WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid plants continued

  1. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  2. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  3. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  4. Plants under continuous light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.; Ieperen, van W.; Vreugdenhill, D.; Millenaar, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous light is an essential tool for understanding the plant circadian clock. Additionally, continuous light might increase greenhouse food production. However, using continuous light in research and practice has its challenges. For instance, most of the circadian clock-oriented experiments wer

  5. Implementation of an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control system using PAT tools into a direct compaction continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Sahay, Abhishek; Karry, Krizia M; Muzzio, Fernando; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2014-10-01

    It is desirable for a pharmaceutical final dosage form to be manufactured through a quality by design (QbD)-based approach rather than a quality by testing (QbT) approach. An automatic feedback control system coupled with PAT tools that is part of the QbD paradigm shift, has the potential to ensure that the pre-defined end product quality attributes are met in a time and cost efficient manner. In this work, an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control architecture coupled with real time inline/online monitoring tools and principal components analysis (PCA) based additional supervisory control layer has been proposed for a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process. The advantages of both MPC and PID have been utilized in a hybrid scheme. The control hardware and software integration and implementation of the control system has been demonstrated using feeders and blending unit operation of a continuous tablet manufacturing pilot plant and an NIR based PAT tool. The advanced hybrid MPC-PID control scheme leads to enhanced control loop performance of the critical quality attributes in comparison to a regulatory (e.g. PID) control scheme indicating its potential to improve pharmaceutical product quality.

  6. Continuity and invariance in hybrid automata

    OpenAIRE

    Lygeros, John; Johansson, Karl H.; Simic, Slobodan; ZHANG, JUN; Sastry, Shankar

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid automata have been proposed as a language for modelling and analysing the interaction of digital and analogue dynamics in embedded computer systems. In the paper, hybrid automata are studied from a dynamical systems perspective. Extending earlier work on conditions for existence and uniqueness of executions of hybrid automata, we characterise a class of hybrid automata whose executions depend continuously on the initial state. The continuity conditions are subsequently used to derive a...

  7. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    The economic importance of the ornamental plant industry requires constant development of novel and high quality varieties. Traits attractive for production of new ornamental plants may not be available within the commercial cultivars, but broad genetic variation is present within the plant genera...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...

  8. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    The economic importance of the ornamental plant industry requires constant development of novel and high quality varieties. Traits attractive for production of new ornamental plants may not be available within the commercial cultivars, but broad genetic variation is present within the plant genera...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...

  9. Somatic hybridization in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabel, F

    1976-11-01

    Somatic hybridization in higher plants has come into focus since methods have been established for protoplast fusion and uptake of foreign DNA and organelles by protoplasts. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was an effective agent for inducing fusion. Treatment of protoplasts with PEG resulted in 5 to 30% heterospecific fusion products. Protoplasts of different species, genera and even families were compatible when fused. A number of protoplast combinations (soybean + corn, soybean + pea, soybean + tobacco, carrot + barley, etc.) provided fusion products which underwent cell division and callus formation. Fusion products initially were heterokaryocytes. In dividing heterokaryocytes, random distribution of mitotic nuclei was observed to be accompanied by multiple wall formation and to result in chimeral callus. Juxtaposition of mitotic nuclei suggested nuclear fusion and hybrid formation. Fusion of heterospecific interphase nuclei was demonstrated in soybean + pea and carrot + barley heterokaryons. Provided parental protoplasts carry suitable markers, the fusion products can be recognized. For the isolation and cloning of hybrid cells, fusion experiments must be supplemented with a selective system. Complementation of two non-allelic genes that prevent or inhibit growth under special culture conditions appears as the principle on which to base the selection of somatic hybrids. As protoplasts of some species have been induced to regenerate entire plants, the development of hybrid plants from protoplast fusion products is feasible and has already been demonstrated for tobacco.

  10. Hybrid power plants; Thermische Hybridkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschy, I. [ALSTOM Power Support, Mannheim (Germany). Bereiche Forschung und Entwicklung/Ingenieurdienstleistungen; Franke, U. [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany). Thermodynamik

    2002-07-01

    New German laws concerning the use of biomass and other renewable energy sources have improved the conditions for power generation with renewable energies. A promising alternative to common small-scale (combined-heat-and-) power plants could be found in so-called hybrid power plants which use renewable energies and fossil fuels in combination. A thermodynamic process analysis shows how to determine the renewable energies' portion of a hybrid power plant's total output. [German] Mit den veraenderten gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen erhoeht sich die Motivation, regenerative Energiequellen zur Stromerzeugung zu nutzen. Neben dem exklusiven Einsatz in kleineren (Heiz-) Kraftwerken bietet sich die gemeinsame Nutzung mit fossilen Energietraegern in sogenannten Hybridkraftwerken an. Hier stellt sich die Frage, wie der Anteil der regenerativen Energien an der Gesamt-Stromproduktion des Hybridkraftwerkes zu ermitteln ist. Eine thermodynamische Prozessanalyse kann darueber Aufschluss geben.

  11. Discrete, Continuous, and Hybrid Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Petri Nets were introduced and still successfully used to analyze and model discrete event systems especially in engineering and computer sciences such as in automatic control. Recently this discrete Petri Nets formalism was successfully extended to continuous and hybrid systems. This monograph presents a well written and clearly organized introduction in the standard methods of Petri Nets with the aim to reach an accurate understanding of continuous and hybrid Petri Nets, while preserving the consistency of basic concepts throughout the book. The book is a monograph as well as a didactic tool

  12. Hybrid Amyloid Membranes for Continuous Flow Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolisetty, Sreenath; Arcari, Mario; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2015-12-29

    Amyloid fibrils are promising nanomaterials for technological applications such as biosensors, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and optoelectronics. Here we show that amyloid-metal nanoparticle hybrids can be used both as efficient active materials for wet catalysis and as membranes for continuous flow catalysis applications. Initially, amyloid fibrils generated in vitro from the nontoxic β-lactoglobulin protein act as templates for the synthesis of gold and palladium metal nanoparticles from salt precursors. The resulting hybrids possess catalytic features as demonstrated by evaluating their activity in a model catalytic reaction in water, e.g., the reduction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol, with the rate constant of the reduction increasing with the concentration of amyloid-nanoparticle hybrids. Importantly, the same nanoparticles adsorbed onto fibrils surface show improved catalytic efficiency compared to the same unattached particles, pointing at the important role played by the amyloid fibril templates. Then, filter membranes are prepared from the metal nanoparticle-decorated amyloid fibrils by vacuum filtration. The resulting membranes serve as efficient flow catalysis active materials, with a complete catalytic conversion achieved within a single flow passage of a feeding solution through the membrane.

  13. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  14. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  15. Hybrid sterility in plant: stories from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yidan; Liu, Yao-Guang; Zhang, Qifa

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic reproductive isolation in plants. The best-known example is perhaps the hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Major progress has been reported recently in rice in identifying and cloning hybrid sterility genes at two loci regulating female and male fertility, respectively. Genetic analyses and molecular characterization of these genes, together with the results from other model organisms especially Drosophila, have advanced the understanding of the processes underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. These findings also have significant implications for crop genetic improvement, by providing the feasibility and strategies for overcoming intersubspecific hybrid sterility thus allowing the development of intersubspecific hybrids.

  16. Periodically-Scheduled Controller Analysis using Hybrid Systems Reachability and Continuization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    algorithm is run, and actuator outputs are set. The physical world , on the other hand, evolves continuously. Models of the physical world may be given...An extra clock variable, c, is added to the hybrid automaton that ticks at rate one (ċ = 1). When the clock reaches the period, a transition is...Preliminary Reachability Analysis Although hybrid automata can model real-time scheduled controllers and plants as shown above, an important factor is

  17. Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.

  18. Hybrid Photocatalytic-Biological Demonstration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, M. I.; Malato, S.; Blanco, J.; Oller, I.; Gernjak, W.; Perez-Estrada, L.

    2006-07-01

    This contribution is presenting the tests and operational results performed for designing a new hybrid solar photocatalytic-biological demonstration plant built in a chemical industry located near Almeria (Spain). It will treat saline wastewater (sea water) containing a nonbiodegradable compound up to 550 mg/L and a Total Organic Carbon up to 600 mg/L. Initially, the wastewater (WW) is partly oxidized by solar photo-Fenton process to render the wastewater biodegradable. At pilot-plant scale the wastewater was successfully treated and the conditions for coupling with a biological treatment using Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) as pre-treatment were determined. Samples were collected along the AOP process and their biodegradability was evaluated with the Zahn-Wellens (ZW) test. Enhancement of WW biodegradability was confirmed (>70% biodegradable). Hydrogen peroxide management for reduced consumption is also discussed in detail and the principal parameters for designing the demonstration plant have been obtained. (Author)

  19. Efficient entanglement criteria for discrete, continuous, and hybrid variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Manuel; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto

    2016-08-01

    We develop a method to construct entanglement criteria for arbitrary multipartite systems of discrete or continuous variables and hybrid combinations of both. While any set of local operators generates a sufficient condition for entanglement of arbitrary quantum states, a suitable set leads to a necessary and sufficient criterion for pure states. The criteria are readily implementable with existing technology and reveal entanglement that remains undetected by the respective state-of-the-art methods for discrete and continuous variables.

  20. Applications of hybrid measurements with discrete and continuous variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine

    The main topic of this thesis revolves around quantum measurement. We illustrate how two different views of quantum objects, the discrete-and continuous-variable views, can be combined to more effectively distinguish between orthogonal states. Such combined measurements are referred to as hybrid...

  1. Continuous monitoring of plant water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, N L; Trickett, E S; Ceresa, A; Barrs, H D

    1986-05-01

    Plant water potential was monitored continuously with a Wescor HR-33T dewpoint hygrometer in conjunction with a L51 chamber. This commercial instrument was modified by replacing the AC-DC mains power converter with one stabilized by zener diode controlled transistors. The thermocouple sensor and electrical lead needed to be thermally insulated to prevent spurious signals. For rapid response and faithful tracking a low resistance for water vapor movement between leaf and sensor had to be provided. This could be effected by removing the epidermis either by peeling or abrasion with fine carborundum cloth. A variety of rapid plant water potential responses to external stimuli could be followed in a range of crop plants (sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., var. Hysun 30); safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L., var. Gila); soybean (Glycine max L., var. Clark); wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Egret). These included light dark changes, leaf excision, applied pressure to or anaerobiosis of the root system. Water uptake by the plant (safflower, soybean) mirrored that for water potential changes including times when plant water status (soybean) was undergoing cyclical changes.

  2. Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Yogurt Starter Culture Continuous Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya Popova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents a hybrid model of yogurt starter mixed culture fermentation. The main nonlinearities within a classical structure of continuous process model are replaced by neural networks. The new hybrid model accounts for the dependence of the two microorganisms' kinetics from the on-line measured characteristics of the culture medium - pH. Then the model was used further for calculation of the optimal time profile of pH. The obtained results are with agreement with the experimental once.

  3. 50 CFR 23.42 - What are the requirements for a plant hybrid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Application Procedures, Criteria, and Conditions § 23.42 What are the... import of a plant hybrid of a CITES species must be accompanied by a valid CITES document that shows...

  4. Modeling and Control of Cogeneration Power Plants: A Hybrid System Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ferrari-Trecate (Giancarlo); E. Gallestey (Eduardo); P. Letizia (Paolo); M. Spedicato (Matteo); M. Morari (Manfred); M. Antoine (Marc)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the short term scheduling optimization of a combined cycle power plant is accomplished by exploiting hybrid systems, i.e. systems evolving according to continuous dynamics, discrete dynamics, and logic rules. Discrete features of a power plant are, for instance, the possibi

  5. A continuous growth model for plant tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorg, Behruz; Krupinski, Pawel; Jönsson, Henrik

    2016-12-01

    Morphogenesis in plants and animals involves large irreversible deformations. In plants, the response of the cell wall material to internal and external forces is determined by its mechanical properties. An appropriate model for plant tissue growth must include key features such as anisotropic and heterogeneous elasticity and cell dependent evaluation of mechanical variables such as turgor pressure, stress and strain. In addition, a growth model needs to cope with cell divisions as a necessary part of the growth process. Here we develop such a growth model, which is capable of employing not only mechanical signals but also morphogen signals for regulating growth. The model is based on a continuous equation for updating the resting configuration of the tissue. Simultaneously, material properties can be updated at a different time scale. We test the stability of our model by measuring convergence of growth results for a tissue under the same mechanical and material conditions but with different spatial discretization. The model is able to maintain a strain field in the tissue during re-meshing, which is of particular importance for modeling cell division. We confirm the accuracy of our estimations in two and three-dimensional simulations, and show that residual stresses are less prominent if strain or stress is included as input signal to growth. The approach results in a model implementation that can be used to compare different growth hypotheses, while keeping residual stresses and other mechanical variables updated and available for feeding back to the growth and material properties.

  6. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  7. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  8. Hybrid Viability and Fertility in Co-occuring Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, E.; Garcia, C.; Yost, J.

    2012-12-01

    Similar species of plants can co-exist due to reproductive barriers that keep them from hybridizing. In the case of Lasthenia gracilis and L. californica, certain reproductive barriers allow them to co-exist at Jasper Ridge without hybridization. The two species are locally adapted to different regions of the same hillside, and have slight differences in flowering time but hybrids can be created at low rate in the green house. We tested the viability and fertility of green house produced hybrids to quantify post-zygotic reproductive isolation at Jasper Ridge. We planted 10 hybrid seeds and 10 control seeds from 11 different families. We measured the percent germination, survival to flowering and pollen fertility of the seeds. We expect lower germination, lower survival to flowering, and lower pollen viability of hybrid seeds as compared to control seeds.

  9. Interaction hybrid × planting date for oil yield in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effects of hybrids and planting dates as well as their interaction on oil yield in sunflower for three-year experiment (2005, 2006, 2007. Three sunflower hybrids (Miro, Rimi and Pobednik and eight planting dates were included in the experiment. AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction analysis is one of the mainly used multiplicative models, which evaluates main effects and also interaction. The interaction was detected by using AMMI1 biplot. Oil yield was predominantly influenced by the year of growing (58.9%, then by planting date (12.9% and by hybrid (10.7%. All interactions were significant as well. AMMI ANOVA showed high significance of both IPC1 and IPC2. The contribution of IPC1 was 77.5%. Hybrids Miro and Pobednik showed no significant differences in the mean values, which were higher than average. However, the hybrid Miro showed the highest stability for oil yield. Hybrid Rimi, with the lowest mean value, was the most unstable for the examined character. Oil yield was higher in earlier than in later planting dates. Graphical presentation of AMMI1 in the form of biplot could facilitate the choice of stable hybrids and planting dates for desired characters in sunflower.

  10. Interval Continuous Plant Identification from Value Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how to obtain the values of the numerator and denominator Kharitonov polynomials of an interval plant from its value set at a given frequency. Moreover, it is proven that given a value set, all the assigned polynomials of the vertices can be determined if and only if there is a complete edge or a complete arc lying on a quadrant. This algorithm is nonconservative in the sense that if the value-set boundary of an interval plant is exactly known, and particularly its vertices, then the Kharitonov rectangles are exactly those used to obtain these value sets.

  11. Apomixis Allows the Transgenerational Fixation of Phenotypes in Hybrid Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Christian; Schmid, Bernhard; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of apomixis-asexual reproduction through seeds-into crop plants is considered the holy grail of agriculture, as it would provide a mechanism to maintain agriculturally important phenotypes [1, 2]. Apomicts produce clonal offspring, such that apomixis could be used to transgenerationally fix any genotype, including that of F1 hybrids, which are used in agriculture due to their superior vigor and yield [3-9]. However, traits (phenotypes) do not only result from a complex combination of genetic and environmental variation but can also be influenced by epigenetic variation, which can be transgenerationally heritable in plants [10-15]. Hence, it is far from clear whether genetic fixation by apomixis suffices to fix the agriculturally relevant phenotypes of F1 hybrids, in particular because hybridization was recently shown to induce epigenetic changes [16, 17]. Here, we show that the phenotypes of Hieracium pilosella hybrids can be fixed across generations by apomixis. Using a natural apomict, we created 11 hybrid genotypes (lines). In these and a parental line, we analyzed 20 phenotypic traits that are related to plant growth and reproduction. Of the 20 traits, 18 (90%) were stably inherited over two apomictic generations, grown at the same time in a randomized design, in 11 of the 12 lines. Although one hybrid line showed phenotypic instability, our results provide a fundamental proof of principle, demonstrating that apomixis can indeed be used in plant breeding and seed production to fix complex, quantitative phenotypes across generations.

