WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid poplar clone

  1. Clone-Specific Response in Leaf Nitrate Reductase Activity among Unrelated Hybrid Poplars in relation to Soil Nitrate Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fortier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this field study, we used in vivo NRA activity in hybrid poplar leaves as an indicator of NO3- assimilation for five unrelated hybrid poplar clones. We also examined if leaf NRA of these clones is influenced to the same extent by different levels of soil NO3- availability in two riparian agroforestry systems located in pastures. Leaf NRA differences of more than one order of magnitude were observed between the clones, clearly showing their different abilities to reduce NO3- in leaves. Clone DxN-3570, a P. deltoides x P. nigra hybrid (Aigeiros intrasectional hybrid, always had the highest leaf NRA during the field assays. This clone was also the only one to increase its leaf NRA with increasing NO3- soil availability, which resulted in a significant Site x Clone interaction and a positive relationship between soil NO3- concentration and NRA. All of the four other clones studied had one or both parental species from the Tacamahaca section. They had relatively low leaf NRA and they did not increase their leaf NRA when grown on the NO3- rich site. These results provide evidence that NO3- assimilation in leaves varies widely among hybrid poplars of different parentages, suggesting potential preferences for N forms.

  2. Evaluation of two hybrid poplar clones as constructed wetland plant species for treating saline water high in boron and selenium, or waters only high in boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland mesocosms were constructed to assess two salt- and B-tolerant hybrid poplar clones (Populus trichocarpa ×P. deltoides×P. nigra '345-1' and '347-14') for treating saline water high in boron (B) and selenium (Se). In addition, a hydroponic experiment was performed to test the B tolerance and B...

  3. Factors Influencing the Tissue Culture and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Hybrid Aspen and Poplar Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Block, M

    1990-07-01

    Tissue culture conditions and transformation have been established for both aspen and poplar. The use of previously described culture conditions resulted in shoot tip necrosis in the shoot cultures and necrosis of stem and leaf explants. Shoot tip necrosis could be overcome by buffering the medium with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and Ca-gluconate and by growing the shoots below 25 degrees C. Necrosis of the explants was probably due to an accumulation of ammonium in the explants and could be overcome by adapting the NO(3) (-)/NH(4) (+) ratio of the media. Stem explants of established shoot cultures of the aspen hybrid Populus alba x P. tremula and of the poplar hybrid Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides were cocultivated with Agrobacterium strains having chimeric bar and neo genes on their disarmed tDNAs. Transformed aspen shoots were obtained from 30 to 40% of the explants, while transformed poplar shoots were obtained from 10% of the explants. Extracts from the transformed trees contained high phosphinotricin acetyltransferase and neomycin phosphotransferase activities, and the trees contained one to three copies of the chimeric genes. The transformed trees were completely resistant to the commercial preparations of the herbicide phosphinotricin (glufosinate), while control trees were not.

  4. Responses of hybrid poplar clones and red maple seedlings to ambient O3 under differing light within a mixed hardwood forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, C.; Skelly, J.M.; Pennypacker, S.P.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.; Davis, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    The responses of ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) (HP) clones NE388 and NE359, and seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) to ambient ozone (O 3 ) were studied during May-September of 2000 and 2001 under natural forest conditions and differing natural sunlight exposures (sun, partial shade and full shade). Ambient O 3 concentrations at the study site reached hourly peaks of 109 and 98 ppb in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Monthly 12-h average O 3 concentrations ranged from 32.3 to 52.9 ppb. Weekly 12-h average photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) within the sun, partial shade and full shade plots ranged from 200 to 750, 50 to 180, and 25 to 75 μmol m -2 s -1 , respectively. Ambient O 3 exposure induced visible foliar symptoms on HP NE388 and NE359 in both growing seasons, with more severe injury observed on NE388 than on NE359. Slight foliar symptoms were observed on red maple seedlings during the 2001growing season. Percentage of total leaf area affected (%LAA) was positively correlated with cumulative O 3 exposures. More severe foliar injury was observed on plants grown within the full shade and partial shade plots than those observed on plants grown within the sun plot. Lower light availability within the partial shade and full shade plots significantly decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g wv ). The reductions in Pn were greater than reductions in g wv , which resulted in greater O 3 uptake per unit Pn in plants grown within the partial shade and full shade plots. Greater O 3 uptake per unit Pn was consistently associated with more severe visible foliar injury in all species and/or clones regardless of differences in shade tolerance. These studies suggest that plant physiological responses to O 3 exposure are likely complicated due to multiple factors under natural forest conditions. - Under natural forest conditions and ambient O 3 exposures, available light plays a significant role in determining O 3 uptake and

  5. Observations on a hybrid poplar test planting in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur R. Eschner

    1960-01-01

    Hybrid poplars, crosses between European and American Aigeiros poplars, have been grown in Europe for about 200 years. The rapid growth and high productivity of some of these hybrids on sites to which they are adapted has stimulated interest in poplar growing in this country. And demand for these poplars is developing in many parts of the United States.

  6. Production potential of 36 poplar clones grown at medium length rotation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Brauner; Madsen, Palle; Hansen, Jon Kehlet

    2014-01-01

    years. The estimated mean annual increment of above ground biomass ranged from 1 to 9 Mg ha−1 yr−1 at age 13 years. A hybrid clone O.P. 42 (synonyms Hybrid 275, NE 42) Populus maximowiczii × trichocarpa, performed best, but also clones of the species Populus trichocarpa had a high biomass production....... In general the hybrids using P. maximowiczii as a parent were well performing. Lowest production had pure species Populus nigra and Populus deltoides as well as their hybrids. The choice of species hybrid combination had a very strong impact on biomass production, but less influence on quality and health......The importance of choosing suitable clones for production of timber and biomass has long been recognized. The aims of this study were to describe the genetic variation and production potential among 36 poplar clones grown in a rotation of 5–13 years and evaluate the different species and hybrid...

  7. Analysis of genetic and environmental effects on hybrid poplar rooting in Central and Northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Don Riemenschneider; Edmund Bauer

    2000-01-01

    We studied genetic and environmental effects on adventitious root initiation and growth because rooting is biologically prerequisite to the establishment of hybrid poplar plantations. Six clones from two pedigrees (pure Populus deltoides "cottonwoods" and P. deltoides x P. maximowiczii hybrids) were...

  8. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of poplar clones (Populus spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilipovic, A.; Orlovic, S.; Petrovic, N. [Faculty of Agriculture, Inst. of Lowland Forestry and Environment, Novi Sad (Czechoslovakia); Nikolic, N.; Krstic, B. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Dept. of Biology and Ecology, Novi Sad (Czechoslovakia)

    2005-04-01

    Biomass production, leaf number and area, photosynthetic and dark respiration rates, leaf concentration of photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity, as well as cadmium concentrations in leaves, stem, and roots were measured in poplar clones PE 4/68, B-229, 665, and 45/51. Plants were grown hydroponically under controlled conditions and treated with two different cadmium (Cd) concentrations (10{sup -5} and 10{sup -7} M) in the same background solution (Hoagland's solution). The presence of Cd did not cause serious disturbance of growth and physiological parameters in the studied poplar clones. Cd concentrations in plant tissues reflected external concentrations. In treated plants, root contents increased from 38.57 to 511.51 ppm, leaf contents from 0.91 to 7.50, while stem contents ranged from 1.37 to 9.50 ppm. (orig.)

  9. Biomass and Volume Yield in Mature Hybrid Poplar Plantations on Temperate Abandoned Farmland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Truax

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed clone-specific allometric relationships, with the objective of calculating volume and biomass production after 13 years in 8 poplar plantations, located across an environmental gradient, and composed of 5 unrelated hybrid poplar clones. Allometry was found to be very similar for clones MxB-915311, NxM-3729 and DNxM-915508, all having P. maximoviczii parentage. Clones DxN-3570 and TxD-3230 also had a similar allometry; for a given DBH they have a lower stem volume, stem biomass and branch biomass than P. maximoviczii hybrids. Strong Site × Clone interactions were observed for volume and woody biomass growth, with DxN and TxD hybrids only productive on low elevation fertile sites, whereas P. maximovizcii hybrids were also very productive on higher elevation sites with moderate to high soil fertility. At the site level (5 clones mean, yield reached 27.5 and 22.7 m3/ha/yr. on the two best sites (high fertility and low elevation, confirming the great potential of southern Québec (Canada for poplar culture. The productivity gap between the most and least productive sites has widened from year 8 to year 13, highlighting the need for high quality abandoned farmland site selection in terms of climate and soil fertility. Although clone selection could optimize yield across the studied environmental gradient, it cannot fully compensate for inadequate site selection.

  10. The arbuscular mycorrhizal status of poplar clones selected for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, T.; Radimszky, L.; Nemeth, T. [Research Inst. for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the colonization of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in fine-roots of poplar clones. Roots of 7 poplar clones were sampled from a 1-year-old trial established at an industrial site strongly polluted with heavy metals at Balatonfuezfoe, Hungary. The poplar clones have shown variable degrees of colonization by AMF, suggesting differential host susceptibility or mycorrhizal dependency. After outplanting the percentage of poplar survival was strongly correlated with the frequency of AMF infection. Two clones that survived at the lowest ratio after outplanting had not been colonized by AMF in contrast to those which survived to a much higher extent. (orig.)

  11. Somaclonal variation in hybrid poplars for resistance to Septoria leaf spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Ostry; D. D. Skilling

    1987-01-01

    Tissue culture techniques have been used to obtain hybrid poplars with putative resistance to leaf spot caused by Septoria musiva from clones previously susceptible to the disease. Stem internode explants were used to obtain proliferating callus cultures. Adventitious bud formation and shoot proliferation were then induced. Elongated shoots were excised and rooted in a...

  12. Diseases of intensively cultured hybrid poplars: a summary of recent research in the north central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Ostry; H. S. McNabb

    1983-01-01

    Several potentially damaging diseases of hybrid poplars hue been identified in the north-central United States. Among the most serious are leaf and stem diseases caused by Melampsora, Marssonina, and Septoria. Short-term chemical controls are of limited usefulness. The most practical control strategy appears to be the use of resistant clones obtained through local...

  13. Greater efficiency of water use in poplar clones having a delayed response of mesophyll conductance to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théroux Rancourt, Guillaume; Éthier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve

    2015-02-01

    Improvement of water use efficiency is a key objective to improve the sustainability of cultivated plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. It is well known that water use efficiency (WUE) varies considerably among poplar genotypes, and it was recently suggested that the use of the mesophyll-to-stomatal conductance ratio (gm/gs) would be an appropriate trait to improve WUE. The responses of 7-week-old cuttings of four hybrid poplar clones and one native Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) to a water stress-recovery cycle were examined to evaluate the relation between the gm/gs ratio and transpiration efficiency (TE), a leaf-level component of WUE. A contrasting gs response to water stress was observed among the five clones, from stomatal closure early on during soil drying up to limited closure in Balsam poplar. However in the hybrids, the decline in gm was consistently delayed by a few days compared with gs. Moreover, in the most water use-efficient hybrids, the recovery following rehydration occurred faster for gm than for gs. Thus, the delay in the response of gm to drought and its faster recovery upon rewatering increased the gm/gs of the hybrids and this ratio scaled positively with TE. Our results support the use of the gm/gs ratio to select genotypes with improved WUE, and the notion that breeding strategies focusing mainly on stomatal responses to soil drying should also look for a strong curvilinearity between net carbon assimilation rate and gs, the indication of a significant increase in gm/gs in the earlier stages of stomatal closure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Biochar as a substitute for vermiculite in potting mix for hybrid poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Headlee; Catherine E. Brewer; Richard B. Hall

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate biochar as a substitute for vermiculite in potting mixes for unrooted vegetative cuttings of hybrid poplar as represented by the clone ‘NM6’ (Populus nigra L. × Populus suaveolens Fischer subsp. maximowiczii A. Henry). We compared three treatments (peat moss (control), peat moss mixed with vermiculite, and peat moss mixed with...

  15. Combustion quality of poplar and willow clones grown as SRC at four sites in Brandenburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    The fuel quality was assessed for nine poplar clones (AF2, Androscoggin, Max1, Max3, Max4, Monviso, Muhle-Larsen, NE42, Weser6) and one willow clone (Inger) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) on four sites in the Brandenburg area in Germany. Fuel quality was analysed in 3-year old shoots in te...

  16. Economic investigations of short rotation intensively cultured hybrid poplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Lothner

    1983-01-01

    The history of the economic analyses is summarized for short rotation intensively cultured hybrid poplar at the North Central Forest Experiment Station. Early break-even analyses with limited data indicated that at a price of $25-30 per dry ton for fiber and low to medium production costs, several systems looked profitable. Later cash flow analyses indicated that two...

  17. Production physiology and morphology of Populus species and their hybrids grown under short rotation. II. Biomass components and harvest index of hybrid and parental species clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. E. [Univ. of Tuscia, Viterbo, (Italy); Ceulemans, R. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium); Heilman, P. E. [Washington State Univ., Olympia, WA (United States); Isebrands, J. G.; Stettler, R. F.; Hinckley, T. M. [Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

    1997-03-01

    Growth and biomass components of four poplar clones were studied during four consecutive years of short-rotation culture in western Washington, U.S.A. Results confirmed previous observations indicating the high productive potential of hybrid clones. In two of the hybrid clones tested, large differences in biomass distribution among tree components and in the pattern of growth were evident, as indicated by harvest index and root/shoot ratios. Results suggest that the clonal differences shown in total biomass, in allocation to different tree components, and in harvest index, have important implications for future poplar breeding programs. 39 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Biomass and volume yield after 6 years in multiclonal hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, Julien [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gagnon, Daniel [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada); Truax, Benoit; Lambert, France [Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    In this paper the potential of five hybrid poplar clones (Populus spp.) to provide biomass and wood volume in the riparian zone is assessed in four agroecosystems of southern Quebec (Canada). For all variables measured, significant Site effects were detected. Survival, biomass yield and volume yield were highest at the Bromptonville site. After 6 years of growth, total aboveground biomass production (stems + branches + leaves) reached 112.8 tDM/ha and total leafless biomass production (stems + branches) reached 101.1 tDM/ha at this site, while stem wood volume attained 237.5 m{sup 3}/ha. Yields as low as 14.2 tDM/ha for total biomass and 24.8 m{sup 3}/ha for total stem volume were also observed at the Magog site. Highest yields were obtained on the most fertile sites, particularly in terms of NO{sub 3} supply rate. Mean stem volume per tree was highly correlated with NO{sub 3} supply rate in soils (R{sup 2} = 0.58, p < 0.001). Clone effects were also detected for most of the variables measured. Total aboveground biomass and total stem volume production were high for clone 3729 (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) (73.1 tDM/ha and 134.2 m{sup 3}/ha), although not statistically different from clone 915311 (P. maximowiczii x P. balsamifera). However, mean whole-tree biomass (including leaves) was significantly higher for clone 3729 (38.8 kgDM/tree). Multifunctional agroforestry systems such as hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips are among the most sustainable ways to produce a high amount of biomass and wood in a short time period, while contributing to alleviate environmental problems such as agricultural non-point source pollution. (author)

  19. Chemical Profiles of Wood Components of Poplar Clones for Their Energy Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Kačíková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Selected and tested poplar clones are very suitable biomass resources for various applications such as biofuels, the pulp and paper industry as well as chemicals production. In this study, we determined the content of lignin, cellulose, holocellulose, and extractives, syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G ratio in lignin, and also calculated higher heating values (HHV among eight examined clones of Populus grown on three different experimental sites. The highest lignin content for all the examined sites was determined in ‘I-214’ and ‘Baka 5’ clones, whereas the highest content of extractives was found in ‘Villafranca’ and ‘Baka 5’ clones. The highest S/G ratio for all the examined sites was determined in ‘Villafranca’ and ‘Agathe F’ clones. The chemical profiles of main wood components, extractives, and the S/G ratio in lignin were also influenced by both the experimental site and the clone × site interaction. Higher heating values, derived from calculations based on the contents of lignin and extractives (or lignin only, were in close agreement with the previously published data. The highest heating values were found for ‘Baka 5’ and ‘I-214’ clones. The optimal method of poplar biomass utilization can be chosen on basis of the lignocellulosics chemical composition and the S/G ratio in lignin.

  20. Biodegradation of Trichloroethylene by an Endophyte of Hybrid Poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Won; Khan, Zareen

    2012-01-01

    We isolated and characterized a novel endophyte from hybrid poplar. This unique endophyte, identified as Enterobacter sp. strain PDN3, showed high tolerance to trichloroethylene (TCE). Without the addition of inducers, such as toluene or phenol, PDN3 rapidly reduced TCE levels in medium from 72.4 μM to 30.1 μM in 24 h with a concurrent release of 127 μM chloride ion, and nearly 80% of TCE (55.3 μM) was dechlorinated by PDN3 in 5 days with 166 μM chloride ion production, suggesting TCE degradation. PMID:22367087

  1. Concentration- and flux-based ozone dose–response relationships for five poplar clones grown in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Gao, Feng; Xin, Yue; Jia, Huixia; Li, Kaihui; Hu, Jianjun; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2015-01-01

    Concentration- and flux-based O_3 dose–response relationships were developed for poplars in China. Stomatal conductance (g_s) of five poplar clones was measured to parameterize a Jarvis-type multiplicative g_s model. The maximum g_s and other model parameters varied between clones. The strongest relationship between stomatal O_3 flux and total biomass was obtained when phytotoxic ozone dose (POD) was integrated using an uptake rate threshold of 7 nmol m"−"2 s"−"1. The R"2 value was similar between flux-based and concentration-based dose–response relationships. Ozone concentrations above 28–36 nmol mol"−"1 contributed to reducing the biomass production of poplar. Critical levels of AOT_4_0 (accumulated O_3 exposure over 40 nmol mol"−"1) and POD_7 in relation to 5% reduction in total biomass for poplar were 12 μmol mol"−"1 h and 3.8 mmol m"−"2, respectively. - Highlights: • A stomatal conductance model was calibrated for poplar clones in China. • The stomatal O_3 flux–response relationship was developed for poplars. • O_3 concentrations > 28–36 nmol mol"−"1 contributed to poplar biomass reduction. • Current ambient O_3 level in most places of China has threatened poplar growth. • Ozone sensitivity of poplar is similar to that of birch/beech. - For the first time, dose–response relationships were developed for risk assessment of O_3 impacts on poplars in China.

  2. Boron accumulation and tolerance of hybrid poplars grown on a B-laden mixed paper mill waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H.; Rog, Christopher J.; Papritz, Andreas; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Paper mill wastes are a mixture of by-products from pulp production and on-site energy production, consisting of paper mill sludge, ash and cinders. Landfilling of these highly boron (B) and heavy metal laden waste products carries environmental risks. Poplars have been successfully employed in the phytomanagement and hydraulic control of B contaminated sites. Here, we assess the performance of hybrid poplars on a paper-mill waste landfill, investigate the accumulation of B by the trees and explore the relationship between local-scale root growth and substrate properties. Leaf and root tissue samples were collected on three plots and analyzed for their chemical properties and root traits. Additionally, we sampled four soil cores in the vicinity of each of the trees and determined chemical and physical properties. Using a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, we identified three substrate types. This method delineated the soil effects on tree survival and growth, although correlations with individual soil element concentrations were weak. Despite signs of B toxicity in some leaves, B was not the key limiting factor for poplar growth. Instead, Ca deficiency caused by a Mg:Ca imbalance was the primary reason for the poor performance of some trees. Root growth was not limited by toxicity effects of soil contaminants. Our results show that hybrid poplars perform well under the harsh growing conditions on a multi-contaminated, B-laden substrate in a hemiboreal climate. Exploiting the differences in the performance of the four clones in relation to the soil types, could increase the success of revegetation on this and other landfills. - Highlights: ► We studied four hybrid poplar clones grown on a B-laden paper mill waste landfill. ► Poplar growth, trace element accumulation and root traits were investigated. ► Survival and growth were comparable to commercial plantations. ► Root growth was nearly unaffected by the contaminants. ► Adaption

  3. Boron accumulation and tolerance of hybrid poplars grown on a B-laden mixed paper mill waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.rees@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich, Universitätsstrasse 16, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Robinson, Brett H., E-mail: Brett.Robinson@lincoln.ac.nz [Soil and Physical Sciences, Burns 222, P. O. Box 84, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch (New Zealand); Rog, Christopher J., E-mail: cjrog@sand-creek.com [Sand Creek Consultants, Inc., P.O. Box 1512, 16 Randall Ave., Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States); Papritz, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.papritz@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich, Universitätsstrasse 16, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Schulin, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.schulin@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zürich, Universitätsstrasse 16, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-03-01

    Paper mill wastes are a mixture of by-products from pulp production and on-site energy production, consisting of paper mill sludge, ash and cinders. Landfilling of these highly boron (B) and heavy metal laden waste products carries environmental risks. Poplars have been successfully employed in the phytomanagement and hydraulic control of B contaminated sites. Here, we assess the performance of hybrid poplars on a paper-mill waste landfill, investigate the accumulation of B by the trees and explore the relationship between local-scale root growth and substrate properties. Leaf and root tissue samples were collected on three plots and analyzed for their chemical properties and root traits. Additionally, we sampled four soil cores in the vicinity of each of the trees and determined chemical and physical properties. Using a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, we identified three substrate types. This method delineated the soil effects on tree survival and growth, although correlations with individual soil element concentrations were weak. Despite signs of B toxicity in some leaves, B was not the key limiting factor for poplar growth. Instead, Ca deficiency caused by a Mg:Ca imbalance was the primary reason for the poor performance of some trees. Root growth was not limited by toxicity effects of soil contaminants. Our results show that hybrid poplars perform well under the harsh growing conditions on a multi-contaminated, B-laden substrate in a hemiboreal climate. Exploiting the differences in the performance of the four clones in relation to the soil types, could increase the success of revegetation on this and other landfills. - Highlights: ► We studied four hybrid poplar clones grown on a B-laden paper mill waste landfill. ► Poplar growth, trace element accumulation and root traits were investigated. ► Survival and growth were comparable to commercial plantations. ► Root growth was nearly unaffected by the contaminants. ► Adaption

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differentially affect the response to high zinc concentrations of two registered poplar clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingua, Guido; Franchin, Cinzia; Todeschini, Valeria; Castiglione, Stefano; Biondi, Stefania; Burlando, Bruno; Parravicini, Valerio; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Berta, Graziella

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a high concentration of zinc on two registered clones of poplar (Populus alba Villafranca and Populus nigra Jean Pourtet), inoculated or not with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae or Glomus intraradices) before transplanting them into polluted soil, were investigated, with special regard to the extent of root colonization by the fungi, plant growth, metal accumulation in the different plant organs, and leaf polyamine concentration. Zinc accumulation was lower in Jean Pourtet than in Villafranca poplars, and it was mainly translocated to the leaves; the metal inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, compromised plant growth, and, in Villafranca, altered the putrescine profile in the leaves. Most of these effects were reversed or reduced in plants pre-inoculated with G. mosseae. Results indicate that poplars are suitable for phytoremediation purposes, confirming that mycorrhizal fungi can be useful for phytoremediation, and underscore the importance of appropriate combinations of plant genotypes and fungal symbionts. - Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can improve poplar tolerance to heavy metals in phytoremediation programmes

  5. Boron accumulation and tolerance of hybrid poplars grown on a B-laden mixed paper mill waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Rog, Christopher J; Papritz, Andreas; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-03-01

    Paper mill wastes are a mixture of by-products from pulp production and on-site energy production, consisting of paper mill sludge, ash and cinders. Landfilling of these highly boron (B) and heavy metal laden waste products carries environmental risks. Poplars have been successfully employed in the phytomanagement and hydraulic control of B contaminated sites. Here, we assess the performance of hybrid poplars on a paper-mill waste landfill, investigate the accumulation of B by the trees and explore the relationship between local-scale root growth and substrate properties. Leaf and root tissue samples were collected on three plots and analyzed for their chemical properties and root traits. Additionally, we sampled four soil cores in the vicinity of each of the trees and determined chemical and physical properties. Using a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, we identified three substrate types. This method delineated the soil effects on tree survival and growth, although correlations with individual soil element concentrations were weak. Despite signs of B toxicity in some leaves, B was not the key limiting factor for poplar growth. Instead, Ca deficiency caused by a Mg:Ca imbalance was the primary reason for the poor performance of some trees. Root growth was not limited by toxicity effects of soil contaminants. Our results show that hybrid poplars perform well under the harsh growing conditions on a multi-contaminated, B-laden substrate in a hemiboreal climate. Exploiting the differences in the performance of the four clones in relation to the soil types, could increase the success of revegetation on this and other landfills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [SSR analysis on stress effect of transgenic hybrid poplar 741 on Clostera anachoreta (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun Xia; Song, Xiao Ying; Jiang, Wen Hu; Zhou, Guo Na; Gao, Bao Jia

    2016-12-01

    The genetic differentiation of the experimental population of Clostera anachoreta fed on different resistant transgenic 741 poplar leaves was analyzed by SSR molecular marker technique to investigate stress effect of transgenic poplar Bt gene as food on target insect. The experimental population of C. anachoreta fed on transgenic 741 poplar high resistant strains 'Pb29', medium resis-tant strains 'Pb17' and non-transgenic poplar (CK), and the screened ten pairs of SSR primers were used. The results showed that 76 alleles were observed in ten pairs of primers. The average allele was 7.6, the average effective number of alleles was 2.2, the average observed heterozygosity was 0.5167, the average expected heterozygosity was 0.5167, and the average percentage of polymorphic loci was 96.7%. The genetic diversity level of C. anachoreta experimental population fed on transgenic poplar 741 was significantly higher than that fed on non-transgenic populations, and C. anachoreta fed on high resistance had the lowest genetic similarity with CK samples, which showed an increasing trend of the genetic diversity of the experimental population fed on transgenic Bt poplar. It was thus clear that transgenic hybrid poplar 741 had stress effects on genetic differentiation of C. anachoreta experimental population by SSR.

  7. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.

  8. Influence of brick air scrubber by-product on growth and development of corn and hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carla N; Bauerle, William L; Owino, Tom O; Chastain, John P; Klaine, Stephen J

    2007-03-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of spent reagent from air pollution control scrubbers used at a brick manufacturing facility on emergence, growth, and physiological responses of corn and hybrid poplar plants. Scrubber by-product was obtained from General Shale Brick, Louisville, KY. Potting substrate was weighed and quantities of scrubber by-product were added to the substrate to obtain treatments of 0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% scrubber by-product (w:w) for the corn study. Each treatment mix was potted into nine replicate polyethylene pots and four corn seeds were sown per pot. The pots were randomized in a greenhouse at Clemson University and the number of seedlings emerging from each treatment, dark-adapted leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence, and shoot heights were measured at the end of a 21-day growth period. Then, dry shoot biomass was determined for plants from each treatment and plant tissues were analyzed for selected constituents. For the poplar study, nine-inch cuttings of hybrid poplar clone 15-29 (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) and clone OP367 (P. deltoides x P. nigra) were planted in treatments of scrubber by-product-potting soil mixes of 0% , 5% , 10% , and 25% w:w. Leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured over six weeks and cumulative leaf area, dry biomass, and nutrient content of tissues were determined upon harvest. Results of these studies indicate that percent seedling emergence for corn plants decreased with increasing scrubber by-product application rates. Application rates up to 12.5% scrubber by-product w:w had no adverse effect on corn seedling emergence. Shoot elongation, biomass production, and the status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the seedlings were also not severely impaired at applications below this level. A critical value of 58.2% w:w scrubber by-product was estimated to cause 25% inhibition of seedling emergence. Biomass production, cumulative leaf area, and chlorophyll a fluorescence of

  9. Albedo of a hybrid poplar plantation in central Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D. T.; Bernier, P. Y.; Orchansky, A.; Thomas, B.

    2012-04-01

    Canada's boreal forest resources are coming under increasing pressure from competing land-uses, including establishment of protected areas, and losses of harvestable forest to mining and oil and gas exploration. In the prairie region, concerns about lack of wood supply for pulpmills and potential opportunities for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation, have spurred interest in afforestation of marginal agricultural land, notably with fast-growing hybrid poplars (HP). However, global modelling studies suggest that a shift from grassland or crops to forest cover in temperate and boreal regions could result in reduced surface albedo, particularly in winter, causing an increase in radiative forcing and reducing any climate mitigation benefits due to net GHG removal. We report on seven growing seasons of measurements of short-wave canopy albedo using tower-mounted instruments, along with eddy covariance measurements of carbon, water and energy balance, at a site in central Alberta planted with HP cuttings in spring 2005. The data show little systematic change in average albedo as vegetation has changed from bare ground to a plantation of 6 m trees. Reasons for this include very wide (3 m) spacing between the trees, and snow cover which often persists for 4-5 months and is highly visible below the bare canopies during winter. While measurements should continue as the trees grow larger, we postulate that extensive afforestation with HP is unlikely to have major effects on regional-scale surface albedo compared to the agricultural systems they replace. Normal rotation lengths are 15-20 years, hence even if older plantations have significantly lower winter albedo, their contribution to the regional average would be relatively small because they will cover only a small fraction of the landscape (e.g., compared to forests of boreal conifers or temperate broadleaved species).

  10. Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Hybrid Poplar Populus davidiana Dode × Populus bollena Lauche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar is a model organism for high in vitro regeneration in woody plants. We have chosen a hybrid poplar Populus davidiana Dode × Populus bollena Lauche. By optimizing the Murashige and Skoog medium with (0.3 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and (0.08 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid, we have achieved the highest frequency (90% for shoot regeneration from poplar leaves. It was also important to improve the transformation efficiency of poplar for genetic breeding and other applications. In this study, we found a significant improvement of the transformation frequency by controlling the leaf age. Transformation efficiency was enhanced by optimizing the Agrobacterium concentration (OD600 = 0.8–1.0 and an infection time (20–30 min. According to transmission electron microscopy observations, there were more Agrobacterium invasions in the 30-day-old leaf explants than in 60-day-old and 90-day-old explants. Using the green fluorescent protein (GFP marker, the expression of MD–GFP fusion proteins in the leaf, shoot, and root of hybrid poplar P. davidiana Dode × P. bollena Lauche was visualized for confirmation of transgene integration. Southern and Northern blot analysis also showed the integration of T-DNA into the genome and gene expression of transgenic plants. Our results suggest that younger leaves had higher transformation efficiency (~30% than older leaves (10%.

  11. Gaseous NO2 effects on stomatal behavior, photosynthesis and respiration of hybrid poplar leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used poplar as a model plant and investigated the effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2, 4 microliter per liter) on stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, dark- and photorespiration of Populus alba x Populus berolinensis hybrid leaves using the photosynthesis system and scanning...

  12. Fiber Recovery with Chain Flail Delimbing/Debarking and Chipping of Hybrid Poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Hartsough; Raffaele Spinelli; Steve Pottle; John Klepac

    2000-01-01

    This study determined how much wood was potentially available From short rotation hybrid poplar, and how mtich was actually recovered when trees were delimbed and debarked with chain flails and chipped. 3 1 groups of five trees each were measured and then processed. For trees larger than 50 kg total dry weight, potentially recoverable wood averaged 75% oftotal weight...

  13. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics in hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, J.; Knight, J.D.; Van Rees, K.C.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

    2006-07-01

    The biological remediation of contaminated soils using plants was discussed. Hybrid poplars are good candidates for phytoremediation because they root deeply, cycle large amounts of water and grow quickly. Their fine root system is pivotal in nutrient and water acquisition. Therefore, in order to maximize the phytoremediation potential, it is important to understand the response of the fine root system. In addition to degrading organic chemicals, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi provide the host with greater access to nutrients. This study determined the relationship between residual soil hydrocarbons and soil properties at a field site. The effects of residual contamination on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics was also examined along with the effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics when grown in diesel contaminated soil under controlled conditions. A minirhizotron camera inside a growth chamber captured images of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root production. Walker hybrid poplar seedlings were grown for 12 weeks in a control soil and also in a diesel contaminated soil. Seedlings were also grown in control and diesel contaminated, ectomycorrhizal inoculated soils. The inoculum was a mycorrhizal mix containing Pisolithus tinctorius and Rhizopogon spp. The images showed that colonization by ECM fungi increased hybrid poplar fine root production and aboveground biomass in a diesel contaminated soil compared to non-colonized trees in the same soil. Root:shoot ratios were much higher in the diesel contaminated/non-inoculated treatment than in either of the control soil treatments. Results of phytoremediation in diesel contaminated soil were better in the non-colonized treatment than in the colonized treatment. Both treatments removed more contaminants from the soil than the unplanted control. Much higher quantities of hydrocarbons were found sequestered in the roots from the inoculated treatment than from the non

  14. Isoprene biosynthesis in hybrid poplar impacts ozone tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, K.; Kleist, E.; Uerlings, R.; Wildt, J.; Rennenberg, H.; Schnitzler, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    Isoprene is the most abundant volatile compound emitted by vegetation. It influences air chemistry and is thought to take part in plant defense reactions against abiotic stress such as high temperature or ozone. However, whether or not isoprene emission interacts with ozone tolerance of plants is still in discussion. We exploited transgenic non-isoprene emitting Grey poplar (Populus x canescens) in a biochemical and physiological model study to investigate the effect of acute ozone stress on the elicitation of defense-related emissions of plant volatiles, photosynthesis and the antioxidative system. We recorded that non-isoprene emitting poplars are more resistant to ozone as indicated by less damaged leaf area and higher assimilation rates compared to ozone-exposed wild type plants. The integral of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions was different between the two poplar phenotypes and a reliable early marker for subsequent leaf damage. For other stress-induced volatiles like mono-, homo-, and sesquiterpenes, and methyl salicylate similar time profiles, pattern and emission intensities were observed in both transgenic and wild type plants. However, un-stressed non-isoprene emitting poplars are characterized by elevated levels of ascorbate and α-tocopherol as well as a more effective de-epoxidation ratio of xanthophylls than in wild type plants. Since ozone quenching properties of ascorbate are much higher than those of isoprene and furthermore α-tocopherol also is an essential antioxidant, non-isoprene emitting poplars might benefit from changes within the antioxidative system by providing them with enhanced ozone tolerance.

  15. Hydroponic screening for metal resistance and accumulation of cadmium and zinc in twenty clones of willows and poplars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Utmazian, Maria Noel dos; Wieshammer, Gerlinde; Vega, Rosa; Wenzel, Walter W.

    2007-01-01

    We screened 20 different clones of willow and poplar species in hydroponic experiments for their metal resistance and accumulation properties. Plants were exposed for 4 weeks either to single additions of (μM) 4.45 Cd or 76.5 Zn, or a metal cocktail containing the same amounts of Cd and Zn along with 7.87 Cu and 24.1 Pb. Plant biomass, metal tolerance and metal accumulation pattern in roots and leaves varied greatly between clones. The leaf:root ratio of metal concentrations was clearly underestimated compared to soil experiments. The largest metal concentrations in leaves were detected in Salix dasyclados (315 mg Cd kg -1 d.m.) and a Salix smithiana clone (3180 mg Zn kg -1 d.m.) but these species showed low metal tolerance. In spite of smaller Cd and Zn concentrations, the metal-tolerant clones Salix matsudana, Salix fragilis-1, and Salix purpurea-1 hold promise for phytoextraction as they produced large biomass and metal contents in leaves. - Hydroponically grown willows and poplar clones accumulate up to (mg kg -1 d.w.) 315 Cd and 3180 Zn in leaves

  16. Hydroponic screening for metal resistance and accumulation of cadmium and zinc in twenty clones of willows and poplars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Utmazian, Maria Noel dos [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wieshammer, Gerlinde [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Vega, Rosa [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wenzel, Walter W. [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: walter.wenzel@boku.ac.at

    2007-07-15

    We screened 20 different clones of willow and poplar species in hydroponic experiments for their metal resistance and accumulation properties. Plants were exposed for 4 weeks either to single additions of ({mu}M) 4.45 Cd or 76.5 Zn, or a metal cocktail containing the same amounts of Cd and Zn along with 7.87 Cu and 24.1 Pb. Plant biomass, metal tolerance and metal accumulation pattern in roots and leaves varied greatly between clones. The leaf:root ratio of metal concentrations was clearly underestimated compared to soil experiments. The largest metal concentrations in leaves were detected in Salix dasyclados (315 mg Cd kg{sup -1} d.m.) and a Salix smithiana clone (3180 mg Zn kg{sup -1} d.m.) but these species showed low metal tolerance. In spite of smaller Cd and Zn concentrations, the metal-tolerant clones Salix matsudana, Salix fragilis-1, and Salix purpurea-1 hold promise for phytoextraction as they produced large biomass and metal contents in leaves. - Hydroponically grown willows and poplar clones accumulate up to (mg kg{sup -1} d.w.) 315 Cd and 3180 Zn in leaves.

  17. Productivitatea clonelor de plop hibrid instalate în culturi intensive în nord-estul României [ Poplar clones productivity managed for biomass production in North-Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănilă I.C.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poplar (Populus spp. is a fast-growing species in temperate conditions, with potential to substitute fossil fuels by obtaining energy from biomass. The aim of this work was to study the productivity of 6 hybrid poplar clone from a hilly region of NE Romania, after a growing season of 4 and, respectively, 5 years. Rods were used as planting material, planted at a density of 2667 trees per ha, with between-row spacing of 3 m and interior-row distances of 1.25 m. Generally, significant differences appear between clones, for all analysed biometric characteristics (p≤0.05. Results show that, in the fifth growing season, diameter increases on average with 15.1%, reaching 11.89 cm, height increases in average with 13.9%, reaching 11.89 m, and volume increases with 33.3%, reaching 0.172 m3. The total biomass after 4 years vegetation varies from 32.8 t/ha to 39.4 t/ha, and after 5 years from 47.7 t/ha to 60.2 t/ha, having an average increase in the latest growing season of 35% and an average yield of 11.3 t/ha/year. The most productive clones in the given growing conditions and crop characteristics are the clone Pannonia after 4 growing seasons and the clone AF6 after 5 years.

  18. Exploring the Role of Plant Genetics to Enhance Soil Carbon Sequestration in Hybrid Poplar Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Garten, C. T.; Classen, A. T.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased in recent decades and are projected to increase even further during the coming century. These projections have prompted scientists and policy-makers to consider how plants and soils can be used to stabilize CO2 concentrations. Although storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems represents an attractive near-term option for mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, enhancing the sequestration potential of managed systems will require advancements in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that control rates of carbon transfer and turnover in plants and soils. To address this challenge, a mathematical model was constructed to evaluate how changes in particular plant traits and management practices could affect soil carbon storage beneath hybrid poplar (Populus) plantations. The model was built from four sub-models that describe aboveground biomass, root biomass, soil carbon dynamics, and soil nitrogen transformations for trees growing throughout a user-defined rotation. Simulations could be run over one or multiple rotations. A sensitivity analysis of the model indicated changes in soil carbon storage were affected by variables that could be linked to hybrid poplar traits like rates of aboveground production, partitioning of carbon to coarse and fine roots, and rates of root decomposition. A higher ratio of belowground to aboveground production was especially important and correlated directly with increased soil carbon storage. Faster decomposition rates for coarse and fine dead roots resulted in a greater loss of carbon to the atmosphere as CO2 and less residual organic carbon for transfer to the fast soil carbon pool. Hence, changes in root chemistry that prolonged dead root decomposition rates, a trait that is under potential genetic control, were predicted to increase soil carbon storage via higher soil carbon inputs. Nitrogen limitation of both aboveground biomass production and soil carbon sequestration was

  19. Environmental benefits of cropland conversion to hybrid poplar: economic and policy considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Updegraff, K.; Baughman, M.J.; Taff, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate environmental benefits that might accrue from conversion of farmland to short-rotation woody crops (SRWC), a hypothetical conversion of 10%, 20% and 30% of cropland was modeled in a watershed of the Lower Minnesota River. The analysis synthesized output from a watershed model (ADAPT) with literature-based estimates of productivity and economic values for water quality, forest conservation and carbon sequestration. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to estimate ranges of environmental benefit values for cropland conversion to SRWCS. The summed average net benefits justified annual public subsidies ranging from $44 to 596 ha -1 , depending on market scenario and conversion level. Cropland conversion to SRWCs reduced cumulative annual stream flows, sediment and nitrogen loadings by up to 9%, 28% and 15%, respectively. Reduced sediment loads resulted in potential average annual public savings on culvert and ditch maintenance costs of $9.37 Mg -1 of sediment not delivered to the watershed outlet. Hybrid poplars over a 5-year rotation produced an estimated annual economic value due to carbon sequestration of $13-15 ha -1 when used for bioenergy and $29-33 ha -1 (depending on conversion rate) when converted to wood products. If hybrid poplars are substituted for aspen traditionally harvested from natural woodlands, the poplars create annual forest preservation values of $4.79-5.44 ha -1 . (author)

  20. Fiber length and pulping characteristics of switchgrass, alfalfa stems, hybrid poplar and willow biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), alfalfa stems (Medicago sativa), second year growth hybrid poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix spp.) were examined to determine fiber characteristics, pulping behavior and paper properties. Alfalfa stems and switchgrass both showed length weighted average fiber length (LWW) of 0.78 mm, a very narrow fiber length distribution and high fines content. Willow and hybrid poplar have lower fines content but a very low average fiber length (0.42 and 0.48 mm LWW). In addition, the four biomass species showed distinctly different chemical compositions. Switchgrass was defibered successfully using Soda and Soda Anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and demonstrated good paper properties. Both fast-growing wood species pulped well using the Kraft process, and showed acceptable tensile strength, but low tear strength. Alfalfa stems reacted very poorly to Soda and Soda AQ pulping but responded well to Kraft and Kraft AQ. Pulps with tensile and tear strength considerably higher than those found for commercial aspen pulps were observed for alfalfa. All four biomass species examined demonstrated low pulp yield. The highest yields were obtained with poplar and switchgrass (around 43%). Considering the short fibers and low yields, all four biomass types will likely only be used in paper manufacturing if they offer considerable economic advantage over traditional pulp wood.

  1. Engineering functional artificial hybrid proteins between poplar peroxiredoxin II and glutaredoxin or thioredoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhier, Nicolas; Gama, Filipe; Wingsle, Gunnar; Gelhaye, Eric; Gans, Pierre; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The existence of natural peroxiredoxin-glutaredoxin hybrid enzymes in several bacteria is in line with previous findings indicating that poplar peroxiredoxin II can use glutaredoxin as an electron donor. This peroxiredoxin remains however unique since it also uses thioredoxin with a quite good efficiency. Based on the existing fusions, we have created artificial enzymes containing a poplar peroxiredoxin module linked to glutaredoxin or thioredoxin modules. The recombinant fusion enzymes folded properly into non-covalently bound homodimers or homotetramers. Two of the three protein constructs exhibit peroxidase activity, a reaction where the two modules need to function together, but they also display enzymatic activities specific of each module. In addition, mass spectrometry analyses indicate that the Prx module can be both glutathiolated or overoxidized in vitro. This is discussed in the light of the Prx reactivity

  2. Biochemical response of hybrid black poplar tissue culture (Populus × canadensis) on water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, B M; Štajner, D; Ždero-Pavlović, R; Tari, I; Csiszár, J; Gallé, Á; Poór, P; Galović, V; Trudić, B; Orlović, S

    2017-05-01

    In this study, poplar tissue culture (hybrid black poplar, M1 genotype) was subjected to water stress influenced by polyethyleneglycol 6000 (100 and 200 mOsm PEG 6000). The aim of the research was to investigate the biochemical response of poplar tissue culture on water deficit regime. Antioxidant status was analyzed including antioxidant enzymes, superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guiacol-peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-reductase, reduced glutathione, total phenol content, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH radical antioxidant power. Polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine-ammonium-lyase were determined as enzymatic markers of polyphenol metabolism. Among oxidative stress parameters lipid peroxidation, carbonyl-proteins, hydrogen-peroxide, reactive oxygen species, nitric-oxide and peroxynitrite were determined. Proline, proline-dehydrogenase and glycinebetaine were measured also as parameters of water stress. Cell viability is finally determined as a biological indicator of osmotic stress. It was found that water stress induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation in leaves of hybrid black poplar and reduced cell viability. Antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GPx, CAT and GSH-Px were induced but total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were reduced by PEG 6000 mediated osmotic stress. The highest biochemical response and adaptive reaction was the increase of proline and GB especially by 200 mOsm PEG. While long term molecular analysis will be necessary to fully address the poplar potentials for water stress adaptation, our results on hybrid black poplar suggest that glycine-betaine, proline and PDH enzyme might be the most important markers of poplar on water stress and that future efforts should be focused on these markers and strategies to enhance their concentration in poplar.

  3. Genetic origin and composition of a natural hybrid poplar Populus???jrtyschensis from two distantly related species

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Dechun; Feng, Jianju; Dong, Miao; Wu, Guili; Mao, Kangshan; Liu, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    Background The factors that contribute to and maintain hybrid zones between distinct species are highly variable, depending on hybrid origins, frequencies and fitness. In this study, we aimed to examine genetic origins, compositions and possible maintenance of Populus???jrtyschensis, an assumed natural hybrid between two distantly related species. This hybrid poplar occurs mainly on the floodplains along the river valleys between the overlapping distributions of the two putative parents. Resu...

  4. Thaumatin-like proteins are differentially expressed and localized in phloem tissues of hybrid poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafoe Nicole J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs were previously identified in phloem exudate of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides using proteomics methods, and their sieve element localization confirmed by immunofluorescence. In the current study, we analyzed different tissues to further understand TLP expression and localization in poplar, and used immunogold labelling to determine intracellular localization. Results Immunofluorescence using a TLP antiserum confirmed the presence of TLP in punctate, organelle-like structures within sieve elements. On western blots, the antiserum labeled two constitutively expressed proteins with distinct expression patterns. Immunogold labelling suggested that TLPs are associated with starch granules and starch-containing plastids in sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells. In addition, the antiserum recognized TLPs in the inner cell wall and sieve plate region of sieve elements. Conclusions TLP localization in poplar cells and tissues is complex. TLP1 is expressed predominantly in tissues with a prominent vascular system such as midveins, petioles and stems, whereas the second TLP is primarily expressed in starch-storing plastids found in young leaves and the shoot apex.

  5. Ozone Sensitivity in Hybrid Poplar Correlates with Insensitivity to Both Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid. The Role of Programmed Cell Death in Lesion Formation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jennifer Riehl; Creelman, Robert A.; Eshita, Steven M.; Seskar, Mirjana; Mullet, John E.; Davis, Keith R.

    2000-01-01

    Our earlier studies demonstrated that the ozone-sensitive hybrid poplar clone NE-388 displays an attenuated level of ozone-, wound-, and phytopathogen-induced defense gene expression. To determine if this reduced gene activation involves signal transduction pathways dependent on salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA), we compared the responses of NE-388 and an ozone-tolerant clone, NE-245, to these signal molecules. JA levels increased in both clones in response to ozone, but only minimal increases in SA levels were measured for either clone. Treatment with SA and methyl jasmonate induced defense gene expression only in NE-245, indicating that NE-388 is insensitive to these signal molecules. DNA fragmentation, an indicator of programmed cell death (PCD), was detected in NE-245 treated with either ozone or an avirulent phytopathogen, but was not detected in NE-388. We conclude that these clones undergo two distinct mechanisms of ozone-induced lesion formation. In NE-388, lesions appear to be due to toxic cell death resulting from a limited ability to perceive and subsequently activate SA- and/or JA-mediated antioxidant defense responses. In NE-245, SA-dependent PCD precedes lesion formation via a process related to the PCD pathway activated by phytopathogenic bacteria. These results support the hypothesis that ozone triggers a hypersensitive response. PMID:10859179

  6. Ozone sensitivity in hybrid poplar correlates with insensitivity to both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The role of programmed cell death in lesion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J R; Creelman, R A; Eshita, S M; Seskar, M; Mullet, J E; Davis, K R

    2000-06-01

    Our earlier studies demonstrated that the ozone-sensitive hybrid poplar clone NE-388 displays an attenuated level of ozone-, wound-, and phytopathogen-induced defense gene expression. To determine if this reduced gene activation involves signal transduction pathways dependent on salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA), we compared the responses of NE-388 and an ozone-tolerant clone, NE-245, to these signal molecules. JA levels increased in both clones in response to ozone, but only minimal increases in SA levels were measured for either clone. Treatment with SA and methyl jasmonate induced defense gene expression only in NE-245, indicating that NE-388 is insensitive to these signal molecules. DNA fragmentation, an indicator of programmed cell death (PCD), was detected in NE-245 treated with either ozone or an avirulent phytopathogen, but was not detected in NE-388. We conclude that these clones undergo two distinct mechanisms of ozone-induced lesion formation. In NE-388, lesions appear to be due to toxic cell death resulting from a limited ability to perceive and subsequently activate SA- and/or JA-mediated antioxidant defense responses. In NE-245, SA-dependent PCD precedes lesion formation via a process related to the PCD pathway activated by phytopathogenic bacteria. These results support the hypothesis that ozone triggers a hypersensitive response.

  7. AFLP analysis and improved phytoextraction capacity of transgenic gshI-poplar clones (Populus x canescens L.) for copper in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulai, G. [St. Stephanus Univ., Dept. of Genetics and PB (Hungary); HAS-SIU Research Group for Molecular Plant Breeding (Hungary); IGER, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom); Humphreys, M.; Skoet, K.; Skoet, L.; Heywood, S.; Lovatt, A.; Roderick, H.; Abberton, M. [IGER, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom); Bittsanszky, A.; Kiss, J.; Szabo, Z. [St. Stephanus Univ., Dept. of Genetics and PB (Hungary); Gullner, G.; Koemives, T. [Plant Protection Inst., Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Radimszky, L. [Soil Science Inst., Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Rennenberg, H. [Albert-Ludwigs-Univ., Inst. fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie, Freiburg (Germany); Heszky, L. [St. Stephanus Univ., Dept. of Genetics and PB (Hungary); HAS-SIU Research Group for Molecular Plant Breeding (Hungary)

    2005-04-01

    Clone stability and in vitro phytoextraction capacity of vegetative clones of P. x canescens (2n = 4x = 38) including two transgenic clones (ggs11 and lgl6) were studied as in vitro leaf disc cultures. Presence of the gshI-transgene in the transformed clones was detected in PCR reactions using gshI-specific primers. Clone stability was determined by fAFLP (fluorescent amplified DNA fragment length polymorphism) analysis. In total, 682 AFLP fragments were identified generated by twelve selective primer pairs after EcoRI-MseI digestion. Four fragments generated by EcoAGT-MseCCC were different (99.4% genetic similarity) which proves an unexpectedly low bud mutation frequency in P. x canescens. For the study of phytoextraction capacity leaf discs (8 mm) were exposed to a concentration series of ZnSO{sub 4} (10{sup -1} to 10{sup -5} M) incubated for 21 days on aseptic tissue culture media WPM containing 1 {mu}M Cu. ZN{sup 2+} caused phytotoxicity only at high concentrations (10{sup -1} to 10{sup -2} M). The transgenic poplar cyt-ECS (ggs11) clone, as stimulated by the presence of Zn, showed elevated heavy metal (Cu) uptake as compared to the non-transformed clone. These results suggest that gshI-transgenic poplars may be suitable for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with zinc and copper. (orig.)

  8. Clonal variation in survival and growth of hybrid poplar and willow in an in situ trial on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Joshua Kunzman; Chris J. Rog; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2005-01-01

    Species and hybrids between species belonging to the genera Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) have been used successfully for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate the potential for establishing genotypes of poplar and willow on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and 2)...

  9. Initial spacing of poplars and willows grown as arable coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, A.; Johns, C.

    1997-11-01

    Two clones of poplar and two clones of willow were grown at two sites, on a three year cutting cycle, at six different square spacings, between 0.8 metres and 1.5 metres. The two willow clones 'Bowles hybrid' and 'Dasyclados' were planted at both sites. The poplar clones Populus interamericana 'Beaupre' and Populus trichocarpa 'Columbia River'' were planted at Wishanger in Hampshire. The poplar clones Populus interamericana 'Boelare' and Populus trichocarpa 'Trichobel' were planted at Downham Market in Norfolk. The highest yield of 17.55 oven dry tonnes per hectare (odt/ha/annum) was obtained from 'Bowles hybrid', at the closest spacing, grown on a water meadow adjacent to the River Wey at Wishanger. The highest yield for all clones at both sites was achieved at the closest spacing (in this first rotation). There was a significant linear effect. One of the most interesting observations was that when comparing the gradient of the linear relationship, within species, the gradient was steeper for the higher yielding clone. This was particularly so for the willows. This would suggest that higher yielding clones are more tolerant of crowding, or, that upright Salix viminalis make better use of close space than the more spreading Salix dasyclados. The new Salix x Salix schwerinnii hybrids should therefore also be responsive to closer spacing. The same effect was observed for the poplars at Wishanger only, but the difference was not as dramatic. There was a suggestion from the highest yielding poplar plots that optimum yield may still be obtained at the currently recommended spacing of 1.0 metre x 1.0 metre. (author)

  10. Evaluation of interspecific DNA variability in poplars using AFLP and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to examine interspecific DNA variation in poplars using AFLP and SSR markers. The AFLP and SSR markers polymorphism and its power of discrimination were determined within 13 genotypes of different genetic background (clones, cultivars, hybrids) of two sections (Aigeiros and ...

