the least cost.

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh

    2005-12-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC2601NT40779 for the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a gas turbine. A conceptual hybrid system design was selected for analysis and evaluation. The selected system is estimated to have over 65% system efficiency, a first cost of approximately $650/kW, and a cost of electricity of 8.4 cents/kW-hr. A control strategy and conceptual control design have been developed for the system. A number of SOFC module tests have been completed to evaluate the pressure impact to performance stability. The results show that the operating pressure accelerates the performance degradation. Several experiments were conducted to explore the effects of pressure on carbon formation. Experimental observations on a functioning cell have verified that carbon deposition does not occur in the cell at steam-to-carbon ratios lower than the steady-state design point for hybrid systems. Heat exchanger design, fabrication and performance testing as well as oxidation testing to support heat exchanger life analysis were also conducted. Performance tests of the prototype heat exchanger yielded heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics consistent with the heat exchanger specification. Multicell stacks have been tested and performance maps were obtained under hybrid operating conditions. Successful and repeatable fabrication of large (>12-inch diameter) planar SOFC cells was demonstrated using the tape calendering process. A number of large area cells and stacks were successfully performance tested at ambient and pressurized conditions. A 25 MW plant configuration was

  9. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  10. Development and Demonstration of a 25 Watt Thermophotovoltaic Power Source for a Hybrid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Edward; Shukla, Kailash; Metcalfe, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The development of a propane-fueled, 25 W thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power source for use in a hybrid power system is described. The TPV power source uses a platinum emitting surface with an anti-reflective coating to radiate to gallium antimonide photocells, which converts the radiation to electric power. The development program started with the design and fabrication of an engineering prototype system. This was used as a component development vehicle to develop the technologies for the various components. A 25 W demonstration prototype was then designed and fabricated using the most advanced component approaches. The designs and test results from this development program are discussed.

  11. Virtual Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Engineering Dept.

    1997-08-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems.

  12. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Heberle; Dieter Brüggemann

    2014-01-01

    We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in a combined heat and power generation (CHP) case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency...

  13. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Resulting from the Manufacture of the Heliostat Field for a Reference Power Tower Design in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as a useful analytical approach for quantifying environmental impacts of renewable energy technologies, including concentrating solar power (CSP). An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a series of LCA studies for various CSP technologies. This paper contributes to a thorough LCA of a 100 MWnet molten salt power tower CSP plant by estimating the environmental impacts resulting from the manufacture of heliostats. Three life cycle metrics are evaluated: greenhouse gas emissions, water consumption, and cumulative energy demand. The heliostat under consideration (the 148 m2 Advanced Thermal Systems heliostat) emits 5,300 kg CO2eq, consumes 274 m3 of water, and requires 159,000 MJeq during its manufacture. Future work will incorporate the results from this study into the LCA model used to estimate the life cycle impacts of the entire 100 MWnet power tower CSP plant.

  14. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  15. Power quality analysis of hybrid renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinchin W. Mosobi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid renewable energy sources consisting of solar photovoltaic, wind energy system, and a microhydro system is proposed in this paper. This system is suitable for supplying electricity to isolated locations or remote villages far from the grid supply. The solar photovoltaic system is modeled with two power converters, the first one being a DC-DC converter along with an maximum power point tracking to achieve a regulated DC output voltage and the second one being a DC-AC converter to obtain AC output. The wind energy system is modeled with a wind-turbine prime mover with varying wind speed and fixed pitch angle to drive an self excited induction generator (SEIG. Owing to inherent drooping characteristics of the SEIG, a closed loop turbine input system is incorporated. The microhydro system is modeled with a constant input power to drive an SEIG. The three different sources are integrated through an AC bus and the proposed hybrid system is supplied to R, R-L, and induction motor loads. A static compensator is proposed to improve the load voltage and current profiles; it also mitigates the harmonic contents of the voltage and current. The static synchronous compensator is realized by means of a three-phase IGBT-based current-controlled voltage source inverter with a self-supporting DC bus. The complete system is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results obtained illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system and are found to be satisfactory.

  16. 广州塔供配电系统设计%Design for Power Supply and Distribution System of Canton Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓝志

    2012-01-01

    介绍广州塔的供配电系统设计,包括负荷等级、供电电源、变配电所的设置、中低压配电系统、低压配电方式、应急电源、变配电自动化监测、电线电缆的选择及敷设等方面内容。%The design for power distribution system of Canton Tower is including load class, power source, transformer and distribution substation, low-voltage distribution system, low-voltage pattern, emergency supply and introduced, setting of middle and distribution power supply, automation detection of transformer and distribution, and selection and laying of wires and cables.

  17. 太阳能热风发电技术及其应用%Thermal dynamic modeling and practice of the solar heated wind updraft tower power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏毅立; 刘明珠; 吴振奎; 张新; 王琼

    2013-01-01

    在太阳能热气流发电的基础上增设进风口,形成了利用太阳能和风能的太阳能热风发电系统.建立了太阳能热风发电热动力稳态数学模型,通过此模型可判断出发电系统的稳定性,并可解出热风风速、集热棚出口温度及稳态数学模型的其它参数.文章介绍了太阳能热风发电系统的实际运行情况,运行结果与数学模型计算结果相吻合.理论分析和运行实践表明,提高塔筒高度、加大塔筒内外温差、增加集热棚的太阳能吸收率、增大集热棚面积系数及风力发电机组的风能利用率,是提高太阳能热风发电量的途径.%A solar heated wind updraft tower power plant (SHWUTPP) is designed based on the solar updraft tower power by adding some controllable air intakes at the HCS rim, so it can apply both solar generation and natural wind generation. In this paper a mathematical model of the power plant is established to judge the stability of this system, deduce the speed of the heated wind, get the temperature of the heat collecting shed outlet and other relevant parameters. The real operational aspect of this system is described, and it is consistent with the mathematical model. By rationally analysis and the result of the generation operation, such as improving the height of the tower, increasing the difference of the temperature between the inside and outside of the tower, increasing the area and solar absorption coefficient of the heat collecting shed, improving the utilization of wind energy are the ways to increase the generation capacity.

  18. Hybrid-Circuit Module For Dc-To-Dc Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorperian, Vatche; Detwiler, Robert; Karmon, Dan

    1996-01-01

    Power hybrid module is general-purpose power-switching module providing flexibility in design and application. Complete dc-to-dc power converter constructed by adding input/output filters and feedback circuitry to module to suit specific application.

  19. POWER OPTIMIZED DATAPATH UNITS OF HYBRID EMBEDDED CORE ARCHITECTURE USING CLOCK GATING TECHNIQUE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T.Subhashini; M.Kamaraju

    2015-01-01

    ...% of the total power dissipation. The main goal of this work is to implement a prototype power optimized datapath unit and ALU of Hybrid Embedded Controller Architecture targeted on to the FPGA chip and analyze the power consumption...

  20. Cost based reactive power participation for voltage control in multi units based isolated hybrid power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Saxena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi units of wind and diesel based generators in isolated hybrid power system have technical and operational advantages over single units system. They require dynamic reactive power compensation for fast recovery of voltage under load and input changes. In developing countries like India, investors’ prime concern is to provide continuous electricity at low rate while quality degradation can be permitted within pre defined acceptable range. The use of static compensator along with dynamic compensator may give cost effective reactive power participation for system. This paper presented pricing of reactive power compensation under steady state and transient conditions of system with fixed capacitor and STATCOM. The main contributions of the paper are; (i evaluating reactive power balance equation for generalized multi units of wind and diesel based isolated hybrid power system, (ii reactive power compensation using fixed capacitor and STATCOM in presence of composite load model, (ii fast recovery of voltage response using genetic algorithm based tuning of STATCOM controller, (iii evaluation of reactive power compensation cost for steady and dynamic conditions due to probabilistic change in load and/or input demand and (iv comparison of results with existing reference compensation method.

  1. Power Management of Hybrid Power Systems with Li-Fe Batteries and Supercapacitors for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy management strategy of a Li-Fe battery and supercapacitor hybrid power system to provide both high power density and energy density for mobile robots with fluctuating workloads. A two-phase power-optimization approach is proposed to exploit the high power density of supercapacitors and the high energy density of Li-Fe batteries. With our strategy, large peak power can be provided for a short time period whenever needed, while low power can be provided for very long time. A set of experiments have been conducted. The experimental results show that our strategy can effectively improve the performance of mobile robots and extend the lifetime of batteries.

  2. Strength of 500 kV Power Transmission Tower Under Tornado%龙卷风作用下500 kV输电铁塔强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璋奇; 齐立忠; 杨文刚

    2016-01-01

    Tornado cyclone structure is simulated based on semi-experience formula of tornado wind filed and taking typical 5A-ZB3 500 kV power transmission tower for a research objective,wind load on the power transmission tower is calculated at the time of tornado passing through the side of power transmission tower along paralleled path,and force conditions of member bars of the tower under tornado wind load are studied as well. Research results indicate the tower will suffer great straight up wind load under the role of tornado and the power transmission tower will happen to combined deformation. It also explains the main kind causing failure of the power transmission tower is torsional deformation.%基于龙卷风风场的半经验公式模拟龙卷风气旋结构,以典型的5A-ZB3型500 kV 输电铁塔为研究对象,计算龙卷风沿平行路径从输电铁塔旁边通过时,输电铁塔上的风载荷,并研究龙卷风载荷作用下铁塔的杆件受力情况。研究结果表明:在龙卷风作用下,铁塔将受到较大的竖直向上的风载荷作用,输电铁塔整体发生弯拉扭组合变形,导致输电铁塔失效的主要形式是扭转变形。

  3. Intelligent uninterruptible power supply system with back-up fuel cell/battery hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yuedong; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Hua

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with a hybrid power source that comprises a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a battery. Attention is focused on the architecture of the UPS hybrid system and the data acquisition and control of the PEMFC. Specifically, the hybrid UPS system consists of a low-cost 60-cell 300 W PEMFC stack, a 3-cell lead-acid battery, an active power factor correction ac-dc rectifier, a half-bridge dc-ac inverter, a dc-dc converter, an ac-dc charger and their control units based on a digital signal processor TMS320F240, other integrated circuit chips, and a simple network management protocol adapter. Experimental tests and theoretical studies are conducted. First, the major parameters of the PEMFC are experimentally obtained and evaluated. Then an intelligent control strategy for the PEMFC stack is proposed and implemented. Finally, the performance of the hybrid UPS system is measured and analyzed.

  4. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  5. Hybrid Solar: A Review on Photovoltaic and Thermal Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture. In the building sector in particular, the limited building space for the accommodation of solar devices has driven a demand on the use of hybrid solar technology for the multigeneration of active power and/or passive solar devices. The importance is escalating with the worldwide trend on the development of low-carbon/zero-energy buildings. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collector systems had been studied theoretically, numerically, and experimentally in depth in the past decades. Together with alternative means, a range of innovative products and systems has been put forward. The final success of the integrative technologies relies on the coexistence of robust product design/construction and reliable system operation/maintenance in the long run to satisfy the user needs. This paper gives a broad review on the published academic works, with an emphasis placed on the research and development activities in the last decade.

  6. Modeling and simulation of a hybrid ship power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorcik, Christopher J.

    2011-12-01

    Optimizing the performance of naval ship power systems requires integrated design and coordination of the respective subsystems (sources, converters, and loads). A significant challenge in the system-level integration is solving the Power Management Control Problem (PMCP). The PMCP entails deciding on subsystem power usages for achieving a trade-off between the error in tracking a desired position/velocity profile, minimizing fuel consumption, and ensuring stable system operation, while at the same time meeting performance limitations of each subsystem. As such, the PMCP naturally arises at a supervisory level of a ship's operation. In this research, several critical steps toward the solution of the PMCP for surface ships have been undertaken. First, new behavioral models have been developed for gas turbine engines, wound rotor synchronous machines, DC super-capacitors, induction machines, and ship propulsion systems. Conventional models describe system inputs and outputs in terms of physical variables such as voltage, current, torque, and force. In contrast, the behavioral models developed herein express system inputs and outputs in terms of power whenever possible. Additionally, the models have been configured to form a hybrid system-level power model (HSPM) of a proposed ship electrical architecture. Lastly, several simulation studies have been completed to expose the capabilities and limitations of the HSPM.

  7. Power maximization for pyroelectric, piezoelectric, and hybrid energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Murtadha A.

    The goal of this dissertation consists of improving the efficiency of energy harvesting using pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials in a system by the proper characterization of electrical parameters, widening frequency, and coupling of both effects with the appropriate parameters. A new simple stand-alone method of characterizing the impedance of a pyroelectric cell has been demonstrated. This method utilizes a Pyroelectric single pole low pass filter technique, PSLPF. Utilizing the properties of a PSLPF, where a known input voltage is applied and capacitance C p and resistance Rp can be calculated at a frequency of 1 mHz to 1 Hz. This method demonstrates that for pyroelectric materials the impedance depends on two major factors: average working temperature, and the heating rate. Design and implementation of a hybrid approach using multiple piezoelectric cantilevers is presented. This is done to achieve mechanical and electrical tuning, along with bandwidth widening. In addition, a hybrid tuning technique with an improved adjusting capacitor method was applied. An toroid inductor of 700 mH is shunted in to the load resistance and shunt capacitance. Results show an extended frequency range up to 12 resonance frequencies (300% improvement) with improved power up to 197%. Finally, a hybrid piezoelectric and pyroelectric system is designed and tested. Using a voltage doubler, circuit for rectifying and collecting pyroelectric and piezoelectric voltages individually is proposed. The investigation showed that the hybrid energy is possible using the voltage doubler circuit from two independent sources for pyroelectrictity and piezoelectricity due to marked differences of optimal performance.

  8. 太阳能热风发电技术应用与示范%The application and demonstration of a solar updraft tower power-generating technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏毅立; 王琼

    2013-01-01

    A new solar updraft tower power generating technology,coupled with wind energy,is introduced in this article.Based on the design results,a steady-state thermal dynamic mathematical model is established and simulated.The results verify that the ways to improve solar chimney power generation output are increase of the tower height and advance of the absorbed power of collector.The actual operating results verify the correctness of the mathematical model,which shows that the greater the wind speed and the higher light intensity,the more the power generation output.Construction of the plant provides a theoretical support and specific technical guidance for future solar chimney power system design and construction.%文章设计一种新型的风光耦合发电技术.在设计结果的基础上,建立了热动力稳态数学模型并进行仿真,仿真结果验证了提高太阳能热风发电量的途径是升高塔筒高度、提高集热棚吸收能量的功率.其实际运行结果验证了数学模型的正确性,表明了当外界环境风速越大,光照强度越高时,系统的发电功率就越大.该电站的建设为今后太阳能热风发电系统的设计与建设提供了理论支撑及具体的技术指导.

  9. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  10. Hybrid LC filter for power electronic drives. Theory and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhankhotov, V.

    2009-07-01

    Power electronic converter drives use, for the sake of high efficiency, pulse-width modulation that results in sequences of high-voltage high-frequency steep-edged pulses. Such a signal contains a set of high harmonics not required for control purposes. Harmonics cause reflections in the cable between the motor and the inverter leading to faster winding insulation ageing. Bearing failures and problems with electromagnetic compatibility may also result. Electrical du/dt filters provide an effective solution to problems caused by pulse-width modulation, thereby increasing the performance and service life of the electrical machines. It is shown that RLC filters effectively decrease the reflection phenomena in the cable. Improved (simple, but effective) solutions are found for both differential- and common-mode signals; these solutions use a galvanic connection between the RLC filter star point and the converter DC link. Foil chokes and film capacitors are among the most widely used components in high-power applications. In actual applications they can be placed in different parts of the cabinet. This fact complicates the arrangement of the cabinet and decreases the reliability of the system. In addition, the inductances of connection wires may prevent filtration at high frequencies. This thesis introduces a new hybrid LC filter that uses a natural capacitance between the turns of the foil choke based on integration of an auxiliary layer into it. The main idea of the hybrid LC filter results from the fact that both the foil choke and the film capacitors have the same roll structure. Moreover, the capacitance between the turns ('intra capacitance') of the foil inductors is the reason for the deterioration of their properties at high frequencies. It is shown that the proposed filter has a natural cancellation of the intra capacitance. A hybrid LC filter may contain two or more foil layers isolated from each other and coiled on a core. The core material can be

  11. Low-power hybrid wireless network for monitoring infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D I; Shin, K H; Kim, I K; Park, K S; Lee, T S; Kim, S I; Lim, K S; Huh, S J

    2005-10-01

    We have created a pilot wireless network for the convenient monitoring of temperature and humidity of infant incubators. This system combines infrared and radio frequency (RF) communication in order to minimize the power consumption of slave devices, and we therefore call it a hybrid wireless network. The slave module installed in the infant incubator receives the calling signal from the host with an infrared receiver, and sends temperature and humidity data to the host with an RF transmitter. The power consumption of the host system is not critical, and hence it uses the maximum power of infrared transmission and continuously operating RF receiver. In our test implementation, we included four slave devices. The PC calls each slave device every second and then waits for 6 s, resulting in a total scan period of 10 s. Slave devices receive the calling signals and transmit three data values (temperature, moisture, and skin temperature); their power demand is 1 mW, and can run for about 1000 h on four AA-size nickel-hydride batteries.

  12. Thermo-economic study on the implementation of steam turbine concepts for flexible operation on a direct steam generation solar tower power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topel, Monika; Ellakany, Farid; Guédez, Rafael; Genrup, Magnus; Laumert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    Among concentrating solar power technologies, direct steam generation solar tower power plants represent a promising option. These systems eliminate the usage of heat transfer fluids allowing for the power block to be run at greater operating temperatures and therefore further increasing the thermal efficiency of the power cycle. On the other hand, the current state of the art of these systems does not comprise thermal energy storage as there are no currently available and techno-economically feasible storage integration options. This situation makes direct steam generation configurations even more susceptible to the already existing variability of operating conditions due to the fluctuation of the solar supply. In the interest of improving the annual performance and competitiveness of direct steam generation solar tower systems, the present study examines the influence of implementing two flexibility enhancing concepts which control the steam flow to the turbine as a function of the incoming solar irradiation. The proposed concepts were implemented in a reference plant model previously developed by the authors. Then, a multi-objective optimization was carried out in order to understand which configurations of the steam turbine concepts yield reductions of the levelized cost of electricity at a lower investment costs when compared to the reference model. Results show that the implementation of the proposed strategies can enhance the thermo-economic performance of direct steam generation systems by yielding a reduction of up to 9.2% on the levelized cost of electricity, mainly due to allowing 20% increase in the capacity factor, while increasing the investment costs by 7.8%.

  13. Sliding Mode Controller for Three-Phase Hybrid Active Power Filter with Photovoltaic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Blorfan, Ayman; Merckle, Jean; Flieller, Damien; Wira, Patrice; Sturtzer, Guy

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new three-phase hybrid active power filter configuration that interconnects a passive high-pass filter in parallel with an active power filter and a photovoltaic system. The proposed configuration can improves the filtering performance of the conventional active power filter, as well as simultaneously supply the power from the photovoltaic arrays to the load and utility. This paper will describe the proposed hybrid active power filter control usin...

  14. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Farouk Odeim; Jürgen Roes; Angelika Heinzel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, ...

  15. high power facto high power factor high power factor hybrid rectifier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    increase in the number of electrical loads that some kind of ... application, the rectifiers, particularly in Gr setting, are .... Copyright© Faculty of Engineering, sity of Nigeria ... PRINCIPLE OF THE PROPOSED HYBRID RECTIFIER. PRINCIPLE OF ...

  16. Successful implementation of ageing management exemplified at the cooling tower of Emsland nuclear power plant; Erfolgreiche Umsetzung von Alterungsmanagement am Beispiel Kuehlturm des Kernkraftwerkes Emsland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Alexander [Hochtief Solutions AG, Consult IKS Energy, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Design Kraftwerke; Dueweling, Carsten [Kernkraftwerke Lippe-Ems GmbH, Lingen (Germany). Abschnitt Bautechnik

    2013-07-15

    The present paper describes the successful implementation of the restoration of water-distribution channels at the cooling tower of the Emsland nuclear power plant under the aspect of ageing management. The main challenge of aging management is the determination of potential aging mechanism and to avoid systematically and effectively their damaging influences. In the course of the annual site inspections abnormalities at the lower side of the water-distribution channels of the cooling tower were detected, analysed, and repaired. The extraordinary high chlorine equivalent of the cooling water was identified as main reason of the damages located. Due to extensive infiltration into the concrete structure, chloride-induced corrosion generates a volume expansion of the reinforcement and thereby to a blast off of the concrete covering. According to the restoration concept, the damaged concrete was removed by maximum pressure water jet blasting; where necessary the reinforcement was retrofitted and a layered concrete substitution was applied by synthetic cement mortar. The realised procedures conserve the load bearing reinforcement only for a certain period, because the permanent chloride infiltration could not be stopped. Therefore, the structure has to be monitored permanently. (orig.)

  17. Control of a hybrid HVDC link to increase inter-regional power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotb, Omar; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Eriksson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a hybrid HVDC link in a two area power system with the purpose of increasing the inter-regional power transfer. A hybrid HVDC system combines both LCCs and VSCs, and hence it is capable of combining the benefits of both converter technologies, such as reduced...... cost and power losses due to the LCCs, and ability to connect to weak AC grids due to the VSCs. The mathematical model of the power system including the HVDC link is presented. The increase in inter-area power transfer is demonstrated and compared to the case when the hybrid HVDC link is not used....... Furthermore, the transient stability of the AC/DC power system was enhanced using auxiliary controllers for Power Oscillation Damping (POD). The results show the ability of the hybrid HVDC link to increase the unidirectional inter-area power transfer, while enhancing the transient stability of the power...

  18. Dynamic Power Management for Portable Hybrid Power-Supply Systems Utilizing Approximate Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyoung Park

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the optimization of power flows in portable hybrid power-supply systems (HPSSs has become an important issue with the advent of a variety of mobile systems and hybrid energy technologies. In this paper, a control strategy is considered for dynamically managing power flows in portable HPSSs employing batteries and supercapacitors. Our dynamic power management strategy utilizes the concept of approximate dynamic programming (ADP. ADP methods are important tools in the fields of stochastic control and machine learning, and the utilization of these tools for practical engineering problems is now an active and promising research field. We propose an ADP-based procedure based on optimization under constraints including the iterated Bellman inequalities, which can be solved by convex optimization carried out offline, to find the optimal power management rules for portable HPSSs. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is tested through dynamic simulations for smartphone workload scenarios, and simulation results show that the proposed strategy can successfully cope with uncertain workload demands.

  19. Recent progress in battery models for hybrid wind power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwell, J.F.; McGowan, J.G.; Baring-Gould, I.; Stein, W. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes the latest University of Massachusetts work on the analytical modeling and experimental testing of battery component models for hybrid power systems. An extension of the Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM), developed at the University of Massachusetts is presented. The original model was based on a combination of phenomenological and physical considerations. As described in this paper, the modified KiBaM can now model the sharp increase in voltage near the end of charging, and the sharp drop in voltage when the battery is nearly empty. This model may readily be coupled with a DC load or charging source (such as a DC wind turbine or photovoltaic panels) to determine the corresponding DC bus voltage. For example, it is now an integral part of the DC bus section of the University of Massachusetts HYBRID simulation models. The paper describes the development of the extensions to the KiBaM model and the method of determining the constants from test data. On the experimental/applications side, it includes an illustration of how the constants are obtained from representative data (using a specially developed testing apparatus), and an example of how the model can be used.

  20. Adaptive Current Control Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Minh Thuyen

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive current control method for Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF). It consists of a fuzzy-neural controller, identification and prediction model and cost function. The fuzzy-neural controller parameters are adjusted according to the cost function minimum criteria. For this reason, the proposed control method has a capability on-line control clings to variation of the load harmonic currents. Compared to the single fuzzy logic control method, the proposed control method shows the advantages of better dynamic response, compensation error in steady-state is smaller, able to online control is better and harmonics cancelling is more effective. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  1. Shape changing thin films powered by DNA hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Tae Soup; Estephan, Zaki G.; Qian, Zhaoxia; Prosser, Jacob H.; Lee, Su Yeon; Chenoweth, David M.; Lee, Daeyeon; Park, So-Jung; Crocker, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Active materials that respond to physical and chemical stimuli can be used to build dynamic micromachines that lie at the interface between biological systems and engineered devices. In principle, the specific hybridization of DNA can be used to form a library of independent, chemically driven actuators for use in such microrobotic applications and could lead to device capabilities that are not possible with polymer- or metal-layer-based approaches. Here, we report shape changing films that are powered by DNA strand exchange reactions with two different domains that can respond to distinct chemical signals. The films are formed from DNA-grafted gold nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer deposition process. Films consisting of an active and a passive layer show rapid, reversible curling in response to stimulus DNA strands added to solution. Films consisting of two independently addressable active layers display a complex suite of repeatable transformations, involving eight mechanochemical states and incorporating self-righting behaviour.

  2. A Wind Power and Load Prediction Based Frequency Control Approach for Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Peng; Zhenzhen Zhang; Jia Wu

    2015-01-01

    A frequency control approach based on wind power and load power prediction information is proposed for wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system (WDBHPS). To maintain the frequency stability by wind power and diesel generation as much as possible, a fuzzy control theory based wind and diesel power control module is designed according to wind power and load prediction information. To compensate frequency fluctuation in real time and enhance system disturbance rejection ability, a battery energy ...

  3. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid energy systems and an overview of energy storage technologies for renewable energy systems are presented. This paper also highlights the future trends of Hybrid energy systems, which represent a promising sustainable solution for power generation.

  4. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ibrahim; Abul Khair

    2015-01-01

    Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid ...

  5. Power Transmission Tower Series Extraction in PolSAR Image Based on Time-Frequency Analysis and A-Contrario Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Peng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on Time-Frequency (TF analysis and a-contrario theory, this paper presents a new approach for extraction of linear arranged power transmission tower series in Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR images. Firstly, the PolSAR multidimensional information is analyzed using a linear TF decomposition approach. The stationarity of each pixel is assessed by testing the maximum likelihood ratio statistics of the coherency matrix. Then, based on the maximum likelihood log-ratio image, a Cell-Averaging Constant False Alarm Rate (CA-CFAR detector with Weibull clutter background and a post-processing operator is used to detect point-like targets in the image. Finally, a searching approach based on a-contrario theory is applied to extract the linear arranged targets from detected point-like targets. The experimental results on three sets of PolSAR data verify the effectiveness of this approach.

  6. Speed Control of a DC Motor for the Orientation of a Heliostat in a Solar Tower Power Plant using Artificial Intelligence Systems (FLC and NC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfettah Zeghoudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in the field of motor controls is becoming more interesting especially with the developments of new control methods. This study shows a comparative study between two artificial intelligence methods namely neural networks and fuzzy logic for the speed control of a DC motor for the orientation of a heliostat in a solar tower power plant. The speed controller of DC motor is performed using two Fuzzy Logic Configuration (FLC1 and FLC2 and neural controller in MATLAB environment. The simulation results are used to make sure the real possibility of using artificial intelligence systems to identify and control this type of installation. The performance of the Fuzzy Logic Controller and Neural control are compared using different errors metrics. The results show that Fuzzy logic method is more efficient compared with neural controller method.