  12. Effects of nitrogen and plant density on dwarf sunflower hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Süzer S.

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the seed yield and some yield components of two dwarf hybrids as compared to one standard-height sunflower hybrid (Helianthus annuus L.) at different nitrogen rates and planting densities. The study was carried out under natural rainfed conditions at the Thrace Agricultural Research Institute in Edirne-Turkey between 1999 and 2001. The experiments were set up in split-split plots in a randomized complete block desi...

  13. Father of Hybrid Rice Plants Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    New joint venture strengthens China’s position against international seed companies Yuan Longping Hi-Tech Agriculture Co.Ltd.(Longping Hi-Tech),named after the father of hybrid rice in China,announced on February 10 the establishment of a joint venture(JV) with a subsidiary of Vilmorin & Cie.

  14. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ninić Neven; Klarin Branko; Tolj Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen usi...

  15. Hybridization between transgenic and wild plants: environmental risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified products are widely commercialized in agricultural production. These include resistant plants to diseases, insects or herbicides, plants with capacity for longer storing times or better nutritional quality. However, there are some concerns and critics from environmental organizations on the risk associated to transgenic plants or organisms genetically modified (OGM. This review discusses the vertical gene transfer (plant/Plant within the OGM context. Although transgenic hybrids have been reported between transgenic plants and their wild relatives, the extent of the environmental risk has not been evaluated per se. The risk depends on the plant species involved, the transgenes, and the ecosystem where the plants are located. Studies on biosafety assessment must be evaluated case by case. Biotechnology and conventional methods allow to control gen flow and decrease the risk of gene transfer among species.

  16. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  17. Thermal analysis of solar biomass hybrid co-generation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushika, N. D.; Mishra, Anuradha; Chakravarty, M. N.

    2005-12-01

    This article describes a co-generation plant based on the biogas being produced from the waste of distillery plant and highlights the possible configuration in which the plant can be hybridized with auxiliary solar energy source having the advantage of using financial incentives in several countries. In hybridization, the solar heat is used for heating the boiler feed water. The solar heat-generating unit consists of line focus parabolic trough collector, heat transportation system and heat delivery unit such as heat exchanger. The simulation model of heat and mass transfer processes in the solar field as well as the balance of the system is developed to investigate the technological feasibility of the concept in terms of plant yield and matching of subsystems.

  18. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  19. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  20. A hybrid continuous-wave terahertz imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolganova, Irina N., E-mail: in.dolganova@gmail.com; Zaytsev, Kirill I., E-mail: kirzay@gmail.ru; Metelkina, Anna A.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O., E-mail: st.yurchenko@mail.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya str. 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    A hybrid (active-passive mode) terahertz (THz) imaging system and an algorithm for imaging synthesis are proposed to enhance the THz image quality. The concept of image contrast is used to compare active and passive THz imaging. Combining the measurement of the self-emitted radiation of the object with the back-scattered source radiation measurement, it becomes possible to use the THz image to retrieve maximum information about the object. The experimental results confirm the advantages of hybrid THz imaging systems, which can be generalized for a wide range of applications in the material sciences, chemical physics, bio-systems, etc.

  1. The new hybrids: Continuing debates on social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2015-11-01

    I evaluate several attempts to integrate standard theories of social cognition, either theory theory or simulation theory, with aspects of interaction theory, and especially with the concept of direct social perception. I refer to these as new hybrid theories of social cognition. One of the new hybrids accomplishes the integration only by weakening the concept of mindreading or by understanding mindreading as targeting the shared situation rather than the other's mental states. Hybrids that attempt to accommodate the idea of direct perception of mental states grant a phenomenological directness only by maintaining tacit (theory-based) inferences on the subpersonal level. If such inferential processes are thought to be extra-perceptual, then perception is neither sufficient nor direct for an understanding of intentions and emotions. Moreover, insistence on top-down inferential processes trades off against the possibility of plasticity in the perceptual system itself. I suggest that a better model than a hybrid theory would be a pluralist one. A pluralist approach to social cognition would treat theoretical inference, simulation, direct perception, interactive skills, etc. as different strategies. The real challenge is to work out a pluralist account of subpersonal processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Automated and Continuous Plant Weight Measurement System for Plant Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Tai; Yeh, Yu-Hui F.; Liu, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ta-Te

    2016-01-01

    In plant factories, plants are usually cultivated in nutrient solution under a controllable environment. Plant quality and growth are closely monitored and precisely controlled. For plant growth evaluation, plant weight is an important and commonly used indicator. Traditional plant weight measurements are destructive and laborious. In order to measure and record the plant weight during plant growth, an automated measurement system was designed and developed herein. The weight measurement system comprises a weight measurement device and an imaging system. The weight measurement device consists of a top disk, a bottom disk, a plant holder and a load cell. The load cell with a resolution of 0.1 g converts the plant weight on the plant holder disk to an analog electrical signal for a precise measurement. The top disk and bottom disk are designed to be durable for different plant sizes, so plant weight can be measured continuously throughout the whole growth period, without hindering plant growth. The results show that plant weights measured by the weight measurement device are highly correlated with the weights estimated by the stereo-vision imaging system; hence, plant weight can be measured by either method. The weight growth of selected vegetables growing in the National Taiwan University plant factory were monitored and measured using our automated plant growth weight measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the functionality, stability and durability of this system. The information gathered by this weight system can be valuable and beneficial for hydroponic plants monitoring research and agricultural research applications. PMID:27066040

  3. ?HY-CHANGE?: AN HYBRID METHODOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Dassisti, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An hybrid methodology based on the joint recourse of Business Process An hybrid methodology for Continuous Performance Improvement (CPI) is presented, basically funded on the joint recourse of Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) principles and tools. The methodology (called HY-CHANGE) is conceived as a logical and technical support to the decision maker. It results in a number of recursive phases, where the rational and synchronous...

  4. Revisiting the Complexity of Stability of Continuous and Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-16

    logarithm, trigonometric functions , and solution functions of Lipschitz-continuous ordinary differential equations. More formally, LRF = 〈F ,>〉 represents... trigonometric functions , exponential functions , etc. Consequently, for most nonlinear continuous systems of practical interest, the stability problem is in... functions are computed, as studied in computable analysis [14, 12, 8]. However, while complexity for real functions is best measured in the model of

  5. Hybrid discrete- and continuous-variable quantum information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; van Loock, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research in quantum information processing has followed two different directions: the use of discrete variables (qubits) and that of high-dimensional, continuous-variable Gaussian states (coherent and squeezed states). Recently, these two approaches have been converging in potentially more powerful...

  6. A hybrid artificial bee colony optimization and quantum evolutionary algorithm for continuous optimization problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hai-Bin; Xu, Chun-Fang; Xing, Zhi-Hui

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) and Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm (QEA) is proposed for solving continuous optimization problems. ABC is adopted to increase the local search capacity as well as the randomness of the populations. In this way, the improved QEA can jump out of the premature convergence and find the optimal value. To show the performance of our proposed hybrid QEA with ABC, a number of experiments are carried out on a set of well-known Benchmark continuous optimization problems and the related results are compared with two other QEAs: the QEA with classical crossover operation, and the QEA with 2-crossover strategy. The experimental comparison results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid ABC and QEA approach is feasible and effective in solving complex continuous optimization problems.

  7. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mines, Greg [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Guangdong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods of high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal resources

  8. Compound hybrid geothermal-fossil power plants - Thermodynamic analyses and site-specific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipippo, R.; Kestin, J.; Avelar, E. M.; Khalifa, H. E.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, we extend the analysis of hybrid fossil-geothermal power plants to compound systems which combine the features of the two previously analyzed hybrid plants, the geothermal preheat and the fossil superheat systems. Compound systems of the one- and two-stage type are considered. A complete summary of formulae to assess the performance of the plants is included for completeness. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, compound hybrid plants are superior to individual all-geothermal and all-fossil plants, and have certain advantages over basic geothermal-preheat and fossil-superheat hybrid plants. The flexibility of compound hybrid systems is illustrated by showing how such plants might be used at several geothermal sites in the western United States.

  9. Plant hybrid zones affect biodiversity: Tools for a genetic-based understanding of community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitham, T.G.; Martinsen, G.D.; Keim, P. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Floate, K.D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada); Dungey, H.S. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)]|[Queensland Forest Research Inst., Gympie, Queensland (Australia); Potts, B.M. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    1999-03-01

    Plant hybrid zones are dynamic centers of ecological and evolutionary processes for plants and their associated communities. Studies in the wild and in gardens with synthetic crosses showed that hybrid eucalypts supports the greatest species richness and abundances of insect and fungal taxa. In an updated review of 152 case studies of taxa associated with diverse hybridizing systems, there were 43 (28%) cases of hybrids being more susceptible than their parent species, 7 (5%) resistant, 35 (23%) additive, 35 (23%) dominant, and 32 (21%) showed no response to hybridization. Thus, most taxa respond to hybrids in ways that result in equal or greater abundance, and hybrids tend to accumulate the taxa of their parent species. These studies suggest that genetic-based plant traits affect the distribution of many species and that the variation in hybrids can be used as tools to examine the genetic components of community structure and biodiversity.

  10. Polarity, Continuity, and Alignment in Plant Vascular Strands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan G. Sawchuk; Enrico Scarpella

    2013-01-01

    Plant vascular cells are joined end to end along uninterrupted lines to connect shoot organs with roots;vascular strands are thus polar, continuous, and internally aligned. What controls the formation of vascular strands with these properties? The “auxin canalization hypothesis”-based on positive feedback between auxin flow through a cell and the cell’s capacity for auxin transport-predicts the selection of continuous files of cells that transport auxin polarly, thus accounting for the polarity and continuity of vascular strands. By contrast, polar, continuous auxin transport-though required-is insufficient to promote internal alignment of vascular strands, implicating additional factors. The auxin canalization hypothesis was derived from the response of mature tissue to auxin application but is consistent with molecular and cellular events in embryo axis formation and shoot organ development. Objections to the hypothesis have been raised based on vascular organizations in callus tissue and shoot organs but seem unsupported by available evidence. Other objections call instead for further research; yet the inductive and orienting influence of auxin on continuous vascular differentiation remains unique.

  11. Continuous-wave Optically Pumped Lasing of Hybrid Perovskite VCSEL at Green Wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2017-05-08

    We demonstrate the lasing of a perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at green wavelengths, which operates under continuous-wave optical pumping at room-temperature by embedding hybrid perovskite between dielectric mirrors deposited at low-temperature.

  12. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergemann, Claudia [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Cornelsen, Matthias [University of Rostock, Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Quade, Antje [Leibniz-Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias [INNOVENT e.V., Biomaterials Department, Pruessingstrasse 27B, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Rebl, Henrike [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Weißmann, Volker [Institute for Polymer Technologies (IPT) e.V., Alter Holzhafen 19, D-23966 Wismar (Germany); Seitz, Hermann [University of Rostock, Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Nebe, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.nebe@med.uni-rostock.de [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA — improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds – is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10 mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14 days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts. - Highlights: • Mechanical stabilization of β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds by PLA infiltration • Hybrid scaffolds with higher cell attraction due to plasma polymerized allylamine • 3D perfusion in vitro model for observation of cell migration inside scaffolds • Enhanced cell migration within plasma polymer coated TCP hybrid scaffolds.

  13. Plant protoplast fusion and growth of intergeneric hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, K N; Constabel, F; Michayluk, M R; Gamborg, O L

    1974-01-01

    Interspecific and intergeneric fusions of plant protoplasts were induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1540 or 4000. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation (or rate of fusion) was much higher when PEG was eluted with a high pH-high Ca(2+) solution or a salt solution than when it was eluted with a protoplast culture medium. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was also affected by the types of enzymes used for wall degradation, duration of enzyme incubation and molality of the PEG solutions.The maximum frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was 23% for V. hajastana Grossh.-soybean (Glycine max L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-soybean, 35% for pea (Pisum sativum L.)-soybean, 20% for pea-V. hajastana, 14% for corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean and 10% for V. villosa Roth-V. hajastana.40% of the barley-soybean, corn-soybean and pea-soybean heterokaryocytes divided at least once. Some divided many times and formed clusters of up to 100 cells in 2 weeks. The heterokaryocytes of soybean-V. hajastana, V. villosa-V. hajastana also divided. Of the PEG-treated protoplasts of N. langsdorffii and N. glauca 13.5% developed into tumor-like calli. The morphology of these calli was very much like that of the tumors produced on amphidiploid plants of N. langsdorffii x glauca.Nuclear staining indicated that heterokaryocytes of V. hajastana-soybean, pea-soybean, corn-soybean and barley-soybean could undergo mitosis. Nuclear divisions in a heterokaryocyte were usually synchronized or almost synchronized. Nuclear fusion and true hybrid formation usually occurred during the first mitotic division after protoplast fusion. A hybrid of barley-soybean in third cell division was observed. The frequency of heterokaryocytes which underwent nuclear fusion has not been determined. Multipole formation and chimeral cell colonies were also observed.

  14. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    A preliminary economic analysis of a hybrid geothermal/coal power plant has been completed for four geothermal Resource areas: Roosevelt Hot Springs, Coso Hot Springs, East Mesa and Long Valley. A hybrid plant would be economically viable at Roosevelt Hot Springs and somewhat less so at Coso Hot Springs. East Mesa and Long Valley show no economic promise. A well-designed hybrid plant could use geothermal energy for boiler feedwater heating, auxiliary power, auxiliary heating, and cooling water. Construction and operation of a hybrid plant at either Roosevelt Hot Springs or Coso Hot Springs is recommended. Brown University provided the theoretical basis for the hybrid study. A modified version of the Lawrence Berkeley Livermore GEOTHM Program is the major analytical tool used in the analysis. The Intermountain Power Project is the reference all coal-fired plant. Costing methods followed recommendations issued by the Energy research and Development Administration.

  15. Bounded Model Checking and Inductive Verification of Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Bernd; Behle, Markus; Eisenbrand, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    We present a concept to signicantly advance the state of the art for bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive verication (IV) of hybrid discrete-continuous systems. Our approach combines the expertise of partners coming from dierent domains, like hybrid systems modeling and digital circuit...... verication, bounded plan- ning and heuristic search, combinatorial optimization and integer programming. Af- ter sketching the overall verication ow we present rst results indicating that the combination and tight integration of dierent verication engines is a rst step to pave the way to fully automated BMC...

  16. Bacterial hybrid histidine kinases in plant-bacteria interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Stéphanie; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence

    2016-10-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems are essential for many bacteria to maintain homeostasis and adapt to environmental changes. Two-component signal transduction systems typically involve a membrane-bound histidine kinase that senses stimuli, autophosphorylates in the transmitter region and then transfers the phosphoryl group to the receiver domain of a cytoplasmic response regulator that mediates appropriate changes in bacterial physiology. Although usually found on distinct proteins, the transmitter and receiver modules are sometimes fused into a so-called hybrid histidine kinase (HyHK). Such structure results in multiple phosphate transfers that are believed to provide extra-fine-tuning mechanisms and more regulatory checkpoints than classical phosphotransfers. HyHK-based regulation may be crucial for finely tuning gene expression in a heterogeneous environment such as the rhizosphere, where intricate plant-bacteria interactions occur. In this review, we focus on roles fulfilled by bacterial HyHKs in plant-associated bacteria, providing recent findings on the mechanistic of their signalling properties. Recent insights into understanding additive regulatory properties fulfilled by the tethered receiver domain of HyHKs are also addressed.