  11. Microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, differentiation, and genetic relationships of clones, cultivars, and varieties of six poplar species from three sections of the genus Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad H; Rajora, Om P

    2002-12-01

    Accurate identification of Populus clones and cultivars is essential for effective selection, breeding, and genetic resource management programs. The unit of cultivation and breeding in poplars is a clone, and individual cultivars are normally represented by a single clone. Microsatellite DNA markers of 10 simple sequence repeat loci were used for genetic fingerprinting and differentiation of 96 clones/cultivars and varieties belonging to six Populus species (P. deltoides, P. nigra, P. balsamifera, P. trichocarpa, P. grandidentata, and P maximowiczii) from three sections of the genus. All 96 clones/cultivars could be uniquely fingerprinted based on their single- or multilocus microsatellite genotypes. The five P. grandidentata clones could be differentiated based on their single-locus genotypes, while six clones of P. trichocarpa and 11 clones of P. maximowiczii could be identified by their two-locus genotypes. Twenty clones of P. deltoides and 25 clones of P. nigra could be differentiated by their multilocus genotypes employing three loci, and 29 clones of P. balsamifera required the use of multilocus genotypes at five loci for their genetic fingerprinting and differentiation. The loci PTR3, PTR5, and PTR7 were found to be the most informative for genetic fingerprinting and differentiation of the clones. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 2.9 in P. trichocarpa or P. grandidentata to 6.0 in P. balsamifera and 11.2 in 96 clones of the six species. The mean number of observed genotypes per locus ranged from 2.4 in P. grandidentata to 7.4 in P. balsamifera and 19.6 in 96 clones of the six species. The mean number of unique genotypes per locus ranged from 1.3 in P. grandidentata to 3.9 in P. deltoides and 8.8 in 96 clones of the six species. The power of discrimination of the microsatellite DNA markers in the 96 clones ranged from 0.726 for PTR4 to 0.939 for PTR7, with a mean of 0.832 over the 10 simple sequence repeat loci. Clones/cultivars from the same

  12. Fly Ash and Composted Biosolids as a Source of Fe for Hybrid Poplar: A Greenhouse Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lombard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils of northwest New Mexico have an elevated pH and CaCO3 content that reduces Fe solubility, causes chlorosis, and reduces crop yields. Could biosolids and fly ash, enriched with Fe, provide safe alternatives to expensive Fe EDDHA (sodium ferric ethylenediamine di-(o-hydroxyphenyl-acetate fertilizers applied to Populus hybrid plots? Hybrid OP-367 was cultivated on a Doak sandy loam soil amended with composted biosolids or fly ash at three agricultural rates. Fly ash and Fe EDDHA treatments received urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, biosolids, enriched with N, did not. Both amendments improved soil and plant Fe. Heavy metals were below EPA regulations, but high B levels were noted in leaves of trees treated at the highest fly ash rate. pH increased in fly ash soil while salinity increased in biosolids-treated soil. Chlorosis rankings improved in poplars amended with both byproducts, although composted biosolids offered the most potential at improving Fe/tree growth cheaply without the need for synthetic inputs.

  13. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F(sub 2) progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar

  14. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2001-06-20

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.

  15. Somatically segregating clone of apomictic maize-tripsacum hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, B.F.; Lukina, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of further study on clone AM-5, isolated in the progeny of γ-irradiated plants of the apomictic hybrid of maize with tripsacum (2n = 38) are reported. The variegated-leaf seedlings of the clone segregate somatically and produce variegated, mottled, green (phenotypically normal) plants in different ratios in the apomictic progenies. The variegated, and to a lesser degree, green segregants segregate further. The mottled apomictics as well as mottled branches of variegated seedlings maintain their phenotype on transplantation, however, these is a progressive enhancement of the characters of vegetative lethality. Lethals of two extra maize genomes to the AM-5 nucleus does not affect significantly the scope and nature of segregation. At the same time, the loss of tripsacum genome restores normal phenotype. Clone AM-5 is an example of hybrid apomictic form causing significant morphological variability, which is, nevertheless, not related with apomictic and reversion to the sexual process

  16. Genetic origin and composition of a natural hybrid poplar Populus × jrtyschensis from two distantly related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dechun; Feng, Jianju; Dong, Miao; Wu, Guili; Mao, Kangshan; Liu, Jianquan

    2016-04-18

    The factors that contribute to and maintain hybrid zones between distinct species are highly variable, depending on hybrid origins, frequencies and fitness. In this study, we aimed to examine genetic origins, compositions and possible maintenance of Populus × jrtyschensis, an assumed natural hybrid between two distantly related species. This hybrid poplar occurs mainly on the floodplains along the river valleys between the overlapping distributions of the two putative parents. We collected 566 individuals from 45 typical populations of P. × jrtyschensis, P. nigra and P. laurifolia. We genotyped them based on the sequence variations of one maternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragment and genetic polymorphisms at 20 SSR loci. We further sequenced eight nuclear genes for 168 individuals from 31 populations. Two groups of cpDNA haplotypes characteristic of P. nigra and P. laurifolia respectively were both recovered for P. × jrtyschensis. Genetic structures and coalescent tests of two sets of nuclear population genetic data suggested that P. × jrtyschensis originated from hybridizations between the two assumed parental species. All examined populations of P. × jrtyschensis comprise mainly F1 hybrids from interspecific hybridizations between P. nigra and P. laurifolia. In the habitats of P. × jrtyschensis, there are lower concentrations of soil nitrogen than in the habitats occupied by the other two species. Our extensive examination of the genetic composition of P. × jrtyschensis suggested that it is typical of F1-dominated hybrid zones. This finding plus the low concentration of soil nitrogen in the floodplain soils support the F1-dominated bounded hybrid superiority hypothesis of hybrid zone maintenance for this particular hybrid poplar.

  17. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m 3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m 3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  18. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, Lars [Section of Short Rotation Forestry, VPE, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m{sup 3} or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m{sup 3} or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  19. Enhancement of Lignin Biopolymer Isolation from Hybrid Poplar by Organosolv Pretreatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant renewable resource that has the potential to displace petroleum in the production of biomaterials and biofuels. In the present study, the fractionation of different lignin biopolymers from hybrid poplar based on organosolv pretreatments using 80% aqueous methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol at 220°C for 30 min was investigated. The isolated lignin fractions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results showed that the lignin fraction obtained with aqueous ethanol (EOL possessed the highest yield and the strongest thermal stability compared with other lignin fractions. In addition, other lignin fractions were almost absent of neutral sugars (1.16–1.46% though lignin preparation extracted with 1-butanol (BOL was incongruent (7.53%. 2D HSQC spectra analysis revealed that the four lignin fractions mainly consisted of β-O-4′ linkages combined with small amounts of β-β′ and β-5′ linkages. Furthermore, substitution of Cα in β-O-4′ substructures had occurred due to the effects of dissolvent during the autocatalyzed alcohol organosolv pretreatments. Therefore, aqueous ethanol was found to be the most promising alcoholic organic solvent compared with other alcohols to be used in noncatalyzed processes for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in biorefinery.

  20. Delimbing hybrid poplar prior to processing with a flail/chipper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Hartsough; Raffaele Spinelli; Steve Pottle

    2000-01-01

    We compared the performance of a flail/chipper for processing a) whole poplar trees and b) poplar trees that had been roughly delimbed with a pull-through delimber. Production rate was about 10% higher for the delimbed trees. The reduced cost of flail/chipping would not cover the additional cost of delimbing with the machine mix tested, but changes to equipment might...

  1. Spatial variability of soil carbon and nitrogen in two hybrid poplar-hay crop systems in southern Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Canadian agricultural operations contribute approximately 8% of national GHG emissions each year, mainly from fertilizers, enteric fermentation, and manure management (Environment Canada, 2010). With improved management of cropland and forests, it is possible to mitigate GHG emissions through carbon (C) sequestration while enhancing soil and crop productivity. Tree-based intercropped (TBI) systems, consisting of a fast-growing woody species such as poplar (Populus spp.) planted in widely-spaced rows with crops cultivated between tree rows, were one of the technologies prioritized for investigation by the Agreement for the Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Program (AAGGP), because fast growing trees can be a sink for atmospheric carbon-dioxide (CO2) as well as a long-term source of farm income (Montagnini and Nair, 2004). However, there are relatively few estimates of the C sequestration in the trees or due to tree inputs (e.g., fine root turnover, litterfall that gets incorporated into SOC), and hybrid poplars grow exponentially in the first 8-10 years after planting. With the current study, our objectives were (1) to evaluate spatial variation in soil C and nitrogen (N) storage, CO2 and nitrogen oxide (N20), and tree and crop productivity for two hybrid poplar-hay intercrop systems at year 9, comparing TBI vs. non-TBI systems, and (2) to evaluate TBI systems in the current context of C trading markets, which value C sequestration in trees, unharvested crop components, and soils of TBI systems. The study results will provide meaningful measures that indicate changes due to TBI systems in the short-term and in the long-term, in terms of GHG mitigation, enhanced soil and crop productivity, as well as the expected economic returns in TBI systems.

  2. Specific gravity of hybrid poplars in the north-central region, USA: within-tree variability and site × genotype effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Headlee; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Richard B. Hall; Edmund O. Bauer; Bradford Bender; Bruce A. Birr; Raymond O. Miller; Jesse A. Randall; Adam H. Wiese

    2013-01-01

    Specific gravity is an important consideration for traditional uses of hybrid poplars for pulp and solid wood products, as well as for biofuels and bioenergy production. While specific gravity has been shown to be under strong genetic control and subject to within-tree variability, the role of genotype × environment interactions is poorly understood. Most...

  3. The optimization of sewage sludge and effluent disposal on energy crops of short rotation hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, A.J.; Armstrong, A.T. [Forest Research, Farnham (United Kingdom); Ockleston, J. [Thames Water Utilities Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    An experiment was set up to test the effect of sewage sludge application and waste water irrigation on the biomass production of two poplar varieties, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides ''Beaupre'', and Populus trichocarpa ''Trichobel''. Three sludge applications were examined factorially with two irrigation regimes (with and without), over the two final years of a three-year rotation. The effects of treatment on soil and soil water were monitored, and the amount of heavy metals removed in the biomass was quantified. Irrigation had a significant effect on biomass of both poplar varieties, with Beaupre yielding more than Trichobel. Sludge application was not effective in increasing biomass yield, but the experiment was valuable in identifying that modest amounts of sludge (approximately 100 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) were acceptable environmentally and did not compromise biomass production. Cadmium uptake was detected in the poplar biomass, but the amounts were small and insufficient for poplar to be used in phytoremediation of metal-contaminated land. (author)

  4. A New Stem Taper Function for Short-rotation poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbrahim, Mohammed [INRA Centre de Bordeaux, Cestas (France). Unite de Recherches Forestieres; Gavaland, Andre [INRA Centre de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosane (France). Unite Agroforesterie et Foret Paysanne

    2003-07-01

    A new stem taper function was established for individual trees of two poplar hybrid clones grown on a short-rotation coppice. The model could be easily fitted and required three parameters to be estimated. It can be used to estimate both diameter at a given height and height for a given top diameter. Two of the three parameters controlled the conical and the neiloid parts of the stem. Significant differences in these parameters were observed between the two clones even if no differences were observed for diameter at breast height or total height of the stem. The model could not be integrated to calculate volumes (total volume, merchantable volume), which were estimated by numerical integration. However, use of this new model allows the optimal length of billets to be determined and thus maximizes the merchantable biomass of poplar in short-rotation coppice by minimizing the biomass of residues.

  5. Boron accumulation and toxicity in hybrid poplar (Populus nigra × euramericana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Menon, Manoj; Lehmann, Eberhard; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Schulin, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Here, we performed pot experiments in which Populus nigra × euramericana were grown on a substrate with B concentrations ranging from 13 to 280 mg kg(-1) as H(3)BO(3). Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinus albus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg(-1). Growth was progressively reduced at levels of 168 and 280 mg kg(-1). None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels. At leaf B concentrations toxicity. Neutron radiography revealed that chlorotic leaf tissues had B concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg(-1), while necrotic tissues had >2000 mg kg(-1). Average B concentrations of up to 3500 mg kg(-1) were found in leaves, while spots within leaves had concentrations >7000 mg kg(-1), showing that B accumulation in leaf tissue continued even after the onset of necrosis. The B accumulation ability of P. nigra × euramericana is associated with B hypertolerance in the living tissue and storage of B in dead leaf tissue.

  6. Isolation and Pathogenicity of Phytophthora Species from Poplar Plantations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milenković

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available During a survey in three declining and three healthy poplar plantations in Serbia, six different Phytophthora species were obtained. Phytophthora plurivora was the most common, followed by P. pini, P. polonica, P. lacustris, P. cactorum, and P. gonapodyides. Pathogenicity of all isolated species to four-month and one-year-old cuttings of Populus hybrid clones I-214 and Pánnonia, respectively, was tested using both a soil infestation and stem inoculation test. Isolates of P. polonica, P. × cambivora, P. cryptogea, and P. × serendipita from other host plants were included as a comparison. In the soil infestation test, the most aggressive species to clone I-214 were P. plurivora, P. × serendipita, and P. pini. On clone Pánnonia, P. gonapodyides and P. pini were the most aggressive, both causing 100% mortality, followed by P. cactorum, P. × cambivora, and P. polonica. In the underbark inoculation test, the susceptibility of both poplar clones to the different Phytophthora species was largely similar, as in the soil infestation test, with the exception of P. polonica, which proved to be only weakly pathogenic to poplar bark. The most aggressive species to clone I-214 was P. pini, while on clone Pánnonia, the longest lesions and highest disease incidence were caused by P. gonapodyides. Phytophthora cactorum and P. plurivora were pathogenic to both clones, whereas P. × cambivora showed only weak pathogenicity. The implications of these findings and possible pathways of dispersion of the pathogens are discussed.

  7. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džunková, Mária; D'Auria, Giuseppe; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb) cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs) with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  8. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Džunková

    Full Text Available Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  9. Fly Ash and Composted Bio solids as a Source of Fe for Hybrid Poplar: A Greenhouse Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, K.; O'Neill, M.; Ulery, A.; Mexal, J.; Sammis, T.; Onken, B.; Forster-Cox, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soils of northwest New Mexico have an elevated ph and CaCo 3 content that reduces Fe solubility, causes chlorosis, and reduces crop yields. Could bio solids and fly ash, enriched with Fe, provide safe alternatives to expensive Fe EDDHA (sodium ferric ethylenediamine di-(o-hydroxyphenyl-acetate)) fertilizers applied to Populus hybrid plots? Hybrid OP-367 was cultivated on a Doak sandy loam soil amended with composted bio solids or fly ash at three agricultural rates. Fly ash and Fe EDDHA treatments received urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), bio solids, enriched with N, did not. Both amendments improved soil and plant Fe. Heavy metals were below EPA regulations, but high B levels were noted in leaves of trees treated at the highest fly ash rate. ph increased in fly ash soil while salinity increased in bio solids-treated soil. Chlorosis rankings improved in poplars amended with both byproducts, although composted bio solids offered the most potential at improving Fe/tree growth cheaply without the need for synthetic inputs.

  10. Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  11. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots in the riparian zone on agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Julien; Truax, Benoit; Gagnon, Daniel; Lambert, France

    2015-05-01

    In many temperate agricultural areas, riparian forests have been converted to cultivated land, and only narrow strips of herbaceous vegetation now buffer many farm streams. The afforestation of these riparian zones has the potential to increase carbon (C) storage in agricultural landscapes by creating a new biomass sink for atmospheric CO2. Occurring at the same time, the storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant biomass, is an important water quality function that may greatly vary with types of riparian vegetation. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare C, N and P storage in aboveground, belowground and detrital biomass for three types of riparian vegetation cover (9-year-old hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots) across four agricultural sites and (2) to determine potential vegetation cover effects on soil nutrient supply rate in the riparian zone. Site level comparisons suggest that 9-year-old poplar buffers have stored 9-31 times more biomass C, 4-10 times more biomass N, and 3-7 times more biomass P than adjacent non managed herbaceous buffers, with the largest differences observed on the more fertile sites. The conversion of these herbaceous buffers to poplar buffers could respectively increase C, N and P storage in biomass by 3.2-11.9 t/ha/yr, 32-124 kg/ha/yr and 3.2-15.6 kg/ha/yr, over 9 years. Soil NO3 and P supply rates during the summer were respectively 57% and 66% lower in poplar buffers than in adjacent herbaceous buffers, potentially reflecting differences in nutrient storage and cycling between the two buffer types. Biomass C ranged 49-160 t/ha in woodlots, 33-110 t/ha in poplar buffers and 3-4 t/ha in herbaceous buffers. Similar biomass C stocks were found in the most productive poplar buffer and three of the four woodlots studied. Given their large and varied biomass C stocks, conservation of older riparian woodlots is equally important for C balance management in farmland. In addition, the

  12. Laboratory-scale measurements of N2O and CH4 emissions from hybrid poplars (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, M C; Warland, J S; McBride, R A; Wagner-Riddle, C

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not young hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) could transport landfill biogas internally from the root zone to the atmosphere, thereby acting as conduits for landfill gas release. Fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the seedlings to the atmosphere were measured under controlled conditions using dynamic flux chambers and a tunable diode laser trace gas analyser (TDLTGA). Nitrous oxide was emitted from the seedlings, but only when extremely high soil N2O concentrations were applied to the root zone. In contrast, no detectable emissions of CH4 were measured in a similar experimental trial. Visible plant morphological responses, characteristic of flood-tolerant trees attempting to cope with the negative effects of soil hypoxia, were observed during the CH4 experiments. Leaf chlorosis, leaf abscission and adventitious roots were all visible plant responses. In addition, seedling survival was observed to be highest in the biogas 'hot spot' areas of a local municipal solid waste landfill involved in this study. Based on the available literature, these observations suggest that CH4 can be transported internally by Populus deltoides x Populus nigra seedlings in trace amounts, although future research is required to fully test this hypothesis.

  13. A novel nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid clone formed via androgenesis in polyploid gibel carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unisexual vertebrates have been demonstrated to reproduce by gynogenesis, hybridogenesis, parthenogenesis, or kleptogenesis, however, it is uncertain how the reproduction mode contributes to the clonal diversity. Recently, polyploid gibel carp has been revealed to possess coexisting dual modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction and to have numerous various clones. Using sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male and subsequent 7 generation multiplying of unisexual gynogenesis, we have created a novel clone strain with more than several hundred millions of individuals. Here, we attempt to identify genetic background of the novel clone and to explore the significant implication for clonal diversity contribution. Methods Several nuclear genome markers and one cytoplasmic marker, the mitochondrial genome sequence, were used to identify the genetic organization of the randomly sampled individuals from different generations of the novel clone. Results Chromosome number, Cot-1 repetitive DNA banded karyotype, microsatellite patterns, AFLP profiles and transferrin alleles uniformly indicated that nuclear genome of the novel clone is identical to that of clone A, and significantly different from that of clone D. However, the cytoplasmic marker, its complete mtDNA genome sequence, is same to that of clone D, and different from that of clone A. Conclusions The present data indicate that the novel clone is a nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid between the known clones A and D, because it originates from the offspring of gonochoristic sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male, and contains an entire nuclear genome from the paternal clone A and a mtDNA genome (cytoplasm from the maternal clone D. It is suggested to arise via androgenesis by a mechanism of ploidy doubling of clone A sperm in clone D ooplasm through inhibiting the first mitotic division. Significantly, the selected nucleo

  14. A novel nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid clone formed via androgenesis in polyploid gibel carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Unisexual vertebrates have been demonstrated to reproduce by gynogenesis, hybridogenesis, parthenogenesis, or kleptogenesis, however, it is uncertain how the reproduction mode contributes to the clonal diversity. Recently, polyploid gibel carp has been revealed to possess coexisting dual modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction and to have numerous various clones. Using sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male and subsequent 7 generation multiplying of unisexual gynogenesis, we have created a novel clone strain with more than several hundred millions of individuals. Here, we attempt to identify genetic background of the novel clone and to explore the significant implication for clonal diversity contribution. Methods Several nuclear genome markers and one cytoplasmic marker, the mitochondrial genome sequence, were used to identify the genetic organization of the randomly sampled individuals from different generations of the novel clone. Results Chromosome number, Cot-1 repetitive DNA banded karyotype, microsatellite patterns, AFLP profiles and transferrin alleles uniformly indicated that nuclear genome of the novel clone is identical to that of clone A, and significantly different from that of clone D. However, the cytoplasmic marker, its complete mtDNA genome sequence, is same to that of clone D, and different from that of clone A. Conclusions The present data indicate that the novel clone is a nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid between the known clones A and D, because it originates from the offspring of gonochoristic sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male, and contains an entire nuclear genome from the paternal clone A and a mtDNA genome (cytoplasm) from the maternal clone D. It is suggested to arise via androgenesis by a mechanism of ploidy doubling of clone A sperm in clone D ooplasm through inhibiting the first mitotic division. Significantly, the selected nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid female

  15. Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.-B.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Zhang, W.-G.; Duan, L.-M.

    2015-07-01

    As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science.

  16. Plantation forestry under global warming: hybrid poplars with improved thermotolerance provide new insights on the in vivo function of small heat shock protein chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Irene; Contreras, Angela; Jing, Zhong-Ping; Gallardo, Fernando; Cánovas, Francisco M; Gómez, Luis

    2014-02-01

    Climate-driven heat stress is a key factor affecting forest plantation yields. While its effects are expected to worsen during this century, breeding more tolerant genotypes has proven elusive. We report here a substantial and durable increase in the thermotolerance of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×Populus alba) through overexpression of a major small heat shock protein (sHSP) with convenient features. Experimental evidence was obtained linking protective effects in the transgenic events with the unique chaperone activity of sHSPs. In addition, significant positive correlations were observed between phenotype strength and heterologous sHSP accumulation. The remarkable baseline levels of transgene product (up to 1.8% of total leaf protein) have not been reported in analogous studies with herbaceous species. As judged by protein analyses, such an accumulation is not matched either by endogenous sHSPs in both heat-stressed poplar plants and field-grown adult trees. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses supported these observations and allowed us to identify the poplar members most responsive to heat stress. Interestingly, sHSP overaccumulation was not associated with pleiotropic effects that might decrease yields. The poplar lines developed here also outperformed controls under in vitro and ex vitro culture conditions (callus biomass, shoot production, and ex vitro survival), even in the absence of thermal stress. These results reinforce the feasibility of improving valuable genotypes for plantation forestry, a field where in vitro recalcitrance, long breeding cycles, and other practical factors constrain conventional genetic approaches. They also provide new insights into the biological functions of the least understood family of heat shock protein chaperones.

  17. Hybrid times: theses on the temporalities of cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I focus on Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's notion of "historiality", which provides a specific epistemology of time that abandons ideas of 'origin', 'influence or of history as a continuous and cumulative development. It is used here to frame a brief historical analysis of the coexistence and interference of different concepts of cloning and related views on temporalities of the organisms as well as shifting temporal concepts in popular debates about the risks of life sciences in the 1970s.

  18. Selection of black poplars for water use efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Orlović Saša S.; Pajević Slobodanka P.; Krstić Borivoj Đ.

    2002-01-01

    Photosynthesis, transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE) and biomass production have been investigated in nine black poplar clones (section Aigeiros) in three field experiments. Eastern cottonwood clones (Populus deltoides) had the highest net photosynthesis and water use efficiency. European black poplar clones had the highest transpiration intensity. Correlation analysis showed that net photosynthesis was in a high positive correlation with biomass. Medium negative correlations existed bet...

  19. Variation in natural durability of seven Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J.N. Franca; T.S.F.A. Franca; R.A Arango; B.M. Woodward; G.B. Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    Programs aimed at developing clones of hybrid trees are commonly established in Brazil to meet the demands of various forest-based industries. These programs have continually improved the quality of eucalyptus wood, which has the potential to reduce deforestation by lowering demand for other high-value species. This is particularly true in the lumber market, but little...

  20. Leaf chemical composition of twenty-one Populus hybrid clones grown under intensive culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Dickson; Philip R. Larson

    1976-01-01

    Leaf material from 21 nursery-grown Populus hybrid clones was analyzed for three nitrogen fractions (total N, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids) and three carbhydrate fractions (reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, and total nonstructural carbohydrates-TNC). In addition, nursery-grown green ash and silver maple, field-grown bigtooth and trembling aspen, and...

  1. Sapflow of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra L.xP. maximowiczii A. Henry 'NM6') during phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalesny, Ronald S.; Wiese, Adam H.; Bauer, Edmund O.; Riemenschneider, Don E. [USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, 5985 Highway K, Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Poplars are ideal for phytoremediation because of their high water usage, fast growth, and deep root systems. We measured in 2002 and 2003 the sapflow of hybrid poplars (Populus nigra L.xP. maximowiczii A. Henry 'NM6') planted in 1999 for phytoremediation of a landfill in Rhinelander, WI, USA (45.6{sup o}N, 89.4{sup o}W). Mean sap velocity per tree was 100+/-10 and 120+/-10{mu}ms{sup -1} for 2002 and 2003, respectively. Mean sapflow per tree was 1.4000+/-0.1698 and 5.6760+/-0.2997kgh{sup -1} for 2002 and 2003, respectively. Sapflow was negatively correlated with temperature, wind speed, precipitation, and vapor pressure deficit for both years (0.002poplar genotypes exhibit great potential for phytoremediation applications where elevated water usage is critical. (author)

  2. An Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation System for Poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Ali; Zhang, Jiaxin; Amirian, Rasoul; Zhuge, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Poplar is a model system for the regeneration and genetic transformation of woody plants. To shorten the time required for studies of transgenic poplar, efforts have been made to optimize transformation methods that use Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In this study, an Agrobacterium infective suspension was treated at 4 °C for at least 10 h before infecting explants. By transforming the Populus hybrid clone “Nanlin895” (Populus deltoides × P. euramericana) with Agrobacterium harboring the PBI121:CarNAC6 binary vector, we showed that the transformation efficiency was improved significantly by multiple independent factors, including an Agrobacterium infective suspension with an OD600 of 0.7, an Agrobacterium infection for 120 min, an Agrobacterium infective suspension at a pH of 5.0, an acetosyringone concentration of 200 µM, a cocultivation at 28 °C, a cocultivation for 72 h and a sucrose concentration of 30 g/L in the cocultivation medium. We also showed that preculture of wounded leaf explants for two days increased the regeneration rate. The integration of the desired gene into transgenic poplars was detected using selective medium containing kanamycin, followed by southern blot analysis. The expression of the transgene in the transgenic lines was confirmed by northern blot analysis. PMID:24933641

  3. Physiological, vascular and nanomechanical assessment of hybrid poplar leaf traits in micropropagated plants and plants propagated from root cuttings: A contribution to breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Husárová, Hana; Javoříková, Lucia; Čaňová, Ingrid; Šuleková, Miriama; Kardošová, Monika; Lukáčik, Ivan; Mamoňová, Miroslava; Lagaňa, Rastislav

    2017-09-01

    Micropropagated plants experience significant stress from rapid water loss when they are transferred from an in vitro culture to either greenhouse or field conditions. This is caused both by inefficient stomatal control of transpiration and the change to a higher light intensity and lower humidity. Understanding the physiological, vascular and biomechanical processes that allow micropropagated plants to modify their phenotype in response to environmental conditions can help to improve both field performance and plant survival. To identify changes between the hybrid poplar [Populus tremula × (Populus × canescens)] plants propagated from in vitro tissue culture and those from root cuttings, we assessed leaf performance for any differences in leaf growth, photosynthetic and vascular traits, and also nanomechanical properties of the tracheary element cell walls. The micropropagated plants showed significantly higher values for leaf area, leaf length, leaf width and leaf dry mass. The greater leaf area and leaf size dimensions resulted from the higher transpiration rate recorded for this stock type. Also, the micropropagated plants reached higher values for chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and for the nanomechanical dissipation energy of tracheary element cell walls which may indicate a higher damping capacity within the primary xylem tissue under abiotic stress conditions. The performance of the plants propagated from root cuttings was superior for instantaneous water-use efficiency which signifies a higher acclimation capacity to stressful conditions during a severe drought particularly for this stock type. Similarities were found among the majority of the examined leaf traits for both vegetative plant origins including leaf mass per area, stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rate, hydraulic axial conductivity, indicators of leaf midrib vascular architecture, as well as for the majority of cell wall nanomechanical traits. This research revealed that

  4. Cloning the Gravity and Shear Stress Related Genes from MG-63 Cells by Subtracting Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Dai, Zhong-quan; Wang, Bing; Cao, Xin-sheng; Li, Ying-hui; Sun, Xi-qing

    2008-06-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to clone the gravity and shear stress related genes from osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by subtractive hybridization. Method MG-63 cells were divided into two groups (1G group and simulated microgravity group). After cultured for 60 h in two different gravitational environments, two groups of MG-63 cells were treated with 1.5Pa fluid shear stress (FSS) for 60 min, respectively. The total RNA in cells was isolated. The gravity and shear stress related genes were cloned by subtractive hybridization. Result 200 clones were gained. 30 positive clones were selected using PCR method based on the primers of vector and sequenced. The obtained sequences were analyzed by blast. changes of 17 sequences were confirmed by RT-PCR and these genes are related to cell proliferation, cell differentiation, protein synthesis, signal transduction and apoptosis. 5 unknown genes related to gravity and shear stress were found. Conclusion In this part of our study, our result indicates that simulated microgravity may change the activities of MG-63 cells by inducing the functional alterations of specific genes.

  5. Impacts of supplyshed-level differences in productivity and land Costs on the economics of hybrid poplar production in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Lazarus; William L. Headlee; Ronald S. Zalesny

    2015-01-01

    The joint effects of poplar biomass productivity and land costs on poplar production economics were compared for 12 Minnesota counties and two genetic groups, using a process-based model (3-PG) to estimate productivity. The counties represent three levels of productivity and a range of land costs (annual rental rates) from $128/ha to $534/ha. An optimal rotation age...

  6. Comparing growth rate in a mixed plantation (walnut, poplar and nurse trees with different planting designs: results from an experimental plantation in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pelleri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Results of a mixed plantation with poplar, walnut and nurse trees established in winter 2003 in Northern Italy, are reported. Main tree species (poplar and walnut were planted according to a rectangular design (10 x 11m, with different spacings and alternate lines. The experimental trial was carried out to verify the following working hypotheses: (i possibility to combine main trees with different growth levels (common walnut, hybrid walnut, and different poplar clones and test two different poplar and walnut spacings (5.0 and 7.4 m in the same plantation; (ii opportunity to reduce cultivation’s workload, in comparison with poplar monoculture, using mixtures with different poplar clones and N-fixing nurse trees; (iii verifying the growth pattern of two new poplar clones in comparison with the traditional clones cultivated for different purposes in Italy.The use of different valuable crop trees’ mixtures intercropped with nurse trees and shrubs (including N-fixing trees allows to decrease the cultivation’s workload. In fact, a heavy reduction of cultural practices - fertilizers, weed control, irrigation and pesticides applications (-61% are the main concurrent, supplementary benefits. The best growth performances (DBH and tree height, associated with the higher competition towards walnuts, were recorded with the new clones Lena and Neva in comparison with the I214 and Villafranca. The closer spacing (5 m between poplar and walnut trees was found to be unsuited to get merchantable poplars sized 30 cm without developing a heavy competition towards walnut trees. The wider spacing (7.4 m resulted vice versa suitable to get poplar trees sized as requested by veneer factories and to maintain an acceptable competitive level with walnut. Within this plantation design, a shorter rotation (8 yrs is needed for Lena and Neva clones in comparison with I214 and Villafranca (10 yrs. Walnut intercropped with poplar showed cone-shaped crowns, light

  7. ELABORATION OF A DRYING SCHEDULE FOR Eucalyptus spp HYBRIDS CLONES WOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Gonçalves Barbosa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of adequate drying schedules is essential to produce high quality conventional kiln dried lumber.Eucalyptus woods are particularly difficult to dry, and, for this reason, it is desirable that the drying schedule be carefullydeveloped. The objectives of this work were to elaborate a drying schedule for woods of ten Eucalyptus hybrids clones and toverify the propensity of these woods to post drying defects. For this purpose, it was applied the methodology of drastic drying at100°C, which associates intensity of defects, time and rate of drying, presented by small wood samples, with the behaviourto be presented by lumber after the conventional drying. The results allowed developing a drying schedule common to the tenclone lumbers. This program is based on an initial temperature of 40°C, final temperature of 66°C and drying potential equal to2.2. The drying time can be reduced, if the clones were grouped in accordance to their drying rate. The clones presented lowpropensity to split and high propensity to collapse.

  8. Radioactive and enzymatic cloned cDNA probes for bovine enteric coronavirus detection by molecular hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collomb, J.; Finance, C.; Alabouch, S.; Laporte, J.

    1992-01-01

    Genomic RNA of F15 strain bovine enteric coronavirus (BECV) was cloned in E. coli. Three clones (174, 160, PG 78), selected in the cDNA library, including a large portion of the nucleocapsid (N), matrix (M) and peplomeric (S) protein genes , were used as probes for a slot blot hybridization assay. Two probe labelling techniques were compared, radiolabelling with 32 P and enzymatic labelling through covalent linkage to peroxidase and chemiluminescence detection. The radioactive probe 174 detected as little as 1 to 3 pg of viral RNA, while the less sensitive enzymatic probe could not reveal more than 100 pg of RNA. No significant detection amplification was achieved when a mixture of the three probes was used. Probe 174 allowed specific identification for BECV. No hybridization was noticed either with rotaviruses or even with other antigenically unrelated members of the family Coronaviridae such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus. The test proved valid for detection of BECV in the supernatant of infected HRT-18 cells: genomic RNA could be detected after direct spotting of samples, but prior nucleic acid extraction after proteinase K treatment improved virus detection. BECV diagnosis in faecal samples using enzymatic probe was compared with conventional diagnostic methods. (authors)

  9. The Commercial Profitability of Growing Hybrid Eucalyptus Clones in The Coast Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balozi Bekuta Kirongo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current high demand for timber, fuelwood, and building poles and the realization that tree growing may pay dividends in the short and long term, many farmers are planting trees on their farms. Farmers are increasingly planting eucalyptus partly due to the fast growth rates of the hybrid clones as well as the opportunity to earn money within a short time. In this paper we report on the profitability of growing eucalyptus hybrid clones in the coastal region, Kenya. Tree growth and cost data was sourced from farmers in Malindi, Kilifi, and Msambweni. Market information was sourced from hardwares in North and South Coast while tree growth models were used to provide average tree sizes at various ages. Results showed that a farmer could make a net income of upto Kshs.500,000.00 (USD6,250 in 5 years. Farmers in the South Coast (Kwale and Msambweni spent more on transport than their counterparts in the North Coast (near Gede-KEFRI. This, added to the fact that trees in the South Coast (Msambweni grew less compared to those in North Coast meant that farmers in the south made less profits.

  10. Radioactive and enzymatic cloned cDNA probes for bovine enteric coronavirus detection by molecular hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collomb, J; Finance, C; Alabouch, S [Lab. de Microbiologie Moleculaire, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Univ. de Nancy I, Nancy (France); Laporte, J [Station de Virologie et d' Immunologie Moleculaires, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    1992-01-01

    Genomic RNA of F15 strain bovine enteric coronavirus (BECV) was cloned in E. coli. Three clones (174, 160, PG 78), selected in the cDNA library, including a large portion of the nucleocapsid (N), matrix (M) and peplomeric (S) protein genes , were used as probes for a slot blot hybridization assay. Two probe labelling techniques were compared, radiolabeled with [sup 32]P and enzymatic labeled through covalent linkage to peroxidase for chemiluminescence detection. The radioactive probe 174 detected as little as 1-3 pg of viral RNA, while the less sensitive enzymatic probe could not reveal more than 100 pg of RNA. No significant detection amplification was achieved when a mixture of the three probes was used. Probe 174 allowed specific identification for BECV. No hybridization was noticed either with rotaviruses or even with other antigenically unrelated members of the family Coronaviridae such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus. The test proved valid for detection of BECV in the supernatant of infected HRT-18 cells: genomic RNA could be detected after direct spotting of samples, but prior nucleic acid extraction after proteinase K treatment improved virus detection. BECV diagnosis in fecal samples using enzymatic probe was compared with conventional diagnostic methods. (authors).

  11. Biomass production of intensively grown poplars in the southernmost part of Sweden: Observations of characters, traits and growth potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Observation of possibilities and problems was performed when trying to optimise growing conditions for high biomass production by irrigation and fertilisation in a clone test of poplar on sandy soil in the south of Sweden. One hundred and eight clones of pure Populus trichocarpa and hybrids between P. trichocarpa and P. deltoides were evaluated for growth rate, phenology, quality, frost hardiness and pest resistance. Some fertilisation experiments were performed. In some years, some unfertilised clones produced up to 2 kg m -2 of woody dry biomass. Some fertilised clones produced almost twice as much in the years following fertilisation. Stem canker was the main cause of serious injuries in all hybrids, but pure P. trichocarpa stems were not affected. The cimbicid sawfly (Cimbex lutea) caused damage to the quality of the trees in the form of curved stems of some clones. Winter frost killed top shoots of the hybrids in a year with particularly low winter temperatures with long duration. Summer frost (in June) killed up to 1 m of some young top shoots in some clones in the first 3-4 years. The results are discussed in terms of radiation utilisation efficiency, energy efficient ratio, and water and nutrient use efficiency. The discussion finishes with the conclusion that fertilisation, but not irrigation, can be economically motivated. If irrigation is to be economic, then the main objective of the whole operation should be to produce drinkable water from water polluted by society. Biomass production would then be a bonus

  12. Growth, leaf traits and litter decomposition of roadside hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, Suvi; Manninen, Sirkku; Vapaavuori, Elina; Pulkkinen, Pertti

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic contributes considerably to ground-level air pollution and is therefore likely to affect roadside ecosystems. Differences in growth and leaf traits among 13 hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) clones were studied in relation to distance from a motorway. The trees sampled were growing 15 and 30 m from a motorway and at a background rural site in southern Finland. Litter decomposition was also measured at both the roadside and rural sites. Height and diameter growth rate and specific leaf area were lowest, and epicuticular wax amount highest in trees growing 15 m from the motorway. Although no significant distance x clone interactions were detected, clone-based analyses indicated differences in genotypic responses to motorway proximity. Leaf N concentration did not differ with distance from the motorway for any of the clones. Leaf litter decomposition was only temporarily retarded in the roadside environment, suggesting minor effects on nutrient cycling. - Highlights: → Roadside hybrid aspen displayed xeromorphic leaf traits and reduction in growth rate. → These responses were limited to trees close to the motorway and only to some clones. → Leaf litter decomposition was only temporarily retarded in the roadside environment. - Hybrid aspen had more xeromorphic leaves, displayed reduced growth, and showed retarded litter decomposition at an early stage in the roadside environment.

  13. Evaluation of drought response of two poplar clones (Populus x canadensis Monch 'I-214' and P. deltoides Marsh. 'Dvina') through high resolution analysis of stem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Alessio; Deslauriers, Annie; Fragnelli, Giuseppe; Scaletti, Luciano; Castro, Gaetano; Rossi, Sergio; Crivellaro, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Different irrigation effects on stem radius variation (DeltaR) and maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) in Populus deltoides 'Dvina' and Populusxcanadensis 'I-214' were studied to assess differences in drought tolerance between clones. One-year-old trees growing in concrete tanks were submitted to two irrigation regimes (natural rainfall and irrigation) from 24 June to 10 August, and DeltaR was monitored by automatic point dendrometers. Independently of the irrigation regime, 'Dvina' showed a higher stem radial increment than 'I-214'. In both clones, the first response to changed soil water content was a significant increase in MDS, whilst DeltaR decreased about 20 d later when pre-dawn leaf water potential (Psipd) dropped below -0.4 MPa. However, they displayed different strategies to overcome drought. 'Dvina' maintained a positive DeltaR for longer than 'I-214', which had lower leaf Psipd and greater leaf abscission at the end of the drought period. After irrigation resumed, 'Dvina' showed a higher capacity to restore stem growth. 'I-214' was probably unable to recover secondary growth because of higher leaf abscission during drought stress and the production of newly expanded leaves during recovery. It is concluded that the larger radial growth of 'Dvina' derived from a better water use (carbon uptake versus water loss) than 'I-214' under limited water availability.

  14. ADVANCING PROTOCOLS FOR POPLARS in vitro PROPAGATION, REGENERATION AND SELECTION OF TRANSFORMANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kutsokon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Poplars (genus Populus have emerged as a model organism for forest biotechnology, and genetic modification is more advanced for this genus than for any other tree. So far several protocols for microclonal propagation and regeneration for Populus species have been developed. However it is well known that these protocols differ for various species and need to be adapted even for different clones of the same species. This work was focused on developing of protocols for propagation, regeneration and putative transformant´s selection of aspen Populus tremula L. and other two fast-growing Populus species (P. nigra L., P. x canadensis Moench. The regeneration ability for black poplar explants was demonstrated to be three times higher compared to those for aspen and hybrid poplar. It was found that concentration 1 mg/L of phosphinothricin and 25 mg/L of kanamycin is toxic for non- transgenic plant tissues of P. x canadensis and can be applied in transformation experiments when genes of resistance to the corresponding selective agents into the plant genome are introduced.

  15. Evaluation of flooding tolerance in cuttings of Populus clones used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We analysed the responses to flooding of 14 poplar clones used for forestation at the Paraná River Delta, Argentina. Some are commercial clones planted in the area, and others belong to a poplar breeding program from the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) in Argentina. Potted plants of 60 cm high ...

  16. A hybrid approach identifies metabolic signatures of high-producers for chinese hamster ovary clone selection and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Oliver; Müller, Dirk; Didzus, Katharina; Paul, Wolfgang; Lipsmeier, Florian; Kirchner, Florian; Niklas, Jens; Mauch, Klaus; Beaucamp, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In-depth characterization of high-producer cell lines and bioprocesses is vital to ensure robust and consistent production of recombinant therapeutic proteins in high quantity and quality for clinical applications. This requires applying appropriate methods during bioprocess development to enable meaningful characterization of CHO clones and processes. Here, we present a novel hybrid approach for supporting comprehensive characterization of metabolic clone performance. The approach combines metabolite profiling with multivariate data analysis and fluxomics to enable a data-driven mechanistic analysis of key metabolic traits associated with desired cell phenotypes. We applied the methodology to quantify and compare metabolic performance in a set of 10 recombinant CHO-K1 producer clones and a host cell line. The comprehensive characterization enabled us to derive an extended set of clone performance criteria that not only captured growth and product formation, but also incorporated information on intracellular clone physiology and on metabolic changes during the process. These criteria served to establish a quantitative clone ranking and allowed us to identify metabolic differences between high-producing CHO-K1 clones yielding comparably high product titers. Through multivariate data analysis of the combined metabolite and flux data we uncovered common metabolic traits characteristic of high-producer clones in the screening setup. This included high intracellular rates of glutamine synthesis, low cysteine uptake, reduced excretion of aspartate and glutamate, and low intracellular degradation rates of branched-chain amino acids and of histidine. Finally, the above approach was integrated into a workflow that enables standardized high-content selection of CHO producer clones in a high-throughput fashion. In conclusion, the combination of quantitative metabolite profiling, multivariate data analysis, and mechanistic network model simulations can identify metabolic

  17. Water relations and gas exchange in poplar and willow under water stress and elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jon D; Tognetti, Roberto; Paris, Piero

    2002-05-01

    Predictions of shifts in rainfall patterns as atmospheric [CO2] increases could impact the growth of fast growing trees such as Populus spp. and Salix spp. and the interaction between elevated CO2 and water stress in these species is unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize the responses to elevated CO2 and water stress in these two species, and to determine if elevated CO2 mitigated drought stress effects. Gas exchange, water potential components, whole plant transpiration and growth response to soil drying and recovery were assessed in hybrid poplar (clone 53-246) and willow (Salix sagitta) rooted cuttings growing in either ambient (350 &mgr;mol mol-1) or elevated (700 &mgr;mol mol-1) atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Predawn water potential decreased with increasing water stress while midday water potentials remained unchanged (isohydric response). Turgor potentials at both predawn and midday increased in elevated [CO2], indicative of osmotic adjustment. Gas exchange was reduced by water stress while elevated [CO2] increased photosynthetic rates, reduced leaf conductance and nearly doubled instantaneous transpiration efficiency in both species. Dark respiration decreased in elevated [CO2] and water stress reduced Rd in the trees growing in ambient [CO2]. Willow had 56% lower whole plant hydraulic conductivity than poplar, and showed a 14% increase in elevated [CO2] while poplar was unresponsive. The physiological responses exhibited by poplar and willow to elevated [CO2] and water stress, singly, suggest that these species respond like other tree species. The interaction of [CO2] and water stress suggests that elevated [CO2] did mitigate the effects of water stress in willow, but not in poplar.

  18. Overexpression of PtrMYB119, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor from Populus trichocarpa, promotes anthocyanin production in hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Seong; Nguyen, Van Phap; Jeon, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Min-Ha; Eom, Seok Hyun; Lim, You Jin; Kim, Won-Chan; Park, Eung-Jun; Choi, Young-Im; Ko, Jae-Heung

    2016-09-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of colorful and bioactive natural pigments with important physiological and ecological functions in plants. We found an MYB transcription factor (PtrMYB119) from Populus trichocarpa that positively regulates anthocyanin production when expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that PtrMYB119 is highly homologous to Arabidopsis PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1), a well-known transcriptional activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Independently produced transgenic poplars overexpressing PtrMYB119 or PtrMYB120 (a paralogous gene to PtrMYB119) (i.e., 35S::PtrMYB119 and 35S::PtrMYB120, respectively) showed elevated accumulation of anthocyanins in the whole plants, including leaf, stem and even root tissues. Using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, we confirmed that the majority of the accumulated anthocyanin in our transgenic poplar is cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. Gene expression analyses revealed that most of the genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were highly upregulated in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars compared with the nontransformed control poplar. Among these genes, expression of PtrCHS1 (Chalcone Synthase1) and PtrANS2 (Anthocyanin Synthase2), which catalyze the initial and last steps of anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively, was upregulated by up to 350-fold. Subsequent transient activation assays confirmed that PtrMYB119 activated the transcription of both PtrCHS1 and PtrANS2 Interestingly, expression of MYB182, a repressor of both anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis, was largely suppressed in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars, while expression of MYB134, an activator of PA biosynthesis, was not changed significantly. More interestingly, high-level accumulation of anthocyanins in 35S::PtrMYB119 poplars did not have an adverse effect on plant growth. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PtrMYB119 and PtrMYB120

  19. DNA repair characteristics of a hybrid cell clone between xeroderma pigmentosum and Potorous tridactilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Kenji

    1986-01-01

    A hybrid cell clone PX1 was isolated by fusing UV sensitive XP20S(SV)neo, an SV-40-transformed, neomycin-resistant xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cell line, and Pt K2, a rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactilis) cell line. The UV-survival curve of PX1 cells fell midway between those of Pt K2 and XP20S(SV)neo cells, since mean lethal doses(D 0 ) were 2.5, 4.7 and 0.27 J/m 2 for PX1, Pt K2 and XP20S(SV)neo, respectively. Amounts of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) after UV, relative to normal human cells, were 60.4 % for Pt K2, 37.7 % for PX1 and 0.1 % for XP20S(SV)neo. Such relative UDS capacities for excision repair of Pt K2, PX1 and XP20S(SV)neo were also consistent with the respective relative capacities of host cell reactivation (HCR) of UV-irradiated Herpes simplex virus. Apparently, there was no single Pt K2 chromosome in the PX1 cells. One possibility is that a gene which may account for the partial restoration of the UV resistance has been transferred from Pt K2 to PX1. (author)

  20. Poplar physiology and short-term biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, P.; Lannoye, R. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Lab. de Physiologie Vegetale)

    1990-01-01

    This program comprised the establishment, on biochemical and physiological basis, of specific screening tests for the rapid evaluation of poplar adaptation to environmental conditions. The resistance of chloroplasts to several major environmental stresses affecting biomass production (light, heat, cold and water stress) has been assessed in leaves of five poplar (Populus sp.) clones by in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence and oxygen production measurements. These two chloroplastic activities are correlated to the photosynthetic activity of the plant and respond immediately to any changes affecting the organization and the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus, including regulatory mechanisms. Test clones were grown as cuttings in a .80 {times} .80m planting pattern. In addition, some plants were grown hydroponically in containers under a plastic roof in controlled conditions to test their behavior toward hydric (drought), light (shadow and overlight) and temperature (cold and warm) stresses. A specific data capture system has been developed to analyze clone resistance to environmental stresses. The results indicated considerable genetic variation in tolerance of poplar clones toward environmental stresses. The application of the in vivo fluorescence method and of the photoacoustic method appears to be an easy and rapid method to estimate the reaction of poplar clones against some stresses and thus for detecting plant species adapted to environmental stresses. 59 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Water stress mitigates the negative effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biomass in poplar plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Catalayud, Vicent; Paoletti, Elena; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2017-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) pollution frequently overlaps with drought episodes but the combined effects are not yet understood. We investigated the physiological and biomass responses of an O 3 sensitive hybrid poplar clone ('546') under three O 3 levels (charcoal-filtered ambient air, non-filtered ambient air (NF), and NF plus 40 ppb) and two watering regimes (well-watered (WW) and reduced watering (RW), i.e. 40% irrigation) for one growing season. Water stress increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, protecting leaves from pigment degradation by O 3 . Impairment of photosynthesis by O 3 was also reduced by stomatal closure due to water stress, which preserved light-saturated CO 2 assimilation rate, and the maximum carboxylation efficiency. Water stress increased water use efficiency of the leaves while O 3 decreased it, showing significant interactions. Effects were more evident in older leaves than in younger leaves. Water stress reduced biomass production, but the negative effects of O 3 were less in RW than in WW for total biomass per plant. A stomatal O 3 flux-based dose-response relationship was parameterized considering water stress effects, which explained biomass losses much better than a concentration-based approach. The O 3 critical level of Phytotoxic Ozone Dose over a threshold of 7 nmol O 3 .m -2 .s -1 (POD 7 ) for a 4% biomass loss in this poplar clone under different water regimes was 4.1 mmol m -2 . Our results suggest that current O 3 levels in most parts of China threaten poplar growth and that interaction with water availability is a key factor for O 3 risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trinucleotide repeat microsatellite markers for Black Poplar (Populus nigra L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.

    2001-01-01

    Using an enrichment procedure, we have cloned microsatellite repeats from black poplar (Populus nigra L.) and developed primers for microsatellite marker analysis. Ten primer pairs, mostly for trinucleotide repeats, produced polymorphic fragments in P. nigra. Some of them also showed amplification

  3. A comprehensive database of poplar research in North America from 1980 - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Coyle; Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops such as Populus species and hybrids (hereafter referred to as poplars) are renewable energy feedstocks that can potentially be used to offset electricity generation and natural gas use in many temperature regions. Highly productive poplars grown primarily on marginal agricultural sites are an important component of the...

  4. An approach for siting poplar energy production systems to increase productivity and associated ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Jr. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; D.R. Coyle; W.L. Headlee; R.B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWC) such as Populus species and hybrids (i.e., poplars) are renewable energy feedstocks that are vital to reducing our dependence on non-renewable and foreign sources of energy used for heat, power, and transportation fuels. Highly productive poplars grown primarily on marginal agricultural sites are an important...

  5. Hybrid clone cells derived from human breast epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells exhibit properties of cancer stem/initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauck, Daria; Keil, Silvia; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2017-08-02

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been associated with cancer progression since it was determined that normal cell × tumor cell fusion-derived hybrid cells could exhibit novel properties, such as enhanced metastatogenic capacity or increased drug resistance, and even as a mechanism that could give rise to cancer stem/initiating cells (CS/ICs). CS/ICs have been proposed as cancer cells that exhibit stem cell properties, including the ability to (re)initiate tumor growth. Five M13HS hybrid clone cells, which originated from spontaneous cell fusion events between M13SV1-EGFP-Neo human breast epithelial cells and HS578T-Hyg human breast cancer cells, and their parental cells were analyzed for expression of stemness and EMT-related marker proteins by Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The frequency of ALDH1-positive cells was determined by flow cytometry using AldeRed fluorescent dye. Concurrently, the cells' colony forming capabilities as well as the cells' abilities to form mammospheres were investigated. The migratory activity of the cells was analyzed using a 3D collagen matrix migration assay. M13HS hybrid clone cells co-expressed SOX9, SLUG, CK8 and CK14, which were differently expressed in parental cells. A variation in the ALDH1-positive putative stem cell population was observed among the five hybrids ranging from 1.44% (M13HS-7) to 13.68% (M13HS-2). In comparison to the parental cells, all five hybrid clone cells possessed increased but also unique colony formation and mammosphere formation capabilities. M13HS-4 hybrid clone cells exhibited the highest colony formation capacity and second highest mammosphere formation capacity of all hybrids, whereby the mean diameter of the mammospheres was comparable to the parental cells. In contrast, the largest mammospheres originated from the M13HS-2 hybrid clone cells, whereas these cells' mammosphere formation capacity was comparable to the parental breast cancer cells. All M13HS

  6. Environmental benefits of poplar culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. G. Isebrands; D.F. Karnosky.