  7. Intrinsic borohydride fuel cell/battery hybrid power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jian; Fang, Bin; Wang, Chunsheng; Currie, Kenneth [Center for Manufacturing Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of NaBH{sub 4} on Zn, Zn-MH, and MH (metal-hydride) electrodes were investigated, and an intrinsic direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC)/battery hybrid power source using MH (or Zn-MH) as the anode and MnO{sub 2} as the cathode was tested. Borohydride cannot be effectively oxidized on Zn electrodes at the Zn oxidation potential because of the poor electrocatalytic ability of Zn for borohydride oxidation and the high overpotential, even though borohydride has the same oxidation potential of Zn in an alkaline solution. The borohydride can be electrochemically oxidized on Ni and MH electrodes through a 4e reaction at a high overpotential. Simply adding borohydride into an alkaline electrolyte of a Zn/air or MH/air battery can greatly increase the capacity, while an intrinsic DBFC/MH(or Zn)-MnO{sub 2} battery can deliver a higher peak power than regular DBFCs. (author)

  8. Hybrid aqueous capacitors with improved energy/power performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Menzel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on a high-voltage, hybrid capacitor involving two separate redox reactions. Aqueous solutions of Mg(NO32 and KI have been used for negative and positive electrode, respectively. Adjusting pH=2 for electrode (+ with KI solution and modifying Mg(NO32 solution to pH=9 for negative side play a crucial role for a stable long-term operation of capacitor at enhanced voltage. A benefit from such a construction is a pseudocapacitive contribution from hydrogen sorption reaction on the negative electrode and high iodine/iodide activity on the positive electrode, enhancing the energy with no remarkable impact on the power profile. Proposed solution allows a high voltage (1.8 V to be reached and thereby high power and energy performance (~20 W h/kg at 1 kW/kg to be obtained. High long-term stability has been confirmed by floating and galvanostatic tests.

  9. Evaluating transmission towers potentials during ground faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    During ground faults on transmission lines, a number of towers near the fault are likely to acquire high potentials to ground. These tower voltages, if excessive, may present a hazard to humans and animals. This paper presents analytical methods in order to determine the transmission towers potentials during ground faults, for long and short lines. The author developed a global systematic approach to calculate these voltages, which are dependent of a number of factors. Some of the most important factors are: magnitudes of fault currents, fault location with respect to the line terminals, conductor arrangement on the tower and the location of the faulted phase, the ground resistance of the faulted tower, soil resistivity, number, material and size of ground wires. The effects of these factors on the faulted tower voltages have been also examined for different types of power lines.

  10. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  11. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  12. Outage Performance of Hybrid FSO/RF System with Low-Complexity Power Adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2016-02-26

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO) / radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data- rate wireless communication systems. We consider truncated channel inversion based power adaptation strategy for coherent and non- coherent hybrid FSO/RF systems, employing an adaptive combining scheme. Specifically, we activate the RF link along with the FSO link when FSO link quality is unacceptable, and adaptively set RF transmission power to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio at receiver terminal. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are derived. Numerical examples show that, the hybrid FSO/RF systems with power adaptation achieve considerable outage performance improvement over conventional hybrid FSO/RF systems without power adaptation. © 2015 IEEE.

  13. The technique of Solar Tower and its Application Prospect Power Plant in China%塔式太阳能热发电技术及其在我国的应用前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳玲; 叶丽

    2012-01-01

    介绍了塔式太阳能热发电的结构原理、关键技术,并结合国内外相关研究的基础上,针对中国的能源情况和自然资源情况,论述了我国发展塔式太阳能热发电的必要性和可行性,并对我国发展塔式太阳能发电技术进行风险分析,提出相关建议。%The concentrated solar power a kind of potential technology for energy. In this paper, the mech- anism for solar tower power plant and its key technologies were introduced at first. The status of develop- ments of solar tower power plant at home and abroad was summarized then. It is concluded that the de- velopment of technology of solar tower power plant is necessary and feasible according to the analysis of energy and natural resources distribution in China. The risk analysis for solar tower was carried out at last and some of advices were put forward for the technology.

  14. New hybrid active power filter for harmonic current suppression and reactive power compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biricik, Samet; Cemal Ozerdem, Ozgur; Redif, Soydan; Sezai Dincer, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    In the case of undistorted and balanced grid voltages, low ratio shunt active power filters (APFs) can give unity power factors and achieve current harmonic cancellation. However, this is not possible when source voltages are distorted and unbalanced. In this study, the cost-effective hybrid active power filter (HAPF) topology for satisfying the requirements of harmonic current suppression and non-active power compensation for industry is presented. An effective strategy is developed to observe the effect of the placement of power capacitors and LC filters with the shunt APF. A new method for alleviating the negative effects of a nonideal grid voltage is proposed that uses a self-tuning filter algorithm with instantaneous reactive power theory. The real-time control of the studied system was achieved with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture, which was developed using the OPAL-RT system. The performance result of the proposed HAPF system is tested and presented under nonideal supply voltage conditions.

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrid Power System for Advanced Aero-propulsion and Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/ gas turbine hybrid power systems (HPSs) have been recognized by federal agencies and other entities as having the potential to operate...

  16. White Tower, London, England

    OpenAIRE

    William the Conqueror; William Rufus; Henry I

    2007-01-01

    White Tower (Tower of London), London, England. Photograph taken by Terry Barry. There is restoration work being carried out on one of the towers. The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. The great central keep was built by William the Conqueror and finished by his sons and successors, William Rufus and Henry I, around 1087. It is 90 feet high and is of massive construction, the walls varying from 15 feet thickness at the base to almost 11 feet in the upper parts. Above ...

  17. Demonstrative study for the wind and solar hybrid power system. 2; Furyoku taiyoko hybrid hatsuden system ni kansuru jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Sakuma, H.; Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to verify the complementary relationship between wind and solar energy, the long-term field test of the hybrid power system was conducted at the natural energy square of Ashikaga Institute of Technology. The solar cell blade windmill composed of a Savonius windmill and flexible solar cells applied to swept buckets was also prepared. As a result, the wind power generation was promising mainly in the winter period including the late fall and early spring, while solar one was stable all the year through although it was slightly poor in winter. Stable power generation was thus achieved by combining wind energy with solar energy. As the whole data of other wind and solar power generation systems at the square were analyzed for every month, the same conclusion as the solar cell blade windmill was obtained as follows: the wind power generation in Ashikaga area is promising in Nov.-March from the field test result for 16 months, solar power generation is stable all the year through, the hybrid power system is effective in Nov.-April, and the solar cell blade windmill is equivalent to the hybrid power system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Hybrid propulsion with highest electric power density for the ML 450 BlueHYBRID; Hybridantrieb mit hoechster elektrischen Leistungsdichte fuer den ML 450 BlueHYBRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Michael; Armstrong, Neil; Schenk, Juergen; Nietfeld, Franz; Inderka, Robert [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The ML 450 BlueHYBRID is an elementary milestone in the strategy to the sustainable mobility at Daimler AG (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany). This hybrid system based on the current M-class and is equipped with the innovative Two-Mode-Hybrid-System AHS-C with two high speed electrical engines. The entire propulsion system, the battery and power electronics and the strategy of operation particularly developed for this vehicle integrally provide for a significant reduction of consumption and emission. At the same time, the comfort of the total vehicle increases. In the ML 450 BlueHYBRID, a high volt battery on basis of nickel metal hydride is used. This battery consists of an extremely compact building method and enables an optimal packaging in the vehicle. For the first time, the cooling is performed with a liquid. This enables a stable operation in all situations. For the first time, the cooling takes place with a liquid and enables a stable enterprise in all situations. In connection with the AHS-C Two-Mode-Hybrid system, the battery system enables all hybrid-specific operation conditions such as a purely electrical tour, engine start stop, recupation, boosting. The ML 450 BlueHYBRID serially is produced in Tuscaloose (Alabama, USA). The manufacturing of the hybrid vehicle completely is integrated in the operation of work and is based on the existing serial production plants with hybrid-specific supplements and adjustments in assembly stations.

  19. Development and Test Operation of a Demonstration Plant for Sulfuric Acid Splitting at the DLR Concentrating Solar Power Tower Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Thomey, Dennis; Streber, Hans-Peter; Guerra-Niehoff, Alejandro; Romero, Moises; Lapp, Justin; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sulfuric acid splitting is a key step of the hybrid sulfur cycle (HyS) for solar thermochemical hydrogen production. This exothermal reaction can be divided into two steps: firstly, the evaporation of liquid sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at about 400 °C forming sulfur trioxide (SO3), and secondly, the decomposition of SO3 to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxygen (O2) at 800 – 1000 °C. While the first sub-reaction has fast kinetics, the second one is rather slow and requires the introduction of ...

  20. A New Control Method to Mitigate Power Fluctuations for Grid Integrated PV/Wind Hybrid Power System Using Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, N. S.; Gaonkar, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The output power obtained from solar-wind hybrid system fluctuates with changes in weather conditions. These power fluctuations cause adverse effects on the voltage, frequency and transient stability of the utility grid. In this paper, a control method is presented for power smoothing of grid integrated PV/wind hybrid system using ultracapacitors in a DC coupled structure. The power fluctuations of hybrid system are mitigated and smoothed power is supplied to the utility grid. In this work both photovoltaic (PV) panels and the wind generator are controlled to operate at their maximum power point. The grid side inverter control strategy presented in this paper maintains DC link voltage constant while injecting power to the grid at unity power factor considering different operating conditions. Actual solar irradiation and wind speed data are used in this study to evaluate the performance of the developed system using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that output power fluctuations of solar-wind hybrid system can be significantly mitigated using the ultracapacitor based storage system.

  1. 330kV输电线路不落导线更换ZM塔施工技术%method of replacing ZM tower and without falling power line in 330 kV power transmission line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳锋

    2012-01-01

    为了解决输电线路改造施工时影响被跨越物正常运行的难题,在组立铁塔过程中,采用了内悬浮提升抱杆,逐步抬高中相导线,保持导线不落地施工方法,对330 kV大-固线路跨越福-银高速公路段进行改造。应用结果表明:利用2根铝合金薄壁抱杆不落线对ZM铁塔加高的施工方法,操作简单,安全可靠,大大地节约了施工费用,可在类似改造工程中推广使用。%In order to avoid the influence of the rebuilding of power transmission line on normal op- eration of spanning objects, in the process of constructing power transmission tower, adopts a construc- tion method of using the internal suspension assistant setting appliance, gradually raising middle phase power line, keeping the line without falling, rebuilds the crossover section of 330 kV power transmission line from Daba to Guyuan spanning the thruway from Fuzhou to Yinchuan. The applica- tion result shows that the construction method of using two aluminium alloy thin assistant setting appli- ances without falling power line replacing ZM tower have: the characteristics of operation simple, safety and trustiness, greatly saving the cost, which can spread widely in similar project.

  2. A New Hybrid Power Configuration Used In HEV And Development of Its Driving BLDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Xu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV that has the advantages of high performance, high fuel efficiency, low emissions, and long operating range is focused on nowadays. A new hybrid power configuration used in HEV is presented with different control strategies and HEV performances when equipping different weight of fuel power and battery one. In order to realize the new hybrid power configuration especially in the refitted HEV, fractional-slot concentrated-wingding BLDC with higher rated spinning speed is given and the prototyped one is developed and fabricated which satisfy successfully the requirements of high performance and demission restriction for the refitted HEV.

  3. Influence of thermal flow field of cooling tower on recirculation ratio of a direct air-cooled system for a power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wanli; Liu Peiqing

    2008-01-01

    In order to get thermal flow field of direct air-cooled system,the hot water was supplied to the model of direct air-cooled condenser(ACC).The particle image velocimetery(PIV)experiments were carried out to get thermal flow field of a ACC under different conditions in low velocity wind tunnel,at the same time,the recirculation ratio at cooling tower was measured,so the relationship between flow field characteristics and recirculation ratio of cooling tower can be discussed.From the results we can see that the flow field configuration around cooling tower has great effects on average recirculation ratio under cooling tower.The eddy formed around cooling tower is a key reason that recireulation pro-duces.The eddy intensity relates to velocity magnitude and direction angle,and the configuration of eddy lies on the ge-ometry size of cooling tower.So changing the flow field configuration around cooling tower reasonably can decrease recir-culation ratio under cooling tower,and heat dispel effect of ACC can also be improved.

  4. Hybrid centralized-distributed power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator with high energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min;

    2013-01-01

    The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized-distribu......The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized...... the proposed system, which benefits for implementing high MPPT efficiency and high conversion efficiency simultaneously. A hybrid MPPT control strategy is proposed for this HCD power conditioning system. The characteristics, circuit implementation and operation principles of the proposed system are presented...

  5. A Numerical Approach for Hybrid Simulation of Power System Dynamics Considering Extreme Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lizheng; Zhang, Hengxu; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    The global climate change leads to more extreme meteorological conditions such as icing weather, which have caused great losses to power systems. Comprehensive simulation tools are required to enhance the capability of power system risk assessment under extreme weather conditions. A hybrid...... numerical simulation scheme integrating icing weather events with power system dynamics is proposed to extend power system numerical simulation. A technique is developed to efficiently simulate the interaction of slow dynamics of weather events and fast dynamics of power systems. An extended package for PSS....../E enabling hybrid simulation of icing event and power system disturbance is developed, based on which a hybrid simulation platform is established. Numerical studies show that the functionality of power system simulation is greatly extended by taking into account the icing weather events....

  6. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    A preliminary economic analysis of a hybrid geothermal/coal power plant has been completed for four geothermal Resource areas: Roosevelt Hot Springs, Coso Hot Springs, East Mesa and Long Valley. A hybrid plant would be economically viable at Roosevelt Hot Springs and somewhat less so at Coso Hot Springs. East Mesa and Long Valley show no economic promise. A well-designed hybrid plant could use geothermal energy for boiler feedwater heating, auxiliary power, auxiliary heating, and cooling water. Construction and operation of a hybrid plant at either Roosevelt Hot Springs or Coso Hot Springs is recommended. Brown University provided the theoretical basis for the hybrid study. A modified version of the Lawrence Berkeley Livermore GEOTHM Program is the major analytical tool used in the analysis. The Intermountain Power Project is the reference all coal-fired plant. Costing methods followed recommendations issued by the Energy research and Development Administration.

  7. 现行输电塔设计规范可靠度水准的评估与分析%Evaluation and Analysis on Reliability Level of Current Design Specification for Power Transmission Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松涛; 高斐略; 李正良; 范文亮; 徐彬

    2015-01-01

    In order to make systematic and correct evaluation on reliability level of design specification for power transmission tower structure,relevant research on reliability of design expressions of different stress components of the power transmis-sion tower was developed based on DL/T 5 1 54-2002 technical regulations for structure design on overhead power transmis-sion line tower. Statistic parameters of loads and resistance of tower components and influencing laws were analyzed as well. Considering wind speed,structure importance factors and affect of wind load reappearing period,refined evaluation on reli-ability level of design expressions were made. In addition,reliability level of current specification for the tower in our coun-try was investigated.%为了对输电线路杆塔结构设计规范进行较为系统且准确的可靠水准评估,基于 DL/T 5154—2002《架空送电线路杆塔结构设计技术规定》,对输电塔不同受力构件设计表达式的可靠度展开相关研究,分析了杆塔构件荷载、抗力的统计参数及其影响规律。考虑风速、结构重要性系数及风荷载重现期的影响,对设计表达式的可靠度水平进行了精细化评估,考察了我国杆塔现行规范的可靠度水平。

  8. A New Starting Method of the Hybrid Power Filter for Wind Power Generation Systems with Soft Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroaki; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko

    This paper proposes a new method of starting the hybrid power filter for wind power generation systems with soft starter. In the proposed method, an active filter of the hybrid power filter behaves a resistor for the source current under the starting condition. Thus the inrush phenomena of the passive filter are perfectly suppressed. The basic principle of the proposed starting method is discussed, and then confirmed by digital computer simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed starting method can overcome the inrush currents for the passive filter, building up the dc voltage of the active filter.

  9. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex NASA space power electronic systems can be configured using a small number of qualified hybrid DC-DC converter and...

  10. Power Adaptation Based on Truncated Channel Inversion for Hybrid FSO/RF Transmission With Adaptive Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-07-23

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless communications. In this paper, we consider power adaptation strategies based on truncated channel inversion for the hybrid FSO/RF system employing adaptive combining. Specifically, we adaptively set the RF link transmission power when FSO link quality is unacceptable to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver. Two adaptation strategies are proposed. One strategy depends on the received RF SNR, whereas the other one depends on the combined SNR of both links. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are obtained. Numerical examples show that the hybrid FSO/RF system with power adaptation achieves a considerable outage performance improvement over the conventional system.

  11. NEURAL NETWORKS CONTROL OF THE HYBRID POWER UNIT BASED ON THE METHOD OF ADAPTIVE CRITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formal statement of the optimization problem of hybrid vehicle power unit control is given. Its solving by neural networks method application on the basis of adaptive critic is considered.

  12. Airborne LIDAR point cloud tower inclination judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    liang, Chen; zhengjun, Liu; jianguo, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Inclined transmission line towers for the safe operation of the line caused a great threat, how to effectively, quickly and accurately perform inclined judgment tower of power supply company safety and security of supply has played a key role. In recent years, with the development of unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with a laser scanner, GPS, inertial navigation is one of the high-precision 3D Remote Sensing System in the electricity sector more and more. By airborne radar scan point cloud to visually show the whole picture of the three-dimensional spatial information of the power line corridors, such as the line facilities and equipment, terrain and trees. Currently, LIDAR point cloud research in the field has not yet formed an algorithm to determine tower inclination, the paper through the existing power line corridor on the tower base extraction, through their own tower shape characteristic analysis, a vertical stratification the method of combining convex hull algorithm for point cloud tower scarce two cases using two different methods for the tower was Inclined to judge, and the results with high reliability.

  13. Energy Optimization for a Weak Hybrid Power System of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Quan, Shuhai; Xie, Changjun; Tang, Xinfeng; Ran, Bin; Jiao, Yatian

    2017-07-01

    An integrated starter generator (ISG)-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) scheme is proposed based on the automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG). An eddy current dynamometer is used to simulate the vehicle's dynamic cycle. A weak ISG hybrid bench test system is constructed to test the 48 V output from the power supply system, which is based on engine exhaust-based heat power generation. The thermoelectric power generation-based system must ultimately be tested when integrated into the ISG weak hybrid mixed power system. The test process is divided into two steps: comprehensive simulation and vehicle-based testing. The system's dynamic process is simulated for both conventional and thermoelectric powers, and the dynamic running process comprises four stages: starting, acceleration, cruising and braking. The quantity of fuel available and battery pack energy, which are used as target vehicle energy functions for comparison with conventional systems, are simplified into a single energy target function, and the battery pack's output current is used as the control variable in the thermoelectric hybrid energy optimization model. The system's optimal battery pack output current function is resolved when its dynamic operating process is considered as part of the hybrid thermoelectric power generation system. In the experiments, the system bench is tested using conventional power and hybrid thermoelectric power for the four dynamic operation stages. The optimal battery pack curve is calculated by functional analysis. In the vehicle, a power control unit is used to control the battery pack's output current and minimize energy consumption. Data analysis shows that the fuel economy of the hybrid power system under European Driving Cycle conditions is improved by 14.7% when compared with conventional systems.

  14. Analysis on the Stiffness and Strength of Imitating Bamboo Tower with Stiffening Ring in Wind Power Generation%风力发电机仿竹塔架的刚度和强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆五; 陈衡; 许伟龙

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship among the static strength, stiffness and structure of wind- generator tower,static strength and stiffness of wind power tower structure imitating bamboo is studied.In order to get wind-generatortower with good mechanical properties, the tower load is enumerated, which is divided into four kinds according to the deformation effect on the tower.The loads on bamboo and the tower are compared and found to be of the same type.Through bionics, the tower stiffening ring of imitating bamboo is analyzed.The bionic tower is simplified to beam.Bionic tower with stiffening ring shows less deflection than ordinary tower.The reduction of deflection is proportional to that of stiffening ring, the increasing stiffening ring and the increasing stiffening ring number.Axial compression,torsion deflection and shear deformation of bionic tower are reduced.The reduction is proportional to proportion of partition on the whole.Analysis shows that strength of bionic tower has no effect on the stress distribution, especially on the size and area of the largest stress value.There is a reasonable quantity of stiffening ring on bionic tower in the engineering fields.%为了研究风力发电机塔架静强度、刚度与结构之间的关系,对仿竹结构的风力机塔架进行了刚度和强度的研究.通过仿生学的方法,对比研究得出塔架和自然界中竹子所受的载荷类型相同,引出带加强结的仿竹结构塔架,并利用悬臂梁的方法进行了分析计算.弯曲刚度分析表明,带加强结塔架的挠度比普通塔架的挠度有所降低,降低量的大小与加强结所占的比例成正比,与加强结刚度的增加量成正比,随加强结数增加而增大.带加强结塔架的轴向压缩变形量、扭转角、剪切变形量均有所减小,减小量大致与加强结占的比例成正比.而强度分析则表明,加强结对塔架应力大小的分布,特别是最值应力的大小和区域没有影响.塔架添

  15. Hybrid Model for Cascading Outage in a Power System: A Numerical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Susuki, Yoshihiko; Takatsuji, Yu; Hikihara, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of cascading outages in power systems is important for understanding why large blackouts emerge and how to prevent them. Cascading outages are complex dynamics of power systems, and one cause of them is the interaction between swing dynamics of synchronous machines and protection operation of relays and circuit breakers. This paper uses hybrid dynamical systems as a mathematical model for cascading outages caused by the interaction. Hybrid dynamical systems can combine families of fl...

  16. The Leaning Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石夫

    2005-01-01

    W hy does the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy lean?It leans because of a m istake.It has leanedalm ostsince the day the tower was built.In1173,the people ofPisa,Italy,wanted to build a belltower.They wanted the tower to be them ost beautiful bell tower in all of Italy.The city also needed a bell tower because the church did nothave one.H owever,there was a problem.As soon as the firstfloor ofthe building was finished,the towerstarted to lean.Builders tried to m ake the building straight again as they added m...

  17. A review and design of power electronics converters for fuel cell hybrid system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of most promising power electronics topologies for a fuel cell hybrid power conversion system which can be utilized in many applications such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), distributed generations (DG) and uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems. Then......, a multiple-input power conversion system including a decoupled dual-input converter and a three-phase neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter is proposed. The system can operate in both stand-alone and grid-connected modes. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed...

  18. Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karbaschian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better utilized with an appropriate power management. In this paper, different types of power management algorithms like off-line and on-line methods are briefly reviewed and classified. Finally, the algorithms are evaluated and compared. Therefore, different related criteria are evaluated and applied.

  19. Application of Hybrid Optimization-Expert System for Optimal Power Management on Board Space Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Basheer, Omar Ali AL

    1996-01-01

    The space power system has two sources of energy: photo-voltaic blankets and batteries. The optimal power management problem on-board has two broad operations: off-line power scheduling to determine the load allocation schedule of the next several hours based on the forecast of load and solar power availability. The nature of this study puts less emphasis on speed requirement for computation and more importance on the optimality of the solution. The second category problem, on-line power rescheduling, is needed in the event of occurrence of a contingency to optimally reschedule the loads to minimize the 'unused' or 'wasted' energy while keeping the priority on certain type of load and minimum disturbance of the original optimal schedule determined in the first-stage off-line study. The computational performance of the on-line 'rescheduler' is an important criterion and plays a critical role in the selection of the appropriate tool. The Howard University Center for Energy Systems and Control has developed a hybrid optimization-expert systems based power management program. The pre-scheduler has been developed using a non-linear multi-objective optimization technique called the Outer Approximation method and implemented using the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). The optimization model has the capability of dealing with multiple conflicting objectives viz. maximizing energy utilization, minimizing the variation of load over a day, etc. and incorporates several complex interaction between the loads in a space system. The rescheduling is performed using an expert system developed in PROLOG which utilizes a rule-base for reallocation of the loads in an emergency condition viz. shortage of power due to solar array failure, increase of base load, addition of new activity, repetition of old activity etc. Both the modules handle decision making on battery charging and discharging and allocation of loads over a time-horizon of a day divided into intervals of 10

  20. Research and investigation on the scheme of installing the anti-falling device of Shenzhen power gird tower%关于深圳电网杆塔防坠落设置方案的探讨分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂阳; 刘丙财; 谭波; 陈应权; 何腾; 梁德飞; 何运祥; 李敏生

    2014-01-01

    本文通过分析深圳地区杆塔特点、气象特点、登塔作业特点,根据不同塔形,综合国内外各种防坠落导轨的优缺点,结合笼式爬梯、休息平台等作用特点,研究全程便捷的防护安全措施,探讨研究出一套适用于深圳地区杆塔的防坠落方案,该方案对深圳电网的防坠落装置安装具有指导意义。%It is that this paper focuses attention on analyzing the features o)f towers in Shenzhen area, the characteristics of climate and the features of the job of climbing towers.By reaching the different shape of the towers,multiplying the merits and faults of various anti-falling guide,combining with the characteristics of cage ladder and rest platform,and studying the safety and convenient prevention measures in the whole work,a scheme which is suit for Shenzhen area to preventing falling from the tower is researched.This scheme is a guide of the anti-falling device to the Shenzhen power grid.

  1. Sensitivity Study of Atmospheric Attenuation in Tower Solar Power Plants with Radiative Trannsfer Models; Estudio de Sensibilidad de la Atenuacion Atmosferica en Centrales Termosolares de Torre con Modelos de Transferencia Radiativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmero, A.; Polo, J.

    2014-02-01

    Nowadays, solar power tower technology is showing great development and it’s placed as one of the most solar resource exploitation. According to this, it’s necessary exhaustive analysis and studies in order to allow technological progress which gives more technical security and economical reliability with the current technologies. In response to technical development this project is focused on solar attenuation which it will be a large problem in large power tower plant all over the world. This document present the results of the postgraduate work addressed by the author and tutored by Jesús Polo in the Renewable Energy Division of Ciemat.The work was presented at Carlos III University of Madrid in July 2013. (Author)

  2. Hybrid centralized-distributed power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator with high energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    the proposed system, which benefits for implementing high MPPT efficiency and high conversion efficiency simultaneously. A hybrid MPPT control strategy is proposed for this HCD power conditioning system. The characteristics, circuit implementation and operation principles of the proposed system are presented......-distributed (HCD) power conditioning system for TEG and its control strategy are proposed in this paper. The HCD power conditioning system is composed by a centralized power conversion stage and multiple distributed power conversion stages. Most of the power is processed by the centralized power conversion stage...

  3. Model predictive control for power fluctuation supression in hybrid wind/PV/battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Liu, Zongyu; Zong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    predictive control (MPC)-based algorithm for battery management in a hybrid wind/PV/battery system to suppress the short-term power fluctuation on the ‘minute’ scale. A case study with data collected from a practical hybrid system setup is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm......A hybrid energy system, the combination of wind turbines, PV panels and battery storage with effective control mechanism, represents a promising solution to the power fluctuation problem when integrating renewable energy resources (RES) into conventional power systems. This paper proposes a model...... together with a Monte Carlo simulation-based sensitivity analysis. In addition to illustrating the complementarity between the fluctuations of wind power and PV power, the results prove the proposed MPC algorithm is effective in fluctuation suppression but sensitive to factors such as forecast accuracy...

  4. Control Strategy Based on Wavelet Transform and Neural Network for Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an energy management of a hybrid power generation system. The proposed control strategy for the energy management is based on the combination of wavelet transform and neural network arithmetic. The hybrid system in this paper consists of an emulated wind turbine generator, PV panels, DC and AC loads, lithium ion battery, and super capacitor, which are all connected on a DC bus with unified DC voltage. The control strategy is responsible for compensating the difference between the generated power from the wind and solar generators and the demanded power by the loads. Wavelet transform decomposes the power difference into smoothed component and fast fluctuated component. In consideration of battery protection, the neural network is introduced to calculate the reference power of battery. Super capacitor (SC is controlled to regulate the DC bus voltage. The model of the hybrid system is developed in detail under Matlab/Simulink software environment.

  5. Hybrid Model for Cascading Outage in a Power System: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Yoshihiko; Takatsuji, Yu; Hikihara, Takashi

    Analysis of cascading outages in power systems is important for understanding why large blackouts emerge and how to prevent them. Cascading outages are complex dynamics of power systems, and one cause of them is the interaction between swing dynamics of synchronous machines and protection operation of relays and circuit breakers. This paper uses hybrid dynamical systems as a mathematical model for cascading outages caused by the interaction. Hybrid dynamical systems can combine families of flows describing swing dynamics with switching rules that are based on protection operation. This paper refers to data on a cascading outage in the September 2003 blackout in Italy and shows a hybrid dynamical system by which propagation of outages reproduced is consistent with the data. This result suggests that hybrid dynamical systems can provide an effective model for the analysis of cascading outages in power systems.