  17. Epigenetics in plants-vernalisation and hybrid vigour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Greaves, Ian K; Albert, Nicolas; Fujimoto, Ryo; Helliwell, Chris A; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Peacock, W James

    2011-08-01

    In this review we have analysed two major biological systems involving epigenetic control of gene activity. In the first system we demonstrate the interplay between genetic and epigenetic controls over the transcriptional activity of FLC, a major repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis. FLC is down-regulated by low temperature treatment (vernalisation) releasing the repressor effect on flowering. We discuss the mechanisms of the reduced transcription and the memory of the vernalisation treatment through vegetative development. We also discuss the resetting of the repressed activity level of the FLC gene, following vernalisation, to the default high activity level and show it occurs during both male and female gametogenesis but with different timing in each. In the second part of the review discussed the complex multigenic system which is responsible for the patterns of gene activity which bring about hybrid vigour in crosses between genetically similar but epigenetically distinct parents. The epigenetic systems that we have identified as contributing to the heterotic phenotype are the 24nt siRNAs and their effects on RNA dependent DNA methylation (RdDM) at the target loci leading to changed expression levels. We conclude that it is likely that epigenetic controls are involved in expression systems in many aspects of plant development and plant function.

  18. Seasons and planting densities interaction on forage production of eight hybrids maize, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Cañadas L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the interaction effect of the season and planting densities on the production of eight INIAP corn hybrids. Materials and methods. A research process was conducted in 2013. It was applied a split - split plot design with three replication and Tukey test was used. It was evaluated two planting seasons (28 January and 8 April, they were placed in large plots. Two planting densities (65,500 y 125,000 plants/ha, that were located in the subplots and eight INIAP corn hybrids arranged in the sub- subplots. The evaluated variables were Fresh Matter, Dry Matter, Plant Height and Crude Protein Results. Fresh Matter and Crude Protein productions were influenced by planting seasons. Plant densities affected the production of Fresh Matter, Dry Matter and Plant Height, as well as the interaction season by corn INIAP hybrids. While INIAP corn hybrids showed statistical differences in the production of Fresh, Dry Matter, Plant Height and Crude Protein. The eight INIAP hybrids productions were: Fresh Matter (58.86 ton/ha ±5.19; Dry Matter (21.45 ton/ha ±4.71; Plant Height (2.46 m ±0.16 and Crude Protein (10.6±1.12. Conclusions. The performance showed by hybrids INIAP CML-172, INIAP 6021 and INIAP 551 were very acceptable forage material and could be used for silage purposes.

  19. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE PRESSURE AND VACUUM CONTINUOUS CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON HYBRID PUMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel pressure and vacuum continuous control system, which adopts a hybrid pump as pressure and vacuum source, is presented. The mathematical model of the system is developed. The theoretical simulation and analysis on the system are implemented in order to study the relationships among the characteristics, parameters and working points of the system. The experimental investigations on the system characteristics are presented with the adoption of a fuzzy-PID controller. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the pressure and vacuum continuous control system based on hybrid pump has good dynamic and static performance, strong robustness and satisfactory adaptability to various system parameters. According to the results, system can successfully gain high accuracy and fast response signal. Also, the mathematical model of system is also testified by the experimental results.

  20. Response of SC704 maize hybrid seed production to planting pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed Reza

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... 1Safiabad Research Center, Dezful, Iran. 2Department of ... Key words: Planting pattern, seed produce, corn grain, S.C.704 hybrid. INTRODUCTION ... plants for light, moisture and food would decrease and plants will have a ...

  1. Characterization of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Compositions of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Sweet Orange and Sour Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJi-Hong; XUXiao-Yong; DENGXiu-Xin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In the present research, flow cytometry (FCM), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cleavedamplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) were employed to analyze somatic hybrid plants derived from electrofusion between embryogenic protoplasts of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Shamouti) and leaf-derived protoplasts of sour orange (C. aurantium L). FCM showed that all of the somatic hybrid plants had two-fold fluorescence intensity values of the diploid control, indicating that they were tetraploids. SSR and CAPS were used to characterize the compositions of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of the somatic hybnd plants. As for SSR four primer pairs were tried and two showed polymorphisms between the fusion parents. With both pnmer pairs the somatic hybrid plants encompassed DNA bands from both parents, indicating that they were heterokaryonic hybrids. Amplification with some universal primers, followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases, could distinguish the fusion parents from each other. As far as mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA compositions were concerned the somatic hybrid plants shared the same banding patterns as the embryogenic parents for all of the polymorphic primer/enzyme combinations. The results herein demonstrated that the somatic hybrid plants inherited their nuclear genome from both fusion parents, whereas the cytoplasmic genomes were possibly only contributed by the embryogenic parent. Merits of the analytical methods and nuclear and cytoplasmic inheritance of citrus tetraploid somatic hybrids, together with their application, are discussed herein.

  2. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, Claudia; Cornelsen, Matthias; Quade, Antje; Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Rebl, Henrike; Weißmann, Volker; Seitz, Hermann; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(l-lactide-co-d,l-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA - improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds - is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Compound hybrid geothermal-fossil power plants: thermodynamic analyses and site-specific applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.; Avelar, E.M.

    1979-06-01

    The analysis of hybrid fossil-geothermal power plants is extended to compound hybrid systems which combine the features of previously analyzed systems: the geothermal-preheat and the fossil-superheat systems. Compound systems of the one- and two-stage type are considered. A compilation of working formulae from earlier studies is included for completeness. Results are given for parametric analyses of compound hybrid plants. System performance was determined for wellhead conditions of 150, 200, and 250/sup 0/C, and for steam fractions of 10, 20, 30, and 40%. For two-stage systems an additional cycle variable, the hot water flash fraction, was varied from 0 to 100% in increments of 25%. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, compound hybrid plants are superior to individual all-geothermal and all-fossil plants, and are shown to have certain advantages over basic geothermal-preheat and fossil-superheat hybrid plants. The flexibility of compound hybrid systems is illustrated by showing how such plants might be used at six geothermal sites in the western United States. The question of the optimum match between the energy resources and the power plant is addressed, and an analysis given for a hypothetical geothermal resource.

  4. Analysis on potential approaches to utilize genic male sterility in plant hybrid breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xinqi; Yuan Longping; Xiao Jinhua; Xie fangming

    2005-01-01

    @@ The exploitation of plant heterosis is an effective approach to increasing the food production. The heterotic hybrid varieties in major crops such as rice,cotton, and wheat can show more than 20% yield advantage over best conventional ones under the same cultivation conditions. The difficulties in breeding elite male sterile lines and the inconveniences for commercial hybrid seed production are hampering the development of hybrid crops breeding.

  5. A hybrid metaheuristic method to optimize the order of the sequences in continuous-casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achraf Touil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm to maximize the production and to minimize the processing time in the steel-making and continuous casting (SCC by optimizing the order of the sequences where a sequence is a group of jobs with the same chemical characteristics. Based on the work Bellabdaoui and Teghem (2006 [Bellabdaoui, A., & Teghem, J. (2006. A mixed-integer linear programming model for the continuous casting planning. International Journal of Production Economics, 104(2, 260-270.], a mixed integer linear programming for scheduling steelmaking continuous casting production is presented to minimize the makespan. The order of the sequences in continuous casting is assumed to be fixed. The main contribution is to analyze an additional way to determine the optimal order of sequences. A hybrid method based on simulated annealing and genetic algorithm restricted by a tabu list (SA-GA-TL is addressed to obtain the optimal order. After parameter tuning of the proposed algorithm, it is tested on different instances using a.NET application and the commercial software solver Cplex v12.5. These results are compared with those obtained by SA-TL (simulated annealing restricted by tabu list.

  6. [Two interspecific somatic hybrid plants regenerated via protoplast electro-fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W W; Deng, X X

    2000-03-01

    Protoplasts isolated from cell suspension cultures of 'Bonnaza' navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) were electrically fused with mesophyll protoplasts of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Goutou orange (Citrus aurantium L.) respectively. Plants regenerated from both fusion combinations. Chromosome counting of randomly selected fifty two globular embryoids as well as all the regenerated seventy four plants from Bonnaza navel + rough lemon revealed that twenty six embryoids were tetraploids, and the rest were diploids while 100% regenerated plants were tetraploids. The results inferred that somatic hybrids were more competitive than parental genotypes in the process of plant regeneration. All the regenerated 14 plants from Bonnaza navel + Goutou orange were tetraploids as revealed by chromosome counting. POX isozyme and RAPD analysis verified that the plants from Bonnaza navel + rough lemon were hybrids, and RAPD analysis confirmed the hybridity of those from Bonnaza navel + Goutou orange.

  7. Identification of Intergeneric Hybrid Plants Between Oryza sativa and O. minuta via GISH and RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shun-wu; CHEN Bao-tang; TAO Ai-lin; ZHANG Duan-pin

    2003-01-01

    To transfer desirable resistance traits from O. minuta to O. sativa, intergeneric hybrid plants between O. sativa (AA, 2n=2X=24) and O. minuta (BBCC, 2n=4X=48) were produced by embryo rescue after sexual cross. Morphological observation and chromosome counts indicated their hybrid status (ABC, 2n =3X=36). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was further applied to confirm the parentage of the chromosomes of F1 hybrids. Chromosomes of O. minuta and O. sativa were distinguishable in the hybrids in different fluorescence colors. GISH indicated that A and BC chromosomes were not randomly assembled in a cell.RAPD profiles unequivocally revealed their hybrids with double parent patterns. The results of blast tests showed that the hybrids had obtained disease resistance from O. minuta, and had a level of susceptibility between the parents.

  8. The ascomycete Verticillium longisporum is a hybrid and a plant pathogen with an expanded host range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Inderbitzin

    Full Text Available Hybridization plays a central role in plant evolution, but its overall importance in fungi is unknown. New plant pathogens are thought to arise by hybridization between formerly separated fungal species. Evolution of hybrid plant pathogens from non-pathogenic ancestors in the fungal-like protist Phytophthora has been demonstrated, but in fungi, the most important group of plant pathogens, there are few well-characterized examples of hybrids. We focused our attention on the hybrid and plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum, the causal agent of the Verticillium wilt disease in crucifer crops. In order to address questions related to the evolutionary origin of V. longisporum, we used phylogenetic analyses of seven nuclear loci and a dataset of 203 isolates of V. longisporum, V. dahliae and related species. We confirmed that V. longisporum was diploid, and originated three different times, involving four different lineages and three different parental species. All hybrids shared a common parent, species A1, that hybridized respectively with species D1, V. dahliae lineage D2 and V. dahliae lineage D3, to give rise to three different lineages of V. longisporum. Species A1 and species D1 constituted as yet unknown taxa. Verticillium longisporum likely originated recently, as each V. longisporum lineage was genetically homogenous, and comprised species A1 alleles that were identical across lineages.

  9. Characterizing the continuously acquired cardiovascular time series during hemodialysis, using median hybrid filter preprocessing noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott; Bowyer, Andrea; Harrap, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD) has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP) readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF) algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information.

  10. Short-day treatment during the growing period limits shoot growth and increases frost hardiness of hybrid aspen plants in the nursery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Gang; Jaana Luoranen; Heikki Smolander

    2007-01-01

    In Finland, under nursery conditions hybrid aspen may continue their shoot growth until early September. Thus,frost hardening is usually delayed. To solve this problem, We used a three-week period of short-day (SD) treatment between late July and mid-August. During autumn after frost exposure,frost hardiness (FH) Was assessed three times with a stem-browning test. The resuits showed that after SD treatment shoot growth ceased and FH increased when compared to untreated hybrid aspen. Furthermore,the height of SD-treated hybrid aspen varied much less than that of the control plants. We conclude that SD treatment in the nursery during the growing period can be used as a supplementary method for producing well-hardened and uniform hybrid aspen plants.

  11. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contracts in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.

  12. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  13. Photocatalysis for continuous air purification in wastewater treatment plants: from lab to reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, R; Tessinari, R F; Suárez, S; Rasmussen, S B; Hernández-Alonso, M D; Canela, M C; Avila, P; Sánchez, B

    2012-05-01

    The photocatalytic efficiency of TiO(2)-SiMgO(x) plates to oxidize H(2)S was first evaluated in a flat laboratory reactor with 50 mL min(-1) synthetic air containing 100 ppm H(2)S in the presence of humidity. The use of the photocatalyst-adsorbent hybrid material enhanced the photocatalytic activity in terms of pollutant conversion, selectivity, and catalyst lifetime compared to previous H(2)S tests with pure TiO(2) because total H(2)S elimination was maintained for more than 30 operating hours with SO(2) appearing in the outlet as reaction product only after 18 h. Subsequently, the hybrid material was successfully tested in a photoreactor prototype to treat real polluted air in a wastewater treatment plant. For this purpose, a new tubular photocatalytic reactor that may use solar radiation in combination with artificial radiation was designed; the lamp was turned on when solar UV-A irradiance was below 20 W m(-2), which was observed to be the minimum value to ensure 100% conversion. The efficient distribution of the opaque photocatalyst inside the tubular reactor was achieved by using especially designed star-shaped structures. These structures were employed for the arrangement of groups of eight TiO(2)-SiMgO(x) plates in easy-to-handle channelled units obtaining an adequate flow regime without shading. The prototype continuously removed during one month and under real conditions the H(2)S contained in a 1 L min(-1) air current with a variable inlet concentration in the range of tens of ppmv without release of SO(2).

  14. Fresnel-collectors in hybrid solar thermal power plants with high solar shares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerchenmueller, H.; Mertins, M.; Morin, G. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Haeberle, A. [PSE GmbH, Solar Info Center, Freiburg (Germany); Bockamp, S.; Ewert, M.; Fruth, M.; Griestop, T. [E.ON Energie AG, Muenchen (Germany); Dersch, J. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The use of Fresnel-Collectors in power plant configurations with low or zero CO2-emission has been analysed in this paper. Both, the solar-biomass hybrid plant and the solar-gas hybrid plant are very promising concepts with respect to technical, economical and ecological aspects. The hybrid operation would be very useful to handle the fluctuating solar resource and facilitate operation. Depending on feed in tariffs the hybridisation of a solar thermal power plant with biomass or with small shares of natural gas can be economically very interesting. The ecological advantage of a solar-biomass power plant is evident, since it would be a zero CO2- emission plant. Beyond that biomass is a limited source, especially in regions with high solar irradiance. The herein examined gas hybrid variants are by far more favourable than Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Systems (ISCCS), which have been previously examined. Since much higher solar shares can be reached this is a forward-looking technology. Furthermore the solar field does not act as a disturbing factor as opposed to the ISCCS concept, where the efficiency of the sophisticated CC system is reduced due to suboptimal dimensioning of components. In other words: It is better to build the suggested hybrid plant with low gas share and CC plants instead of ISCCS plants. The resulting solar levelised electricity costs of both options are approximately the same. The calculated levelised electricity costs for the examined configurations of between 11 and 13 ct/kWh are very promising results. The calculations were made based on cost assumptions for the collector of 130 Euro/m{sup 2} which seems realistic not for the first project but for the third plant. As a next step in the commercialisation of the Fresnel-technology demonstration and test collectors must be built, such as by the Australian company Solar Heat and Power, to validate the technical and economic assumptions. (orig.)

  15. Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency by Douglas M. Kroll B.S...Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase Fuel Efficiency 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells in a Hybrid Surface Ship Propulsion Plant to Increase

  16. Dynamic Simulation and Exergo-Economic Optimization of a Hybrid Solar–Geothermal Cogeneration Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic simulation model and a parametric analysis of a solar-geothermal hybrid cogeneration plant based on an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC powered by a medium-enthalpy geothermal resource and a Parabolic Trough Collector solar field. The fluid temperature supplying heat to the ORC varies continuously as a function of the solar irradiation, affecting both the electrical and thermal energies produced by the system. Thus, a dynamic simulation was performed. The ORC model, developed in Engineering Equation Solver, is based on zero-dimensional energy and mass balances and includes specific algorithms to evaluate the off-design system performance. The overall simulation model of the solar-geothermal cogenerative plant was implemented in the TRNSYS environment. Here, the ORC model is imported, whereas the models of the other components of the system are developed on the basis of literature data. Results are analyzed on different time bases presenting energetic, economic and exergetic performance data. Finally, a rigorous optimization has been performed to determine the set of system design/control parameters minimizing simple payback period and exergy destruction rate. The system is profitable when a significant amount of the heat produced is consumed. The highest irreversibilities are due to the solar field and to the heat exchangers.