    2001-01-01

    Poplars have important values above and beyond wood or fiber production. Poplars have been planted for environmental purposes for centuries. There are reports of poplar plantings dating back to early Chinese history and biblical times in the Middle East, When immigrants came to North America in the 18th and 19th century, they often brought cuttings of their favorite...

  7. Genetic Modification of Lignin in Hybrid Poplar (Populus alba × Populus tremula) Does Not Substantially Alter Plant Defense or Arthropod Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Christine; Meilan, Richard; Lindroth, Richard L

    2017-05-01

    Lignin impedes access to cellulose during biofuel production and pulping but trees can be genetically modified to improve processing efficiency. Modification of lignin may have nontarget effects on mechanical and chemical resistance and subsequent arthropod community responses with respect to pest susceptibility and arthropod biodiversity. We quantified foliar mechanical and chemical resistance traits in lignin-modified and wild-type (WT) poplar (Populus alba × Populus tremula) grown in a plantation and censused arthropods present on these trees to determine total abundance, as well as species richness, diversity and community composition. Our results indicate that mechanical resistance was not affected by lignin modification and only one genetic construct resulted in a (modest) change in chemical resistance. Arthropod abundance and community composition were consistent across modified and WT trees, but transgenics produced using one construct exhibited higher species richness and diversity relative to the WT. Our findings indicate that modification of lignin in poplar does not negatively affect herbivore resistance traits or arthropod community response, and may even result in a source of increased genetic diversity in trees and arthropod communities. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  8. Rooting of hybrid clones of Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx. by stem cuttings derived from micropropagated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qibin Yu [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Plant Biology; Maentylae, N. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology, Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology; Salonen, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Laeyliaeinen (Finland). Haapastensyrjae Breeding Station

    2001-07-01

    Propagation costs could be cut by replacing part of the micropropagation process with steps involving more traditional techniques. This study explored possibilities for improving existing vegetative propagation techniques for aspen using stem cuttings obtained from micropropagated plants. Vegetative propagation through stem cuttings was studied in 10 micropropagated hybrid aspen clones (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx). Cuttings containing one axillary bud were harvested from the same donor plants twice during the growing season: the first harvest in May and the second harvest in July. Rooting percentage was correlated positively with root length, number of roots and height of cutting plant but negatively with length of rooting. The average rooting percentage was 53% in the first harvest and 27% in second harvest. Indole-3-butyric acid treatments (1.2 mM) significantly improved rooting in the second harvest, but not in the first harvest, suggesting different endogenous auxin levels in the cuttings. A significant variation for most traits related to rooting ability was found among the clones, indicating that clonal effects play an important role in the propagation of aspen. Thus, clones with a good response in shoot growth and rooting could be exploited in large-scale propagation using stem cuttings.

  9. Cloning and Characterization of ThSHRs and ThSCR Transcription Factors in Taxodium Hybrid 'Zhongshanshan 406'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiquan; Yin, Yunlong; Hua, Jianfeng; Fan, Wencai; Yu, Chaoguang; Xuan, Lei; Yu, Fangyuan

    2017-07-20

    Among the GRAS family of transcription factors, SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) are key regulators of the formation of root tissues. In this study, we isolated and characterized two genes encoding SHR proteins and one gene encoding an SCR protein: ThSHR1 (Accession Number MF045148), ThSHR2 (Accession Number MF045149) and ThSCR (Accession Number MF045152) in the adventitious roots of Taxodium hybrid 'Zhongshanshan'. Gene structure analysis indicated that ThSHR1 , ThSHR2 and ThSCR are all intron free. Multiple protein sequence alignments showed that each of the corresponding proteins, ThSHR1, ThSHR2 and ThSCR, contained five well-conserved domains: leucine heptad repeat I (LHRI), the VHIID motif, leucine heptad repeat II (LHR II), the PFYRE motif, and the SAW motif. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that ThSCR was positioned in the SCR clade with the SCR proteins from eight other species, while ThSHR1 and ThSHR2 were positioned in the SHR clade with the SHR proteins from six other species. Temporal expression patterns of these genes were profiled during the process of adventitious root development on stem cuttings. Whereas expression of both ThSHR2 and ThSCR increased up to primary root formation before declining, that of ThSHR1 increased steadily throughout adventitious root formation. Subcellular localization studies in transgenic poplar protoplasts revealed that ThSHR1, ThSHR2 and ThSCR were localized in the nucleus. Collectively, these results suggest that the three genes encode Taxodium GRAS family transcription factors, and the findings contribute to improving our understanding of the expression and function of SHR and SCR during adventitious root production, which may then be manipulated to achieve high rates of asexual propagation of valuable tree species.

  10. Poplar Interactome: Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Pankaj [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2018-03-21

    The feedstock plant Poplar has many advantages over traditional crop plants. Not only Poplar needs low energy input and off season storage as compared to feedstocks such as corn, in the winter season Poplar biomass is stored on the stem/trunk, and Poplar plantations serve as large carbon sink. A key constraint to the expansion of cellulosic bioenergy sources such as in Poplar however, is the negative consequence of converting land use from food crops to energy crops. Therefore in order for Poplar to become a viable energy crop it needs to be grown mostly on marginal land unsuitable agricultural crops. For this we need a better understanding of abiotic stress and adaptation response in poplar. In the process we expected to find new and existing poplar genes and their function that respond to sustain abiotic stress. We carried out an extensive gene expression study on the control untreated and stress (drought, salinity, cold and heat) treated poplar plants. The samples were collected from the stem, leaf and root tissues. The RNA of protein coding genes and regulatory smallRNA genes were sequenced generating more than a billion reads. This is the first such known study in Poplar plants. These were used for quantification and genomic analysis to identify stress responsive genes in poplar. Based on the quantification and genomic analysis, a select set of genes were studied for gene-gene interactions to find their association to stress response. The data was also used to find novel stress responsive genes in poplar that were previously not identified in the Poplar reference genome. The data is made available to the public through the national and international genomic data archives.

  11. Five year growth and survival of Eucalyptus hybrid clones in coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -urophylla i.e. GU hybrids) and three local landraces (E. camaldulensis, E. tereticornis and E. urophylla) were established in Gede, Sokoke and Msambweni in the Coast province of Kenya in 2002, to compare growth, survival and adaptability ...

  12. Nucleic acids in mummified plant seeds: screening of twelve specimens by gel-electrophoresis, molecular hybridization and DNA cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, F; La Marca, A; Amici, A

    1987-02-01

    Twelve seed specimens of varying ages and from different archaeological sites were analyzed for the presence of polymerized DNA and RNA. Amongst the samples tested, one of Vitis vinifera from an archaeological site in Iran (2,000-3,000 B.C.) was found to be completely devoid of nucleic acids. Zea mais seeds of Precolumbial age from Peru (about 800 A.D.) contained depolymerized DNA and RNA. Samples of Vitis vinifera and Rubus sp. from a Lombard archaeological site (800 A.D.) as well as radiocarbon dated seeds from the site of the "Spring Sanctuary" near Metaponto (I-IV century B.C.) were found to contain polymerized DNA and rRNA bands. However the electrophoretic properties of the rRNAs in one case and hybridization experiments performed with cloned seed DNA in the other, clearly demonstrated that the polymerized nucleic acids were not of plant origin.

  13. Cost-effective sequencing of full-length cDNA clones powered by a de novo-reference hybrid assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroshu, Reginaldo M; Watanabe, Junichi; Sugano, Sumio; Morishita, Shinichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kasahara, Masahiro

    2010-05-07

    Sequencing full-length cDNA clones is important to determine gene structures including alternative splice forms, and provides valuable resources for experimental analyses to reveal the biological functions of coded proteins. However, previous approaches for sequencing cDNA clones were expensive or time-consuming, and therefore, a fast and efficient sequencing approach was demanded. We developed a program, MuSICA 2, that assembles millions of short (36-nucleotide) reads collected from a single flow cell lane of Illumina Genome Analyzer to shotgun-sequence approximately 800 human full-length cDNA clones. MuSICA 2 performs a hybrid assembly in which an external de novo assembler is run first and the result is then improved by reference alignment of shotgun reads. We compared the MuSICA 2 assembly with 200 pooled full-length cDNA clones finished independently by the conventional primer-walking using Sanger sequencers. The exon-intron structure of the coding sequence was correct for more than 95% of the clones with coding sequence annotation when we excluded cDNA clones insufficiently represented in the shotgun library due to PCR failure (42 out of 200 clones excluded), and the nucleotide-level accuracy of coding sequences of those correct clones was over 99.99%. We also applied MuSICA 2 to full-length cDNA clones from Toxoplasma gondii, to confirm that its ability was competent even for non-human species. The entire sequencing and shotgun assembly takes less than 1 week and the consumables cost only approximately US$3 per clone, demonstrating a significant advantage over previous approaches.

  14. Phytoextraction of risk elements by willow and poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacálková, Lada; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of two clones of willow trees (Salix x smithiana Willd., Salix rubens) and two clones of poplar trees (Populus nigra x maximowiczii, Populus nigra Wolterson) were planted in contaminated soil (0.4-2.0 mg Cd.kg(-1), 78-313 mg Zn.kg(-1), 21.3-118 mg Cu.kg(-1)). Field experiment was carried out in Czech Republic. The study investigated their ability to accumulate heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Cu) in harvestable plant parts. The poplars produced higher amount of biomass than willows. Both Salix clones accumulated higher amount of Cd, Zn and Cu in their biomass (maximum 6.8 mg Cd.kg(-1), 909 mg Zn.kg(-1), and 17.7 mg Cu.kg(-1)) compared to Populus clones (maximum 2.06 mg Cd.kg(-1), 463 mg Zn.kg(-1), and 11.8 mg Cu.kg(-1)). There were no significant differences between clones of individual species. BCs for Cd and Zn were greater than 1 (the highest in willow leaves). BCs values of Cu were very low. These results indicate that Salix is more suitable plant for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn than Populus. The Cu phytoextraction potential of Salix and Populus trees was not confirmed in this experiment due to low soil availability of this element.

  15. Heavy metals uptake by the hybrid aspen and rowan-tree clones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, J.; Máchová, P.; Cvrčková, H.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 11 (2007), s. 491-497 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/04/0135; GA MŠk 2B06187 Grant - others:Výzkumný ústav lesního hospodářství a myslivosti, v.v (CZ) OC 118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : phytoremediation * heavy metals * hybrid aspen Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://journals.uzpi.cz:8050/uniqueFiles/00437.pdf

  16. Identification and Cloning of Differentially Expressed SOUL and ELIP Genes in Saffron Stigmas Using a Subtractive Hybridization Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Ahrazem

    Full Text Available Using a subtractive hybridization approach, differentially expressed genes involved in the light response in saffron stigmas were identified. Twenty-two differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments were cloned and sequenced. Two of them were highly induced by light and had sequence similarity to early inducible proteins (ELIP and SOUL heme-binding proteins. Using these sequences, we searched for other family members expressed in saffron stigma. ELIP and SOUL are represented by small gene families in saffron, with four and five members, respectively. The expression of these genes was analyzed during the development of the stigma and in light and dark conditions. ELIP transcripts were detected in all the developmental stages showing much higher expression levels in the developed stigmas of saffron and all were up-regulated by light but at different levels. By contrast, only one SOUL gene was up-regulated by light and was highly expressed in the stigma at anthesis. Both the ELIP and SOUL genes induced by light in saffron stigmas might be associated with the structural changes affecting the chromoplast of the stigma, as a result of light exposure, which promotes the development and increases the number of plastoglobules, specialized in the recruitment of specific proteins, which enables them to act in metabolite synthesis and disposal under changing environmental conditions and developmental stages.

  17. Production and ecological aspects of short rotation poplars in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacic, Almir

    2005-02-01

    occurred. The loss of increment on the strongest damaged plots during the two-year period after the storm was 30%, whereas there was no difference in growth between damaged and undamaged plots in the third year after the storm. A short-term experiment using pot-grown plants revealed differences in clonal growth response in terms of physiological and morphological variables that determined relative growth rate and nutrient productivity, despite that most of clones were of the same species and geographic origin. The importance of different response variables in determining growth also shifted as an effect of irrigation and fertilisation treatment. Provided that suitable plant material is selected and widely available, commercial SRF with poplars represent a valuable alternative crop for surplus agricultural land with a potential to produce multiple benefits to society through the high production of biomass and fiber and positive effects on the environment.

  18. Cloning and characterization of the gene for L-amino acid oxidase in hybrid tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yubang; Fu, Gui Hong; Liu, Feng; Yue, Gen Hua

    2015-12-01

    Tilapia is the common name for a group of cichlid fishes. Identification of DNA markers significantly associated with important traits in candidate genes may speed up genetic improvement. L-Amino acid oxidase (LAO) plays a crucial role in the innate immune defences of animals. Previously, whether LAO variants were associated with economic traits had not been studied in fish. We characterized the cDNA sequence of the LAO gene of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Its ORF was 1536 bp, encoding a flavoenzyme of 511 amino acids. This gene consisted of seven exons and six introns. Its expression was detected in the intestine, blood, kidney, skin, liver. It was highly expressed in the intestine. After a challenge with a bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus agalactiae, its expression was up-regulated significantly in the liver, intestine and spleen (P tilapia. The investigation of relationship between polymorphism of LAO gene and disease resistance and growth in tilapia showed that one SNP was associated significantly with body length. Further experiments on whether SNPs in the LAO gene are associated with growth in tilapia and other populations could be useful in understanding more functions of the LAO gene.

  19. Leptospira borgpetersenii hybrid leucine-rich repeat protein: Cloning and expression, immunogenic identification and molecular docking evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritrakul, Tepyuda; Nitipan, Supachai; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; La-Ard, Anchalee; Suphatpahirapol, Chattip; Petkarnjanapong, Wimol; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong; Prapong, Siriwan

    2017-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease, and the major outbreak of this disease in Thailand in 1999 was due largely to the Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Sejroe. Identification of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) LBJ_2271 protein containing immunogenic epitopes and the discovery of the LBJ_2271 ortholog in Leptospira serovar Sejroe, KU_Sej_R21_2271, led to further studies of the antigenic immune properties of KU_Sej_LRR_2271. The recombinant hybrid (rh) protein was created and expressed from a hybrid PCR fragment of KU_Sej_R21_2271 fused with DNA encoding the LBJ_2271 signal sequence for targeting protein as a membrane-anchoring protein. The fusion DNA was cloned into pET160/GW/D-TOPO® to form the pET160_hKU_R21_2271 plasmid. The plasmid was used to express the rhKU_Sej_LRR_2271 protein in Escherichia coli BL21 Star™ (DE3). The expressed protein was immunologically detected by Western blotting and immunoreactivity detection with hyperimmune sera, T cell epitope prediction by HLA allele and epitope peptide binding affinity, and potential T cell reactivity analysis. The immunogenic epitopes of the protein were evaluated and verified by HLA allele and epitope peptide complex structure molecular docking. Among fourteen best allele epitopes of this protein, binding affinity values of 12 allele epitopes remained unchanged compared to LBJ_2271. Two epitopes for alleles HLA-A0202 and -A0301 had higher IC 50 values, while T cell reactivity values of these peptides were better than values from LBJ_2271 epitopes. Eight of twelve epitope peptides had positive T-cell reactivity scores. Although the molecular docking of two epitopes, 3FPLLKEFLV11/47FPLLKEFLV55 and 50KLSTVPEGV58, into an HLA-A0202 model revealed a good fit in the docked structures, 50KLSTVPEGV58 and 94KLSTVPEEV102 are still considered as the proteins' best epitopes for allele HLA-A0202. The results of this study showed that rhKU_Sej_LRR_2271 protein contained natural immunological properties that should

  20. Genome Enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes in Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filichkin, Sergei; Etherington, Elizabeth; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steve

    2007-02-22

    The goals of the S.H. Strauss laboratory portion of 'Genome-enabled discovery of carbon sequestration genes in poplar' are (1) to explore the functions of candidate genes using Populus transformation by inserting genes provided by Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Florida (UF) into poplar; (2) to expand the poplar transformation toolkit by developing transformation methods for important genotypes; and (3) to allow induced expression, and efficient gene suppression, in roots and other tissues. As part of the transformation improvement effort, OSU developed transformation protocols for Populus trichocarpa 'Nisqually-1' clone and an early flowering P. alba clone, 6K10. Complete descriptions of the transformation systems were published (Ma et. al. 2004, Meilan et. al 2004). Twenty-one 'Nisqually-1' and 622 6K10 transgenic plants were generated. To identify root predominant promoters, a set of three promoters were tested for their tissue-specific expression patterns in poplar and in Arabidopsis as a model system. A novel gene, ET304, was identified by analyzing a collection of poplar enhancer trap lines generated at OSU (Filichkin et. al 2006a, 2006b). Other promoters include the pGgMT1 root-predominant promoter from Casuarina glauca and the pAtPIN2 promoter from Arabidopsis root specific PIN2 gene. OSU tested two induction systems, alcohol- and estrogen-inducible, in multiple poplar transgenics. Ethanol proved to be the more efficient when tested in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions. Two estrogen-inducible systems were evaluated in transgenic Populus, neither of which functioned reliably in tissue culture conditions. GATEWAY-compatible plant binary vectors were designed to compare the silencing efficiency of homologous (direct) RNAi vs. heterologous (transitive) RNAi inverted repeats. A set of genes was targeted for post transcriptional silencing in the model Arabidopsis system; these include the floral

  1. Root proteome response to growth on tannery waste in three different poplar species with various adaptation abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemleduch-Barylska A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In our study we compared growth of three poplar clones (Populus tremula ×alba, P. alba ‘Villafranca” and P. nigra on chromium-containing solid tannery waste. Tolerance index of saplings ranged from only 25% for P. nigra up to 80% for P. tremula x alba. Standard morphological, chemical and biochemical analyses also confirmed significant differences in reaction of all tested clones to such growth conditions. Preliminary proteomic study showed an unequal level of changes in protein profiles from roots in different poplars.

  2. Phytoremediation capacity of poplar (Populus spp. and willow (Salix spp. clonesin relation to photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajević Slobodanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Good photosynthetic features and a favorable water regimes of woody plants improve their survival and remediation potential under unfavorable ecological conditions. Accordingly, we here present results of testing plant tolerance of Pb, Cd, Ni, and diesel fuel based on gas exchange parameters and WUE of four poplar and two willow clones grown in a greenhouse on soil culture. Photosynthesis and transpiration of plants grown on soils with individually applied heavy metals decreased significantly, but this was less obvious in the case of Cd treatment. A heavy metal mixture in the soil induced significant reduction in photosynthesis (by more than 50%. Diesel fuel as the only pollutant in soil caused very strong and significant inhibition of photosynthesis and transpiration of willow clones. The results indicate genotypic specificity of all investigated physiological parameters and mark poplar clones as very useful in phytoextraction technology for the bio-cleaning of chemically polluted soils.

  3. Epigenetic Diversity of Clonal White Poplar (Populus alba L. Populations: Could Methylation Support the Success of Vegetative Reproduction Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Guarino

    Full Text Available The widespread poplar populations of Sardinia are vegetatively propagated and live in different natural environments forming large monoclonal stands. The main goals of the present study were: i to investigate/measure the epigenetic diversity of the poplar populations by determining their DNA methylation status; ii to assess if and how methylation status influences population clustering; iii to shed light on the changes that occur in the epigenome of ramets of the same poplar clone. To these purposes, 83 white poplar trees were sampled at different locations on the island of Sardinia. Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis was carried out on the genomic DNA extracted from leaves at the same juvenile stage. The study showed that the genetic biodiversity of poplars is quite limited but it is counterbalanced by epigenetic inter-population molecular variability. The comparison between MspI and HpaII DNA fragmentation profiles revealed that environmental conditions strongly influence hemi-methylation of the inner cytosine. The variable epigenetic status of Sardinian white poplars revealed a decreased number of population clusters. Landscape genetics analyses clearly demonstrated that ramets of the same clone were differentially methylated in relation to their geographic position. Therefore, our data support the notion that studies on plant biodiversity should no longer be restricted to genetic aspects, especially in the case of vegetatively propagated plant species.

  4. Tamanho amostral para a estimativa da densidade básica em um clone híbrido de Eucalyptus sp. Sample size for estimating basic density in a clone of Eucalyptus sp. hybrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Andrade de PÁDUA

    2015-06-01

    Eucalyptus grandis hybrid clone, considering different longitudinal sampling and diameter classes. For this, 50 trees were used to hybrid from clone with 5.6 years. The trees were divided into three diameter classes and sampled in the form of discs, three ways: traditional (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the commercial height Hc; alternative (2%, 10%, 30% and 70% Hc and every meter from DAP. There was no difference between the number of trees required to estimate the density of the clone regardless sampling form, assuming an error of 5% and a confidence interval of 95%. Alternative sampling was considered most effective, considering the sample size along the stem and the coefficient of variation. Classification by diameter resulted in a greater number of trees to estimate the average density due to greater property variation within diameter classes than within the sampling method

  5. CULTIVAR RELEASE-BRS 275 (BRS Dão: Hybrid clone of dwarf x common or giant cashew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rodrigues de Paiva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Dão is a cashew clone developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa, sectorTropical Agro-industry, in partnership with the Companhia Industrial de Óleos do Nordeste (CIONE. It was selected from aplant derived from the cross between the dwarf clone CCP 1001 and the common genotype CP 12. It is recommended forcultivation without irrigation along the coastline in the Northeast of Brazil and in similar environmental conditions for bothnut and peduncle production for the fruit juice industry.

  6. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the method of pay back period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar plantations are a category of fixed assets in forestry, i.e. the assets with a biological character. They are related to their site, they are cultivated for a relatively long time and they have a relatively long utilization cycle, with the yield development determined by the plantation growth and age. Plantations transfer their value gradually to the obtained products during the period of their harvesting, and, by the realization of the products, the means invested in the plantation establishment are reproduced. The period of investments in poplar growing can be relatively long, and so is the period of harvesting. Therefore, it is important to determine the time of the return of the capital invested in these and similar plantations. This paper presents the analysis of commercial profitability of poplar cultivation according to the indicator for the assessment of projects in agriculture and forestry - pay back period. The application of pay back period (PBP calculation can affect greatly the reliability of predicting the degree of economic effectiveness of investments, and also the potential risks for the investor in his decisions on the investments in poplar cultivation. The analysis of poplar clone I-214 plantations was carried out in the area of Ravni Srem, under different rotations and soil types. Based on the analysis of costs and receipts in different plantation ages, and using the method of pay back period, the objective of the study was to evaluate the possible pay back period of invested capital in wood production in poplar plantations. PBP is practically unacceptable by the investor under the discount rate of 6%. The most favorable situation is in the youngest stands, using the discount rate of 2%. The situation regarding the pay back period in the over-aged stands is utterly unfavorable, so the credit cannot be repaid under any conditions. This fact supports the idea that the production cycle length should be shortened.

  7. B-G cDNA clones have multiple small repeats and hybridize to both chicken MHC regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J; Skjødt, K

    1989-01-01

    We used rabbit antisera to the chicken MHC erythrocyte molecule B-G and to the class I alpha chain (B-F) to screen lambda gt11 cDNA expression libraries made with RNA selected by oligo-dT from bone marrow cells of anemic B19 homozygous chickens. Eight clones were found to encode B-G molecules which...

  8. Vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation in poplars: synthesis and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichot, Régis; Brignolas, Franck; Cochard, Hervé; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-07-01

    Vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation is a key trait of plant water relations. Here, we summarize the available literature on vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation in poplars (Populus spp.), a genus of agronomic, ecological and scientific importance. Vulnerability curves and vulnerability parameters (including the water potential inducing 50% loss in hydraulic conductivity, P50) were collected from 37 studies published between 1991 and 2014, covering a range of 10 species and 12 interspecific hybrid crosses. Results of our meta-analysis confirm that poplars are among the most vulnerable woody species to drought-induced cavitation (mean P50  = -1.44 and -1.55 MPa across pure species and hybrids, respectively). Yet, significant variation occurs among species (P50 range: 1.43 MPa) and among hybrid crosses (P50 range: 1.12 MPa), within species and hybrid crosses (max. P50 range reported: 0.8 MPa) as well as in response to environmental factors including nitrogen fertilization, irradiance, temperature and drought (max. P50 range reported: 0.75 MPa). Potential implications and gaps in knowledge are discussed in the context of poplar cultivation, species adaptation and climate modifications. We suggest that poplars represent a valuable model for studies on drought-induced cavitation, especially to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of cavitation resistance in Angiosperms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of irrigating poplar energy crops with landfill leachate on soil micro- and meso-fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    Increased municipal solid waste generated worldwide combined with substantial demand for renewable energy has prompted testing and deployment of woody feedstock production systems that reuse and recycle wastewaters as irrigation and fertilization for the trees. Populus species and hybrids (i.e., poplars) are ideal for such systems given their fast...

  10. Repeated unidirectional introgression towards Populus balsamifera in contact zones of exotic and native poplars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, S.L.; Lamothe, M.; Meirmans, P.G.; Périnet, P.; Isabel, N.

    2010-01-01

    As the evolutionary significance of hybridization is largely dictated by its extent beyond the first generation, we broadly surveyed patterns of introgression across a sympatric zone of two native poplars (Populus balsamifera, Populus deltoides) in Quebec, Canada within which European exotic Populus

  11. Transgenic poplars with reduced lignin show impaired xylem conductivity, growth efficiency and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Peter Kitin; Steven H. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    We studied xylem anatomy and hydraulic architecture in 14 transgenic insertion events and a control line of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) that varied in lignin content. Transgenic events had different levels of down-regulation of two genes encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL). Two-year-old trees were characterized after...

  12. The effects of high-tannin leaf litter from transgenic poplars on microbial communities in microcosm soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Winder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of leaf litter from genetically-modified hybrid poplar accumulating high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins were examined in soil microcosms consisting of moss growing on sieved soil. Moss preferentially proliferated in microcosms with lower tannin content; DGGE detected increased fungal diversity in microcosms with low-tannin litter. The proportion of cloned rDNA sequences from Actinobacteria decreased with litter addition while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria significantly increased. β–Proteobacteria were proportionally more numerous at high tannin levels. Tannins had no significant impact on overall diversity of bacterial communities analyzed with various estimators. There was an increased proportion of N-fixing bacteria corresponding to the addition of litter with low tannin levels. The addition of litter increased the proportion of Ascomycota/Basidiomycota. Dothideomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, and Tremellomycetes also increased and Agaricomycetes decreased. Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes were significantly more abundant in controls, whereas Pucciniomycetes increased in soil with litter from transformed trees (P = 0.051. Richness estimators and diversity indices revealed no significant difference in the composition of fungal communities; PCoA partitioned the fungal communities into three groups: (i those with higher amounts of added tannin from both transformed and untransformed treatments, (ii those corresponding to soils without litter, and (iii those corresponding to microcosms with litter added from trees transformed only with a β-glucuronidase (GUS control vector. While the litter from transformed poplars had significant effects on soil microbe communities, the observed impacts reflected known impacts on soil processes associated with tannins, and were similar to changes that would be expected from natural variation in tannin levels.

  13. The effects of high-tannin leaf litter from transgenic poplars on microbial communities in microcosm soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Richard S; Lamarche, Josyanne; Constabel, C Peter; Hamelin, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of leaf litter from genetically modified hybrid poplar accumulating high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) were examined in soil microcosms consisting of moss growing on sieved soil. Moss preferentially proliferated in microcosms with lower tannin content; DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) detected increased fungal diversity in microcosms with low-tannin litter. The proportion of cloned rDNA sequences from Actinobacteria decreased with litter addition while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria significantly increased. β-Proteobacteria were proportionally more numerous at high-tannin levels. Tannins had no significant impact on overall diversity of bacterial communities analyzed with various estimators. There was an increased proportion of N-fixing bacteria corresponding to the addition of litter with low-tannin levels. The addition of litter increased the proportion of Ascomycota/Basidiomycota. Dothideomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, and Tremellomycetes also increased and Agaricomycetes decreased. Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes were significantly more abundant in controls, whereas Pucciniomycetes increased in soil with litter from transformed trees (P = 0.051). Richness estimators and diversity indices revealed no significant difference in the composition of fungal communities; PCoA (principal coordinate analyses) partitioned the fungal communities into three groups: (i) those with higher amounts of added tannin from both transformed and untransformed treatments, (ii) those corresponding to soils without litter, and (iii) those corresponding to microcosms with litter added from trees transformed only with a β-glucuronidase control vector. While the litter from transformed poplars had significant effects on soil microbe communities, the observed impacts reflected known impacts on soil processes associated with tannins, and were similar to changes that would be expected from natural variation in

  14. Histone Acetylation Modifications Affect Tissue-Dependent Expression of Poplar Homologs of C4 Photosynthetic Enzyme Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications play important roles in regulating the expression of C4 photosynthetic genes. Given that all enzymes required for the C4 photosynthesis pathway are present in C3 plants, it has been hypothesized that this expression regulatory mechanism has been conserved. However, the relationship between histone modification and the expression of homologs of C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes has not been well determined in C3 plants. In the present study, we cloned nine hybrid poplar (Populus simonii × Populus nigra homologs of maize (Zea mays C4 photosynthetic enzyme genes, carbonic anhydrase (CA, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, and investigated the correlation between the expression levels of these genes and the levels of promoter histone acetylation modifications in four vegetative tissues. We found that poplar homologs of C4 homologous genes had tissue-dependent expression patterns that were mostly well-correlated with the level of histone acetylation modification (H3K9ac and H4K5ac determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A further confirmed the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of the nine target genes. Collectively, these results suggest that both H3K9ac and H4K5ac positively regulate the tissue-dependent expression pattern of the PsnCAs, PsnPPDKs, PsnPCKs, and PsnPEPCs genes and that this regulatory mechanism seems to be conserved among the C3 and C4 species. Our findings provide new insight that will aid efforts to modify the expression pattern of these homologs of C4 genes to engineer C4 plants from C3 plants.

  15. Life cycle assessment: an application to poplar for energy cultivated in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bacenetti, J.; Gonzalez Garcia, S.; Mena, A.; Fiala, M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the bioenergy sector has led to an increasing interest in energy crops. Short rotation coppices (SRC) are forestry management systems in which fast-growing tree species are produced under intensive cultivation practices to obtain high wood chips yields. In Italy, most SRC plantations consist of poplar biomass-clones. SRC plantations can be carried out with different management systems with diverse cutting times; consequently, the cultivation system can be crucial for attain...

  16. Cloning the human lysozyme cDNA: Inverted Alu repeat in the mRNA and in situ hybridization for macrophages and Paneth cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, L.P.; Keshav, S.; Gordon, S.

    1988-01-01

    Lysozyme is a major secretory product of human and rodent macrophages and a useful marker for myelomonocytic cells. Based on the known human lysozyme amino acid sequence, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as probes to screen a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated U937 cDNA library. A full-length human lysozyme cDNA clone, pHL-2, was obtained and characterized. Sequence analysis shows that human lysozyme, like chicken lysozyme, has in 18-amino-acid-long signal peptide, but unlike the chicken lysozyme cDNA, the human lysozyme cDNA has a >1-kilobase-long 3' nontranslated sequence. Interestingly, within this 3' region, an inverted repeat of the Alu family of repetitive sequences was discovered. In RNA blot analyses, DNA probes prepared from pHL-2 can be used to detect lysozyme mRNA not only from human but also from mouse and rat. Moreover, by in situ hybridization, complementary RNA transcripts have been used as probes to detect lysozyme mRNA in mouse macrophages and Paneth cells. This human lysozyme cDNA clone is therefore likely to be a useful molecular probe for studying macrophage distribution and gene expression

  17. Cloned polynucleotide and synthetic oligonucleotide probes used in colony hybridization are equally efficient in the identification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfelt, H.; Kalland, K.H.; Raj, P.; Moseley, S.L.; Bhan, M.K.; Bjorvatn, B.

    1988-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease-generated polynucleotide and synthetically produced oligonucleotide gene probes used in colony hybridization assays proved to be efficient for the detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. To compare their relative efficiencies, these two sets of probes were radiolabeled with 32 P and were applied to 74 strains of E. coli with known enterotoxin profiles and to 156 previously unexamined E. coli isolates. The enterotoxigenic bacteria Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio cholerae non-O1 (NAG), Yersinia enterocolitica, and E. coli harboring the plasmid vectors of the polynucleotide gene probes were examined for further evaluation of probe specificity. The two classes of probes showed a perfect concordance in their specific detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic E. coli. In the analysis of six strains, the signal strength on autoradiography after hybridization with oligonucleotides was weaker than that obtained after hybridization with polynucleotide probes. The probes did not hybridize with DNA from V. cholerae O1, V. cholerae non-O1 (NAG), or Y. enterocolitica. The strains of E. coli harboring the plasmid vectors of the polynucleotide gene probes were, likewise, negative in the hybridization assays

  18. Cloned polynucleotide and synthetic oligonucleotide probes used in colony hybridization are equally efficient in the identification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerfelt, H.; Kalland, K.H.; Raj, P.; Moseley, S.L.; Bhan, M.K.; Bjorvatn, B.

    1988-11-01

    Restriction endonuclease-generated polynucleotide and synthetically produced oligonucleotide gene probes used in colony hybridization assays proved to be efficient for the detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. To compare their relative efficiencies, these two sets of probes were radiolabeled with /sup 32/P and were applied to 74 strains of E. coli with known enterotoxin profiles and to 156 previously unexamined E. coli isolates. The enterotoxigenic bacteria Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio cholerae non-O1 (NAG), Yersinia enterocolitica, and E. coli harboring the plasmid vectors of the polynucleotide gene probes were examined for further evaluation of probe specificity. The two classes of probes showed a perfect concordance in their specific detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic E. coli. In the analysis of six strains, the signal strength on autoradiography after hybridization with oligonucleotides was weaker than that obtained after hybridization with polynucleotide probes. The probes did not hybridize with DNA from V. cholerae O1, V. cholerae non-O1 (NAG), or Y. enterocolitica. The strains of E. coli harboring the plasmid vectors of the polynucleotide gene probes were, likewise, negative in the hybridization assays.

  19. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  20. Environmental applications of poplars and willows

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Isebrands; P. Aronsson; M. Carlson; R. Ceulemans; M. Coleman; N. Dickinson; J. Dimitriou; S. Doty; E. Gardiner; K. Heinsoo; J.D. Johnson; Y.B. Koo; J. Kort; J. Kuzovkina; L. Licht; A.R. McCracken; I. McIvor; P. Mertens; K. Perttu; D. Riddell-Black; B. Robins; G. Scarascia-Mugnozza; W.R. Schroeder; John Stanturf; T.A. Volk; M. Weih

    2014-01-01

    Poplars and willows have been planted for environmental purposes for millennia. There are reports that poplars were planted to improve the human environment 4000 years ago in the third dynasty of Ur, for streamside stabilization 2000 years ago in what is now the south-western USA by native North Americans and for urban amenities by the early Chinese dynasties (see...

  1. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 – Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Choi, Young-Im; Cho, Jin-Seong; Lee, Hyoshin

    2015-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems. - Highlights: • We identify the BEE3-like gene form hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). • We examine effects of overexpression of PagBEE3L on growth in poplar. • We found that 35S:BEE3L transgenic plants showed more rapid growth than wild-type plants. • BEE3L protein plays an important role in the development of plant stem

  2. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 – Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Seol Ah, E-mail: s6022029@korea.ac.kr; Choi, Young-Im, E-mail: yichoi99@forest.go.kr; Cho, Jin-Seong, E-mail: jinsung3932@gmail.com; Lee, Hyoshin, E-mail: hslee@forest.go.kr

    2015-06-19

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems. - Highlights: • We identify the BEE3-like gene form hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). • We examine effects of overexpression of PagBEE3L on growth in poplar. • We found that 35S:BEE3L transgenic plants showed more rapid growth than wild-type plants. • BEE3L protein plays an important role in the development of plant stem.

  3. What is Cloning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donate Home Cloning What is Cloning What is Cloning Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. ... clones made through modern cloning technologies. How Is Cloning Done? Many people first heard of cloning when ...

  4. Peroxidase Activity in Poplar Inoculated with Compatible and Incompetent Isolates of Paxillus involutus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDUL GAFUR

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase activity of the hybrid poplar Populus×canescens (Ait. Sm. (= P. tremula L. × P. alba L. inoculated with compatible and incompetent isolates of Paxillus involutus (Batsch Fr. was investigated. Screening of the ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates was initiated with exploration of mycelial growth characteristics and mycorrhizal ability in vitro with poplar. Both traits varied within the fungus although they did not seem to be genetically correlated. While isolates SCO1, NAU, and 031 grew faster than others, only isolates MAJ, SCO1, and 031 were able to form ectomycorrhiza with poplar. Isolates MAJ (compatible and NAU (incompetent were subsequently selected for further experiments. Activity of peroxidase, one of the defense-related enzymes, was examined in pure culture and short root components of compatible and incompetent interactions between poplar and P. involutus. Peroxidase activities increased significantly in poplar inoculated with incompetent isolate of the fungus compared to control, while induction of the same enzyme was not detected in compatible associations.

  5. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fuzhong; Yang Wanqin; Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 ± 19.22 and 576.75 ± 40.55 μg cadmium per plant with 110.77 ± 12.68 and 202.54 ± 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  6. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Fuzhong [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Yang Wanqin, E-mail: scyangwq@163.com [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China)

    2010-05-15

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 {+-} 19.22 and 576.75 {+-} 40.55 {mu}g cadmium per plant with 110.77 {+-} 12.68 and 202.54 {+-} 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  7. The cloning and characterization of a poplar stomatal density gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneka S. Lawson; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2014-01-01

    EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR1 (EPF1) is a well characterized negative regulator of cell division in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtEPF1) where the primary region of localization is the leaf. However, little data have been reported on the role of EPF1 in other plant species. In this study, the EPF1 gene from ...

  8. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization of cattle and sheep chromosomes with cloned human fragile-X DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Ahmd; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Babar, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive study on spontaneous and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine induced fragile sites identified Xq31 in cattle (Bos taurus) and (Xq24, Xq26) in sheep (Ovis aries) in addition to several autosomal fragile sites (under publication). A ZOO-FISH study using three cloned human fragile-X probes with CCG....../CGG(n) trinucleotide repeat sequence was carried out to determine homology between human and bovine fragile-X. The hybridisation results showed only a weak signal on a human chromosome that was not an X with all three fragile site probes. No signals were detected in sheep chromosomes. The signal of all three human...... fragile-X probes on cattle chromosomes was however, medium-prominent sub-centromeric signal on two homologues. BrdU administration in 12 h before harvesting identified these homologues to be chromosome number 5. In addition retrospective slides of cattle and sheep chromosomes used for fragile site studies...

  9. Isoprene emission by poplar is not important for the feeding behaviour of poplar leaf beetles

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Anna; Kaling, Moritz; Faubert, Patrick; Gort, Gerrit; Smid, Hans M; Van Loon, Joop JA; Dicke, Marcel; Kanawati, Basem; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Polle, Andrea; Schnitzler, J?rg-Peter; Rosenkranz, Maaria

    2015-01-01

    Background Chrysomela populi (poplar leaf beetle) is a common herbivore in poplar plantations whose infestation causes major economic losses. Because plant volatiles act as infochemicals, we tested whether isoprene, the main volatile organic compound (VOC) produced by poplars (Populus x canescens), affects the performance of C. populi employing isoprene emitting (IE) and transgenic isoprene non-emitting (NE) plants. Our hypothesis was that isoprene is sensed and affects beetle orientation or ...

  10. Establishment and early growth of Populus hybrids irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Edmund O. Bauer; Jill A. Zalesny

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid poplar genotypes exhibit great potential for tree establishment and growth when irrigated with municipal solid waste landfill leachate. We evaluated the potential for establishment on leachate-irrigated soils by testing: 1) aboveground growth of hybrid poplar during repeated irrigation with landfill leachate and 2) aboveground and belowground biomass after 70 d...

  11. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  12. Antisense down-regulation of 4CL expression alters lignification, tree growth, and saccharification potential of field-grown poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Michael Jourdes; Chanyoung Ki; Ann M. Patten; Laurence B. Davin; Norman G. Lewis; Gerald A. Tuskan; Lee Gunter; Stephen R. Decker; Michael J. Selig; Robert Sykes; Michael E. Himmel; Peter Kitin; Olga Shevchenko; Steven H. Strauss

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic down-regulation of the Pt4CL1 gene family encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) has been reported as a means for reducing lignin content in cell walls and increasing overall growth rates, thereby improving feedstock quality for paper and bioethanol production. Using hybrid poplar (Populus tremula...

  13. Liquefaction of aspen poplar wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, R L; Mathews, J F; Pepper, J M

    1982-01-01

    Dried and green aspen poplar wood suspended in water containing alkali catalysts was converted completely to an oil, water-soluble chemical, and gases by heating for 1 hour in the presence of CO in a rocking batch reactor. Within the ranges of parameters studied: temperature of 593-633 K; nominal reaction times of less than or equal to 1 hour; water-to-wood ratio of 0.5:1-5:1; Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and NaOH catalysts; amount of catalyst 7.0-12.5%; and initial H-CO ratios of 2:1-0:1, the water-to-wood ratio was most important. Oil yields of approximately 50% with a C plus H content of approximately 80% and representing a C recovery of approximately 66% were obtained. The higher heats of combustion were 32.2-36.0 MJ/kg.

  14. Bridging the gap between feedstock growers and users: the study of a coppice poplar-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chang; Gustafson, Rick; Bura, Renata

    2018-01-01

    In the biofuel industry, land productivity is important to feedstock growers and conversion process product yield is important to the biorefinery. The crop productivity, however, may not positively correlate with bioconversion yield. Therefore, it is important to evaluate sugar yield and biomass productivity. In this study, 2-year-old poplar trees harvested in the first coppice cycle, including one low-productivity hybrid and one high-productivity hybrid, were collected from two poplar tree farms. Through steam pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the bioconversion yields of low- and high-productivity poplar hybrids were compared for both sites. The low-productivity hybrids had 9-19% higher sugar yields than the high-productivity hybrids, although they have the similar chemical composition. Economic calculations show the impact on the plantation and biorefinery of using the two feedstocks. Growing a high-productivity hybrid means the land owner would use 11-26% less land (which could be used for other crops) or collect $2.53-$3.46 MM/year extra revenue from the surplus feedstock. On the other side, the biorefinery would receive 5-10% additional revenue using the low-productivity hybrid. We propose a business model based on the integration of the plantation and the biorefinery. In this model, different feedstocks are assessed using a metric of product tonnage per unit land per year. Use of this new economic metric bridges the gap between feedstock growers and users to maximize the overall production efficiency.

  15. Investigations on the nutrient demands of different balsam poplar clones (Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Grey) based on growth, nutrient uptake, and vapor exchange. Untersuchungen ueber die Naehrstoffansprueche verschiedener Balsam-Pappelklone (Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Grey) in Hinsicht auf das Wachstum, die Naehrstoffaufnahme und den Gaswechsel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griese, C.

    1991-01-01

    This work tries to describe the nutrient demands of six different, very fast-growing clones of the species Populus trichocarpa Torr. Et. Grey. Relevant are the capability for taking up different nutrients, and the plants' efficiency in using these nutrients for vapour exchange of the leaves (photosynthesis, respiration in the dark, transpiration) as well as for increasing biomass. A further aim pursued with these measurements is the attempt to explain the different growth of these six popular clones. Here, field experiments have shown a gradiation of the clones' growth performance. From the first to the sixth clone, growth performance declines steadily. Should there be differences among the clones as to the physiological, biometric and phenological variables to be investigated, then this work might lead to the identification of growth-determining factors suitable for postulating of the investigated clones. (orig.).

  16. Academic Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  17. Forest biorefinery: Potential of poplar phytochemicals as value-added co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Rakshit, Sudip K; Dekker, Robert F H

    2015-11-01

    The global forestry industry after experiencing a market downturn during the past decade has now aimed its vision towards the integrated biorefinery. New business models and strategies are constantly being explored to re-invent the global wood and pulp/paper industry through sustainable resource exploitation. The goal is to produce diversified, innovative and revenue generating product lines using on-site bioresources (wood and tree residues). The most popular product lines are generally produced from wood fibers (biofuels, pulp/paper, biomaterials, and bio/chemicals). However, the bark and other tree residues like foliage that constitute forest wastes, still remain largely an underexploited resource from which extractives and phytochemicals can be harnessed as by-products (biopharmaceuticals, food additives and nutraceuticals, biopesticides, cosmetics). Commercially, Populus (poplar) tree species including hybrid varieties are cultivated as a fast growing bioenergy crop, but can also be utilized to produce bio-based chemicals. This review identifies and underlines the potential of natural products (phytochemicals) from Populus species that could lead to new business ventures in biorefineries and contribute to the bioeconomy. In brief, this review highlights the importance of by-products/co-products in forest industries, methods that can be employed to extract and purify poplar phytochemicals, the potential pharmaceutical and other uses of >160 phytochemicals identified from poplar species - their chemical structures, properties and bioactivities, the challenges and limitations of utilizing poplar phytochemicals, and potential commercial opportunities. Finally, the overall discussion and conclusion are made considering the recent biotechnological advances in phytochemical research to indicate the areas for future commercial applications from poplar tree species. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Why Clone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than expected. Could we really clone dinosaurs? In theory? Yes. You would need: A well-preserved source ... it raises a number of ethical, legal, and social challenges that need to be considered. The vast ...

  19. Human Cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Judith A; Williams, Erin D

    2006-01-01

    .... Scientists in other labs, including Harvard University and the University of California at San Francisco, intend to produce cloned human embryos in order to derive stem cells for medical research...

  20. Mapped clone and functional analysis of leaf-color gene Ygl7 in a rice hybrid (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Hai-qing; Wang, Yue; He, Feng; Liu, Jin-ling; Xiao, Xiao; Shu, Zhi-feng; Li, Wei; Wang, Guo-huai; Wang, Guo-liang

    2014-01-01

    Leaf-color is an effective marker to identify the hybridization of rice. Leaf-color related genes function in chloroplast development and the photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis of higher plants. The ygl7 (yellow-green leaf 7) is a mutant with spontaneous yellow-green leaf phenotype across the whole lifespan but with no change to its yield traits. We cloned gene Ygl7 (Os03g59640) which encodes a magnesium-chelatase ChlD protein. Expression of ygl7 turns green-leaves to yellow, whereas RNAi-mediated silence of Ygl7 causes a lethal phenotype of the transgenic plants. This indicates the importance of the gene for rice plant. On the other hand, it corroborates that ygl7 is a non-null mutants. The content of photosynthetic pigment is lower in Ygl7 than the wild type, but its light efficiency was comparatively high. All these results indicated that the mutational YGL7 protein does not cause a complete loss of original function but instead acts as a new protein performing a new function. This new function partially includes its preceding function and possesses an additional feature to promote photosynthesis. Chl1, Ygl98, and Ygl3 are three alleles of the OsChlD gene that have been documented previously. However, mutational sites of OsChlD mutant gene and their encoded protein products were different in the three mutants. The three mutants have suppressed grain output. In our experiment, plant materials of three mutants (ygl7, chl1, and ygl98) all exhibited mutational leaf-color during the whole growth period. This result was somewhat different from previous studies. We used ygl7 as female crossed with chl1 and ygl98, respectively. Both the F1 and F2 generation display yellow-green leaf phenotype with their chlorophyll and carotenoid content falling between the values of their parents. Moreover, we noted an important phenomenon: ygl7-NIL's leaf-color is yellow, not yellowy-green, and this is also true of all back-crossed offspring with ygl7.

  1. Mapped clone and functional analysis of leaf-color gene Ygl7 in a rice hybrid (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-juan Deng

    Full Text Available Leaf-color is an effective marker to identify the hybridization of rice. Leaf-color related genes function in chloroplast development and the photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis of higher plants. The ygl7 (yellow-green leaf 7 is a mutant with spontaneous yellow-green leaf phenotype across the whole lifespan but with no change to its yield traits. We cloned gene Ygl7 (Os03g59640 which encodes a magnesium-chelatase ChlD protein. Expression of ygl7 turns green-leaves to yellow, whereas RNAi-mediated silence of Ygl7 causes a lethal phenotype of the transgenic plants. This indicates the importance of the gene for rice plant. On the other hand, it corroborates that ygl7 is a non-null mutants. The content of photosynthetic pigment is lower in Ygl7 than the wild type, but its light efficiency was comparatively high. All these results indicated that the mutational YGL7 protein does not cause a complete loss of original function but instead acts as a new protein performing a new function. This new function partially includes its preceding function and possesses an additional feature to promote photosynthesis. Chl1, Ygl98, and Ygl3 are three alleles of the OsChlD gene that have been documented previously. However, mutational sites of OsChlD mutant gene and their encoded protein products were different in the three mutants. The three mutants have suppressed grain output. In our experiment, plant materials of three mutants (ygl7, chl1, and ygl98 all exhibited mutational leaf-color during the whole growth period. This result was somewhat different from previous studies. We used ygl7 as female crossed with chl1 and ygl98, respectively. Both the F1 and F2 generation display yellow-green leaf phenotype with their chlorophyll and carotenoid content falling between the values of their parents. Moreover, we noted an important phenomenon: ygl7-NIL's leaf-color is yellow, not yellowy-green, and this is also true of all back-crossed offspring with ygl7.

  2. Mammalian cytochrome CYP2E1 triggered differential gene regulation in response to trichloroethylene (TCE) in a transgenic poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Won; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Farin, Federico M; Bammler, Theo K; Beyer, Richard P; Strand, Stuart E; Doty, Sharon L

    2010-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important environmental contaminant of soil, groundwater, and air. Studies of the metabolism of TCE by poplar trees suggest that cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved. Using poplar genome microarrays, we report a number of putative genes that are differentially expressed in response to TCE. In a previous study, transgenic hybrid poplar plants expressing mammalian cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) had increased metabolism of TCE. In the vector control plants for this construct, 24 h following TCE exposure, 517 genes were upregulated and 650 genes were downregulated over 2-fold when compared with the non-exposed vector control plants. However, in the transgenic CYP2E1 plant, line 78, 1,601 genes were upregulated and 1,705 genes were downregulated over 2-fold when compared with the non-exposed transgenic CYP2E1 plant. It appeared that the CYP2E1 transgenic hybrid poplar plants overexpressing mammalian CYP2E1 showed a larger number of differentially expressed transcripts, suggesting a metabolic pathway for TCE to metabolites had been initiated by activity of CYP2E1 on TCE. These results suggest that either the over-expression of the CYP2E1 gene or the abundance of TCE metabolites from CYP450 2E1 activity triggered a strong genetic response to TCE. Particularly, cytochrome p450s, glutathione S-transferases, glucosyltransferases, and ABC transporters in the CYP2E1 transgenic hybrid poplar plants were highly expressed compared with in vector controls.

  3. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a

  4. Yellow-Poplar: Characteristics and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Beck; Lino Della-Bianca

    1981-01-01

    This reference tool and field guide for foresters and other landmanagers includes a synthesis of information on the characteristics of yellow-poplar with guidelines for managing the species. It is based on research conducted by many individuals in State and Federal forestry organizations and in universities throughout the Eastern United States. This handbook...

  5. FEM growth and yield data monocultures - Poplar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Goudzwaard, L.; Jansen, J.J.; Oosterbaan, A.; Oldenburger, J.F.; Ouden, den J.

    2016-01-01

    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots,

  6. The Populus superoxide dismutase gene family and its responses to drought stress in transgenic poplar overexpressing a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Molina-Rueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutamine synthetase (GS plays a central role in plant nitrogen assimilation, a process intimately linked to soil water availability. We previously showed that hybrid poplar (Populus tremula X alba, INRA 717-1B4 expressing ectopically a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene (GS1a display enhanced tolerance to drought. Preliminary transcriptome profiling revealed that during drought, members of the superoxide dismutase (SOD family were reciprocally regulated in GS poplar when compared with the wild-type control, in all tissues examined. SOD was the only gene family found to exhibit such patterns. RESULTS: In silico analysis of the Populus genome identified 12 SOD genes and two genes encoding copper chaperones for SOD (CCSs. The poplar SODs form three phylogenetic clusters in accordance with their distinct metal co-factor requirements and gene structure. Nearly all poplar SODs and CCSs are present in duplicate derived from whole genome duplication, in sharp contrast to their predominantly single-copy Arabidopsis orthologs. Drought stress triggered plant-wide down-regulation of the plastidic copper SODs (CSDs, with concomitant up-regulation of plastidic iron SODs (FSDs in GS poplar relative to the wild type; this was confirmed at the activity level. We also found evidence for coordinated down-regulation of other copper proteins, including plastidic CCSs and polyphenol oxidases, in GS poplar under drought conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Both gene duplication and expression divergence have contributed to the expansion and transcriptional diversity of the Populus SOD/CCS families. Coordinated down-regulation of major copper proteins in drought-tolerant GS poplars supports the copper cofactor economy model where copper supply is preferentially allocated for plastocyanins to sustain photosynthesis during drought. Our results also extend previous findings on the compensatory regulation between chloroplastic CSDs and FSDs, and suggest that this

  7. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-12-02

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  8. Development of Multiplexed Marker Sets to Identify the Most Relevant Poplar Species for Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilke Schroeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the genus Populus, about 30 species are classified into six sections, of which some are cross-compatible. Besides naturally occurring hybrids, huge breeding programs have led to a high number of artificially produced hybrids, for which the determination of genetically involved species by morphological characteristics is often difficult. This necessitates the use of molecular markers for the identification of both maternal as well as paternal species, and in the case of complex hybrids, the genealogy. For this reason, we developed new chloroplast and nuclear markers for the differentiation of up to 19 poplar species, with one to 32 individuals per species regularly used in breeding programs based on already known barcoding, other chloroplast regions, and nuclear genes of interest. We developed methods to identify species by either species-specific nucleotide variations or, when no initial information for the species was given, by using a set of markers either in a procedure of exclusion or in a multiplexed marker set. The developed markers can all be used with low-cost equipment, and some can additionally be applied using a genetic analyzer. We combined these markers in multiplexes for a very fast and easy-to-use application for the identification of poplar species and their hybrids.