  6. Fuzzy Controller for a Voltage-Regulated Solar-Powered MPPT System for Hybrid Power System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a fuzzy-logic-based voltage-regulated solar power maximum power point tracking (MPPT system for applications involving hybrid power systems. The system contains a solar power system and battery as the primary and secondary power sources, respectively. The solar system alone supplies power to the electric motor and maintains the output voltage at a predetermined level when it has sufficient power. When the solar power is insufficient, the solar system is operated at its maximum power point (MPP and the battery is engaged to compensate for the insufficiency. First, a variant of the incremental conductance MPP condition was established. Under the MPP condition, the voltage-regulated MPPT system was formulated as a feedback control system, where the MPP condition and voltage regulation requirements were used as the system inputs. Next, a fuzzy controller was developed to perform the voltage-regulated MPPT function for the hybrid power system. A simulation model based on Matrix laboratory (MATLAB/SIMULINK (a block diagram environment for multi-domain simulation and model-based design and a piecewise linear electric circuit simulation (PLECS tool for controlling the dc motor velocity was developed to verify the voltage-regulated solar power MPPT system.

  7. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contracts in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.

  8. FORIDA Towers - Analysis of steel transition piece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Rom; Dollerup, Niels; Damkilde, Lars

    This report is a detailed analysis of the transition piece connecting the hybrid wind turbine towers lower UHPFRC part with the top steel part. The analysis of the transition piece includes a validation of the Service Limit State (SLS), the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and the Fatigue loads. The an...

  9. Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

  10. Optimizing a Hybrid Energy Storage System for a Virtual Power Plant for Improved Wind Power Generation: A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Philipp; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Diosi, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes one approach to find two optimum energy storages (ESs) to build a hybrid system which is part of a virtual power plant. Here it means the combination of the hybrid energy storage system and wind power plant (WPP). The discussed approach is applied in a case study on the power...

  11. OPERATION & CONTROL OF SMART GRID CONNECTED PV- FC HYBRID POWER SYSTEMD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha(M tech

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to operate and control a grid connected hybrid power system. The hybrid system composed of a Photovoltaic (PV array and a Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is considered. The PV array normally uses a maximum power point tracking (MPPT technique to continuously deliver the highest power to the load when variations in irradiation and temperature occur, which make it become an uncontrollable source. In coordination with PEMFC, the hybrid system output power becomes controllable. Two operation modes, the unit-power control (UPC mode and the feeder-flow control (FFC mode, can be applied to the hybrid system. The coordination of two control modes, the coordination of the PV array and the PEMFC in the hybrid system, and the determination of reference parameters are presented. The proposed operating strategy with a flexible operation mode change always operates the PV array at maximum output power and the PEMFC in its high efficiency performance band, thus improving the performance of system operation, enhancing system stability, and decreasing the number of operating mode changes

  12. Analysis of the Hybrid Power System for High-Altitude Unmanned Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangwen Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of single solar array on high-altitude unmanned aircraft will waste energy because of its low conversion efficiency. Furthermore, since its energy utilization is limited, the surface temperature of solar array will rise to 70°C due to the waste solar energy, thus reducing the electrical performance of the solar array. In order to reuse the energy converted into heat by solar array, a hybrid power system is presented in this paper. In the hybrid power system, a new electricity-generating method is adopted to spread the photovoltaic cell on the wing surface and arrange photothermal power in the wing box section. Because the temperature on the back of photovoltaic cell is high, it can be used as the high-temperature heat source. The lower wing surface can be a low-temperature cold source. A high-altitude unmanned aircraft was used to analyze the performances of pure solar-powered aircraft and hybrid powered aircraft. The analysis result showed that the hybrid system could reduce the area of wing by 19% and that high-altitude unmanned aircraft with a 35 m or less wingspan could raise the utilization rate of solar energy per unit area after adopting the hybrid power system.

  13. Generator maintenance scheduling in power systems using metaheuristic-based hybrid approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahal, Keshav P. [School of Informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford (United Kingdom); Chakpitak, Nopasit [College of Arts, Media and Technology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2007-05-15

    The effective maintenance scheduling of power system generators is very important for the economical and reliable operation of a power system. This represents a tough scheduling problem which continues to present a challenge for efficient optimization solution techniques. This paper presents the application of metaheuristic approaches, such as a genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and their hybrid for generator maintenance scheduling (GMS) in power systems using an integer representation. This paper mainly focuses on the application of GA/SA and GA/SA/heuristic hybrid approaches. GA/SA hybrid uses the probabilistic acceptance criterion of SA within the GA framework. GA/SA/heuristic hybrid combines heuristic approaches within the GA/SA hybrid to seed the initial population. A case study is formulated in this paper as an integer programming problem using a reliability-based objective function and typical problem constraints. The implementation and performance of the metaheuristic approaches and their hybrid for the test case study are discussed. The results obtained are promising and show that the hybrid approaches are less sensitive to the variations of technique parameters and offer an effective alternative for solving the generator maintenance scheduling problem. (author)

  14. Coordinated Stability Control of Wind-Thermal Hybrid AC/DC Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind-thermal hybrid power transmission will someday be the main form of transmitting wind power in China but such transmission mode is poor in system stability. In this paper, a coordinated stability control strategy is proposed to improve the system stability. Firstly, the mathematical model of doubly fed wind farms and DC power transmission system is established. The rapid power controllability of large-scale wind farms is discussed based on DFIG model and wide-field optical fiber delay feature. Secondly, low frequency oscillation and power-angle stability are analyzed and discussed under the hybrid transmission mode of a conventional power plant with wind farms. A coordinated control strategy for the wind-thermal hybrid AC/DC power system is proposed and an experimental prototype is made. Finally, real time simulation modeling is set up through Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS, including wind power system and synchronous generator system and DC power transmission system. The experimental prototype is connected with RTDS for joint debugging. Joint debugging result shows that, under the coordinated control strategy, the experimental prototype is conductive to enhance the grid damping and effectively prevents the grid from occurring low frequency oscillation. It can also increase the transient power-angle stability of a power system.

  15. Design, implementation, and experimental validation of optimal power split control for hybrid electric trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Mullem, D. van; Jager, B. van; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles require an algorithm that controls the power split between the internal combustion engine and electric machine(s), and the opening and closing of the clutch. Optimal control theory is applied to derive a methodology for a real-time optimal-control-based power split

  16. Modeling and Control of Cogeneration Power Plants: A Hybrid System Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ferrari-Trecate (Giancarlo); E. Gallestey (Eduardo); P. Letizia (Paolo); M. Spedicato (Matteo); M. Morari (Manfred); M. Antoine (Marc)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the short term scheduling optimization of a combined cycle power plant is accomplished by exploiting hybrid systems, i.e. systems evolving according to continuous dynamics, discrete dynamics, and logic rules. Discrete features of a power plant are, for instance, the possibi

  17. A Wireless Power Sharing Control Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jie; Jin, Xinmin; Wu, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    In order to compensate multiple time scales power fluctuation resulted from distributed energy resources and loads, hybrid energy storage systems are employed as the buffer unit in DC microgrid. In this paper, a wireless hierarchical control strategy is proposed to realize power sharing between...

  18. Power flow analysis for droop controlled LV hybrid AC-DC microgrids with virtual impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The AC-DC hybrid microgrid is an effective form of utilizing different energy resources and the analysis of this system requires a proper power flow algorithm. This paper proposes a suitable power flow algorithm for LV hybrid AC-DC microgrid based on droop control and virtual impedance. Droop...... and virtual impedance concepts for AC network, DC network and interlinking converter are reviewed so as to model it in the power flow analysis. The validation of the algorithm is verified by comparing it with steady state results from detailed time domain simulation. The effectiveness of the proposed...

  19. Practice and Prospect of AC/DC Hybrid Power Grid in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China Southern Power Grid is a unique EHV AC/DC hybrid transmission network that operates in China. In its service area, the distribution of energy resources and the development of economy are extremely unbalanced, so long-distance and bulk power transmission are needed; besides, the geography and climate conditions are serious, rains, fogs, lightning and typhoon as well as high temperature are common all the year round. Facing these challenges,the power grid enhanced stability control, improved the equipment and strengthen the network structure. In the future, the power grid plans to optimize the disposition of power sources and build digitalized power system.

  20. Predictive control strategy for power management in parallel hybrid-electric vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nodeh, Mohammad Taqi; Gholizade, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid model-based nonlinear optimal control method is used to compute the optimal power distribution and power management in parallel hybrid electric vehicles. In the power management strategy, for optimal power distribution between the internal combustion engine, electrical...... system and the other subsystems, nonlinear predictive control is applied. In order to achieve this goal, a hierarchical control structure is utilized. This type of control structure consists of three levels of monitoring, coordinating and local controllers. Nonlinear modeling and performance index...... in the proposed method should be formulated at the regulatory level of the controller. Discrete dynamic mode of operation (motor-generator) in hybrid electric vehicle requires to use a dual-mode switch model and to define an alternative expression of performance index for the optimal control problem...

  1. Offshore lattice tower; Gittermast im Meer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, E. de [Smart Tower, Arnheim (Netherlands)

    2001-05-01

    The projected offshore wind park has turned out to be a challenge also for non-experts in wind power. A new tower construction was developed in the Netherlands. The contribution points out the advantages of a concrete lattice tower. [German] Die geplante Errichtung von Windparks auf See fordert jetzt auch branchenfremde Ingenieurbueros heraus. In den Niederlanden wurde nun ein voellig neuer Turm entwickelt. Im Beitrag werden die Vorteile der Verwendung eines Betongittermastes aufgezaehlt. (orig.)

  2. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used......This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...

  3. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...... complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used...

  4. Modeling,Analysis and Simulation ofThree Phase Hybrid Power Filter forPower Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanta Kumar Das

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase hybrid series power filter is constituted by a series active filter and a passive filter connected in parallel with the load. The control strategy is based on the “dual formulation of the electric power vectorial theory”. The proposed algorithm eliminates the current harmonics of supply. It also improves the power factor and harmonic compensation features of the associated passive filter even if there is a change in system parameters.A shunt hybrid power filter is constituted by a shunt active filter and a passive filter connected in parallel with the load, is proposed with same control strategy. Simulations have been carried out on the MATLAB-SIMULINK platform with different loads and with variation in the source impedance.

  5. AN ASSESSMENT OF FLYWHEEL HIGH POWER ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR HYBRID VEHICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  6. Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Song Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale passive hybrid power system for transportation applications is constructed and tested in this study. The hybrid power system consists of a fuel cell stack connected with a diode, a lithium-ion battery pack connected with a DC/DC power converter and another diode. The power converter is employed to regulate the output voltage of the battery pack. The dynamic responses of current and voltage of the stack to the start-up and acceleration of the load are experimentally investigated at two different selected output voltages of the DC/DC converter in the battery line. The power sharing of each power source and efficiency are also analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the battery can compensate for the shortage of supplied power for the load demand during the start-up and acceleration. The lowest operating voltage of the fuel cell stack is limited by the regulated output voltage of the DC/DC converter. The major power loss in the hybrid power system is attributed to the diodes. The power train efficiency can be improved by lowering the ratio of forward voltage drop of the diode to the operating voltage of the fuel cell stack.

  7. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 3. Appendices. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    A design study for a central receiver/fossil fuel hybrid power system using molten salts for heat transfer and heat storage is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (A) parametric salt piping data; (B) sample heat exchanger calculations; (C) salt chemistry and salt/materials compatibility evaluation; (D) heliostat field coordinates; (E) data lists; (F) STEAEC program input data; (G) hybrid receiver design drawings; (H) hybrid receiver absorber tube thermal math model; (I) piping stress analysis; (J) 100-MWe 18-hour storage solar central receiver hybrid power system capital cost worksheets; and (K) 500-MWe 18-hour solar central receiver hybrid power system cost breakdown. (WHK)

  8. Hybrid Active and Passive Control of Vibratory Power Flow in Flexible Isolation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.P. Xiong

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid active and passive vibration control strategy is developed to reduce the total power flows from machines, subject to multiple excitations, to supporting flexible structures. The dynamic interactions between machines, controllers, and receiving structures are studied. A force feedback control process governed by a proportional control law is adopted to produce active control forces to cancel the transmitted forces in the mounts. Computational simulations of a simple and a multiple dimensional hybrid vibration isolation system are performed to study the force transmissibility and the total power flows from vibration sources through active and passive isolators to the supporting structures. The investigation focuses on the effects of a hybrid control approach to the reduction of power flow transmissions and the influence of the dynamic characteristics of the control on power flow spectra. The hybrid control mechanism is synthesised from the power flow analysis. Conclusions and control strategies, well supported by numerical simulations, are deduced providing very useful guidelines for hybrid vibration isolation design.

  9. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging biomechanical energy for sustainably powering wearable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Xue; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    We report a hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for highly efficient scavenging of biomechanical energy to sustainably power wearable electronics by human walking. Based on the effective conjunction of triboelectrification and electromagnetic induction, the hybridized nanogenerator, with dimensions of 5 cm × 5 cm × 2.5 cm and a light weight of 60 g, integrates a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that can deliver a peak output power of 4.9 mW under a loading resistance of 6 MΩ and an electromagnetic generator (EMG) that can deliver a peak output power of 3.5 mW under a loading resistance of 2 kΩ. The hybridized nanogenerator exhibits a good stability for the output performance and a much better charging performance than that of an individual energy-harvesting unit (TENG or EMG). Furthermore, the hybridized nanogenerator integrated in a commercial shoe has been utilized to harvest biomechanical energy induced by human walking to directly light up tens of light-emitting diodes in the shoe and sustainably power a smart pedometer for reading the data of a walking step, distance, and energy consumption. A wireless pedometer driven by the hybrid nanogenerator can work well to send the walking data to an iPhone under the distance of 25 m. This work pushes forward a significant step toward energy harvesting from human walking and its potential applications in sustainably powering wearable electronics.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY LAW OF HYBRID POWER STATION FOR SOCIAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widowati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the Implementation of Energy Law of Hybrid Power Station for Social Welfare in Pantai Baru. The problem formulations are the management and utilization of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru and implementation of energy law of hybrid power station for social welfare in the fields of economy and information in Pantai Baru. Based on data analysis it is concluded that the management of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru is performed collaboratively between government and the society. The existence of hybrid power station in pantai baru has positive impacts in economy and information. Penelitian ini meneliti Pelaksanaan Hukum Energi Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Hibrid untuk Kesejahteraan Rakyat di Bidang Ekonomi dan Informasi di Pantai Baru. Masalah yang diteliti adalah bentuk pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid di Pantai Baru dan pelaksanaan hukum energi pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid untuk kesejahteraan rakyat di bidang ekonomi dan informasi di Pantai Baru. Berdasarkan analisis data dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengelolaan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru dilakukan secara kolaboratif, antara pemerintah dengan masyarakat. Kehadiran pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru telah memberikan dampak positif di bidang ekonomi dan informasi.

  11. Grid-Connected Pv-Fc Hybrid System Power Control Using Mppt And Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.HARIKA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for operating a grid connected hybrid system. This system composed of a Photovoltaic (PV array and a Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is considered. As the variations occur in temperature and irradiation during power delivery to load, Photo voltaic (PV system becomes uncontrollable. In coordination with PEMFC, the hybrid system output power becomes controllable. Two operation modes are the unit-power control (UPC mode and the feeder-flow control (FFC mode, can be applied to the hybrid system. All MPPT methods follow the same goal that is maximizing the PV system output power by tracking the maximum power on every operating condition. Maximum power point tracking technique (Incremental conductance for photovoltaic systems was introduced to maximize the produced energy. The coordination of two control modes, coordination of the PV array and the PEMFC in the hybrid system, and determination of reference parameters are presented. The proposed operating strategy systems with a flexible operation mode change always operate the PV array at maximum output power and the PEMFC in its high efficiency performance band. Also thus improving the performance of system operation, enhancing system stability, and reducing the number of operating mode changes.

  12. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Warner, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Compound hybrid geothermal-fossil power plants - Thermodynamic analyses and site-specific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipippo, R.; Kestin, J.; Avelar, E. M.; Khalifa, H. E.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, we extend the analysis of hybrid fossil-geothermal power plants to compound systems which combine the features of the two previously analyzed hybrid plants, the geothermal preheat and the fossil superheat systems. Compound systems of the one- and two-stage type are considered. A complete summary of formulae to assess the performance of the plants is included for completeness. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, compound hybrid plants are superior to individual all-geothermal and all-fossil plants, and have certain advantages over basic geothermal-preheat and fossil-superheat hybrid plants. The flexibility of compound hybrid systems is illustrated by showing how such plants might be used at several geothermal sites in the western United States.

  14. Efficiency Characteristics of Low Power Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Ahn, Jin-Woo

    2009-01-01

    Switched reluctance motors (SRM) are usually considered inferior in terms of efficiency as compared to permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) and brushless DC-motors (BLDC), but less costly. This article presents a test of a 70W hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM), that archieves a peak...... efficiency for the motor drive of more than 74%, and an efficiency for the motor of almost 80%....

  15. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    P. Suntharalingam

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  16. Optimum design of a self-supported power transmission tower type 2M2 for 230 kW; Diseno optimo de una torre de transmision autosoportada tipo 2M2, para 230 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejel Valdez, Eduardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Millan Monje, Alejandro; Honk Hernandez, Wenceslao [Comision Federal de Electricidad, (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    A group of specialists from the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) analyzes the design of various types of power transmission towers in their application stage, in order to enhance them. In this article the structural characteristics of the self-supported tower type 2M2 for 230 kV of two circuits and of suspension, are presented. [Espanol] Un grupo de especialistas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) analiza el diseno de diversos tipos de torres de transmision en su etapa de aplicacion, con el fin de mejorarlos. En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas estructurales de la torre autosoportada tipo 2M2 para 230 kV, de dos circuitos y de suspension.

  17. Statistics Analysis Measures Painting of Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zacharopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the cooling tower of Megalopolis (construction 1975 and protection from corrosive environment. The maintenance of the cooling tower took place in 2008. The cooling tower was badly damaged from corrosion of reinforcement. The parabolic cooling towers (factory of electrical power are a typical example of construction, which has a special aggressive environment. The protection of cooling towers is usually achieved through organic coatings. Because of the different environmental impacts on the internal and external side of the cooling tower, a different system of paint application is required. The present study refers to the damages caused by corrosion process. The corrosive environments, the application of this painting, the quality control process, the measures and statistics analysis, and the results were discussed in this study. In the process of quality control the following measurements were taken into consideration: (1 examination of the adhesion with the cross-cut test, (2 examination of the film thickness, and (3 controlling of the pull-off resistance for concrete substrates and paintings. Finally, this study refers to the correlations of measurements, analysis of failures in relation to the quality of repair, and rehabilitation of the cooling tower. Also this study made a first attempt to apply the specific corrosion inhibitors in such a large structure.

  18. Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials for Applications in Power Limiting and Photorefractive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04/01/2007 to 11/30/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-07-1-0307 Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials for...Hybrid  Nonlinear   Optical   Materials  for Applications in Power  Limiting and Photorefractive devices      Prime Contract: FA95500710307

  19. Optical fiber-based core-shell coaxially structured hybrid cells for self-powered nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guo, Wenxi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dong, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); School of Materials Science and Enginnering, Zhenzhou University, Zhenghou 450001 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-03

    An optical fiber-based 3D hybrid cell consisting of a coaxially structured dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a nanogenerator (NG) for simultaneously or independently harvesting solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The current output of the hybrid cell is dominated by the DSSC, and the voltage output is dominated by the NG; these can be utilized complementarily for different applications. The output of the hybrid cell is about 7.65 {mu}A current and 3.3 V voltage, which is strong enough to power nanodevices and even commercial electronic components. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Sensitivity of Exponents of Three-Power Laws to Hybrid Ratio in Weighted HUHPM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jin-Qing; BI Qiao; LI Yong; LU Xin-Biao; LIU Qiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The sensitivity of exponents of three-power laws for node degree, node strength and edged weight to hybrid ratio are studied analytically and numerically in the weighted harmonious unifying hybrid preferential model (HUHPM), which is extended from un-weighted hybrid preferential attachment model we proposed previously [Chin. Phys. Lett. 22 (2005)719]. Our weighted HUHPMs plus the Barrat-Barthelemy-Vespignani model and the traffic-driven evolution model, respectively, are taken as two typical examples for demonstration and application of the HUHPM.

  1. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  2. Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-30

    The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PGandE grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Hybrid zero-voltage switching (ZVS) control for power inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza; Hu, Haibing; Batarseh, Issa

    2016-11-01

    A power inverter combination includes a half-bridge power inverter including first and second semiconductor power switches receiving input power having an intermediate node therebetween providing an inductor current through an inductor. A controller includes input comparison circuitry receiving the inductor current having outputs coupled to first inputs of pulse width modulation (PWM) generation circuitry, and a predictive control block having an output coupled to second inputs of the PWM generation circuitry. The predictive control block is coupled to receive a measure of Vin and an output voltage at a grid connection point. A memory stores a current control algorithm configured for resetting a PWM period for a switching signal applied to control nodes of the first and second power switch whenever the inductor current reaches a predetermined upper limit or a predetermined lower limit.

  4. Optimization of wind-marine hybrid power system configuration based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongda; Li, Linna; Zhao, Chenyu

    2017-08-01

    Multi-energy power systems can use energy generated from various sources to improve power generation reliability. This paper presents a cost-power generation model of a wind-tide-wave energy hybrid power system for use on a remote island, where the configuration is optimized using a genetic algorithm. A mixed integer programming model is used and a novel object function, including cost and power generation, is proposed to solve the boundary problem caused by existence of two goals. Using this model, the final optimized result is found to have a good fit with local resources.

  5. Ultra-Short-Term Wind Power Prediction Using a Hybrid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, E.; Wang, S.; Yu, J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to develop and apply a hybrid model of two data analytical methods, multiple linear regressions and least square (MLR&LS), for ultra-short-term wind power prediction (WPP), for example taking, Northeast China electricity demand. The data was obtained from the historical records of wind power from an offshore region, and from a wind farm of the wind power plant in the areas. The WPP achieved in two stages: first, the ratios of wind power were forecasted using the proposed hybrid method, and then the transformation of these ratios of wind power to obtain forecasted values. The hybrid model combines the persistence methods, MLR and LS. The proposed method included two prediction types, multi-point prediction and single-point prediction. WPP is tested by applying different models such as autoregressive moving average (ARMA), autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and artificial neural network (ANN). By comparing results of the above models, the validity of the proposed hybrid model is confirmed in terms of error and correlation coefficient. Comparison of results confirmed that the proposed method works effectively. Additional, forecasting errors were also computed and compared, to improve understanding of how to depict highly variable WPP and the correlations between actual and predicted wind power.

  6. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging air-flow energy to sustainably power temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuhua; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator with dimensions of 6.7 cm × 4.5 cm × 2 cm and a weight of 42.3 g that consists of two triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) and two electromagnetic generators (EMGs) for scavenging air-flow energy. Under an air-flow speed of about 18 m/s, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver largest output powers of 3.5 mW for one TENG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 8.8 mW/g and 14.6 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 3 MΩ and 1.8 mW for one EMG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 0.3 mW/g and 0.4 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 2 kΩ, respectively. The hybridized nanogenerator can be utilized to charge a capacitor of 3300 μF to sustainably power four temperature sensors for realizing self-powered temperature sensor networks. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensor driven by a hybridized nanogenerator charged Li-ion battery can work well to send the temperature data to a receiver/computer at a distance of 1.5 m. This work takes a significant step toward air-flow energy harvesting and its potential applications in self-powered wireless sensor networks.

  7. A Frequency Control Approach for Hybrid Power System Using Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid power system uses many wind turbine generators (WTG and solar photovoltaics (PV in isolated small areas. However, the output power of these renewable sources is not constant and can diverge quickly, which has a serious effect on system frequency and the continuity of demand supply. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a new frequency control scheme for a hybrid power system to ensure supplying a high-quality power in isolated areas. The proposed power system consists of a WTG, PV, aqua-electrolyzer (AE, fuel cell (FC, battery energy storage system (BESS, flywheel (FW and diesel engine generator (DEG. Furthermore, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs are implemented at the customer side. A full-order observer is utilized to estimate the supply error. Then, the estimated supply error is considered in a frequency domain. The high-frequency component is reduced by BESS and FW; while the low-frequency component of supply error is mitigated using FC, EV and DEG. Two PI controllers are implemented in the proposed system to control the system frequency and reduce the supply error. The epsilon multi-objective genetic algorithm ( ε -MOGA is applied to optimize the controllers’ parameters. The performance of the proposed control scheme is compared with that of recent well-established techniques, such as a PID controller tuned by the quasi-oppositional harmony search algorithm (QOHSA. The effectiveness and robustness of the hybrid power system are investigated under various operating conditions.

  8. A Wind Power and Load Prediction Based Frequency Control Approach for Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A frequency control approach based on wind power and load power prediction information is proposed for wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system (WDBHPS. To maintain the frequency stability by wind power and diesel generation as much as possible, a fuzzy control theory based wind and diesel power control module is designed according to wind power and load prediction information. To compensate frequency fluctuation in real time and enhance system disturbance rejection ability, a battery energy storage system real-time control module is designed based on ADRC (active disturbance rejection control. The simulation experiment results demonstrate that the proposed approach has a better disturbance rejection ability and frequency control performance compared with the traditional droop control approach.

  9. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Ribeiro, C.M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energie Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.

  10. Confusion at the Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Loretta F.

    2014-01-01

    This study will explore the omission of the Tower of Babel narrative from middle and secondary school world history, world studies, and world geography textbooks and will consider what might be learned from inclusion of the story in the curriculum. A total of 17 textbooks are analyzed. The Tower of Babel narrative is examined within the context of…

  11. Yeast Two-Hybrid, a Powerful Tool for Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Schlattner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A key property of complex biological systems is the presence of interaction networks formed by its different components, primarily proteins. These are crucial for all levels of cellular function, including architecture, metabolism and signalling, as well as the availability of cellular energy. Very stable, but also rather transient and dynamic protein-protein interactions generate new system properties at the level of multiprotein complexes, cellular compartments or the entire cell. Thus, interactomics is expected to largely contribute to emerging fields like systems biology or systems bioenergetics. The more recent technological development of high-throughput methods for interactomics research will dramatically increase our knowledge of protein interaction networks. The two most frequently used methods are yeast two-hybrid (Y2H screening, a well established genetic in vivo approach, and affinity purification of complexes followed by mass spectrometry analysis, an emerging biochemical in vitro technique. So far, a majority of published interactions have been detected using an Y2H screen. However, with the massive application of this method, also some limitations have become apparent. This review provides an overview on available yeast two-hybrid methods, in particular focusing on more recent approaches. These allow detection of protein interactions in their native environment, as e.g. in the cytosol or bound to a membrane, by using cytosolic signalling cascades or split protein constructs. Strengths and weaknesses of these genetic methods are discussed and some guidelines for verification of detected protein-protein interactions are provided.

  12. Cooling tower waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

    1998-05-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

  13. 国电库车发电厂空冷塔X柱及筒壁施工工艺%Construction Craft of the Air-cooling Tower X Column and Cylinder Wall in Guodian Kuche Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The Guodian Kuche power plant air-cooling tower is the largest air-cooling tower in Xinjiang, the height of air-cooling tower X pil ar is 26m, section is big and inclined 70 DEG, supporting rack erection is complex; the height of cylin-der wal is 157 m, vertical transportation difficulty is big, quan-tities is large, radius is large, horizontal transportation has gr-eat dif iculty. We use the advanced construction technology, improve the efficiency of work.%  国电库车发电厂空冷塔为全疆最大的空冷塔,空冷塔 X 支柱高度26 m、截面大并倾斜70°,支撑排架搭设复杂;筒壁高度157m、垂直运输难度大、工程量大、半径大、水平运输难度大。我们采用了先进的施工工艺,提高了工作效益。

  14. Compound hybrid geothermal-fossil power plants: thermodynamic analyses and site-specific applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.; Avelar, E.M.