  17. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  18. A model for continuous improvement at a South African minerals benefication plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ras, Eugene Ras

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a variety of mineral resources, and several minerals beneficiation plants are currently in operation. These plants must be operated effectively to ensure that the end-users of its products remain internationally competitive. To achieve this objective, plants need a sustainable continuous improvement programme. Several frameworks for continuous improvement are used, with variable success rates, in beneficiation plants around the world. However, none of these models specifically addresses continuous improvement from a minerals-processing point of view. The objective of this research study was to determine which factors are important for a continuous improvement model at a minerals beneficiation plant, and to propose a new model using lean manufacturing, six sigma, and the theory of constraints. A survey indicated that managers in the industry prefer a model that combines various continuous improvement models.

  19. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Assessing the performance of hybrid CSP+PV plants in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Allan; Cardemil, José M.; Escobar, Rodrigo; Colle, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    The electricity systems in Chile are characterized by a variable hourly demand in the central grid and an almost constant demand in the northern grid, which require different operation strategies for solar power plants depending on their location. Hybridizing a CSP plant with a PV plant can increase the whole plant capacity factor by allowing thermal energy to be stored while the PV plant is in production and thus help to achieve a fully dispatchable solar electricity production system. A thermal and economic analysis of hybrid CSP+PV plants is conducted considering a range of plant capacities based on a parabolic trough plant with the addition of a PV plant for the environmental conditions of Crucero in Northern Chile, which is a hotspot for solar energy development in the country. The study considers a parametric analysis and optimization of the storage and power block sizes for the CSP plant in terms of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for varying PV plant nominal capacity. The annual production of the plants are calculated by using the Transient System Simulation program (TRNSYS), which uses a new component library developed for that purpose. The results show good agreement with other software packages as well as with actual data from currently operating CSP plants. The adopted approach helps the proper assessment of the integration of different technologies, since it uses the well-kwon modular structure of the TRNSYS. Regarding the potential for the hybrid solar-solar plants in the Atacama Desert, the high level of irradiation available in Chile can provide a competitive electricity cost, allowing to investors the access to PPA contracts with mining companies in northern Chile. Additionally, the optimization analysis shows that the northern regions of Chile present an outstanding potential for the deployment of such projects.

  1. Plant genetics affects arthropod community richness and composition: evidence from a synthetic eucalypt hybrid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungey, H S; Potts, B M; Whitham, T G; Li, H F

    2000-12-01

    To examine how genetic variation in a plant population affects arthropod community richness and composition, we quantified the arthropod communities on a synthetic population of Eucalyptus amygdalina, E. risdonii, and their F1 and advanced-generation hybrids. Five major patterns emerged. First, the pure species and hybrid populations supported significantly different communities. Second, species richness was significantly greatest on hybrids (F1 > F2 > E. amygdalina > E. risdonii). These results are similar to those from a wild population of the same species and represent the first case in which both synthetic and wild population studies confirm a genetic component to community structure. Hybrids also acted as centers of biodiversity by accumulating both the common and specialist taxa of both parental species (100% in the wild and 80% in the synthetic population). Third, species richness was significantly greater on F1s than the single F2 family, suggesting that the increased insect abundance on hybrids may not be caused by the breakup of coadapted gene complexes. Fourth, specialist arthropod taxa were most likely to show a dominance response to F1 hybrids, whereas generalist taxa exhibited a susceptible response. Fifth, in an analysis of 31 leaf terpenoids that are thought to play a role in plant defense, hybrids were generally intermediate to the parental chemotypes. Within the single F2 family, we found significant associations between the communities of individual trees and five individual oil components, including oil yield, demonstrating that there is a genetic effect on plant defensive chemistry that, in turn, may affect community structure. These studies argue that hybridization has important community-level consequences and that the genetic variation present in hybrid zones can be used to explore the genetic-based mechanisms that structure communities.

  2. Potential of hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants in Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The City of Burbank and the Ralph M. Parsons Company studies showed several advantages for hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants, as follows: (1) the estimated cost of producing electricity in hybrid plant is about 18.3 mills/kWh, compared to 19.3 mills/kWh in an all-coal fired power plant; (2) the coal requirements for a given plant can be reduced about 12 to 17%; and (3) the geothermal brines can be used for power plant cooling water, and in some cases, as boiler feedwater. The pertinent results of the City of Burbank studies are summarized and applied to the geothermal and coal resources of Arizona for possible future utilization.

  3. Cleaner production for continuous digester processes based on hybrid Pareto genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Pulping production process produce large amount of wastewater and pollutant emitted, which has become one of the main pollution sources in pulp and paper industry. To solve this problem, it is necessary to implement cleaner production by using modeling and optimization technology. This paper studies the model and multi-objective genetic algorithms for continuous digester process. A model is established, in which environmental pollution and saving energy factors are considered. A hybrid genetic algorithm based on Pareto stratum-niche count is designed for finding near-Pareto or Pareto optimal solutions in the problem. A new genetic evaluation and selection mechanism is proposed. Using the real data from a pulp mill shows the results of computer simulation. Through comparing with the practical curve of digester,this method can reduce the pollutant effectively and increase the profit while keeping the pulp quality constant.

  4. Cleaner production for continuous digester processes based on hybrid Pareto genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fu-Jiang; Wang, Hui; Li, Ping

    2003-01-01

    Pulping production process produces a large amount of wastewater and pollutant emitted, which has become one of the main pollution sources in pulp and paper industry. To solve this problem, it is necessary to implement cleaner production by using modeling and optimization technology. This paper studies the modeling and multi-objective genetic algorithms for continuous digester process. First, model is established, in which environmental pollution and saving energy factors are considered. Then hybrid genetic algorithm based on Pareto stratum-nichecount is designed for finding near-Pareto or Pareto optimal solutions in the problem and a new genetic evaluation and selection mechanism is proposed. Finally using the real data from a pulp mill shows the results of computer simulation. Through comparing with the practical curve of digester, this method can reduce the pollutant effectively and increase the profit while keeping the pulp quality unchanged.

  5. Plant somatic hybrid cytoplasmic DNA characterization by single-strand conformation polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Fuster, Oscar; Hernández-Garrido, María; Guerri, José; Navarro, Luis

    2007-06-01

    Unlike maternal inheritance in sexual hybridization, plant somatic hybridization allows transfer, mixing and recombination of cytoplasmic genomes. In addition to the use of somatic hybridization in plant breeding programs, application of this unique tool should lead to a better understanding of the roles played by the chloroplastic and mitochondrial genomes in determining agronomically important traits. The nucleotide sequences of cytoplasmic genomes are much more conserved than those of nuclear genomes. Cytoplasmic DNA composition in somatic hybrids is commonly elucidated either by length polymorphism analysis of restricted genome regions amplified with universal primers (PCR-RF) or by hybridization of total DNA using universal cytoplasmic probes. In this study, we demonstrate that single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis is a powerful, quick and easy alternative method for cytoplasmic DNA characterization of somatic hybrids, especially for mitochondrial DNA. The technique allows detection of polymorphisms based on both size and sequence of amplified targets. Twenty-two species of the subfamily Aurantioideae were analyzed with eight universal primers (four from chloroplastic and four from mitochondrial regions). Differences in chloroplastic DNA composition were scored in 98% of all possible two-parent combinations, and different mitochondrial DNA profiles were found in 87% of them. Analysis by SSCP was also successfully used to characterize somatic hybrids and cybrids obtained by fusion of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. and C. excelsa Wester protoplasts.

  6. Effects of plant size, temperature, and light intensity on flowering of Phalaenopsis hybrids in Mediterranean greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean greenhouses for cultivation of Phalaenopsis orchids reproduce the warm, humid, and shaded environment of tropical underbrush. Heating represents the highest production cost, due to the high thermal requirements and the long unproductive phase of juvenility, in which plants attain the critical size for flowering. Our researches aimed to investigate the effect of plant size, temperature, and light intensity, during the phase of flower induction, on flowering of modern genotypes selected for Mediterranean greenhouses. Three experiments were carried out to compare (i) plant size: reduced size versus size considered optimal for flowering (hybrids "Sogo Yukidian," "Chain Xen Diamond," and "Pinlong"); (ii) temperature: moderate reduction of temperature versus standard thermal regime (hybrid "Premium"); (iii) light intensity: supplemental lighting versus reference light intensity (hybrid "Premium"). The premature exposure of plants to the inductive treatment delayed the beginning of flowering and reduced the flower stem quality, in all the tested hybrids. In "Premium," the lower temperature did not affect flowering earliness and commercial quality of flower stems compared to the standard regime, whereas it promoted stem branching. In the same hybrid, supplemental lighting anticipated flowering and promoted the emission of the second stem and the stem branching, compared to the reference light regime.

  7. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in a combined heat and power generation (CHP case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency as well as economic parameters show that hybrid power plants are more efficient compared to conventional CHP concepts or separate use of the energy sources.

  8. Ways of Developing Plants in Interspecific Hybridization of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAKHMANKULOV; S; DAMINOVA; D; RAKHMANKULOV; M

    2008-01-01

    It is known,that there are various barriers to fertilization,development of embryos,and endosperm because of different number of chromosomes in parents in the interspecific hybridization of cotton.Thus the factors providing normal cell fission of a germ and endosperm are necessary.It is necessary to culture embryos in vitro on the artificial environments containing various phytohormones,or to

  9. Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33 was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F1 plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets.

  10. Continuous polyethylene pyrolysis for hybrid flame/CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Nicholas Wilder

    2011-12-01

    A system was designed to integrate the continuous feeding of polyethylene for pyrolysis into the hybrid flame/CVD carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis process previously developed in this laboratory. Following the completion of the stainless steel design and machining operations, the polyethylene dispenser, screw conveyor, pyrolysis chamber, venturi flame holder, particle filter, synthesis chamber and dual]zone heating system were successfully integrated for full operation. A water cooling unit was incorporated with the screw conveyor to ensure flawless delivery of polyethylene to the pyrolysis chamber, as well as a support system to suspend the CNT catalyst within the synthesis chamber. As with the previously developed process, the intended use of combustion effluent within the apparatus was to synthesize multi]walled CNTs using stainless steel wire mesh. This was facilitated by an extensive study of the effluent produced with this continuous feeding system at varying system settings and in comparison to the previous apparatus, followed by a determination of the system parameters, which result in conditions most favorable to multi walled CNT growth.

  11. Data-based hybrid tension estimation and fault diagnosis of cold rolling continuous annealing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hong; Qin, Si-Zhao Joe

    2011-12-01

    The continuous annealing process line (CAPL) of cold rolling is an important unit to improve the mechanical properties of steel strips in steel making. In continuous annealing processes, strip tension is an important factor, which indicates whether the line operates steadily. Abnormal tension profile distribution along the production line can lead to strip break and roll slippage. Therefore, it is essential to estimate the whole tension profile in order to prevent the occurrence of faults. However, in real annealing processes, only a limited number of strip tension sensors are installed along the machine direction. Since the effects of strip temperature, gas flow, bearing friction, strip inertia, and roll eccentricity can lead to nonlinear tension dynamics, it is difficult to apply the first-principles induced model to estimate the tension profile distribution. In this paper, a novel data-based hybrid tension estimation and fault diagnosis method is proposed to estimate the unmeasured tension between two neighboring rolls. The main model is established by an observer-based method using a limited number of measured tensions, speeds, and currents of each roll, where the tension error compensation model is designed by applying neural networks principal component regression. The corresponding tension fault diagnosis method is designed using the estimated tensions. Finally, the proposed tension estimation and fault diagnosis method was applied to a real CAPL in a steel-making company, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Hybrid modeling of spatial continuity for application to numerical inverse problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.; Iwashita, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    A novel two-step modeling approach is presented to obtain optimal starting values and geostatistical constraints for numerical inverse problems otherwise characterized by spatially-limited field data. First, a type of unsupervised neural network, called the self-organizing map (SOM), is trained to recognize nonlinear relations among environmental variables (covariates) occurring at various scales. The values of these variables are then estimated at random locations across the model domain by iterative minimization of SOM topographic error vectors. Cross-validation is used to ensure unbiasedness and compute prediction uncertainty for select subsets of the data. Second, analytical functions are fit to experimental variograms derived from original plus resampled SOM estimates producing model variograms. Sequential Gaussian simulation is used to evaluate spatial uncertainty associated with the analytical functions and probable range for constraining variables. The hybrid modeling of spatial continuity is demonstrated using spatially-limited hydrologic measurements at different scales in Brazil: (1) physical soil properties (sand, silt, clay, hydraulic conductivity) in the 42 km2 Vargem de Caldas basin; (2) well yield and electrical conductivity of groundwater in the 132 km2 fractured crystalline aquifer; and (3) specific capacity, hydraulic head, and major ions in a 100,000 km2 transboundary fractured-basalt aquifer. These results illustrate the benefits of exploiting nonlinear relations among sparse and disparate data sets for modeling spatial continuity, but the actual application of these spatial data to improve numerical inverse modeling requires testing.

  13. Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-30

    The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PGandE grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  15. Toward breeding new land-sea plant hybrid species irrigable with seawater for dry regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A plant species growing in sea or coastal saltmarsh is greatly tolerant to high concentrations of salts, and a plant species growing in desert or dry regions is highly tolerant to drought. Breeding a new plant hybrid species from both species by means of cellular grafting, genome fusion or nuclear transfer would generate, at least in theory, a hybrid plant species that should be strongly tolerant to harsh aridity and salinity and would be potentially irrigable with seawater. Such prospective species can be used for example as a fodder, biofuel crop or stabilizer species to protect soil from wind erosion and sandy storms in dry regions. Breeding such species would change the surface of the world and help to solve major challenges of starvation, malnutrition and poverty. Here, I propose potential approaches that would be worthy of investigation toward this purpose.

  16. Partial results regarding the selection of some nut tree hybrids in order to obtain generative mother plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Teodora STANCIOIU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the establishment of nut tree plantations is continuously expanding, yet the seeding material production has never raised up to the level of cultivators requirements.In our country, although the mother plants are confirmed as Targu Jiu 1, Secular and recently Portval, because of lack of seed tree materials, at present, most of the varieties are being grafted on saplings proceeded from a mixture of genotypes belonging to the species of Juglans regia.By studying the rich stock of germoplasma, present in the district of Gorj, 20 hybrids, that have appropriate features to their formation as mother plants have been collected, so that they might improve the existing variety.

  17. Direct laser planting of hybrid Au-Ag/C nanostructures - nanoparticles, flakes and flowers

    CERN Document Server

    Manshina, Alina; Bashouti, Muhammad; Povolotskiy, Alexey; Petrov, Yuriy; Koshevoy, Igor; Christiansen, Silke; Tunik, Sergey; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a new approach for forming hybrid metal/carbonaceous nanostructures in a controlled direct laser planting process. Au-Ag nanoclusters in amorphous or crystalline carbonaceous matrices are formed with different morphology: nanoparticles, nanoflakes, and nanoflowers. In contrast to other generation techniques our approach is simple, involving only a single laser-induced process transforming supramolecular complexes dissolved in solvent such as acetone, acetophenone, or dichloroethane into hybrid nanostructures in the laser-affected area of the substrate. The morphology of the hybrid nanostructures can be steered by controlling the deposition parameters, the composition of the liquid phase and the type of substrate, amorphous or crystalline. The carbonaceous phase of the hybrid nanostructures consists of hydrogenated amorphous carbon in the case of nanoparticles and of crystalline orthorhombic graphite of nanoscale thickness in the case of flakes and flowers. To the best of our knowledge this is t...