  9. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureysens, I.; Temmerman, L. de; Hastir, T.; Gysel, M. van; Ceulemans, R.

    2005-01-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha -1 of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha -1 for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha -1 for Zn over two years. - Poplar shows potential for phytoextraction of Al, Cd and Zn on slightly contaminated soils

  10. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture. II. Vertical distribution and phytoextraction potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureysens, I. [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)]. E-mail: ilse.laureysens@ua.ac.be; Temmerman, L. de [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR), Leuvensesteenweg 17, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Hastir, T. [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Gysel, M. van [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Chemistry, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Ceulemans, R. [University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2005-02-01

    Short rotation coppice cultures (SRC) are intensively managed, high-density plantations of multi-shoot trees. In April 1996, an SRC field trial with 17 different poplar clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. In December 1996 and January 2001, all shoots were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. For six clones, wood and bark were sampled at the bottom, middle and top of a shoot in August and November 2002. No significant height effect of metal concentration was found, but for wood, metal concentrations generally increased toward the top of the shoot in August, and decreased toward the top of the shoot in November. Phytoextraction potential of a clone was primarily determined by metal concentration and by biomass production. Shoot size and number of shoots per stool were less important, as a high biomass production could be achieved by producing a few large shoots or many smaller shoots. Clone Fritzi Pauley accumulated 1.4 kg ha{sup -1} of Al over two years; Wolterson and Balsam Spire showed a relatively high accumulation of Cd and Zn, i.e. averaging, respectively 47 and 57 g ha{sup -1} for Cd and 2.4 and 2.0 kg ha{sup -1} for Zn over two years. - Poplar shows potential for phytoextraction of Al, Cd and Zn on slightly contaminated soils.

  11. Estimation of the yield of poplars in plantations of fast-growing species within current results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fajman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current results are presented of allometric yield estimates of the poplar short rotation coppice. According to a literature review it is obvious that yield estimates, based on measurable quantities of a growing stand, depend not only on the selected tree specie or its clone, but also on the site location. The Jap-105 poplar clone (P. nigra x P. maximowiczii allometric relations were analyzed by regression methods aimed at the creation of the yield estimation methodology at a testing site in Domanínek. Altogether, the twelve polynomial dependences of particular measured quantities approved the high empirical data conformity with the tested regression model (correlation index from 0.9033 to 0.9967. Within the forward stepwise regression, factors were selected, which explain best examined estimates of the total biomass DM; i.e. d.b.h. and stem height. Furthermore, the KESTEMONT’s (1971 mo­del was verified with a satisfying conformity as well. Approving presented yield estimation methods, the presented models will be checked in a large-scale field trial.

  12. Plant-pathogen interactions: leaf physiology alterations in poplars infected with rust (Melampsora medusae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortari, Fermín; Guiamet, Juan José; Graciano, Corina

    2018-01-23

    Rust produced by Melampsora sp. is considered one of the most relevant diseases in poplar plantations. Growth reduction in poplar plantations takes place because rust, like other pathogens, alters leaf physiology. There is not a complete evaluation of several of the physiological traits that can be affected by rust at leaf level. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate, in an integrative way and in the same pathosystem, which physiological processes are affected when Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. leaves are infected by rust (Melampsora medusae Thümen). Leaves of two clones with different susceptibility to rust were analyzed. Field and pot experiments were performed, and several physiological traits were measured in healthy and infected leaves. We conclude that rust affects leaf mesophyll integrity, and so water movement in the leaf in liquid phase is affected. As a consequence, gas exchange is reduced, affecting both carbon fixation and transpiration. However, there is an increase in respiration rate, probably due to plant and fungal respiration. The increase in respiration rate is important in the reduction of net photosynthetic rate, but also some damage in the photosynthetic apparatus limits leaf capacity to fix carbon. The decrease in chlorophyll content would start later and seems not to explain the reduction in net photosynthetic rate. Both clones, although they have different susceptibility to rust, are affected in the same physiological mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Early selection of Eucalyptus clones in retrospective nursery test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the framework of the eucalyptus breeding programme in the Congo, two retrospective tests were conducted using mature clones in the field and young cuttings under nursery conditions with two hybrids: 13 clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis* Eucalyptus grandis for the test TC 82-1B and 17 clones of Eucalyptus ...

  14. Overexpression of Poplar Pyrabactin Resistance-Like Abscisic Acid Receptors Promotes Abscisic Acid Sensitivity and Drought Resistance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingling Yu

    Full Text Available Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting productivity of plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. Abscisic acid (ABA is a phytohormone that positively regulates seed dormancy and drought resistance. The PYR1 (Pyrabactin Resistance 1/ PYRL (PYR-Like/ RCAR (Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor (PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family has been identified and widely characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their functions in poplars remain unknown. Here, we report that 2 of 14 PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologues in poplar (Populus trichocarpa (PtPYRLs function as a positive regulator of the ABA signal transduction pathway. The Arabidopsis transient expression and yeast two-hybrid assays showed the interaction among PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, a clade A protein phosphatase 2C, and a SnRK2, suggesting that a core signalling complex for ABA signaling pathway exists in poplars. Phenotypic analysis of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 transgenic Arabidopsis showed that these two genes positively regulated the ABA responses during the seed germination. More importantly, the overexpression of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 substantially improved ABA sensitivity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic plants. In summary, we comprehensively uncovered the properties of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, which might be good target genes to genetically engineer drought-Resistant plants.

  15. Características da laranjeira 'Valência' sobre clones e híbridos de porta-enxertos tolerantes à tristeza Characteristics of 'Valencia' sweet orange onto clones and hybrid rootstocks tolerant to the tristeza disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bordignon

    2003-01-01

    ção precoce e elevadosºBrix e ratio desse genitor, tratando-se de determinantes genéticos independentes. Trifoliata induziu altos valores de ratio do suco e, todos os seus grupos de híbridos foram superiores à Sunki e ao Cravo. Quanto à produção, verificou-se a superioridade do Cravo em relação à Sunki e esta em relação ao Trifoliata, enquanto nos híbridos constatou-se ampla variabilidade genética, sendo 228 significativamente mais produtivos que o Trifoliata, 100 superiores à Sunki e 47 ao Cravo. Os resultados evidenciaram alto potencial de seleção desses híbridos.Variability and selection potential of 396 hybrids of Rangpur lime 'Limeira', (Citrus limonia (C, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki (S, Sour orange 'São Paulo'(C. aurantium (A and Trifoliate orange 'Davis A'(Poncirus trifoliata (T tolerant to the tristeza disease were studied, comparatively to the genitors Rangpur lime, Sunki and Trifoliate orange. Hybrids TxA, TxS, SxT, CxS, SxC, CxA and SxA were investigated as to yield of first three crops, productivity and several vegetative and industrial characteristics of Valencia sweet orange onto them. Rangpur lime, Trifoliate orange and T x S, S x T, T x A, C x A hybrids initiated yielding before Sunki and S x C, C x S, S x A hybrids. This result indicates a dominance of the precocious yield of Trifoliate even in the hybrids with Sunki and conversely, the opposite trend of Sunki and its hybrids, except in the combination with Trifoliate orange. Yield per canopy area induced by Trifoliate orange was low, contrasting with Rangpur lime, Sunki mandarin and T x S, S x T hybrids. It was observed a close relationship between the diameter of scions, the diameter of rootstocks right after transplant to the field and the same parameters in the subsequent years. Height, canopy, rootstock and scion trunk diameters were highly correlated and useful for composing an index vigor. Trifoliate orange and Sunki mandarin are the most divergent genitors regarding vigor, and the

  16. Evaluation of Indirect Measurement Method of Seasonal Patterns of Leaf Area Index in a High-Density Short Rotation Coppice Culture of Poplar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tripathi, Abishek; Fischer, Milan; Orság, Matěj; Marek, Michal V.; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2016), s. 549-556 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : SunScan Plant Canopy Analyzer * litterfall * specific leaf area * poplar clone J-105 Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy

  17. Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-20

    Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA). A team of scientists headed by Alison Murdoch at the University of Newcastle received permission...not yet reported success in isolating stem cells from a cloned human embryo. A research team headed by Ian Wilmut at the University of Edinburgh...research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public

  18. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. The effects of gamma irradiation on growth and expression of genes encoding DNA repair-related proteins in Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Mitsuru; Nanjo, Tokihiko; Yoshida, Kazumasa

    2012-07-01

    In this study, to elucidate the mechanisms of adaptation and tolerance to ionizing radiation in woody plants, we investigated the various biological effects of γ-rays on the Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra L. var. italica Du Roi). We detected abnormal leaf shape and color, fusion, distorted venation, shortened internode, fasciation and increased axillary shoots in γ-irradiated poplar plants. Acute γ-irradiation with a dose of 100Gy greatly reduced the height, stem diameter and biomass of poplar plantlets. After receiving doses of 200 and 300Gy, all the plantlets stopped growing, and then most of them withered after 4-10 weeks of γ-irradiation. Comet assays showed that nuclear DNA in suspension-cultured poplar cells had been damaged by γ-rays. To determine whether DNA repair-related proteins are involved in the response to γ-rays in Lombardy poplars, we cloned the PnRAD51, PnLIG4, PnKU70, PnXRCC4, PnPCNA and PnOGG1 cDNAs and investigated their mRNA expression. The PnRAD51, PnLIG4, PnKU70, PnXRCC4 and PnPCNA mRNAs were increased by γ-rays, but the PnOGG1 mRNA was decreased. Moreover, the expression of PnLIG4, PnKU70 and PnRAD51 was also up-regulated by Zeocin known as a DNA cleavage agent. These observations suggest that the morphogenesis, growth and protective gene expression in Lombardy poplars are severely affected by the DNA damage and unknown cellular events caused by γ-irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Some new and noteworthy diseases of poplars in India. [Botryodiplodia sett-rot; Alternaria tip blight; Cladosporium leaf spot; Fusarium pink incrustation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.

    1983-09-01

    Four new diseases of poplars namely Botryodiplodia sett-rott, Alternaria tip blight, Cladosporium leaf spot and Fusarium pink incrustation are described in this paper. Botryodiplodia palmarum causes sett-rott of poplars both at pre-sprouting and post-sprouting stage. The pathogen also causes mortality of poplar plants in the field within 4-6 weeks after planting. Alternaria stage of Pleuspora infectoria has been found as the cause of blackening and dying of growing tips and young leaves of a Populus sp. and P. deltoides in nurseries. Cladosporium humile has been recorded as the cause of brown spot followed by crumpling and premature shedding of leaves in P. ciliata, P. nigra and P. alba. The cause of Fusarium incrustation disease on P. cilata has been identified as Fusarium sp. of Gibbosum group. Pathogenicity of Botryodiplodia palmarum and Alternaria stage of Pleospora infectoria was confirmed by artificial inoculations. Brief descriptions of Alternaria, Cladosporium and Fusarium are also given. The paper also gives a short account of some noteworthy diseases recorded on poplars namely Ganoderma root rot, foliage ruts and stem cankers. Ganoderma root-rot is found to reach alarming proportions in closely spaced poplar plantations. Melampsora ciliata, an indigenous rust, is found to attack mainly clones of P. deltoides, P. yunnanensis, P. trichocarpa, P. alba and some cultivars of P. x euramericana in nurseries. A brief account of three types of stem cankers i.e. cankers due to pink disease fungus, Corticium salmonicolor, sun-scaled cankers and cankers associated with slime flux on various clones of P. deltoides is also given.

  1. Genetic Modification of Short Rotation Poplar Biomass Feedstock for Efficient Conversion to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.

    2000-08-30

    The Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing poplars (Populus species and hybrids) as sources of renewable energy, i.e., ethanol. Notable increases in adaptability, volume productivity, and pest/stress resistance have been achieved via classical selection and breeding and intensified cultural practices. Significant advances have also been made in the efficiencies of harvesting and handling systems. Given these and anticipated accomplishments, program leaders are considering shifting some attention to genetically modifying feedstock physical and chemical properties, so as to improve the efficiency with which feedstocks can be converted to ethanol. This report provides an in-depth review and synthesis of opportunities for and feasibilities of genetically modifying feedstock qualities via classical selection and breeding, marker-aided selection and breeding, and genetic transformation. Information was collected by analysis of the literature, with emphasis on that published since 1995, and interviews with prominent scientists, breeders, and growers. Poplar research is well advanced, and literature is abundant. The report therefore primarily reflects advances in poplars, but data from other species, particularly other shortrotation hardwoods, are incorporated to fill gaps. An executive summary and recommendations for research, development, and technology transfer are provided immediately after the table of contents. The first major section of the report describes processes most likely to be used for conversion of poplar biomass to ethanol, the various physical and chemical properties of poplar feedstocks, and how such properties are expected to affect process efficiency. The need is stressed for improved understanding of the impact of change on both overall process and individual process step efficiencies. The second part documents advances in trait measurement instrumentation and methodology

  2. [Whole cDNA sequence cloning and expression of chicken L-FABP gene and its relationship with lipid deposition of hybrid chickens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Wang, Dong; Sun, Dong-Xiao; Xu, Gui-Yun; Li, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Yuan

    2011-07-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is closely related to intracellular transportation and deposition of lipids. A positive differential displayed fragment was found in the liver tissue among Silkie (CC), CAU-brown chicken (CD), and their reciprocal hybrids (CD and DC) at 8 weeks-old using differential display RT-PCR techniques (DDRT-PCR). Through recycling, sequencing, and alignment analysis, the fragment was identified as chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein gene (L-FABP, GenBank accession number AY321365). Reverse Northern dot blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the avian L-FABP gene was over-expressed in the liver tissue of the reciprocal hybrids (CD and DC) compared to their parental lines (CC and DD), which was consistent with the fact that higher abdomen fat weight and wider inter-muscular fat width observed in the reciprocal hybrids. Considering the higher expression of L-FABP may contribute to the increased lipid deposition in the hybrid chickens, the functional study of avian L-FABP is warranted in future.

  3. Production physiology and morphology of Populus species and their hybrids grown under short rotation. III. Seasonal carbon allocation patterns from branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.E.; Hinckley, T.M.; Stettler, R.F. [Washington Univ., College of Forest Resources, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    A study was carried out to compare highly productive cones, in the Pacific Northwest, in terms of contrasting growth and morphology. The objective of the study was to determine seasonal differences in carbon allocation patterns among 1- and 2-year old trees of Populus deltoides Bartr, and 2 of their interspecific hybrids. The study examined if there are different patterns of carbon allocation associated with the more productive poplar clones, how these patterns vary over the course of the growing season and from the first and the second year, if sylleptic branches vary from proleptic branches in their carbon allocation patterns, if there are the translocation patterns within branches and the degree of branch autonomy that exists with sylleptic and proleptic branches and if these patterns vary during the growing season. Previous findings on general patterns of carbon allocation in poplar clones were confirmed, and new dimensions were introduced regarding differences among branch types and clones. In the first year, carbon export from sylleptic branches increased over the growing season, and they export primarily toward the lower stem and roots. In the second year, important differences in translocation efficiency occurred among branch types with the sylleptic branches contributing more than proleptic branches, on a per unit mass basis, to the growth of the tree. Transport patterns, within branches and among branches of different order, were similar to those in the main stem, with phenology playing an important role in controlling the sink activity of the apical portion of the growing axis. Exchange of photosynthates between adjacent branches of the same order or between branches and main stem leaves are minimal, supporting an hypothesis of branch autonomy. 29 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Limitations for phytoextraction management on metal-polluted soils with poplar short rotation coppice-evidence from a 6-year field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, E; Annicaerta, B; De Moor, S; Van Nevel, L; De Fraeye, M; Meiresonne, L; Vangronsveld, J; Tack, F M G; Ok, Y S; Meers, Erik

    2018-01-02

    Poplar clones were studied for their phytoextraction capacity in the second growth cycle (6-year growth) on a site in the Belgian Campine region, which is contaminated with Cd and Zn via historic atmospheric deposition of nearby zinc smelter activities. The field trial revealed regrowth problems for some clones that could not be predicted in the first growth cycle. Four allometric relations were assessed for their capacity to predict biomass yield in the second growth cycle. A power function based on the shoot diameter best estimates the biomass production of poplar with R 2 values between 0.94 and 0.98. The woody biomass yield ranged from 2.1 to 4.8 ton woody Dry Mass (DM) ha -1 y -1 . The primary goal was to reduce soil concentrations of metals caused by phytoextraction. Nevertheless, increased metal concentrations were determined in the topsoil. This increase can partially be explained by the input of metals from deeper soil layers in the top soil through litterfall. The phytoextraction option with poplar short rotation coppice in this setup did not lead to the intended soil remediation in a reasonable time span. Therefore, harvest of the leaf biomass is put forward as a crucial part of the strategy for soil remediation through Cd/Zn phytoextraction.

  5. Effects of long-term ambient ozone exposure on biomass and wood traits in poplar treated with ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriero, G.; Emiliani, G.; Giovannelli, A.; Hoshika, Y.; Manning, W.J.; Traversi, M.L.; Paoletti, E.

    2015-01-01

    This is the longest continuous experiment where ethylenediurea (EDU) was used to protect plants from ozone (O 3 ). Effects of long-term ambient O 3 exposure (23 ppm h AOT40) on biomass of an O 3 sensitive poplar clone (Oxford) were examined after six years from in-ground planting. Trees were irrigated with either water or 450 ppm EDU. Above (−51%) and below-ground biomass (−47%) was reduced by O 3 although the effect was significant only for stem and coarse roots. Ambient O 3 decreased diameter of the lower stem, and increased moisture content along the stem of not-protected plants (+16%). No other change in the physical wood structure was observed. A comparison with a previous assessment in the same experiment suggested that O 3 effects on biomass partitioning to above-ground organs depend on the tree ontogenetic stage. The root/shoot ratios did not change, suggesting that previous short-term observations of reduced allocation to tree roots may be overestimated. - Highlights: • 6-y ambient O 3 exposure was investigated in a sensitive poplar clone. • EDU irrigation protected poplar against ambient O 3 exposure. • O 3 reduced biomass of roots and stem, but did not change biomass allocation. • O 3 decreased stem diameter only in the lower third of the stem. • O 3 increased moisture content of the wood along the stem. - Ozone exposure reduced lateral branching, leaves and roots in younger trees, and affected stem and roots in older trees, while shoot/root ratios did not change.

  6. A heterogeneous boron distribution in soil influences the poplar root system architecture development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, R.; Robinson, B. H.; Hartmann, S.; Lehmann, E.; Schulin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Poplars are well suited for the phytomanagement of boron (B)-contaminated sites, due to their high transpiration rate and tolerance to elevated soil B concentrations. However, the uptake and the fate of B in poplar stands are not well understood. This information is crucial to improve the design of phytomanagement systems, where the primary role of poplars is to reduce B leaching by reducing the water flux through the contaminated material. Like other trace elements, B occurs heterogeneously in soils. Concentrations can differ up to an order of magnitude within centimetres. These gradients affect plant root growth and thus via preferential flow along the roots water and mass transport in soils to ground and surface waters. Generally there are three possible reactions of plant roots to patches with elevated trace element concentrations in soils: indifference, avoidance, or foraging. While avoidance or indifference might seem to be the most obvious strategies, foraging cannot be excluded a priori, because of the high demand of poplars for B compared to other tree species. We aimed to determine the rooting strategies of poplars in soils where B is either homo- or heterogeneously distributed. We planted 5 cm cuttings of Populus tremula var. Birmensdorf clones in aluminum (Al) containers with internal dimensions of 64 x 67 x 1.2 cm. The soil used was subsoil from northern Switzerland with a naturally low B and organic C concentration. We setup two treatments and a control with three replicates each. We spiked a bigger and a smaller portion of the soil with the same amount of B(OH)3-salt, in order to obtain soil concentrations of 7.5 mg B kg-1 and 20 mg B kg-1. We filled the containers with (a) un-spiked soil, (b) the 7.5 mg B kg-1 soil and (c) heterogeneously. The heterogeneous treatment consisted of one third 20 mg B kg-1 soil and two thirds control soil. We grew the poplars in a small greenhouse over 2 months and from then on in a climate chamber for another 3 months

  7. Bedding Improves Yellow-Poplar Growth on Fragipan Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis

    1979-01-01

    Yellow-poplar can be grown on soils that have a shallow fragipan--but unless such sites are bedded, growth is likely to be extremely poor. In a Tennessee study, bedding increased height of planted yellow-poplar over 5 years, but fertilizer did not. Because of the cost of bedding and the availability of nonfragipan sites, it would ordinarily be better not to plant...

  8. Estimation of cost-effectiveness of poplar wood production in poplar plantations in Ravni Srem based on the cost-benefit method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of polar cultivation was analyzed based on one of the indicators for the assessment of agriculture and forestry projects - cost-benefit (r. Poplar plantations of the clone I-214 of different rotations and on different soil types were analyzed in the area of Ravni Srem. The aim of the study was to evaluate the justification of the invested financial means in wood production in poplar plantations, based on the analysis of costs and receipts at different plantation ages, using the cost-benefit method. It was found that in all 13 analyzed compartments, the average cost-benefit ratio was 0.36. This means that the costs at the discount rate of 12% are about 2.8 times higher than the receipts. Accordingly, it can be asserted that it is economically unjustified to invest in the projected stands, but only in the case when the value of social capital accounts for 12%. Based on the analysis of sensitivity of the cost-benefit method, it was concluded that cost benefit ratio for p=8-12% was below 1 within the study range of costs and receipts changes, while for p=4-6% this ratio was above 1 in some cases of decrease in costs, i.e. increase in receipts. It was noted that the change in r depending on the change in costs, developed by the exponential function, and the change in r depending on the change in receipts developed by the linear function. Also, it was concluded that at the lower discount rates, the values of r moved towards 1, so for 8% r=0.71, and for 6% r=0.94. The value at the discount rate of 4% indicates that the project is cost-effective and that the invested € 1 makes € 1.22. This fact is especially important when poplar cultivation projects are ranked. For this reason, this method is used for the evaluation of social benefits, i.e. for economic analyses. It is almost never applied in the analysis of private investments.

  9. The Clone Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  10. Cloning of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G A

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analysed. (letter to the editor)

  11. Cloning of observables

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analyzed.

  12. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) under boron toxicity revealed candidate genes responsible in boron uptake, transport and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Kubilay; Uylaş, Senem

    2016-12-01

    Boron (B) is an essential nutrient for normal growth of plants. Despite its low abundance in soils, it could be highly toxic to plants in especially arid and semi-arid environments. Poplars are known to be tolerant species to B toxicity and accumulation. However, physiological and gene regulation responses of these trees to B toxicity have not been investigated yet. Here, B accumulation and tolerance level of black poplar clones were firstly tested in the current study. Rooted cutting of these clones were treated with elevated B toxicity to select the most B accumulator and tolerant genotype. Then we carried out a microarray based transcriptome experiment on the leaves and roots of this genotype to find out transcriptional networks, genes and molecular mechanisms behind B toxicity tolerance. The results of the study indicated that black poplar is quite suitable for phytoremediation of B pollution. It could resist 15 ppm soil B content and >1500 ppm B accumulation in leaves, which are highly toxic concentrations for almost all agricultural plants. Transcriptomics results of study revealed totally 1625 and 1419 altered probe sets under 15 ppm B toxicity in leaf and root tissues, respectively. The highest induction were recorded for the probes sets annotated to tyrosine aminotransferase, ATP binding cassette transporters, glutathione S transferases and metallochaperone proteins. Strong up regulation of these genes attributed to internal excretion of B into the cell vacuole and existence of B detoxification processes in black poplar. Many other candidate genes functional in signalling, gene regulation, antioxidation, B uptake and transport processes were also identified in this hyper B accumulator plant for the first time with the current study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic variability in Sambucus nigra L. clones : a preliminary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. ONLINE ... yield and production evaluations revealed that clones from ..... Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol. Ecol. ... and genetic evaluation of interspecific hybrids within the genus.

  14. Studies on fertilizing process of multi-maleparents of poplar using 3H-labelled nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yifan; Du Shengming; Pang Guangchang

    1986-01-01

    P. Poplar is a hybrib by crossing P. simonii with P. pyramisaliz and Salix matsudana. The hybrid is highly toleant to infertile and soil. In this experiment the second male parent (Salix matsudana) was labelled by 3 H-thymidine and 3 H-adenosine to study its function in fertilization process. The results showed the nucleic acid of Salix matsudana has entered into the fertilized embryo sac, as shown by the silver spots on the radiogaraphs of paraffin section from embryo sac 5-8 days after pollination. The radiation intensity of the hybrid seeds of Salix matsudana labelled with 3 H-A+ 3 H-T as male parent was about two times higher than that of the background and also higher than that of the controls. The more important character was that the trunk color and the winter-bud of P. poplar were similar to those of Salix matsutana. In conclusion, not only the nucleic acids of Salix matsudana entered into the fertilized egg, but also some characters of salix matsudana in the hybrid

  15. Signatures of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase deficiency in poplar lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Pollet, Brigitte; Mila, Isabelle; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Jouanin, Lise; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John

    2004-02-01

    A series of transgenic poplars down-regulated for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) was analyzed by thioacidolysis. Among the lignin-derived monomers, the indene compounds that were recently shown to originate from sinapaldehyde incorporated into lignins through 8-O-4-cross-coupling, were found to increase as a function of CAD deficiency level. While these syringyl markers were recovered in substantial amounts in the most severely depressed lines, the markers for coniferaldehyde incorporation were recovered in only low amounts. In conjunction with these additional sinapaldehyde units and relative to the control samples, lignins in CAD-deficient poplar lines had less conventional syringyl-units and beta-O-4-bonds and more free phenolic groups. We found that almost half of the polymers in the most deficient lines could be solubilized in alkali and at room temperature. This unusual behavior suggests that lignins in CAD-deficient poplars occur as small, alkali-leachable lignin domains. That mainly sinapaldehyde incorporates into the lignins of CAD-deficient poplars suggests that the recently identified sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), which is structurally distinct from the CAD enzyme targeted herein, does not play any substantial role in constitutive lignification in poplar.

  16. Chemical studies on oils derived from aspen poplar wood, cellulose, and an isolated aspen poplar lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, R L; Pepper, J M; Roy, J C; Mathews, J F

    1983-01-01

    An initial study has been made of the chemical nature of the oil phase resulting from the conversion of aspen poplar wood, cellulose, and an isolated lignin from the aspen poplar as a result of their interactions with water and carbon monoxide in the presence of sodium carbonate at 360 degrees C. Gas chromatographic analysis of the sodium hydroxide soluble fractions from each substrate revealed similar spectra of alkyl-substituted phenols. The relative abundance of identified low molecular weight phenolic compounds decreased from lignin to wood to cellulose. This was in agreement with the known phenolic nature of lignin. As well, it confirmed the synthesis during reaction of such compounds from a carbohydrate substrate. Gas chromatographic analysis of the whole oils also revealed the presence in each case of several alkyl-substituted cyclopentanones whose relative abundance decreased from cellulose to wood to lignin. Silica gel column separation of the oils, after a charcoal treatment, followed by capillary gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric analyses of the resulting fraction indicated the presence of other higher molecular weight phenols, napthols, cycloalkanols, and polycyclic and long chain alkanes and alkenes.

  17. Multipartite asymmetric quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iblisdir, S.; Gisin, N.; Acin, A.; Cerf, N.J.; Filip, R.; Fiurasek, J.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the optimal distribution of quantum information over multipartite systems in asymmetric settings. We introduce cloning transformations that take N identical replicas of a pure state in any dimension as input and yield a collection of clones with nonidentical fidelities. As an example, if the clones are partitioned into a set of M A clones with fidelity F A and another set of M B clones with fidelity F B , the trade-off between these fidelities is analyzed, and particular cases of optimal N→M A +M B cloning machines are exhibited. We also present an optimal 1→1+1+1 cloning machine, which is an example of a tripartite fully asymmetric cloner. Finally, it is shown how these cloning machines can be optically realized

  18. Life cycle assessment: an application to poplar for energy cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Bacenetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of the bioenergy sector has led to an increasing interest in energy crops. Short rotation coppices (SRC are forestry management systems in which fast-growing tree species are produced under intensive cultivation practices to obtain high wood chips yields. In Italy, most SRC plantations consist of poplar biomass-clones. SRC plantations can be carried out with different management systems with diverse cutting times; consequently, the cultivation system can be crucial for attaining high yields depending on: i short and ii medium cutting frequency. Nowadays, the larger part of Italian SRC is based on 2-year cutting short rotation forestry (SRF but the best quality of wood chips is linked to 5-year plantation medium rotation forestry (MRF. This work compares an SRF and an MRF poplar plantation located in the Po Valley in northern Italy. In particular, a life cycle assessment (LCA was carried out to evaluate their energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. The LCA software SimaPro 7.10 was used to create the LCA model and to assure an accurate impact assessment calculation. The analysis shows several differences between MRF and SRF in terms of fertiliser requirements and intensive agricultural activities. Results highlight that MRF produces a more sustainable wood chip production than SRF according to energy and environmental concerns. Furthermore, hot spots were identified in both SRF and MRF due to the high energy consumption and the related emissions. These hot spots were: i mineral fertilisation; ii mechanical weed-control; iii harvesting and biomass transport.

  19. Analysis of Location Quotient index of poplar wood processing value chain in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    omid hosseinzadeh; Marzieh Hajjarian; Samira Porbar

    2016-01-01

    Value added in the poplar wood value chain has great economic effects for poplar farmers and have a fundamental role in sustainable supplying of required cellulosic materials of industries in long-term. The purpose of this study was to analyze the value chain of poplar and use the results to improve it. In order to determine the poplar value chain, Porter's value chain analysis framework was used. The statistical society consists of 76 experts to identify poplar wood value who were active in ...

  20. Quantum cloning and signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Weihs, G.; Zeilinger, A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the close connections between cloning of quantum states and superluminal signaling. We present an optimal universal cloning machine based on stimulated emission recently proposed by the authors. As an instructive example, we show how a scheme for superluminal communication based on this cloning machine fails. (Authors)

  1. Sulfate Metabolites of 4-Monochlorobiphenyl in Whole Poplar Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Guangshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2012-01-01

    4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) has been proven to be transformed into hydroxylated metabolites of PCB3 (OH-PCB3s) in whole poplar plants in our previous work. However, hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs, including OH-PCB3s, as the substrates of sulfotransferases have not been studied in many organisms including plants in vivo. Poplar (Populus deltoides × nigra, DN34) was used to investigate the further metabolism from OH-PCB3s to PCB3 sulfates because it is a model plant and one that is frequently...

  2. [Phosphorus transfer between mixed poplar and black locust seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Jia, Liming; Hao, Baogang; Wen, Xuejun; Zhai, Mingpu

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, the 32P radio-tracer technique was applied to study the ways of phosphorus transfer between poplar (Populus euramericana cv. 'I-214') and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). A five compartment root box (18 cm x 18 cm x 26 cm) was used for testing the existence of the hyphal links between the roots of two tree species when inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae). Populus I-214 (donor) and Robinia pseudoacacia (receiver) were grown in two terminal compartments, separated by a 2 cm root-free soil layer. The root compartments were lined with bags of nylon mesh (38 microns) that allowed the passage of hyphae but not roots. The top soil of a mixed stand of poplar and black locust, autoclaved at 121 degrees C for one hour, was used for growing seedlings for testing. In 5 compartment root box, mycorrhizal root colonization of poplar was 34%, in which VA mycorrhizal fungus was inoculated, whereas 26% mycorrhizal root colonization was observed in black locust, the other terminal compartment, 20 weeks after planting. No root colonization was observed in non-inoculated plant pairs. This indicated that the mycorrhizal root colonization of black locust was caused by hyphal spreading from the poplar. Test of tracer isotope of 32P showed that the radioactivity of the treatment significantly higher than that of the control (P mycorrhizal fungus was inoculated in poplar root. Furthermore, mycorrhizal interconnections between the roots of poplar and black locust seedlings was observed in situ by binocular in root box. All these experiments showed that the hyphal links was formed between the roots of two species of trees inoculated by VA mycorrhizal fungus. Four treatments were designed according to if there were two nets (mesh 38 microns), 2 cm apart, between the poplar and black locust, and if the soil in root box was pasteurized. Most significant differences of radioactivity among four treatments appeared 44 days after feeding

  3. Effect of different biochars on Nitrogen uptake in poplar trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elizabeth; Tonon, Giustino; Scandellari, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Influence of biochar on soil nitrogen transformation and plant uptake has been reported. This paper presents preliminary results of plant N uptake in poplars by using 15N isotope tracer approach Two types of biochar were applied to two sets of pots containing only sand and each pot received a pre-rooted poplar cutting. Half of the pots were inoculated with commercial mycorrhizal gel and the other half were left without. It is intended to provide information on how biochar, mycorrhiza and root interaction mediate nitrogen uptake and organ allocation.

  4. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (DOP-PCR) products were hybridized with cDNA of the male spinach flowers in florescence. The female .... China), 1 μL (3.5 U/μL) T4 ligase and sterile double- distilled ... Cloning of hybrid PCR products and screening of cDNA sequence.

  5. Differentiation of Populus species using chloroplast single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers--essential for comprehensible and reliable poplar breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, H; Hoeltken, A M; Fladung, M

    2012-03-01

    Within the genus Populus several species belonging to different sections are cross-compatible. Hence, high numbers of interspecies hybrids occur naturally and, additionally, have been artificially produced in huge breeding programmes during the last 100 years. Therefore, determination of a single poplar species, used for the production of 'multi-species hybrids' is often difficult, and represents a great challenge for the use of molecular markers in species identification. Within this study, over 20 chloroplast regions, both intergenic spacers and coding regions, have been tested for their ability to differentiate different poplar species using 23 already published barcoding primer combinations and 17 newly designed primer combinations. About half of the published barcoding primers yielded amplification products, whereas the new primers designed on the basis of the total sequenced cpDNA genome of Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray yielded much higher amplification success. Intergenic spacers were found to be more variable than coding regions within the genus Populus. The highest discrimination power of Populus species was found in the combination of two intergenic spacers (trnG-psbK, psbK-psbl) and the coding region rpoC. In barcoding projects, the coding regions matK and rbcL are often recommended, but within the genus Populus they only show moderate variability and are not efficient in species discrimination. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Poplar response to cadmium and lead soil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana; De Marco, Alessandra; Proietti, Chiara; Hanousek, Karla; Sedak, Marija; Bilandžić, Nina; Jakovljević, Tamara

    2017-10-01

    An outdoor pot experiment was designed to study the potential of poplar (Populus nigra 'Italica') in phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Poplar was treated with a combination of different concentrations of Cd (w = 10, 25, 50mgkg -1 soil) and Pb (400, 800, 1200mgkg -1 soil) and several physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored including the accumulation and distribution of metals in different plant parts (leaf, stem, root). Simultaneously, the changes in the antioxidant system in roots and leaves were monitored to be able to follow synergistic effects of both heavy metals. Moreover, a statistical analysis based on the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) was performed in order to determine the most important predictors affecting growth and antioxidative machinery activities of poplar under heavy metal stress. The study demonstrated that tested poplar could be a good candidate for phytoextraction processes of Cd in moderately contaminated soils, while in heavily contaminated soil it could be only considered as a phytostabilisator. For Pb remediation only phytostabilisation process could be considered. By using RFA we pointed out that it is important to conduct the experiments in an outdoor space and include environmental conditions in order to study more realistic changes of growth parameters and accumulation and distribution of heavy metals. Also, to be able to better understand the interactions among previously mentioned parameters, it is important to conduct the experiments during prolonged time exposure., This is especially important for the long life cycle woody species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. FEM growth and yield data Monocultures - Poplar (revised version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Goudzwaard, L.; Jansen, J.J.; Schmidt, P.; Oosterbaan, A.; Oldenburger, J.; Ouden, den J.

    2017-01-01

    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species with only a few plots,

  8. Investment appraisal of a poplar plantation aged 42 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial profitability of poplar cultivation was analyzed in an artificial poplar plantation in Serbia. The aim of this study was to validate the invested financial means in the artificial poplar plantation, on the basis of the analysis of costs and receipts during a 42-year rotation, on alluvial semigley, at a discount rate of 12%. Methods of dynamic investment calculation (net present value - NPV, internal rate of return - IRR, benefit-cost method - B/C and payback period - PBP were used. The investigated plantations were established from Populus x euramericana cl. I-214, with a planting spacing of 6 x 3 m. At the calculation discount rate of 12%, the project for the production cycle of 42 years was not cost-effective from the economic aspect. The discount rate of 6% can be accepted in the studied plot because of the better site (alluvial semigley, but the oldness of the stand is unfavourable. For the studied sample plot, IRR was 5.51 %. B/C at r=12% in the study compartment was 0.24. The analysis shows that PBP is practically unacceptable for the investor at the discount rate of 6%. In practice, it is necessary to improve the position of producers in getting financial means for investment in poplar cultivation, so as to stimulate the establishment of artificial poplar plantations, especially in the private sector (on private land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008, TR 31041 and Value chain of non-wood forest products and its role in development of forestry sector in Serbia

  9. Statement on Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as our understanding of this technology advances. Support Stem Cell Research (including Research Cloning) AAAS supports stem cell research, including the use of nuclear transplantation techniques (also ...

  10. College Reading: Clone, Illegitimate Child, or Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Anthony V.

    The college reading movement, its methods, organization, and, implicitly, the career opportunities within it, is critiqued in this report in terms of four categories of programs: (1) rapid reading with ancillary attention to study skills; (2) remedial type reading and study skills; (3) compensatory type programs; and (4) content area improvement…

  11. Delayed reproductive death as a dominant phenotype in cell clones surviving X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.P.; Little, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Residual damage manifested as reduced cloning efficiency was observed in many of the cloned progeny of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human carcinoma SQ-20B cells surviving X-irradiation. This stable phenotype, which we have termed delayed reproductive death, persisted for >50 generations of cell replication post-irradiation. Clones showing this phenotype were aneuploid, and formed colonies with a high proportion of giant cells. By somatic cell hybridization of CHO clones, the delayed reproductive death phenotype was found to be a dominant trait; the cloning efficiency of hybrid clones was persistently depressed, as compared with that of control hybrid cells. These results suggest that delayed reproductive death represents a specific cellular response that may persist in some of the progeny of mammalian cells for long periods after X-irradiation. (author)

  12. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  13. Political culture and the labour movement: a comparison between Poplar and West Ham, 1889-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Banks-Conney, Diana Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    This thesis compares two areas of East London, Poplar and West Ham,that ultimately became strongholds of the Labour Party. The thesis attemptsto answer the crucial question of why, prior to 1914, it seemed as if Labour had succeeded in South West Ham but had failed to achieve similar representation in Poplar. This thesis considers that although contemporaries had identified similar social and economic problems in both Poplar and West Ham in the early twentieth century, more detailed analysis ...

  14. Cloning-free CRISPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, Mandana; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Geijsen, Niels; Sherwood, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    We present self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR), a technology that allows for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic mutation and site-specific knockin transgene creation within several hours by circumventing the need to clone a site-specific single-guide RNA (sgRNA) or knockin homology construct for each

  15. Cloning, killing, and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, J

    1999-01-01

    One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation. PMID:10226909

  16. An Empirical Assessment of Transgene Flow from a Bt Transgenic Poplar Plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    Full Text Available To assess the possible impact of transgenic poplar plantations on the ecosystem, we analyzed the frequency and distance of gene flow from a mature male transgenic Populus nigra plantation carrying the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene (Bt poplar and the survival of Bt poplar seeds. The resultant Bt poplar seeds occurred at a frequency of ~0.15% at 0 m to ~0.02% at 500 m from the Bt poplar plantation. The germination of Bt poplar seeds diminished within three weeks in the field (germination rate from 68% to 0% compared to 48% after three weeks of storage at 4°C. The survival rate of seedlings in the field was 0% without any treatment but increased to 1.7% under the addition of four treatments (cleaning and trimming, watering, weeding, and covering with plastic film to maintain moisture after being seeded in the field for eight weeks. The results of this study indicate that gene flow originating from the Bt poplar plantation occurred at an extremely low level through pollen or seeds under natural conditions. This study provides first-hand field data on the extent of transgene flow in poplar plantations and offers guidance for the risk assessment of transgenic poplar plantations.

  17. 21st Session of the International Poplar Commission (IPC-2000): poplar and willow culture: meeting the needs of society and the environment; 200 September 24-28; Vancouver, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Isebrands; J. Richardson

    2000-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities on poplar and willow breeding, diseases, insects, production, and utilization are described in 220 abstracts from the International Poplar Commission meeting in Vancouver, Washington, September 24-28, 2000.

  18. Fungus diseases of poplar that pose a threat to Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, E.; Cellerino, G.P.; Garibaldi, A.

    1981-01-01

    European Economic Community Directive No. 7793 on the exchange of, and trade in, plant material between member countries specified Hypoxylon mammatum, Mycosphaerella populorum, Melampsora medusae and Xanthomonas populi as the causal agents of serious poplar diseases the introduction of which into Italy should be avoided. Information is given on the geographic distribution, morphology and biology of the four pathogens, together with notes on the symptoms of attack, host plants and damage caused. Control measures to avoid their introduction and spread are suggested.

  19. With willows and poplars against the heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaros, M.

    2002-01-01

    Special kinds of trees take out cadmium, lead and zinc from the soil, helping its rehabilitation in contaminated regions. A new method for soil rehabilitation (phytoremediation) based on plants is described. Special willows and poplars have the capability to extract as a sponge heavy metals from the soils and store them in their leaves. For example, they can uptake 700 times the amount of cadmium than the normal plants do. (nevyjel)

  20. Barcoding poplars (Populus L. from western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianju Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M, trnG-psbK (G and psbK-psbI (P, and trnH-psbA (H and rbcL (R; the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I, and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in

  1. Heat transfer mechanisms in poplar wood undergoing torrefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Idris O.; Mahmud, Shohel; Dutta, Animesh; Tasnim, Syeda Humaira

    2016-03-01

    Torrefaction, a thermal treatment process of biomass, has been proved to improve biomass combustible properties. Torrefaction is defined as a thermochemical process in reduced oxygen condition and at temperature range from 200 to 300 °C for shorter residence time whereby energy yield is maximized, can be a bridging technology that can lead the conventional system (e.g. coal-fired plants) towards a sustainable energy system. In efforts to develop a commercial operable torrefaction reactor, the present study examines the minimum input condition at which biomass is torrefied and explores the heat transfer mechanisms during torrefaction in poplar wood samples. The heat transfer through the wood sample is numerically modeled and analyzed. Each poplar wood is torrefied at temperature of 250, 270, and 300 °C. The experimental study shows that the 270 °C-treatment can be deduced as the optimal input condition for torrefaction of poplar wood. A good understanding of heat transfer mechanisms can facilitate the upscaling and downscaling of torrefaction process equipment to fit the feedstock input criteria and can help to develop treatment input specifications that can maximize process efficiency.

  2. Distribution of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in wood and bark age classes of willows and poplars used for phytoextraction on soils contaminated by risk elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárubová, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal; Vondráčková, Stanislava; Mrnka, Libor; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Fast-growing clones of Salix and Populus have been studied for remediation of soils contaminated by risk elements (RE) using short-rotation coppice plantations. Our aim was to assess biomass yield and distributions of elements in wood and bark of highly productive willow (S1--[Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis] × S. viminalis, S2--Salix × smithiana clone S-218) and poplar (P1--Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra, P2--P. nigra) clones with respect to aging. The field experiment was established in April 2008 on moderately Cd-, Pb- and Zn- contaminated soil. Shoots were harvested after four seasons (February 2012) and separated into annual classes of wood and bark. All tested clones grew on contaminated soils, with highest biomass production and lowest mortality exhibited by P1 and S2. Concentrations of elements, with exception of Ca and Pb, decreased with age and were higher in bark than in wood. The Salix clones were characterised by higher removal of Cd, Mn and Zn compared to the Populus clones. Despite generally higher RE content in young shoots, partly due to lower wood/bark ratios and higher RE concentrations in bark, the overall removal of RE was higher in older wood classes due to higher biomass yield. Thus, longer rotations seem to be more effective when phytoextraction strategy is considered. Of the four selected clones, S1 exhibited the best removal of Cd and Zn and is a good candidate for phytoextraction.

  3. Automated cloning methods.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collart, F.

    2001-01-01

    Argonne has developed a series of automated protocols to generate bacterial expression clones by using a robotic system designed to be used in procedures associated with molecular biology. The system provides plate storage, temperature control from 4 to 37 C at various locations, and Biomek and Multimek pipetting stations. The automated system consists of a robot that transports sources from the active station on the automation system. Protocols for the automated generation of bacterial expression clones can be grouped into three categories (Figure 1). Fragment generation protocols are initiated on day one of the expression cloning procedure and encompass those protocols involved in generating purified coding region (PCR)

  4. Unified Approach to Universal Cloning and Phase-Covariant Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jia-Zhong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the problem of approximate quantum cloning when the quantum state is between two latitudes on the Bloch's sphere. We present an analytical formula for the optimized 1-to-2 cloning. The formula unifies the universal quantum cloning (UQCM) and the phase covariant quantum cloning.

  5. Enzyme free cloning for high throughput gene cloning and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R.N.; Daniëls, M.; Kaptein, R.; Folkers, G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural and functional genomics initiatives significantly improved cloning methods over the past few years. Although recombinational cloning is highly efficient, its costs urged us to search for an alternative high throughput (HTP) cloning method. We implemented a modified Enzyme Free Cloning

  6. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the T...IGR japonica Pseudomolecules kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  7. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  8. Do Managers Clone Themselves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Alma S.

    1981-01-01

    A recent questionnaire survey provides statistics on male managers' views of female managers. The author recommends that male managers break out of their cloning behavior and that the goal ought to be a plurality in management. (Author/WD)

  9. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p ' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p ' )-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities p x , p y and p z . The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√p x , √p y , √p z ) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  10. Characterization of surface water contaminants in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.; Madix, S.; Rash, C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface waters in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek have been contaminated by activities on the DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation throughout the more than 50 year history of Oak Ridge. Though the Clinch River and Poplar Creek drainage areas are contaminated with heavy metals, organics and radionuclides, public access to these sites is not restricted. The investigation, divided into discrete studies, was tailored to provide a statistically sound picture of contaminants and aqueous toxicity in Poplar Creek, investigate contaminant remobilization from sediments, and determine contaminant levels during a series of ''worst-case'' events. Results for Poplar Creek indicate that average contaminant values were below levels of concern for human health and ecological risk, though contaminant distributions suggest that episodic events contribute sufficiently to system contaminant levels to be of concern. Additionally, water column contaminant levels were significantly higher in particle deposition areas rather than at known contaminant sources. Levels of organic compounds in reference areas to Poplar Creek exceeded those in the Poplar Creek study area. In the Clinch River and Poplar Creek, statistical differences in metal and radionuclide levels from known contaminated areas confirmed previous results, and were used to independently distinguish between sites. Contaminant concentrations were elevated in association with sediments, though no distinction between deposition and remobilization could be made. Due to elevated contaminant levels, and some unexpected contaminant distributions, sites in Poplar Creek and off-channel embayments of the Clinch River were identified that will require additional characterization

  11. The use of the white poplar (Populus alba L.) biomass as fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatiana Griu; Aurel Lunguleasa

    2016-01-01

    We determined the calorific value of white poplar (Populus alba L.) woody biomass to use it as fire-wood. The value of 19.133 MJ kg-1 obtained experimen-tally shows that the white poplar can be quite successfully used as firewood. Being of a lower quality in comparison with usual beech firewood, the white poplar has similar calorific value. The white poplar has a calorific density of 30.7%lower than that of current firewood. That is why the price of this firewood from white poplar is lower accord-ingly. Also, the prognosis of calorific value on the basis of the main chemical elements, being very close to the experimental value (?2.6%), indicates an appropriate value can be achieved to be used for investigation with the chemical element analysis.

  12. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, 32 P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV

  13. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, /sup 32/P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV.

  14. Multiple factors affect pest and pathogen damage on 31 Populus clones in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman; Jaclin A. Durant; Lee A. Newman

    2006-01-01

    Populus species and hybrids have many practical applications, but there is a paucity of data regarding selections that perform well in the southeastern US. We compared pest susceptibility of 31 Populus clones over 3 years in South Carolina, USA. Cuttings were planted in spring 2001 on two study sites. Clones planted in the...

  15. Molecular cloning and restriction analysis of EcoRI-fragments of Vicia faba rDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakura, Kimitaka; Tanifuji, Shigeyuki.

    1983-01-01

    EcoRI-fragments of Vicia faba rDNA were cloned in plasmid pBR325. Southern blot hybridization of BamHI-digests of these cloned plasmids and Vicia genomic DNA led to the determination of relative positions of BamHI sites in the rDNA and the physical map that had been tentatively made is corrected. (author)

  16. inter-fertility among female parent clones of pineapple involved in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Ivoireconsiders fruit diversification as key component in the international pineapple industry. The objective of this study was to determine the sexual compatibility of female pineapple clones recently developed in Côte d'Ivoire. Three female hybrid clones, ...

  17. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock Lizard Darevskia dahli [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa.

  18. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  19. Lovely clone of coconuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branton, R.; Blake, J.

    1983-05-01

    It has taken over 10 years research and development to clone oil palms and coconut palms successfully. Unilever has recently built a tissue culture factory in England with a potential capacity for producing half a million clonal oil palms a year for export. Research on the cloning of coconut palms is reported here. Cloned palms may increase yields from oil palms by 20 to 30 percent and yields from coconut could be as high as five-fold over unselected stock. Improved yields would not only increase the yield of oil and copra but also the harvests of husk and shell which are immense potential sources of energy; the 1978 Philippine harvest of over 12 million nuts is equivalent in terms of energy to 3.8 billion litres of petrol (31 x 10/sup 12/ kcal).

  20. Construction of recombinant DNA clone for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, S.G.; Cho, H.J.; Masri, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular cloning was carried out on the Danish strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to construct strategy for the diagnostic tools and effective vaccine of BVD afterwards. A recombinant DNA clone (No. 29) was established successfully from cDNA for viral RNA tailed with adenine homopolymer at 3 -end. 32 P-labeled DNA probes of 300~1, 800bp fragments, originating from the clone 29, directed specific DNA-RNA hybridization results with BVDV RNA. Recombinant DNA of the clone 29 was about 5,200bp representing 41.6% of the full length of Danish strain's RNA, and restriction sites were recognized for EooR I, Sst I, Hind III and Pst I restriction enzymes in the DNA fragment

  1. Enhancement of Biogas Yield of Poplar Leaf by High-Solid Codigestion with Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangliang, Li; Zhikai, Zhang; Guangwen, Xu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the improvement of anaerobic biodegradability of organic fractions of poplar leaf from codigestion with swine manure (SM), thus biogas yield and energy recovery. When poplar leaf was used as a sole substrate, the cumulative biogas yield was low, about 163 mL (g volatile solid (VS))(-1) after 45 days of digestion with a substrate/inoculum ratio of 2.5 and a total solid (TS) of 22 %. Under the same condition, the cumulative biogas yield of poplar leaf reached 321 mL (g VS)(-1) when SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5 (based on VS). The SM/poplar leaf ratio can determine C/N ratio of the cosubstrate and thus has significant influence on biogas yield. When the SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5, C/N ratio was calculated to be 27.02, and the biogas yield in 45 days of digestion was the highest. The semi-continuous digestion of poplar leaf was carried out with the organic loading rate of 1.25 and 1.88 g VS day(-1). The average daily biogas yield was 230.2 mL (g VS)(-1) and 208.4 mL (g VS)(-1). The composition analysis revealed that cellulose and hemicellulose contributed to the biogas production.