    1979-06-01

    The analysis of hybrid fossil-geothermal power plants is extended to compound hybrid systems which combine the features of previously analyzed systems: the geothermal-preheat and the fossil-superheat systems. Compound systems of the one- and two-stage type are considered. A compilation of working formulae from earlier studies is included for completeness. Results are given for parametric analyses of compound hybrid plants. System performance was determined for wellhead conditions of 150, 200, and 250/sup 0/C, and for steam fractions of 10, 20, 30, and 40%. For two-stage systems an additional cycle variable, the hot water flash fraction, was varied from 0 to 100% in increments of 25%. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, compound hybrid plants are superior to individual all-geothermal and all-fossil plants, and are shown to have certain advantages over basic geothermal-preheat and fossil-superheat hybrid plants. The flexibility of compound hybrid systems is illustrated by showing how such plants might be used at six geothermal sites in the western United States. The question of the optimum match between the energy resources and the power plant is addressed, and an analysis given for a hypothetical geothermal resource.

  15. Self-Powered Safety Helmet Based on Hybridized Nanogenerator for Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Long; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Binbin; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Huang, Xi; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    The rapid development of Internet of Things and the related sensor technology requires sustainable power sources for their continuous operation. Scavenging and utilizing the ambient environmental energy could be a superior solution. Here, we report a self-powered helmet for emergency, which was powered by the energy converted from ambient mechanical vibration via a hybridized nanogenerator that consists of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG). Integrating with transformers and rectifiers, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver a power density up to 167.22 W/m(3), which was demonstrated to light up 1000 commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instantaneously. By wearing the developed safety helmet, equipped with rationally designed hybridized nanogenerator, the harvested vibration energy from natural human motion is also capable of powering a wireless pedometer for real-time transmitting data reporting to a personal cell phone. Without adding much extra weight to a commercial one, the developed wearing helmet can be a superior sustainable power source for explorers, engineers, mine-workers under well, as well as and disaster-relief workers, especially in remote areas. This work not only presents a significant step toward energy harvesting from human biomechanical movement, but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs as power sources for self-sustained electronics.

  16. Using hydropower to complement wind energy: a hybrid system to provide firm power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O.A.; Borja, M.A.; Huacuz, J.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Morelos (Mexico). Energias No Convencionales

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of how wind power can be complemented by hydropower. A conceptual framework is provided for a hybrid power station that produces constant power output without the intermittent fluctuations inherent when using wind power. Two hypothetical facilities are considered as case studies. One of them is a hydropower plant located on the ''Presidente Benito Juarez'' dam in Jalapa del Marques, Oaxaca, Mexico. The other hypothetical facility is a wind farm located near ''La Venta's', an area in Juchitan, Oaxaca, Mexico. The wind-hydro-power system is a combined wind and hydro power plant in a region that is rich in both resources. The model shows that the hybrid plant could provide close to 20 MW of firm power to the electrical distribution system. On a techno-economic basis, we obtain the levelized production cost of the hybrid system. Taking into account two different discount rates of 7% and 10%, figures for levelized production cost are developed. (author)

  17. Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting Using the Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Based Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yeau Chang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High penetration of wind power in the electricity system provides many challenges to power system operators, mainly due to the unpredictability and variability of wind power generation. Although wind energy may not be dispatched, an accurate forecasting method of wind speed and power generation can help power system operators reduce the risk of an unreliable electricity supply. This paper proposes an enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO based hybrid forecasting method for short-term wind power forecasting. The hybrid forecasting method combines the persistence method, the back propagation neural network, and the radial basis function (RBF neural network. The EPSO algorithm is employed to optimize the weight coefficients in the hybrid forecasting method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the method is tested on the practical information of wind power generation of a wind energy conversion system (WECS installed on the Taichung coast of Taiwan. Comparisons of forecasting performance are made with the individual forecasting methods. Good agreements between the realistic values and forecasting values are obtained; the test results show the proposed forecasting method is accurate and reliable.

  18. Pulse Power Hybrid Energy Storage Module Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    simulation results were shown in Fig. 11.) 28 14. One of the two reference MatLab Simulink models for the study of the effect of HESMs and a pulsed load...the Megawatt Power Module 44 25 Block diagram of the MPM system - two flywheels per skid configuration 45 26 MatLab Simulink model of a two...Network McKttile Fig. 14. One of the two reference MatLab Simulink models for the study of the effect of HESMs and a pulsed load on a ship’s power

  19. Transmission Technologies and Operational Characteristic Analysis of Hybrid UHV AC/DC Power Grids in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhang; Yanfeng, Gong

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the contradiction between demand and distribution range of primary energy resource, Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power grids should be developed rapidly to meet development of energy bases and accessing of large-scale renewable energy. This paper reviewed the latest research processes of AC/DC transmission technologies, summarized the characteristics of AC/DC power grids, concluded that China’s power grids certainly enter a new period of large -scale hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids and characteristics of “strong DC and weak AC” becomes increasingly pro minent; possible problems in operation of AC/DC power grids was discussed, and interaction or effect between AC/DC power grids was made an intensive study of; according to above problems in operation of power grids, preliminary scheme is summarized as fo llows: strengthening backbone structures, enhancing AC/DC transmission technologies, promoting protection measures of clean energ y accessing grids, and taking actions to solve stability problems of voltage and frequency etc. It’s valuable for making hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids adapt to operating mode of large power grids, thus guaranteeing security and stability of power system.

  20. Power control method on VSC-HVDC in a hybrid multi-infeed HVDC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Multi-infeed HVDC (MIDC) system connected with VSC-HVDC links and LCC-HVDC links is a new structure in modern power systems, which can be called hybrid multi-infeed HVDC (HMIDC) system. The paper presents the voltage stability analysis of a HMIDC system modeled from a possible future Danish power...... stability of the system with induction machine loads. The proposed power control method based on a VSC power circle makes fully use of the VSC-HVDC capacity to support system voltage during fault situations. Simulation model of the studied HMIDC system is built in PSCAD. Simulation studies under different...

  1. Development of Control Structure for Hybrid Wind Generators with Active Power Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Niroomand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical control structure is proposed for hybrid energy systems (HES which consist of wind energy system (WES and energy storage system (ESS. The proposed multilevel control structure consists of four blocks: reference generation and mode select, power balancing, control algorithms, and switching control blocks. A high performance power management strategy is used for the system. Also, the proposed system is analyzed as an active power filter (APF with ability to control the voltage, to compensate the harmonics, and to deliver active power. The HES is designed with parallel DC coupled structure. Simulation results are shown for verification of the theoretical analysis.

  2. Analysis, control and optimal operations in hybrid power systems advanced techniques and applications for linear and nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bizon, Nicu; Mahdavi Tabatabaei, Naser

    2014-01-01

    This book explains and analyzes the dynamic performance of linear and nonlinear systems, particularly for Power Systems including Hybrid Power Sources. Offers a detailed description of system stability using state space energy conservation principle, and more.

  3. Experimental investigation on thermoelectric generator of micro hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yonghong; Li, Yanqiu; Yu, Hongyun; Sun, Hongguang; Su, Bo

    2007-12-01

    The micro power system, which is composed of photovoltaic solar cell, heat conductor, thermoelectric generator (TEG) module and fin heat sink has been developed in our laboratory. A photovoltaic silicon solar cell of the P-N junction type is sensitive to radiant energy of wavelength from 5,000 Å to 12,000 Å. Radiation under and within this range is converted not only into electric energy but also into heat energy. The wavelength longer than this range is also converted into heat energy, which degrades the conversion efficiency of the solar cell. TEG produces electrical power from temperature difference via Seebeck effect that can be put under the solar cell to absorb the heat. The heat energy can be converted into electrical power. It was found that when TEG surface area was 150mm×60mm, it could generate 0.24V output voltage and 4.18mA short circuit at ambient temperature varying between 5-10°C at winter. It also could generate 1.3V output voltage and 16mA short circuit at ambient temperature varying between 30-36°C at summer. In fact we can use a dc-dc boost up converter to enlarge the output voltage to meet the requirements of wireless sensor network nodes or its recharging battery. It will be an alternative power source for many portable electronic types of equipment.

  4. Drop Tower Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, William A. Toby

    2014-10-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in The Physics Teacher1 in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Using these drop towers, one can briefly investigate various physical systems operating in this near zero-g environment. The resulting "Drop Tower Physics" is a new and exciting way to challenge students with a physical example that requires solid knowledge of many basic physics principles, and it forces them to practice the scientific method. The question is, "How would a simple toy, like a pendulum, behave when it is suddenly exposed to a zero-g environment?" The student must then postulate a particular behavior, test the hypothesis against physical principles, and if the hypothesis conforms to these chosen physical laws, the student can formulate a final conclusion. At that point having access to a drop tower is very convenient, in that the student can then experimentally test his or her conclusion. The purpose of this discussion is to explain the response of these physical systems ("toys") when the transition is made to a zero-g environment and to provide video demonstrations of this behavior to support in-class discussions of Drop Tower Physics.

  5. Four-branch Star Hybrid Power Filter for Three-phase Four-wire Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept for filtering current harmonics in three-phase four-wire networks. The four-branch star (FBS) filtering topology presented in this work is characterized by a particular layout consisting of single-phase inductances and capacitors. Via this layout, a power filter...... results is conducted in order to verify and validate the good performance of the proposed four-branch star passive/hybrid power filter....

  6. 输电塔K 节点极限承载力影响因素分析%Analysis on Influence Factor on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of K Node of Power Transmission Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈加宝; 雷俊方

    2015-01-01

    In order to study characteristics of nodes of power transmission steel tube tower and steel tube angle combined tow-er,finite element software ANSYS was used to establish a 3D entity model of K node of power transmission steel tube angle combined tower. Influence on ultimate bearing capacity of K node by three failure modes of K node,length and thickness of steel angle and length of node plate was analyzed. The results indicates that ultimate bearing capacity of K node of power transmission steel tube angle combined tower obviously increases with increase of thickness of node plate and steel angle. Secondly,thickness of the steel angle is not suitable to be less than 1 0 mm in design. Influence on ultimate bearing capacity of K node by length of node plate and steel angle is small.%为研究输电钢管塔及钢管角钢组合塔节点的特性,采用有限元软件 ANSYS 建立输电钢管角钢组合塔 K节点三维实体模型,分析K节点的三种破坏模式以及角钢长度、角钢厚度和节点板长度对 K 节点极限承载力的影响。结果表明:输电钢管角钢组合塔K节点的极限承载力随着节点板和角钢厚度的增加而显著增大,在设计时角钢厚度不宜小于10 mm;输电塔K节点的极限承载力受节点板长度、角钢长度的影响较小。

  7. Analysis and Simulation of Motion Laws for Heliostats in Solar Tower Power Plant%塔式太阳能热发电系统中定日镜运动规律分析及其仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽娟; 祝雪妹

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of sun-tracking methods for heliostats is one of the most important factors that influences the efficiency of solar tower power plant. Regarding the motion laws for heliostats in solar tower power plant, a model of motion trails for heliostats is developed with optical reflection principle. Based on the relative location between heliostats and the receiver, simulations of motion trails for heliostats of a city in West China are performed under the solar position algorithm on Spring Equinox and Winter Solstice. The results show motion laws for heliostats in solar tower power plant.%定日镜在追日过程中的聚光精度是影响塔式太阳能热发电系统工作效率的重要因素之一.分析了塔式太阳能热发电系统中定日镜的运动规律.利用光学反射原理建立定日镜运动轨迹模型,并以我国西部某市作为算例,根据太阳轨迹运算法则以及定日镜与吸热器之间的相对位置,对该地春分日与冬至日定日镜的运动轨迹进行仿真与分析,得到所仿真定日镜的运动规律.

  8. SIMULATION OF COOLING TOWER AND INFLUENCE OF AERODYNAMIC ELEMENTS ON ITS WORK UNDER CONDITIONS OF WIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dobrego

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern Cooling Towers (CT may utilize different aerodynamic elements (deflectors, windbreak walls etc. aimed to improvement of its heat performance especially at the windy conditions. In this paper the effect of flow rotation in overshower zone of CT and windbreak walls on a capacity of tower evaporating unit in the windy condition is studied numerically. Geometry of the model corresponds to real Woo-Jin Power station, China. Analogy of heat and mass transfer was used that allowed to consider aerodynamic of one-dimension flow and carried out detailed 3D calculations applying modern PC. Heat transfer coefficient of irrigator and its hydrodynamic resistance were established according to experimental data on total air rate in cooling tower. Numerical model is tested and verified with experimental data.Nonlinear dependence of CT thermal performance on wind velocity is demonstrated with the minimum (critical wind velocity at ucr ~ 8 m/s for simulated system. Application of windbreak walls does not change the value of the critical wind velocity, but may improves performance of cooling unit at moderate and strong wind conditions. Simultaneous usage of windbreak walls and overshower deflectors may increase efficiency up to 20–30 % for the deflectors angle a = 60o. Simulation let one analyze aerodynamic patterns, induced inside cooling tower and homogeneity of velocities’ field in irrigator’s area.Presented results may be helpful for the CT aerodynamic design optimization, particularly, for perspective hybrid type CTs.

  9. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mines, Greg [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Guangdong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods of high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal resources

  10. Coordination of the STATCOM and Power System Stabilizer Using Hybrid BF-NM Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammdjavad Morshed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of Facts devices increase the importance of their coordination with the power system controllers. With regard to nonlinearities of power system, changes in the operating points, reaction between power system and STATCOM, linear methods cannot be used to design parameters of stabilizers. Therefore, in this paper, a nonlinear model of power system is considered for the coordination design of PSS and STATCOM. A hybrid method which combines bacterial foraging (BF algorithm with Nelder-Mead (NM method (BF-NM is employed to coordinately design the PSS and STATCOM controllers. By combining these two methods, the search power of the intelligent methods and the precision of conventional methods are simultaneously employed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, it is applied on a four machine power system. Simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed method for stabilizing power system oscillations.

  11. A Self-Powered Hybrid Energy Scavenging System Utilizing RF and Vibration Based Electromagnetic Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluşan, H.; Gharehbaghi, K.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a novel hybrid system that combines the power generated simultaneously by a vibration-based Electromagnetic (EM) harvester and a UHF band RF harvester. The novel hybrid scavenger interface uses a power management circuit in 180 nm CMOS technology to step-up and to regulate the combined output. At the first stage of the system, the RF harvester generates positive DC output with a 7-stage threshold compensated rectifier, while the EM harvester generates negative DC output with a self-powered AC/DC negative doubler circuit. At the second stage, the generated voltages are serially added, stepped-up with an on-chip charge pump circuit, and regulated to a typical battery voltage of 3 V. Test results indicate that the hybrid operation enables generation of 9 μW at 3 V output for a wide range of input stimulations, which could not be attained with either harvesting mode by itself. Moreover the hybrid system behaves as a typical battery, and keeps the output voltage stable at 3 V up to 18 μW of output power. The presented system is the first battery-like harvester to our knowledge that generates energy from two independent sources and regulates the output to a stable DC voltage.

  12. Optimization of PV/WIND/DIESEL Hybrid Power System in HOMER for Rural Electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Q.; Jaszczur, M.; Abdulateef, J.

    2016-09-01

    A large proportion of the world's population lives in remote rural areas that are geographically isolated and sparsely populated. The present study is based on modeling, computer simulation and optimization of hybrid power generation system in the rural area in Muqdadiyah district of Diyala state, Iraq. Two renewable resources, namely, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine (WT) are considered. The HOMER software is used to study and design the proposed hybrid energy system model. Based on simulation results, it has been found that renewable energy sources perhaps replace the conventional energy sources and would be a feasible solution for the generation of electric power at remote locations with a reasonable investment. The hybrid power system solution to electrify the selected area resulted in a least-cost combination of the hybrid power system that can meet the demand in a dependable manner at a cost about (0.321/kWh). If the wind resources in the study area at the lower stage, it's not economically viable for a wind turbine to generate the electricity.

  13. Energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, battery hybrid power supply system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, and battery hybrid power supply system. The procedure starts by the identification of the hourly load requirements for a typical target consumer and the concept of load...

  14. Development of a new lower hybrid antenna module using a poloidal power divider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, S.; Imai, T.; Seki, M.; Suganuma, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Goniche, M.; Bibet, Ph.; Berio, S.; Brossaud, J.; Rey, G.; Tonon, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1997-03-01

    A realistic antenna module using a poloidal divider for lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiment, is modelled and fabricated. In this antenna module test II, three types of poloidal dividers, which split the power in 3, are tested. (author). 15 refs.

  15. A Direct Power Conversion Topology for Grid Integration of Hybrid AC/DC Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng;

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiple-input versatile matrix converter (VMC) for integrating hybrid ac/dc energy resources and storages to the power grid. The VMC is developed from the traditional indirect matrix converter but operates in the reverse-boost mode rather than in the forward-buck mode. The ...

  16. Flexible Microgrid Power Quality Enhancement Using Adaptive Hybrid Voltage and Current Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Li, Yun Wei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    To accomplish superior harmonic compensation performance using distributed generation (DG) unit power electronics interfaces, an adaptive hybrid voltage and current controlled method (HCM) is proposed in this paper. It shows that the proposed adaptive HCM can reduce the numbers of low-pass/bandpa...

  17. Single-Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor for Low-Power Low-Cost Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new single-phase, Hybrid Switched Reluctance (HSR) motor for low-cost, low-power, pump or fan drive systems. Its single-phase configuration allows use of a simple converter to reduce the system cost. Cheap ferrite magnets are used and arranged in a special flux concentration...

  18. A comparison of GaAs and Si hybrid solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Five different hybrid solar power systems using silicon solar cells to produce thermal and electric power are modeled and compared with a hybrid system using a GaAs cell. Among the indices determined are capital cost per unit electric power plus mechanical power, annual cost per unit electric energy, and annual cost per unit electric plus mechanical work. Current costs are taken to be $35,000/sq m for GaAs cells with an efficiency of 15% and $1000/sq m for Si cells with an efficiency of 10%. It is shown that hybrid systems can be competitive with existing methods of practical energy conversion. Limiting values for annual costs of Si and GaAs cells are calculated to be 10.3 cents/kWh and 6.8 cents/kWh, respectively. Results for both systems indicate that for a given flow rate there is an optimal operating condition for minimum cost photovoltaic output. For Si cell costs of $50/sq m optimal performance can be achieved at concentrations of about 10; for GaAs cells costing 1000/sq m, optimal performance can be obtained at concentrations of around 100. High concentration hybrid systems offer a distinct cost advantage over flat systems.

  19. A direct power conversion topology for grid integrations of hybrid AC/DC resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng;

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiple-input versatile matrix converter (VMC) to integrate hybrid ac/dc energy resources and storages to a power grid. The VMC is developed based on the indirect matrix converter (IMC) with its six-switch voltage source converter replaced by a nine-switch topology. The nine...

  20. Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid PV/Battery Source Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a decentralized load sharing and power management method for an islanded microgrid composed of PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method performs all the necessary tasks such as load sharing among the units, battery charging and discharging and PV...

  1. COCO 3: hybrid power plant surpasses performance target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    Cogeneration company's third power plant at the Map Ta Phut industrial estate in Thailand is a coal fired circulating fluidized bed boiler linked in a unique steam cycle with the heat recovery units of two gas turbines. These HRUs function as both economiser and reheater. With nearly one year of operation behind it, performance has surpassed expectation for output, efficiency, and emission levels. 4 figs.

  2. Hybrid Voltage-Multipliers Based Switching Power Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Caro, Julio C.; Mayo-Maldonado, Jonathan C.; Vazquez-Bautista, Rene Fabian; Valderrabano-Gonzalez, Antonio; Salas-Cabrera, Ruben; Valdez-Resendiz, Jesus Elias

    2011-08-01

    This work presents a derivation of PWM DC-DC hybrid converters by combining traditional converters with the Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier, the voltage multiplier of each converter is driven with the same transistor of the basic topology; this fact makes the structure of the new converters very simple and provides high-voltage gain. The traditional topologies discussed are the boost, buck-boost, Cuk and SEPIC. They main features of the discussed family are: (i) high-voltage gain without using extreme duty cycles or transformers, which allow high switching frequency and (ii) low voltage stress in switching devices, along with modular structures, and more output levels can be added without modifying the main circuit, which is highly desirable in some applications such as renewable energy generation systems. It is shown how a multiplier converter can become a generalized topology and how some of the traditional converters and several state-of-the-art converters can be derived from the generalized topologies and vice-versa. All the discussed converters were simulated, additionally experimental results are provided with an interleaved multiplier converter.

  3. Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Estrada, Luis [Southwest Thechnology Development Institute, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces (United States); Newcomb, Charles; Corbus, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, CO (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the performance and reliability of the Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid system. Located in a remote coastal area in southern Mexico, the system is exposed to high temperatures and humidity, slat spray and occasional storm wind. It continues to supply the load, but has experienced some problems associated with inverter failure, battery degradation and corrosion. Inadequate operation and maintenance practices have also caused some problems. The information collected to date from technical visits and remote data collection is discussed in this paper. The system design and operation are also covered. [Spanish] Este articulo describe el rendimiento y la confiabilidad del sistema hibrido de viento y diesel en Costa de Cocos. Localizado en una costa remota en la parte sur de Mexico, el sistema esta expuesto a altas temperaturas y humedad, fuerte brisa marina y vientos ocasionales de tormenta. Sigue suministrando la carga, pero ha experimentado algunos problemas asociados con fallas del inversor, la degradacion de las baterias y corrosion. La inadecuada operacion y practicas de mantenimiento tambien han causado algunos problemas. Este articulo analiza la informacion reunida a la fecha sobre las visitas tecnicas y la recoleccion remota de datos. Tambien incluye el disel del sistema y su operacion.

  4. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; J.C.N. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this

  5. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuizen, Bram; Bosma, J.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this pape

  6. A Hybrid Estimator for Active/Reactive Power Control of Single-Phase Distributed Generation Systems with Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlevani, Majid; Eren, Suzan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jain, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new active/reactive power closed-loop control system for a hybrid renewable energy generation system used for single-phase residential/commercial applications.The proposed active/reactive control method includes a hybrid estimator, which is able to quickly and accurately estimate the active/reactive power values. The proposed control system enables the hybrid renewable energy generation system to be able to perform real-time grid interconnection services such as active v...

  7. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  8. Analysis of a natural draught tower in the circulation seawater system of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde; Analisis de una torre de tiro natural en el sistema de agua de circulacion de mar de la central nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijerina S, F.; Vargas A, A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Veracruz-Medellin Km. 7.5, Veracruz (Mexico)], e-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    The analysis of a natural draught tower in open circuit for the cooling system of seawater circulation on the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, it is based on conditions of 2027 MWt and 2317 MWt, where the flows of circulation water system hardly vary and whose purpose will be, to cool the seawater circulation. The circulation water system is used as heat drain in main condenser of turbo generator to condense the nuclear vapor. The annual average temperature in the seawater at present is of 26 C to the entrance to circulation water system and it is vary in accordance with the time of year. The mean temperature of leaving of circulation water system to the sea is of 41 C. Having a cooling tower to reduce the entrance temperature to the circulation water system, it improves the efficiency of thermal transfer in condenser, it improves the vacuum in condenser giving more operative margin to avoid condenser losses by air entrances and nuclear power plant shutdowns, as well as for to improve the efficiency of operative balance of nuclear power plant, also it prevents the impact in thermal transfer efficiency in condenser by the climatic change. (Author)

  9. “布-也”35kV 输电线路24号铁塔倒塔原因与对策探析%Analysis of ‘Bu -Ye’35kV power transmission line No.24 iron tower collapse reasons and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨存喜

    2015-01-01

    作为一种风敏感结构体系,塔—线输电结构在遇到强风条件下容易产生风振,给塔架结构安全性带来隐患,严重时易造成弯塔、倒塔事故。本文对“布—也”35kV 输电线路在极端恶劣大风条件下发生的24号铁塔倒塔原因进行了分析,并提出了几种铁塔升级、加固对策,旨在提高输电线路铁塔的可靠性和安全性。%Tower-line power transmission structure can easily produce wind-induced vibration under the condition of strong wind as a wind-sensitive architecture,thereby bringing hidden danger to tower structure safety,tower can be bended and collapsed in serious condition.In the paper,reasons of No.24 iron tower collapse in ‘Bu -Ye’35kV power transmission line under strong wind conditions are analyzed,several iron tower updating and reinforcement countermeasures are proposed aiming at improving power transmission line iron tower reliability and safety.

  10. Ejection Tower Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ejection Tower Facility's mission is to test and evaluate new ejection seat technology being researched and developed for future defense forces. The captive and...

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Supercapacitor-Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source for HY-IEL Scooter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bujlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of development of a hybrid fuel cell supercapacitor power system for vehicular applications that was developed and investigated at the Energy Sources Research Section of the Wroclaw Division of Electrotechnical Institute (IEL/OW. The hybrid power source consists of a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack and an energy-type supercapacitor that supports the system in time of peak power demands. The developed system was installed in the HY-IEL electric scooter. The vehicle was equipped with auxiliary components (e.g., air compressor, hydrogen tank, and electromagnetic valves needed for proper operation of the fuel cell stack, as well as electronic control circuits and a data storage unit that enabled on-line recording of system and vehicle operation parameters. Attention is focused on the system energy flow monitoring. The experimental part includes field test results of a vehicle powered with the fuel cell-supercapacitor system. Values of currents and voltages recorded for the system, as well as the vehicle’s velocity and hydrogen consumption rate, are presented versus time of the experiment. Operation of the hybrid power system is discussed and analysed based on the results of measurements obtained.

  12. Performance evaluation of hybrid VLC using device cost and power over data throughput criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. C.; Tan, C. S.; Wong, H. Y.; Yahya, M. B.

    2013-09-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) technology has attained its attention in both academic and industry lately. It is determined by the development of light emitting diode (LED) technology for solid-state lighting (SSL).It has great potential to gradually replace radio frequency (RF) wireless technology because it offers unregulated and unlicensed bandwidth to withstand future demand of indoor wireless access to real-time bandwidth-demanding applications. However, it was found to provide intrusive uplink channel that give rise to unpleasant irradiance from the user device which could interfere with the downlink channel of VLC and hence limit mobility to users as a result of small coverage (field of view of VLC).To address this potential problem, a Hybrid VLC system which integrates VLC (for downlink) and RF (for uplink) technology is proposed. It offers a non-intrusive RF back channel that provides high throughput VLC and maintains durability with conventional RF devices. To deploy Hybrid VLC system in the market, it must be energy and cost saving to attain its equivalent economical advantage by comparing to existing architecture that employs fluorescent or LED lights with RF technology. In this paper, performance evaluation on the proposed hybrid system was carried out in terms of device cost and power consumption against data throughput. Based on our simulation, Hybrid VLC system was found to reduce device cost by 3% and power consumption by 68% when compares to fluorescent lights with RF technology. Nevertheless, when it is compared to LED lights with RF technology, our proposed hybrid system is found to achieve device cost saving as high as 47% and reduced power consumption by 49%. Such promising results have demonstrated that Hybrid VLC system is a feasible solution and has paved the way for greater cost saving and energy efficient compares with the current RF architecture even with the increasing requirement of indoor area coverage.

  13. Potential of hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants in Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The City of Burbank and the Ralph M. Parsons Company studies showed several advantages for hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants, as follows: (1) the estimated cost of producing electricity in hybrid plant is about 18.3 mills/kWh, compared to 19.3 mills/kWh in an all-coal fired power plant; (2) the coal requirements for a given plant can be reduced about 12 to 17%; and (3) the geothermal brines can be used for power plant cooling water, and in some cases, as boiler feedwater. The pertinent results of the City of Burbank studies are summarized and applied to the geothermal and coal resources of Arizona for possible future utilization.