  18. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...

  19. The split system approach to managing time in simulations of hybrid systems having continuous and discrete event components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuruganti, Phani Teja [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Protopopescu, Vladimir A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-02-08

    The efficient and accurate management of time in simulations of hybrid models is an outstanding engineering problem. General a priori knowledge about the dynamic behavior of the hybrid system (i.e. essentially continuous, essentially discrete, or 'truly hybrid') facilitates this task. Indeed, for essentially discrete and essentially continuous systems, existing software packages can be conveniently used to perform quite sophisticated and satisfactory simulations. The situation is different for 'truly hybrid' systems, for which direct application of existing software packages results in a lengthy design process, cumbersome software assemblies, inaccurate results, or some combination of these independent of the designer's a priori knowledge about the system's structure and behavior. The main goal of this paper is to provide a methodology whereby simulation designers can use a priori knowledge about the hybrid model's structure to build a straightforward, efficient, and accurate simulator with existing software packages. The proposed methodology is based on a formal decomposition and re-articulation of the hybrid system; this is the main theoretical result of the paper. To set the result in the right perspective, we briefly review the essentially continuous and essentially discrete approaches, which are illustrated with typical examples. Then we present our new, split system approach, first in a general formal context, then in three more specific guises that reflect the viewpoints of three main communities of hybrid system researchers and practitioners. For each of these variants we indicate an implementation path. Our approach is illustrated with an archetypal problem of power grid control.

  20. Development of a continuous rotating cone reactor pilot plant for the pyrolysis of polyethene and polypropene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Waanders, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot plant for the high-temperature pyrolysis of polymers to recycle plastic waste to valuable products was constructed based on the rotating cone reactor (RCR) technology. The RCR used in this pilot plant, termed the continuous RCR ([C]RCR) was an improved version of the bench-scale RCR ([B]RCR)

  1. Continuous planting under a high density enhances the competition for nutrients among young Cunninghamia lanceolata saplings

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Tingfa; Zhang, Yunxiang; Zhang,Yuanbin; Zhang, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractKey messageA high-density plantation inhibited growth and biomass accumulation of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.) Hook. saplings, as well as their photosynthesis. This inhibition was enhanced in a soil that had been previously planted with the same species. The main factors limiting photosynthesis and growth were leaf-level irradiance and nutrient availability, mainly of P and Mg.ContextThe planting density and continuous planting greatly affect the photosynthes...

  2. Catalysis with Soluble Hybrids of Highly Branched Macromolecules with Palladium Nanoparticles in a Continuously Operated Membrane Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The continuous recovery and recycling of soluble metal nanoparticles by means of ultrafiltration is described, employing hybrids of palladium nanoparticles with highly branched amphiphilic polyglycerol as a catalyst for cyclohexene hydrogenation as a model reaction. In a continuously operated membrane reactor a productivity of 29000 TO over 30 exchanged reactor volumes was observed for nanoparticles of 2.2 nm size, with a maximum rate of 1200 TO h-1. Catalysis by soluble metal complexes can b...

  3. Detection of plant virus in meristem by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2015-01-01

    Most plant viruses do not infect the shoot apical meristem (SAM) of a host plant, and this virus-free region of meristem tissue has been used to obtain virus-free clones by meristem tip culture. Thus, the validation of viral distribution in meristem tissues is important for ensuring the appropriate excision of virus-free meristem tips. Although immunohistochemical microscopy and in situ hybridization are classical techniques, they allow us to determine the presence or absence of plant viruses in the shoot meristem tissues of a host plant. Briefly, meristem tissues are excised from infected plants, fixed, embedded in paraffin medium, and prepared in semithin sections (10-15 μm). By treating these sections with an antibody against viral protein or with a probe complementary to viral RNA, the viral distribution in the meristem tissue can be clearly observed. Importantly, these procedures are broadly applicable to most virus (and viroid) and host plant combinations.

  4. High efficiency production and genomic in situ hybridization analysis of Brassica aneuploids and homozygous plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Interspecific and intergeneric hybridizations have been widely used in plant genetics and breeding to construct stocks for genetic analysis and to introduce into crops the desirable traits and genes from their relatives. The intergeneric crosses between Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss., B. carinata A. Braun and Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O. E. Schulz were made and the plants produced were subjected to genomic in situ hybridization analysis. The mixoploids from the cross with B. juncea were divided into three groups. The partially fertile mixoploids in the first group (2n = 36-42) mainly contained the somatic cells and pollen mother cells (PMCs) with the 36 chromosomes of B. juncea and additional chromosomes of O. violaceus. The mixoploids (2n = 30-36) in the second and third groups were morphologically quite similar to the mother plants B. juncea and showed nearly normal fertility. The plants in the second group produced the majority of PMCs (2n = 36) with their chromosomes paired and segregated normally, but 1-4 pairs of the O. violaceus chromosomes were included in some PMCs. The plants in the third group produced only PMCs with the 36 B. juncea chromosomes, which were paired and segregated normally. The mixoploids (2n = 29-34) from the cross with B. carinata produced the majority of PMCs (2n = 34) with normal chromosome pairing and segregation, but some plants had some PMCs with 1-3 pairs of chromosomes from O. violaceus and other plants had only PMCs with the B. carinata chromosomes. The Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with complete or partial chromosome complements of Brassica parents and various numbers of O. violaceus chromosomes were derived from these progeny plants. The results in this study provided the molecular cytogenetic evidence for the separation of parental genomes which was previously proposed to occur in the hybridizations of these two genera.

  5. C1-Continuous relative permeability and hybrid upwind discretization of three phase flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Efendiev, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Three-phase flow in a reservoir model has been a major challenge in simulation studies due to slowly convergent iterations in Newton solution of nonlinear transport equations. In this paper, we examine the numerical characteristics of three-phase flow and propose a consistent, "C1-continuous discretization" (to be clarified later) of transport equations that ensures a convergent solution in finite difference approximation. First, we examine three-phase relative permeabilities that are critical in solving nonlinear transport equations. Three-phase relative permeabilities are difficult to measure in the laboratory, and they are often correlated with two-phase relative permeabilities (e.g., oil-gas and water-oil systems). Numerical convergence of non-linear transport equations entails that three-phase relative permeability correlations are a monotonically increasing function of the phase saturation and the consistency conditions of phase transitions are satisfied. The Modified Stone's Method II and the Linear Interpolation Method for three-phase relative permeability are closely examined for their mathematical properties. We show that the Linear Interpolation Method yields C1-continuous three-phase relative permeabilities for smooth solutions if the two phase relative permeabilities are monotonic and continuously differentiable. In the second part of the paper, we extend a Hybrid-Upwinding (HU) method of two-phase flow (Lee, Efendiev and Tchelepi, ADWR 82 (2015) 27-38) to three phase flow. In the HU method, the phase flux is divided into two parts based on the driving forces (in general, it can be divided into several parts): viscous and buoyancy. The viscous-driven and buoyancy-driven fluxes are upwinded differently. Specifically, the viscous flux, which is always co-current, is upwinded based on the direction of the total velocity. The pure buoyancy-induced flux is shown to be only dependent on saturation distributions and counter-current. In three-phase flow, the

  6. Assessment of a Hybrid Continuous/Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Code for Geothermal Reservoir Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yidong; Podgorney, Robert; Huang, Hai

    2017-03-01

    FALCON (Fracturing And Liquid CONvection) is a hybrid continuous/discontinuous Galerkin finite element geothermal reservoir simulation code based on the MOOSE (Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment) framework being developed and used for multiphysics applications. In the present work, a suite of verification and validation (V&V) test problems for FALCON was defined to meet the design requirements, and solved to the interests of enhanced geothermal system modeling and simulation. The intent for this test problem suite is to provide baseline comparison data that demonstrates the performance of FALCON solution methods. The test problems vary in complexity from a single mechanical or thermal process, to coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in geological porous medium. Numerical results obtained by FALCON agreed well with either the available analytical solutions or experimental data, indicating the verified and validated implementation of these capabilities in FALCON. Whenever possible, some form of solution verification has been attempted to identify sensitivities in the solution methods, and suggest best practices when using the FALCON code.

  7. ALTERATIONS TO PLBS AND PLANTLETS OF HYBRID CYMBIDIUM (ORCHIDACEAE IN RESPONSE TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previous study examined, in detail, the morphological response of hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’ protocorm-like bodies (PLBs to 26 plant growth regulators (PGRs. In this study, flow cytometric analyses of the PLBs derived from several of these PGR treatments revealed changes in the ploidy of PLBs while the ploidy of plant leaves remained constant. The SPAD value of leaves of plants derived from PGR treatments changed significantly. The choice of PGR must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of the possible resulting changes to morphology and physiological parameters.

  8. High-strength bolt-forming of fine-grained aluminum alloy 6061 with a continuous hybrid process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hun; Hwang, Sun Kwang [National Research Laboratory for Computer Aided Materials Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Yong-Taek, E-mail: ytim@kaist.ac.kr [National Research Laboratory for Computer Aided Materials Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Il-Heon; Bae, Chul Min [Wire Rod Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 1 Goedong-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-785 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fine-grained AA6061-O was produced by a continuous hybrid process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It consists of rolling, ECAP, and drawing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-strength bolt was manufactured with the fine-grained AA6061-O. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The UTS and micro-hardness of the bolt was increased by 50%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The route C was better in making a uniform micro-hardness distribution in the bolt. - Abstract: It is well known that the development of a continuous manufacturing process to apply severe plastic deformation (SPD) is a major challenge for industrial usages to improve the mechanical properties of the material through grain refinement. In this study, fine-grained AA6061-O wire was manufactured by a two-pass hybrid process consisting of drawing, equal channel angular pressing and rolling in a continuous manner to investigate the effects of processing routes for two different routes, A and C, on the variation of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and micro-hardness distribution. The UTS value (185 MPa) of the specimen processed by the two-pass hybrid process with route A was higher than that of 171 MPa obtained from the two-pass wire-drawing process and was equivalent to the level of 184 MPa processed by the three-pass wire-drawing process. The average micro-hardness value (Hv 58.0) obtained from the two-pass hybrid process through route C was the highest among all the cases. According to transmission electron microscopy, the original grain was subdivided and elongated owing to deformation during the processes. The specimen processed by the two-pass hybrid process through route C showed smaller deformation bands and had potentially higher angle grain boundaries compared to the specimen processed by the two-pass wire-drawing process. Finally, the high-strength bolt was manufactured using the fine-grained AA6061-O wire prepared by the continuous hybrid process to check its formability

  9. COCO 3: hybrid power plant surpasses performance target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    Cogeneration company's third power plant at the Map Ta Phut industrial estate in Thailand is a coal fired circulating fluidized bed boiler linked in a unique steam cycle with the heat recovery units of two gas turbines. These HRUs function as both economiser and reheater. With nearly one year of operation behind it, performance has surpassed expectation for output, efficiency, and emission levels. 4 figs.

  10. Nonlinear continuous-time generalized predictive control of solar power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoukhi Billal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of nonlinear continuous-time generalized predictive control (GPC to the distributed collector field of a solar power plant. The major characteristic of a solar power plant is that the primary energy source, solar radiation, cannot be manipulated. Solar radiation varies throughout the day, causing changes in plant dynamics and strong perturbations in the process. A brief description of the solar power plant and its simulator is given. After that, basic concepts of predictive control and continuous-time generalized predictive control are introduced. A new control strategy, named nonlinear continuous-time generalized predictive control (NCGPC, is then derived to control the process. The simulation results show that the NCGPC gives a greater flexibility to achieve performance goals and better perturbation rejection than classical control.

  11. Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai A, Banta L, Tucker D

    2010-08-01

    This work presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation built by the National Energy Technology Laboratory comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The public facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key difficulties encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the built facility comprising a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in transfer function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H{sub {infinity}} robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence. As a complementary tool to the aforementioned empirical plant, a nonlinear analytical model faithful to the existing process and instrumentation arrangement is evaluated and designed in the Simulink environment. This parallel task intends to serve as a building block to scalable hybrid configurations that might require a more detailed nonlinear representation for a wide variety of controller schemes and hardware implementations.

  12. Phytophthora ×stagnum nothosp. nov., a new hybrid from irrigation reservoirs at ornamental plant nurseries in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Richardson, Patricia A; Hong, Chuanxue

    2014-01-01

    A novel Phytophthora species was frequently recovered from irrigation reservoirs at several ornamental plant production facilities in eastern Virginia. Initial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of this species generated unreadable sequences due to continual polymorphic positions. Cloning and sequencing the ITS region as well as sequencing the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase 1 and beta-tubulin genes revealed that it is a hybrid between P. taxon PgChlamydo as its paternal parent and an unknown species genetically close to P. mississippiae as its maternal parent. This hybrid has some diagnostic morphological features of P. taxon PgChlamydo and P. mississippiae. It produces catenulate hyphal swellings, characteristic of P. mississippiae, and chlamydospores, typical of P. taxon PgChlamydo. It also produces both ornamented and relatively smooth-walled oogonia. Ornamented oogonia are another important diagnostic character of P. mississippiae. The relatively smooth-walled oogonia may be indicative of oogonial character of P. taxon PgChlamydo. The new hybrid is described here as Phytophthora ×stagnum.

  13. CONTROL STRATEGY OF A PARALLEL HYBRID CAR WITH A METAL BELT-PLANETARY GEAR CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The most remarkable characteristic of a metal belt-planetary gear continuously variable transmission is a wider ratio range and a bigger torque capacity than a conventional metal pushing belt continuously variable transmission. A parallel hybrid car with this transmission system not only can reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emission at a ECE city cycle, but also can keep the motor working in the most efficiency area and can be started by a lower power motor by oneself. At the same time, the continuously variable transmission system can realize the smooth switch between the motor and the engine.

  14. Efficient implementation of the continuous-time hybridization expansion quantum impurity solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafermann, Hartmut; Werner, Philipp; Gull, Emanuel

    2013-04-01

    Strongly correlated quantum impurity problems appear in a wide variety of contexts ranging from nanoscience and surface physics to material science and the theory of strongly correlated lattice models, where they appear as auxiliary systems within dynamical mean-field theory. Accurate and unbiased solutions must usually be obtained numerically, and continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo algorithms, a family of algorithms based on the stochastic sampling of partition function expansions, perform well for such systems. With the present paper we provide an efficient and generic implementation of the hybridization expansion quantum impurity solver, based on the segment representation. We provide a complete implementation featuring most of the recently developed extensions and optimizations. Our implementation allows one to treat retarded interactions and provides generalized measurement routines based on improved estimators for the self-energy and for vertex functions. The solver is embedded in the ALPS-DMFT application package. Catalogue identifier: AEOL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Use of the hybridization expansion impurity solvers requires citation of this paper. Use of any ALPS program requires citation of the ALPS [1] paper. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 650044 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 20553265 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++/Python. Computer: Desktop PC, high-performance computers. Operating system: Unix, Linux, OSX, Windows. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, MPI parallelized. RAM: 1 GB Classification: 7.3. External routines: ALPS [1, 2, 3], BLAS [4, 5], LAPACK [6], HDF5 [7] Nature of problem: Quantum impurity models were originally introduced to describe a magnetic transition metal ion in a non

  15. First flowering hybrid between autotrophic and mycoheterotrophic plant species: breakthrough in molecular biology of mycoheterotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Miyoshi, Kazumitsu; Tsutsumi, Chie; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2014-03-01

    Among land plants, which generally exhibit autotrophy through photosynthesis, about 880 species are mycoheterotrophs, dependent on mycorrhizal fungi for their carbon supply. Shifts in nutritional mode from autotrophy to mycoheterotrophy are usually accompanied by evolution of various combinations of characters related to structure and physiology, e.g., loss of foliage leaves and roots, reduction in seed size, degradation of plastid genome, and changes in mycorrhizal association and pollination strategy. However, the patterns and processes involved in such alterations are generally unknown. Hybrids between autotrophic and mycoheterotrophic plants may provide a breakthrough in molecular studies on the evolution of mycoheterotrophy. We have produced the first hybrid between autotrophic and mycoheterotrophic plant species using the orchid group Cymbidium. The autotrophic Cymbidium ensifolium subsp. haematodes and mycoheterotrophic C. macrorhizon were artificially pollinated, and aseptic germination of the hybrid seeds obtained was promoted by sonication. In vitro flowering was observed five years after seed sowing. Development of foliage leaves, an important character for photosynthesis, segregated in the first generation; that is, some individuals only developed scale leaves on the rhizome and flowering stems. However, all of the flowering plants formed roots, which is identical to the maternal parent.