  2. Melhoramento da cana-de-açúcar: IX: evaluation of clones obtained in 1980 and 1981 hybridizations, selected in Ribeirão Preto region, state of São Paulo, Brazil Sugarcane breeding: IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Testaram-se doze clones de cana-de-açúcar, obtidos de hibridações realizadas em Camamu (BA, em 1980 e 1981, em três ensaios na região de Ribeirão Preto (SP. Além do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições, efetuou-se a análise estatística com a média das três colheitas (1.°, 2.° e 3.° cortes, tomando as variedades SP70-1143, NA56-79 e IAC64-257 como testemunhas-padrão. Entre os caracteres agroindustriais avaliados estão: a produtividade de cana e açúcar, pol % cana, fibra %, intensidade de florescimento, índice de infestação de broca-do-colmo (Diatraea saccharalis e a reação à ferrugem (Puccinia melanocephala. O melhor clone foi o IAC80-2094, indicado para início de safra, com boa produção e bom teor de fibra, mas de florescimento intenso e suscetibilidade à ferrugem. O IAC81-2004 também apresentou bons resultados, caracterizando-se como precoce, com bom teor de fibra e boa resistência à broca-do-colmo. Em condições naturais de campo, porém, sua desvantagem é a grande incidência de "chicotes" de carvão. Apesar de ambos os clones apresentarem características agroindustriais vantajosas, desaconselha-se que sejam incluídos no estudo de manejo parietal para outras regiões paulistas, em função dos problemas fitossanitários citados.A number of sugarcane clones obtained in crosses made in 1980 and 1981, was tested in three locations with Oxisol soils at Ribeirão Preto region. The commercial varieties SP70-1143, NA56-79 and IAC64-257 were used as controls in trials and evaluated for agricultural and industrial traits on the average of three harvests. The best clone in the experiments was IAC80-2094, which has been indicated for early harvest period with good yield and fiber content, but with heavy tasseling and susceptibility to rust. Other early maturing clone was IAC81-2004, which showes good fiber content and stem borer tolerance, however it does show, in natural conditions in the field

  3. A Seminar on Human Cloning: Cloning in Reproductive Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Illmensee, Karl

    2001-01-01

    This review article summarizes the historical development of mammalian cloning, presents current advances and presumed risk factors in the field of reproductive cloning, discusses possible clinical applications of therapeutic and diagnostic cloning and outlines prospective commercial trends in pharmacytical cloning. Predictable progress in biotechnology and stem cell engineering should prove to be advantageous for patients' health and for novel benefits in reproductive and regenerative medicine.

  4. Dechlorination of PCBs in the rhizosphere of switchgrass and poplar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meggo, Richard E.; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Hu, Dingfei

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77, and 153) singly and in mixture were spiked and aged in soil microcosms and subsequently planted with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) or poplar (Populus deltoids x nigra DN34). The planted reactors showed significantly greater reductions in PCB parent compounds when compared to unplanted systems after 32 weeks. There was evidence of reductive dechlorination in both planted and unplanted systems, but the planted microcosms with fully developed roots and rhizospheres showed greater biotransformation than the unplanted reactors. These dechlorination products accounted for approximately all of the molar mass of parent compound lost. Based on the transformation products, reductive dechlorination pathways are proposed for rhizospheric biotransformation of PCB 52, 77, and 153. This is the first report of rhizosphere biotransformation pathways for reductive dechlorination in marginally aerobic, intermittently flooded soil as evidenced by a mass balance on transformation products. -- Highlights: •Soil was spiked and aged and then planted with poplar and switchgrass. •Planted microcosms showed significant reductive dechlorination and greater biotransformation than unplanted reactor. •Rhizospheric reductive dechlorination pathways are proposed. -- This study provides insight into rhizospheric transformation of PCBs

  5. Myths about Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aging normally. In fact, the first cattle clones ever produced are alive, healthy, and are 10 years old as of January 2008. Back to the ... until we finish assessing their safety. To the best of our knowledge, they have done so. After years of detailed study and analysis, FDA has concluded ...

  6. Clip, connect, clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujima, Jun; Lunzer, Aran; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    using three mechanisms: clipping of input and result elements from existing applications to form cells on a spreadsheet; connecting these cells using formulas, thus enabling result transfer between applications; and cloning cells so that multiple requests can be handled side by side. We demonstrate...

  7. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  8. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  9. Human cloning. Fact or fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abushama, Mandy D.; Ahmed, Badreldeen I.

    2003-01-01

    Cloning is the production of one or more individual plants or animals that are genetically identical to other plant, animal or human. Scientists even demonstrated that they were able to clone frog tadpoles from frog embryonic cells using nuclear transfer.Many animals have been cloned from adult cells using nuclear transfer. Somatic cell nuclear transfer which refers to the transfer of the nucleous from a somatic cell to an egg cell. Article further deals with benefits and misuses of human cloning

  10. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, David B.; Brooks, Scott C.; Mathews, Teresa J.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; DeRolph, Chris; Brandt, Craig C.; Peterson, Mark J.; Ketelle, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year research project undertaken to better understand the nature and magnitude of mercury (Hg) fluxes in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). This project addresses the requirements of Action Plan 1 in the 2011 Oak Ridge Reservation-wide Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Five Year Review (FYR). The Action Plan is designed to address a twofold 2011 FYR issue: (1) new information suggests mobilization of mercury from the upper and lower EFPC streambeds and stream banks is the primary source of mercury export during high-flow conditions, and (2) the current Record of Decision did not address the entire hydrologic system and creek bank or creek bed sediments. To obtain a more robust watershed-scale understanding of mercury sources and processes in lower EFPC (LEFPC), new field and laboratory studies were coupled with existing data from multiple US Department of Energy programs to develop a dynamic watershed and bioaccumulation model. LEFPC field studies for the project focused primarily on quantification of streambank erosion and an evaluation of mercury dynamics in shallow groundwater adjacent to LEFPC and potential connection to the surface water. The approach to the stream bank study was innovative in using imagery from kayak floats' surveys from the headwaters to the mouth of EFPC to estimate erosion, coupled with detailed bank soil mercury analyses. The goal of new field assessments and modeling was to generate a more holistic and quantitative understanding of the watershed and the sources, flux, concentration, transformation, and bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg). Model development used a hybrid approach that dynamically linked a spreadsheet-based physical and chemical watershed model to a systems dynamics, mercury bioaccumulation model for key fish species. The watershed model tracks total Hg and MeHg fluxes and concentrations by examining upstream inputs, floodplain

  11. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ketelle, Richard [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year research project undertaken to better understand the nature and magnitude of mercury (Hg) fluxes in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). This project addresses the requirements of Action Plan 1 in the 2011 Oak Ridge Reservation-wide Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Five Year Review (FYR). The Action Plan is designed to address a twofold 2011 FYR issue: (1) new information suggests mobilization of mercury from the upper and lower EFPC streambeds and stream banks is the primary source of mercury export during high-flow conditions, and (2) the current Record of Decision did not address the entire hydrologic system and creek bank or creek bed sediments. To obtain a more robust watershed-scale understanding of mercury sources and processes in lower EFPC (LEFPC), new field and laboratory studies were coupled with existing data from multiple US Department of Energy programs to develop a dynamic watershed and bioaccumulation model. LEFPC field studies for the project focused primarily on quantification of streambank erosion and an evaluation of mercury dynamics in shallow groundwater adjacent to LEFPC and potential connection to the surface water. The approach to the stream bank study was innovative in using imagery from kayak floats’ surveys from the headwaters to the mouth of EFPC to estimate erosion, coupled with detailed bank soil mercury analyses. The goal of new field assessments and modeling was to generate a more holistic and quantitative understanding of the watershed and the sources, flux, concentration, transformation, and bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg). Model development used a hybrid approach that dynamically linked a spreadsheet-based physical and chemical watershed model to a systems dynamics, mercury bioaccumulation model for key fish species. The watershed model tracks total Hg and MeHg fluxes and concentrations by examining upstream inputs, floodplain

  12. UAV-Based Thermal Imaging for High-Throughput Field Phenotyping of Black Poplar Response to Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovisi, Riccardo; Tauro, Flavia; Salvati, Riccardo; Khoury, Sacha; Mugnozza Scarascia, Giuseppe; Harfouche, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Poplars are fast-growing, high-yielding forest tree species, whose cultivation as second-generation biofuel crops is of increasing interest and can efficiently meet emission reduction goals. Yet, breeding elite poplar trees for drought resistance remains a major challenge. Worldwide breeding programs are largely focused on intra/interspecific hybridization, whereby Populus nigra L. is a fundamental parental pool. While high-throughput genotyping has resulted in unprecedented capabilities to rapidly decode complex genetic architecture of plant stress resistance, linking genomics to phenomics is hindered by technically challenging phenotyping. Relying on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based remote sensing and imaging techniques, high-throughput field phenotyping (HTFP) aims at enabling highly precise and efficient, non-destructive screening of genotype performance in large populations. To efficiently support forest-tree breeding programs, ground-truthing observations should be complemented with standardized HTFP. In this study, we develop a high-resolution (leaf level) HTFP approach to investigate the response to drought of a full-sib F 2 partially inbred population (termed here 'POP6'), whose F 1 was obtained from an intraspecific P. nigra controlled cross between genotypes with highly divergent phenotypes. We assessed the effects of two water treatments (well-watered and moderate drought) on a population of 4603 trees (503 genotypes) hosted in two adjacent experimental plots (1.67 ha) by conducting low-elevation (25 m) flights with an aerial drone and capturing 7836 thermal infrared (TIR) images. TIR images were undistorted, georeferenced, and orthorectified to obtain radiometric mosaics. Canopy temperature ( T c ) was extracted using two independent semi-automated segmentation techniques, eCognition- and Matlab-based, to avoid the mixed-pixel problem. Overall, results showed that the UAV platform-based thermal imaging enables to effectively assess genotype

  13. UAV-Based Thermal Imaging for High-Throughput Field Phenotyping of Black Poplar Response to Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Ludovisi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Poplars are fast-growing, high-yielding forest tree species, whose cultivation as second-generation biofuel crops is of increasing interest and can efficiently meet emission reduction goals. Yet, breeding elite poplar trees for drought resistance remains a major challenge. Worldwide breeding programs are largely focused on intra/interspecific hybridization, whereby Populus nigra L. is a fundamental parental pool. While high-throughput genotyping has resulted in unprecedented capabilities to rapidly decode complex genetic architecture of plant stress resistance, linking genomics to phenomics is hindered by technically challenging phenotyping. Relying on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based remote sensing and imaging techniques, high-throughput field phenotyping (HTFP aims at enabling highly precise and efficient, non-destructive screening of genotype performance in large populations. To efficiently support forest-tree breeding programs, ground-truthing observations should be complemented with standardized HTFP. In this study, we develop a high-resolution (leaf level HTFP approach to investigate the response to drought of a full-sib F2 partially inbred population (termed here ‘POP6’, whose F1 was obtained from an intraspecific P. nigra controlled cross between genotypes with highly divergent phenotypes. We assessed the effects of two water treatments (well-watered and moderate drought on a population of 4603 trees (503 genotypes hosted in two adjacent experimental plots (1.67 ha by conducting low-elevation (25 m flights with an aerial drone and capturing 7836 thermal infrared (TIR images. TIR images were undistorted, georeferenced, and orthorectified to obtain radiometric mosaics. Canopy temperature (Tc was extracted using two independent semi-automated segmentation techniques, eCognition- and Matlab-based, to avoid the mixed-pixel problem. Overall, results showed that the UAV platform-based thermal imaging enables to effectively assess genotype

  14. Three concepts of cloning in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ke-Hui

    2005-07-01

    Human cloning, organ cloning and tissue cloning are various types of cloning that occur at different levels with different methodologies. According to three standards of terminology for an embryo (fertilization through germ cells, development in the uterus and having the potential to produce a human life), tissue cloning and type I organ cloning will not produce an embryo. In contrast, human cloning and type II organ cloning will produce an embryo. Thus, only non-germinal tissue cloning and type I organ cloning are beyond the ethical question and will not change human beings as a species. Using cloned tissues to make new tissues or organs is promising for the future of medicine.

  15. Recombinational Cloning Using Gateway and In-Fusion Cloning Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Andrea L.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full-length cDNAs in species-specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein. Recombinational cloning is a universal cloning technique based on site-specific recombination that is independent of the insert DNA sequence of interest, which differentiates this method from the classical restriction enzyme-based cloning methods. Recombinational cloning enables rapid and efficient parallel transfer of DNA inserts into multiple expression systems. This unit summarizes strategies for generating expression-ready clones using the most popular recombinational cloning technologies, including the commercially available Gateway® (Life Technologies) and In-Fusion® (Clontech) cloning technologies. PMID:25827088

  16. Evaluation of a pooled strategy for high-throughput sequencing of cosmid clones from metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kathy N; Hall, Michael W; Engel, Katja; Vey, Gregory; Cheng, Jiujun; Neufeld, Josh D; Charles, Trevor C

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing methods have been instrumental in the growing field of metagenomics, with technological improvements enabling greater throughput at decreased costs. Nonetheless, the economy of high-throughput sequencing cannot be fully leveraged in the subdiscipline of functional metagenomics. In this area of research, environmental DNA is typically cloned to generate large-insert libraries from which individual clones are isolated, based on specific activities of interest. Sequence data are required for complete characterization of such clones, but the sequencing of a large set of clones requires individual barcode-based sample preparation; this can become costly, as the cost of clone barcoding scales linearly with the number of clones processed, and thus sequencing a large number of metagenomic clones often remains cost-prohibitive. We investigated a hybrid Sanger/Illumina pooled sequencing strategy that omits barcoding altogether, and we evaluated this strategy by comparing the pooled sequencing results to reference sequence data obtained from traditional barcode-based sequencing of the same set of clones. Using identity and coverage metrics in our evaluation, we show that pooled sequencing can generate high-quality sequence data, without producing problematic chimeras. Though caveats of a pooled strategy exist and further optimization of the method is required to improve recovery of complete clone sequences and to avoid circumstances that generate unrecoverable clone sequences, our results demonstrate that pooled sequencing represents an effective and low-cost alternative for sequencing large sets of metagenomic clones.

  17. Cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindan, M.V.; Burelle, M.; Cantin, C.; Kabrie, C.; Labrie, F.; Lachance, Y.; Leblanc, G.; Lefebvre, C.; Patel, P.; Simard, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss how in order to define the functional domains of the human androgen receptor, complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the human androgen receptor (hAR) have been isolated from a human testis λgtll cDNA library using synthetic oligonnucleotide probes, homologous to segments of the human glucocorticoid, estradiol and progesterone receptors. The cDNA clones corresponding to the human glucocorticoid, estradiol and progesterone receptors were eliminated after cross-hybridization with their respective cDNA probes and/or after restriction mapping of the cDNA clones. The remaining cDNA clones were classified into different groups after analysis by restriction digestion and cross-hybridization. Two of the largest cDNA clones from each group were inserted into an expression vector in both orientations. The linearized plasmids were used as templates in in vitro transcription with T7 RNA polymerase. Subsequent in vitro translation of the purified transcripts in rabbit reticulocyte lysate followed by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) permitted the characterization of the encoded polyeptides. The expressed proteins larger than 30,000 Da were analyzed for their ability to bind tritium-labelled dihydrotestosterone ([ 3 H] DHT) with high affinity and specificity

  18. Cloning an expressed gene shared by the human sex chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, S.M.; Banting, G.S.; Pym, B.; Wolfe, J.; Goodfellow, P.N.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of genes shared by mammalian sex chromosomes has been predicted on both evolutionary and functional grounds. However, the only experimental evidence for such genes in humans is the cell-surface antigen encoded by loci on the X and Y chromosomes (MIC2X and MIC2Y, respectively), which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 12E7. Using the bacteriophage λgt11 expression system in Escherichia coli and immunoscreening techniques, the authors have isolated a cDNA clone whose primary product is recognized by 12E7. Southern blot analysis using somatic cell hybrids containing only the human X or Y chromosomes shows that the sequences reacting with the cDNA clone are localized to the sex chromosomes. In addition, the clone hybridizes to DNAs isolated from mouse cells that have been transfected with human DNA and selected for 12E7 expression on the fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The authors conclude that the cDNA clone encodes the 12E7 antigen, which is the primary product of the MIC2 loci. The clone was used to explore sequence homology between MIC2X and MIC2Y; these loci are closely related, if not identical

  19. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  20. [Media, cloning, and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, S I; Diniz, D

    2000-01-01

    This article was based on an analysis of three hundred articles from mainstream Brazilian periodicals over a period of eighteen months, beginning with the announcement of the Dolly case in February 1997. There were two main objectives: to outline the moral constants in the press associated with the possibility of cloning human beings and to identify some of the moral assumptions concerning scientific research with non-human animals that were published carelessly by the media. The authors conclude that there was a haphazard spread of fear concerning the cloning of human beings rather than an ethical debate on the issue, and that there is a serious gap between bioethical reflections and the Brazilian media.

  1. Probabilistic cloning of equidistant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Roa, Luis; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of equidistant states. These states are such that the inner product between them is a complex constant or its conjugate. Thereby, it is possible to study their cloning in a simple way. In particular, we are interested in the behavior of the cloning probability as a function of the phase of the overlap among the involved states. We show that for certain families of equidistant states Duan and Guo's cloning machine leads to cloning probabilities lower than the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability of equidistant states. We propose an alternative cloning machine whose cloning probability is higher than or equal to the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability for any family of equidistant states. Both machines achieve the same probability for equidistant states whose inner product is a positive real number.

  2. Effect of calcium cyanamide on growth and nutrition of plan fed yellow-poplar seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody; G.W. Wendel; G.W. Wendel

    1973-01-01

    Calcium cyanamide, a nitrogenous fertilizer that also acts as an herbicide, was evaluated over a 3-year period for use in establishing planted yellow-poplar on an old-field site. Results of this study show that first and second year growth of yellow-poplar can be increased by nbroadcasting CaCN2 around the seedlings. When applied at rates of 400 to 500 pounds of...

  3. Response of ecosystem carbon fluxes to drought events in a poplar plantation in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie Zhou; Zhiqiang Zhang; Ge Sun; Xianrui Fang; Tonggang Zha; Steve McNulty; Jiquan Chen; Ying Jin; Asko Noormets

    2013-01-01

    Poplar plantations are widely used for timber production and ecological restoration in northern China,a region that experiences frequent droughts and water scarcity. An open-path eddy-covariance (EC)system was used to continuously measure the carbon,water,and energy fluxes in a poplar plantation during the growing season (i.e., April–October)over the period 2006–2008...

  4. Changes in tree density do not influence epicormic branching of yellow-poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1977-01-01

    Epicormic branching was studied in a West Virginia yellow-poplar stand thinned to various tree density levels. Study trees in the 55- to 60-year-old second-growth stand were primarily codominant in crown class with 32 to 48 feet of log height. Eight-year study results indicated that yellow-poplar trees in this age class and locale could be thinned without serious loss...

  5. Biodiversity versus cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo T, Jose Hernan

    1998-01-01

    The announcement has been made on the cloning of mice in these days and he doesn't stop to miss, because the world lives a stage where conscience of the protection is creating that should be given to the biodiversity. It is known that alone we won't subsist and the protection of the means and all that contains that environment is of vital importance for the man. But it is also known that the vegetables and animal transgenic that they come to multiply the species have appeared that we prepare. The transgenic has been altered genetically, for substitution of one or more genes of other species, inclusive human genes. This represents an improvement compared with the investigations that gave origin to the cloning animal. But it is necessary to notice that to it you arrived through the cloning. This year 28 million hectares have been sowed in cultivations of transgenic seeds and there is around 700 bovine transgenic whose milk contains a necessary protein in the treatment of the man's illnesses

  6. Study on adsorption and remediation of heavy metals by poplar and larch in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Jia, Youngfeng

    2010-08-01

    Field experiments at the Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology were conducted to study the adsorption, accumulation, and remediation of heavy metals by poplar and larch grown in artificially contaminated soil. The soil was spiked with a combination of Cd, Cu, and Zn at concentrations of 1.5, 100, and 200 mg.kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the biomass of poplar (Populus canadensis Moench) was lower by 26.0% in the soil spiked with a mixture of Cd, Cu, and Zn, compared with the control. Concentrations of Cd in poplar leaf and Cu in poplar roots in the treated soil were 4.11 and 14.55 mg kg(-1), respectively, which are much greater than in corresponding controls. The migration of heavy metals in woody plant body was in the order Cd > Zn > Cu. Poplar had higher metal concentrations in aboveground tissues and a higher biomass compared with larch of the same age and therefore is potentially more suitable for remediation. In the heavy metal-polluted soil of this study, phytoremediation by poplar may take 56 and 245 years for Cd and Cu, respectively, for meeting the soil standards of heavy metals, and the corresponding phytoremediation times by larch would take 211 and 438 years. The research findings could be used as a basis to develop ecological engineering technologies for environmental control and remediation of pollution caused by heavy metals in soils.

  7. Willow and poplar for bioenergy on former cropland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Petros

    and water demands of the trees. The water requirements of SRWCs are generally high, and high evapotranspiration rates in both SRC willow and SRF poplar decreased deep percolation, which along with low N concentrations led to low N leaching. Excessive N leaching was only observed when SRC was fertilized......Climate change is one of the 21st century’s greatest challenges and calls for immediate action through the implementation of mitigation strategies. A shift from fossil fuel to renewable energy is a key factor for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, with bioenergy being...... the predominant sector of renewables in the current European and global energy markets. Dedicated energy crops, such as short rotation woody crops (SRWC), are promising bioenergy feedstock in southern Scandinavia due to their high yields. Such cropping systems have high demands for land, water, and nutrients...

  8. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in White Poplar Cultivated In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Kovačević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper analyses the lead tolerance and accumulation in white poplar genotypes in vitro, in order to optimize genotype evaluation and other procedures in their implementation in phytoremediation projects and landscaping in areas endangered by lead accumulation. Material and Methods: The lead tolerance and accumulation of five white poplar genotypes after 35 days in vitro cultivation on media supplemented with lead was examined. The following Pb(NO32 concentrations were used: 0, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 M. Tolerance analysis (described by tolerance indices was based on morphological parameters, biomass accumulation and the content of photosynthetic pigments, while lead accumulation was described by shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content. Results and Conclusions: The chosen lead concentrations appeared not to be lethal. Moreover, the obtained results showed that the tested lead concentrations had a positive effect on: number of formed roots, shoot moisture content and shoot height. The best differentiation among the examined genotypes was gained by the tolerance index based on the shoot height on 10-4 M Pb(NO32. The shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content significantly increased on 10-4 and 10-3 M Pb(NO32 media. Thus, the concentration of 10-4 M Pb(NO32 is recommended for further research. Two examined genotypes of horticultural value (LCM and LBM achieved a significantly higher lead shoot content compared to the wide spread genotype “Villafranca” (almost 200% and 125% higher, respectively.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for amino acid synthesis in Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, O.Yu.; Fonshtein, M.Yu.; Kolibaba, L.G.; Yankovskii, N.K.; Debabov, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular cloning of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for threonine and lysine synthesis has been done in Escherichia coli cells. The clonal library of EcoRI fragments of chromosomal DNA of C. glutamicum was constructed on the plasmid vector λpSL5. The genes for threonine and lysine synthesis were identified by complementation of E. coli mutations in thrB and lysA genes, respectively. Recombinant plasmids, isolated from independent ThrB + clone have a common 4.1-kb long EcoRI DNA fragment. Hybrid plasmids isolated from LysA + transductants of E. coli have common 2.2 and 3.3 kb long EcoRI fragments of C. glutamicum DNA. The hybrid plasmids consistently transduced the markers thrB + and lysA + . The Southern hybridization analysis showed that the cloned DNA fragments hybridized with the fragments of identical length in C. glutamicum chromosomes

  10. Genotypic variations in the dynamics of metal concentrations in poplar leaves: A field study with a perspective on phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, Mathieu; García de la Torre, Vanesa S.; Victor, Cindy; David, Laure C.; Chalot, Michel; Thomine, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Poplar is commonly used for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils. However, the high concentrations of trace elements present in leaves may return to soil upon leaf abscission. To investigate the mechanisms controlling leaf metal content, metal concentrations and expression levels of genes involved in metal transport were monitored at different developmental stages on leaves from different poplar genotypes growing on a contaminated field. Large differences in leaf metal concentrations were observed among genotypes. Whereas Mg was remobilized during senescence, Zn and Cd accumulation continued until leaf abscission in all genotypes. A positive correlation between Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein 1 (NRAMP1) expression levels and Zn bio-concentration factors was observed. Principal component analyses of metal concentrations and gene expression levels clearly discriminated poplar genotypes. This study highlights a general absence of trace element remobilization from poplar leaves despite genotype specificities in the control of leaf metal homeostasis. - Highlights: • Poplar genotypes display large variations in leaf metal concentrations. • Trace elements are not remobilized during poplar leaf senescence. • Distinct transporter genes control metal homeostasis at different leaf stages. • Poplar genotypes use distinct mechanisms to control leaf metal homeostasis. • NRAMP1 metal transporter could contribute to Zn and Cd accumulation in poplar leaves. - In order to improve metal phytoextraction using poplars, this work provides new insights on the control of leaf metal concentrations through principal component and correlative analyses

  11. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of human papilloma virus DNA derived from a laryngeal papilloma.

    OpenAIRE

    Gissmann, L; Diehl, V; Schultz-Coulon, H J; zur Hausen, H

    1982-01-01

    Papilloma virus DNA from a laryngeal papilloma was cloned in phage lambda L 47 and characterized after cleavage with different restriction enzymes. Hybridization with the DNAs of human papilloma virus types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 showed no homology under stringent hybridization conditions. Human papilloma virus type 6 DNA, however, was partially identical to laryngeal papilloma virus DNA; different restriction enzyme fragments hybridizing with the other DNA were identified on each genome. The d...

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular cloning of genomic RNA and its diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with 32 P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus

  14. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  15. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Therapeutic cloning: The ethical limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    A brief outline of stem cells, stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning is given. The position of therapeutic cloning with regard to other embryonic manipulations - IVF-based reproduction, embryonic stem formation from IVF embryos and reproductive cloning - is indicated. The main ethically challenging stages in therapeutic cloning are considered to be the nuclear transfer process including the source of eggs for this and the destruction of an embryo to provide stem cells for therapeutic use. The extremely polarised nature of the debate regarding the status of an early human embryo is noted, and some potential alternative strategies for preparing immunocompatible pluripotent stem cells are indicated

  17. Human cloning and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  18. Phylogeographic patterns of the desert poplar in Northwest China shaped by both geology and climatic oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Abuduhamiti, Bawerjan; Wang, Wen-Ting; Jia, Zhi-Qing

    2018-05-25

    The effects of historical geology and climatic events on the evolution of plants around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region have been at the center of debate for years. To identify the influence of the uplift of the Tianshan Mountains and/or climatic oscillations on the evolution of plants in arid northwest China, we investigated the phylogeography of the Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica) using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences and nuclear microsatellites, and estimated its historical distribution using Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM). We found that the Euphrates poplar differed from another desert poplar, P. pruinosa, in both nuclear and chloroplast DNA. The low clonal diversity in both populations reflected the low regeneration rate by seed/seedlings in many locations. Both cpDNA and nuclear markers demonstrated a clear divergence between the Euphrates poplar populations from northern and southern Xinjiang regions. The divergence time was estimated to be early Pleistocene based on cpDNA, and late Pleistocene using an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis based on microsatellites. Estimated gene flow was low between these two regions, and the limited gene flow occurred mainly via dispersal from eastern regions. ENM analysis supported a wider distribution of the Euphrates poplar at 3 Ma, but a more constricted distribution during both the glacial period and the interglacial period. These results indicate that the deformation of the Tianshan Mountains has impeded gene flow of the Euphrates poplar populations from northern and southern Xinjiang, and the distribution constriction due to climatic oscillations further accelerated the divergence of populations from these regions. To protect the desert poplars, more effort is needed to encourage seed germination and seedling establishment, and to conserve endemic gene resources in the northern Xinjiang region.

  19. Molecular cloning of lupin leghemoglobin cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konieczny, A; Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A)+ RNA isolated from root nodules of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus, var. Ventus) has been used as a template for the construction of a cDNA library. The ds cDNA was synthesized and inserted into the Hind III site of plasmid pBR 322 using synthetic Hind III linkers. Clones containing sequences...... specific for nodules were selected by differential colony hybridization using 32P-labeled cDNA synthesized either from nodule poly(A)+ RNA or from poly(A)+ RNA of uninfected root as probes. Among the recombinant plasmids, the cDNA gene for leghemoglobin was identified. The protein structure derived from...... its nucleotide sequence was consistent with known amino acid sequence of lupin Lb II. The cloned lupin Lb cDNA hybridized to poly(A)+ RNA from nodules only, which is in accordance with the general concept, that leghemoglobin is expressed exclusively in nodules. Udgivelsesdato: 1987-null...

  20. Carbon budget and its response to environmental factors in young and mature poplar plantations along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinxing Zhou; Yuan Wei; Jun Yang; Xiaohui Yang; Zeping Jiang; Jiquan Chen; Asko Noormets; Xiaosong Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Although poplar forest is the dominant plantation type in China, there is uncertainty about the carbon budget of these forests across the country. The observations, performed in 2006, of two eddy covariance flux towers on a young poplar plantation (Yueyang, Hunan province) and a mature poplar plantation (Huaining, Anhui province) provide an opportunity to understand...

  1. Cloning the enterotoxin gene from Clostridium perfringens type A

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanejko, Lesley Ann.

    1991-01-01

    A C. perfringens type A genomic library was constructed in E. coli by banking overlapping 6-10 kbp Hind III fragments of chromosomal DNA from the enterotoxin (CPE) positive strain NCTC 8239 into the pUC derived vector pHG165. The library was screened by colony hybridization with a degenerate 26 bp oligonucleotide probe, derived from the amino acid sequence CPE9_17A. complex mixture of plasmid DNA was isolated from the only hybridization positive clone. A second round of screening picked out a...

  2. Genetic itemization of exotic sugarcane clones of the basis of quantitative and qualitative parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seema, N.; Khan, M. T.; Khan, I. A.; Yasmeen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane varietal development program in Pakistan primarily depends on evaluation of imported genotypes because of the unfavorable climatic conditions for sugarcane flowering and hybridization in the country. Performance of 41 exotic sugarcane clones was assessed in this study on the basis of seven quantitative (plant height, number of tillers, internode length, number of internode, cane girth, cane yield, and weight per stool) and six qualitative (sucrose %, brix %, CCS %, fiber %, sugar recovery % and sugar yield) attributes. Sugarcane clones comprised of fifteen genotypes from Canal Point (USA), eight from Homma (USA), and eighteen from Brazil. The clones exhibited statistically significant differences for tillers per plant, weight per stool, plant height, cane yield, brix%, sucrose%, fiber%, sugar recovery and sugar yield. Highest cane yield of 51.66 t/ha was observed for Canal Point clone CPNIA-240 while the lowest yield of 26.66 t/ha was recorded in Homma clone HoNIA-795. The highest sugar recovery (10.83 and 10.81) was exhibited by the clones SPNIA-396 and SPNIA-8 whereas the lowest (4.00) was observed in clone SPNIA-05. Moreover, maximum sugar yield was recorded in clone SPNIA-8 (5.37 tha-1) and minimum was observed in clone SPNIA-05 (0.91). Ward's linkage cluster analysis of the exotic clones placed the genotypes into six major groups in dendrogram. Genotypes appeared in the clusters irrespective of their geographical location. Cluster II, IV and V showed excellent qualitative, combination of quantitative and qualitative, and quantitative characters respectively. Clones from different clusters demonstrate genetic variations and thus can be subjected to selection and hybridization for further improvement. The accessions demonstrating excellent cane and sugar yield can serve as potential candidates for varietal development program in Pakistan. (author)

  3. Construction of gateway-compatible yeast two-hybrid vectors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeast two-hybrid system combined with the gateway technology will greatly facilitate the cloning of interested DNA fragment into yeast two-hybrid vectors and therefore increase the efficiency of yeast two-hybrid analysis. In this study, we constructed a pair of Gateway-compatible yeast two-hybrid vectors pBTM116GW and ...

  4. Physiological and biochemical responses to low temperature stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... Levels of electrolyte leak and MDA were lower than in UD189 or UD191. Poplar hybrid clones ... humidity, exposure, and water status and health conditions of ... consecutive low temperature treatment; and to detect variation ...

  5. [Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2012-11-01

    By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Poplar during Leaf Spot Infection with Sphaerulina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Foster

    Full Text Available Diseases of poplar caused by the native fungal pathogen Sphaerulina musiva and related species are of growing concern, particularly with the increasing interest in intensive poplar plantations to meet growing energy demands. Sphaerulina musiva is able to cause infection on leaves, resulting in defoliation and canker formation on stems. To gain a greater understanding of the different responses of poplar species to infection caused by the naturally co-evolved Sphaerulina species, RNA-seq was conducted on leaves of Populus deltoides, P. balsamifera and P. tremuloides infected with S. musiva, S. populicola and a new undescribed species, Ston1, respectively. The experiment was designed to contain the pathogen in a laboratory environment, while replicating disease development in commercial plantations. Following inoculation, trees were monitored for disease symptoms, pathogen growth and host responses. Genes involved in phenylpropanoid, terpenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis were generally upregulated in P. balsamifera and P. tremuloides, while cell wall modification appears to play an important role in the defense of P. deltoides. Poplar defensive genes were expressed early in P. balsamifera and P. tremuloides, but their expression was delayed in P. deltoides, which correlated with the rate of disease symptoms development. Also, severe infection in P. balsamifera led to leaf abscission. This data gives an insight into the large differences in timing and expression of genes between poplar species being attacked by their associated Sphaerulina pathogen.

  7. [The discrete horror of cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibourg, Ricardo A

    2009-01-01

    The author raises the topic of cloning after the decision of the Argentine government, which concerned for the "dignity of the human person", passed a decree of need and urgency, No. 200/97 (Annex), prohibiting cloning experiments with human beings. Therefore, considering that the topic is so terribly urgent and necessary, the author feels it is timely to consider it.

  8. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  9. Successful grafting in poplar species (Populus spp.) breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Assibi Mahama; Brian Sparks; Ronald S., Zalesny; Richard B. Hall

    2006-01-01

    Poor rooting of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh hardwood cuttings often has contributed to delays in breeding progress as a result of failures of scion wood before and/or after pollination. Seventeen clones were used, and the study was conducted in the greenhouse to test an "intervenous feeding" (IV) method, along with three different...

  10. [Scientific ethics of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2005-01-01

    True cloning is fission, budding or other types of asexual reproduction. In humans it occurs in monozygote twinning. This type of cloning is ethically and religiously good. Human cloning can be performed by twinning (TWClo) or nuclear transfer (NTClo). Both methods need a zygote or a nuclear transferred cell, obtained in vitro (IVTec). They are under the IVTec ethics. IVTecs use humans (zygotes, embryos) as drugs or things; increase the risk of malformations; increase development and size of abnormalities and may cause long-term changes. Cloning for preserving extinct (or almost extinct) animals or humans when sexual reproduction is not possible is ethically valid. The previous selection of a phenotype in human cloning violates some ethical principles. NTClo for reproductive or therapeutic purposes is dangerous since it increases the risk for nucleotide or chromosome mutations, de-programming or re-programming errors, aging or malignancy of the embryo cells thus obtained.

  11. Animal cloning: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D N

    2005-04-01

    An efficient animal cloning technology would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture, human medicine, and animal conservation. Nuclear cloning involves the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor cells used in a technique known as nuclear transfer (NT). However, at present it is an inefficient process: in cattle, only around 6% of the embryos transferred to the reproductive tracts of recipient cows result in healthy, longterm surviving clones. Of concern are the high losses throughout gestation, during birth and in the post-natal period through to adulthood. Many of the pregnancy losses relate to failure of the placenta to develop and function correctly. Placental dysfunction may also have an adverse influence on postnatal health. These anomalies are probably due to incorrect epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following NT, leading to inappropriate patterns of gene expression during the development of clones. Whilst some physiological tests on surviving clones suggest normality, other reports indicate a variety of post-natal clone-associated abnormalities. This variability in outcome may reflect species-specific and/or cloning methodological differences. Importantly, to date it appears that these clone-associated phenotypes are not transmitted to offspring following sexual reproduction. This indicates that they represent epigenetic errors, rather than genetic errors, which are corrected during gametogenesis. Whilst this needs confirmation at the molecular level, it provides initial confidence in the first application of NT in agriculture, namely, the production of small numbers of cloned sires from genetically elite bulls, for natural mating, to effectively disseminate genetic gain. In addition to the animal welfare concerns with the technology, the underlying health of the animals and the consequential effect on food safety are critical aspects that require investigation to gain regulatory and consumer

  12. The Effect of Ultrasound Pretreatment on Poplar Wood Dimensional Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Qiu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional stability is a key property of wood that significantly affects its applications. The effect of an ultrasound pretreatment on poplar wood (Populous tomentosa dimensional stability was examined. During the pretreatments, wood samples were immersed in distilled water and treated ultrasonically under three different powers and frequencies. The samples were then analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The chemical transformation of the cell-wall material was studied and then associated with the change of water absorption and the swelling coefficient. The results showed that the water absorption decreased after the ultrasonic pretreatment. The axial and radial swelling coefficients of the pretreated samples decreased, while the tangential swelling coefficients increased. The volumetric swelling coefficient of pretreated specimens fluctuated near 4.48% (the volumetric swelling coefficient of untreated wood. Ultrasonic pretreatment increased the number of hydrophilic groups, such as the hydroxyl, acetyl, and uronic ester groups. Meanwhile, the pretreatment also increased the degree of crystallinity and reduced the available polar groups. These two factors together caused the change of the moisture absorption and the swelling coefficient of the pretreated wood. These conclusions suggest that the ultrasonic pretreatment is a promising method for further chemical modification of wood.

  13. Soil Investigation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Johnbull O [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Earles, Jennifer E [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2017-03-01

    Mercury is regarded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management as a priority contaminant on the Oak Ridge Reservation because of the environmental risks associated with substantial losses from buildings, soils, and surface waters at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). As a result of historical releases of mercury from Y-12 primarily in the 1950s and early 1960s, the lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) stream channel and bank soil margins are contaminated with mercury (Brooks and Southworth 2011; Tennessee Valley Authority 1985b, a). A Mercury Remediation Technology Development project is underway to evaluate the nature of downstream mercury contamination and to develop targeted site-specific remedial technologies that can mitigate mercury release and biological uptake. It is known that mercury concentration varies longitudinally and with depth in LEFPC bank soils; however, soil types and soil physical properties are not well known, especially relative to the zones of mercury contamination. Moreover, there are no soil maps for the downstream reaches of LEFPC in Roane County (i.e. from the Chestnut Hill Road downstream) and this work represents the first ever soil mapping along this section of LEFPC.

  14. Genomics Mechanisms of Carbon Allocation and Partitioning in Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Matias; Peter, Gary; Martin, Timothy

    2009-07-30

    The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration. It is also unclear how environmental cues such as nitrogen availability impact the genes that regulate growth, and biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. To address these questions we phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above and below ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Fifty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for twenty traits analyzed. The majority of QTL are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and QTL co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Gene expression analysis of all poplar genes was also characterized in differentiating xylem, whole-roots and developing leaves of 192 of the segregating population. By integrating the QTL and gene expression information we identified genes that regulate carbon partitioning and several biomass growth related properties. The work developed in this project resulted in the publication of three book chapters, four scientific articles (three others currently in preparation), 17 presentations in international conferences and two provisional patent applications.

  15. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  16. Biological monitoring program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Beaty, T.W.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.S.

    1997-04-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  17. Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.

    1995-05-01

    The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child's digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative

  18. Cloning of a Gene Whose Expression is Increased in Scrapie and in Senile Plaques in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietgrefe, S.; Zupancic, M.; Haase, A.; Chesebro, B.; Race, R.; Frey, W.; Rustan, T.; Friedman, R. L.

    1985-12-01

    A complementary DNA library was constructed from messenger RNA's extracted from the brains of mice infected with the scrapie agent. The library was differentially screened with the objectives of finding clones that might be used as markers of infection and finding clones of genes whose increased expression might be correlated with the pathological changes common to scrapie and Alzheimer's disease. A gene was identified whose expression is increased in scrapie. The complementary DNA corresponding to this gene hybridized preferentially and focally to cells in the brains of scrapie-infected animals. The cloned DNA also hybridized to the neuritic plaques found with increased frequency in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Human cloning: can it be made safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian

    2003-11-01

    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?

  20. A survey of the pyrabactin resistance-like abscisic acid receptor gene family in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingling; Li, Hejuan; Peng, Yajing; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Fugeng; Luan, Sheng; Lan, Wenzhi

    2017-08-03

    The conserved PYR/PYL/RCAR family acts as abscisic acid (ABA) receptors for land plants to adapt to terrestrial environments. Our recent study reported that the exogenous overexpression of poplar PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, the PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologs, promoted the sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis to ABA responses. Here, we surveyed the PtPYRL family in poplar, and revealed that although the sequence and structure are relatively conserved among these receptors, PtPYRL members have differential expression patterns and the sensitivity to ABA or drought treatment, suggesting that PtPYRLs might be good candidates to a future biotechnological use to enhance poplar resistance to water-stress environments.

  1. [Water utilization characteristics of the degraded poplar shelterbelts in Zhangbei, Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Cao, Jun; Wang, Hua Bing; Song, Bo; Jia, Guo Dong; Liu, Zi Qiang; Yu, Xin Xiao; Zeng, Jia

    2018-05-01

    In Zhangbei County, Hebei Province, poplar-dominated shelterbelts are degraded to different extents. Water availability is the main limiting factor for plant survival in arid areas. The purpose of this study was to reveal the relationship between water availability and poplar degradation. Based on the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope techniques, we explored the water sources of Populus simonii under different degradation degrees by comparing the isotopic values of P. simonii xylem water with that in potential water source, and calculated the utilization ratio of each water source. The results showed that the water sources of poplar trees varied with degradation degree. The water sources of P. simonii gradually transferred from the deep layer to the surface layer with the increases of degradation. P. simonii with no degradation mainly absorbed soil water in the range of 320-400 cm, with the utilization rate being 25.1%. P. simonii with slight degradation mainly used soil water at depth of 120-180, 180-240 and 240-320 cm. The total utilization rate of three layers was close to 50.0%, with less utilization of water from other layers. The moderately degraded P. simonii mainly used soil water at depth of 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm. The utilization rate of each layer was 17.5%-20.9%, and the contribution rate of soil water under 120 cm was less than 10.0%. The severely degraded P. simonii mainly used water from surface soil layer (0-20 cm), with the utilization rate being 30.4%, which was significantly higher than that of other water sources. The water sources of poplar shelter forests were gradually shallower during the process of degradation. However, the low soil water content in the shallow layer could not meet the normal water demand of poplar, which would accelerate the degradation and even decline of poplar.

  2. The effect of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) deficient poplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özparpucu, Merve; Gierlinger, Notburga; Burgert, Ingo; Van Acker, Rebecca; Vanholme, Ruben; Boerjan, Wout; Pilate, Gilles; Déjardin, Annabelle; Rüggeberg, Markus

    2018-04-01

    CAD-deficient poplars enabled studying the influence of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties. Severe alterations in lignin composition did not influence the mechanical properties. Wood represents a hierarchical fiber-composite material with excellent mechanical properties. Despite its wide use and versatility, its mechanical behavior has not been entirely understood. It has especially been challenging to unravel the mechanical function of the cell wall matrix. Lignin engineering has been a useful tool to increase the knowledge on the mechanical function of lignin as it allows for modifications of lignin content and composition and the subsequent studying of the mechanical properties of these transgenics. Hereby, in most cases, both lignin composition and content are altered and the specific influence of lignin composition has hardly been revealed. Here, we have performed a comprehensive micromechanical, structural, and spectroscopic analysis on xylem strips of transgenic poplar plants, which are downregulated for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach. All parameters were evaluated on the same samples. Raman microscopy revealed that the lignin of the hpCAD poplars was significantly enriched in aldehydes and reduced in the (relative) amount of G-units. FTIR spectra indicated pronounced changes in lignin composition, whereas lignin content was not significantly changed between WT and the hpCAD poplars. Microfibril angles were in the range of 18°-24° and were not significantly different between WT and transgenics. No significant changes were observed in mechanical properties, such as tensile stiffness, ultimate stress, and yield stress. The specific findings on hpCAD poplar allowed studying the specific influence of lignin composition on mechanics. It can be concluded that the changes in lignin composition in hpCAD poplars did not affect the micromechanical tensile properties.

  3. Tissue-type-specific transcriptome analysis identifies developing xylem-specific promoters in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Hwang, Ildoo; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2012-06-01

    Plant biotechnology offers a means to create novel phenotypes. However, commercial application of biotechnology in crop improvement programmes is severely hindered by the lack of utility promoters (or freedom to operate the existing ones) that can drive gene expression in a tissue-specific or temporally controlled manner. Woody biomass is gaining popularity as a source of fermentable sugars for liquid fuel production. To improve the quantity and quality of woody biomass, developing xylem (DX)-specific modification of the feedstock is highly desirable. To develop utility promoters that can drive transgene expression in a DX-specific manner, we used the Affymetrix Poplar Genome Arrays to obtain tissue-type-specific transcriptomes from poplar stems. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 37 transcripts that are specifically or strongly expressed in DX cells of poplar. After further confirmation of their DX-specific expression using semi-quantitative PCR, we selected four genes (DX5, DX8, DX11 and DX15) for in vivo confirmation of their tissue-specific expression in transgenic poplars. The promoter regions of the selected DX genes were isolated and fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS)-reported gene in a binary vector. This construct was used to produce transgenic poplars via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GUS expression patterns of the resulting transgenic plants showed that these promoters were active in the xylem cells at early seedling growth and had strongest expression in the developing xylem cells at later growth stages of poplar. We conclude that these DX promoters can be used as a utility promoter for DX-specific biomass engineering. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Wildlife conservation and reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, William V; Pickard, Amanda R; Prather, Randall S

    2004-03-01

    Reproductive cloning, or the production of offspring by nuclear transfer, is often regarded as having potential for conserving endangered species of wildlife. Currently, however, low success rates for reproductive cloning limit the practical application of this technique to experimental use and proof of principle investigations. In this review, we consider how cloning may contribute to wildlife conservation strategies. The cloning of endangered mammals presents practical problems, many of which stem from the paucity of knowledge about their basic reproductive biology. However, situations may arise where resources could be targeted at recovering lost or under-represented genetic lines; these could then contribute to the future fitness of the population. Approaches of this type would be preferable to the indiscriminate generation of large numbers of identical individuals. Applying cloning technology to non-mammalian vertebrates may be more practical than attempting to use conventional reproductive technologies. As the scientific background to cloning technology was pioneered using amphibians, it may be possible to breed imminently threatened amphibians, or even restore extinct amphibian species, by the use of cloning. In this respect species with external embryonic development may have an advantage over mammals as developmental abnormalities associated with inappropriate embryonic reprogramming would not be relevant.

  5. Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Poplar Wood by a Combined-Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical (CHTM) Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Houri Sharifnia; Behbood Mohebbi

    2011-01-01

    The current research explains an innovated technique to enhanced mechanice properties of poplar wood by combination of two modification techniques, hydrothermal and mechanical. Blocks of 50×55×500mm3 were cut from poplar wood and treated in a reactor at 120, 150 and 180°C for 30 min. Afterwards, the blocks were pressed at 180°C for 20 min at a pressure of 80 bar to achieve a compression set of 60% in radial direction. Density and bending properties (moduli of elasticity and rupture) as well a...

  6. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  7. Human therapeutic cloning (NTSC): applying research from mammalian reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew J; Wood, Samuel H; Trounson, Alan O

    2006-01-01

    Human therapeutic cloning or nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC) to produce patient-specific stem cells, holds considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine. The recent withdrawal of the only scientific publications claiming the successful generation of NTSC lines afford an opportunity to review the available research in mammalian reproductive somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with the goal of progressing human NTSC. The process of SCNT is prone to epigenetic abnormalities that contribute to very low success rates. Although there are high mortality rates in some species of cloned animals, most surviving clones have been shown to have normal phenotypic and physiological characteristics and to produce healthy offspring. This technology has been applied to an increasing number of mammals for utility in research, agriculture, conservation, and biomedicine. In contrast, attempts at SCNT to produce human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been disappointing. Only one group has published reliable evidence of success in deriving a cloned human blastocyst, using an undifferentiated hESC donor cell, and it failed to develop into a hESC line. When optimal conditions are present, it appears that in vitro development of cloned and parthenogenetic embryos, both of which may be utilized to produce hESCs, may be similar to in vitro fertilized embryos. The derivation of ESC lines from cloned embryos is substantially more efficient than the production of viable offspring. This review summarizes developments in mammalian reproductive cloning, cell-to-cell fusion alternatives, and strategies for oocyte procurement that may provide important clues facilitating progress in human therapeutic cloning leading to the successful application of cell-based therapies utilizing autologous hESC lines.

  8. Expression of multiple resistance genes enhances tolerance to environmental stressors in transgenic poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Su

    Full Text Available Commercial and non-commercial plants face a variety of environmental stressors that often cannot be controlled. In this study, transgenic hybrid poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento' harboring five effector genes (vgb, SacB, JERF36, BtCry3A and OC-I were subjected to drought, salinity, waterlogging and insect stressors in greenhouse or laboratory conditions. Field trials were also conducted to investigate long-term effects of transgenic trees on insects and salt tolerance in the transformants. In greenhouse studies, two transgenic lines D5-20 and D5-21 showed improved growth, as evidenced by greater height and basal diameter increments and total biomass relative to the control plants after drought or salt stress treatments. The improved tolerance to drought and salt was primarily attributed to greater instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi in the transgenic trees. The chlorophyll concentrations tended to be higher in the transgenic lines under drought or saline conditions. Transformed trees in drought conditions accumulated more fructan and proline and had increased Fv/Fm ratios (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II under waterlogging stress. Insect-feeding assays in the laboratory revealed a higher total mortality rate and lower exuviation index of leaf beetle [Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting] larvae fed with D5-21 leaves, suggesting enhanced insect resistance in the transgenic poplar. In field trials, the dominance of targeted insects on 2-year-old D5-21 transgenic trees was substantially lower than that of the controls, indicating enhanced resistance to Coleoptera. The average height and DBH (diameter at breast height of 2.5-year-old transgenic trees growing in naturally saline soil were 3.80% and 4.12% greater than those of the control trees, but these increases were not significant. These results suggested that multiple stress-resistance properties in important crop tree species could be simultaneously improved, although

  9. Cloning of a quantum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal

    2011-01-01

    We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1→2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1→2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1→2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1→2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.

  10. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  11. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning.

  12. Cloning of a quantum measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' and INFN, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy) and Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, SK-845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-10-15

    We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1{yields}2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1{yields}2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1{yields}2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1{yields}2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.

  13. A Clone of Your Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Kirsten

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity used at the Washington Park Arboretum that helps students understand cloning through plant propagation. Students also learn how to make a pot from recycled newspapers and how to make soil that is appropriate for the plants. (DDR)

  14. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals. This conclusion stems from an extensive study of ...