  14. Design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid switcher locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Liping, E-mail: lguo@niu.ed [Department of Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Yedavalli, Karthik; Zinger, Donald [Department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper discusses the design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid locomotive. Different types of fuel cells for appropriate application to locomotives were compared, fuel cell and auxiliary storage devices were modeled, and a control strategy for the overall system was developed in this paper. By using the proposed control strategy, the power control system regulates the sharing of power demand between fuel cell and auxiliary storage units including batteries and ultracapacitors. Experimental data of the power duty cycle of a typical switcher locomotive is analyzed. The proposed control system is tested using the experimental data. Results show that the control system is able to maintain output voltage from different power sources within a certain range, keep the state of charge of the batteries within an optimal range and meet power demand of the locomotive at a high efficiency.

  15. Design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid switcher locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liping [Department of Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Yedavalli, Karthik; Zinger, Donald [Department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper discusses the design and modeling of power system for a fuel cell hybrid locomotive. Different types of fuel cells for appropriate application to locomotives were compared, fuel cell and auxiliary storage devices were modeled, and a control strategy for the overall system was developed in this paper. By using the proposed control strategy, the power control system regulates the sharing of power demand between fuel cell and auxiliary storage units including batteries and ultracapacitors. Experimental data of the power duty cycle of a typical switcher locomotive is analyzed. The proposed control system is tested using the experimental data. Results show that the control system is able to maintain output voltage from different power sources within a certain range, keep the state of charge of the batteries within an optimal range and meet power demand of the locomotive at a high efficiency. (author)

  16. Wind Power Forecasting techniques in complex terrain: ANN vs. ANN-CFD hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Francesco; Astolfi, Davide; Mana, Matteo; Burlando, Massimiliano; Meißner, Cathérine; Piccioni, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    Due to technology developments, renewable energies are becoming competitive against fossil sources and the number of wind farms is growing, which have to be integrated into power grids. Therefore, accurate power forecast is needed and often operators are charged with penalties in case of imbalance. Yet, wind is a stochastic and very local phenomenon, and therefore hard to predict. It has a high variability in space and time and wind power forecast is challenging. Statistical methods, as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), are often employed for power forecasting, but they have some shortcomings: they require data sets over several years and are not able to capture tails of wind power distributions. In this work a pure ANN power forecast is compared against a hybrid method, based on the combination of ANN and a physical method using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The validation case is a wind farm sited in southern Italy in a very complex terrain, with a wide spread turbine layout.

  17. Intelligent Hybrid Vehicle Power Control - Part 1: Machine Learning of Optimal Vehicle Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    secondary power source, an HEV uses a smaller and more efficient engine in its drivetrain . Because of the dual-power-source nature, the design and...the motor or both can provide the traction power to the drivetrain . During vehicle deceleration, the regenerative braking power is captured to charge...is generated for each time step t as a function of Pbatt(t) and ωeng(t) for the given drivetrain power Pdrive-sh(t), and the electric load power

  18. Ultra-Low-Power Hybrid Light-Matter Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Tinkler, L; Skryabin, D V; Yulin, A; Royall, B; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A; Krizhanovskii, D N; Skolnick, M S

    2014-01-01

    New functionalities in nonlinear optics will require systems with giant optical nonlinearity as well as compatibility with photonic circuit fabrication techniques. Here we introduce a new platform based on strong light-matter coupling between waveguide photons and quantum-well excitons. On a sub-millimeter length scale we generate sub-picosecond bright temporal solitons at a pulse energy of only 0.5 pico-Joules. From this we deduce an unprecedented nonlinear refractive index 3 orders of magnitude larger than in any other ultrafast system. We study both temporal and spatio-temporal nonlinear effects and for the first time observe dark-bright spatio-temporal solitons. Theoretical modelling of soliton formation in the strongly coupled system confirms the experimental observations. These results show the promise of our system as a high speed, low power, integrated platform for physics and devices based on strong interactions between photons.

  19. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  20. Efficient Hybrid Optimal Design Method for Power Electronics Converters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)697719; Aguglia, Davide; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel design methodology for dimensioning optimal power-electronic converters, which is able to achieve the precision of numerical simulation-based optimization procedures, however minimizing the overall computation time. The approach is based on the utilization of analytical and frequency-domain design models for a numerical optimization process, a validation with numerical simulations of the intermediate optimal solutions, and the correction of the analytical design models precision from the numerical simulation results. This method allows using the numerical simulation in an efficient way, where typically less than ten correction iterations are required. In order to demonstrate the performances of the proposed methodology, the calculation of the control parameters for an H-bridge DC-DC converter and the optimal dimensioning of a damped output filter for a buck converter using the proposed approach is presented.

  1. The economics of hybrid power systems for sustainable desert agriculture in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, S.M.; Dahl, C.

    2005-01-01

    Egypt has embarked on an ambitious desert land reclamation program in order to increase total food production. Energy planners for these desert agriculture locations have chosen diesel generation power technology because minimization of the initial capital cost of a power supply system is their top...... to investigate the economic potential of such systems in Egypt’s desert agriculture sector. Using optimization software, we assess the economics of hybrid power systems versus the present diesel generation technology in a remote agricultural development area. We also consider the emission reduction advantages...

  2. Effect of buoyancy and power design parameters on hybrid airship performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, P. D.; Gelhausen, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of several design parameters on the performance of hybrid airships having rotors and propellers were examined with a simple mathematical model. The parameters included buoyancy ratio, Froude number, ratio of rotor power to total power, and rotor shaft tilt. Performance variations resulting from changes in these parameters were calculated, and are presented and discussed. Performance quantities included best climb rate, equivalent vehicle L/D, and maximum speed. Performance at all speeds between hover and maximum speed was found to be sensitive to power distribution between rotors and propellers, and to rotor shaft tilt.

  3. Control of Hybrid System Using Multi-Input Inverter and Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sivakumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to control the Wind/PV hybrid system using Multi-input inverter to get constant output power for different operating conditions. The MPPT also used in this system to get the maximum peak power to the load. The perturbation observation (P&O method is used to accomplish the maximum power point tracking algorithm for input sources. The operating principle of the open loop and closed loop circuit of multi-input inverter is discussed.

  4. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...... based approach is used to control the DC/DC power converters associated with the DC sources, the backstepping technique combined with the field oriented control strategy are invoked in order to control the induction motor. It is formally shown, using a theoretical analysis and simulation results...

  5. Optimization of hybrid power system composed of SMES and flywheel MG for large pulsed load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiyama, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2008-09-01

    A superconducting magnetic storage system (SMES) has some advantages such as rapid large power response and high storage efficiency which are superior to other energy storage systems. A flywheel motor generator (FWMG) has large scaled capacity and high reliability, and hence is broadly utilized for a large pulsed load, while it has comparatively low storage efficiency due to high mechanical loss compared with SMES. A fusion power plant such as International Thermo-Nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) requires a large and long pulsed load which causes a frequency deviation in a utility power system. In order to keep the frequency within an allowable deviation, we propose a hybrid power system for the pulsed load, which equips the SMES and the FWMG with the utility power system. We evaluate installation cost and frequency control performance of three power systems combined with energy storage devices; (i) SMES with the utility power, (ii) FWMG with the utility power, (iii) both SMES and FWMG with the utility power. The first power system has excellent frequency power control performance but its installation cost is high. The second system has inferior frequency control performance but its installation cost is the lowest. The third system has good frequency control performance and its installation cost is attained lower than the first power system by adjusting the ratio between SMES and FWMG.

  6. Hybrid PID and PSO-based control for electric power assist steering system for electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, R. A.; Toha, S. F.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-12-01

    Electric power assist steering (EPAS) system provides an important significance in enhancing the driving performance of a vehicle with its energy-conserving features. This paper presents a hybrid PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based control scheme to minimize energy consumption for EPAS. This single objective optimization scheme is realized using the PSO technique in searching for best gain parameters of the PID controller. The fast tuning feature of this optimum PID controller produced high-quality solutions. Simulation results show the performance and effectiveness of the hybrid PSO-PID based controller as opposed to the conventional PID controller.

  7. LQR-Based Power Train Control Method Design for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Haitao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the mathematical model of fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV proposed in our previous study, a multistate feedback control strategy of the hybrid power train is designed based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR algorithm. A Kalman Filter (KF observer is introduced to estimate state of charge (SOC of the battery firstly, and then a linear quadratic regulator is constructed to compute the state feedback gain matrix of the closed-loop control system. At last, simulation and actual test are utilized to demonstrate this new approach.

  8. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  9. Analysis of the Fuel Efficiency of a Hybrid Electric Drive with an Electric Power Splitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Čundev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the fuel efficiency of a hybrid electric car drive, with an electric power splitter based on a double rotor synchronous permanent magnet generator. The results have been obtained through a precisely determined mathematical model and by simulating the characteristics of all essential values for the entire drive. This work is related to the experimental working stand for electric and hybrid car drive research, which has been developed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FEE at CTU in Prague. 

  10. Identification of environmental issues: Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California: First phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-14

    The development of a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California, has been proposed. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize goethermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power. This report identifies environmental issues and constraints which may impact the proposed hybrid wood-geothermal power plant. (ACR)

  11. Fresnel-collectors in hybrid solar thermal power plants with high solar shares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerchenmueller, H.; Mertins, M.; Morin, G. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Haeberle, A. [PSE GmbH, Solar Info Center, Freiburg (Germany); Bockamp, S.; Ewert, M.; Fruth, M.; Griestop, T. [E.ON Energie AG, Muenchen (Germany); Dersch, J. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The use of Fresnel-Collectors in power plant configurations with low or zero CO2-emission has been analysed in this paper. Both, the solar-biomass hybrid plant and the solar-gas hybrid plant are very promising concepts with respect to technical, economical and ecological aspects. The hybrid operation would be very useful to handle the fluctuating solar resource and facilitate operation. Depending on feed in tariffs the hybridisation of a solar thermal power plant with biomass or with small shares of natural gas can be economically very interesting. The ecological advantage of a solar-biomass power plant is evident, since it would be a zero CO2- emission plant. Beyond that biomass is a limited source, especially in regions with high solar irradiance. The herein examined gas hybrid variants are by far more favourable than Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Systems (ISCCS), which have been previously examined. Since much higher solar shares can be reached this is a forward-looking technology. Furthermore the solar field does not act as a disturbing factor as opposed to the ISCCS concept, where the efficiency of the sophisticated CC system is reduced due to suboptimal dimensioning of components. In other words: It is better to build the suggested hybrid plant with low gas share and CC plants instead of ISCCS plants. The resulting solar levelised electricity costs of both options are approximately the same. The calculated levelised electricity costs for the examined configurations of between 11 and 13 ct/kWh are very promising results. The calculations were made based on cost assumptions for the collector of 130 Euro/m{sup 2} which seems realistic not for the first project but for the third plant. As a next step in the commercialisation of the Fresnel-technology demonstration and test collectors must be built, such as by the Australian company Solar Heat and Power, to validate the technical and economic assumptions. (orig.)

  12. Techno-economic Analysis of a Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System in the South Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaireddine Allali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The electrical energy is often produced with the help of diesel generators in isolated areas in the Saharan region. While the latter requiring relatively little investment because is generally expensive to exploit due to the transportation to remote areas adds extra cost, significant fuel consumption and relatively high maintenance cost, etc. Moreover, the electricity production by the diesel is ineffective, presents significant environmental risks. But these isolated areas have significant wind energy potential; which is good position for the exploitation of clean and sustainable wind energy. The use of wind-diesel power system is widely recommended especially to reduce fuel consumption and in this way to reduce system operating costs and environmental impact. The subject of this paper is to present the techno-economic analysis of a wind-diesel hybrid power system. In this context, the contribution envisaged with this research is to collaborate on the optimal design of a hybrid power system including a wind turbine generator, a diesel generator and an energy storage system for powering a continuous way an isolated site in the South Algerian installed power of 120 kW.This system has a high control strategy for the management of different power sources (wind, diesel, battery that depending to weather conditions, especially wind speed values and the power demanded by the consumer load.

  13. Hybrid power system intelligent operation and protection involving distributed architectures and pulsed loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed

    Efficient and reliable techniques for power delivery and utilization are needed to account for the increased penetration of renewable energy sources in electric power systems. Such methods are also required for current and future demands of plug-in electric vehicles and high-power electronic loads. Distributed control and optimal power network architectures will lead to viable solutions to the energy management issue with high level of reliability and security. This dissertation is aimed at developing and verifying new techniques for distributed control by deploying DC microgrids, involving distributed renewable generation and energy storage, through the operating AC power system. To achieve the findings of this dissertation, an energy system architecture was developed involving AC and DC networks, both with distributed generations and demands. The various components of the DC microgrid were designed and built including DC-DC converters, voltage source inverters (VSI) and AC-DC rectifiers featuring novel designs developed by the candidate. New control techniques were developed and implemented to maximize the operating range of the power conditioning units used for integrating renewable energy into the DC bus. The control and operation of the DC microgrids in the hybrid AC/DC system involve intelligent energy management. Real-time energy management algorithms were developed and experimentally verified. These algorithms are based on intelligent decision-making elements along with an optimization process. This was aimed at enhancing the overall performance of the power system and mitigating the effect of heavy non-linear loads with variable intensity and duration. The developed algorithms were also used for managing the charging/discharging process of plug-in electric vehicle emulators. The protection of the proposed hybrid AC/DC power system was studied. Fault analysis and protection scheme and coordination, in addition to ideas on how to retrofit currently available

  14. 八达岭太阳能塔式热发电吸热器水动力特性仿真研究%Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Operation Security Study of Solar Receiver for Badaling Solar Tower Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高维; 徐蕙; 徐二树; 余强

    2012-01-01

    This paper took overheating cavity receiver of Badaling 1 MW solar power tower plant as study object, developed a hydrodynamic simulation model for receiver based on the working principle of the superheating cavity receiver, simulated the hydrodynamic characteristics of cavity receiver, and obtained the change law of working medium mass flow in different heating surfaces with solar radiation. The results can provide some guidance to design the receiver system and to formulate the control and operating strategy for solar power tower plant.%本文以八达岭塔式太阳能热发电实验电站腔式吸热器为研究对象,根据吸热器的结构和工作原理,利用热力学定律建立了吸热器系统水动力仿真数学模型,模拟了吸热器蒸发受热面系统内工质的流动,通过吸热器水动力的仿真实验从而得到在不同的太阳辐照强度下吸热器蒸发受热面入口流量的分配规律。论文结论对实际太阳能热发电站吸热器的设计及安全运行具有指导意义。

  15. Study on a rational design of leg material-fixation for a deep footing of a large-scale electric power-transmitting steel tower; Ogata sodenyo tetto shinso kiso no goriteki na kyakuzai teichaku sekkeiho ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizima, M. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)] Saito, S. [Toden Design Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] Mishima, T. [Maeda Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-05

    When a footing of a steel tower for transmitting electric power is affected by vertical loads of both compression and lifting due to a wind load, fixation of leg materials as installation portions of the steel tower and the footing is important from a point of ensuring reliability of power transmission under such large loads. In this paper, results of studies on a model experiment executed for a purpose of enlarging and application scope of the leg materials fixation to deep footings, and numerical analysis which is executed by a finite element method considering tensile softening caused by crack of concrete for carrying destruction mechanism are described. It is re-confirmed that crack-resistant force is not in proportion to the increase of a body diameter and it is newly clarified that the crack-resistant force is not in proportion to the increase of concrete hardness either. A the model experiment can be simulated by executing the numerical analysis considering the tensile softening of concrete caused by a crack, effects of the concrete hardness and the body size upon a fixing strength of leg materials are examined. 7 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Hybrid Systems of Distributed Generation with Renewable Sources: Modeling and Analysis of Their Operational Modes in Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gashimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to modeling and simulation of operational hybrid system modes of the distributed generation comprising conventional sources – modular diesel generators, gas-turbine power units; and renewable sources – wind and solar power plants. Operational modes of the hybrid system have been investigated under conditions of electrical connection with electric power system and in case of its isolated operation. As a consequence

  17. Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-30

    Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System Jarrett Goodell and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigation of Control Algorithms for Tracked Vehicle Mobility Load Emulation for a Combat Hybrid Electric Power System 5a...for ~ 22 ton tracked vehicle • Tested and Developed: – Motors, Generators, Batteries, Inverters, DC-DC Converters , Thermal Management, Pulse Power

  18. Analysis of a model of fuel cell - gas turbine hybrid power system for enhanced energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calay, Rajnish K.; Mustafa, Mohamad Y.; Virk, Mohammad S.; Mustafa, Mahmoud F.

    2012-11-01

    A simple mathematical model to evaluate the performance of FC-GT hybrid system is presented in this paper. The model is used to analyse the influence of various parameters on the performance of a typical hybrid system, where excess heat rejected from the solid-oxide fuel cell stack is utilised to generate additional power through a gas turbine system and to provide heat energy for space heating. The model is based on thermodynamic analysis of various components of the plant and can be adapted for various configurations of the plant components. Because there are many parameters defining the efficiency and work output of the hybrid system, the technique is based on mathematical and graphical optimisation of various parameters; to obtain the maximum efficiency for a given plant configuration.

  19. Characterization of hybrid self-powered neutron detector under neutron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamichi, M; Yamamura, C; Nakazawa, M; Kawamura, H

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the irradiation behaviour of a blanket mock-up on in-pile functional test, it is necessary to measure the neutron flux change in the in-pile mock-up by a neutron detector, such as the self-powered neutron detector (SPND). With its small-sized emitter, which has high sensitivity and fast response time, SPND is an indispensable tool in order to measure the local neutron flux change. In the case of an in-pile functional test, it is necessary that response time is less than 1s and ratio of SPND output current is more than 0.3 of output current of SPND with Rh emitter. Therefore, a hybrid SPND with high sensitivity and fast response time was developed. This hybrid SPND used a hybrid emitter, i.e. Co cladded Pt-13%Rh.

  20. Large-scale multi-zone optimal power dispatch using hybrid hierarchical evolution technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjaree Pandit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid technique based on hierarchical evolution is proposed for large, non-convex, multi-zone economic dispatch (MZED problems considering all practical constraints. Evolutionary/swarm intelligence-based optimisation techniques are reported to be effective only for small/medium-sized power systems. The proposed hybrid hierarchical evolution (HHE algorithm is specifically developed for solving large systems. The HHE integrates the exploration and exploitation capabilities of particle swarm optimisation and differential evolution in a novel manner such that the search efficiency is improved substantially. Most hybrid techniques export or exchange features or operations from one algorithm to the other, but in HHE their entire individual features are retained. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified on six-test systems having different sizes and complexity levels. Non-convex MZED solution for such large and complex systems has not yet been reported.

  1. Fractional order fuzzy control of hybrid power system with renewable generation using chaotic PSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the operation of a hybrid power system through a novel fuzzy control scheme. The hybrid power system employs various autonomous generation systems like wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel engine, fuel-cell, aqua electrolyzer etc. Other energy storage devices like the battery, flywheel and ultra-capacitor are also present in the network. A novel fractional order (FO) fuzzy control scheme is employed and its parameters are tuned with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm augmented with two chaotic maps for achieving an improved performance. This FO fuzzy controller shows better performance over the classical PID, and the integer order fuzzy PID controller in both linear and nonlinear operating regimes. The FO fuzzy controller also shows stronger robustness properties against system parameter variation and rate constraint nonlinearity, than that with the other controller structures. The robustness is a highly desirable property in such a scenario since many components of the hybrid power system may be switched on/off or may run at lower/higher power output, at different time instants.

  2. Hybridized Electromagnetic-Triboelectric Nanogenerator for a Self-Powered Electronic Watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ting; Wang, Xue; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya

    2015-12-22

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator including a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and six electromagnetic generators (EMGs) that can effectively scavenge biomechanical energy for sustainably powering an electronic watch. Triggered by the natural motions of the wearer's wrist, a magnetic ball at the center in an acrylic box with coils on each side will collide with the walls, resulting in outputs from both the EMGs and the TENG. By using the hybridized nanogenerator to harvest the biomechanical energy, the electronic watch can be continuously powered under different motion types of the wearer's wrist, where the best approach is to charge a 100 μF capacitor in 39 s to maintain the continuous operation of the watch for 456 s. To increase the working time of the watch further, a homemade Li-ion battery has been utilized as the energy storage unit for realizing the continuous working of the watch for about 218 min by using the hybridized nanogenerator to charge the battery within 32 min. This work will provide the opportunities for developing a nanogenerator-based built-in power source for self-powered wearable electronics such as an electronic watch.

  3. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  4. Shunt hybrid active power filter for harmonic mitigation: A practical design approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unnikrishnan A K; Chandira Sekaran E; Subhash Joshi T G; Manju A S; Aby Joseph

    2015-06-01

    The increasing importance of Power Quality problems has been responsible for several improvements in Active Power Filter (APF) typologies in the last decade. The increased cost and switching losses make a pure shunt APF economically impractical for high power applications. In higher power levels shunt Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF) has been reported to be a useful approach to eliminate current harmonics caused by nonlinear loads. This paper presents a control strategy and design criteria for transformer-less shunt HAPF with special attention to the integration of series passive filter. The paper also compares the performance improvement of passive harmonic filter when modified as shunt HAPF. Experimental results obtained verify the viability and effectiveness of the proposed design criteria and control algorithm.

  5. Online Identification of Power Required for Self-Sustainability of the Battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles have shown great potential for enhancing fuel economy and reducing emissions. Deriving a power management control policy to distribute the power demanded by the driver optimally to the available subsystems (e.g., the internal combustion engine, motor, generator, and battery) has been a challenging control problem. One of the main aspects of the power management control algorithms is concerned with the self-sustainability of the electrical path, which must be guaranteed for the entire driving cycle. This paper considers the problem of identifying online the power required by the battery to maintain the state of charge within a range of the target value. An algorithm is presented that realizes how much power the engine needs to provide to the battery so that self-sustainability of the electrical path is maintained.

  6. Plasma characteristics in inductively and capacitively coupled hybrid source using single RF power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwan-Yong; Lee, Moo-Young; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Ju-Ho; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Parallel combined inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) using single RF generator was proposed to linear control of the plasma density with RF power. In the case of ICP, linear control of the plasma density is difficult because there is a density jump up due to E to H transition. Although the plasma density of CCP changes linearly with power, the density is lower than that of ICP due to high ion energy loss at the substrate. In our hybrid source, the single RF power generator was connected to electrode and antenna, and the variable capacitor was installed between the antenna and the power generator to control the current flowing through the antenna and the electrode. By adjusting the current ratio between the antenna and the electrode, linear characteristic of plasma density with RF power is achieved.

  7. Research on Hybrid Power System with Dual Stator-winding and Its Decoupled Control Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Shu-guang; MA Xiao-jun; KE Rong-shuo; LIU Qiu-li

    2012-01-01

    For the bi-power system adopted widely in future armored vehicles,a hybrid power generator with dual stator-winding was proposed.Its structure and working principle were analyzed first,and its main parameters were determined and verified according to the power requirements.The system's mathematical model was established,and a decoupled control method was put forward on the basis of the instantaneous reactive power theory.For the voltage building-up,a voltage control strategy was designed on the basis of mixed reactive power compensation to implement stabilized 28V and 270V outputs simultaneously.The simulation results show that the stabilization accuracy and disturbance rejection ability of the system are improved much more than other ordinary generators.

  8. Modified Grid-Connected CSI for Hybrid PV/Wind Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amorndechaphon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a power conditioning unit for hybrid PV/wind power generation system is proposed. The proposed power conditioner is based on the current source inverter (CSI topology. All energy sources are connected in parallel with a DC-bus through the modified wave-shaping circuits. To achieve the unity power factor at the utility grid, the DC-link current can be controlled via the wave-shaping circuits with the sinusoidal PWM scheme. In this work, the carrier-based PWM scheme is also proposed to minimize the utility current THD. The power rating of the proposed system can be increased by connecting more PV/wind modules through their wave-shaping circuits in parallel with the other modules. The details of the operating principles, the system configurations, and the design considerations are described. The effectiveness of the proposed CSI is demonstrated by simulation results.

  9. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai

    2016-08-01

    To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.

  10. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  11. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai

    2017-05-01

    To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.

  12. 47 CFR 73.1692 - Broadcast station construction near or installation on an AM broadcast tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AM station to return to the direct method of power determination. (d) Tower erections or... installation on an AM broadcast tower. 73.1692 Section 73.1692 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Stations § 73.1692 Broadcast station construction near or installation on an AM broadcast tower. Where...

  13. A hybrid solar panel maximum power point search method that uses light and temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    Solar cells have low efficiency and non-linear characteristics. To increase the output power solar cells are connected in more complex structures. Solar panels consist of series of connected solar cells with a few bypass diodes, to avoid negative effects of partial shading conditions. Solar panels are connected to special device named the maximum power point tracker. This device adapt output power from solar panels to load requirements and have also build in a special algorithm to track the maximum power point of solar panels. Bypass diodes may cause appearance of local maxima on power-voltage curve when the panel surface is illuminated irregularly. In this case traditional maximum power point tracking algorithms can find only a local maximum power point. In this article the hybrid maximum power point search algorithm is presented. The main goal of the proposed method is a combination of two algorithms: a method that use temperature sensors to track maximum power point in partial shading conditions and a method that use illumination sensor to track maximum power point in equal illumination conditions. In comparison to another methods, the proposed algorithm uses correlation functions to determinate the relationship between values of illumination and temperature sensors and the corresponding values of current and voltage in maximum power point. In partial shading condition the algorithm calculates local maximum power points bases on the value of temperature and the correlation function and after that measures the value of power on each of calculated point choose those with have biggest value, and on its base run the perturb and observe search algorithm. In case of equal illumination algorithm calculate the maximum power point bases on the illumination value and the correlation function and on its base run the perturb and observe algorithm. In addition, the proposed method uses a special coefficient modification of correlation functions algorithm. This sub

  14. Rotating-Disk-Based Hybridized Electromagnetic-Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Sustainably Powering Wireless Traffic Volume Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Chen, Jun; Jin, Long; Deng, Weili; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Haitao; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-28

    Wireless traffic volume detectors play a critical role for measuring the traffic-flow in a real-time for current Intelligent Traffic System. However, as a battery-operated electronic device, regularly replacing battery remains a great challenge, especially in the remote area and wide distribution. Here, we report a self-powered active wireless traffic volume sensor by using a rotating-disk-based hybridized nanogenerator of triboelectric nanogenerator and electromagnetic generator as the sustainable power source. Operated at a rotating rate of 1000 rpm, the device delivered an output power of 17.5 mW, corresponding to a volume power density of 55.7 W/m(3) (Pd = P/V, see Supporting Information for detailed calculation) at a loading resistance of 700 Ω. The hybridized nanogenerator was demonstrated to effectively harvest energy from wind generated by a moving vehicle through the tunnel. And the delivered power is capable of triggering a counter via a wireless transmitter for real-time monitoring the traffic volume in the tunnel. This study further expands the applications of triboelectric nanogenerators for high-performance ambient mechanical energy harvesting and as sustainable power sources for driving wireless traffic volume sensors.

  15. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Odeim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, with its slow dynamics, controls the state-of-charge of the battery. The parameters of the power management strategy are optimized by a genetic algorithm and Pareto front analysis in a framework of multi-objective optimization, taking into account the hydrogen consumption, the battery loading and the acceleration performance. The optimization results are validated on a test bench composed of a fuel cell system (1.2 kW, 26 V, lithium polymer battery (30 Ah, 37 V, and a supercapacitor (167 F, 48 V.