  16. MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL IN PLANTS OF MEXICO; A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Monge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A random and statistically significant sample of 40 medium (12 and large (28 manufacturing plants of Apodaca, Mexico were surveyed using a structured and validated questionnaire to investigate the level of implementation of lean manufacturing, sustainable manufacturing, continuous improvement and operational efficiency and environmental responsibility in them, it is important to mention it was found that performance in the mentioned philosophies, on the two categories of plants is low, however large plants show a better performance than medium plants. In both cases, it is worrying that in the highly industrialized municipality of Apodaca,  Mexico are not decisively adopting the philosophies mentioned, as this compromises in a global world, in the medium and long term the viability of the plants, particularly the medium size plants. Finally this article shows the results of the answers to the items of questionnaire for the plants managers, and this can be useful to the management of the plants to identify and to define specific improvement actions towards priority areas.

  17. Effects of Plant Density on Sweet and Baby Corn (Hybrid KSC 403 Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sweet corn is the one of the most important types of corn. There is a high amount of sugar in the endosperm of sweet corn than dent corn. Baby corn is the ear of corn that is being harvested in the silking stage before the end of pollination. This crop has an interesting using methods as salad, conserve production and vegetative consumption. Both two sweet and baby corn is obtained from one plant in different growth stages and could be harvested from one corn hybrid. Best yield and quality of baby corn is obtained from sweet corn hybrids, because of high amounts of sugar in the grains and ears. Sweet corn and baby corn could be harvested at early dough stage (with about 30 % of humidity and early silking stage before the pollination is completed, respectively. Plant density is the most important factor in growing corn, especially in sweet and baby corn. Khuzestan province is one of the main regions of corn production in Iran. In Khuzestan, forage and silage corn have the most production among the summer crops. Corn is planted in two planting date in Khuzestan: early spring and early summer. Spring corn planting produces little grain yield due to Simultaneity of silking stage with hot early summer days. Because of little production and little research about sweet and baby corn, this study was performed and designed. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of plant density and harvesting method on sweet corn and baby corn yield, an experiment was performed during 2012-13, in research farm of Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, located in southwest of Iran. In this experiment, four plant densities (7, 9, 11 and 13 plants.m-2 and two harvesting methods (baby corn and sweet corn were investigated in an RCB statistical design with four replications. The KSC 403 hybrid was used and investigated in the experiment, as a sweet corn hybrid. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.1 through

  18. System-wide hybrid MPC-PID control of a continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of QbD based pharmaceutical products will be manufactured through continuous processing. This will allow the integration of online/inline monitoring tools, coupled with an efficient advanced model-based feedback control systems, to achieve precise control of process variables, so that the predefined product quality can be achieved consistently. The direct compaction process considered in this study is highly interactive and involves time delays for a number of process variables due to sensor placements, process equipment dimensions, and the flow characteristics of the solid material. A simple feedback regulatory control system (e.g., PI(D)) by itself may not be sufficient to achieve the tight process control that is mandated by regulatory authorities. The process presented herein comprises of coupled dynamics involving slow and fast responses, indicating the requirement of a hybrid control scheme such as a combined MPC-PID control scheme. In this manuscript, an efficient system-wide hybrid control strategy for an integrated continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction has been designed. The designed control system is a hybrid scheme of MPC-PID control. An effective controller parameter tuning strategy involving an ITAE method coupled with an optimization strategy has been used for tuning of both MPC and PID parameters. The designed hybrid control system has been implemented in a first-principles model-based flowsheet that was simulated in gPROMS (Process System Enterprise). Results demonstrate enhanced performance of critical quality attributes (CQAs) under the hybrid control scheme compared to only PID or MPC control schemes, illustrating the potential of a hybrid control scheme in improving pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  19. Tillage and planting density affect the performance of maize hybrids in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Baladur Karki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To find out whether the different tillage methods at different planting densities affect the performance of maize hybrids, an experiment was carried out at National Maize Research Program, Rampur during spring season of 2013 and 2014. The experiment was laid out in strip plot design with three replications having 12 treatments. The vertical factor was tillage with conservation tillage (No Tillage + residue=NT and conventional tillage (CT and the horizontal factor were genotypes (Rampur Hybrid-2 and RML-32/RML-17 and in split planting geometries (75cm × 25cm =53333 plants/ha, 70cm × 25cm=57142 plant/ha and 60cm ×25cm= 66666 plants/ha. In both the years, the highest number of cobs (73,177 and 67638/ha was recorded at planting density of 66666/ha. NT had the highest no of kernel rows/cob (14.01 as against 12.12 in CT in 2014. The highest number of kernels (27.3 and 29.29 per row was recorded in NT during 2013 and 2014 respectively. Similarly, in 2014, the highest number of kernels were found in RML-32/RMl-17 (29.17/row and planting density of 53333/ha (28.46/row. In 2013, RML-32/RML-17 produced the highest test weight of 363.94g over the Rampur hybrid-2 with 362.17g. Significantly the highest grain yield of 9240.00 kg/ha in 2013 and 7459.80 kg/ha in 2014 at planting geometry of 65cm ×25cm were recorded. No effects was found by tillage methods for grain yields of maize in 2013, but was found in 2014 (7012.18 kg in NT compared to 6037.59 kg/ha in CT. NT and wider spaced crop matured earlier in both the years; however Rampur hybrid-2 matured earlier to RML-32/RML-17 in 2013. In 2014, harvest index of 47.85 % was recorded in planting geometry of 66666/ha, the highest benefit cost ratio of 1.36 was worked out in NT and 1.46 at the density of 66666/ha. The highest value of 2.46% of soil organic matter was recorded in NT as compared to 2.43% in CT.

  20. Identification of environmental issues: Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California: First phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-14

    The development of a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California, has been proposed. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize goethermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power. This report identifies environmental issues and constraints which may impact the proposed hybrid wood-geothermal power plant. (ACR)

  1. A Hybrid MPC-PID Control System Design for the Continuous Purification and Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitraye Sen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a hybrid MPC (model predictive control-PID (proportional-integral-derivative control system has been designed for the continuous purification and processing framework of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. The specific unit operations associated with the purification and processing of API have been developed from first-principles and connected in a continuous framework in the form of a flowsheet model. These integrated unit operations are highly interactive along with the presence of process delays. Therefore, a hybrid MPC-PID is a promising alternative to achieve the desired control loop performance as mandated by the regulatory authorities. The integrated flowsheet model has been simulated in gPROMSTM (Process System Enterprise, London, UK. This flowsheet model has been linearized in order to design the control scheme. The ability to track the set point and reject disturbances has been evaluated. A comparative study between the performance of the hybrid MPC-PID and a PID-only control scheme has been presented. The results show that an enhanced control loop performance can be obtained under the hybrid control scheme and demonstrate that such a scheme has high potential in improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  2. Cyanobacterial inoculation elicits plant defense response and enhanced Zn mobilization in maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Prasanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation evaluated the effect of inoculating different cyanobacterial formulations on a set of hybrids of maize, in terms of plant defense enzyme activity, soil health parameters, Zn concentration, and yields. Microbial inoculation showed significant effects on accumulation of Zn in flag leaf, with A4 (Anabaena–Azotobacter biofilm recording the highest values. Analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated that both the hybrids and cyanobacterial treatments brought about significant variation in terms of glomalin-related soil proteins and polysaccharides in soil and the activity of defense enzymes in roots and shoots of the plants. Cyanobacterial inoculants—A4 (Anabaena–Azotobacter biofilm and A1 (Anabaena sp.–Providencia sp., CW1 + PW5 enhanced the activity of peroxidase, PAL and PPO in roots, which also showed a positive correlation with Zn concentration in the flag leaf. Grain yield ranged from 7.0 to 7.29 t/ha among the different inoculants. Comparative analyses of treatments showed that A3 (Anabaena–Trichoderma-biofilmed formulation and hybrid B8 (Bio-9681 were superior in terms of parameters investigated. This represents the first report on the genotypic responses of maize hybrids to cyanobacteria-based inoculants. Future research should focus on dissecting the role of root exudates and cyanobacteria-mediated Zn mobilization pathway in maize.

  3. Flora Robotica – Mixed Societies of Symbiotic Robot-Plant Bio-Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Heiko; Wahby, Mostafa; Schmickl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Besides the life-as-it-could-be driver of artificial life research there is also the concept of extending natural life by creating hybrids or mixed societies that are built from natural and artificial components. In this paper we motivate and present the research program of the project flora...... for new functions of plants and robots. They also create novel design opportunities for an architecture that fuses the design and construction phase. The bio-hybrid is an example of mixed societies between 'hard' artificial and 'wet' natural life, which enables an interaction between natural...... and artificial ecologies. They form an embodied, self-organizing, and distributed cognitive system which is supposed to grow and develop over long periods of time resulting in the creation of meaningful architectural structures. A key idea is to assign equal roles to robots and plants in order to create a highly...

  4. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Heberle; Dieter Brüggemann

    2014-01-01

    We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in a combined heat and power generation (CHP) case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency...

  5. Intertribal hybrid plants produced from crossing Arabidopsis thaliana with apomictic Boechera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohe, Allan R; Perotti, Enrico

    2012-08-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana and Boechera belong to different tribes of the Brassicaceae and last shared a common ancestor 13-35 million years ago. A. thaliana reproduces sexually but some Boechera accessions reproduce by apomixis (asexual reproduction by seed). The two species are reproductively isolated, preventing introgression of the trait(s) controlling apomixis from Boechera into A. thaliana and their molecular characterisation. To identify if "escapers" from such hybridisation barriers exist, we crossed diploid or tetraploid A. thaliana mothers carrying a conditional male sterile mutation with a triploid Boechera apomict. These cross-pollinations generated zygotes and embryos. Most aborted or suffered multiple developmental defects at all stages of growth, but some seed matured and germinated. Seedlings grew slowly but eventually some developed into mature plants that were novel synthetic allopolyploid hybrids. With one exception, intertribal hybrids contained three Boechera plus either one or two A. thaliana genomes (depending on maternal ploidy) and were male and female sterile. The exception was a semi-fertile, sexual partial hybrid with one Boechera plus two A. thaliana genomes. The synthesis of "escapers" that survive rigorous early developmental challenges in crosses between A. thaliana and Boechera demonstrates that the inviability form of postzygotic reproductive isolation separating these distantly related species is not impenetrable. The recovery of a single semi-fertile partial hybrid also demonstrates that hybrid sterility, another form of postzygotic reproductive isolation, can be overcome between these species.

  6. Technico-economic assessment of hybrid diesel-photovoltaic power plant in the south of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, A. Y.; Hamidat, A.

    2016-07-01

    In Algeria, Electrical energy demand has knew a significant growth in recent years. The important increase in demand is due to the development of industrial and commercial sectors, and the comfort of residents customers by using multiple equipment of household such as the TV, ventilator, especially air-conditioners in the south of Algeria. To address the problem of imbalance between supply and demand, it is compulsory to add other units of productions of electricity. These units can be use conventional sources or renewable energy sources. This study focuses on the feasibility of hybridizing diesel power plants supplying the isolated villages in southern Algeria by the introduction of PV systems. The town of Djanet was taken as a case study. The comparison between the different technical and economic parameters allows determining the contribution of the hybridization of conventional resources of production. However, the cost-effectiveness based on the net present cost (NPC) is estimated at 176, 054.208 for the hybrid system and 194, 965.280 for all Diesel system. In terms of the cost per kWh produced by the two systems, the kWh produced by the hybrid system is less expensive than the kWh produced by any conventional diesel system is 0.551 / kWh against 0.610 / kWh. The results also show that the hybrid system provides coverage of the expected load in the future.

  7. Antibacterial continuous nanofibrous hybrid yarn through in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barani, Hossein, E-mail: barani@birjand.ac.ir

    2014-10-01

    Nanofibrous hybrid yarns of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) with the antibacterial activity were prepared that contains 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 wt.% of silver nanoparticles according to the PVA polymer content. This was performed by electrospinning using distilled water and 2, 2, 2-trifluoroethanol as a solvent for PVA and PLLA respectively, and sodium borohydride was used as a reducing agent. The scanning electron microscope observation confirmed the formation of AgNPs into the PVA nanofiber structure, and they were uniform, bead free, cylindrical and smooth. The diameter of hybrid yarns and their nanofiber component was decreased as the silver nitrate concentration in electrospinning solutions was increased. The differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the silver nanoparticles can form interactions with polymer chains and decrease the melting enthalpy. The mechanical analysis showed a lower stress and strain at break of the AgNP-loaded nanofibrous hybrid yarns than the unloaded hybrid yarn. However, there wasn't a statistically significant difference between the strain at break of electrospun nanofibrous hybrid yarns. Moreover, the bactericidal efficiency of all loaded samples was over 99.99%. - Highlights: • Nanofibrous hybrid yarns of PVA/PLLA with antibacterial activity were prepared. • The diameter of nanofibers was decreased as the AgNP concentration was increased. • AgNPs make interactions with amorphous phase of polymer and increase the Tg. • All loaded samples presented a good bactericidal and bacteriostatic efficiency.

  8. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  9. A generic plant RNA isolation method suitable for RNA-Seq and suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y Q; Wu, W J; Xiao, H W; Chen, H B; Zheng, Y; Zhang, Y J; Wang, H X; Huang, L Q

    2013-11-18

    A recently developed revolutionary approach to transcriptomics, RNA-Seq, and suppression subtractive hybridization are powerful tools for gene expression research. However, currently, the difficulty of isolating high-quality RNAs from plant tissues bearing abundant complex polysaccharides, polyphenolics, and secondary metabolites is a serious problem that not only limits the application of these technologies but also hinders studies dealing with RNA in general. We have developed a consistent protocol to prepare highly intact and pure RNAs from tissues of a variety of field-grown plant species, with high yields, in 2 to 3 h. Additionally, this method can be readily applied to mammalian, yeast, and bacterial cells.

  10. The development of juvenile plants of the hybrid orchid Bratonia after seed cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A S; Popova, E V; Nikishina, T V; Kolomeytseva, G L

    2004-01-01

    The development of juvenile plants of hybrid Bratonia orchid in vitro after seed storage in liquid nitrogen and the effect of nutrient medium composition on protocorm multiplication and plant regeneration were investigated. Cryopreservation did not inhibit the germination rate of seeds. Protocorms derived from cryopreserved seeds developed faster than protocorms from control (unfrozen) seeds during the first 45 days. But during further culturing, this tendency was not retained and finally protocorms from cryopreserved seeds had the same size as control ones. There were no significant differences in leaf number and shoot length between juvenile plants derived from unfrozen and cryopreserved seeds. We found that among four tested media liquid Morel medium was the most preferable for protocorm multiplication, and liquid ?S medium with half-strength macronutrients was the best one for the development of juvenile plants.