  15. Effect of Genetically Modified Poplars on Soil Microbial Communities during the Phytoremediation of Waste Mine Tailings▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Moonsuk; Kim, Yongho; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Jong Min; Choi, Young Im; Yi, Hana

    2011-01-01

    The application of transgenic plants to clean up environmental pollution caused by the wastes of heavy metal mining is a promising method for removing metal pollutants from soils. However, the effect of using genetically modified organisms for phytoremediation is a poorly researched topic in terms of microbial community structures, despite the important role of microorganisms in the health of soil. In this study, a comparative analysis of the bacterial and archaeal communities found in the rhizosphere of genetically modified (GM) versus wild-type (WT) poplar was conducted on trees at different growth stages (i.e., the rhizospheres of 1.5-, 2.5-, and 3-year-old poplars) that were cultivated on contaminated soils together with nonplanted control soil. Based on the results of DNA pyrosequencing, poplar type and growth stages were associated with directional changes in the structure of the microbial community. The rate of change was faster in GM poplars than in WT poplars, but the microbial communities were identical in the 3-year-old poplars. This phenomenon may arise because of a higher rate and greater extent of metal accumulation in GM poplars than in naturally occurring plants, which resulted in greater changes in soil environments and hence the microbial habitat. PMID:21890678

  16. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: techno-economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jordan T; Shan, Chin Wei; Budsberg, Erik; Morgan, Hannah; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure compatible hydrocarbon biofuel proposed to qualify as renewable transportation fuel under the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) is evaluated. The process uses a hybrid poplar feedstock, which undergoes dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugars are fermented to acetic acid, which undergoes conversion to ethyl acetate, ethanol, ethylene, and finally a saturated hydrocarbon end product. An unfermentable lignin stream may be burned for steam and electricity production, or gasified to produce hydrogen. During biofuel production, hydrogen gas is required and may be obtained by various methods including lignin gasification. Both technical and economic aspects of the biorefinery are analyzed, with different hydrogen sources considered including steam reforming of natural gas and gasification of lignin. Cash operating costs for jet fuel production are estimated to range from 0.67 to 0.86 USD L -1 depending on facility capacity. Minimum fuel selling prices with a 15 % discount rate are estimated to range from 1.14 to 1.79 USD L -1 . Capacities of 76, 190, and 380 million liters of jet fuel per year are investigated. Capital investments range from 356 to 1026 million USD. A unique biorefinery is explored to produce a hydrocarbon biofuel with a high yield from bone dry wood of 330 L t -1 . This yield is achieved chiefly due to the use of acetogenic bacteria that do not produce carbon dioxide as a co-product during fermentation. Capital investment is significant in the biorefinery in part because hydrogen is required to produce a fully de-oxygenated fuel. Minimum selling price to achieve reasonable returns on investment is sensitive to capital financing options because of high capital costs. Various strategies, such as producing alternative, intermediate products, are investigated with the intent to reduce risk in building the proposed facility. It appears that producing and selling these

  17. Expression of jasmonic ethylene responsive factor gene in transgenic poplar tree leads to increased salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiliang; Su, Xiaohua; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Qinjun; Zhang, Xianghua; Huang, Rongfeng

    2009-02-01

    The stress resistance of plants can be enhanced by regulating the expression of multiple downstream genes associated with stress resistance. We used the Agrobacterium method to transfer the tomato jasmonic ethylene responsive factors (JERFs) gene that encodes the ethylene response factor (ERF) like transcription factor to the genome of a hybrid poplar (Populus alba x Populus berolinensis). Eighteen resistant plants were obtained, of which 13 were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase PCR and Southern blot analyses as having incorporated the JERFs gene and able to express it at the transcriptional level. Salinity tests were conducted in a greenhouse with 0, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl. In the absence of NaCl, the transgenic plants were significantly taller than the control plants, but no statistically significant differences in the concentrations of proline and chlorophyll were observed. With increasing salinity, the extent of damage was significantly less in transgenic plants than that in control plants, and the reductions in height, basal diameter and biomass were less in transgenic plants than those in control plants. At 200 and 300 mM NaCl concentrations, transgenic plants were 128.9% and 98.8% taller, respectively, and had 199.8% and 113.0% more dry biomass, respectively, than control plants. The saline-induced reduction in leaf water content and increase in root/crown ratio were less in transgenic plants than in control plants. Foliar proline concentration increased more in response to salt treatment in transgenic plants than in control plants. Foliar Na(+) concentration was higher in transgenic plants than in control plants. In the coastal area in Panjin of Liaoning where the total soil salt concentration is 0.3%, a salt tolerance trial of transgenic plants indicated that 3-year-old transgenic plants were 14.5% and 33.6% taller than the control plants at two field sites. The transgenic plants at the two field sites were growing

  18. Islamic perspectives on human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    The present paper seeks to assess various views from Islamic jurists relating to human cloning, which is one of the controversial topics in the recent past. Taking Islamic jurisprudence principles, such as the rule of necessity for self preservation and respect for human beings, the rule of la darar wa la dirar ('the necessity to refrain from causing harm to oneself and others') and the rule of usr wa haraj, one may indicate that if human cloning could not be prohibited, as such, it could still be opposed because it gives way to various harmful consequences, which include family disorder, chaos in the clone's family relationships, physical and mental diseases for clones and suffering of egg donors and surrogate mothers. However with due attention to the fact that the reasons behind the prohibition of abortion only restrict the destruction of human embryos in their post-implantation stages, human cloning for biomedical research and exploitation of stem cells from cloned embryos at the blastocyst stage for therapeutic purposes would be acceptable.

  19. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  20. Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang Xiangbin; Wadati, Miki

    2002-01-01

    Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits are studied. For the case of a one to two phase-covariant quantum cloning machine, we present the networks consisting of quantum gates to realize the quantum cloning transformations. The copied equatorial qubits are shown to be separable by using Peres-Horodecki criterion. The optimal one to M phase-covariant quantum cloning transformations are given

  1. Structured Review of Code Clone Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, W.T.B.; Ponisio, Laura; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a structured review of code clone literature. The aim of the review is to assemble a conceptual model of clone-related concepts which helps us to reason about clones. This conceptual model unifies clone concepts from a wide range of literature, so that findings

  2. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  3. Dynamic formation of asexual diploid and polyploid lineages: multilocus analysis of Cobitis reveals the mechanisms maintaining the diversity of clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Janko

    Full Text Available Given the hybrid genomic constitutions and increased ploidy of many asexual animals, the identification of processes governing the origin and maintenance of clonal diversity provides useful information about the evolutionary consequences of interspecific hybridization, asexuality and polyploidy. In order to understand the processes driving observed diversity of biotypes and clones in the Cobitis taenia hybrid complex, we performed fine-scale genetic analysis of Central European hybrid zone between two sexual species using microsatellite genotyping and mtDNA sequencing. We found that the hybrid zone is populated by an assemblage of clonally (gynogenetically reproducing di-, tri- and tetraploid hybrid lineages and that successful clones, which are able of spatial expansion, recruit from two ploidy levels, i.e. diploid and triploid. We further compared the distribution of observed estimates of clonal ages to theoretical distributions simulated under various assumptions and showed that new clones are most likely continuously recruited from ancestral populations. This suggests that the clonal diversity is maintained by dynamic equilibrium between origination and extinction of clonal lineages. On the other hand, an interclonal selection is implied by nonrandom spatial distribution of individual clones with respect to the coexisting sexual species. Importantly, there was no evidence for sexually reproducing hybrids or clonally reproducing non-hybrid forms. Together with previous successful laboratory synthesis of clonal Cobitis hybrids, our data thus provide the most compelling evidence that 1 the origin of asexuality is causally linked to interspecific hybridization; 2 successful establishment of clones is not restricted to one specific ploidy level and 3 the initiation of clonality and polyploidy may be dynamic and continuous in asexual complexes.

  4. Putrescine overproduction does not affect the catabolism of spermidine and spermine in poplar and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin Shao; Pratiksha Bhatnagar; Rajtilak Majumdar; Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha

    2014-01-01

    The effect of up-regulation of putrescine (Put) production by genetic manipulation on the turnover of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) was investigated in transgenic cells of poplar (Populus nigra x maximowiczii) and seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. Several-fold increase in Put production was achieved by expressing a mouse...

  5. The use of short rotation willows and poplars for the recycling of saline waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaconette Mirck; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Ioannis Dimitriou; Jill A. Zalesny; Timothy A. Volk; Warren E. Mabee

    2009-01-01

    The production of high-salinity waste waters by landfills and other waste sites causes environmental concerns. This waste water often contains high concentrations of sodium and chloride, which may end up in local ground and surface waters. Vegetation filter systems comprised of willows and poplars can be used for the recycling of saline waste water. These vegetation...

  6. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in yellow-poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast; John A. Beaton; David L. Sonderman

    1991-01-01

    To properly classify or grade logs or trees, one must be able to correctly identify defect indicators and assess the effect of the underlying defect on possible end products. This guide assists the individual in identifying the surface defect indicator and shows the progressive stages of the defect throughout its development for yellow-poplar. Twelve types of external...

  7. Achievements in the utilzation of poplar wood : guideposts for the future : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Balatinecz; Andre. Leclercq; David E. Kretschmann

    2000-01-01

    Poplar wood is suitable and is utilized for a broad range of forest products worldwide. The utilization of any species is governed by a number of factors, such as basic wood properties, overall quality, quantity and price of the resource, available processing technologies, local as well as international market conditions for the products, and the availability and price...

  8. Xylanase supplementation on enzymatic saccharification of dilute acid pretreated poplars at different severities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao Zhang; Xinshu Zhuang; Zhao Jiang Wang; Fred Matt; Franz St. John; J.Y. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Three pairs of solid substrates from dilute acid pretreatment of two poplar wood samples were enzymatically hydrolyzed by cellulase preparations supplemented with xylanase. Supplementation of xylanase improved cellulose saccharification perhaps due to improved cellulose accessibility by xylan hydrolysis. Total xylan removal directly affected enzymatic cellulose...

  9. Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from...

  10. Phytotoxicity of fresh and weathered diesel and gasoline to willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Köhler, A.; Larsen, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of fresh and weathered gasoline and diesel fuel to willow and poplar trees was studied using a tree transpiration toxicity test. Soils were taken from an abandoned filling station. Concentrations in the samples were measured as the sum of hydrocarbons from C5 to C10 (gasoline) and C1...

  11. The effects of exotic and native poplars on rhizosphere soil microbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... ecology. However, how different poplars species affect soil microbial community and soil .... ml of molasses-urea block (MUB) (pH 6.0) and 0.5 ml of 25 mM p- ... Microbial community DNA extraction and polymerase chain.

  12. Poplar plantation has the potential to alter the water balance in semiarid inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard Wilske; Long Wei; Shiping Chen; Tonggang Zha; Chenfeng Liu; Wenting Xu; Asko Noormets; Jianhui Haung; Yafen Wei; Jun Chen; Zhiqiang Zhang; Jian Ni; Ge Sun; Kirk Guo; Steve McNulty; Ranjeet John; Xiangguo Han; Guanghui Lin; Jiquan Chen

    2009-01-01

    Poplar plantation is the most dominant broadleaf forest type in northern China. Since the mid-1990s plantation was intensified to combat desertification along China’s northwestern border, i.e., within Inner Mongolia (IM). This evoked much concern regarding the ecological and environmental effects on areas that naturally grow grass or shrub vegetation. To highlight...

  13. Energy partitioning and surface resistance of a poplar plantation in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Kang; Z. Zhang; A. Noormets; X. Fang; T. Zha; J. Zhou; G. Sun; S. G. McNulty; J. Chen

    2015-01-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been, on the one hand, broadly used in northern China for urban greening, combating desertification, as well as for paper and wood production. On the other hand, such plantations have been questioned occasionally for their possible negative impacts on water availability due to the higher water-use nature of...

  14. Non-destructive digital imaging in poplar allows detailed analysis of adventitious rooting dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Kodrzycki; R.B. Michaels; A.L. Friend; R.S. Zalesny; Ch.P. Mawata; D.W. McDonald

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of root formation are difficult to observe directly over time without disturbing the rooting environment. A novel system for a non-destructive, non-invasive root analysis (RootViz FS, Phenotype Screening Corp.) was evaluated for its ability to analyze root formation from cuttings over a 32 day period in three poplar genotypes (DN70, P. Deltoides x...

  15. Molecular genetic analysis of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) along Dutch rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, P.; Coops, H.; Jansen, J.; Vosman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The genetic structure of remaining black poplar (Populus nigra) trees on the banks of the Dutch Rhine branches was investigated using the AFLP technique. In total, 143 trees, including one P. deltoides and some P. x euramericana, were analysed using six AFLP primer combinations which generated 319

  16. Lignin engineering in field-grown poplar trees affects the endosphere bacterial microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Bram; Op De Beeck, Michiel; Weyens, Nele; Van Acker, Rebecca; Van Montagu, Marc; Boerjan, Wout; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-02-23

    Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), an enzyme central to the lignin biosynthetic pathway, represents a promising biotechnological target to reduce lignin levels and to improve the commercial viability of lignocellulosic biomass. However, silencing of the CCR gene results in considerable flux changes of the general and monolignol-specific lignin pathways, ultimately leading to the accumulation of various extractable phenolic compounds in the xylem. Here, we evaluated host genotype-dependent effects of field-grown, CCR-down-regulated poplar trees (Populus tremula × Populus alba) on the bacterial rhizosphere microbiome and the endosphere microbiome, namely the microbiota present in roots, stems, and leaves. Plant-associated bacteria were isolated from all plant compartments by selective isolation and enrichment techniques with specific phenolic carbon sources (such as ferulic acid) that are up-regulated in CCR-deficient poplar trees. The bacterial microbiomes present in the endosphere were highly responsive to the CCR-deficient poplar genotype with remarkably different metabolic capacities and associated community structures compared with the WT trees. In contrast, the rhizosphere microbiome of CCR-deficient and WT poplar trees featured highly overlapping bacterial community structures and metabolic capacities. We demonstrate the host genotype modulation of the plant microbiome by minute genetic variations in the plant genome. Hence, these interactions need to be taken into consideration to understand the full consequences of plant metabolic pathway engineering and its relation with the environment and the intended genetic improvement.

  17. Poplar trees for phytoremediation of high levels of nitrate and applications in bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rodríguez, Vanessa; García-Gutiérrez, Angel; Canales, Javier; Cañas, Rafael A; Kirby, Edward G; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of high amounts of nitrate fertilizers for crop yield leads to nitrate pollution of ground and surface waters. In this study, we report the assimilation and utilization of nitrate luxuriant levels, 20 times more than the highest N fertilizer application in Europe, by transgenic poplars overexpressing a cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1). In comparison with the wild-type controls, transgenic plants grown under high N levels exhibited increased biomass (171.6%) and accumulated higher levels of proteins, chlorophylls and total sugars such as glucose, fructose and sucrose. These plants also exhibited greater nitrogen-use efficiency particularly in young leaves, suggesting that they are able to translocate most of the resources to the above-ground part of the plant to produce biomass. The transgenic poplar transcriptome was greatly affected in response to N availability with 1237 genes differentially regulated in high N, while only 632 genes were differentially expressed in untransformed plants. Many of these genes are essential in the adaptation and response against N excess and include those involved in photosynthesis, cell wall formation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Cellulose production in the transgenic plants was fivefold higher than in control plants, indicating that transgenic poplars represent a potential feedstock for applications in bioenergy. In conclusion, our results show that GS transgenic poplars can be used not only for improving growth and biomass production but also as an important resource for potential phytoremediation of nitrate pollution. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit

  19. Putrescine overproduction negatively impacts the oxidative state of poplar cells in culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridev Mohapatra; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long

    2009-01-01

    While polyamines (PAs) have been suggested to protect cells against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), their catabolism is known to generate ROS. We compared the activities of several enzymes and cellular metabolites involved in the ROS scavenging pathways in two isogenic cell lines of poplar (Populus nigra × maximowiczii) differing in their PA...

  20. Local cloning of two product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhengfeng; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng

    2005-01-01

    Local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) put considerable constraints on many quantum information processing tasks such as cloning and discrimination. Surprisingly, however, discrimination of any two pure states survives such constraints in some sense. We show that cloning is not that lucky; namely, probabilistic LOCC cloning of two product states is strictly less efficient than global cloning. We prove our result by giving explicitly the efficiency formula of local cloning of any two product states

  1. Local cloning of entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  2. Measurement of background translocation frequencies in individuals with clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Marcelle J. [California State Univ. (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In the leukemia case the unseparated B and T lymphocytes had a high translocation frequency even after 0.0014, respectively. After purging all clones from the data, the translocation frequencies for Bio 8 and Bio 23 were 0.00750.0014 and 0.0073 metaphases were scored for chromosomal aberrations,, specifically reciprocal translocations, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Metaphase spreads were used from two healthy, unexposed individuals (not exposed to radiation, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) and one early B- precursor acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patient (metaphase spreads from both separated T lymphocytes and unseparated B and T lymphocytes were scored). All three individuals had an abnormally high translocation frequency. The high translocation frequencies resulted from clonal expansion of specific translocated chromosomes. I show in this thesis that by purging (discounting or removing) clones from the data of unexposed individuals, one can obtain true background translocation frequencies. In two cases, Bio 8 and Bio 23, the measured translocation frequency for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 was 0.0124 purging all of the clones from the data. This high translocation frequency may be due to a low frequency of some clones and may not be recognized. The separated T lymphocytes had a higher translocation frequency than expected.

  3. Isoprene in poplar emissions: effects on new particle formation and OH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Andres, S.; Bachner, M.; Behnke, K.; Broch, S.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Kleist, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Rubach, F.; Springer, M.; Steitz, B.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Schnitzler, J.-P.; Wildt, J.

    2012-01-01

    Stress-induced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from transgenic Grey poplar modified in isoprene emission potential were used for the investigation of photochemical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In poplar, acute ozone stress induces the emission of a wide array of VOCs dominated by sesquiterpenes and aromatic VOCs. Constitutive light-dependent emission of isoprene ranged between 66 nmol m-2 s-1 in non-transgenic controls (wild type WT) and nearly zero (plants (line RA22), respectively. Nucleation rates of up to 3600 cm-3 s-1 were observed in our experiments. In the presence of isoprene new particle formation was suppressed compared to non-isoprene containing VOC mixtures. Compared to isoprene/monoterpene systems emitted from other plants the suppression of nucleation by isoprene was less effective for the VOC mixture emitted from stressed poplar. This is explained by the observed high efficiency of new particle formation for emissions from stressed poplar. Direct measurements of OH in the reaction chamber revealed that the steady state concentration of OH is lower in the presence of isoprene than in the absence of isoprene, supporting the hypothesis that isoprenes' suppressing effect on nucleation is related to radical chemistry. In order to test whether isoprene contributes to SOA mass formation, fully deuterated isoprene (C5D8) was added to the stress-induced emission profile of an isoprene free poplar mutant. Mass spectral analysis showed that, despite the isoprene-induced suppression of particle formation, fractions of deuterated isoprene were incorporated into the SOA. A fractional mass yield of 2.3% of isoprene was observed. Future emission changes due to land use and climate change may therefore affect both gas phase oxidation capacity and new particle number formation.

  4. Physiological aspects of short-rotation culture of the poplar. Fertilization of soils by sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, G

    1988-01-01

    This study, on the poplar (Populus Trichocarpa x Populus deltoides, c.v. Raspalje) concerned two different problems. The first is a physiological study on the tree treated in short rotation; the second deals with a fertilization by sewage sludge and the consequences on the environment. We have carried out in the laboratory two complementary experiments, the one, on the culture of the poplar in hydroponic medium with a pollutant element (Hg), and the other in the potentialities of soil retention. In the first part, we have showed that: - the best period for coppicing is between Mid August and May, as soon as the stumps were four or five years-old, - the coppicing has a stimulating effect on the growth of the coppice shoots, - the mean number of dominant coppice shoots, after several coppicing, is two, - the productivity is about 20 to 30 tonnes of dry matter per hectare and per year. The second part of this study has showed that: - using 3.2 tonnes of dehydrated sewage sludge per hectare and per year to fertilize, has the same effects on productivity of poplars as a classical fertilization (every 5 years) by chemical manure (N, P, K), - there were no differences in the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg), in the different parts of the poplars, between the different plots fertilized with sewage sludge, chemical manure and controlled. Moreover, the experiments performed, in the laboratory showed that: - pollutant elements (Cd, Cu) were fixed in the top of the column soil, - using a hydroponic solution containing a mercuric chloride, labelled ({sup 203}Hg), the poplars absorb very little of the pollutant element. Only 10% of the mercury in the solution was to be found in the plant and 99% of this in the root-system, more precisely, at the level epidermic barrier.

  5. Analysis of Poplar process value chain in Western Azerbaijan province aims to upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid hosein zadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the size and importance of poplar culturing and its role in the West Azerbaijan province economy, evaluation of the poplar value chain is necessary. With drawing up a comprehensive value chain and identify the lacks, setting the value chain in the province were studied. Finally, due to lacks of the value chain, value chain strategy for development was identified using ANP. The results of the calculation of location quotient in the West Azerbaijan province showed that the LQ is equal to 0.65852. Due to its lower LQ than one, it can be concluded that the poplar costumers in Western Azerbaijan province are less than the country average. The results of the prioritization of criteria affecting poplar value chain development in West Azerbaijan province indicated the most important criterion is the access to wooden raw materials weighing 0.16. After that the stable supply of raw materials, machinery and equipment, manpower, proximity to local markets, expertise and financial resources are with weights, 0.132, 0.123, 0.116, 0.105, 0.102 and 0.07 respectively. The weights of the other criteria have a little importance in the development of the poplar value chain. Final results of alternatives prioritization showed, the maximum weight is related to particleboard with the 0.295. The following options are OSB, MDF and HDF which have a weight of 0.185 and 0.178 respectively. After the composite wood products is turn of chemical products, namely cellulose, pulp and paper weights 0.112, 0.1 and 0.066 respectively.

  6. The nitrate transporter (NRT gene family in poplar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Bai

    Full Text Available Nitrate is an important nutrient required for plant growth. It also acts as a signal regulating plant development. Nitrate is actively taken up and transported by nitrate transporters (NRT, which form a large family with many members and distinct functions. In contrast to Arabidopsis and rice there is little information about the NRT family in woody plants such as Populus. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus NRT family was performed. Sixty-eight PtNRT1/PTR, 6 PtNRT2, and 5 PtNRT3 genes were identified in the P. trichocarpa genome. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the genes of the NRT family are divided into three clades: NRT1/PTR with four subclades, NRT2, and NRT3. Topological analysis indicated that all members of PtNRT1/PTR and PtNRT2 have 8 to 12 trans-membrane domains, whereas the PtNRT3 proteins have no or up to two trans-membrane domains. Four PtNRT3 members were predicted as secreted proteins. Microarray analyses revealed tissue-specific expression patterns of PtNRT genes with distinct clusters of NRTs for roots, for the elongation zone of the apical stem segment and the developing xylem and a further cluster for leaves, bark and wood. A comparison of different poplar species (P. trichocarpa, P. tremula, P. euphratica, P. fremontii x P. angustifolia, and P. x canescens showed that the tissue-specific patterns of the NRT genes varied to some extent with species. Bioinformatic analysis of putative cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions of PtNRT family retrieved motifs suggesting the regulation of the NRT genes by N metabolism, by energy and carbon metabolism, and by phytohormones and stress. Multivariate analysis suggested that the combination and abundance of motifs in distinct promoters may lead to tissue-specificity. Our genome wide analysis of the PtNRT genes provides a valuable basis for functional analysis towards understanding the role of nitrate transporters for tree growth.

  7. Quantum cloning without external control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, G. de; Fazio, R.; Macchiavello, C.; Montangero, S.; Palma, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this work we present an approach to quantum cloning with unmodulated spin networks. The cloner is realized by a proper design of the network and a choice of the coupling between the qubits. We show that in the case of phase covariant cloner the XY coupling gives the best results. In the 1 → 2 cloning we find that the value for the fidelity of the optimal cloner is achieved, and values comparable to the optimal ones in the general N → M case can be attained. If a suitable set of network symmetries are satisfied, the output fidelity of the clones does not depend on the specific choice of the graph. We show that spin network cloning is robust against the presence of static imperfections. Moreover, in the presence of noise, it outperforms the conventional approach. In this case the fidelity exceeds the corresponding value obtained by quantum gates even for a very small amount of noise. Furthermore we show how to use this method to clone qutrits and qudits. By means of the Heisenberg coupling it is also possible to implement the universal cloner although in this case the fidelity is 10 % off that of the optimal cloner. (author)

  8. [Cloning and law in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research.

  9. [Mystery and problems of cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V A

    2010-01-01

    The attention of investigators is attracted to the fact that, in spite of great efforts in mammalian cloning, advances that have been made in this area of research are not great, and cloned animals have developmental pathologies often incompatible with life and/or reproduction ability. It is yet not clear what technical or biological factors underlie this, and how they are connected or interact with each other, which is more realistic strategically. There is a great number of articles dealing with the influence of cloning with the nuclear transfer on genetic and epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells. At the same time we can see the practical absence of analytical investigations concerning the technology of cloning as such, its weak points, and possible sources of cellular trauma in the course of microsurgery of nuclear transfer or twinning. This article discusses step by step several nuclear transfer techniques and the methods of dividing early preimplanted embryos for twinning with the aim to reveal possible sources of cell damage during micromanipulation that may have negative influence on the development of cloned organisms. Several new author's technologies based on the study of cell biophysical characteristics are described, which allow one to avoid cellular trauma during manipulation and minimize the possibility of cell damage at any rate.

  10. Cloning and study of the pectate lyase gene of Erwinia carotovora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukanov, N.O.; Fonshtein, M.Yu.; Evtushenkov, A.N.; Syarinskii, M.A.; Strel'chenko, P.P.; Yankovski, N.K.; Alikhanyan, S.I.; Fomichev, Yu.K.; Debabov, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    The cloning of the gene of a secretable protein of Erwinia carotovora, pectate lyase, in Escherichia coli was described. Primary cloning was conducted using the phage vector λ 47.1. In the gene library of E. carotovora obtained, eight phages carrying the gene sought were identified according to the appearance of enzymatic activity of the gene product, pectate lyase, in situ. The BamHI fragment of DNA, common to all these phages, was recloned on the plasmid pUC19. It was shown that the cloned pectate lyase gene is represented on the E. carotovora chromosome in one copy. Methods of production of representative gene libraries on phage vectors from no less than 1 μg of cloned DNA even for the genomes of eukaryotes have now been developed. Vectors have been created, for example, λ 47.1, permitting the selection only of hybrid molecules. A number of methods have been developed for the search for a required gene in the library, depending on whether the cloned gene can be expressed or not, and if it can, what properties it will impart to the hybrid clone containing it

  11. Potent clones. Efficiency of phytoremediation by means of willow family on the status of heavy metals; Potente Klone. Wirkung der Phytoremediation mittels Weidengewaechsen auf den Schwermetallstatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fibian, Kurt D. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Pflanzenernaehrung; Gombler, Willy; Gruessing, Edgar; Janssen-Weets, Sybille; Schlaak, Michael [Fachhochschule Emden-Leer, Emden (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik-EUTEC

    2010-11-15

    The contents of cadmium, copper and zinc in a polluted substrate (harbour silt) were determined by means of fractionated extraction. In a pot attempt, four willow clones were cultivated on this substrate. After a test period of three years the changes in the individual fractions of heavy metal were determined. At the same time, the remove capacity of the test pastures being relevant for the process of phytoextraction were determined by means of the content of heavy metals of the aboveground plant organs and its dry weight. The results show that two of the examined pasture clones clearly are better suitable than poplars and corn, in order to remove in particular cadmium and zinc from the soil by means of phytoremediation.

  12. The topsy-turvy cloning law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, Iain; Oultram, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    In debates about human cloning, a distinction is frequently drawn between therapeutic and reproductive uses of the technology. Naturally enough, this distinction influences the way that the law is framed. The general consensus is that therapeutic cloning is less morally problematic than reproductive cloning--one can hold this position while holding that both are morally unacceptable--and the law frequently leaves the way open for some cloning for the sake of research into new therapeutic techniques while banning it for reproductive purposes. We claim that the position adopted by the law has things the wrong way around: if we accept a moral distinction between therapeutic and reproductive cloning, there are actually more reasons to be morally worried about therapeutic cloning than about reproductive cloning. If cloning is the proper object of legal scrutiny, then, we ought to make sure that we are scrutinising the right kind of clone.

  13. Cloning of Salmonella typhimurium DNA encoding mutagenic DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.M.; Sedgwick, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli is encoded by the umuDC operon. Salmonella typhimurium DNA which has homology with E. coli umuC and is able to complement E. coli umuC122::Tn5 and umuC36 mutations has been cloned. Complementation of umuD44 mutants and hybridization with E. coli umuD also occurred, but these activities were much weaker than with umuC. Restriction enzyme mapping indicated that the composition of the cloned fragment is different from the E. coli umuDC operon. Therefore, a umu-like function of S. typhimurium has been found; the phenotype of this function is weaker than that of its E. coli counterpart, which is consistent with the weak mutagenic response of S. typhimurium to UV compared with the response in E. coli

  14. Systematic cloning of human minisatellites from ordered array charomid libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Povey, S; Jeremiah, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1990-11-01

    We present a rapid and efficient method for the isolation of minisatellite loci from human DNA. The method combines cloning a size-selected fraction of human MboI DNA fragments in a charomid vector with hybridization screening of the library in ordered array. Size-selection of large MboI fragments enriches for the longer, more variable minisatellites and reduces the size of the library required. The library was screened with a series of multi-locus probes known to detect a large number of hypervariable loci in human DNA. The gridded library allowed both the rapid processing of positive clones and the comparative evaluation of the different multi-locus probes used, in terms of both the relative success in detecting hypervariable loci and the degree of overlap between the sets of loci detected. We report 23 new human minisatellite loci isolated by this method, which map to 14 autosomes and the sex chromosomes.

  15. Cloning and expression of calmodulin gene in Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Daisuke; Asakura, Yuki; Nkembo, Marguerite Kasidimoko; Shite, Masato; Sugiyama, Ryuji; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2007-06-01

    A homology-based cloning strategy yielded a cDNA clone, designated Sd-cam, encoding calmodulin protein from Scoparia dulcis. The restriction digests of genomic DNA of S. dulcis showed a single hybridized signal when probed with the fragment of this gene in Southern blot analyses, suggesting that Sd-cam occurs as a sole gene encoding calmodulin in the plant. The reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Sd-cam was appreciably expressed in leaf, root and stem tissues. It appeared that transcription of this gene increased transiently when the leaf cultures of S. dulcis were treated with methyl jasmonate and calcium ionophore A23187. These results suggest that transcriptional activation of Sd-cam is one of the early cellular events of the methyl jasmonate-induced responses of S. dulcis.

  16. Improved diffusivity of NaOH solution in autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood chips for chemi-mechanical pulp production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglei; Hou, Qingxi; Liu, Wei; Yue, Zhen; Jiang, Xiaoya; Ma, Xixi

    2018-07-01

    This work investigated the changes in the physical structure of autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood chips and the effect on the subsequent alkali liquor diffusion properties for chemi-mechanical pulping (CMP). An alkali impregnation process was conducted by using the autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood with different levels of autohydrolysis intensity. The results showed that the volume porosity, water constraint capacity, and saturated water absorption of the autohydrolyzed poplar sapwood chips increased. Also, the effective capillary cross-sectional area (ECCSA) in the radial direction and the diffusion coefficients of NaOH solution in both the radial and axial directions all increased. Autohydrolysis pretreatment enhanced the alkali liquor diffusion properties in poplar sapwood chips, and the diffusion coefficient was increased more greatly in the radial direction than that in the axial direction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cloning of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, JG

    2004-01-01

    Aim: In order to clarify the pathogenesis of endocrine exophthalmos, and lay foundations for finding the new functions of its relative genes, the cloning of its relative genes was carried out. Methods: The thyroid tissues of 10 hyperthyroidism patients, 5 of them with endocrine exophthalmos and 5 without that, were obtained. Their mRNA were collected respectively by using Quick Prep Micro mRNA purification kit. Then the same amount of the mRNA from 5 patients with endocrine exophthalmos was added into an eppendorf tube to form a mRNA pool. And that of the 5 patients without endocrine exophthalmos was also prepared as the other pool. As a model, the pool was used to synthesize the single and double chains of cDNA through SMART Tm PCR cDNA Synthesis Kit. The double chains cDNA from the endocrine exophthalmos patients, being used as tester, and that from the patients without endocrine exophthalmos, being used as driver, were digested by restriction endonucleases Hae III to get the fragments which was less than 500 bases. The tester cDNA was ligated with adapt or 1 or 2 respectively. Then the subtractive suppressive hybridization was performed between tester and driver cDNA. And the efficacies of subtraction were measured. The differential genes between the thyroid tissues of endocrine exophthalmos and the thyroid tissues without endocrine exophthalmos were obtained through two cycles of subtractive hybridization and two cycles PCR. The differential genes were cloned into the vector of pT-Adv, and then transformed into E.coliDH5a. 48 white clonies were selected to build the subtractive suppressive library of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos. The primer 2 was applied for the colony PCR of the relative genes. The amplified genes were obtained and purified by using Quaqwich Spine PCR Purification Kit. According to the principle of random primer, the double chains cDNA from the thyroid tissues with or without endocrine exophthalmos were digested by Hae III

  18. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  19. The Atlantic-Mediterranean watershed, river basins and glacial history shape the genetic structure of Iberian poplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya-Sanz, D; Heuertz, M; López-de-Heredia, U; De-Lucas, A I; Hidalgo, E; Maestro, C; Prada, A; Alía, R; González-Martínez, S C

    2012-07-01

    Recent phylogeographic studies have elucidated the effects of Pleistocene glaciations and of Pre-Pleistocene events on populations from glacial refuge areas. This study investigates those effects in riparian trees (Populus spp.), whose particular features may convey enhanced resistance to climate fluctuations. We analysed the phylogeographic structure of 44 white (Populus alba), 13 black (Populus nigra) and two grey (Populus x canescens) poplar populations in the Iberian Peninsula using plastid DNA microsatellites and sequences. We also assessed fine-scale spatial genetic structure and the extent of clonality in four white and one grey poplar populations using nuclear microsatellites and we determined quantitative genetic differentiation (Q(ST) ) for growth traits in white poplar. Black poplar displayed higher regional diversity and lower differentiation than white poplar, reflecting its higher cold-tolerance. The dependence of white poplar on phreatic water was evidenced by strong differentiation between the Atlantic and Mediterranean drainage basins and among river basins, and by weaker isolation by distance within than among river basins. Our results suggest confinement to the lower river courses during glacial periods and moderate interglacial gene exchange along coastlines. In northern Iberian river basins, white poplar had lower diversity, fewer private haplotypes and larger clonal assemblies than in southern basins, indicating a stronger effect of glaciations in the north. Despite strong genetic structure and frequent asexual propagation in white poplar, some growth traits displayed adaptive divergence between drainage and river basins (Q(ST) >F(ST)), highlighting the remarkable capacity of riparian tree populations to adapt to regional environmental conditions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. To Make Long Character-Marked Cuttings From Low-Grade Yellow-Poplar Lumber - Rip First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1979-01-01

    Long, character-marked furniture cuttings are easily obtained when low-grade (2A and 2B Common) yellow-poplar lumber is first ripped into strips and then crosscut to remove objectionable defects. Overall yields of character-marked material using this procedure were 78% from 1 Common and 2A Common and 70% from 2B Common yellow-poplar lumber. Furthermore, 82% of the 1...

  1. Bacterial microflora isolated from the bark surface of poplars growing in areas where air pollution is very high

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 1976 bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Erwinia and Cellulomonas were isolated from the bark surface of poplars growing in protective belts around several industrial plants. It was found that the qualitative and quantitative composition of the surface bacterial microflora changes in dependence on the degree of resistance of the poplars to the action of the dust emitted by the industrial establishment and containing high amounts of heavy metals.

  2. Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D

  3. A structured understanding of cellobiohydrolase I binding to poplar lignin fractions after dilute acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Yoo, Chang Geun; Meng, Xianzhi; Li, Mi; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Yang, Haitao

    2018-01-01

    Cellulase adsorption to lignin is considered a cost barrier for bioethanol production; however, its detailed association mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, two natural poplar variants with high and low sugar release performance were selected as the low and high recalcitrant raw materials (named L and H , respectively). Three different lignin fractions were extracted using ethanol, followed by p -dioxane and then cellulase treatment from the dilute acid pretreated poplar solids (fraction 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Each lignin fraction had different physicochemical properties. Ethanol-extracted lignin had the lowest weight average molecular weight, while the molecular weights for the other two lignin fractions were similar. 31 P NMR analysis revealed that lignin fraction with higher molecular weight contained more aliphatic hydroxyl groups and less phenolic hydroxyl groups. Semi-quantitative analysis by 2D HSQC NMR indicated that the lignin fractions isolated from the natural variants had different contents of syringyl (S), guaiacyl (G) and interunit linkages. Lignin extracted by ethanol contained the largest amount of S units, the smallest amounts of G and p -hydroxybenzoate (PB) subunits, while the contents of these lignin subunits in the other two lignin fractions were similar. The lignin fraction obtained after cellulase treatment was primarily comprised of β- O -4 linkages with small amounts of β-5 and β-β linkages. The binding strength of these three lignin fractions obtained by Langmuir equations were in the order of L 1  >  L 3  >  L 2 for the low recalcitrance poplar and H 1  >  H 2  >  H 3 for the high recalcitrance poplar. Overall, adsorption ability of lignin was correlated with the sugar release of poplar. Structural features of lignin were associated with its binding to CBH. For natural poplar variants, lignin fractions with lower molecular weight and polydispersity index (PDI) exhibited more CBH adsorption

  4. The potential of willow and poplar plantations as carbon sinks in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2012-01-01

    A large share, estimated at 12–25%, of the annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is attributed to global deforestation. Increasing the forested areas therefore has a positive impact on carbon (C) sequestration and mitigation of high atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Fast-growing species, such as willow and poplar, are of high interest as producers of biomass for fuel, but also as C sinks. The present study estimated the rate of C sequestration in biomass and soil in willow and poplar plantations. Calculations were based on above- and below-ground biomass production data from field experiments, including fine root turnover, litter decomposition rates, and production levels from commercial plantations. Accumulation of C in woody biomass, above and below ground, was estimated at 76.6–80.1 Mg C ha −1 and accumulation of C in the soil at 9.0–10.3 Mg C ha −1 over the first 20–22 years. The average rates of C sequestration were 3.5–4.0 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 in woody biomass, and 0.4–0.5 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 in the soil. If 400,000 ha of abandoned arable land in Sweden were planted with willow and poplar, about 1.5 Tg C would be sequestered annually in woody biomass and 0.2 Tg C in soils. This would be nearly one tenth of the annual anthropogenic emissions of C in Sweden today. These calculations show the potential of fast-growing plantations on arable land to mitigate the effect of high CO 2 concentrations over a short time span. Knowledge gaps were found during the calculation process and future research areas were suggested. -- Highlights: ► Poplars and willows as producers of biomass for fuel and as C sinks. ► Calculation of C sequestration rates in biomass and soil in willow and poplar plantations. ► Increasing forested areas has positive impact on high CO 2 levels. ► Willow and poplar plantations on arable land mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emissions.

  5. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yue, Jie-Dong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-11-20

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.

  6. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Heng; Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li; Yue, Jie-Dong; Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results

  7. Identification of cDNA clones expressing immunodiagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarlenga, D.; Gamble, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA expression library was built in lambda gt11 phage using poly A mRNA isolated from Trichinella spiralis muscle stage larvae. This library was screened with rabbit antibodies to parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products and greater than 180 clones were isolated. Thirteen clones producing highly immunogenic protein antigens were plaque purified and rescreened with pig antisera to T.spiralis, Trichuris suis or Ascaris suum to identify clones producing epitopes specific to T.spiralis ES products, only. Two clones, TsAc-2 and TsAc-8, which displayed strong interactions with pig antisera to T. spiralis were lysogenized in E. coli Y1089 and the protein extracted. Western blots of the crude fusion proteins revealed molecular weights of 133 kD and 129 kD, respectively. Northern blot analysis of total RNA with 32 P labelled cDNA:lambda gt11 probes indicated single RNA transcripts for each clone with molecular sizes corresponding to 800-850 nucleotides. dscDNA inserts were estimated by southern blot analysis to be 500 bp and 340 bp, respectively, with no cross-hybridization observed between the cloned sequences. Dot blots using pig sera to screen crude fusion protein preparations, total bacterial protein (negative controls) and crude worm extract or ES products from T.spiralis, T.suis and A.suum (positive controls) corroborated the specificity and sensitivity of these clones as potential diagnostic antigens for swine trichinellosis

  8. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav

    2016-01-01

    Clone-MarkerFree. The integration of linearized expression cassettes into defined genomic loci is facilitated by CRISPR/Cas9. Cas9 is recruited to the chromosomal location by specific guide RNAs (gRNAs) expressed from a set of gRNA helper vectors. Using our genome engineering vector suite, single and triple insertions are obtained...

  9. Clone Poems and the Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1989-01-01

    Describes how students can use the computer to study and create clone poems (altering original Spanish-language poems by substituting words and expressions), and how students can gain a deeper appreciation of the original poem's poetic structure and semantics. (CB)

  10. Probabilistic cloning and deleting of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    We construct a probabilistic cloning and deleting machine which, taking several copies of an input quantum state, can output a linear superposition of multiple cloning and deleting states. Since the machine can perform cloning and deleting in a single unitary evolution, the probabilistic cloning and other cloning machines proposed in the previous literature can be thought of as special cases of our machine. A sufficient and necessary condition for successful cloning and deleting is presented, and it requires that the copies of an arbitrarily presumed number of the input states are linearly independent. This simply generalizes some results for cloning. We also derive an upper bound for the success probability of the cloning and deleting machine

  11. Human reproductive cloning: a conflict of liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havstad, Joyce C

    2010-02-01

    Proponents of human reproductive cloning do not dispute that cloning may lead to violations of clones' right to self-determination, or that these violations could cause psychological harms. But they proceed with their endorsement of human reproductive cloning by dismissing these psychological harms, mainly in two ways. The first tactic is to point out that to commit the genetic fallacy is indeed a mistake; the second is to invoke Parfit's non-identity problem. The argument of this paper is that neither approach succeeds in removing our moral responsibility to consider and to prevent psychological harms to cloned individuals. In fact, the same commitment to personal liberty that generates the right to reproduce by means of cloning also creates the need to limit that right appropriately. Discussion of human reproductive cloning ought to involve a careful and balanced consideration of both the relevant aspects of personal liberty - the parents' right to reproductive freedom and the cloned child's right to self-determination.

  12. RESEARCH ARTICLE Molecular cloning and functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-11-25

    Nov 25, 2016 ... Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two novel ... Currently, many variants of HMW-GSs have been cloned from bread wheat .... SDS sedimentation tests were conducted using the methods described by Gao et ...

  13. Phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Imai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2003-01-01

    We study the phase-covariant quantum cloning machine for qudits, i.e., the input states in a d-level quantum system have complex coefficients with arbitrary phase but constant module. A cloning unitary transformation is proposed. After optimizing the fidelity between input state and single qudit reduced density operator of output state, we obtain the optimal fidelity for 1 to 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits and the corresponding cloning transformation

  14. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  15. The level of invasion of the willow-poplar floodplain forests of Danube lowland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botkova, K.; Petrasova, K.

    2015-01-01

    Invasions of neophyte plant species are considered as one of the major threats to the diversity of natural ecosystems including floodplain forests. The aims of our study were to find out if there is a significant increase in the number and cover of neophyte species in the willow-poplar floodplain forests of Danube lowland over time. The level of invasion of the willow-poplar floodplain forests was evaluated from 1950 to the present time using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric ANOVA. According to the analysis results, along the time gradient there is a significant increase in the number and cover of neophytes among analysed periods. This result is not caused by increasing biodiversity, because the number of native species significantly decreased. Therefor it is necessary to look for reasons of this situation in deteriorating condition of floodplain biotopes. (authors)

  16. Cometabolic degradation of trichloroethylene by Burkholderia cepacia G4 with poplar leaf homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Won; Doty, Sharon Lafferty

    2014-07-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a chlorinated organic solvent, is one of the most common and widespread groundwater contaminants worldwide. Among the group of TCE-degrading aerobic bacteria, Burkholderia cepacia G4 is the best-known representative. This strain requires the addition of specific substrates, including toluene, phenol, and benzene, to induce the enzymes to degrade TCE. However, the substrates are toxic and introducing them into the soil can result in secondary contamination. In this study, poplar leaf homogenate containing natural phenolic compounds was tested for the ability to induce the growth of and TCE degradation by B. cepacia G4. The results showed that the G4 strain could grow and degrade TCE well with the addition of phytochemicals. The poplar leaf homogenate also functioned as an inducer of the toluene-ortho-monooxygenase (TOM) gene in B. cepacia G4.

  17. Overexpression of PtABCC1 contributes to mercury tolerance and accumulation in Arabidopsis and poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Ma, Yifeng; Wang, Huihong; Huang, Weipeng; Wang, Xiaozhu; Han, Li; Sun, Wanmei; Han, Erqin; Wang, Bangjun

    2018-03-18

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly biotoxic heavy metal that contaminates the environment. Phytoremediation is a green technology for environmental remediation and is used to clean up Hg contaminated soil in recent years. In this study, we isolated an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene PtABCC1 from Populus trichocarpa and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis and poplar. The transgenic plants conferred higher Hg tolerance than wild type (WT) plants, and overexpression of PtABCC1 could lead to 26-72% or 7-160% increase of Hg accumulation in Arabidopsis or poplar plants, respectively. These results demonstrated that PtABCC1 plays a crucial role in enhancing tolerance and accumulation to Hg in plants, which provides a promising way for phytoremediation of Hg contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilization of poplar wood sawdust for heavy metals removal from model solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demcak Stefan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some kinds of natural organic materials have a potential for removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater. It is well known that cellulosic waste materials or by-products can be used as cheap adsorbents in chemical treatment process. In this paper, poplar wood sawdust were used for removal of Cu(II, Zn(II and Fe(II ions from model solutions with using the static and dynamic adsorption experiments. Infrared spectrometry of poplar wood sawdust confirmed the presence of the functional groups which correspond with hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin. At static adsorption was achieved approximately of 80 % efficiency for all treated model solutions. Similar efficiency of the adsorption processes was reached after 5 min at dynamic condition. The highest efficiency of Cu(II removal (98 % was observed after 30 min of dynamic adsorption. Changes of pH values confirmed a mechanism of ion exchange on the beginning of the adsorption process.

  19. Mercury Content of Sediments in East Fork Poplar Creek: Current Assessment and Past Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eller, Virginia A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dickson, Johnbull O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Earles, Jennifer E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lowe, Kenneth Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehlhorn, Tonia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, Todd A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watson, David J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phillips, Debra H. [Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study provided new information on sediment mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) content and chemistry. The current inventory of Hg in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) bed sediments was estimated to be 334 kg, which represents a ~67% decrease relative to the initial investigations in 1984. MMHg sediment inventory was estimated to be 44.1 g, lower but roughly similar to past estimates. The results support the relevance and potential impacts of other active and planned investigations within the Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek project (e.g., assessment and control of bank soil inputs, sorbents for Hg and MMHg removal, re-introduction of freshwater clams to EFPC), and identify gaps in current understanding that represent opportunities to understand controlling variables that may inform future technology development studies.

  20. A single-copy galK promoter cloning vector suitable for cloning strong promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin

    1986-01-01

    We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...

  1. Environmental profile of ethanol from poplar biomass as transport fuel in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara; Moreira, M. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Gasol, Carles M.; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Liquid biofuels provide one of the few options for fossil fuel substitution in the short to medium-term and they are strongly being promoted by the European Union as transport fuel (such as ethanol) since they have the potential to offer both greenhouse gas (GHG) savings and energy security. A ''well to wheel'' analysis has been conducted for poplar based ethanol by means of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The aim of the analysis is to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol applications (E10, E85 and E100) in comparison with conventional gasoline. To compare the environmental profiles, the study addressed the impact potentials per kilometre driven by a middle size passenger car, taking into account the performance difference between ethanol blends and gasoline. According to the results of this study, fuel ethanol derived from poplar biomass may help to reduce the contributions to global warming, abiotic resources depletion and ozone layer depletion up to 62%, 72% and 36% respectively. Reductions of fossil fuel extraction of up to 80% could be achieved when pure ethanol is used. On the contrary, contributions to other impact categories would be increased, specifically to acidification and eutrophication. In both categories, ethanol based blends are less environmentally friendly than conventional gasoline due to the higher impact from the upstream activities. Research focussed on the reduction of the environmental impacts should be pointed forward poplar cultivation as well as ethanol conversion plant (enzyme manufacturing, energy production and distillation). In this study poplar cultivation was really intensive in order to obtain a high yield. Strategic planning according to the location of the crops and its requirements should help to reduce these impacts from its cultivation. (author)

  2. RNA-SEQ reveals transcriptional level changes of poplar roots in different forms of nitrogen treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpu eQu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poplar has emerged as a model plant for understanding molecular mechanisms of tree growth, development and response to environment. Long-term application of different forms of nitrogen (such as NO3--N and NH4+-N may cause morphological changes of poplar roots; however, the molecular level changes are still not well known. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiling of poplar roots treated by three forms of nitrogen: S1 (NH4+, S2 (NH4NO3 and S3 (NO3- by using RNA-SEQ technique. We found 463 genes significantly differentially expressed in roots by different N treatments, of which a total of 116 genes were found to differentially express between S1 and S2, 173 genes between S2 and S3, and 327 genes between S1 and S3. A cluster analysis shows significant difference in many transcription factor families and functional genes family under different N forms. Through an analysis of Mapman metabolic pathway, we found that the significantly differentially expressed genes are associated with fermentation, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, and transport processing. Interestingly, we did not find significantly differentially expressed genes in N metabolism pathway, mitochondrial electron transport / ATP synthesis and mineral nutrition. We also found abundant candidate genes (20 transcription factors and 30 functional genes regulating morphology changes of poplar roots under the three N forms. The results obtained are beneficial to a better understanding of the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating root morphology changes under different N treatments.

  3. Combining proteomics and metabolite analyses to unravel cadmium stress-response in poplar leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Pol; Planchon, Sébastien; Oufir, Mouhssin; Ziebel, Johanna; Dommes, Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Renaut, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    A proteomic analysis of poplar leaves exposed to cadmium, combined with biochemical analysis of pigments and carbohydrates revealed changes in primary carbon metabolism. Proteomic results suggested that photosynthesis was slightly affected. Together with a growth inhibition, photoassimilates were less needed for developmental processes and could be stored in the form of hexoses or complex sugars, acting also as osmoprotectants. Simultaneously, mitochondrial respiration was upregulated, providing energy needs of cadmium-exposed plants.

  4. Cloning and identification of the gene coding for the 140-kd subunit of Drosophila RNA polymerase II

    OpenAIRE

    Faust, Daniela M.; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate; Falkenburg, Dieter; Gasch, Alexander; Bialojan, Siegfried; Young, Richard A.; Bautz, Ekkehard K. F.

    1986-01-01

    Genomic clones of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated from a λ library by cross-hybridization with the yeast gene coding for the 150-kd subunit of RNA polymerase II. Clones containing a region of ∼2.0 kb with strong homology to the yeast gene were shown to code for a 3.9-kb poly(A)+-RNA. Part of the coding region was cloned into an expression vector. A fusion protein was obtained which reacted with an antibody directed against RNA polymerase II of Drosophila. Peptide mapping of the fusion p...

  5. Partitioning of K, Cl, S and P during combustion of poplar and brassica energy crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz-Ramírez, Maryori; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    K-, Cl-, S- and P-release from a herbaceous (brassica) and a short rotation coppice (poplar) cultivated in the Mediterranean region, have been investigated under combustion conditions [500-1100 °C]. Contrary to brassica, Cl- and S-release from poplar were substantial for all temperatures tested....... Low-temperature [500-700 °C] Cl-release from the high-Cl brassica appeared to be primarily limited by the fuel chemical composition and secondarily by interactions of the ash-forming elements with the fuel organic matrix. Below 700 °C, Cl-release was nearly 50%, whereas complete dechlorination...... resulted around 800 °C. S-release from brassica was up to 40% at low temperature. Above 1000 °C, additional S-release was observed presumably by sulfate dissociation. K-release was linked to Cl-release around 700 °C and, gradually increased afterwards. At 1100 °C, nearly 60% of K in poplar was retained...

  6. Lignin-enriched Fermentation Residues from Bioethanol Production of Fast-growing Poplar and Forage Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current challenges in developing a cost-effective bioethanol industry include the production of not only high-volume, low cost biofuels but also high-value products with minimal downstream waste. The up-grading of side-stream lignins from bioethanol production plants to novel high-value products will improve the profitability of the bioethanol industry; to do that, a precise understanding of lignin is required. In the present study, lignin-enriched fermentation residues from bioethanol production (steam explosion pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of fast-growing poplar and forage sorghum were characterized. In addition to the purity and composition, lignin structure (syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G ratio, inter-unit linkages was also analyzed with spectroscopy techniques such as Fourier transform infrared and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Bioethanol processing and feedstock origins seemed to be the main factors determining the purity, composition, and structure of lignins. Residual lignins from poplar and forage sorghum contained significant amounts of sugar and protein impurities. Poplar lignin showed a very high S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxybenzoate. A lower S/G ratio together with H lignin units and p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate was observed for forage sorghum lignin. The main inter-unit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4´ aryl ether followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans.

  7. Predictive models of biomass for poplar and willow. Short rotation coppice in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, A.C.; Morgan, G.W.; Poole, E.J.; Baldwin, M.E.; Tubby, I. (Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division, Forest Research, Farnham (United Kingdom))

    2007-07-01

    A series of forty-nine experimental trials on short rotation coppice (SRC) were conducted throughout the United Kingdom using a selection of varieties of poplar and willow with the aim of evaluating their performance for wood fuel production under a representative range of UK conditions. Observations on the crops and on a range of site and climatic conditions during the growth of the crops were taken over two three-year cutting cycles. These observations were used to develop a suite of empirical models for poplar and willow SRC growth and yield from which systems were constructed to provide a- priori predictions of biomass yield for any site in the UK with known characteristics (predictive yield models), and estimates of biomass yield from a standing crop (standing biomass models). The structure of the series of field trials and the consequent approach and methodology used in the construction of the suite of empirical models are described, and their use in predicting biomass yields of poplar and willow SRC is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Syringyl-Rich Lignin Renders Poplars More Resistant to Degradation by Wood Decay Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyba, Oleksandr; Douglas, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of lignin composition on the resistance of wood to degradation by decay fungi, wood specimens from two transgenic poplar lines expressing an Arabidopsis gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) driven by the cinnimate-4-hydroxylase promoter (C4H::F5H) that increased syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) monolignol ratios relative to those in the untransformed control wood were incubated with six different wood decay fungi. Alterations in wood weight and chemical composition were monitored over the incubation period. The results showed that transgenic poplar lines extremely rich in syringyl lignin exhibited a drastically improved resistance to degradation by all decay fungi evaluated. Lignin monomer composition and its distribution among cell types and within different cell layers were the sole wood chemistry parameters determining wood durability. Since transgenic poplars with exceedingly high syringyl contents were recalcitrant to degradation, where wood durability is a critical factor, these genotypes may offer improved performance. PMID:23396333

  9. Red Xylem and Higher Lignin Extractability by Down-Regulating a Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucher, M.; Chabbert, B.; Pilate, G.; Van Doorsselaere, J.; Tollier, M. T.; Petit-Conil, M.; Cornu, D.; Monties, B.; Van Montagu, M.; Inze, D.; Jouanin, L.; Boerjan, W.