  16. Wind-hydrogen-biomass. The hybrid power plant of ENERTRAG AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miege, Andreas; Luschtinetz, T. [Fachhochschule Stralsund (Germany); Wenske, M.; Gamallo, F. [ENERTRAG AG (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The ENERTRAG Hybrid Power Plant is designed around the following components: three wind turbines of 2 MW each, an electrolyser of 500 kW, a hydrogen storage system, and two CHP units of 350 kW each, able to run with variable mixtures of biogas and hydrogen. The use of the electrolyser - acting as a deferrable load, and running under variable power - and the possibility of reconverting the hydrogen again into electricity will allow a feeding-in of the produced electricity to the grid, free of any of the changing characteristics of the wind power. Besides of that renewable electricity, the Hybrid Power Plant will also be able of delivering hydrogen as a clean fuel for the transport sector, as well as oxygen and heat. The project will show that renewable energy sources, like wind and solar, will be able, in the future, of producing back-up power without any support of fossile sources; and also of feeding electricity to the grid as a part of the base-load demand. As a first step towards this direction, the project has the goal of assuring that the energy production of the three wind turbines will be in accordance to the 24-h-forecasted wind power values. (orig.)

  17. Energy Management and Control of Electric Vehicles, Using Hybrid Power Source in Regenerative Braking Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s battery powered electric vehicles still face many issues: (1 Ways of improving the regenerative braking energy; (2 how to maximally extend the driving-range of electric vehicles (EVs and prolong the service life of batteries; (3 how to satisfy the energy requirements of the EVs both in steady and dynamic state. The electrochemical double-layer capacitors, also called ultra-capacitors (UCs, have the merits of high energy density and instantaneous power output capability, and are usually combined with power battery packs to form a hybrid power supply system (HPSS. The power circuit topology of the HPSS has been illustrated in this paper. In the proposed HPSS, all the UCs are in series, which may cause an imbalanced voltage distribution of each unit, moreover, the energy allocation between the batteries and UCs should also be considered. An energy-management scheme to solve this problem has been presented. Moreover, due to the parameter variations caused by temperature changes and produced errors, the modelling procedure of the HPSS becomes very difficult, so an H∞ current controller is presented. The proposed hybrid power source circuit is implemented on a laboratory hardware setup using a digital signal processor (DSP. Simulation and experimental results have been put forward to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the approach.

  18. Direct switching control of DC-DC power electronic converters using hybrid system theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Lin, F. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Wang, C. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Div. of Engineering Technology

    2010-07-01

    A direct switching control (DSC) scheme for power electronics converters was described. The system was designed for use in both traditional and renewable energy applications as well as in electric drive vehicles. The proposed control scheme was based on a detailed hybrid system converter model that used model predictive control (MPC), piecewise affine (PWA) approximations and constrained optimal control methods. A DC-DC converter was modelled as a hybrid machine. Switching among different modes of the DC-DC converter were modelled as discrete events controlled by the hybrid controller. The modelling scheme was applied to a Buck converter. The DSC was used to control the switch of the power converter based on a hybrid machine model. Results of the study showed that the method can be used to regulate output voltage and inductor currents. The method also provides fast transient responses and effectively regulates both currents and voltage. The controller can be used to provide immediate responses to dynamic disturbances and output voltage fluctuations. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Development of integrated fuel cell hybrid power source for electric forklift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, T. M.; Karimäki, H.; Viitakangas, J.; Vallet, J.; Ihonen, J.; Hyötylä, P.; Uusalo, H.; Tingelöf, T.

    A hybrid drivetrain comprising a 16 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system, ultracapacitor modules and a lead-acid battery was constructed and experimentally tested in a real counterweight forklift application. A scaled-down version of the hybrid system was assembled and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using a controllable resistive load. The control loops were operating in an in-house developed embedded system. The software is designed for building generic control applications, and the source code has been released as open source and made available on the internet. The hybrid drivetrain supplied the required 50 kW peak power in a typical forklift work cycle consisting of both loaded and unloaded driving, and lifting of a 2.4 tonne load. Load variations seen by the fuel cell were a fraction of the total current drawn by the forklift, with the average fuel cell power being 55% of nominal rating. A simple fuel cell hybrid model was also developed to further study the effects of energy storage dimensioning. Simulation results indicate that while a battery alone significantly reduces the load variations of the fuel cell, an ultracapacitor reduces them even further. Furthermore, a relatively small ultracapacitor is enough to achieve most of the potential benefit.

  20. Stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic power generation systems optimal sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crǎciunescu, Aurelian; Popescu, Claudia; Popescu, Mihai; Florea, Leonard Marin

    2013-10-01

    Wind and photovoltaic energy resources have attracted energy sectors to generate power on a large scale. A drawback, common to these options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on day time and meteorological conditions. Fortunately, the problems caused by the variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating the two resources in proper combination, using the strengths of one source to overcome the weakness of the other. The hybrid systems that combine wind and solar generating units with battery backup can attenuate their individual fluctuations and can match with the power requirements of the beneficiaries. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the hybrid energy system, one optimum match design sizing method is necessary. In this way, literature offers a variety of methods for multi-objective optimal designing of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (WG/PV) generating systems, one of the last being genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In this paper, mathematical models of hybrid WG/PV components and a short description of the last proposed multi-objective optimization algorithms are given.

  1. Technico-economic assessment of hybrid diesel-photovoltaic power plant in the south of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, A. Y.; Hamidat, A.

    2016-07-01

    In Algeria, Electrical energy demand has knew a significant growth in recent years. The important increase in demand is due to the development of industrial and commercial sectors, and the comfort of residents customers by using multiple equipment of household such as the TV, ventilator, especially air-conditioners in the south of Algeria. To address the problem of imbalance between supply and demand, it is compulsory to add other units of productions of electricity. These units can be use conventional sources or renewable energy sources. This study focuses on the feasibility of hybridizing diesel power plants supplying the isolated villages in southern Algeria by the introduction of PV systems. The town of Djanet was taken as a case study. The comparison between the different technical and economic parameters allows determining the contribution of the hybridization of conventional resources of production. However, the cost-effectiveness based on the net present cost (NPC) is estimated at 176, 054.208 for the hybrid system and 194, 965.280 for all Diesel system. In terms of the cost per kWh produced by the two systems, the kWh produced by the hybrid system is less expensive than the kWh produced by any conventional diesel system is 0.551 / kWh against 0.610 / kWh. The results also show that the hybrid system provides coverage of the expected load in the future.

  2. Robust design and optimization for autonomous PV-wind hybrid power systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-hai SHI; Zhi-dan ZHONG; Xin-jian ZHU; Guang-yi CAO

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a robust design method for autonomous photovoltaic (PV)-wind hybrid power systems to obtain an optimum system configuration insensitive to design variable variations. This issue has been formulated as a constraint multi-objective optimization problem, which is solved by a multi-objective genetic algorithm, NSGA-Ⅱ. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method, combined with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS), is applied to evaluate the stochastic system performance. The potential of the proposed method has been demonstrated by a conceptual system design. A comparative study between the proposed robust method and the deterministic method presented in literature has been conducted. The results indicate that the proposed method can find a large mount of Pareto optimal system configurations with better compromising performance than the deterministic method. The trade-off information may be derived by a systematical comparison of these configurations. The proposed robust design method should be useful for hybrid power systems that require both optimality and robustness.

  3. Utilizing wind and solar energy as power sources for a hybrid building ventilation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shun, Simon; Ahmed, Noor A. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Wind and solar energy are currently used to power many building ventilation devices. Such devices rely exclusively on either solar or wind energy, which limits their usefulness. A low-cost hybrid ventilation device that utilizes both wind and solar energy as power sources was designed to overcome some of the shortcomings of these devices. Wind tunnel testing conducted at the aerodynamics laboratory of the University of New South Wales revealed that the hybrid device had improved operational and performance benefits compared with conventional commercial roof top ventilators, particularly at zero to low wind speeds. This represents a significant step forward and will have an immediate impact in promoting the use of clean energy for the purposes of building ventilation. (author)

  4. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... and ultracapacitor. In this paper a design method to design the power system of a FCHEV is presented. 10 cases of combining the fuel stack with either the battery, ultracapacitor, or both are investigated. The system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime are also compared. It is concluded that when...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  5. Very long pulse high-RF power test of a lower hybrid frequency antenna module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goniche, M.; Brossaud, J.; Barral, C.; Berger-By, G.; Bibet, Ph.; Poli, S.; Rey, G.; Tonon, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Seki, M.; Obara, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1994-03-01

    Outgassing, induced by very long RF waves injection at high power density was studied in a module, able to be used for a lower hybrid frequency antenna. Good RF properties of the module are reported, however, resonance phenomena with strong absorption of RF power (15%) was observed at high temperature (T>400 deg C). A large outgassing data base is provided by the 75 shots cumulating 27 hours of RF injection. The comparison with previous experiments (Tore Supra and TdV prototype modules) confirm the effect of baking and results are consistent. Outgassing increases exponentially with -1/T, and a desorption model with an activation energy Ed {approx} 0.35 eV fits the data up to 400 deg C. In order to design vacuum pumping system for large lower hybrid frequency antenna, outgassing rates are given for different working temperatures. (author). 11 refs., 55 figs.

  6. Towers and KM3NeT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anassontzis, E. G.; Aggouras, G.; Ball, A. E.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Tsagli, V.; Zhukov, V. A.

    2006-11-01

    NESTOR Collaboration has deployed one NESTOR module of the deep-sea neutrino telescope at a depth of 4000 m, 14 km off the southwest coast of Greece. The deployment site provides excellent environmental data. Power and data were transferred through a 30 km electro-optical cable to the shore laboratory. In this report, we describe briefly the detector and the well-defined procedure for recovery and deployment of a detector attached to the electro-optical cable and we depict the deployment of several towers and complementary independent strings acoustically connected to the towers.

  7. A Hybrid Estimator for Active/Reactive Power Control of Single-Phase Distributed Generation Systems with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Majid; Eren, Suzan; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new active/reactive power closed-loop control system for a hybrid renewable energy generation system used for single-phase residential/commercial applications. The proposed active/reactive control method includes a hybrid estimator, which is able to quickly and accurately...... estimate the active/reactive power values. The proposed control system enables the hybrid renewable energy generation system to be able to perform real-time grid interconnection services such as active voltage regulation, active power control, and fault ride-through.Simulation and experimental results...... demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed closed-loop control system....

  8. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant.

  9. Hybrid power train for light commercial vehicles; Hybridantriebsstrang fuer leichte Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somschor, B.; Buchhold, O. (ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen)

    2007-07-01

    Light commercial vehicles are a rapidly growing vehicle segment. These vehicles are used for several purposes e.g. supply of different goods, construction areas, special applications. A high number of vehicles are used in cities or in urban arena with a high density of traffic and typical environmental polluting. In the meantime legislation in several industrialized countries around the world have the target to protect environment, e.g., Euro 4 or 5 regulations or Japan 10. In parallel the automotive industries (ACEA) in Europe has given a self obligation to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission until 2008 to a value of 140 g/km. A lot of activities are started by automotive industry and there suppliers in the past to meet these requirements. Beside already well known development activities like weight optimisation, lower driving and air resistance or improved diesel engine the hybrid power train, a combination of electric motor generator and combustion engine seems to be in the future an imported solution to meet these requirements in the future. Several possibilities to realize a hybrid power train for these applications is shown including the possibilities ZF have to show a hybrid power train for these types of applications. Advantages and disadvantages of the several possibilities are discussed from different point of view. The needed basic functions of a hybrid power train are discussed and system is recommended to use for these types of applications. A simulation model is shown and described including the realisation and results for different driving cycles. The influence on fuel consumption and emissions divided by functions are shown. A solution optimised for light commercial application is shown. Further more first results based on practical experiences are described. (orig.)

  10. Recent Work in Hybrid Radiation Transport Methods with Applications to Commercial Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesza, Joel A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    This talk will begin with an overview of hybrid radiation transport methods followed by a discussion of the author’s work to advance current capabilities. The talk will then describe applications for these methods in commercial nuclear power reactor analyses and techniques for experimental validation. When discussing these analytical and experimental activities, the importance of technical standards such as those created and maintained by ASTM International will be demonstrated.

  11. Two-loop controller for maximizing performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic - fuel cell hybrid power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoungsoo

    The study started with the requirement that a photovoltaic (PV) power source should be integrated with other supplementary power sources whether it operates in a stand-alone or grid-connected mode. First, fuel cells for a backup of varying PV power were compared in detail with batteries and were found to have more operational benefits. Next, maximizing performance of a grid-connected PV-fuel cell hybrid system by use of a two-loop controller was discussed. One loop is a neural network controller for maximum power point tracking, which extracts maximum available solar power from PV arrays under varying conditions of insolation, temperature, and system load. A real/reactive power controller (RRPC) is the other loop. The RRPC meets the system's requirement for real and reactive powers by controlling incoming fuel to fuel cell stacks as well as switching control signals to a power conditioning subsystem. The RRPC is able to achieve more versatile control of real/reactive powers than the conventional power sources since the hybrid power plant does not contain any rotating mass. Results of time-domain simulations prove not only effectiveness of the proposed computer models of the two-loop controller, but also their applicability for use in transient stability analysis of the hybrid power plant. Finally, environmental evaluation of the proposed hybrid plant was made in terms of plant's land requirement and lifetime COsb2 emissions, and then compared with that of the conventional fossil-fuel power generating forms.

  12. Cellular Phone Towers, Towers, Published in 2008, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Towers'. Data by this publisher are often...

  13. Compact and Wideband Parallel-Strip 180° Hybrid Coupler with Arbitrary Power Division Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a class of wideband 180° hybrid (rat race couplers implemented by parallel-strip line. By replacing the 270° arm of a conventional 180° hybrid coupler by a 90° arm with phase inverter, the bandwidth of the coupler is greatly enhanced and the total circuit size is reduced by almost half. Simple design formulas relating the characteristic impedance of the arms and power division ration are derived. To demonstrate the concept, four couplers with different power division ratios of 1, 2, 4, and 8 were designed, fabricated, and tested. S-parameters of the coupler are simulated and measured with good agreement. All working prototypes operate more than 112% impedance bandwidth with more than 25 dB port-to-port isolation and less than 5° absolute phase imbalance. The proposed 180° hybrid couplers can be employed as a wideband in-phase/differential power divider/combiner, which are essential for many RF and microwave subsystem designs.

  14. An immune-tabu hybrid algorithm for thermal unit commitment of electric power systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei LI; Hao-yu PENG; Wei-hang ZHU; De-ren SHENG; Jian-hong CHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method based on an immune-tabu hybrid algorithm to solve the thermal unit commitment (TUC) problem in power plant optimization. The mathematical model of the TUC problem is established by analyzing the generating units in modern power plants. A novel immune-tabu hybrid algorithm is proposed to solve this complex problem. In the algorithm, the objective function of the TUC problem is considered as an antigen and the solutions are considered as antibodies,which are determined by the affinity computation. The code length of an antibody is shortened by encoding the continuous operating time, and the optimum searching speed is improved. Each feasible individual in the immune algorithm (IA) is used as the initial solution of the tabu search (TS) algorithm after certain generations of IA iteration. As examples, the proposed method has been applied to several thermal unit systems for a period of 24 h. The computation results demonstrate the good global optimum searching performance of the proposed immune-tabu hybrid algorithm. The presented algorithm can also be used to solve other optimization problems in fields such as the chemical industry and the power industry.

  15. A Hybrid Islanding Detection Technique Using Average Rate of Voltage Change and Real Power Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    technique is proposed to solve this problem. An average rate of voltage change (passive technique) has been used to initiate a real power shift (active technique), which changes the eal power of distributed generation (DG), when the passive technique cannot have a clear discrimination between islanding......The mainly used islanding detection techniques may be classified as active and passive techniques. Passive techniques don't perturb the system but they have larger nondetection znes, whereas active techniques have smaller nondetection zones but they perturb the system. In this paper, a new hybrid...

  16. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  17. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel;

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  18. Hybrid Active Filter with Variable Conductance for Harmonic Resonance Suppression in Industrial Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Tzung-Lin; Wang, Yen-Ching; Li, Jian-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    -tuned passive filter and an active filter in series connection, both dc voltage and kVA rating of the active filter are dramatically decreased compared with the pure shunt active filter. In real application, this feature is very attractive since the active power filter with fully power electronics is very...... expensive. A reasonable trade-off between filtering performances and cost is to use the hybrid active filter. Design consideration are presented and experimental results are provided to validate effectiveness of the proposed method. Furthermore, this paper discusses filtering performances on line impedance...

  19. Single-Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor for Low-Power Low-Cost Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new single-phase, Hybrid Switched Reluctance (HSR) motor for low-cost, low-power, pump or fan drive systems. Its single-phase configuration allows use of a simple converter to reduce the system cost. Cheap ferrite magnets are used and arranged in a special flux concentration...... manner to increase effectively the torque density and efficiency of this machine. The efficiency of this machine is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional permanent magnet machine in the similar power range. The cogging torque, due to the existence of the permanent magnetic field, is beneficially...

  20. CFD simulation of a solar tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koten, Hasan; Yukselenturk, Yalcyn; Yilmaz, Mustafa [Marmara University Mechanical Engineering Department (Turkey)], E-mail: hasan.koten@marmara.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of fossil fuels and the rising concerns about their impacts on the environment, the use of alternative energy sources has become necessary. Among the alternatives, solar energy, with its unlimited resources and its low impact on the environment, is the most promising. The aim of this paper is to present a numerical model of a regular solar tower. A CFD analysis of the solar tower was performed with a commercial CFD code and velocity fields, temperature measurements and flow characteristics were determined and compared to experimental results available in the literature. It was found that the numerical model is capable of assessing the buoyant air flow in chimneys. In addition results showed that increasing the solar chimney height, solar collector area, or solar irradiance increases power generation capacity while ambient temperature does not significantly affect this capacity. This study provided a numerical model which is proficient in modeling solar towers.

  1. A Low Power VITERBI Decoder Design With Minimum Transition Hybrid Register Exchange Processing For Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Haridas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the low power implementation of Viterbi Decoder. Majority of viterbi decoder designs in the past use simple Register Exchange or Traceback method to achieve very high speed and low power decoding respectively, but it suffers from both complex routing and high switching activity.Here simplification is made in survivor memory unit by storing only m-1 bits to identify previous state in the survivor path, and by assigning m-1 registers to decision vectors. This approach eliminates unnecessary shift operations. Also for storing the decoded data only half memory is required than register exchange method. In this paper Hybrid approach that combines both Traceback and Register Exchange schemes has been applied to the viterbi decoder design. By using distance properties of encoder we further modified to minimum transition hybrid register exchange method. It leads to lower dynamic power consumption because of lower switching activity. Dynamic power estimation obtained through gate level simulation indicates that the proposed design reduces the power dissipation of a conventional viterbi decoder design by 30%.

  2. A Low Power VITERBI Decoder Design With Minimum Transition Hybrid Register Exchange Processing For Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Haridas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the low power implementation of Viterbi Decoder. Majority of viterbi decoder designs in the past use simple Register Exchange or Trace back method to achieve very high speed and low power decoding respectively, but it suffers from both complex routing and high switching activity.Here simplification is made in survivor memory unit by storing only m-1 bits to identify previous state in the survivor path, and by assigning m-1 registers to decision vectors. This approach eliminates unnecessary shift operations. Also for storing the decoded data only half memory is required than register exchange method. In this paper Hybrid approach that combines both Trace back and Register Exchange schemes has been applied to the viterbi decoder design. By using distance properties of encoder we further modified to minimum transition hybrid register exchange method. It leads to lower dynamic power consumption because of lower switching activity. Dynamic power estimation obtained through gate level simulation indicates that the proposed design reduces the power dissipation of a conventional viterbi decoder design by 30%.

  3. DESIGN OF HYBRID POWER GENERATION CYCLES EMPLOYING AMMONIA-WATER-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashish Gupta

    2002-06-01

    A power cycle generates electricity from the heat of combustion of fossil fuels. Its efficiency is governed by the cycle configuration, the operating parameters, and the working fluid. Typical. designs use pure water as the fluid. in the last two decades, hybrid cycles based on ammonia-water, and carbon-dioxide mixtures as the working fluid have been proposed. These cycles may improve the power generation efficiency of Rankine cycles by 15%. Improved efficiency is important for two reasons: it lowers the cost of electricity being produced, and by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels per unit power, it reduces the generation of environmental pollutants. The goal of this project is to develop a computational optimization-based method for the design and analysis of hybrid bottoming power cycles to minimize the usage of fossil fuels. The development of this methodology has been achieved by formulating this task as that of selecting the least cost power cycle design from all possible configurations. They employ a detailed thermodynamic property prediction package they have developed under a DOE-FETC grant to model working fluid mixtures. Preliminary results from this work suggest that a pure NH{sub 3} cycle outperforms steam or the expensive Kalina cycle.

  4. Power Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Quadratic Performance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An energy management strategy (EMS considering both optimality and real-time performance has become a challenge for the development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs in recent years. Previous EMSes based on the optimal control theory minimize the fuel consumption, but cannot be directly implemented in real-time because of the requirement for a prior knowledge of the entire driving cycle. This paper presents an innovative design concept and method to obtain a power management strategy for HEVs, which is independent of future driving conditions. A quadratic performance index is designed to ensure the vehicle drivability, maintain the battery energy sustainability and average and smooth the engine power and motor power to indirectly reduce fuel consumption. To further improve the fuel economy, two rules are adopted to avoid the inefficient engine operation by switching control modes between the electric and hybrid modes according to the required driving power. The derived power of the engine and motor are related to current vehicle velocity and battery residual energy, as well as their desired values. The simulation results over different driving cycles in Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the fuel economy, which is very close to the optimal strategy based on Pontryagin’s minimum principle.

  5. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  6. Hybrid solution for the laminar flow of power-law fluids inside rectangular ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J. A.; Pereira, L. M.; Macêdo, E. N.; Chaves, C. L.; Quaresma, J. N. N.

    The so-called generalized integral transform technique (GITT) is employed in the hybrid numerical-analytical solution of two-dimensional fully-developed laminar flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids inside rectangular ducts. The characteristic of the automatic and straightforward global error control procedure inherent to this approach, permits the determination of fully converged benchmark results to assess the performance of purely numerical techniques. Therefore, numerical results for the product Fanning friction factor-generalized Reynolds number are computed for different values of power-law index and aspect ratio, which are compared with previously reported results in the literature, providing critical comparisons among them as well as illustrating the powerfulness of the integral transform approach. The resulting velocity profiles computed by using this methodology are also compared with those calculated by approximated methods for power-law fluids, within the range of governing parameters studied.

  7. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Overview of Power Generation Sector of Bangladesh and Proposed Grid Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Raju Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is the most usable form of energy, and one of the most crucial strategic issues for the sustainable development of a country. The projection of demand of electricity is an integral part of the planning process. Severe power crisis compelled the government to enter into contractual agreements for high-cost temporary solution such as rental power and small IPPS, on an emergency basis, most of these are diesel or liquid-fuel based. Load shading is an acute problem for the country. The country is confronting a simultaneous shortage of electricity. However, the country has substantial amount of renewable energy resources. The overview of power generation section of Bangladesh is presented; the potentiality of renewable energy sources in Bangladesh is discussed. Finally, a grid connected hybrid renewable energy system is proposed to overcome the problem of power crisis using sustainable clean energy at rural area.

  9. Design of Solar/Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle (SEPHV) System with Charge Pattern Optimization for Energy Cost

    OpenAIRE

    T Balamurugan; Dr.S.Manoharan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a Solar Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle (SEPHV) system which solves the major problems of fuel and pollution. An electric vehicle usually uses a battery which has been charged by external electrical power supply. All recent electric vehicles present a drive on AC power supplied motor. An inverter set is required to be connected with the battery through which AC power is converted to DC power. During this conversion many losses take place and also the maintenance cost of th...

  10. The TALE Tower Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, D. R.

    The TA Low Energy Extension will include a Tower FluorescenceDetector. Extensive air showers at the lowest usful energies for fluorescence detectors will in general be close to the detector. This requires viewing all elevation angles to be able to reconstruct showers. The TALE Tower Detector, operating in conjunction with other TALE detectors will view elevation angles up to above 70 degrees, with an azimuthal coverage of about 90 degrees. Results from a prototype mirror operated in conjunction with the HiRes detector will also be presented.

  11. Research of cosine efficiency stimulation on the heliostats field of solar tower power plant%塔式太阳能热发电镜场中余弦效率仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘磊; 李丽娟; 丁婷婷

    2013-01-01

    First, referring to the rectangular heliostat field of the eSolar tower power plant, an arrangement of dense axial symmetry staggered distribution through parameters design was gotten. Then, a mathematical model of cosine efficiency was established, and the variation tendency of solar incidence angle at different time in the daytime was simulated, the result of cosine efficiency in the area of north and south field was obtained. Finally, the cosine efficiency distribution of rectangular heliostat field has been used to research further. Simulation results validate the trend of solar incidence angle, and the influence of tower's height on cosine efficiency.%参考eSolar塔式发电站中的矩形定日镜场,通过参数设计得到密集的轴对称交错排列布置方案;建立了余弦效率的数学模型,对一天中不同时刻的太阳入射角变化趋势进行了仿真,得出位于接收塔南北区域余弦效率状况;对矩形定日镜场的余弦效率分布做了进一步研究.仿真结果验证了太阳入射角的变化趋势,并得出塔的高度对余弦效率的影响.

  12. 输电塔脉动风荷载功率谱模型及时程模拟%Power Sprctra Model and Time-History Simulation of Fluctuating Windloading Acting on Tranmission Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢华平; 张回; 陈俊; 尹志明

    2011-01-01

    Expressions of power spectra of along-wind and cross-wind basic wind pressure of transmission tower are deduced based on the fundamental linear mode generalized force spectra obtained through a wind tunnel test. Power spectra of along-wind and cross-wind fluctuating wind load and generalized wind force acting on transmission tower are presented. Numerical simulation method of time histories of fluctuating wind load is developed based on these spectra and harmony superposition method. Power spectra of fluctuating wind load are influenced not only by wind velocity, wind spectra and aerodynamic admittance, but also by terrain types, projected area of members, distribution of projected area of member along height and drag coefficients. Power spectra of generalized wind force also are influenced by vibration mode. A transmission tower with a narrow foundation is taken as an example of this method. Matlab language is used for programming. The power spectra of generalized force and fluctuating wind load are computed. Time histories of wind load are simulated. The results show that, though the fluctuating wind load of cross-wind direction is smaller than the one of along-wind direction, but it can not be neglected. In the anti-wind analysis of transmission tower, either power spectra of cross-wind fluctuating wind load should be taken into account, or time histories of wind load of cross-wind direction should be exerted.%基于风洞试验得到输电塔线性一阶广义荷载谱,推导了输电塔顺风向、横风向基本脉动风压功率谱公式,给出了输电塔顺风向、横风向任意阶广义荷载功率谱及分段脉动风荷载功率谱公式.基于此功率谱,应用谐波叠加法,建立了脉动风荷载时程数值模拟方法.脉动风荷载功率谱不仅与来流的风速、风速谱、气动导纳有关,还与地面粗糙程度、塔架构件的投影面积及沿高度分布情况、压力系数等有关,广义荷载谱还与振型有关.以一窄

  13. Performance Analysis of a MCFC/MGT Hybrid Power System Bi-Fueled by City Gas and Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of a molten carbonate fuel cell and micro gas turbine (MCFC/MGT hybrid power system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The performance of the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system and MFCF/MGT hybrid power system response have been investigated experimentally and numerically. Results show that the MCFC, steam reformer, and catalytic combustor models are in agreement with the experimental results of the system fueled by city gas only and the system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The MFCF/MGT hybrid power system can have manifest operation with the addition of biogas at a flow rate of up to 150.0 Nm3·h−1, which is about 50% of the overall input heat value. In addition, the MCFC and MGT outputs decrease with the increase in the flow rate of added biogas, with an overall power generation efficiency ranging from 39.0% to 42.0%. Furthermore, the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system can be operated stably both at low amplitude with slow current change and large amplitude with rapid power conditions. Finally, the MCFC/MGT hybrid system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas may be applicable to the energy supply of the micro–grid network.