  11. Comparative Analysis on Rice Plant Type of Two Super Hybrids and Shanyou63

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chuan-gen; ZOU Jiang-shi

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of plant type and physiological indices for photosynthesis were analyzedusing two super hybrid rices, Liangyoupeijiu and LiangyouE32 as materials, and an indica hybrid, Shan-you63 as a control. Based on the present analysis and various theories and breeding practices on rice planttype, a model of plant ideotype for super hybrid rice (indica) in the lower reaches of Yangtze River Valleywas proposed. This was: a length of 35 - 40 cm for top leaf with a width of 2 cm, and that of 50 - 55 cmand 55 - 60 crm, respectively, for the second and third leaves from top, meanwhile, having a leaf angle of5°, 10° and 15° respectively, and a curvature of 1 - 1.5 cm-1 for the leaf face at heading stage; the upper-most three leaves keeping their activities for as long as 70 d, which could lead a LAI of 3 at full ripeness;loose plant type with thin (SLW=2.5- 3 gcm-2 , dry weight) and curve-slant leaves during early growingstage, and compact plant type by thick (SLW = 4 - 5 gcm-2 ) and erect leaves during the middle and lategrowing stages; with a coefficient of light extinction of 0.3 - 0.4, which allowed for an optimal LAI high of8 - 10 during the middle growth period; plant height of 110 -120 cm, with 2 -4 cm basal internode and along uppermost internode occupying 45 % of total stem length; 25 - 28 cm panicle with 8 - 10 spikelets percentimeter showing bend-type in ripening; a rich chlorophyll which led to a high net photosynthetic rate,and tolerance to light shading and photooxidation which is of benefit to increasing the adaptability to varyinglight conditions.

  12. Reproduction of continuous flow left ventricular assist device experimental data by means of a hybrid cardiovascular model with baroreflex control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresiello, Libera; Zieliński, Krzysztof; Jacobs, Steven; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Pałko, Krzysztof Jakub; Bernini, Fabio; Martin, Michael; Claus, Piet; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Trivella, Maria Giovanna; Górczyńska, Krystyna; Darowski, Marek; Meyns, Bart; Kozarski, Maciej

    2014-06-01

    Long-term mechanical circulatory assistance opened new problems in ventricular assist device-patient interaction, especially in relation to autonomic controls. Modeling studies, based on adequate models, could be a feasible approach of investigation. The aim of this work is the exploitation of a hybrid (hydronumerical) cardiovascular simulator to reproduce and analyze in vivo experimental data acquired during a continuous flow left ventricular assistance. The hybrid cardiovascular simulator embeds three submodels: a computational cardiovascular submodel, a computational baroreflex submodel, and a hydronumerical interface submodel. The last one comprises two impedance transformers playing the role of physical interfaces able to provide a hydraulic connection with specific cardiovascular sites (in this article, the left atrium and the ascending/descending aorta). The impedance transformers are used to connect a continuous flow pump for partial left ventricular support (Synergy Micropump, CircuLite, Inc., Saddlebrooke, NJ, USA) to the hybrid cardiovascular simulator. Data collected from five animals in physiological, pathological, and assisted conditions were reproduced using the hybrid cardiovascular simulator. All parameters useful to characterize and tune the hybrid cardiovascular simulator to a specific hemodynamic condition were extracted from experimental data. Results show that the simulator is able to reproduce animal-specific hemodynamic status both in physiological and pathological conditions, to reproduce cardiovascular left ventricular assist device (LVAD) interaction and the progressive unloading of the left ventricle for different pump speeds, and to investigate the effects of the LVAD on baroreflex activity. Results in chronic heart failure conditions show that an increment of LVAD speed from 20 000 to 22 000 rpm provokes a decrement of left ventricular flow of 35% (from 2 to 1.3 L/min). Thanks to its flexibility and modular structure, the

  13. Effects of Plant Density and Nitrogen Application Rate on Grain Yield and Nitrogen Uptake of Super Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xian-qing; ZHU De-feng; CHEN Hui-zhe; ZHANG Yu-ping

    2009-01-01

    The nitrogen uptake, yield and its components for two super-high-yielding hybrid rice combinations, Guodao 6 and Eryou 7954 were investigated under different plant densities (15, 18, and 21 plants/m2) and different nitrogen application rates (120, 150, 180, and 210 kg/hm2). The experiment was conducted on loam soil during 2004-2006 at the experimental farm of the China National Rice Research Institute in Hangzhou, China. In these years, the two hybrid rice clearly showed higher yield at a plant density of 15 plants/m2 with a nitrogen application rate of 180 kg/hm2. Guodao 6 produced an average grain yield of 10 215.6 kg/hm2 across the three years, while the yield of Eryou 7954 was 9 633.0 kg/hm2. With fewer plants per unit-area and larger plants in the plots, the two hybrid rice produced more panicles per plant in three years. The highest nitrogen uptake of the two hybrid rice was at a plant density of 15 plants/m2 with a nitrogen application rate of 180 kg/hm2. Further increasing nitrogen application rate was not advantageous for nitrogen uptake in super-high-yielding rice under the same plant density.

  14. Ergodynamics in the Reliability of Power Plant Operators and Prospective Hybrid Intelligence Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venda; Chachko

    1996-01-01

    Based on ergodynamics and the hybrid intelligence theory, an analysis of the nuclear power plant operator's performance is given at the levels of strategies, tactics, and actions. Special attention is paid to the strategies used in the course of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. Data from Ukrainian and Russian power plants and training centres, and from accidents around the world were collected and processed. It is shown that in an emergency it is essential for the human operator to be flexible. This flexibility includes two main training and personal factors: a large set of strategies and tactics the operator manages to use, and quick transformations between the strategies (tactics). It was also found that some emergency tasks are too complicated: They require simultaneous use of different strategies, with time strictly limited by nuclear power plant dynamics. Those tasks cannot be successfully solved by any individual operator. Hybrid intelligence systems involving different specialists should be used in those cases in order to avoid failures in emergency problem solving and macroergonomic organizational design.

  15. Genome size as a key to evolutionary complex aquatic plants: polyploidy and hybridization in Callitriche (Plantaginaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Prančl

    Full Text Available Despite their complex evolutionary histories, aquatic plants are highly underrepresented in contemporary biosystematic studies. Of them, the genus Callitriche is particularly interesting because of such evolutionary features as wide variation in chromosome numbers and pollination systems. However, taxonomic difficulties have prevented broader investigation of this genus. In this study we applied flow cytometry to Callitriche for the first time in order to gain an insight into evolutionary processes and genome size differentiation in the genus. Flow cytometry complemented by confirmation of chromosome counts was applied to an extensive dataset of 1077 Callitriche individuals from 495 localities in 11 European countries and the USA. Genome size was determined for 12 taxa. The results suggest that many important processes have interacted in the evolution of the genus, including polyploidization and hybridization. Incongruence between genome size and ploidy level, intraspecific variation in genome size, formation of autotriploid and hybridization between species with different pollination systems were also detected. Hybridization takes place particularly in the diploid-tetraploid complex C. cophocarpa-C. platycarpa, for which the triploid hybrids were frequently recorded in the area of co-occurrence of its parents. A hitherto unknown hybrid (probably C. hamulata × C. cophocarpa with a unique chromosome number was discovered in the Czech Republic. However, hybridization occurs very rarely among most of the studied species. The main ecological preferences were also compared among the taxa collected. Although Callitriche taxa often grow in mixed populations, the ecological preferences of individual species are distinctly different in some cases. Anyway, flow cytometry is a very efficient method for taxonomic delimitation, determination and investigation of Callitriche species, and is even able to distinguish homoploid taxa and identify introduced

  16. Transient Simulation Of A Solar-Hybrid Tower Power Plant With Open Volumetric Receiver At The Location Barstow

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this work the transient simulations of four hybrid solar tower power plant concepts with open-volumetric receiver technology for a location in Barstow-Daggett, USA, are presented. The open-volumetric receiver uses ambient air as heat transfer fluid and the hybridization is realized with a gas turbine. The Rankine cycle is heated by solar-heated air and/or by the gas turbine’s flue gases. The plant can be operated in solar-only, hybrid parallel or combined cycle-only mode as well a...

  17. Plant diseases in landrace varieties and hybrid maize cultivated using different technology levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Vinicius de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Local soil and climate conditions as well as management techniques used in maize cropping affect disease development. In the present study, the incidence and severity of diseases were evaluated in four maize genotypes cultured in three management systems with different technology levels. We tested two landrace varieties from the North of Minas Gerais state, one double-cross hybrid and 1 singlecross hybrid. The experiment was carried out using a randomized block in lays (four varieties and three management systems and three repetitions. Disease incidence was determined by calculating the percentage of plants with symptoms, and its severity was assessed using a scale diagram to categorize symptom levels from 0 to 5. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by mean contrasts using the Scott-Knott test at a significance level of 0.05. In conclusion, cropping system affects the incidence and severity of southern rust, which is increased by high technology systems. Landrace varieties Argentino and BR da Várzea and double-cross hybrid SHS 4080 have higher resistance to southern rust than single-cross hybrid IAC 8333.

  18. Development of plants resistant to Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by intergeneric hybridization between Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Kawano, Shinji; Yasuda, Keiji; Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V. cundinamarcensis. Flow cytometry and PCR of 28 plants confirmed they were intergeneric hybrids. To evaluate virus resistance, mechanical inoculation of PLDMV was carried out. The test showed that 41 of 134 intergeneric hybrid plants showed no symptoms and were resistant. The remaining 93 hybrids showed necrotic lesions on the younger leaves than the inoculated leaves. In most of the 93 hybrids, the necrotic lesions enclosed the virus and prevented further spread. These results suggest that the intergeneric hybrids will be valuable material for PLDMV-resistant papaya breeding.

  19. Exploring the Role of Plant Genetics to Enhance Soil Carbon Sequestration in Hybrid Poplar Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Garten, C. T.; Classen, A. T.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased in recent decades and are projected to increase even further during the coming century. These projections have prompted scientists and policy-makers to consider how plants and soils can be used to stabilize CO2 concentrations. Although storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems represents an attractive near-term option for mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, enhancing the sequestration potential of managed systems will require advancements in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that control rates of carbon transfer and turnover in plants and soils. To address this challenge, a mathematical model was constructed to evaluate how changes in particular plant traits and management practices could affect soil carbon storage beneath hybrid poplar (Populus) plantations. The model was built from four sub-models that describe aboveground biomass, root biomass, soil carbon dynamics, and soil nitrogen transformations for trees growing throughout a user-defined rotation. Simulations could be run over one or multiple rotations. A sensitivity analysis of the model indicated changes in soil carbon storage were affected by variables that could be linked to hybrid poplar traits like rates of aboveground production, partitioning of carbon to coarse and fine roots, and rates of root decomposition. A higher ratio of belowground to aboveground production was especially important and correlated directly with increased soil carbon storage. Faster decomposition rates for coarse and fine dead roots resulted in a greater loss of carbon to the atmosphere as CO2 and less residual organic carbon for transfer to the fast soil carbon pool. Hence, changes in root chemistry that prolonged dead root decomposition rates, a trait that is under potential genetic control, were predicted to increase soil carbon storage via higher soil carbon inputs. Nitrogen limitation of both aboveground biomass production and soil carbon sequestration was

  20. Continuous monitoring of plant growth using fiber-optic interferrometric sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Julius; Grossman, Barry G.

    2011-06-01

    Dendrometers, dendrographs and dry weight measurements have been successfully used for measurements of plant growth. These sensors have been used with Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) based data logging systems for continuous monitoring. In this paper the preliminary results for a prototype technique is presented as a proof of concept for the continuous monitoring of plant growth using an approach based on fiber-optic interferrometric sensing. The advantage of this sensing technique over the others is the ability to measure and analyze with very high sensitivities such as micron changes in dimensions allowing measurements over short time spans. The sensor was mounted on a Dracaena Sanderiana (Lucky Bamboo) shoot and the change in shoot length dimensions resulted in changes in the output signal display which is in the form of interferrometric fringes. The data acquisition is performed over a long duration using labVIEW based data logging. Filtered output of the data has been presented where an attempt has been made to relate the fringes to length changes. The sensing system is nondestructive and noninvasive and has been targeted to respond to changes in stem length due to changes in plant growth parameters. The objective is to provide a measurement system to do research in optimizing plant growth in greatly reduced time spans. This form of sensing application is also applicable for monitoring the growth of plants growing at much slower rates.

  1. Dealing with the problem of non-specific in situ mRNA hybridization signals associated with plant tissues undergoing programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokela Anne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In situ hybridization is a general molecular method typically used for the localization of mRNA transcripts in plants. The method provides a valuable tool to unravel the connection between gene expression and anatomy, especially in species such as pines which show large genome size and shortage of sequence information. Results In the present study, expression of the catalase gene (CAT related to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the polyamine metabolism related genes, diamine oxidase (DAO and arginine decarboxylase (ADC, were localized in developing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seeds. In addition to specific signals from target mRNAs, the probes continually hybridized non-specifically in the embryo surrounding region (ESR of the megagametophyte tissue, in the remnants of the degenerated suspensors as well as in the cells of the nucellar layers, i.e. tissues exposed to cell death processes and extensive nucleic acid fragmentation during Scots pine seed development. Conclusions In plants, cell death is an integral part of both development and defence, and hence it is a common phenomenon in all stages of the life cycle. Our results suggest that extensive nucleic acid fragmentation during cell death processes can be a considerable source of non-specific signals in traditional in situ mRNA hybridization. Thus, the visualization of potential nucleic acid fragmentation simultaneously with the in situ mRNA hybridization assay may be necessary to ensure the correct interpretation of the signals in the case of non-specific hybridization of probes in plant tissues.

  2. Operating manual for hybrid thermosyphons at the Gakona Power Plant, Alaska. Special report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, F.D.; Crory, F.C.; Knuth, K.V.; Quinn, W.F.

    1994-03-01

    A power plant building was constructed in 1990 at an over-the-horizon radar site in Gakona, Alaska. Since it was built on permafrost, thermal protection between the building and the underlying permafrost was included in the design, which included rigid board insulation and hybrid thermosyphons placed in the gravel fill under the building. Soil temperature is monitored with eight thermistor strings placed under and at the building perimeter. This manual describes the steps that must be taken to ensure foundation stability, including directions on when to use the thermosyphons in the active, mechanical refrigeration mode. A data acquisition system using a computer-controlled datalogger is described.

  3. Continuous thermal hydrolysis and energy integration in sludge anaerobic digestion plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdz-Polanco, F; Velazquez, R; Perez-Elvira, S I; Casas, C; del Barrio, D; Cantero, F J; Fdz-Polanco, M; Rodriguez, P; Panizo, L; Serrat, J; Rouge, P

    2008-01-01

    A thermal hydrolysis pilot plant with direct steam injection heating was designed and constructed. In a first period the equipment was operated in batch to verify the effect of sludge type, pressure and temperature, residence time and solids concentration. Optimal operation conditions were reached for secondary sludge at 170 degrees C, 7 bar and 30 minutes residence time, obtaining a disintegration factor higher than 10, methane production increase by 50% and easy centrifugation In a second period the pilot plant was operated working with continuous feed, testing the efficiency by using two continuous anaerobic digester operating in the mesophilic and thermophilic range. Working at 12 days residence time, biogas production increases by 40-50%. Integrating the energy transfer it is possible to design a self-sufficient system that takes advantage of this methane increase to produce 40% more electric energy.

  4. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Srinivasachar, Srivats [Envergex LLC, Sturbridge, MA (United States); Laudal, Daniel [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Browers, Bruce [Barr Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-31

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO₂ capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO₂ by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO₂ heat of reaction and promote fast CO₂ capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO₂ capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO₂ and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO₂ and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO₂ capture achieved using

  5. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Srinivasachar, Srivats [Envergex LLC, Sturbridge, MA (United States); Laudal, Daniel [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Browers, Bruce [Barr Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-31

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO₂ capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO₂ by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO₂ heat of reaction and promote fast CO₂ capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO₂ capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO₂ and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO₂ and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO₂ capture achieved using

  6. Continuous Carbon Nanotube-Ultrathin Graphite Hybrid Foams for Increased Thermal Conductivity and Suppressed Subcooling in Composite Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmanov, Iskandar; Kim, Jaehyun; Ou, Eric; Ruoff, Rodney S; Shi, Li

    2015-12-22

    Continuous ultrathin graphite foams (UGFs) have been actively researched recently to obtain composite materials with increased thermal conductivities. However, the large pore size of these graphitic foams has resulted in large thermal resistance values for heat conduction from inside the pore to the high thermal conductivity graphitic struts. Here, we demonstrate that the effective thermal conductivity of these UGF composites can be increased further by growing long CNT networks directly from the graphite struts of UGFs into the pore space. When erythritol, a phase change material for thermal energy storage, is used to fill the pores of UGF-CNT hybrids, the thermal conductivity of the UGF-CNT/erythritol composite was found to increase by as much as a factor of 1.8 compared to that of a UGF/erythritol composite, whereas breaking the UGF-CNT bonding in the hybrid composite resulted in a drop in the effective room-temperature thermal conductivity from about 4.1 ± 0.3 W m(-1) K(-1) to about 2.9 ± 0.2 W m(-1) K(-1) for the same UGF and CNT loadings of about 1.8 and 0.8 wt %, respectively. Moreover, we discovered that the hybrid structure strongly suppresses subcooling of erythritol due to the heterogeneous nucleation of erythritol at interfaces with the graphitic structures.