    1996-12-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the lignin precursors, the monolignols. We have down-regulated CAD in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula X Populus alba) by both antisense and co-suppression strategies. Several antisense and sense CAD transgenic poplars had an approximately 70% reduced CAD activity that was associated with a red coloration of the xylem tissue. Neither the lignin amount nor the lignin monomeric composition (syringyl/guaiacyl) were significantly modified. However, phloroglucinol-HCl staining was different in the down-regulated CAD plants, suggesting changes in the number of aldehyde units in the lignin. Furthermore, the reactivity of the cell wall toward alkali treatment was altered: a lower amount of lignin was found in the insoluble, saponified residue and more lignin could be precipitated from the soluble alkali fraction. Moreover, large amounts of phenolic compounds, vanillin and especially syringaldehyde, were detected in the soluble alkali fraction of the CAD down-regulated poplars. Alkaline pulping experiments on 3-month-old trees showed a reduction of the kappa number without affecting the degree of cellulose degradation. These results indicate that reducing the CAD activity in trees might be a valuable strategy to optimize certain processes of the wood industry, especially those of the pulp and paper industry.

  10. Metal-induced changes in photosynthetic electron transport in poplar Ieaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralova, K.; Gaplovsky, A.; Masarovicova, E.; Havranek, E.

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the effect of different toxic metals (Cu, Hg and Cd) on dark-induced changes in the photochemical activity of detached poplar leaves that were submersed in solutions of tested metals at different pH level, on the metal accumulation in poplar leaves as well as on fluorescence quenching ability of the tested metals. Cu and Hg inhibited the photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in chloroplast prepared from the leaves of P. nigra and the corresponding IC 50 values were 32.7 and 512.7 μmol dm -3 , respectively. We could not determine the IC 50 value for CdCl 2 due to its very low PET-inhibiting activity. These results are in agreement with previous findings concerning PET inhibition by the studied metals in spinach chloroplasts. The accumulated metal amounts in poplar leaves were determined using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis. The accumulated metal amount increased with the increasing metal concentration and with the decreasing pH value of the applied metal solution. (authors)

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of recA-like gene from Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Kang, J.K.; Yoon, S.M.; Park, Y.; Yang, Y.K.; Kim, S.W.; Park, J.K.; Park, J.G.; Hong, S.H.; Park, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously purified and characterized a RecA-like protein from Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe). In the present study, we have cloned a gene encoding the RecA-like protein. The S. pombe recA-like gene was isolated by immunological screening of the expression library of S. pombe using anti-Escherichia coli (E. coli) RecA antibody as a probe. From 10(6) plaques screened, 6 putative clones were finally isolated. Five of the clones screened contained the same kinds of DNA inserts, as determined by crosshybridization analysis. Among the clones, TC-2 was selected for further studies. The pGEM3Zf(-)Delta 17 vector harboring the 4.3 kb DNA insert of TC-2 clone was capable of producing abeta-gal/RecA-like fusion protein, suggesting that the cloned gene encodes the RecA-like protein of S. pombe. It was also revealed by Southern hybridization analysis that the same DNA sequence as the cloned recA-like gene is located within the S. pombe chromosomal DNA. In addition, the cloned recA-like gene was transcribed into a 3.0 kb RNA transcript, as judged by Northern blot analysis. The level of the RNA transcript of recA-like gene was increased approximately 1.6 to 2.4-fold upon treatment with DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet (UV)-light, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and mitomycin-C (MMC). This data suggests that the cloned S. pombe recA-like gene is slightly inducible to DNAdamage as in E. coli recA gene. These results suggest that an inducible repair mechanism analogous to that of E. coli may exist in fission yeast S. pombe

  12. DNA cloning: a practical approach. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, D M [ed.

    1985-01-01

    This book is written for the advanced molecular biologist who needs a detailed discussion of cloning technology. Topics of discussion include: genomic library cloning (size of a genomic library, screening methods, chromosome walking, host cell genetics, and general features of bacteriophage Iambda); use of gt10 and gt11 cDNA lambda vectors and general cDNA cloning; RNase H-Pol I cDNA synthesis; method of detecting fusion proteins produced in bacteria; pEMBL family of double-stranded plasmid vectors that can be used to generate single strands; Escherichia coli transformation; production of mutations in cloned sequences; and cloning in gram negative bacteria.

  13. No-cloning theorem on quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the no-cloning theorem in a logicoalgebraic approach. In this approach, an orthoalgebra is considered as a general structure for propositions in a physical theory. We proved that an orthoalgebra admits cloning operation if and only if it is a Boolean algebra. That is, only classical theory admits the cloning of states. If unsharp propositions are to be included in the theory, then a notion of effect algebra is considered. We proved that an atomic Archimedean effect algebra admitting cloning operation is a Boolean algebra. This paper also presents a partial result, indicating a relation between the cloning on effect algebras and hidden variables.

  14. Therapeutic and reproductive cloning: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This article is a critical examination of the science and ethics of human cloning. It summarises the key scientific milestones in the development of nuclear transplantation, explains the importance of cloning to research into the medical potential of embryonic stem cells, and discusses the well-worn distinction between 'therapeutic' and 'reproductive' cloning. Suggesting that this distinction will be impossible to police, it goes on to consider the ethics of full human cloning. It is concluded that it represents an unacceptable form of parental despotism, and that the genetic engineering and cloning of future human beings will fracture the foundations of modern humanism.

  15. Clone DB: an integrated NCBI resource for clone-associated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Valerie A.; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Clausen, Cliff; Meric, Peter A.; Zhou, Zhigang; Bouk, Nathan; Husain, Nora; Maglott, Donna R.; Church, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Clone DB (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clone/) is an integrated resource providing information about and facilitating access to clones, which serve as valuable research reagents in many fields, including genome sequencing and variation analysis. Clone DB represents an expansion and replacement of the former NCBI Clone Registry and has records for genomic and cell-based libraries and clones representing more than 100 different eukaryotic taxa. Records provide details of library construction, associated sequences, map positions and information about resource distribution. Clone DB is indexed in the NCBI Entrez system and can be queried by fields that include organism, clone name, gene name and sequence identifier. Whenever possible, genomic clones are mapped to reference assemblies and their map positions provided in clone records. Clones mapping to specific genomic regions can also be searched for using the NCBI Clone Finder tool, which accepts queries based on sequence coordinates or features such as gene or transcript names. Clone DB makes reports of library, clone and placement data on its FTP site available for download. With Clone DB, users now have available to them a centralized resource that provides them with the tools they will need to make use of these important research reagents. PMID:23193260

  16. Isoprene in poplar emissions: effects on new particle formation and OH concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiendler-Scharr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced volatile organic compound (VOC emissions from transgenic Grey poplar modified in isoprene emission potential were used for the investigation of photochemical secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. In poplar, acute ozone stress induces the emission of a wide array of VOCs dominated by sesquiterpenes and aromatic VOCs. Constitutive light-dependent emission of isoprene ranged between 66 nmol m−2 s−1 in non-transgenic controls (wild type WT and nearly zero (<0.5 nmol m−2 s−1 in isoprene emission-repressed plants (line RA22, respectively. Nucleation rates of up to 3600 cm−3 s−1 were observed in our experiments. In the presence of isoprene new particle formation was suppressed compared to non-isoprene containing VOC mixtures. Compared to isoprene/monoterpene systems emitted from other plants the suppression of nucleation by isoprene was less effective for the VOC mixture emitted from stressed poplar. This is explained by the observed high efficiency of new particle formation for emissions from stressed poplar. Direct measurements of OH in the reaction chamber revealed that the steady state concentration of OH is lower in the presence of isoprene than in the absence of isoprene, supporting the hypothesis that isoprenes' suppressing effect on nucleation is related to radical chemistry. In order to test whether isoprene contributes to SOA mass formation, fully deuterated isoprene (C5D8 was added to the stress-induced emission profile of an isoprene free poplar mutant. Mass spectral analysis showed that, despite the isoprene-induced suppression of particle formation, fractions of deuterated isoprene were incorporated into the SOA. A fractional mass yield of 2.3% of isoprene was observed. Future emission changes due to land use and climate change may therefore affect both gas phase oxidation capacity and new particle number formation.

  17. Cloning Expeditions: Risky but Rewarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the 1980s, a good part of my laboratory was using the then-new recombinant DNA techniques to clone and characterize many important cell surface membrane proteins: GLUT1 (the red cell glucose transporter) and then GLUT2 and GLUT4, the red cell anion exchange protein (Band 3), asialoglycoprotein receptor subunits, sucrase-isomaltase, the erythropoietin receptor, and two of the subunits of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor. These cloned genes opened many new fields of basic research, including membrane insertion and trafficking of transmembrane proteins, signal transduction by many members of the cytokine and TGF-β families of receptors, and the cellular physiology of glucose and anion transport. They also led to many insights into the molecular biology of several cancers, hematopoietic disorders, and diabetes. This work was done by an exceptional group of postdocs and students who took exceptionally large risks in developing and using novel cloning technologies. Unsurprisingly, all have gone on to become leaders in the fields of molecular cell biology and molecular medicine. PMID:24061478

  18. Conversion from cropland to short rotation coppice willow and poplar: Accumulation of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Stupak, Inge; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Increased demand for bioenergy has intensified the production of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and poplar in temperate zones. We used a combined chronosequence and paired plot approach to study the potential of SRC willow and poplar stands to increase the soil carbon stock compared to stocks of the previous arable land-use. The study focused on well-drained soils. We sampled soil from 30 SRC stands in Denmark and southern Sweden including soils from their adjacent arable fields. The 18 willow and 12 poplar stands formed a chronosequence ranging between 4 and 29 years after conversion. The soil was sampled both with soil cores taken by fixed depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-25, and 25-40 cm and by genetic horizons from soil pits to 1m depth. The aim of the study was to estimate the difference and the ratio between soil carbon contents of the SRC and annual crop land and analyze the results as a chronosequence to examine the effect of age after conversion on the difference. Covariates such as soil type, fertilization type and harvest frequency were also taken into account. Preliminary results suggest an overall increase in carbon stocks over time with average accumulation rates ranging from 0.25 to 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in willow and poplar stands. Poplar stands had higher rates of C gain, probably due to less frequent harvesting. The differences in carbon between the SRC and the paired cropland were initially negative but changed to positive over time, implying loss of carbon after conversion and a later gain in soil carbon with stand age. Pairwise differences ranged from -25 Mg C ha-1 to 37 Mg C ha-1 for the top 40 cm. The carbon stock ratio of the SRC stand to the arable land was estimated to minimize the effect of site-related factors. The results of this analysis suggested that the ratio increased significantly with age after conversion for the top 10 cm of the soil, both for poplar and willow. A slight increase with age was also noticed at the deeper depths, but

  19. Barrier to gene flow between two ecologically divergent Populus species, P. alba (white poplar) and P. tremula (European aspen): the role of ecology and life history in gene introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexer, C; Fay, M F; Joseph, J A; Nica, M-S; Heinze, B

    2005-04-01

    The renewed interest in the use of hybrid zones for studying speciation calls for the identification and study of hybrid zones across a wide range of organisms, especially in long-lived taxa for which it is often difficult to generate interpopulation variation through controlled crosses. Here, we report on the extent and direction of introgression between two members of the "model tree" genus Populus: Populus alba (white poplar) and Populus tremula (European aspen), across a large zone of sympatry located in the Danube valley. We genotyped 93 hybrid morphotypes and samples from four parental reference populations from within and outside the zone of sympatry for a genome-wide set of 20 nuclear microsatellites and eight plastid DNA restriction site polymorphisms. Our results indicate that introgression occurs preferentially from P. tremula to P. alba via P. tremula pollen. This unidirectional pattern is facilitated by high levels of pollen vs. seed dispersal in P. tremula (pollen/seed flow = 23.9) and by great ecological opportunity in the lowland floodplain forest in proximity to P. alba seed parents, which maintains gene flow in the direction of P. alba despite smaller effective population sizes (N(e)) in this species (P. alba N(e)c. 500-550; P. tremula N(e)c. 550-700). Our results indicate that hybrid zones will be valuable tools for studying the genetic architecture of the barrier to gene flow between these two ecologically divergent Populus species.

  20. Overexpression of Pyrabactin Resistance-Like Abscisic Acid Receptors Enhances Drought, Osmotic, and Cold Tolerance in Transgenic Poplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingling Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA has been known participate in a wider range of adaptive responses to diverse environmental abiotic stresses such as drought, osmosis, and low temperatures. ABA signaling is initiated by its receptors PYR/PYL/RCARs, a type of soluble proteins with a conserved START domain which can bind ABA and trigger the downstream pathway. Previously, we discovered that poplar (Populus trichocarpa genome encodes 14 PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologs (PtPYRLs, and two of them, PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 have been functionally characterized to positively regulate drought tolerance. However, the physiological function of these ABA receptors in poplar remains uncharacterized. Here, we generated transgenic poplar plants overexpressing PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 and found that they exhibited more vigorous growth and produced greater biomass when exposed to drought stress. The improved drought tolerance was positively correlated with the key physiological responses dictated by the ABA signaling pathway, including increase in stomatal closure and decrease in leaf water loss. Further analyses revealed that overexpression lines showed improved capacity in scavenging reactive oxygen species and enhanced the activation of antioxidant enzymes under drought stress. Moreover, overexpression of PtPYRL1 or PtPYRL5 significantly increased the poplar resistance to osmotic and cold stresses. In summary, our results suggest that constitutive expression of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 significantly enhances the resistance to drought, osmotic and cold stresses by positively regulating ABA signaling in poplar.

  1. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved.

  2. Fast enhancement on hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface using low-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaotao; Bian, Jie; Shi, Shukai; Nguyen, Thiphuong; Chen, Minzhi; Wan, Jinglin

    2017-06-01

    The hydrophilicity of woody products leads to deformation and cracks, which greatly limits its applications. Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma using hexamethyldisiloxane was applied in poplar wood surface to enhance the hydrophobicity. The chemical properties, micro-morphology, and contact angles of poplar wood surface before and after plasma treatment were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical contact angle measurement (OCA). Moreover, tinfoil film was used as the base to reveal the enhancement mechanism. The results showed that hexamethyldisiloxane monomer is first broken into several fragments with active sites and hydrophobic chemical groups. Meanwhile, plasma treatment results in the formation of free radicals and active sites in the poplar wood surface. Then, the fragments are reacted with free radicals and incorporated into the active sites to form a network structure based on the linkages of Si-O-Si and Sisbnd Osbnd C. Plasma treatment also leads to the formation of acicular nano-structure in poplar wood surface. These facts synergistically enhance the hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface, demonstrating the dramatically increase in the equilibrium contact angle by 330%.

  3. Investigation on the Effect of Kenaf Core and Stalk Fiber on the Medium Density Fiber Board Properties Made of Poplar Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh SH.Alizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the use of material non-forest resources, in this study the possibility of using the kenaf stalk fibers mixed with poplar fibers in producing medium density fiber board was considered. Variable factors such as density at two levels (0.55, 0.75 g/cm3 and the percentage incorporation of fiber (%50 poplar fibers, - %50 kenaf core fiber, %50 poplar fiber, -% 50 kenaf stalk fiber and %100 poplar fibers were considered. Steaming time and temperature (175°C, 10min, press time and temperature (5 min, 175°C, Pressing pressure (30 kg/cm3, fiber cake moisture (%12 and urea-formaldehyde resin with Concentration of %50 of the study factors were fixed. Results show that adding kenaf core fibers to the poplar fibers increases modulus of elasticity and water absorption but thickness swelling reduces. Increased density in board made with kenaf core has caused increase in bending strength, modulus of elasticity and internal bond strength and their water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 and 24 hours were competitive with poplar (MDF. On the other hand Populus fiber– kenaf stalk board mechanical and physical properties were competitive with (MDF board made of %100 poplar fibers. Finally we can say that according to the statistical analysis, the best treatment in this study was using kenaf core fibers, in making poplar (MDF with 0.75 g/cm3 density.

  4. BASIC DENSITY AND RETRACTIBILITY OF WOOD CLONES OF THREE Eucalyptus SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the planted forests that supply the national wood industry, the genus Eucalyptus has become the most important, due to its fast growth, ease of large scale planting and variability of wood use. The generation of new hybrids and clones is a reality in the national practice of silviculture, and there is great interest currently in finding genetic improvements, mainly for higher volumetric gains and resistance in rough conditions of planting, such as pest attacks, periods of drought, low soil fertility, etc. The basic density is one of the most important physical properties of wood because it relates directly to other properties, including the anisotropic shrinkage. Such properties indicate the rational use of a species in a certain wood product. The aim of this work was to determine the basic density and the anisotropic shrinkage of five wood clones for each one of the following species: Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii. Clone 5 of Eucalyptus saligna presented the highest basic density (0.56 g/cm³ and was the most dimensionally instable. Of all the species, there was only a direct relation among basic density, maximum volumetric shrinkage and maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient in this clone. Considering maximum volumetric shrinkage as the criterion, clone 3 was the most dimensionally stable. Clones 2 and 3 of Eucalyptus grandis presented the least and the highest basic density, respectively, with 0.40 and 0.49 g/cm³. It was not possible to distinguish among clones 1, 3 and 4 in terms of dimensional stability, and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, clone 5 was the most dimensionally instable. For Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii it was not possible to distinguish which clone presented the least basic density. Clone 3 of Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density (0.65 g/cm³ and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, it

  5. Cloning and characterization of an AUX/IAA gene in Populus davidiana x P. alba var. Pyramidalis and the correlation between its time-course expression and the levels of indole-3-acetic in saplings inoculated with Trichoderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Z.; Baloch, A.M.; Zhai, T.; Jiang, C.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, R.

    2018-01-01

    Poda AUX/IAA gene, encoding an early-stage responsive protein to auxin in Populus davidiana x P. alba var. pyramidalis (Shanxin poplar), was cloned. The length of mRNA transcript of Poda AUX/IAA was 741bp, encoding a 248-amino-acid protein product, Poda AUX/IAA ORF analysis suggested that Poda AUX/IAA contained one conserved domain (pfam02309). Predicted molecular weight of Poda AUX/IAA was found to be 27kDa and its theoretical isoelectric point was determined as 8.21. Poda AUX/IAA was predicted to be a hydrophilic nucleoprotein and its multi-sequence alignment analysis showed that it shares high identity in four conserved domains with eight AUX/IAA proteins in other Populus species and these sequences of Poda AUX/IAA shared highest similarity with Pt-IAA14.1 in P. trichocarpa. In this study, we found that Poda AUX/IAA was expressed in both leaves and roots of Shanxin poplar. Three strains of Trichoderma asperellum were used to inoculate Shanxin poplar saplings. Inoculated saplings were cultured for 72 h. It was then found that IAA levels in both leaves and roots of inoculated saplings gradually increased and time-course expression patterns of PodaAUX/IAA was changed along with IAA levels. Results of Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between expression levels of Poda AUX/IAA and IAA levels in both leaves and roots of Shanxin poplar saplings when compared with control. Negative correlation in inoculated saplings were less significant, probably as a result of Trichoderma inducing. (author)

  6. Comparative effects of ionizing radiation and two gaseous chemical mutagens on somatic mutation induction in one mutable and two non-mutable clones of Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauman, C.H.; Sparrow, A.H.; Schairer, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    The X-ray dose responses of mutable clone 0106 of Tradescantia (mutable for blue to pink), and its parent clone 02 have been determined for pink and colorless mutations in stamen hair cells, and are compared to the previously determined X-ray response for pink mutations of a third unrelated clone, clone 4430 (hybrid of T. subacaulis and T. hirsutiflora). X-ray response curves are compared to the response curves of the same three clones after exposure to the gaseous phase of the alkylating agent ethyl methanesulfate (EMS) and the fumigant and gasoline additive 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE). X-irradiation induces a pink mutation rate in mutable clone 0106 that is significantly higher than that of the nearly identical pink mutation rates in clones 02 and 4430. However, the colorless mutation rates of clones 02 and 0106 are not significantly different from one another. In clones 02 and 0106, pink mutations occur more frequently than colorless mutations at lower doses, but colorless dose-response curves saturate at higher doses than do those for pink mutations. Exposure-response curves for EMS and DBE have characteristics similar to those of X-ray response curves: exponential rise followed by an area of saturation. However, it was found that the relative sensitivities of the three clones to the gaseous mutagens and to ionizing radiation do not parallel one another. Where clones 02 and 4430 are equally sensitive to X-rays, at equal mutagen concentration clone 4430 is 6-7 times more sensitive to EMS and 7-9 times more sensitive to DBE than is clone 02. Mutable clone 0106 shows intermediate sensitivities to both EMS and DBE

  7. Utilization of a cloned alphoid repeating sequence of human DNA in the study of polymorphism of chromosomal heterochromatin regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruminya, A.R.; Kroshkina, V.G.; Yurov, Yu.B.; Aleksandrov, I.A.; Mitkevich, S.P.; Gindilis, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of the cloned PHS05 fragment of human alphoid DNA was studied by in situ hybridization in 38 individuals. It was shown that this DNA fraction is primarily localized in the pericentric regions of practically all chromosomes of the set. Significant interchromosomal differences and a weakly expressed interindividual polymorphism were discovered in the copying ability of this class of repeating DNA sequences; associations were not found between the results of hybridization and the pattern of Q-polymorphism

  8. Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  9. Impact of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on foliar elemental composition in a short rotation poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinari, Sara; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia; Grego, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on a short rotation coppice culture of poplars (POP-EUROFACE, Central Italy), growing in a free air carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere (FACE). The specific objective of this work was to study whether elevated CO 2 and fertilization (two CO 2 treatments, elevated CO 2 and control, two N fertilization treatments, fertilized and unfertilized), as well as the interaction between treatments caused an unbalanced nutritional status of leaves in three poplar species (P. x euramericana, P. nigra and P. alba). Finally, we discuss the ecological implications of a possible change in foliar nutrients concentration. CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the concentration of magnesium; whereas nitrogen fertilization had opposite effects on leaf nitrogen and magnesium concentrations. Moreover, the interaction between elevated CO 2 and N fertilization amplified some element unbalances such as the K/N-ratio. - CO 2 enrichment reduced foliar nitrogen and increased the magnesium concentration in poplar

  10. Performance of new Hevea clones from IAC 400 series Perfomance de novos clones de Hevea da série IAC 400

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hevea breeding program of Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC has completed clonal evaluation on the following series: IAC 100, IAC 200 and IAC 300. The performance of 22 clones of Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell.-Arg., evolved at IAC, over a period of eleven years was evaluated in the Western Central part of the São Paulo State, Brazil. Among these 22 new clones, six were intraspecific hybrid clones (IAC 400, IAC 404, IAC 405, IAC 406, IAC 410, IAC 412 and the remaining are primary those resulted from selected ortets within half-sib progenies. An old popular clone RRIM 600, of Malaysian origin, was used as the control. The trial was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Yield performance over a period of four years, mean girth at the 11th year, girth increment before tapping and on tapping, thermal property of natural rubber produced, bark thickness, number of latex vessel rows in seven year virgin bark, percentage incidence of tapping panel dryness, wind damage and diseases like leaf and panel anthracnose have been observed. Sixty one percent of the clones were superior in relation to the control for yield. The clone IAC 400 recorded the highest yield (97.40 g tree-1 tap-1 over four years of tapping, followed by IAC 411 (78.87 tree-1 tap-1, whereas the control clone RRIM 600 recorded 50.86 g tree-1 tap-1. All selected clones were vigorous in growth. Girth increment of these clones was average to above average. Except for IAC 423, other clones had thick virgin bark at opening ranging from 4.84 mm for IAC 401 to 6.38 mm for IAC 416. The natural rubbers from IAC clones have shown good thermal stability up to 300ºC and no differences in the thermal behavior among rubber from clones of the IAC series and the clone RRIM 600 were found in inert atmosphere.O programa de melhoramento de Hevea do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC completou a avaliação dos clones da série IAC 100, IAC 200 e IAC

  11. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for carrot extensin and a proline-rich 33-kDa protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Varner, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins associated with most dicotyledonous plant cell walls. To isolate cDNA clones encoding extensin, the authors started by isolating poly(A) + RNA from carrot root tissue, and then translating the RNA in vitro, in the presence of tritiated leucine or proline. A 33-kDa peptide was identified in the translation products as a putative extensin precursor. From a cDNA library constructed with poly(A) + RNA from wounded carrots, one cDNA clone (pDC5) was identified that specifically hybridized to poly(A) + RNA encoding this 33-kDa peptide. They isolated three cDNA clones (pDC11, pDC12, and pDC16) from another cDNA library using pCD5 as a probe. DNA sequence data, RNA hybridization analysis, and hybrid released in vitro translation indicate that the cDNA clones pDC11 encodes extensin and that cDNA clones pDC12 and pDC16 encode the 33-kDa peptide, which as yet has an unknown identity and function. The assumption that the 33-kDa peptide was an extensin precursor was invalid. RNA hybridization analysis showed that RNA encoded by both clone types is accumulated upon wounding

  12. Novel cloning machine with supplementary information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Daowen

    2006-01-01

    Probabilistic cloning was first proposed by Duan and Guo. Then Pati established a novel cloning machine (NCM) for copying superposition of multiple clones simultaneously. In this paper, we deal with the novel cloning machine with supplementary information (NCMSI). For the case of cloning two states, we demonstrate that the optimal efficiency of the NCMSI in which the original party and the supplementary party can perform quantum communication equals that achieved by a two-step cloning protocol wherein classical communication is only allowed between the original and the supplementary parties. From this equivalence, it follows that NCMSI may increase the success probabilities for copying. Also, an upper bound on the unambiguous discrimination of two nonorthogonal pure product states is derived. Our investigation generalizes and completes the results in the literature

  13. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren Xijun [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 4750011 (China); Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  14. Effective and efficient model clone detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Code clones are a major source of software defects. Thus, it is likely that model clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of models) have a significant negative impact on model quality, and thus, on any software created based on those models, irrespective of whether the software is generated fully...... automatically (“MDD-style”) or hand-crafted following the blueprint defined by the model (“MBSD-style”). Unfortunately, however, model clones are much less well studied than code clones. In this paper, we present a clone detection algorithm for UML domain models. Our approach covers a much greater variety...... of model types than existing approaches while providing high clone detection rates at high speed....

  15. Telomeres and the ethics of human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    In search of a potential problem with cloning, I investigate the phenomenon of telomere shortening which is caused by cell replication; clones created from somatic cells will have shortened telomeres and therefore reach a state of senescence more rapidly. While genetic intervention might fix this problem at some point in the future, I ask whether, absent technological advances, this biological phenomenon undermines the moral permissibility of cloning.

  16. Cavitation vulnerability in roots and shoots: does Populus euphratica Oliv., a poplar from arid areas of Central Asia, differ from other poplar species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukin, D; Cochard, H; Dreyer, E; Le Thiec, D; Bogeat-Triboulot, M B

    2005-08-01

    Populus euphratica is a poplar species growing in arid regions of Central Asia, where its distribution remains nevertheless restricted to river-banks or to areas with an access to deep water tables. To test whether the hydraulic architecture of this species differs from that of other poplars with respect to this ecological distribution, the vulnerability to cavitation of P. euphratica was compared with that of P. alba and of P. trichocarpa x koreana. The occurrence of a potential hydraulic segmentation through cavitation was also investigated by assessing the vulnerability of roots, stems, and leaf mid-rib veins. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to assess the level of embolism in fine roots and leaf mid-ribs and a low pressure flowmeter (LPFM) was used for stems and main roots. The cryo-SEM technique was validated against LPFM measurements on paired samples. In P. alba and P. trichocarpa x koreana, leaf mid-ribs were more vulnerable to cavitation than stems and roots. In P. euphratica, leaf mid-ribs and stems were equally vulnerable and, contrary to what has been observed in other species, roots were significantly less vulnerable than shoots. P. euphratica was by far the most vulnerable. The water potential inducing 50% loss of conductivity in stems was close to -0.7 MPa, against approximately -1.45 MPa for the two others species. Such a large vulnerability was confirmed by recording losses of conductivity during a gradual drought. Moreover, significant stem embolism was recorded before stomatal closure, indicating the lack of an efficient safety margin for hydraulic functions in this species. Embolism was not reversed by rewatering. These observations are discussed with respect to the ecology of P. euphratica.

  17. [Difference of water relationships of poplar trees in Zhangbei County, Hebei, China based on stable isotope and thermal dissipation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Bo; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin Song; He, Fang Jie; Sun, Shou Jia

    2017-07-18

    The water sources and transpiration of poplar trees in Zhangbei County were measured using stable hydrogen isotope and thermal dissipation method. The differences in water relationships between dieback and non-dieback poplar trees were analyzed. The results showed that the dieback trees mainly used shallow water from 0-30 cm soil layer during growing season while the non-dieback trees mainly used water from 30-80 cm soil layer. There was a significant difference in water source between them. The non-dieback trees used more water from middle and deep soil layers than that of the dieback trees during the dry season. The percentage of poplar trees using water from 0-30 cm soil layer increased in wet season, and the increase of dieback trees was higher than that of non-dieback trees. The contributions of water from 30-180 cm soil layer of dieback and non-dieback trees both decreased in wet season. The sap flow rate of non-dieback trees was higher than that of dieback trees. There was a similar variation tend of sap flow rate between dieback and non-dieback trees in different weather conditions, but the start time of sap flow of non-dieback trees was earlier than that of dieback trees. Correlation analysis showed that the sap flow rate of either dieback or non-dieback poplar trees strongly related to soil temperature, wind speed, photosynthetically active radiation, relative humidity and air temperature. The sap flow rate of die-back poplar trees strongly negatively related to soil temperature and relative humidity, and strongly positively related to the other factors. The sap flow rate of non-dieback poplar trees only strongly negatively related to relative humidity but positively related to the other factors. The results revealed transpiration of both poplar trees was easily affected by environmental factors. The water consumption of dieback trees was less than non-dieback trees because the cumulative sap flow amount of dieback trees was lower. Reduced transpiration

  18. Species-specific challenges in dog cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G A; Oh, H J; Park, J E; Kim, M J; Park, E J; Jo, Y K; Jang, G; Kim, M K; Kim, H J; Lee, B C

    2012-12-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is now an established procedure used in cloning of several species. SCNT in dogs involves multiple steps including the removal of the nuclear material, injection of a donor cell, fusion, activation of the reconstructed oocytes and finally transfer to a synchronized female recipient. There are therefore many factors that contribute to cloning efficiency. By performing a retrospective analysis of 2005-2012 published papers regarding dog cloning, we define the optimum procedure and summarize the specific feature for dog cloning. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Human cloning: Eastern Mediterranean Region perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdur Rab, M; Khayat, M H

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in genomics and biotechnology have ushered in a new era in health development. Therapeutic cloning possesses enormous potential for revolutionizing medical and therapeutic techniques. Cloning technology, however, is perceived as having the potential for reproductive cloning, which raises serious ethical and moral concerns. It is important that the Islamic countries come to a consensus on this vital issue. Developing science and technology for better health is a religious and moral obligation. There is an urgent need for Muslim scholars to discuss the issue of stem cell research and cloning rationally; such dialogue will not only consider the scientific merits but also the moral, ethical and legal implications.

  20. Intra-strain polymorphisms are detected but no genomic alteration is found in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Koshichi; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogura, Atsuo; Oishi, Michio

    2006-01-01

    In-gel competitive reassociation (IGCR) is a method for differential subtraction of polymorphic (RFLP) DNA fragments between two DNA samples of interest without probes or specific sequence information. Here, we applied the IGCR procedure to two cloned mice derived from an F1 hybrid of the C57BL/6Cr and DBA/2 strains, in order to investigate the possibility of genomic alteration in the cloned mouse genomes. Each of the five of the genomic alterations we detected between the two cloned mice corresponded to the 'intra-strain' polymorphisms in the C57BL/6Cr and DBA/2 mouse strains. Our result suggests that no severe aberration of genome sequences occurs due to somatic cell nuclear transfer

  1. [Cloning and characterization of genes differentially expressed in human dental pulp cells and gingival fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-dong; Wu, Ji-nan; Zhou, Lin; Ling, Jun-qi; Guo, Xi-min; Xiao, Ming-zhen; Zhu, Feng; Pu, Qin; Chai, Yu-bo; Zhao, Zhong-liang

    2007-02-01

    To study the biological properties of human dental pulp cells (HDPC) by cloning and analysis of genes differentially expressed in HDPC in comparison with human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). HDPC and HGF were cultured and identified by immunocytochemistry. HPDC and HGF subtractive cDNA library was established by PCR-based modified subtractive hybridization, genes differentially expressed by HPDC were cloned, sequenced and compared to find homogeneous sequence in GenBank by BLAST. Cloning and sequencing analysis indicate 12 genes differentially expressed were obtained, in which two were unknown genes. Among the 10 known genes, 4 were related to signal transduction, 2 were related to trans-membrane transportation (both cell membrane and nuclear membrane), and 2 were related to RNA splicing mechanisms. The biological properties of HPDC are determined by the differential expression of some genes and the growth and differentiation of HPDC are associated to the dynamic protein synthesis and secretion activities of the cell.

  2. Comparative physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in two poplar species originating from different altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Miao, Ling-Feng

    2010-08-01

    Cuttings of Populus kangdingensis C. Wang et Tung and Populus cathayana Rehder were examined during a single growing season in a greenhouse for comparative analysis of their physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress. The said species originate from high and low altitudes, respectively, of the eastern Himalaya. Results revealed that the adaptive responses to drought stress vary between the two poplar species. As a consequence of drought stress, the stem height increment and leaf number increment are more significantly inhibited in P. cathayana compared with P. kangdingensis. On the other hand, in response to drought stress, more significant cellular damages such as reduction in leaf relative water content and CO(2) assimilation rate, increments in the contents of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide and downregulation or degradation of proteins related to photosynthesis occur in P. cathayana compared with P. kangdingensis. On the other hand, P. kangdingensis can cope better with the negative impact on the entire regulatory network. This includes more efficient increases in content of solute sugar, soluble protein and free proline and activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as specific expressions of certain proteins related to protein processing, redox homeostasis and sugar metabolism. Morphological consequences as well as physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress between species revealed that P. kangdingensis originating from a high altitude manifest stronger drought adaptation than did P. cathayana originating from a low altitude. Functions of various proteins identified by proteomic experiment are related with physiological phenomena. Physiological and proteomic responses to drought stress in poplar may work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis, allowing poplar to develop a certain level of drought tolerance.

  3. Contaminant characterization of sediment and pore-water in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, D.A.; Harris, R.A.; Campbell, K.R.; Hargrove, W.W.; Rash, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment and pore-water samples were collected from 80 locations in the Clinch River and Poplar Creek system to characterize concentrations and spatial distribution of contaminants for use in ecological risk assessment. Sediment cores were collected at each site and the top 15 cm was analyzed to represent the biologically active zone. Sediment for pore-water extraction was collected in large volumes using a Ponar grab sampler. Pore-water was extracted from this sediment using centrifugation, All samples were analyzed for metals (including methyl mercury), organics, and radiological constituents. Additionally, sediment was analyzed for physical properties: particle size distribution, density, and porosity. Sediment and pore-water were also analyzed for total organic carbon and nitrogen and ammonia levels. Sediment and pore-water were also analyzed for total organic carbon and nitrogen and ammonia levels. Sediment and pre-water results indicate that there are several areas where concentrations of a variety of contaminants are high enough to causes ecological effects. These locations in the river are immediately downstream from know sources of Contamination from on-site DOE facilities. East Fork Poplar Creek is a source of several metals, including mercury, cadmium, chromium, and copper. Mitchell Branch is a source of number of metals, uranium isotopes, technetium-99, and several PAHs. There are two clear sources of arsenic and selenium to the system, one in Poplar Creek and one in Melton Hill Reservoir, both related to past disposal of coal-ash. High concentrations in sediments did not always coincide with high concentrations in pore-water for the same sites and contaminants. This appears to be related to particle size of the sediment and total organic carbon

  4. Analysis of the impact of biomechanical traits of European black Poplar on riverbank flow resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Villani, Paolo; Rita, Angelo; Todaro, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the effects of riparian plants on river flow dynamics is fundamental for an appropriate river management. Riparian woody vegetation enhances bank cohesion and provides ecosystem services by mitigating nutrient and sediment loads to the river flow and enhancing biodiversity. However riparian trees also contribute to river flow resistance and thus can have a significant impact on flow dynamics during flood events. The flow-plant interaction mainly depends on plant morphological characters (e.g. diameter, height, canopy size, foliage density) and biomechanical properties, such as its flexural rigidity. This study aims at testing the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic behaviour of the European black Poplar (∖textit{Populus nigra} L.), a common woody riparian plant, is influenced by specific biomechanical traits developed as result of its adaptation to different river ecosystems. We examine the morphological and biomechanical properties of living stems of black Poplar sampled in two different riverine environments in Southern Italy located only a few kilometres apart. The two sample sets of living stems exhibit similar morphological traits but significantly different Young module of elasticity. We compared the drag forces that the flow would exert on these two different sets of plants for a wide range of flow velocities, by employing a numerical model that accounts for the bending behaviour of the woody plant due to the hydrodynamic load, under the hypothesis of complete submergence. A Monte Carlo approach was applied in order to account for the stochastic variability of the morphological and mechanical parameters affecting plant biomechanical behaviour. We identified a threshold value of the plant diameter, above which the two sets of European black Poplars are subjected to drag forces that differ by more than 25{∖%} on average, for flow velocities larger than 1 m/s.

  5. Thermochemical and physical evaluation of poplar genotypes as short rotation forestry crops for energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monedero, Esperanza; Hernández, Juan José; Cañellas, Isabel; Otero, Jose María; Sixto, Hortensia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The combustion properties of poplar genotypes harvested from three different sites were analyzed. • Both the genotype and the locations affect the expected combustion behavior. • Among the poplar genotypes, ‘Monviso’ and ‘Viriato’ are expected to have better combustion behavior. • No operating problems derived from fouling/corrosion are expected for any of the genotypes. - Abstract: Short rotation plantations of fast-growing species provide a promising way to produce heat and electricity from renewable sources. The thermo-chemical and physical properties of different genotypes of poplar in short rotation forestry crops grown at three locations with different climatic and edaphic characteristics as well as planting density, have been determined in order to characterize the most appropriate biomass in terms of energy potential. The planting density was 6666 or 13,333 trees/ha (depending on the location) in a rotation of three-four years and the analysis was carried out at the end of the first rotation. For all the genotypes, experimental tests to quantify the moisture content, particle size distribution, bulk density, heating value, ash content and composition as well as the volatile matter were performed. In addition, natural air drying of biomass (stem and branches) was studied in two locations with the aim of determining the humidity loss during raw storage. A significant effect of the genotype and the planting density on the biomass properties was observed. The results obtained indicate that ‘Monviso’ and ‘Viriato’ are the most suitable genotypes. No operational problems related to ash fouling and deposition in combustion devices are expected for any of the genotypes studied.

  6. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding human DNA topoisomerase II and localization of the gene to chromosome region 17q21-22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai-Pflugfelder, M.; Liu, L.F.; Liu, A.A.; Tewey, K.M.; Whang-Peng, J.; Knutsen, T.; Huebner, K.; Croce, C.M.; Wang, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Two overlapping cDNA clones encoding human DNA topoisomerase II were identified by two independent methods. In one, a human cDNA library in phage λ was screened by hybridization with a mixed oligonucleotide probe encoding a stretch of seven amino acids found in yeast and Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II; in the other, a different human cDNA library in a λgt11 expression vector was screened for the expression of antigenic determinants that are recognized by rabbit antibodies specific to human DNA topoisomerase II. The entire coding sequences of the human DNA topoisomerase II gene were determined from these and several additional clones, identified through the use of the cloned human TOP2 gene sequences as probes. Hybridization between the cloned sequences and mRNA and genomic DNA indicates that the human enzyme is encoded by a single-copy gene. The location of the gene was mapped to chromosome 17q21-22 by in situ hybridization of a cloned fragment to metaphase chromosomes and by hybridization analysis with a panel of mouse-human hybrid cell lines, each retaining a subset of human chromosomes

  7. Cloning human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.A.; Carr, A.M.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Many human genes involved in the repair of UV damage have been cloned using different procedures and they have been of great value in assisting the understanding of the mechanism of nucleotide excision-repair. Genes involved in repair of ionizing radiation damage have proved more difficult to isolate. Positional cloning has localized the XRCC5 gene to a small region of chromosome 2q33-35, and a series of yeast artificial chromosomes covering this region have been isolated. Very recent work has shown that the XRCC5 gene encodes the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku DNA-binding protein. The Ku80 gene also maps to this region. Studies with fission yeast have shown that radiation sensitivity can result not only from defective DNA repair but also from abnormal cell cycle control following DNA damage. Several genes involved in this 'check-point' control in fission yeast have been isolated and characterized in detail. It is likely that a similar checkpoint control mechanism exists in human cells. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources - Model Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelle, Richard [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dickson, Johnbull O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, Todd A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess new data that has become available and provide an update to the evaluations and modeling presented in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Technical Manuscript Evaluation of lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Mercury Sources (Watson et al., 2016). Primary sources of field and laboratory data for this update include multiple US Department of Energy (DOE) programs including Environmental Management (EM; e.g., Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program, Mercury Remediation Technology Development [TD], and Applied Field Research Initiative), Office of Science (Mercury Science Focus Areas [SFA] project), and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) Compliance Department.

  9. Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This plan was prepared in support of the Phase II Remedial Design Report (DOE/OR/01-1449 ampersand D1) and in accordance with requirements under CERCLA to present the plan for best management practices to be followed during the remediation. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about spill prevention and control, water quality monitoring, good housekeeping practices, sediment and erosion control measures, and inspections and environmental compliance practices to be used during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit

  10. Characterization and 2D structural model of corn straw and poplar leaf biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Lv, YiZhong; Yang, XiXiang; Huang, Feng; Yang, JianWen

    2017-12-22

    The integrated experimental methods were used to analyze the physicochemical properties and structural characteristics and to build the 2D structural model of two kinds of biochars. Corn straw and poplar leaf biochars were gained by pyrolysing the raw materials slowly in a furnace at 300, 500, and 700 °C under oxygen-deficient conditions. Scanning electron microscope was applied to observe the surface morphology of the biochars. High temperatures destroyed the pore structures of the biochars, forming a particle mixture of varying sizes. The ash content, yield, pH, and surface area were also observed to describe the biochars' properties. The yield decreases as the pyrolysis temperature increases. The biochars are neutral to alkaline. The biggest surface area is 251.11 m 2 /g for 700 °C corn straw biochar. Elemental analysis, infrared microspectroscopy, solid-state C-13 NMR spectroscopy, and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) were also used to study the structural characteristics and build the 2D structural models of biochars. The C content in the corn straw and poplar leaf biochars increases with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. A higher pyrolysis temperature makes the aryl carbon increase, and C=O, OH, and aliphatic hydrocarbon content decrease in the IR spectra. Solid-state C-13 NMR spectra show that a higher pyrolysis temperature makes the alkyl carbon and alkoxy carbon decrease and the aryl carbon increase. The results of IR microspectra and solid-state C-13 NMR spectra reveal that some noticeable differences exist in these two kinds of biochars and in the same type of biochar but under different pyrolysis temperatures. The conceptual elemental compositions of 500 °C corn straw and poplar leaf biochars are C 61 H 33 NO 13 and C 59 H 41 N 3 O 12 , respectively. Significant differences exist in the SEM images, physicochemical properties, and structural characteristics of corn straw and poplar leaf biochars.

  11. Biomass yield and fuel characteristics of short-rotation coppice (willow, poplar, empress tree)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, J.; Vetter, R. [Institute for Land Management Compatible to Environmental Requirements, Muellheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In two pedo-climatic different regions in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg three shortrotation coppices willow, poplar and empress tree were tested with regard to their biomass productivity on arable land and to their properties for energetic use. Between 8 and 13 tons of dry matter per hectare and year could be produced under extensive cultivation conditions, over 15 tons with irrigation. Due to their composition, it can be assumed that their use as solid fuel in a biomass combustor is just as unproblematic as with forest timber. (orig.)

  12. Genome-wide analysis of eukaryote thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs with an emphasis on poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duplessis Sébastien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant inducible immunity includes the accumulation of a set of defense proteins during infection called pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, which are grouped into families termed PR-1 to PR-17. The PR-5 family is composed of thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs, which are responsive to biotic and abiotic stress and are widely studied in plants. TLPs were also recently discovered in fungi and animals. In the poplar genome, TLPs are over-represented compared with annual species and their transcripts strongly accumulate during stress conditions. Results Our analysis of the poplar TLP family suggests that the expansion of this gene family was followed by diversification, as differences in expression patterns and predicted properties correlate with phylogeny. In particular, we identified a clade of poplar TLPs that cluster to a single 350 kb locus of chromosome I and that are up-regulated by poplar leaf rust infection. A wider phylogenetic analysis of eukaryote TLPs - including plant, animal and fungi sequences - shows that TLP gene content and diversity increased markedly during land plant evolution. Mapping the reported functions of characterized TLPs to the eukaryote phylogenetic tree showed that antifungal or glycan-lytic properties are widespread across eukaryote phylogeny, suggesting that these properties are shared by most TLPs and are likely associated with the presence of a conserved acidic cleft in their 3D structure. Also, we established an exhaustive catalog of TLPs with atypical architectures such as small-TLPs, TLP-kinases and small-TLP-kinases, which have potentially developed alternative functions (such as putative receptor kinases for pathogen sensing and signaling. Conclusion Our study, based on the most recent plant genome sequences, provides evidence for TLP gene family diversification during land plant evolution. We have shown that the diverse functions described for TLPs are not restricted to specific clades but seem

  13. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2016 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Johnbull O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, John G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Mehlhorn, Tonia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Lowe, Kenneth Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Morris, Jesse G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Johs, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Poteat, Monica D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Olsen, Todd A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Eller, Virginia A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Gonez Rodriguez, Leroy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)

    2017-07-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM), especially at and near the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) where historical mercury use has resulted in contaminated buildings, soils, and downstream surface waters. To address mercury contamination of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the DOE has adopted a phased, adaptive management approach to remediation, which includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014).

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

  15. Cloning of cDNA encoding steroid 11β-hydroxylase (P450c11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, S.C.; Szabo, P.; Vitek, A.; Grzeschik, K.H.; John, M.; White, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated bovine and human adrenal cDNA clones encoding the adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for 11β-hydroxylation (P450c11). A bovine adrenal cDNA library constructed in the bacteriophage λ vector gt10 was probed with a previously isolated cDNA clone corresponding to part of the 3' untranslated region of the 4.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA encoding P450c11. Several clones with 3.2-kb cDNA inserts were isolated. Sequence analysis showed that they overlapped the original probe by 300 base pairs (bp). Combined cDNA and RNA sequence data demonstrated a continuous open reading frame of 1509 bases. P450c11 is predicted to contain 479 amino acid residues in the mature protein in addition to a 24-residue amino-terminal mitochondrial signal sequence. A bovine clone was used to isolate a homologous clone with a 3.5-kb insert from a human adrenal cDNA library. A region of 1100 bp was 81% homologous to 769 bp of the coding sequence of the bovine cDNA except for a 400-bp segment presumed to be an unprocessed intron. Hybridization of the human cDNA to DNA from a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid lines and in situ hybridization to metaphase spreads of human chromosomes localized the gene to the middle of the long arm of chromosome 8. These data should be useful in developing reagents for heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, the second most frequent cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

  16. Derivation of hybrid ES cell lines from two different strains of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Tak Lau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental origin-dependent expression of the imprinted genes is essential for mammalian development. Zfp57 maintains genomic imprinting in mouse embryos and ES cells. To examine the allelic expression patterns of the imprinted genes in ES cells, we obtained multiple hybrid ES clones that were directly derived from the blastocysts generated from the cross between mice on two different genetic backgrounds. The blastocyst-derived ES clones displayed largely intact DNA methylation imprint at the tested imprinted regions. These hybrid ES clones will be useful for future studies to examine the allelic expression of the imprinted genes in ES cells and their differentiated progeny.

  17. Generation of a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing unselected fragments of human chromosome 10 by X-ray irradiation and cell fusion: Application to isolating the MEN2A region in hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, P.J.; Povey, S.; Nevanlinna, H.A.; Goodfellow, P.N.

    1990-01-01

    We have used X-ray irradiation and cell fusion to generate somatic cell hybrids containing fragments of human chromosome 10. Our experiments were directed towards isolating the region of the MEN2A gene in hybrids and to use those as the source of DNA for cloning and mapping new markers from near the MEN2A locus. A number of hybrid clones containing human sequences that are tightly linked to the MEN2A gene were identified. Some 25% of our hybrids, however, proved to contain more than one human chromosome 10-derived fragment or showed evidence of deletions and/or rearrangements. A detailed analysis of the human content of X-ray irradiation hybrids is required to assess the integrity and number of human fragments retained. Despite retention of multiple human-derived fragments, these hybrids will prove useful as cloning and mapping resources

  18. Cloning crops in a CELSS via tissue culture: Prospects and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, John G.; Hess, J. Richard

    1990-01-01

    Micropropagation is currently used to clone fruits, nuts, and vegetables and involves controlling the outgrowth in vitro of basal, axillary, or adventitious buds. Following clonal multiplication, shoots are divided and rooted. This process has greatly reduced space and energy requirements in greenhouses and field nurseries and has increased multiplication rates by greater than 20 fold for some vegetatively propagated crops and breeding lines. Cereal and legume crops can also be cloned by tissue culture through somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos can be used to produce 'synthetic seed', which can tolerate desiccation and germinate upon rehydration. Synthetic seed of hybrid wheat, rice, soybean and other crops could be produced in a controlled ecological life support system. Thus, yield advantages of hybreds over inbreds (10 to 20 percent) could be exploited without having to provide additional facilities and energy for parental-line and hybrid seed nurseries.

  19. Tetranectin, a plasminogen kringle 4-binding protein. Cloning and gene expression pattern in human colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tetranectin is a recently discovered protein that binds to kringle 4 region of plasminogen (Clemmensen I, Petersen LC, Kluft C. Eur J Biochem 1986; 156:327. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The mRNA encoding human tetranectin was cloned by using degenerate primers in a reverse transcriptase...... reaction followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The resulting polymerase chain reaction product was examined by DNA sequencing and subsequently used as probe for screening a human placental cDNA library. A full length cDNA clone (TET-1) was isolated, characterized, and used for Northern blot...... prominent in the lungs and spleen. No hybridization signal was detected in three carcinoma cell lines examined in parallel. Northern blot analysis of poly A+ RNA isolated from solid tumors revealed a tetranectin specific mRNA band. In situ hybridizations on tissue sections of colon carcinomas and normal...

  20. Luciferase genes cloned from the unculturable luminous bacteroid symbiont of the Caribbean flashlight fish, Kryptophanaron alfredi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, M G; Cohn, D H

    1986-01-01

    Light organs of anomalopid (flashlight) fish contain luminous bacteroids that have never been cultured and, consequently, have been difficult to study. We have characterized the luciferase (lux) region of DNA extracted from light organs of the Caribbean flashlight fish Kryptophanaron alfredi by hybridization of cloned Vibrio harveyi lux genes to restriction-endonuclease-digested, light organ DNA. Comparison of the hybridization pattern of light organ DNA with that of DNA of a putative symbiotic isolate provides a method for identifying the authentic luminous symbiont regardless of its luminescence, and was used to reject one such isolate. Light organ DNA was further used to construct a cosmid clone bank and the luciferase genes were isolated. Unlike other bacterial luciferase genes, the genes were not expressed in Escherichia coli. When placed under the control of the E. coli trp promoter, the genes were transcribed but no luciferase was detected, suggesting a posttranscriptional block to expression.

  1. Cloning in Escherichia coli of the enterotoxin gene from Clostridium perfringens type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, L A; Routledge, M N; Stewart, G S

    1989-04-01

    A 26 bp DNA probe has been constructed with minimal degeneracy to the protein sequence for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. The probe has been hybridized against a 6-10 kb chromosomal bank from C. perfringens 8239, prepared as a HindIII partial digest in pHG165. From this survey a clone has been identified containing a 6.8 kb DNA insert with strong hybridization to the probe. Direct plasmid sequencing has identified a translational reading frame within this clone which correlates with the known protein sequence for the type A enterotoxin. DNA sequences 5' to this open reading frame and containing the putative transcriptional control regions show areas of significant homology with regions upstream from the ATG codon of the tetanus toxin gene.