  14. Dynamic Modelling of a Wind/Fuel-Cell/Ultra-Capacitor-Based Hybrid Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vanishree

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development of alternative energy sources have shown excellent potential as a form of contribution to conventional power generation systems. In order to meet sustained load demands during varying natural conditions, different energy sources and converters need to be integrated with each other for extended usage of alternative energy. The paper focuses on the combination of wind, Fuel Cell (FC and Ultra-Capacitor (UC systems for sustained power generation. As the wind turbine output power varies with the wind speed: an FC system with a UC bank can be integrated with the wind turbine to ensure that the system performs under all conditions. A dynamic model, design and simulation of a wind/FC/UC hybrid power generation system with power flow controllers is proposed. In the proposed system, when the wind speed is sufficient, the wind turbine can meet the load demand. If the available power from the wind turbine cannot satisfy the load demand, the FC system can meet the excess power demand, while the UC can meet the load demand above the maximum power available from the FC system for short durations. Furthermore, this system can tolerate the rapid changes in wind speed and suppress the effects of these fluctuations on the equipment side voltage in a novel topology.

  15. Strategy Design of Hybrid Energy Storage System for Smoothing Wind Power Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing contribution of wind power plants, the reliability and security of modern power systems have become a huge challenge due to the uncertainty and intermittency of wind energy sources. In this paper, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS consisting of battery and supercapacitor is built to smooth the power fluctuations of wind power. A power allocation strategy is proposed to give full play to the respective advantages of the two energy storage components. In the proposed strategy, the low-frequency and high-frequency components of wind power fluctuations are absorbed by battery groups and supercapacitor groups, respectively. By inhibiting the low-frequency components of supercapacitor current, the times of charging-discharging of battery groups can be significantly reduced. A DC/AC converter is applied to achieve the power exchange between the HESS and the grid. Adjustment rules for regulating state-of-charge (SOC of energy storage elements are designed to avoid overcharge and deep discharge considering the safety and the high efficiency of the energy storage elements. Experimental results on the test platform verify the effectiveness of the proposed power allocation strategy in DC/AC converter and battery SOC adjustment rules for regulating SOC levels.

  16. Feedback control of the lower hybrid power deposition profile on Tore Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barana, O.; Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Turco, F.

    2007-07-01

    The Tore Supra facility is well suited to study ITER relevant topics such as the real-time control of plasma current and the sustaining of steady-state discharges. This work describes a tool that was recently developed and implemented on Tore Supra to control in real time, by means of the direct knowledge of the suprathermal electron local emission profile, the width of the lower hybrid power deposition profile. This quantity can be considered to some extent equivalent to the width of the plasma current density profile in case of fully non-inductive discharges. This system takes advantage of an accurate hard x-ray diagnostics, of an efficient lower hybrid additional heating and of a reliable real-time communication network. The successful experiments carried out to test the system employed, as actuators, the parallel refractive index n// and the total power PLH. The control of the suprathermal electron local emission profile through n// was also integrated with the feedback control of the total plasma current IP with PLH and of the loop voltage Vloop with the central solenoid flux. These results demonstrate that the system is robust, reliable and able to counterbalance destabilizing events. This tool can be effectively used in the future in fully non-inductive discharges to improve the MHD stability and to maintain internal transport barriers or lower hybrid enhanced performance modes. The real-time control of the lower hybrid power deposition profile could also be used in conjunction with the electron-cyclotron radiofrequency heating for synergy studies.

  17. Optimal sizing of battery storage for stand-alone hybrid (photo-voltaic + diesel) power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaahid, S. M.; Elhadidy, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    An important element of hybrid photo- voltaic(PV) + diesel sytem is battery storage. Size of battery storage plays a role in optimum operation of the hybrid system. Emphasis needs to be placed on this issue. In this perspective, hourly solar radiation data, for the period 1986 93 recorded at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, have been analyzed to investigate the optimum size of battery storage capacity for hybrid (PV + diesel) power systems. Various sizing configurations have been simulated. The monthly average daily values of solar global radiation range from 3.61 to 7.96kWh/m2. As a case study, hybrid systems considered in the present analysis consist of 225m2 PV array area (panels/modules) supplemented with battery storage unit and diesel backup generators (to meet the load requirements of a typical residential building with annual electrical energy demand of 35,200kWh). The monthly average energy generated from the aforementioned hybrid system for different scenarios has been presented. More importantly, the study explores the influence of variation of battery storage capacity on hybrid power generation. The results exhibit a trade-off between size of the storage capacity and diesel power to be generated to cope with annual load distribution. Concurrently, the energy to be generated from the diesel generator and the number of operational hours of the diesel system to meet the load demand have been also addressed.The study shows that for optimum operation of diesel system, storage capacity equivalent to 12 18h of maximum monthly average hourly demand need to be used. It has been found that in the absence of battery bank, ˜58% of the load needs to be provided by the diesel system. However, use of 12h of battery storage (autonomy) reduces diesel energy generation by ˜49% and the number of hours of operation of the diesel system get reduced by about ˜82%. The findings of this study can be employed as a tool for sizing of battery storage for PV/diesel systems for other

  18. Development of a new lower hybrid antenna module using a poloidal power divider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, Sunao; Seki, Masami; Suganuma, Kazuaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1996-07-01

    The antenna using poloidal power divider is an effective method for simplification of Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) antenna system. This method should allow to reduce the power density in the antenna while maintaining a good flexibility of N{sub parallel} spectrum of waves. For this purpose, three types of poloidal power divider which split the power in three, and the 3 x 6 multi-junction module were developed. r.f. properties and outgassing of these components were evaluated using the CEA Cadarache RF Test Facility. A good power dividing ratio of 33 {+-} 4% was obtained for each of these poloidal dividers, and the reflection coefficient was lower value than 1.5%. For the 3 x 6 multi-junction, reflection coefficient was less than 1.3% and r.f. losses lower than 1.0% were measured. On the other hand, it was found in the scattering matrix analysis that reflection coefficient at plasma has to be less than a few % in order to operate these components under available conditions. In combination with two poloidal power dividers connected to the 3 x 6 multi-junction module, quasi stationary operation for r.f. injection time of 1000 sec at 300 kW was demonstrated under water cooling. In this case, it was found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 10{sup -7}Pam{sup 3}s{sup -1}m{sup -2} within the maximum module temperature of {approx}100degC. This report describes the experimental and analytical results of a new lower hybrid (LH) antenna module using the poloidal power divider. (author)

  19. A Hybrid Data Compression Scheme for Power Reduction in Wireless Sensors for IoT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepu, Chacko John; Heng, Chun-Huat; Lian, Yong

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel data compression and transmission scheme for power reduction in Internet-of-Things (IoT) enabled wireless sensors. In the proposed scheme, data is compressed with both lossy and lossless techniques, so as to enable hybrid transmission mode, support adaptive data rate selection and save power in wireless transmission. Applying the method to electrocardiogram (ECG), the data is first compressed using a lossy compression technique with a high compression ratio (CR). The residual error between the original data and the decompressed lossy data is preserved using entropy coding, enabling a lossless restoration of the original data when required. Average CR of 2.1 × and 7.8 × were achieved for lossless and lossy compression respectively with MIT/BIH database. The power reduction is demonstrated using a Bluetooth transceiver and is found to be reduced to 18% for lossy and 53% for lossless transmission respectively. Options for hybrid transmission mode, adaptive rate selection and system level power reduction make the proposed scheme attractive for IoT wireless sensors in healthcare applications.

  20. Ergodynamics in the Reliability of Power Plant Operators and Prospective Hybrid Intelligence Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venda; Chachko

    1996-01-01

    Based on ergodynamics and the hybrid intelligence theory, an analysis of the nuclear power plant operator's performance is given at the levels of strategies, tactics, and actions. Special attention is paid to the strategies used in the course of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. Data from Ukrainian and Russian power plants and training centres, and from accidents around the world were collected and processed. It is shown that in an emergency it is essential for the human operator to be flexible. This flexibility includes two main training and personal factors: a large set of strategies and tactics the operator manages to use, and quick transformations between the strategies (tactics). It was also found that some emergency tasks are too complicated: They require simultaneous use of different strategies, with time strictly limited by nuclear power plant dynamics. Those tasks cannot be successfully solved by any individual operator. Hybrid intelligence systems involving different specialists should be used in those cases in order to avoid failures in emergency problem solving and macroergonomic organizational design.

  1. Conceptual Design of Low Fusion Power Hybrid System for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    DRUP (Direct Reuse of Used PWR) fuel has same process with DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel Into CANDU reactor). There are 2 big benefits by using DRUP fuel in Hybrid system. One is fissile production during operating period. Required power is decreased by fissile production from DRUP fuel. When the fusion power is reduced, integrity of structure materials is not significantly weakened due to reduction of 14.1MeV high energy neutrons. In addition, required amount of tritium for self-sufficiency TBR (Tritium Breeding Ratio ≥ 1.1) is decreased. Therefore, it is possible to further loading the SNF as much as the amount of lithium decreased. It is effective in transmutation. The other one is that DRUP fuel is also SNF. Therefore, using DRUP fuel is reusing of SNF, as a result it makes reduction of SNF from PWR. However, thermal neutron system is suitable for using DRUP fuel compared to fast neutron system. Therefore, transmutation zone designed (U-TRU)Zr fuel and fissile production zone designed DRUP fuel are separated in this study. In this paper, using DRUP fuel for low fusion power in hybrid system is suggested. Fusion power is decreased by using DRUP fuel. As a result, TBR is satisfied design condition despite of using natural lithium. In addition, not only (U-TRU)Zr fuel but also DRUP fuel are transmuted.

  2. TacTowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Martin; Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    The interactive training equipment, TacTower, is aimed at supporting multiple elite athletes, such as handball players in training their micro-tactical skills in close-contact situations. It focuses on psychomotor abilities and trains the skills involved in reading the opponents’ actions...

  3. TacTower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Jürgensen, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Learning from the multiplayer interaction in sports, we describe our project TacTower; a flexible system for professional elite handball players to train game perception and kinesthetic em- pathy. The design is founded in ideas of Collective Interaction and qualities that is inherent in sport...

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle Technology for Auxiliary Aerospace Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A notional 440 kW auxiliary power unit has been developed for 300 passenger commercial transport aircraft in 2015AD. A hybrid engine using solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and a gas turbine bottoming cycle has been considered. Steady-state performance analysis during cruise operation has been presented. Trades between performance efficiency and system mass were conducted with system specific energy as the discriminator. Fuel cell performance was examined with an area specific resistance. The ratio of fuel cell versus turbine power was explored through variable fuel utilization. Area specific resistance, fuel utilization, and mission length had interacting effects upon system specific energy. During cruise operation, the simple cycle fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid was not able to outperform current turbine-driven generators for system specific energy, despite a significant improvement in system efficiency. This was due in part to the increased mass of the hybrid engine, and the increased water flow required for on-board fuel reformation. Two planar, anode-supported cell design concepts were considered. Designs that seek to minimize the metallic interconnect layer mass were seen to have a large effect upon the system mass estimates.

  5. Bio-inspired, Moisture-Powered Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Yarn Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Park, Karam; Mun, Tae Jin; Lepró, Xavier; Baughman, Ray H.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-03-01

    Hygromorph artificial muscles are attractive as self-powered actuators driven by moisture from the ambient environment. Previously reported hygromorph muscles have been largely limited to bending or torsional motions or as tensile actuators with low work and energy densities. Herein, we developed a hybrid yarn artificial muscle with a unique coiled and wrinkled structure, which can be actuated by either changing relative humidity or contact with water. The muscle provides a large tensile stroke (up to 78%) and a high maximum gravimetric work capacity during contraction (2.17 kJ kg-1), which is over 50 times that of the same weight human muscle and 5.5 times higher than for the same weight spider silk, which is the previous record holder for a moisture driven muscle. We demonstrate an automatic ventilation system that is operated by the tensile actuation of the hybrid muscles caused by dew condensing on the hybrid yarn. This self-powered humidity-controlled ventilation system could be adapted to automatically control the desired relative humidity of an enclosed space.

  6. Optimal configuration assessments of hybrid renewable power supply for rural healthcare facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanre Olatomiwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed optimal configurations of hybrid renewable system for rural health clinic (RHC application in three grid-unconnected rural villages in Nigeria. The RHC consist of an emergency room, consulting room, nurse/injection room, male ward, female ward, a delivery room and a laboratory with average total daily energy consumption of 15.5 kWh and 2.75 kW peak demand. The assessment of configurations that optimally meet the daily load demand with zero loss of power supply probability (LPSP was carried out using HOMER software, by considering three energy resources; photovoltaic (PV, wind and diesel with battery energy storage. The result obtained revealed hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system as the most cost-effective configuration for powering rural health clinic in both Maiduguri and Enugu sites, while that of Iseyin site was found to be hybrid PV/diesel/battery system. In all the sites, the selected optimal configuration is far better than the conventional diesel stand-alone system in terms of cost and emission reduction.

  7. Dual communication system for RAMEA's remote hybrid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, J.F.; Iqbal, M.T. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a dual communication system designed for a wind-hydrogen-diesel hybrid system located on an island off the coast of Newfoundland. The hybrid system was comprised of a 2.775 MW diesel plant; six 65 kW wind turbines; and three 100 kW wind turbines. The hybrid power infrastructure was installed in the isolated community to reduce dependence on diesel fuel as well as to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The DAST remote communication system included wireless remote supervision and control, and functional frequency in which to operate in the free license electromagnetic spectrum. The communication system was compared with several other types of communications systems. Tests showed that the DAST system successfully communicated with the control room and recorded data on a terminal computer via Ethernet. The wireless and PLC transmission showed no instability and were adequately synchronized. High pass filter performance results and analog and digital scan rate data were presented. Future research will concentrate on developing interfacing prototypes with a centralized supervisory controller. The transformer's bypass will incorporated into the system to eliminate transformer constraints. tabs., figs.

  8. Mode transition coordinated control for a compound power-split hybrid car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Tong; Li, Mengna

    2017-03-01

    With a compound power-split transmission directly connected to the engine in hybrid cars, dramatic fluctuations in engine output torque result in noticeable jerks when the car is in mode transition from electric drive mode to hybrid drive mode. This study designed a mode transition coordinated control strategy, and verified that strategy's effectiveness with both simulations and experiments. Firstly, the mode transition process was analyzed, and ride comfort issues during the mode transition process were demonstrated. Secondly, engine ripple torque was modeled using the measured cylinder pumping pressure when the engine was not in operation. The complete dynamic plant model of the power-split hybrid car was deduced, and its effectiveness was validated by a comparison of experimental and simulation results. Thirdly, a coordinated control strategy was designed to determine the desired engine torque, motor torque, and the moment of fuel injection. Active damping control with two degrees of freedom, based on reference output shaft speed estimation, was designed to mitigate driveline speed oscillations. Carrier torque estimation based on transmission kinematics and dynamics was used to suppress torque disturbance during engine cranking. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy effectively suppressed vehicle jerks and improved ride comfort during mode transition.

  9. Energy Management of an Off-Grid Hybrid Power Plant with Multiple Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tribioli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an off-grid hybrid power plant with multiple storage systems for an artificial island is designed and two possible strategies for the management of the stored energy are proposed. Renewable power sources (wind/solar technologies are used as primary power suppliers. A lead-acid battery pack (BAT and a reversible polymer electrolyte fuel cell are employed to fulfill the power demand and to absorb extra power. The reversible fuel cell allows reducing costs and occupied space and the fuel cell can be fed by the pure hydrogen produced by means of its reversible operation as an electrolyzer. A diesel engine is employed as backup system. While HOMER Pro® has been employed for a full-factorial-based optimization of the sizes of the renewable sources and the BAT, Matlab/Simulink® has been later used for simulating the plant operation and compare two possible power management control strategies. For the reversible fuel cell sizing, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out varying stack and hydrogen tank sizes. The final choice for plant configuration and power management control strategy has been made on the basis of a comparative analysis of the results, aimed at minimizing fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, battery aging rate and at maximizing the power plant overall efficiency. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of realizing a renewable power plant, able to match the needs of electrical power in a remote area, by achieving a good integration of different energy sources and facing the intermittent nature of renewable power sources, with very low use of fossil fuels.

  10. An Operating Method Using Prediction of Photovoltaic Power for a Photovoltaic-Diesel Hybrid Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shigehiro; Sumi, Kazuyoshi; Nishikawa, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    This paper describes a novel operating method using prediction of photovoltaic (PV) power for a photovoltaic-diesel hybrid power generation system. The system is composed of a PV array, a storage battery, a bi-directional inverter and a diesel engine generator (DG). The proposed method enables the system to save fuel consumption by using PV energy effectively, reducing charge and discharge energy of the storage battery, and avoiding low-load operation of the DG. The PV power is simply predicted from a theoretical equation of solar radiation and the observed PV energy for a constant time before the prediction. The amount of fuel consumption of the proposed method is compared with that of other methods by a simulation based on measurement data of the PV power at an actual PV generation system for one year. The simulation results indicate that the amount of fuel consumption of the proposed method is smaller than that of any other methods, and is close to that of the ideal operation of the DG.

  11. A Novel Hybrid Method for Short-Term Power Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yuansheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenced by many uncertain and random factors, nonstationary, nonlinearity, and time-variety appear in power load series, which is difficult to forecast accurately. Aiming at locating these issues of power load forecasting, an innovative hybrid method is proposed to forecast power load in this paper. Firstly, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD is used to decompose the power load series into a series of independent intrinsic mode functions (IMFs and a residual term. Secondly, genetic algorithm (GA is then applied to determine the best weights of each IMF and the residual term named ensemble empirical mode decomposition based on weight (WEEMD. Thirdly, least square support vector machine (LSSVM and nonparametric generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (NPGARCH are employed to forecast the subseries, respectively, based on the characteristics of power load series. Finally, the forecasted power load of each component is summed as the final forecasted result of power load. Compared with other methods, the forecasting results of this proposed model applied to the electricity market of Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM indicate that the proposed model outperforms other models.

  12. Simulation of a Pneumatic Hybrid Powertrain with VVT in GT-Power and Comparison with Experimental Data

    OpenAIRE

    Trajkovic, Sasa; Tunestål, Per; Johansson, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    In the study presented in this paper, experimental data from a pneumatic hybrid has been compared to the results from a simulation of the engine in GT-Power. The engine in question is a single-cylinder Scania D12 diesel engine, which has been converted to work as a pneumatic hybrid. The base engine model, provided by Scania, is made in GT-Power and it is based on the same engine configuration as the one used during real engine testing. During pneumatic hybrid operation the engine can be us...

  13. Zero Power Levitation Control of Hybrid Electro-Magnetic Levitation System by Load Observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youn Hyun; Lee, Ju [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    This paper introduces the scheme that improve the control performance of electromagnetic levitation system with zero power controller. Magnetic levitation is used widely, but the electromagnetic force has nonlinear characteristics because it is proportioned to a square of the magnetic flux density and it is in inverse proportion to a square of the air gap. So, it is complicate and difficult to control the electromagnetic force. Besides, it is more difficult to control if the equivalent gap is unknown in case of zero power control. Therefore, this paper proposed the hybrid electro-magnetic levitation control method in which the variable load is estimated by using a load observer and its system is controlled at a new zero power equilibrium air gap position. Also it is confirmed that the proposed control method improve the control performance through simulation and experiment. (author). 10 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Control strategy of fuel cell/supercapacitors hybrid power sources for electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Raeel, Stephane; Davat, Bernard [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (INPL), GREEN, CNRS (UMR 7037) 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-07-14

    This paper presents a control principle for utilizing PEM fuel cell as main power source and supercapacitors as auxiliary power source for electric vehicle applications. The strategy is based on dc link voltage regulation, and fuel cell is simply operating in almost steady state conditions in order to minimize the mechanical stresses of fuel cell and to ensure a good synchronization between fuel flow and fuel cell current. Supercapacitors are functioning during transient energy delivery or transient energy recovery. To authenticate control algorithms, the system structure is realized by analogical current loops and digital voltage loops (dSPACE). The experimental results with a 500W PEM fuel cell point out the fuel cell starvation problem when operating with dynamic load, and also confirm that the supercapacitor can improve system performance for hybrid power sources. (author)

  15. Shunt hybrid active power filter under nonideal voltage based on fuzzy logic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Papan; Mekhilef, Saad

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a synchronous reference frame (SRF) method based on a modified phase lock loop (PLL) circuit is developed for a three-phase four-wire shunt hybrid active power filter (APF). Its performance is analysed under unbalanced grid conditions. The dominant lower order harmonics as well as reactive power can be compensated by the passive elements, whereas the active part mitigates the remaining distortions and improves the power quality. As different control methods show contradictory performance, fuzzy logic controller is considered here for DC-link voltage regulation of the inverter. Extensive simulations of the proposed technique are carried out in a MATLAB-SIMULINK environment. A laboratory prototype has been built on dSPACE1104 platform to verify the feasibility of the suggested SHAPF controller. The simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  16. Solution of wind integrated thermal generation system for environmental optimal power flow using hybrid algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Panda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new evolutionary hybrid algorithm (HA has been proposed in this work for environmental optimal power flow (EOPF problem. The EOPF problem has been formulated in a nonlinear constrained multi objective optimization framework. Considering the intermittency of available wind power a cost model of the wind and thermal generation system is developed. Suitably formed objective function considering the operational cost, cost of emission, real power loss and cost of installation of FACTS devices for maintaining a stable voltage in the system has been optimized with HA and compared with particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA to prove its effectiveness. All the simulations are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment taking IEEE30 bus as the test system.

  17. Real-time optimization power-split strategy for hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA ChaoYing; ZHANG Cong

    2016-01-01

    Energy management strategies based on optimal control theory can achieve minimum fuel consumption for hybrid electric vehicles,but the requirement for driving cycles known in prior leads to a real-time problem.A real-time optimization power-split strategy is proposed based on linear quadratic optimal control.The battery state of charge sustainability and fuel economy are ensured by designing a quadratic performance index combined with two rules.The engine power and motor power of this strategy are calculated in real-time based on current system state and command,and not related to future driving conditions.The simulation results in ADVISOR demonstrate that,under the conditions of various driving cycles,road slopes and vehicle parameters,the proposed strategy significantly improves fuel economy,which is very close to that of the optimal control based on Pontryagin's minimum principle,and greatly reduces computation complexity.

  18. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  19. Study on the method of pollutant monitoring in thermal power plant based on the tower model%基于塔式扩散模型的火电厂污染物监测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春海; 陈洪雨; 陈贺; 芦斌

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution is becoming increasingly serious, the fog and haze continues to threaten human health, so real-time monitoring of pollutant emissions is needed. In order to more accurately predict the thermal power plant flue gas pollutant emissions and real-time display pollutant concentration on electronic map, this paper proposes a pollutant discharge monitoring display method for thermal power plant based on tower diffusion model. It optimizes the traditional pollutants diffusion model, and on the basis, puts forward a kind of new tower diffusion model to calculate the pollutant concentration, with which different pollutant concentrations are calculated hierarchically by using that the diffusion coefficient are at different heights. A large number of experiments prove that the proposed tower model improves the safety, accuracy and efficiency of the monitoring of flue gas pollutant emissions.%环境污染问题日益严重,雾霾天气不断威胁人类的健康,需要对污染物排放进行实时监测。为了更加准确地预测火电厂烟气污染物的排放,实时在电子地图上显示污染物浓度,提出了一种基于塔式扩散模型的火电厂污染物排放监测显示方法。对传统的污染物扩散模型进行优化处理,在此基础上提出了一种新型的塔式扩散模型来计算污染物浓度,利用不同高度扩散系数不同分层计算不同的污染物浓度。经大量实验证明,塔式扩散模型提高了烟气污染物排放监测的安全性、准确性和高效性。

  20. 塔式电站定日镜场布置范围的理论分析%THEORETICAL STUDY ON THE DOMAIN OF HELIOSTATS FIELD OF SOLAR TOWER POWER PLANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏丽; 王志峰

    2011-01-01

    Cosine efficiency, atmospheric transmission efficiency and intercept efficiency have been calculated with Matlab program, and the efficiency of ground area, formed by the multiplication of these three efficiencies, was used as criteria to limit the domain of heliostats field, furthermore the influence of some parameters on the distribution of the efficiency of ground area was investigated. Results showed that, the efficiency of ground area can effectively limit the domain of heliostats field, while its distribution can be greatly influenced by the dimension of the receiver aperture and the total errors of the heliostats, with respect to the optical height of tower and the tilted angle of the receiver aperture. Therefore, increasing the dimension of the receiver aperture is quite necessary to increase the domain of heliestats field so as to increase the capacity of the solar thermal tower power station, while improving the performance of the heliostats can benefit both the energy concentrated by the heliostats field and the capacity of the solar thermal tower power station as well.%采用MATLAB编程.计算了余弦效率、大气透过效率以及吸热器开口平面上的截断效率.并将这三项效率的乘积定义为地面利用效率用于限制定日镜场的布置范围,进而分析了一些参数对定日镜场布置范围的影响.分析结果表明,地面利用效率可有效限定定日镜场的布置范围.与接收塔光学高度和吸热器开口的倾斜角度相比,吸热器的开口尺寸和定日镜的整体误差大小在很大程度上限定了定日镜场的布置范围.要增大电站容量,必须增大吸热器开口尺寸.而提高定日镜的整体性能不但可提高定日镜场的光学效率,也可有效扩大定日镜场的布置范围,增大电站容量.

  1. SVC Planning in Large–scale Power Systems via a Hybrid Optimization Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang ya; Majumder, Rajat; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The research on allocation of FACTS devices has attracted quite a lot interests from various aspects. In this paper, a hybrid model is proposed to optimise the number, location as well as the parameter settings of static Var compensator (SVC) deployed in large–scale power systems. The model utili...... a candidate solution pool. Then in the second stage, the candidates are presented to a linear planning model to investigate the system optimal loadability, hence the optimal solution for SVC planning can be achieved. The method is presented to IEEE 300–bus system....... utilises the result of vulnerability assessment for determining the candidate locations. A hybrid optimisation method including two stages is proposed to find out the optimal solution of SVC in large– scale planning problem. In the first stage, a conventional genetic algorithm (GA) is exploited to generate...

  2. Study of molten carbonate fuel cell—microturbine hybrid power cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Francisco

    The interaction realized by fuel cell—microturbine hybrids derive primarily from using the rejected thermal energy and combustion of residual fuel from a fuel cell in driving the gas turbine. This leveraging of thermal energy makes the high temperature molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) ideal candidates for hybrid systems. Use of a recuperator contributes to thermal efficiency by transferring heat from the gas turbine exhaust to the fuel and air used in the system. Traditional control design approaches, consider a fixed operating point in the hope that the resulting controller is robust enough to stabilize the system for different operating conditions. On the other hand, adaptive control incorporates the time-varying dynamical properties of the model (a new value of gas composition) and considers the disturbances acting at the plant (load power variation).

  3. Hybrid Configuration of Darrieus and Savonius Rotors for Stand-alone Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Tanzawa, Yoshiaki; Hashizume, Takumi; Nagao, Toshio

    The suitable hybrid configuration of Darrieus lift-type and Savonius drag-type rotors for stand-alone wind turbine-generator systems is discussed using our dynamic simulation model. Two types of hybrid configurations are taken up: Type-A installs the Savonius rotor inside the Darrieus rotor and Type-B installs the Savonius rotor outside the Darrieus rotor. The computed results of the output characteristics and the dynamic behaviors of the system operated at the maximum power coefficient points show that Type-A, which has fine operating behavior to wind speed changes and can be compactly designed because of a shorter rotational shaft, is an effective way for self-controlled stand-alone small-scale systems.