  2. TLC determination of some flavanones in the buds of different genus Populus species and hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobłocka-Olech Loretta

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids in the buds of eight Populus species and hybrids were detected and compared with the aid of an optimized TLC method. Separation of 17 flavonoid aglycones belonging to different groups, namely, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and flavanonols, previously described as constituents of poplar buds, was performed on silica gel plates using a hexane/ethyl acetate/formic acid (60:40:1.3, V/V/V mixture as the mobile phase. Pinocembrin and pinostrobin were found in the majority of analyzed poplar buds. For quantitative analysis of both compounds, two TLC evaluation modes, densitometric and videodensitometric, were compared and the established methods were validated. Concentrations of flavanones in some extracts differed slightly or significantly due to the analyzed plant matrix complexity and the TLC evaluation mode applied. Poplar buds rich in flavanones originated from P. × canadensis ‘Robusta’ (1.82 and 2.23 g per 100 g, resp. and P. balsamifera (1.17 and 2.24 g per 100 g, resp..

  3. Quantum cloning machines and their implementation in physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; Ye Liu; Fang Bao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We review the basic theory of approximate quantum cloning for discrete variables and some schemes for implementing quantum cloning machines. Several types of approximate quantum clones and their expansive quantum clones are introduced. As for the implementation of quantum cloning machines, we review some design methods and recent experimental results. (topical review - quantum information)

  4. Field performance of Populus expressing somaclonal variation in resistance to Septoria musiva

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Ostry; K. T. Ward

    2003-01-01

    Over 1500 trees from two hybrid poplar clones regenerated from tissue culture and expressing somatic variation in leaf disease resistance in a laboratory leaf disk bioassay were field-tested for 5-11 years to examine their resistance to Septoria leaf spot and canker and to assess their growth characteristics compared with the source clones....

  5. Cloning and comparative mapping of a human chromosome 4-specific alpha satellite DNA sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aiuto, L.; Marzella, R.; Archidiacono, N.; Rocchi, M. (Universita di Bari (Italy)); Antonacci, R. (Instituto Anatomia Umana Normale, Modena (Italy))

    1993-11-01

    The authors have isolated and characterized two human alphoid DNA clones: p4n1/4 and pZ4.1. Clone p4n1/4 identifies specifically the centromeric region of chromosome 4; pZ4.1 recognizes a subset of alphoid DNA shared by chromosomes 4 and 9. The specificity was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments on metaphase spreads and Southern blotting analysis of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. The genomic organization of both subsets was also investigated. Comparative mapping on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes was performed. p4n1/4 hybridizes to chimpanzee chromosomes 11 and 13, homologs of human chromosomes 9 and 2q, respectively. On gorilla metaphase spreads, p4n1/4 hybridizes exclusively to the centromeric region of chromosome 19, partially homologous to human chromosome 17. No hybridization signal was detected on chromosome 3 of both chimpanzee and gorilla, in both species homolog of human chromosome 4. Identical comparative mapping results were obtained using pZ4.1 probe, although the latter recognizes an alphoid subset distinct from the one recognized by p4n1/4. The implications of these results in the evolution of centromeric regions of primate chromosomes are discussed. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Cytological effects of pollen irradiation on wheat x leymus angustus hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guiying; Wang Linqing; Shi Jinguo

    2000-01-01

    Cytological effects of pollen irradiation on wheat x Leymus angustus hybrids were studied using callus clones and their derived plants of hybrid embryos as experimental materials. The results showed that variation range of chromosome number (VRCN) of hybrid callus clone became wider after pollination with irradiated paternal pollen. VRCN of the control clone was 43-64, and 26-66 was found in 9 Gy treatment clone. The average chromosome number per cell decreased by 4.9. Pollen irradiation enhanced chromosomal structural aberration (CSA). The CSA frequency was 45.35% in the control clone, and 77.31% in 9 Gy treatment clone. The main CSA in the control clone was telo-centric chromosome. Except for telo-centric chromosomes, there were also minichromosomes in 9 Gy treatment clone with the similar frequency to telo-centric chromosomes. The higher frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes and fragments in 9 Gy treatment showed that pollen irradiation enhanced chromosomal translocation and recombination

  7. Cloning and superluminal signaling£

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cloning; cloning fidelity; superluminal signaling; state discrimination. PACS No. 03.65.Bz. 1. .... The possibility of superluminal signaling in quantum mechanics stems from the concept .... quantum mechanics and relativity [13]. .... [13] A Shimony, in Foundations of quantum mechanics in the light of new technology edited by.

  8. The ethics of human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carson

    2005-03-01

    This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable if, at some future time, cloning becomes possible without an elevated risk of anomalies. It is argued that freedom to use cloning is a form of procreative freedom and, as such, deserves respect. All of the objections that have been raised against human reproductive cloning fall under three main categories: those that appeal to the interests of the child, those based on consequences for society, and those arising from teleological views. Objections that appeal to the child's interests are, in turn, of two main kinds: consequentialist and deontological. All of these types of objections are examined, and it is found that each involves serious problems that prevent it from being a reasonable objection in the context of the infertility cases considered. It is concluded that human reproductive cloning would be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples, provided that it could be performed without an elevated risk of anomalies.

  9. Reversibility of continuous-variable quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, Radim; Marek, Petr; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-01-01

    We analyze a reversibility of optimal Gaussian 1→2 quantum cloning of a coherent state using only local operations on the clones and classical communication between them and propose a feasible experimental test of this feature. Performing Bell-type homodyne measurement on one clone and anticlone, an arbitrary unknown input state (not only a coherent state) can be restored in the other clone by applying appropriate local unitary displacement operation. We generalize this concept to a partial reversal of the cloning using only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) and we show that this procedure converts the symmetric cloner to an asymmetric cloner. Further, we discuss a distributed LOCC reversal in optimal 1→M Gaussian cloning of coherent states which transforms it to optimal 1→M ' cloning for M ' < M. Assuming the quantum cloning as a possible eavesdropping attack on quantum communication link, the reversibility can be utilized to improve the security of the link even after the attack

  10. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Code clones - that is, duplicate fragments of code - have been studied for a long time. There is strong evidence that code clones are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon is not restricted to code, but occurs in models in a very similar way. So it is...

  11. Recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Emilia; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.

    2014-01-01

    No molecular cloning technique is considered universally reliable, and many suffer from being too laborious, complex, or expensive. Restriction-free cloning is among the simplest, most rapid, and cost-effective methods, but does not always provide successful results. We modified this method to enhance its success rate through the use of exponential amplification coupled with homologous end-joining. This new method, recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning, significantly extends the application of restriction-free cloning, and allows efficient vector construction with much less time and effort when restriction-free cloning fails to provide satisfactory results. The following modifications were made to the protocol:•Limited number of PCR cycles for both megaprimer synthesis and the cloning reaction to reduce error propagation.•Elimination of phosphorylation and ligation steps previously reported for cloning methods that used exponential amplification, through the inclusion of a reverse primer in the cloning reaction with a 20 base pair region of homology to the forward primer.•The inclusion of 1 M betaine to enhance both reaction specificity and yield. PMID:26150930

  12. Challenges in regulating farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunning, Jennifer; Hartlev, Mette; Gamborg, Christian

    Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety......Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety...

  13. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  14. Radiation hybrid mapping of human chromosome 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francke, U.; Moon, A.J.; Chang, E.; Foellmer, B.; Strauss, B.; Haschke, A.; Chihlin Hsieh; Geigl, E.M.; Welch, S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have generated a Chinese hamster V79/380-6 HPRT minus x human leukocyte hybrid cell line (18/V79) with chromosome 18 as the only human chromosome that is retained at high frequency without specific selection. Hybrid cells were selected in HAT medium, and 164 individual colonies were isolated. Of 110 colonies screened for human DNA by PCR amplification using a primer specific for human Alu repeats 67 (61%) were positive. These were expanded in culture for large-scale DNA preparations. Retesting expanded clones by PCR with Alu and LINE primers has revealed unique patterns of amplification products. In situ hybridization of biotin labelled total human DNA to metaphase spreads from various hybrids revealed the presence of one or more human DNA fragments integrated in hamster chromosomes. The authors have generated a resource that should allow the construction of a radiation map, to be compared with the YAC contig map also under construction in their laboratory

  15. Probabilistic cloning with supplementary information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Koji; Shimamura, Junichi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We consider probabilistic cloning of a state chosen from a mutually nonorthogonal set of pure states, with the help of a party holding supplementary information in the form of pure states. When the number of states is 2, we show that the best efficiency of producing m copies is always achieved by a two-step protocol in which the helping party first attempts to produce m-1 copies from the supplementary state, and if it fails, then the original state is used to produce m copies. On the other hand, when the number of states exceeds two, the best efficiency is not always achieved by such a protocol. We give examples in which the best efficiency is not achieved even if we allow any amount of one-way classical communication from the helping party

  16. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Okano, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from the clones were largely not statistically different from those of matched comparators, and all parameters examined were within the normal industry standards or previously reported values. The data generated from our match-controlled experiments provide science-based information desired by regulatory agencies to address public concerns about the safety of meat and milk from somatic animal clones. PMID:15829585

  17. Chorioallantoic placenta defects in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka-Saito, Noriko; Kohda, Takashi; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Miki, Hiromi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Mizutani, Eiji; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ogura, Atsuo; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been applied to produce live clones successfully in several mammalian species, but the success rates are very low. In mice, about half of the nuclear transfer embryos undergo implantation, but very few survive to term. We undertook detailed histological analyses of placentas from cloned mouse embryos generated from cumulus cells at 10.5 dpc of pregnancy, by which stage most clones have terminated their development. At 10.5 dpc, the extraembryonic tissues displayed several defined histological patterns, each reflecting their stage of developmental arrest. The most notable abnormality was the poor development of the spongiotrophoblast layer of diploid cells. This is in contrast to the placental hyperplasia frequently observed in somatic clones at 12.5 dpc or later stages. A variety of structural abnormalities were also observed in the embryos. Both placental and embryonic defects likely contribute to the low success rate of the mouse clones

  18. "Goodbye Dolly?" The ethics of human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J

    1997-01-01

    The ethical implications of human clones have been much alluded to, but have seldom been examined with any rigour. This paper examines the possible uses and abuses of human cloning and draws out the principal ethical dimensions, both of what might be done and its meaning. The paper examines some of the major public and official responses to cloning by authorities such as President Clinton, the World Health Organisation, the European parliament, UNESCO, and others and reveals their inadequacies as foundations for a coherent public policy on human cloning. The paper ends by defending a conception of reproductive rights of "procreative autonomy" which shows human cloning to be not inconsistent with human rights and dignity. PMID:9451604

  19. [Human cloning in Muslim and Arab law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, Sami A

    2009-01-01

    Cloning is a modern medical procedure that Muslim religious authorities treat en resorting to the general principles established by classical Muslim law based on the Koran and the Sunnah of Muhhamad as the messenger of God. In this regard, human beings are not capable of deciding what is or what is not lawful without resorting to divine norms. Cloning clashes with several principles. Firstly, the principle of the respect for life in relation to surpernumeraries, but Muslim authors are not in unanimous agreement on the determination of the moment at which life begins. Secondly, is the respect of progeny: cloning could only take place between a married couple. But even if these two principles are respected, cloning poses two major problems: the diversity of species expounded by the Koran and the Sunnah and a lack of interest. Which explains the quasi-unanimous opposition of Muslim writings regarding cloning.

  20. Canopy profiles of photosynthetic parameters under elevated CO2 and N fertilization in a poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calfapietra, Carlo; Tulva, Ingmar; Eensalu, Eve; Perez, Marta; De Angelis, Paolo; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe; Kull, Olevi

    2005-01-01

    A poplar plantation has been exposed to an elevated CO 2 concentration for 5 years using the free air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) technique. Even after such a long period of exposure, leaves of Populus x euramericana have not shown clear signs of photosynthetic acclimation. Only at the end of the growing season for shade leaves was a decrease of maximum velocity of carboxylation (V cmax ) observed. Maximum electron transport rate (J max ) was increased by FACE treatment in July. Assimilation rates at CO 2 partial pressure of 400 (A 400 ) and 600 (A 600 ) μmol mol -1 were not significantly different under FACE treatment. Most notably FACE significantly decreased stomatal conductance (g s ) both on upper and lower canopy leaves. N fertilization increased N content in the leaves on mass basis (N m ) and specific leaf area (SLA) in both CO 2 treatments but did not influence the photosynthetic parameters. These data show that in poplar plantations the long-term effects of elevated CO 2 on photosynthesis do not differ considerably from the short-term ones even with N deposition. - Photosynthetic acclimation occurred only marginally

  1. Physical and chemical characteristics of products from the torrefaction of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hun; Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, Jae-Won

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the characteristics of torrefied yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) depending on reaction time (30 min) and temperature (240-280 °C). The thermogravimetric, grindability and calorific value of torrefied biomass were analyzed. As the torrefaction temperature increased, the carbon content of torrefied biomass increased from 49.50% to 54.42%, while the hydrogen and oxygen contents decreased from 6.09% to 5.65% and 28.71% to 26.61%, respectively. The highest calorific value was 1233 kJ/kg when torrefaction was performed at 280 °C for 30 min. An overall increase in energy density and decrease in mass and energy yield was observed with the increase in torrefaction temperature. The analysis of thermal decomposition demonstrated that the hemicelluloses contained in torrefied biomass decreased with increasing torrefaction temperature, whereas cellulose and lignin were only slightly affected. The grindability of torrefied biomass was significantly improved when torrefaction was performed at high temperature. Torrefaction of yellow poplar improved the chemical and physical fuel properties of the biomass. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. One-step pretreatment of yellow poplar biomass using peracetic acid to enhance enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Rae; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Park, Tai Hyun

    2017-09-22

    Pretreatment of biomass with dilute acid requires high temperatures of >160 °C to remove xylan and does not remove lignin. Here we report that the addition of peracetic acid, a strong oxidant, to mild dilute acid pretreatment reduces the temperature requirement to only 120 °C. Pretreatment of yellow poplar with peracetic acid (300 mM, 2.3 wt%) and dilute sulfuric acid (100 mM, 1.0 wt%) at 120 °C for 5 min removed 85.7% of the xylan and 90.4% of the lignin leaving a solid consisting of 75.6% glucan, 6.0% xylan and 4.7% lignin. Low enzyme loadings of 5 FPU/g glucan and 10 pNPGU/g glucan converted this solid to glucose with an 84.0% yield. This amount of glucose was 2.5 times higher than with dilute acid-pretreated solid and 13.8 times higher than with untreated yellow poplar. Thus, the addition of peracetic acid, easily generated from acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, dramatically increases the effectiveness of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass.

  3. Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algreen, Mette; Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from three reference sites. Wood from both tree species had similar background concentrations at 0.5 mg kg(-1) for cadmium (Cd), 1.6 mg kg(-1) for copper (Cu), 0.3 mg kg(-1) for nickel (Ni), and 25 mg kg(-1) for zinc (Zn). Concentrations of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) were below or close to detection limit. Concentrations in wood from the highly polluted site were significantly elevated, compared to references, in particular for willow. The conclusion from these results is that tree coring could be used successfully to identify strongly heavy metal-polluted soil for Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and that willow trees were superior to poplars, except when screening for Ni. Phytoextraction of HMs was quantified from measured concentration in wood at the most polluted site. Extraction efficiencies were best for willows and Cd, but below 0.5% over 10 years, and below 1‰ in 10 years for all other HMs.

  4. Mycorrhizal Fungal Community of Poplars Growing on Pyrite Tailings Contaminated Site near the River Timok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katanić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Mycorrhizal fungi are of high importance for functioning of forest ecosystems and they could be used as indicators of environmental stress. The aim of this research was to analyze ectomycorrhizal community structure and to determine root colonization rate with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi of poplars growing on pyrite tailings contaminated site near the river Timok (Eastern Serbia. Materials and Methods: Identification of ectomycorrhizal types was performed by combining morphological and anatomical characterization of ectomycorrhizae with molecular identification approach, based on sequencing of the nuclear ITS rRNA region. Also, colonization of poplar roots with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septated endophytic fungi were analysed with intersection method. Results and Conclusions: Physico-chemical analyses of soil from studied site showed unfavourable water properties of soil, relatively low pH and high content of heavy metals (copper and zinc. In investigated samples only four different ectomycorrhizal fungi were found. To the species level were identified Thelephora terrestris and Tomentella ellisi, while two types remained unidentified. Type Thelephora terrestris made up 89% of all ectomycorrhizal roots on studied site. Consequently total values of Species richness index and Shannon-Weaver diversity index were 0.80 and 0.43, respectively. No structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were recorded. Unfavourable environmental conditions prevailing on investigated site caused decrease of ectomycorrhizal types diversity. Our findings point out that mycorrhyzal fungal community could be used as an appropriate indicator of environmental changes.

  5. Phenolic Profiling of Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase-Deficient Poplar Reveals Novel Benzodioxane Oligolignols1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreel, Kris; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; Goeminne, Geert; Busson, Roger; Herdewijn, Piet; Goeman, Jan L.; Van der Eycken, Johan; Boerjan, Wout; Messens, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes preferentially the methylation of 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde to sinapaldehyde in monolignol biosynthesis. Here, we have compared HPLC profiles of the methanol-soluble phenolics fraction of xylem tissue from COMT-deficient and control poplars (Populus spp.), using statistical analysis of the peak heights. COMT down-regulation results in significant concentration differences for 25 of the 91 analyzed peaks. Eight peaks were exclusively detected in COMT-deficient poplar, of which four could be purified for further identification using mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and spiking of synthesized reference compounds. These new compounds were derived from 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol or 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde and were characterized by benzodioxane moieties, a structural type that is also increased in the lignins of COMT-deficient plants. One of these four benzodioxanes amounted to the most abundant oligolignol in the HPLC profile. Furthermore, all of the differentially accumulating oligolignols involving sinapyl units were either reduced in abundance or undetectable. The concentration levels of all identified oligolignols were in agreement with the relative supply of monolignols and with their chemical coupling propensities, which supports the random coupling hypothesis. Chiral HPLC analysis of the most abundant benzodioxane dimer revealed the presence of both enantiomers in equal amounts, indicating that they were formed by radical coupling reactions under simple chemical control rather than guided by dirigent proteins. PMID:15563622

  6. Phenolic profiling of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase-deficient poplar reveals novel benzodioxane oligolignols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreel, Kris; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; Goeminne, Geert; Busson, Roger; Herdewijn, Piet; Goeman, Jan L; Van der Eycken, Johan; Boerjan, Wout; Messens, Eric

    2004-12-01

    Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes preferentially the methylation of 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde to sinapaldehyde in monolignol biosynthesis. Here, we have compared HPLC profiles of the methanol-soluble phenolics fraction of xylem tissue from COMT-deficient and control poplars (Populus spp.), using statistical analysis of the peak heights. COMT down-regulation results in significant concentration differences for 25 of the 91 analyzed peaks. Eight peaks were exclusively detected in COMT-deficient poplar, of which four could be purified for further identification using mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and spiking of synthesized reference compounds. These new compounds were derived from 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol or 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde and were characterized by benzodioxane moieties, a structural type that is also increased in the lignins of COMT-deficient plants. One of these four benzodioxanes amounted to the most abundant oligolignol in the HPLC profile. Furthermore, all of the differentially accumulating oligolignols involving sinapyl units were either reduced in abundance or undetectable. The concentration levels of all identified oligolignols were in agreement with the relative supply of monolignols and with their chemical coupling propensities, which supports the random coupling hypothesis. Chiral HPLC analysis of the most abundant benzodioxane dimer revealed the presence of both enantiomers in equal amounts, indicating that they were formed by radical coupling reactions under simple chemical control rather than guided by dirigent proteins.

  7. ITS2 sequence-structure phylogeny reveals diverse endophytic Pseudocercospora fungi on poplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong-Hui; Gao, Qian; Sun, Xiaoming; Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Hongchang

    2018-04-01

    For matching the new fungal nomenclature to abolish pleomorphic names for a fungus, a genus Pseudocercospora s. str. was suggested to host holomorphic Pseudocercosproa fungi. But the Pseudocercosproa fungi need extra phylogenetic loci to clarify their taxonomy and diversity for their existing and coming species. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) secondary structures have been promising in charactering species phylogeny in plants, animals and fungi. In present study, a conserved model of ITS2 secondary structures was confirmed on fungi in Pseudocercospora s. str. genus using RNAshape program. The model has a typical eukaryotic four-helix ITS2 secondary structure. But a single U base occurred in conserved motif of U-U mismatch in Helix 2, and a UG emerged in UGGU motif in Helix 3 to Pseudocercospora fungi. The phylogeny analyses based on the ITS2 sequence-secondary structures with compensatory base change characterizations are able to delimit more species for Pseudocercospora s. str. than phylogenic inferences of traditional multi-loci alignments do. The model was employed to explore the diversity of endophytic Pseudocercospora fungi in poplar trees. The analysis results also showed that endophytic Pseudocercospora fungi were diverse in species and evolved a specific lineage in poplar trees. This work suggested that ITS2 sequence-structures could become as additionally significant loci for species phylogenetic and taxonomic studies on Pseudocerospora fungi, and that Pseudocercospora endophytes could be important roles to Pseudocercospora fungi's evolution and function in ecology.

  8. Investigation of shallow groundwater contamination near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    Alluvial soils of the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with mercury and other metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides originating from the Y-12 Plant, a nuclear-processing facility located within the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Observation wells were installed in the shallow aquifer of the flood plain, and water quality samples were collected to determine if contaminants are present in the shallow groundwater. Groundwater in the shallow aquifer occurs under water-table conditions. Recharge is primarily from precipitation and discharge is to East Fork Poplar Creek. Groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally in response to variations in recharge and evapotranspiration. During extremely dry periods, the water table drops below the base of the shallow aquifer in some flood-plain areas. Contaminants were found in water samples from several of the wells in concentrations which equaled or exceeded drinking-water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency are antimony, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, phenols, and strontium-90. Total and dissolved uranium concentrations exceeded the analytical detection limit in nearly 70% of the wells in the flood plain. The results of water quality determinations demonstrate that elevated concentrations of most trace metals (and possibly organic compounds and radionuclides) were caused by contaminated sediments in the samples. The presence of contaminated sediment in samples is suspected to be the result of borehole contamination during well installation. 21 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Cloning and functional expression of a human pancreatic islet glucose-transporter cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permutt, M.A.; Koranyi, L.; Keller, K.; Lacy, P.E.; Scharp, D.W.; Mueckler, M.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic islet glucose transport is mediated by a high-K m , low-affinity facilitated transporter similar to that expressed in liver. To determine the relationship between islet and liver glucose transporters, liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clones were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clone hybridized to mRNA transcripts of the same size in human liver and pancreatic islet RNA. A cDNA library was prepared from purified human pancreatic islet tissue and screened with human liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA. The authors isolated two overlapping cDNA clones encompassing 2600 base pairs, which encode a pancreatic islet protein identical in sequence to that of the putative liver-type glucose-transporter protein. Xenopus oocytes injected with synthetic mRNA transcribed from a full-length cDNA construct exhibited increased uptake of 2-deoxyglucose, confirming the functional identity of the clone. These cDNA clones can now be used to study regulation of expression of the gene and to assess the role of inherited defects in this gene as a candidate for inherited susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

  10. Human Chromosome 21: Mapping of the chromosomes and cloning of cDNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonarakis, S.E.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the research funded by DOE grant DE-FG02-89ER60857 from 6/15/89 to 8/31/91 was to contribute to the physical mapping of human chromosome 21 (HC21) by cloning large fragments of DNA into Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) and identify YACs that map on HC21. A total of 54 sequence tagged sites (STS) have been developed and mapped in our laboratory to HC21 and can be used as initial reference points for YAC identification and construction of overlapping clones. A small YAC library was constructed which is HC21 specific. DNA from somatic cell hybrid WAV17 or from flow-sorted HC21 was partially digested with EcoRI, ligated into vectors PJS97, PJS98, and YACs have been obtained with average size insert of more than 300 kb. This library has been deposited in D. Patterson's lab for the Joint YAC screening effort. Additional YAC libraries from ICI Pharmaceuticals or from Los Alamos National Laboratories have been screened with several STS and positive YACs have been identified. Work in progress includes screening of YAC libraries in order to construct overlapping clones, characterization of the cloning ends of YACs, characterization of additional STS and cloning of HC21 specific cDNAs. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Response to crop-tree release by 7-year-old stems of yellow-poplar and black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Jr. Trimble; G.R. Jr. Trimble

    1973-01-01

    Five years after crop-tree release of yellow-poplar and black cherry sterns in a 7-year-old stand of Appalachian hardwoods, measurements indicated that released trees were but slightly superior to control trees in height, diameter, and crown position. Sprout regrowth of cut tree stems and grapevines had largely nullified the effects of release. Indications are that for...

  12. Geologic Variable Associated with Height of Yellow-Poplar Stand in the Bald Mountains of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; Carl E. Merschat

    1990-01-01

    Quartz grain size and mylonitization, geologic variables determined fromrocks on sites, were associated with total height of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) standsand may be of value as independent variables in modeling tree growth from site characteristics. A predictive model containing quartz grain site and stand age accounted for about 54% of the...

  13. Results from software based empirical models of and standing biomass for poplar and willow grown as short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.E.; Morgan, G.W.; Brewer, A.C. (Forest Research Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division, Forest Research, Wrecclesham (United Kingdom))

    2007-07-01

    Statistical analysis was used to create a model for estimating the quantity of biomass produced by crops of poplar and willow grown as short rotation coppice. This model was converted into a software system as described here. The software is currently available for scientific demonstration. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of veneer yields and grades from yellow-poplar, white oak, and sweetgum from the southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. McAlister

    1980-01-01

    Dry volume yields and standard grades of veneer are given for yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and white oak by tree diameter and location within the stem. Results show that the typical stands of mixed southern pine and hardwood timer yield enough veneer to utilize almost 90 percent of the stand volume in the production of COM-PLY lumber and panels

  15. The use of poplar during a two-year induced phytoextraction of metals from contaminated agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarek, Michael [Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Agriculture in Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: komarek@af.czu.cz; Tlustos, Pavel [Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Agriculture in Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: tlustos@af.czu.cz; Szakova, Jirina [Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Agriculture in Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: szakova@af.czu.cz; Chrastny, Vladislav [Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemistry Teaching, University of South Bohemia, Studentska 13, 370 05, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)], E-mail: vladislavchrastny@seznam.cz

    2008-01-15

    The efficiency of poplar (Populus nigra L. x Populus maximowiczii Henry.) was assessed during a two-year chemically enhanced phytoextraction of metals from contaminated soils. The tested metal mobilizing agents were EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and NH{sub 4}Cl. EDTA was more efficient than chlorides in solubilizing metals (especially Pb) from the soil matrix. The application of chlorides only increased the solubility of Cd and Zn. However, the increased uptake of metals after the application of higher concentrations of mobilizing agents was associated with low biomass yields of the poplar plants and the extraction efficiencies after the two vegetation periods were thus comparable to the untreated plants. Additionally, the application of mobilizing agents led to phytotoxicity effects and increased mobility of metals. Higher phytoextraction efficiencies were observed for Cd and Zn compared to Pb and Cu. Poplars are therefore not suitable for chemically enhanced phytoextraction of metals from severely contaminated agricultural soils. - Application of mobilizing agents is not optimal during a two-year phytoextraction of metals from severely contaminated soils using poplars.

  16. The use of poplar during a two-year induced phytoextraction of metals from contaminated agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, Michael; Tlustos, Pavel; Szakova, Jirina; Chrastny, Vladislav

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of poplar (Populus nigra L. x Populus maximowiczii Henry.) was assessed during a two-year chemically enhanced phytoextraction of metals from contaminated soils. The tested metal mobilizing agents were EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and NH 4 Cl. EDTA was more efficient than chlorides in solubilizing metals (especially Pb) from the soil matrix. The application of chlorides only increased the solubility of Cd and Zn. However, the increased uptake of metals after the application of higher concentrations of mobilizing agents was associated with low biomass yields of the poplar plants and the extraction efficiencies after the two vegetation periods were thus comparable to the untreated plants. Additionally, the application of mobilizing agents led to phytotoxicity effects and increased mobility of metals. Higher phytoextraction efficiencies were observed for Cd and Zn compared to Pb and Cu. Poplars are therefore not suitable for chemically enhanced phytoextraction of metals from severely contaminated agricultural soils. - Application of mobilizing agents is not optimal during a two-year phytoextraction of metals from severely contaminated soils using poplars

  17. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calfapietra, C.; Gielen, B.; Galema, A.N.J.; Lukac, M.; Angelis, de P.; Moscatelli, M.C.; Ceulemans, R.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible contribution of Short Rotation Cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]). A dense poplar plantation (1 x 1 m) was exposed to a [CO2] of 550 ppm in Central Italy using the free-air CO2 enrichment

  18. Patterns of genomic variation in the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina identify pathogenesis-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine ePersoons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melampsora larici-populina is a fungal pathogen responsible for foliar rust disease on poplar trees, which causes damage to forest plantations worldwide, particularly in Northern Europe. The reference genome of the isolate 98AG31 was previously sequenced using a whole genome shotgun strategy, revealing a large genome of 101 megabases containing 16,399 predicted genes, which included secreted protein genes representing poplar rust candidate effectors. In the present study, the genomes of 15 isolates collected over the past 20 years throughout the French territory, representing distinct virulence profiles, were characterized by massively parallel sequencing to assess genetic variation in the poplar rust fungus. Comparison to the reference genome revealed striking structural variations. Analysis of coverage and sequencing depth identified large missing regions between isolates related to the mating type loci. More than 611,824 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP positions were uncovered overall, indicating a remarkable level of polymorphism. Based on the accumulation of non-synonymous substitutions in coding sequences and the relative frequencies of synonymous and non-synonymous polymorphisms (i.e. PN/PS, we identify candidate genes that may be involved in fungal pathogenesis. Correlation between non-synonymous SNPs in genes encoding secreted proteins and pathotypes of the studied isolates revealed candidate genes potentially related to virulences 1, 6 and 8 of the poplar rust fungus.

  19. Lack of specific hybridization between the lep genes of Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus licheniformis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijl, J M; Jong, de Anne; Smith, H; Bron, Sierd; Venema, G

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to clone the Bacillus licheniformis lep gene, encoding signal peptidase, using the Salmonella typhimurium lep gene as a hybridization probe. Although a hybridizing fragment was obtained, DNA sequence analysis indicated that it did not contain the lep gene. Instead,

  20. First evidence of intraclonal genetic exchange in trypanosomatids using two Leishmania infantum fluorescent transgenic clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Calvo-Álvarez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mode of reproduction in Leishmania spp has been argued to be essentially clonal. However, recent data (genetic analysis of populations and co-infections in sand flies have proposed the existence of a non-obligate sexual cycle in the extracellular stage of the parasite within the sand fly vector. In this article we propose the existence of intraclonal genetic exchange in the natural vector of Leishmania infantum.We have developed transgenic L. infantum lines expressing drug resistance markers linked to green and red fluorescent reporters. We hypothesized whether those cells with identical genotype can recognize each other and mate. Both types of markers were successfully exchanged within the sand fly midgut of the natural vector Phlebotomus perniciosus when individuals from these species were fed with a mixture of parental clones. Using the yellow phenotype and drug resistance markers, we provide evidence for genetic exchange in L. infantum. The hybrid progeny appeared to be triploid based on DNA content analysis. The hybrid clone analyzed was stable throughout the complete parasite life cycle. The progress of infections by the hybrid clone in BALB/c mice caused a reduction in parasite loads in both spleen and liver, and provided weight values similar to those obtained with uninfected mice. Spleen arginase activity was also significantly reduced relative to parental strains.A L. infantum hybrid lineage was obtained from intraclonal genetic exchange within the midgut of the natural vector, suggesting the ability of this parasite to recognize the same genotype and mate. The yellow hybrid progeny is stable throughout the whole parasite life cycle but with a slower virulence, which correlates well with the lower arginase activity detected both in vitro and in vivo infections.

  1. Brain cDNA clone for human cholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, C.; Adkins, S.; Chatonnet, A.; Vaughan, T.A.; Bartels, C.F.; Kott, M.; Rosenberry, T.L.; La Du, B.N.; Lockridge, O.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA library from human basal ganglia was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to portions of the amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase. Five overlapping clones, representing 2.4 kilobases, were isolated. The sequenced cDNA contained 207 base pairs of coding sequence 5' to the amino terminus of the mature protein in which there were four ATG translation start sites in the same reading frame as the protein. Only the ATG coding for Met-(-28) lay within a favorable consensus sequence for functional initiators. There were 1722 base pairs of coding sequence corresponding to the protein found circulating in human serum. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA exactly matched the 574 amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase, as previously determined by Edman degradation. Therefore, our clones represented cholinesterase rather than acetylcholinesterase. It was concluded that the amino acid sequences of cholinesterase from two different tissues, human brain and human serum, were identical. Hybridization of genomic DNA blots suggested that a single gene, or very few genes coded for cholinesterase

  2. Gain-of-function analysis of poplar CLE genes in Arabidopsis by exogenous application and over-expression assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yisen; Yang, Shaohui; Song, Yingjin; Men, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiehua

    2016-04-01

    Among 50 CLE gene family members in the Populus trichocarpa genome, three and six PtCLE genes encode a CLE motif sequence highly homologous to Arabidopsis CLV3 and TDIF peptides, respectively, which potentially make them functional equivalents. To test and compare their biological activity, we first chemically synthesized each dodecapeptide and analysed itsi n vitro bioactivity on Arabidopsis seedlings. Similarly, but to a different extent, three types of poplar CLV3-related peptides caused root meristem consumption, phyllotaxis disorder, anthocyanin accumulation and failure to enter the bolting stage. In comparison, application of two poplar TDIF-related peptides led to root length promotion in a dose-dependent manner with an even stronger effect observed for poplar TDIF-like peptide than TDIF. Next, we constructed CaMV35S:PtCLE transgenic plants for each of the nine PtCLE genes. Phenotypic abnormalities exemplified by arrested shoot apical meristem and abnormal flower structure were found to be more dominant and severe in 35S:PtCLV3 and 35S:PtCLV3-like2 lines than in the 35S:PtCLV3-like line. Disordered vasculature was detected in both stem and hypocotyl cross-sections in Arabidopsis plants over-expressing poplar TDIF-related genes with the most defective vascular patterning observed for TDIF2 and two TDIF-like genes. Phenotypic difference consistently observed in peptide application assay and transgenic analysis indicated the functional diversity of nine poplar PtCLE genes under investigation. This work represents the first report on the functional analysis of CLE genes in a tree species and constitutes a basis for further study of the CLE peptide signalling pathway in tree development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects of root pruning on the growth and rhizosphere soil characteristics of short-rotation closed-canopy poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Z. Y.; Xing, S. J.; Ma, B. Y.; Liu, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Wang, Q. H.

    2012-11-01

    When poplar trees planted at a high density are canopy-closed in plantation after 4-5 years of growth, the roots of adjacent trees will inevitably intermingle together, which possibly restricts the nutrient uptake by root system. Root pruning might stimulate the emergence of fine roots and benefit the tree growth of short-rotation poplar at the stage of canopy closing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of root pruning on DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.3 m), tree height, nutrients (N, P and K) and hormones (indoleacetic acid and cytokinin) in poplar leaves, gas exchange variables (photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance), and rhizosphere soil characteristics. Field experiment was carried out with four-yearold poplar (Populus × euramericana cv. ‘Neva’) planted in a fluvo-aquic loam soil in Shandong province, China in early April, 2008. Three root pruning treatments (severe, moderate and light degree) were conducted at the distances of 6, 8 and 10 times DBH on both inter-row sides of the trees to the depth of 30 cm, respectively. The results showed that the growth performance was obtained in the following order of treatments: moderate > light = control > severe. In the rhizophere soil, moderate and light pruning increased the microbial populations, enzymatic activities, and the concentrations of available N, P, K and organic matter. Generally, root pruning to improve tree growth and rhizosphere soil fertility can be recommended in canopy-closed poplar plantation. The appropriate selection of root pruning intensity is a pivotal factor for the effectiveness of this technique. (Author) 35 refs.

  4. Fast enhancement on hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface using low-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weimin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China); Zhou, Xiaoyan, E-mail: zhouxiaoyan@njfu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Zhang, Xiaotao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Bian, Jie [Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China); Shi, Shukai; Nguyen, Thiphuong; Chen, Minzhi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Wan, Jinglin [Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Plasma working under low pressure is easy to realize industrialization. • Enhancing process finished within 75 s. • Plasma treatment leads to the increase in equilibrium contact angle by 330%. • Tinfoil film with simple chemical structure was used to reveal the mechanism. - Abstract: The hydrophilicity of woody products leads to deformation and cracks, which greatly limits its applications. Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma using hexamethyldisiloxane was applied in poplar wood surface to enhance the hydrophobicity. The chemical properties, micro-morphology, and contact angles of poplar wood surface before and after plasma treatment were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical contact angle measurement (OCA). Moreover, tinfoil film was used as the base to reveal the enhancement mechanism. The results showed that hexamethyldisiloxane monomer is first broken into several fragments with active sites and hydrophobic chemical groups. Meanwhile, plasma treatment results in the formation of free radicals and active sites in the poplar wood surface. Then, the fragments are reacted with free radicals and incorporated into the active sites to form a network structure based on the linkages of Si-O-Si and Si−O−C. Plasma treatment also leads to the formation of acicular nano-structure in poplar wood surface. These facts synergistically enhance the hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface, demonstrating the dramatically increase in the equilibrium contact angle by 330%.

  5. Economical quantum cloning in any dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durt, Thomas; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of cloning a d-dimensional quantum system without an ancilla is explored, extending on the economical phase-covariant cloning machine for qubits found in Phys. Rev. A 60, 2764 (1999). We prove the impossibility of constructing an economical version of the optimal universal 1→2 cloning machine in any dimension. We also show, using an ansatz on the generic form of cloning machines, that the d-dimensional 1→2 phase-covariant cloner, which optimally clones all balanced superpositions with arbitrary phases, can be realized economically only in dimension d=2. The used ansatz is supported by numerical evidence up to d=7. An economical phase-covariant cloner can nevertheless be constructed for d>2, albeit with a slightly lower fidelity than that of the optimal cloner requiring an ancilla. Finally, using again an ansatz on cloning machines, we show that an economical version of the 1→2 Fourier-covariant cloner, which optimally clones the computational basis and its Fourier transform, is also possible only in dimension d=2

  6. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  7. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  8. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  9. Isolation of human simple repeat loci by hybridization selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Neumann, R; Gobert, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1994-04-01

    We have isolated short tandem repeat arrays from the human genome, using a rapid method involving filter hybridization to enrich for tri- or tetranucleotide tandem repeats. About 30% of clones from the enriched library cross-hybridize with probes containing trimeric or tetrameric tandem arrays, facilitating the rapid isolation of large numbers of clones. In an initial analysis of 54 clones, 46 different tandem arrays were identified. Analysis of these tandem repeat loci by PCR showed that 24 were polymorphic in length; substantially higher levels of polymorphism were displayed by the tetrameric repeat loci isolated than by the trimeric repeats. Primary mapping of these loci by linkage analysis showed that they derive from 17 chromosomes, including the X chromosome. We anticipate the use of this strategy for the efficient isolation of tandem repeats from other sources of genomic DNA, including DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes, and from other species.

  10. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs

  11. Bioethanol from poplar: a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuel in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Jade; Guo, Miao; Boerjan, Wout; Murphy, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The European Union has made it a strategic objective to develop its biofuels market in order to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to help mitigate climate change and to address energy insecurity within the transport sector. Despite targets set at national and supranational levels, lignocellulosic bioethanol production has yet to be widely commercialized in the European Union. Here, we use techno-economic modeling to compare the price of bioethanol produced from short rotation coppice (SRC) poplar feedstocks under two leading processing technologies in five European countries. Our evaluation shows that the type of processing technology and varying national costs between countries results in a wide range of bioethanol production prices (€0.275 to 0.727/l). The lowest production prices for bioethanol were found in countries that had cheap feedstock costs and high prices for renewable electricity. Taxes and other costs had a significant influence on fuel prices at the petrol station, and therefore the presence and amount of government support for bioethanol was a major factor determining the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel. In a forward-looking scenario, genetically engineering poplar with a reduced lignin content showed potential to enhance the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel by reducing overall costs by approximately 41% in four out of the five countries modeled. However, the possible wider phenotypic traits of advanced poplars needs to be fully investigated to ensure that these do not unintentionally negate the cost savings indicated. Through these evaluations, we highlight the key bottlenecks within the bioethanol supply chain from the standpoint of various stakeholders. For producers, technologies that are best suited to the specific feedstock composition and national policies should be optimized. For policymakers, support schemes that benefit emerging bioethanol producers and allow renewable fuel to be

  12. Phenotypic plasticity, QTL mapping and genomic characterization of bud set in black poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabbrini Francesco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic control of important adaptive traits, such as bud set, is still poorly understood in most forest trees species. Poplar is an ideal model tree to study bud set because of its indeterminate shoot growth. Thus, a full-sib family derived from an intraspecific cross of P. nigra with 162 clonally replicated progeny was used to assess the phenotypic plasticity and genetic variation of bud set in two sites of contrasting environmental conditions. Results Six crucial phenological stages of bud set were scored. Night length appeared to be the most important signal triggering the onset of growth cessation. Nevertheless, the effect of other environmental factors, such as temperature, increased during the process. Moreover, a considerable role of genotype × environment (G × E interaction was found in all phenological stages with the lowest temperature appearing to influence the sensitivity of the most plastic genotypes. Descriptors of growth cessation and bud onset explained the largest part of phenotypic variation of the entire process. Quantitative trait loci (QTL for these traits were detected. For the four selected traits (the onset of growth cessation (date2.5, the transition from shoot to bud (date1.5, the duration of bud formation (subproc1 and bud maturation (subproc2 eight and sixteen QTL were mapped on the maternal and paternal map, respectively. The identified QTL, each one characterized by small or modest effect, highlighted the complex nature of traits involved in bud set process. Comparison between map location of QTL and P. trichocarpa genome sequence allowed the identification of 13 gene models, 67 bud set-related expressional and six functional candidate genes (CGs. These CGs are functionally related to relevant biological processes, environmental sensing, signaling, and cell growth and development. Some strong QTL had no obvious CGs, and hold great promise to identify unknown genes that affect bud set

  13. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budsberg, Erik; Crawford, Jordan T; Morgan, Hannah; Chin, Wei Shan; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels compatible with current aviation infrastructure are needed as an alternative to petroleum-based jet fuel to lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Cradle to grave life cycle analysis is used to investigate the global warming potential and fossil fuel use of converting poplar biomass to drop-in bio-jet fuel via a novel bioconversion platform. Unique to the biorefinery designs in this research is an acetogen fermentation step. Following dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, poplar biomass is fermented to acetic acid and then distilled, hydroprocessed, and oligomerized to jet fuel. Natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification are proposed to meet hydrogen demands at the biorefineries. Separate well to wake simulations are performed using the hydrogen production processes to obtain life cycle data. Both biorefinery designs are assessed using natural gas and hog fuel to meet excess heat demands. Global warming potential of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from CO2 equivalences of 60 to 66 and 32 to 73 g MJ(-1), respectively. Fossil fuel usage of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from 0.78 to 0.84 and 0.71 to 1.0 MJ MJ(-1), respectively. Lower values for each impact category result from using hog fuel to meet excess heat/steam demands. Higher values result from using natural gas to meet the excess heat demands. Bio-jet fuels produced from the bioconversion of poplar biomass reduce the global warming potential and fossil fuel use compared with petroleum-based jet fuel. Production of hydrogen is identified as a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use in both the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet simulations. Using hog fuel instead of natural gas to meet heat demands can help lower the global warming potential and fossil fuel use at the biorefineries.

  14. Isolation and characterization of full-length cDNA clones coding for cholinesterase from fetal human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prody, C.A.; Zevin-Sonkin, D.; Gnatt, A.; Goldberg, O.; Soreq, H.

    1987-01-01

    To study the primary structure and regulation of human cholinesterases, oligodeoxynucleotide probes were prepared according to a consensus peptide sequence present in the active site of both human serum pseudocholinesterase and Torpedo electric organ true acetylcholinesterase. Using these probes, the authors isolated several cDNA clones from λgt10 libraries of fetal brain and liver origins. These include 2.4-kilobase cDNA clones that code for a polypeptide containing a putative signal peptide and the N-terminal, active site, and C-terminal peptides of human BtChoEase, suggesting that they code either for BtChoEase itself or for a very similar but distinct fetal form of cholinesterase. In RNA blots of poly(A) + RNA from the cholinesterase-producing fetal brain and liver, these cDNAs hybridized with a single 2.5-kilobase band. Blot hybridization to human genomic DNA revealed that these fetal BtChoEase cDNA clones hybridize with DNA fragments of the total length of 17.5 kilobases, and signal intensities indicated that these sequences are not present in many copies. Both the cDNA-encoded protein and its nucleotide sequence display striking homology to parallel sequences published for Torpedo AcChoEase. These finding demonstrate extensive homologies between the fetal BtChoEase encoded by these clones and other cholinesterases of various forms and species

  15. Human cloning and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eslami

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Catholic Church and most of Muslims believe that human cloning is in contrast with human rights. They argue that applying Somatic Nuclear Transfer Technique or so-called cloning to humans is against human dignity. Their main reason is that the cloned person would be a copy or shadow of another person and lack his or her identity and uniqueness. They also argue that in the process of cloning human beings would be treated as laboratory mice. This article tries to evaluate this kind of argumentation and shows that the "human dignity" expression in the relevant writings is vague and has been used inappropriately. مسیحیان و برخی از مسلمانان استدلال می‌کنند که کاربست تکنیک شبیه‌سازی ناقض کرامت انسانی است. این دلیل خود به صورت‌های مختلفی بیان می‌شود، مانند آنکه انسان موضوع آزمایش‌های علمی قرار می‌گیرد و با او مانند حیوانات رفتار می‌شود. گاه نیز تغییر نحوة تولید مثل، مایة نقض کرامت انسانی قلمداد می‌گردد و گاه به مسئلة از بین رفتن هویت فردی اشاره می‌شود. نگارنده در دو قسمت، دیدگاه مسیحیان و مسلمانان را در این باره نقل و تحلیل کرده است و کوشیده است نشان دهد که استناد به مفهوم کرامت انسانی در این جا مبهم و ناگویاست و مخالفان کوشش دقیقی در جهت تبیین دلیل خود به عمل نیاورده‌اند.

  16. Molecular cloning of transcripts induced by UV-radiation in rodent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Mitchell, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Several inducible DNA repair genes have been well characterized in bacteria. In eukaryotes including mammalian cells, there is increasing evidence that similar events may occur. Recently, the authors have shown that hybridization subtraction can be used to enrich for sequences induced only several fold by a particular cell treatment such as heat shock. Chinese hamster V79 cells were UV-irradiated with 17 Jm/sup -2/ and cDNA was synthesized from the polyadenylated (poly A) RNA. This ''UV'' cDNA was hybridized with a 3 fold excess of polyA RNA from unirradiated cells and the nonhybridizing cDNA was isolated. With this approach, UV-induced sequences were enriched over 20 fold. This enriched cDNA was cloned into a high copy number plasmid and a cDNA library was constructed. By RNA dot blot and northern analysis, 42 clones from this library were found to represent transcripts induced 3 to 25 fold by UV. The most common isolates were found to be metallothionein transcripts by DNA sequencing. The metallothionein transcripts were found to be induced 10 to 25 fold by UV with maximum induction at 4-8 h after 10 Jm/sup -2/. A similar approach was also used with a Chinese hamster ovary line which does not express metallothionein and multiple clones were isolated which represented transcripts induced 3-15 fold by UV. Except for the metallothionein clones, the other Chinese hamster cDNA clones have not been identified, but it is probable that the protein products of at least some of these transcripts play a role in the cellular response to UV damage

  17. Molecular cloning and sequence of the B880 holochrome gene from Rhodospirillum rubrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Restriction fragments of genomic Rhodospirillum rubrum DNA were selected according to size by electrophoresis followed by hybridization with [ 32 P]mRNA encoding the two B880 holochrome polypeptides. The fragments were cloned into Escherchia coli C600 with plasmid pBR327 as a vector. The clones were selected by colony hybridization with 32 P-holochrome-mRNA and counter selected by hybridization with Rs. rubrum ribosomal RNA, a minor contaminant of the mRNA preparation. Chimeric plasmid pRR22 was shown to contain the B880 genes by hybrid selection of B880 holochrome-mRNA. A restriction map of its 2.2-kilobase insert and the sequence of a 430 base pair fragment thereof is reported. Genes α and β are nearly contiguous, indicating that they are transcribed as a single operon. The predicted amino acid sequences coincide with the sequences of the α and β polypeptides established in other laboratories, except for additional C-terminal tails of 10 and 13 amino acid residues, respectively

  18. Molecular cloning and biological characterization of the human excision repair gene ERCC-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeda, G.; van Ham, R.C.; Masurel, R.; Westerveld, A.; Odijk, H.; de Wit, J.; Bootsma, D.; van der Eb, A.J.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this report we present the cloning, partial characterization, and preliminary studies of the biological activity of a human gene, designated ERCC-3, involved in early steps of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. The gene was cloned after genomic DNA transfection of human (HeLa) chromosomal DNA together with dominant marker pSV3gptH to the UV-sensitive, incision-defective Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant 27-1. This mutant belongs to complementation group 3 of repair-deficient rodent mutants. After selection of UV-resistant primary and secondary 27-1 transformants, human sequences associated with the induced UV resistance were rescued in cosmids from the DNA of a secondary transformant by using a linked dominant marker copy and human repetitive DNA as probes. From coinheritance analysis of the ERCC-3 region in independent transformants, we deduce that the gene has a size of 35 to 45 kilobases, of which one essential segment has so far been refractory to cloning. Conserved unique human sequences hybridizing to a 3.0-kilobase mRNA were used to isolate apparently full-length cDNA clones. Upon transfection to 27-1 cells, the ERCC-3 cDNA, inserted in a mammalian expression vector, induced specific and (virtually) complete correction of the UV sensitivity and unscheduled DNA synthesis of mutants of complementation group 3 with very high efficiency. Mutant 27-1 is, unlike other mutants of complementation group 3, also very sensitive toward small alkylating agents. This unique property of the mutant is not corrected by introduction of the ERCC-3 cDNA, indicating that it may be caused by an independent second mutation in another repair function. By hybridization to DNA of a human x rodent hybrid cell panel, the ERCC-3 gene was assigned to chromosome 2, in agreement with data based on cell fusion

  19. Coding sequence of human rho cDNAs clone 6 and clone 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chardin, P; Madaule, P; Tavitian, A

    1988-03-25

    The authors have isolated human cDNAs including the complete coding sequence for two rho proteins corresponding to the incomplete isolates previously described as clone 6 and clone 9. The deduced a.a. sequences, when compared to the a.a. sequence deduced from clone 12 cDNA, show that there are in human at least three highly homologous rho genes. They suggest that clone 12 be named rhoA, clone 6 : rhoB and clone 9 : rhoC. RhoA, B and C proteins display approx. 30% a.a. identity with ras proteins,. mainly clustered in four highly homologous internal regions corresponding to the GTP binding site; however at least one significant difference is found; the 3 rho proteins have an Alanine in position corresponding to ras Glycine 13, suggesting that rho and ras proteins might have slightly different biochemical properties.

  20. Host Adaptation and Speciation through Hybridization and Polyploidy in Phytophthora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertier, Lien; Leus, Leen; D’hondt, Liesbet; de Cock, Arthur W. A. M.; Höfte, Monica

    2013-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that interspecific hybridization is a common event in phytophthora evolution. Yet, the fundamental processes underlying interspecific hybridization and the consequences for its ecological fitness and distribution are not well understood. We studied hybridization events in phytophthora clade 8b. This is a cold-tolerant group of plant pathogenic oomycetes in which six host-specific species have been described that mostly attack winter-grown vegetables. Hybrid characterization was done by sequencing and cloning of two nuclear (ITS and Ypt1) and two mitochondrial loci (Cox1 and Nadh1) combined with DNA content estimation using flow cytometry. Three different mtDNA haplotypes were recovered among the presumed hybrid isolates, dividing the hybrids into three types, with different parental species involved. In the nuclear genes, additivity, i.e. the presence of two alleles coming from different parents, was detected. Hybrid isolates showed large variations in DNA content, which was positively correlated with the additivity in nuclear loci, indicating allopolyploid hybridization followed by a process of diploidization. Moreover, indications of homeologous recombination were found in the hybrids by cloning ITS products. The hybrid isolates have been isolated from a range of hosts that have not been reported previously for clade 8b species, indicating that they have novel pathogenic potential. Next to this, DNA content measurements of the non-hybrid clade 8b species suggest that polyploidy is a common feature of this clade. We hypothesize that interspecific hybridization and polyploidy are two linked phenomena in phytophthora, and that these processes might play an important and ongoing role in the evolution of this genus. PMID:24386473