  4. Damping of wind turbine tower vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Pedersen, Mikkel Melters

    Damping of wind turbine vibrations by supplemental dampers is a key ingredient for the continuous use of monopiles as support for offshore wind turbines. The present thesis consists of an extended summary with four parts and appended papers [P1-P4] concerning novel strategies for damping of tower...... dominated vibrations.The first part of the thesis presents the theoretical framework for implementation of supplemental dampers in wind turbines. It is demonstrated that the feasibility of installing dampers at the bottom of the tower is significantly increased when placing passive or semiactive dampers...... that a minimum of three braces in a symmetric circumferential configuration are needed to introduce homogeneous damping in the two lowest vibration modes, independent of the rotor direction. A novel hybrid viscous damper concept is described in the second part. The hybriddamper consists of a viscous dash...

  5. Thermo-economic modeling of an indirectly coupled solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheddie, Denver F. [Center for Energy Studies, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago; Murray, Renique [Natural Gas Institute of the Americas, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago

    2010-12-15

    Power generation using gas turbine (GT) power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies, resulting in poor fuel to power conversion. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency, in order to improve system efficiencies and economics. The SOFC system is indirectly coupled to the gas turbine power plant, paying careful attention to minimize the disruption to the GT operation. A thermo-economic model is developed for the hybrid power plant, and predicts an optimized power output of 20.6 MW at 49.9% efficiency. The model also predicts a break-even per-unit energy cost of USD 4.65 cents kWh{sup -1} for the hybrid system based on futuristic mass generation SOFC costs. This shows that SOFCs may be indirectly integrated into existing GT power systems to improve their thermodynamic and economic performance. (author)

  6. Wireless Instrument and Network Conifguration of Tower Type CSP Power Plant%塔式光热发电无线仪表和无线网络配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李才永; 胡立国; 徐同社

    2015-01-01

    本文分析了一种群塔式太阳能光热发电系统的定日镜、吸热蓄热器、汽水管道等系统的基本仪表配置和仪表的主要功能。根据这些仪表配置的特点提出了无线仪表和无线网络的具体配置方案。本文还介绍了每种无线仪表的特点和在群塔式太阳能光热发电系统中的具体应用范围以及各种无线网络设备,如无线多功能节点、各类无线转接模块、手持设备、无线管理平台等的功能以及配置。%In this paper, one multi-tower CSP power plant instrument conifguration and function for heliostats, solar thermal receivers, steam and water pipes is presented. Wireless instrument and wireless network configuration are developed based on the character of the instrument configuration. Each type of wireless instrument and its detail application in multi-tower CSP power plant is presented. Function and conifguration of each type of wireless network equipment, such as wireless multi-function node, every type of wireless adaptor, handheld, wireless device manager is also presented.

  7. Multi-objective optimization for hybrid fuel cells power system under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Karthik; Diwekar, Urmila M.; Goyal, Amit

    One of the major applications of fuel cells is as onsite stationary electric power plants. Several types of configurations have been hypothesized and tested for these kinds of applications at the conceptual level but hybrid power plants are one of the most efficient. These are designs that combine a fuel cell cycle with other thermodynamic cycles to provide higher efficiency. Generally, the heat rejected by the fuel cell at a higher temperature is used in a bottoming cycle to generate steam. In this work we are considering a conceptual design of a solid oxide fuel cell-proton exchange membrane (SOFC-PEM) fuel cell hybrid power plant [R. Geisbrecht, Compact Electrochemical Reformer Based on SOFC Technology, AIChE Spring National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 2000] in which the high temperature SOFC fuel cell acts both as electricity producer and fuel reformer for the low temperature PEM fuel cell (PEMFC). The exhaust from the PEM fuel cell goes to a waste hydrogen burner and heat recovery steam generator that produces steam for further utilizations. Optimizing this conceptual design involves consideration of a number of objectives. The process should have low pollutant emissions as well as cost competitive with the existing technology. The solution of a multi-objective optimization problem is not a single solution but a complete non-dominated or Pareto set, which includes the alternatives representing potential compromise solutions among the objectives. This makes a range of choice available to decision makers and provides them with the trade-off information among the multiple objectives effectively. This paper presents the optimal trade-off design solutions or the Pareto set for this hybrid power plant through a multi-objective optimization framework. This hybrid technology is new and the system level models used for fuel cells performance have significant uncertainties in them. In this paper, we characterize these uncertainties and study the effect of these uncertainties

  8. Good Towers of Function Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we will give an overview of known and new techniques on how one can obtain explicit equations for candidates of good towers of function fields. The techniques are founded in modular theory (both the classical modular theory and the Drinfeld modular theory). In the classical modular...... setup, optimal towers can be obtained, while in the Drinfeld modular setup, good towers over any non-prime field may be found. We illustrate the theory with several examples, thus explaining some known towers as well as giving new examples of good explicitly defined towers of function fields....

  9. Engineering photochemical smog through convection towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.L.; Bossert, J.E.; Mroz, E.J.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jacobson, M.Z.; Turco, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Dept.

    1995-02-01

    Reverse convection towers have attracted attention as a medium for cleansing modern cities. Evaporation of an aqueous mist injected at the tower opening could generate electrical power by creating descent, and simultaneously scavenge unsightly and unhealthful particulates. The study offered here assesses the influence to tower water droplets on the photochemical component of Los Angeles type smog. The primary radical chain initiator OH is likely removed into aqueous phases well within the residence time of air in the tower, and then reacts away rapidly. Organics do not dissolve, but nighttime hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} depletes the nitrogen oxides. A lack of HOx would slow hydrocarbon oxidation and so also ozone production. Lowering of NOx would also alter ozone production rates, but the direction is uncertain. SO{sub 2} is available in sufficient quantities in some urban areas to react with stable oxidants, and if seawater were the source of the mist, the high pH would lead to fast sulfur oxidation kinetics. With an accommodation coefficient of 10{sup {minus}3}, however, ozone may not enter the aqueous phase efficiently. Even if ozone is destroyed or its production suppressed, photochemical recovery times are on the order of hours, so that tower processing must be centered on a narrow midday time window. The cost of building the number of structures necessary for this brief turnover could be prohibitive. The increase in humidity accompanying mist evaporation could be controlled with condensers, but might otherwise counteract visibility enhancements by recreating aqueous aerosols. Quantification of the divergent forcings convection towers must exert upon the cityscape would call for coupled three dimensional modeling of transport, microphysics, and photochemistry. 112 refs.

  10. Adaptive Passivity-Based Control of PEM Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power Source for Stand-Alone Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALANTAR, A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a DC hybrid power source composed of PEM fuel cell as main source, Li-ion battery storage as transient power source and their power electronic interfacing is modelled based on Euler-Lagrange framework. Subsequently, adaptive passivity-based controllers are synthesized using the energy shaping and damping injection technique. Local asymptotic stability is insured as well. In addition, the power management system is designed in order to manage power flow between components. Evaluation of the proposed system and simulation of the hybrid system are accomplished using MATLAB/Simulink. Afterwards, linear PI controllers are provided for the purpose of comparison with proposed controllers responses. The results show that the outputs of hybrid system based on adaptive passivity-based controllers have a good tracking response, low overshoot, short settling time and zero steady-state error. The comparison of results demonstrates the robustness of the proposed controllers for reference DC voltage and resistive load changes.

  11. Improvement of Transient Stability in a Hybrid Power Multi-System Using a Designed NIDC (Novel Intelligent Damping Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chia Ou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper endeavors to apply a novel intelligent damping controller (NIDC for the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM to reduce the power fluctuations, voltage support and damping in a hybrid power multi-system. In this paper, we discuss the integration of an offshore wind farm (OWF and a seashore wave power farm (SWPF via a high-voltage, alternating current (HVAC electric power transmission line that connects the STATCOM and the 12-bus hybrid power multi-system. The hybrid multi-system consists of a battery energy storage system (BESS and a micro-turbine generation (MTG. The proposed NIDC consists of a designed proportional–integral–derivative (PID linear controller, an adaptive critic network and a proposed functional link-based novel recurrent fuzzy neural network (FLNRFNN. Test results show that the proposed controller can achieve better damping characteristics and effectively stabilize the network under unstable conditions.

  12. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  13. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic–Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions. PMID:26121032

  14. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  15. Feasibility study on the demonstrative test on the hybrid mini hydroelectric power generation technology. 2; Hybrid gata mini suiryoku hatsuden gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho shiken kanosei chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A study was made for the purpose of electrification of unelectrified zones of the mountainous areas in developing countries using extremely small hydroelectric power facilities. The target for this project is a development of a micro hydroelectric power system with a size of about 5kW, which is estimated regarding that 1 village has 80 houses and each house needs electricity of 60W. In the study, the low-head system using a weir of irrigation channels in Subang pref. of West Java state was selected by the evaluation of access, stability of flow rate, natural conditions, etc. The hydroelectric power plant is of a flow-in method in which water is taken from the left bank and is injected/discharged to the downstream of the left bank. As the hybrid complementary power source, hybrid battery with a two-hour charging time at peak and a capacity of 3.5kWh was considered. When estimating the construction cost of the hybrid micro hydroelectric power system and equalizing by durable years, the operational cost per kW is 15 times higher than the benefits which local people receive. It was judged to be difficult to say that the micro hydroelectric power system is economically feasible. It was predicted that the financial profit during the demonstrative test is good, according to a trial calculation of income from power rates and the operational cost. 18 refs., 90 figs., 53 tabs.

  16. Self-powered pH sensor based on a flexible organic-inorganic hybrid composite nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Soyoon, Shin; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2014-08-27

    In this study, we developed an innovative, flexible, organic-inorganic hybrid composite nanogenerator, which was used to drive a self-powered microwire-based pH sensor. The hybrid composite nanogenerator was fabricated using ZnO nanowire and piezoelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride), through a simple, inexpensive solution-casting technique. The fabricated hybrid composite nanogenerator delivered a maximum open-circuit voltage of 6.9 V and a short-circuit current of 0.96 μA, with an output power of 6.624 μW under uniaxial compression. This high-performance, electric poling free composite nanogenerator opens up the possibility of industrial-scale fabrication. The hybrid nanogenerator demonstrated its ability to drive five green LEDs simultaneously, without using an energy-storage device. Additionally, we constructed a self-powered pH sensor, using a ZnO microwire powered with our hybrid nanogenerator. The output voltage varied according to changes in the pH level. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a hybrid nanogenerator as a self-powered device that can be extended for use as a biosensor for environmental monitoring and/or as a smart, wearable, vibration sensor in future applications.

  17. A Hybrid Search Algorithm for Midterm Optimal Scheduling of Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid search algorithm consisting of three stages is presented to solve the midterm schedule for thermal power plants (MTSFTPP problem, where the primary objective is to achieve equal accumulated operating hours of installed capacity (EAOHIC for all thermal power plants during the selected period. First, feasible spaces are produced and narrowed based on constraints on the number of units and power load factors. Second, an initial feasible solution is obtained by a heuristic method that considers operating times and boundary conditions. Finally, the progressive optimality algorithm (POA, which we refer to as the vertical search algorithm (VSA, is used to solve the MTSFTPP problem. A method for avoiding convergence to a local minimum, called the lateral search algorithm (LSA, is presented. The LSA provides an updated solution that is used as a new feasible starting point for the next search in the VSA. The combination of the LSA and the VSA is referred to as the hybrid search algorithm (HSA, which is simple and converges quickly to the global minimum. The results of two case studies show that the algorithm is very effective in solving the MTSFTPP problem accurately and in real time.

  18. Survey of technology for hybrid vehicle auxiliary power units. Interim report, April 1994-June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, S.K.

    1995-10-01

    The state-of-the-art of heat engines for use as auxiliary power units in hybrid vehicles is surveyed. The study considers reciprocating or rotary heat engines, excluding gas turbines and fuel cells. The relative merits of various engine-generator concepts are compared. The concepts are ranked according to criteria tailored for a series-type hybrid drive. The two top APU concepts were the free-piston engine/linear generator (FPELG) and the Wankel rotary` engine. The FPELG is highly ranked primarily because of thermal efficiency cost, producibility. reliability, and transient response advantages; it is a high risk concept because of unproven technology. The Wankel engine is proven. with high power density, low cost and low noise. Four additional competitive concepts include two-stroke spark-ignition engine. two-stroke gas generator with turboalternator, free-piston engine gas generator with turboalternator, and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine. This study recommends additional work, including cycle simulation development and preliminary design to better quantify thermal efficiency and power density. Auxiliary concepts were also considered, including two which warrant further study: electrically actuated valves, and lean turndown of a normally stoichiometric engine. These concepts should be evaluated by retrofitting to existing engines.

  19. Synthetically Control of a Hybrid PV/FC/SC Power System for Stand-Alone Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakang Zhu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simple and practical control scheme for power assignment and load-following of a Hybrid Power System (HPS is proposed. The system consists of Photovoltaic (PV, Fuel Cell (FC, Super-Capacitor (SC, dc load, ac load and different kinds of converters. PV is chosen as a prior source, which normally operates in Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT mode. In order to achieve 24 h power supply under various natural conditions, FC is used as a backup source to provide the power deficit between solar generation and load demand. Taking the slow FC system dynamics into account, FC power slope has been limited to protect FC from fuel starvation, whereas SC is chosen to satisfy the requirement of the sudden load and solar radiation changes. Besides, a V/f controller is designed to meet ac load demand, while keeping the voltage and frequency within an acceptable range. All the details of this study, including system structure, control diagrams and MATLAB simulation results, are presented.

  20. Performance of a 60 F carbon nanotubes-based supercapacitor for hybrid power sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Wang; Dianbo Ruan; Zheng You; Yiqiang Lu; Qiqian Sha

    2005-01-01

    A supercapacitor based on charge storage at the interface between a high surface area carbon nanotube electrode and a LiClO4/PC electrolyte was assembled. The performance of the capacitor depends on not only the material used in the cell but also the construction of the cell. From a constant charge-discharge test, the capacitance of 60 F was obtained. The performance of the power power supercapacitor were demonstrated with a cell of the maximum operating voltage of 2.5 V. A hybrid power source consisting of a lithium ionic battery and the 60 F supercapacitor was demonstrated to power successfully a simulated power load encountered in GSM portable communication equipment. The addition of the supercapacitor to the power train of a cellular phone results in significantly more energy from the battery being used by the load. The experiments indicate that more than 33.8% energy is utilized by load and less stored energy is dissipated within the battery for each charge-discharge cycle.

  1. PSO based Optimal Power Flow with Hybrid Distributed Generators and UPFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Bharathi dasan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Generation (DG is a small source of electric power conversion from nonconventionalenergy sources and Hybrid DGs is often the most cost-effective and reliable way toproduce power. Optimal Power flow (OPF study is conducted on a power system to achieve one of the following objectives: cost/loss minimization or Available transfer capability (ATCcalculation in a deregulated environment. The optimality of control variables would definitely change with respect to the location, quantity and combination of power injection by DGs. On the other hand, FACTS controllers are effective in utilizing the existing transmission network whichis very important especially in a deregulated system. Unified Power flow controller (UPFC, a second generation FACTS controller, is well known for minimizing the cost of generation/losses with a good voltage profile as well as for ATC improvement. This paper conducts a detailed OPF study on a 9 bus system [7] for the above mentioned three objectives, with DGs and UPFC. To solve the OPF problem, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, a non conventional technique is used.

  2. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI is introduced as a parameter to predict PV power. AQI, which is an indication of how polluted the air is, has been known to have a strong correlation with power generated by the PV panels. In this paper, a hybrid method based on the model of conventional back propagation (BP neural network for clear weather and BP AQI model for haze weather is used to forecast PV power with conventional parameters like temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and an extra parameter of AQI as input. The results show that the proposed method has less error under haze condition as compared to conventional model of neural network.

  3. Ultracompact on-chip photothermal power monitor based on silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ma, Ke; Shi, Yaocheng; Wosinski, Lech; Dai, Daoxin

    2017-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate an ultracompact on-chip photothermal power monitor based on a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPWG), which consists of a metal strip, a silicon core, and a silicon oxide (SiO2) insulator layer between them. When light injected to an HPWG is absorbed by the metal strip, the temperature increases and the resistance of the metal strip changes accordingly due to the photothermal and thermal resistance effects of the metal. Therefore, the optical power variation can be monitored by measuring the resistance of the metal strip on the HPWG. To obtain the electrical signal for the resistance measurement conveniently, a Wheatstone bridge circuit is monolithically integrated with the HPWG on the same chip. As the HPWG has nanoscale light confinement, the present power monitor is as short as 3 μm, which is the smallest photothermal power monitor reported until now. The compactness helps to improve the thermal efficiency and the response speed. For the present power monitor fabricated with simple fabrication processes, the measured responsivity is as high as about 17.7 mV/mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and the power dynamic range is as large as 35 dB.

  4. Ultracompact on-chip photothermal power monitor based on silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate an ultracompact on-chip photothermal power monitor based on a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPWG, which consists of a metal strip, a silicon core, and a silicon oxide (SiO2 insulator layer between them. When light injected to an HPWG is absorbed by the metal strip, the temperature increases and the resistance of the metal strip changes accordingly due to the photothermal and thermal resistance effects of the metal. Therefore, the optical power variation can be monitored by measuring the resistance of the metal strip on the HPWG. To obtain the electrical signal for the resistance measurement conveniently, a Wheatstone bridge circuit is monolithically integrated with the HPWG on the same chip. As the HPWG has nanoscale light confinement, the present power monitor is as short as ~3 μm, which is the smallest photothermal power monitor reported until now. The compactness helps to improve the thermal efficiency and the response speed. For the present power monitor fabricated with simple fabrication processes, the measured responsivity is as high as about 17.7 mV/mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and the power dynamic range is as large as 35 dB.

  5. Modeling and sizing optimization of hybrid photovoltaic/wind power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-03-01

    The rapid industrialization and growth of world's human population have resulted in the unprecedented increase in the demand for energy and in particular electricity. Depletion of fossil fuels and impacts of global warming caused widespread attention using renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar energies. Energy security under varying weather conditions and the corresponding system cost are the two major issues in designing hybrid power generation systems. In this paper, the match evaluation method (MEM) is developed based on renewable energy supply/demand match evaluation criteria to size the proposed system in lowest cost. This work is undertaken with triple objective function: inequality coefficient, correlation coefficient, and annualized cost of system. It provides optimum capacity of as many numbers of supplies as required to match with a load demand in lowest investment, so it can handle large-scale design problems. Meteorological data were collected from the city of Zabol, located in south-east of Iran, as a case study. Six types of wind turbine and also six types of PV modules, with different output powers and costs, are considered for this optimization procedure. A battery storage system is used to even out irregularities in meteorological data. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used for the prediction of an optimized set of design based on the MEM technique. The results of this study are valuable for evaluating the performance of future stand-alone hybrid power system. It is worth mentioning that the proposed methodology can be effectively employed for any composition of hybrid energy systems in any locations taking into account the meteorological data and the consumer's demand.

  6. Optimal Power Scheduling for a Grid-Connected Hybrid PV-Wind-Battery Microgrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a lineal mathematical model is proposed to schedule optimally the power references of the distributed energy resources in a grid-connected hybrid PVwind-battery microgrid. The optimization of the short term scheduling problem is addressed through a mixed-integer linear programming...... mathematical model, wherein the cost of energy purchased from the main grid is minimized and profits for selling energy generated by photovoltaic arrays are maximized by considering both physical constraints and requirements for a feasible deployment in the real system. The optimization model is tested...

  7. Operating manual for hybrid thermosyphons at the Gakona Power Plant, Alaska. Special report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, F.D.; Crory, F.C.; Knuth, K.V.; Quinn, W.F.

    1994-03-01

    A power plant building was constructed in 1990 at an over-the-horizon radar site in Gakona, Alaska. Since it was built on permafrost, thermal protection between the building and the underlying permafrost was included in the design, which included rigid board insulation and hybrid thermosyphons placed in the gravel fill under the building. Soil temperature is monitored with eight thermistor strings placed under and at the building perimeter. This manual describes the steps that must be taken to ensure foundation stability, including directions on when to use the thermosyphons in the active, mechanical refrigeration mode. A data acquisition system using a computer-controlled datalogger is described.

  8. Hybrid high-energy high-power pulsewidth-tunable picosecond source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouysegur, Julien; Guichard, Florent; Zaouter, Yoann; Hanna, Marc; Druon, Frédéric; Hönninger, Clemens; Mottay, Eric; Georges, Patrick

    2015-11-15

    A hybrid ytterbium-doped fiber-bulk laser source allowing the generation of 3 ps, 350 μJ, 116 MW peak power Fourier transform-limited pulses at 50 kHz repetition rate and 1030 nm wavelength is described. Pulse duration tunability is provided by an adjustable spectral compression-based seeder system. Energy scaling capabilities of the architecture by use of the divided-pulse amplification method are investigated. This source provides a robust, compact, and versatile solution for applications such as RF photocathode guns, x- and γ-ray generation by inverse Compton scattering, and optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification pumping.

  9. Optimal Sizing and Operation of Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakidis, Ioannis; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    for autonomous applications. Based on the island’s wind and solar potential, wind and solar systems appear as the most competitive solution while battery technologies provide the most feasible option for storing the excess energy. In the next, simulation models are developed in HOMER software. Various ratings....... The main criterion for this evaluation is the improvement of steady-state voltage magnitude and minimization of power losses. The final part analyzes the hybrid system’s stability. An aggregated dynamic model is constructed based on built-in models from DIgSILENT library. The results highlight the battery’s...

  10. TacTowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Martin; Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    The interactive training equipment, TacTower, is aimed at supporting multiple elite athletes, such as handball players in training their micro-tactical skills in close-contact situations. It focuses on psychomotor abilities and trains the skills involved in reading the opponents’ actions and anti...... for the elite athletic community, as this domain holds interesting challenges while also inspiring relevant, new forms of interaction design for other domains....

  11. Design, control and power management of a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid system for small electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhihao; Onar, Omer; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces design, control, and power management of a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid system, utilized for small electric vehicles (EV). The batteries are designed and controlled to work as the main energy storage source of the vehicle, supplying average power to the load; and the ultra-capacitors...

  12. Compact Hybrid Subsystem of 16 Channel Optical Demultiplexer, 2x2 Switches, Optical Power Monitors and Control Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichiro Takahashi; Toshihiko Kishimoto; Shintaro Mouri; Youichi Hata; Hideaki Yusa; Mitsuaki Tamura; Kazuhito Saito; Hisao Maki

    2003-01-01

    A compact hybrid subsystem of 16channel optical demultiplexer, 2x2 switches, optical power monitors and control circuit board is developed. The subsystem is able to add or drop arbitrary optical channels and monitor the optical power level by software commands. The size of the subsystem is 170x200x30(mm).

  13. Dynamic Stability Enhancement and Power Flow Control of a Hybrid Wind and Marine-Current Farm Using SMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Shiang-Shong; Lee, Wei-Jen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a control scheme based on a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit to achieve both power flow control and damping enhancement of a novel hybrid wind and marine-current farm (MCF) connected to a large power grid. The performance of the studied wind farm (WF) is sim...

  14. Design, control and power management of a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid system for small electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhihao; Onar, Omer; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces design, control, and power management of a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid system, utilized for small electric vehicles (EV). The batteries are designed and controlled to work as the main energy storage source of the vehicle, supplying average power to the load; and the ultra...

  15. Techno-economical study of hybrid power system for a remote village in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himri, Y. [Electricity and Gas National Enterprise (Sonelgaz), Bechar, 05 rue Mokadem Ahmed, Bechar (08000) (Algeria); Boudghene Stambouli, A. [Department of Electronics, University of Sciences and Technology of Oran (Algeria); Draoui, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bechar (Algeria); Himri, S. [Department of Fundamental Sciences, University of Bechar (Algeria)

    2008-07-15

    The share of renewable energy sources in Algeria primary energy supply is relatively low compared with European countries, though the trend of development is positive. One of the main strategic priorities of NEAL (New Energy Algeria), which is Algeria's renewable energy agency (government, Sonelgaz and Sonatrach), is striving to achieve a share of 10-12% renewable energy sources in primary energy supply by 2010.This article presents techno-economic assessment for off-grid hybrid generation systems of a site in south western Algeria. The HOMER model is used to evaluate the energy production, life-cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions reduction for this study. In the present scenario, for wind speed less than 5.0 m/s the existing diesel power plant is the only feasible solution over the range of fuel prices used in the simulation. The wind diesel hybrid system becomes feasible at a wind speed of 5.48 m/s or more and a fuel price of 0.162$/L or more. If the carbon tax is taken into consideration and subsidy is abolished, then it is expected that the hybrid system will become feasible. The maximum annual capacity shortage did not have any effect on the cost of energy, which may be accounted for by larger sizes of wind machines and diesel generators. (author)

  16. A Novel Design and Optimization Software for Autonomous PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Eltamaly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and optimization computer simulation program for autonomous hybrid PV/wind/battery energy system. The main function of the new proposed computer program is to determine the optimum size of each component of the hybrid energy system for the lowest price of kWh generated and the best loss of load probability at highest reliability. This computer program uses the hourly wind speed, hourly radiation, and hourly load power with several numbers of wind turbine (WT and PV module types. The proposed computer program changes the penetration ratio of wind/PV with certain increments and calculates the required size of all components and the optimum battery size to get the predefined lowest acceptable probability. This computer program has been designed in flexible fashion that is not available in market available software like HOMER and RETScreen. Actual data for Saudi sites have been used with this computer program. The data obtained have been compared with these market available software. The comparison shows the superiority of this computer program in the optimal design of the autonomous PV/wind/battery hybrid system. The proposed computer program performed the optimal design steps in very short time and with accurate results. Many valuable results can be extracted from this computer program that can help researchers and decision makers.

  17. Gravity Search Algorithm hybridized Recursive Least Square method for power system harmonic estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new hybrid method based on Gravity Search Algorithm (GSA and Recursive Least Square (RLS, known as GSA-RLS, to solve the harmonic estimation problems in the case of time varying power signals in presence of different noises. GSA is based on the Newton’s law of gravity and mass interactions. In the proposed method, the searcher agents are a collection of masses that interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion. The basic GSA algorithm strategy is combined with RLS algorithm sequentially in an adaptive way to update the unknown parameters (weights of the harmonic signal. Simulation and practical validation are made with the experimentation of the proposed algorithm with real time data obtained from a heavy paper industry. A comparative performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated with other recently reported algorithms like, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Bacteria Foraging Optimization (BFO, Fuzzy-BFO (F-BFO hybridized with Least Square (LS and BFO hybridized with RLS algorithm, which reveals that the proposed GSA-RLS algorithm is the best in terms of accuracy, convergence and computational time.

  18. Mode Shift Control for a Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicle with Power-Split Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that power-split transmission (PST is considered to be a major powertrain technology for hybrid heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, the development and application of PST in the HDVs make mode shift control an essential aspect of powertrain system design. This paper presents a shift schedule design and torque control strategy for a hybrid HDV with PST during mode shift, intended to reduce the output torque variation and improve the shift quality (SQ. Firstly, detailed dynamic models of the hybrid HDV are developed to analyze the mode shift characteristics. Then, a gear shift schedule calculation method including a dynamic shift schedule and an economic shift schedule is provided. Based on the dynamic models and the designed shift schedule, a mode shift performance simulator is built using MATLAB/Simulink, and simulations are carried out. Through analysis of the dynamic equations, it is seen that the inertia torques of the motor–generator lead to the occurrence of transition torque. To avoid the unwanted transition torque, we use a mode shift control strategy that coordinates the motor–generator torque to compensate for the transition torque. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the output torque variation during mode shift is effectively reduced by the proposed control strategy, thereby improving the SQ.

  19. Fire behaviour of cooling tower packing; Brandverhalten von Kuehlturmeinbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattausch, Tim [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Dortmund (Germany). Fachstelle fuer Brandschutz

    2013-10-01

    The rapid burning down of the cooling tower of the shutdown power plant in Schwandorf revealed the potential of a total loss of a cooling tower in case of fire. VGB ordered a research project in order to obtain more knowledge about the fire risk of cooling tower packing currently applied. Depending on kind and age of the plastics used, the results of these tests manifest a big variation of the fire behaviour. For the applications of plastics, it is essential to determine and to adhere to organisational fire protection measures. (orig.)

  20. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.