  7. Hybrid Estimation of State and Input for Linear Continuous Time-varying Systems: A Game Theory Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXiao-Jun; WENGZheng-Xin; TIANZuo-Hua; SHISong-Jiao

    2005-01-01

    The H∞ hybrid estimation problem for linear continuous time-varying systems is investigated in this paper, where estimated signals are linear combination of state and input. Design objective requires the worst-case energy gain from disturbance to estimation error be less than a prescribed level. Optimal solution of the hybrid estimation problem is the saddle point of a two-player zero sum differential game. Based on the differential game approach, necessary and sufficient solvable conditions for the hybrid estimation problem are provided in terms of solutions to a Riccati differential equation. Moreover, one possible estimator is proposed if the solvable conditions are satisfied.The estimator is characterized by a gain matrix and an output mapping matrix that reflects the internal relations between the unknown input and output estimation error. Both state and unknown inputs estimation are realized by the proposed estimator. Thus, the results in this paper are also capable of dealing with fault diagnosis problems of linear time-varying systems. At last, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed approach.

  8. Upgrading of a wastewater treatment plant with a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Falletti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater treatment plant of Porto Tolle (RO, Italy was originally projected for 2200 person equivalent (p.e. and it was made of a pumping station, an activated sludge oxidation tank (395 m3, a settler (315 m3, and two sludge drying beds. Other units were not yet in use in 2008: a fine screen, a sand and grit removal unit, a new settler (570 m3, a disinfection tank and a sludge thickener. Effective hydraulic load was 245% higher, organic load was 46% lower and nitrogen load was 39% higher than project values. Moreover, higher pollutant loads and more strict emission limits for nitrogen were expected. So the plant was upgraded: the old settler was divided into a sector of 180 m3 that was converted into a predenitrification tank, and a sector of 100 m3 that was converted into a hybrid MBBR tank filled with 50% AnoxKaldnesTM K3 carriers; the new settler was connected to the hybrid MBBR, and the other units were started. Biofilm growth was observed two months after plant restarting, its concentration reached 1.1 gTS/m2 (0.26 kgTS/m3, while activated sludge concentration was 2.0–2.8 kgTSS/m3 in all the period of study. The upgraded plant treats 1587 m3/d wastewater with 57 kgCOD/d, 23 kgBOD/d and 13.3 kgN/d, and has a significant residual capacity; the effluent respects all emission limits.

  9. Optimization of a Continuous Hybrid Impeller Mixer via Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary steps required for conducting experiments to obtain the optimal operating conditions of a hybrid impeller mixer and to determine the residence time distribution (RTD using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. In this paper, impeller speed and clearance parameters are examined. The hybrid impeller mixer consists of a single Rushton turbine mounted above a single pitched blade turbine (PBT. Four impeller speeds, 50, 100, 150, and 200 rpm, and four impeller clearances, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mm, were the operation variables used in this study. CFD was utilized to initially screen the parameter ranges to reduce the number of actual experiments needed. Afterward, the residence time distribution (RTD was determined using the respective parameters. Finally, the Fluent-predicted RTD and the experimentally measured RTD were compared. The CFD investigations revealed that an impeller speed of 50 rpm and an impeller clearance of 25 mm were not viable for experimental investigations and were thus eliminated from further analyses. The determination of RTD using a k-ε turbulence model was performed using CFD techniques. The multiple reference frame (MRF was implemented and a steady state was initially achieved followed by a transient condition for RTD determination.

  10. Ultraprecision XY stage using a hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor for continuous motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu, E-mail: skyee@gist.ac.kr [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 123 Cheomdangwagi-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents a design and control system for an XY stage driven by an ultrasonic linear motor. In this study, a hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor was manufactured and then operated at the resonance frequency of the third longitudinal and the sixth lateral modes. These two modes were matched through the preload adjustment and precisely tuned by the frequency matching method based on the impedance matching method with consideration of the different moving weights. The XY stage was evaluated in terms of position and circular motion. To achieve both fine and stable motion, the controller consisted of a nominal characteristics trajectory following (NCTF) control for continuous motion, dead zone compensation, and a switching controller based on the different NCTFs for the macro- and micro-dynamics regimes. The experimental results showed that the developed stage enables positioning and continuous motion with nanometer-level accuracy.

  11. HOW ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING HELPED TO CONTINUE BUILDING AND UPGRADE OF THE OPOLE POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Principles of ecological engineering were applied for upgrading the Opole Power Plant under construction, complete with modern installation to protect the environment. The modernized project was a subject of „Integrated environmental impact assessment of the Opole Power Plant” developed by the Institute of Environmental Protection in 1981. The main issues covered by the impact assessment were presented and discussed at the national scientific conference attended, among others, by the representatives of local community from Opole. The conference was organized by the Polish Society of Ecological Engineering on June 5 and 6, 1992. The main aim of the conference was to identify and deliver as broad as possible analysis of environmental conditions for designing, building and operating coal fired power plants. A secondary goal, though of main concern for the Opole agglomeration, was to evaluate many-sided environmental risks resulting from the construction and operation of the Power Plant. The feasibility of continuing the construction of a power generating facility that meets the requirements of the 21st century was demonstrated by the fact that the Opole Power Plant S.A. was awarded the ISO 14001 - Environmental Management System certificate by the British Standards Institution. Advanced construction of the two consecutive blocks of a combined power of 1800 MW in the Opole Power Plant substantiates the validity and effectiveness of the conference organized in 1992.

  12. A Hybrid Search Algorithm for Midterm Optimal Scheduling of Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid search algorithm consisting of three stages is presented to solve the midterm schedule for thermal power plants (MTSFTPP problem, where the primary objective is to achieve equal accumulated operating hours of installed capacity (EAOHIC for all thermal power plants during the selected period. First, feasible spaces are produced and narrowed based on constraints on the number of units and power load factors. Second, an initial feasible solution is obtained by a heuristic method that considers operating times and boundary conditions. Finally, the progressive optimality algorithm (POA, which we refer to as the vertical search algorithm (VSA, is used to solve the MTSFTPP problem. A method for avoiding convergence to a local minimum, called the lateral search algorithm (LSA, is presented. The LSA provides an updated solution that is used as a new feasible starting point for the next search in the VSA. The combination of the LSA and the VSA is referred to as the hybrid search algorithm (HSA, which is simple and converges quickly to the global minimum. The results of two case studies show that the algorithm is very effective in solving the MTSFTPP problem accurately and in real time.

  13. Wind-hydrogen-biomass. The hybrid power plant of ENERTRAG AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miege, Andreas; Luschtinetz, T. [Fachhochschule Stralsund (Germany); Wenske, M.; Gamallo, F. [ENERTRAG AG (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The ENERTRAG Hybrid Power Plant is designed around the following components: three wind turbines of 2 MW each, an electrolyser of 500 kW, a hydrogen storage system, and two CHP units of 350 kW each, able to run with variable mixtures of biogas and hydrogen. The use of the electrolyser - acting as a deferrable load, and running under variable power - and the possibility of reconverting the hydrogen again into electricity will allow a feeding-in of the produced electricity to the grid, free of any of the changing characteristics of the wind power. Besides of that renewable electricity, the Hybrid Power Plant will also be able of delivering hydrogen as a clean fuel for the transport sector, as well as oxygen and heat. The project will show that renewable energy sources, like wind and solar, will be able, in the future, of producing back-up power without any support of fossile sources; and also of feeding electricity to the grid as a part of the base-load demand. As a first step towards this direction, the project has the goal of assuring that the energy production of the three wind turbines will be in accordance to the 24-h-forecasted wind power values. (orig.)

  14. Multilayer interparticle linking hybrid MOF-199 for noninvasive enrichment and analysis of plant hormone ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Huang, Yichun; Ding, Weiwei; Li, Gongke

    2014-04-01

    Ethylene, an important plant hormone, is of utmost importance during many developmental processes of plants. However, the efficient enrichment and analysis of trace ethylene still remains a challenge. A simple and mild multilayer interparticle linking strategy was proposed to fabricate a novel hybrid MOF-199 enrichment coating. Strong chemical interparticle linkages throughout the coating improved the durability and reproducibility of hybrid MOF-199 coating dramatically. This coating performed a significant extraction superiority of ethylene over commonly used commercial coatings, attributed to the multiple interactions including "molecular sieving effect", hydrogen bonding, open metal site interaction, and π-π affinity. The hybridization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with MOF-199 further improved the enrichment capability and also acted as a hydrophobic "shield" to prevent the open metal sites of MOF-199 from being occupied by water molecules, which effectively improved the moisture-resistant property of MOF-199/CNTs coating. Finally, this novel enrichment method was successfully applied for the noninvasive analysis of trace ethylene, methanol, and ethanol from fruit samples with relatively high humidity. The low detection limit was 0.016 μg/L for ethylene. It was satisfactory that trace ethylene could be actually detected from fruit samples by this noninvasive method. Good recoveries of spiked grape, wampee, blueberry, and durian husk samples were obtained in the range of 90.0-114%, 79.4-88.6%, 78.5-86.8%, and 85.2-105% with the corresponding relative standard deviations of 4.8-9.8%, 6.9-8.9%, 3.8-8.1%, and 9.3-10.5% (n = 3), respectively.

  15. Highly Sensitive Fluorescent-labeled Probes and Glass Slide Hybridization for the Detection of Plant RNA Viruses and a Viroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyou DU; Bo JIN; Wenhong LIU; Liang CHEN; Jishuang CHEN

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a modified method of the conventional RNA dot-blot hybridization was established, by replacing 32P labels with CY5 labels and replacing nylon membranes with positive-charged glass slides, for detecting plant RNA viruses and a viroid. The modified RNA dot-blot hybridization method was named glass slide hybridization. The optimum efficiency of RNA binding onto the surfaces of activated glass slide was achieved using aminosilane-coated glass slide as a solid matrix and 5×saline sodium citrate (SSC) as a spotting solution. Using a CY5-labeled DNA probe prepared through PCR amplification, the optimized glass slide hybridization could detect as little as 1.71 pg of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA.The sensitivity of the modified method was four times that of dot-blot hybridization on nylon membrane with a 32P-labeled probe. The absence of false positive within the genus Potyvirus [potato virus A, potato virus Y (PVY) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus] showed that this method was highly specific. Furthermore,potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) was also detected specifically. A test of 40 field potato samples showed that this method was equivalent to the conventional dot-blot hybridization for detecting PVY and PSTVd. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using dot-blot hybridization on glass slides with fluorescent-labeled probes for detecting plant RNA viruses and a viroid.

  16. The effect of microstructure and texture evolution on mechanical properties of low-carbon steel processed by the continuous hybrid process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sun Kwang; Baek, Hyun Moo [National Research Laboratory for Computer Aided Materials Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Il-Heon [Wire Rod Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 1 Goedong-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Yong-Taek, E-mail: ytim@kaist.ac.kr [National Research Laboratory for Computer Aided Materials Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Chul Min [Wire Rod Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 1 Goedong-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-785 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the continuous hybrid process is newly designed and applied for producing grain-refined long and large cross-section wires of low-carbon steel at high speed at room temperature. The initial specimen, with a diameter of 13 mm, continuously passes through the rolls, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) dies, and wire-drawing dies in sequence during the process. The specimens deformed by the continuous hybrid process without and with the wire-drawing dies were obtained to investigate the role in the deformation separately. Their microstructures, textures, and mechanical properties were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), tension, and Vickers micro-hardness tests and were compared with those for the case processed by the conventional wire-drawing process. According to the present investigation, the continuous hybrid process can more efficiently manufacture fine-grained wires with a strong shear texture in a continuous way than the conventional wire-drawing process can. In addition, the ultimate tensile strength value of the specimen processed by the continuous hybrid process was 23.9% higher, although the elongation was slightly lower than the one produced by the conventional wire-drawing process. The plastic deformation was mainly imposed by the ECAP dies, and the wire-drawing dies improve the dimensional accuracy and increase the local strain homogeneity in the continuous hybrid process. It is demonstrated that the continuous hybrid process might be beneficial in commercializing a continuous application of the severe plastic deformation process for producing grain-refined wires for industrial applications.

  17. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants. Volume One. Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The economics of a particular hybrid plant must be evaluated with respect to a specific site. This volume focuses on the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA. The temperature, pressure, and flow rate data given suggests the site deserves serious consideration for a hybrid plant. Key siting considerations which must be addressed before an economic judgment can be attempted are presented as follows: the availability, quality, and cost of coal; the availability of water; and the availability of transmission. Seismological and climate factors are presented. (MHR)

  18. Feasibility and design study of continuously variable capacity refrigeration plant. A demonstration at Safeway plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report concerns a feasibility and design study carried out on a new type of high efficiency refrigeration system for use in supermarkets. The study compared the performance of Margaux Continuously Variable Capacity (CVC) refrigeration equipment with conventional supermarket plant. The tests were carried out at a Presto store in Stanley near Newcastle-upon-Tyne from August 1988 to February 1989. They involved assessment of systems for both chilled food (HT) and frozen food (LT). Significant energy savings were achieved by the CVC equipment. The HT system reduced energy consumption by 56% compared with conventional plant. Measured LT savings were only 13%, although adjustments made for monitoring problems and improved temperature control indicate savings of around 30%. (author)

  19. The Specialist Court for Kosovo: continuity or departure from the hybrid courts model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkёlzen Selimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of whether to establish Specialist Chambers within the Kosovo justice system for alleged war crimes committed in Kosovo has been, arguably, one of the most heated debates not only from a political and social point of view, but also from a legal one. While the required amendments in the Constitution and several laws of Kosovo necessary to establish the Specialist Chambers in furtherance of the agreement dated 14 April 2014 between the Republic of Kosovo and the European Union on the Mission of the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (“EULEX” will certainly create heated debates in the political level, one may argue that the legal issues that are expected to be encountered when the Specialist Chambers will be operational, may be even more pressing. This is in consideration of the peculiar nature of the Specialist Chambers, which are meant to have their basis within the laws of Kosovo, but at the same time, be independent from them and from control of Kosovo authorities. The purpose of this article is to delineate the possible legal issues that might confront the Specialist Chambers of Kosovo. Its main argument is that, while the Specialist Chambers seem to follow the experience of other hybrid internationalised courts, it still differs from them in some aspects. The challenges that the new Specialist Chambers may need to tackle deal with its jurisdiction and position within the Kosovo Judicial system, and its legitimacy and legal basis.

  20. Energy Management of an Off-Grid Hybrid Power Plant with Multiple Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tribioli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an off-grid hybrid power plant with multiple storage systems for an artificial island is designed and two possible strategies for the management of the stored energy are proposed. Renewable power sources (wind/solar technologies are used as primary power suppliers. A lead-acid battery pack (BAT and a reversible polymer electrolyte fuel cell are employed to fulfill the power demand and to absorb extra power. The reversible fuel cell allows reducing costs and occupied space and the fuel cell can be fed by the pure hydrogen produced by means of its reversible operation as an electrolyzer. A diesel engine is employed as backup system. While HOMER Pro® has been employed for a full-factorial-based optimization of the sizes of the renewable sources and the BAT, Matlab/Simulink® has been later used for simulating the plant operation and compare two possible power management control strategies. For the reversible fuel cell sizing, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out varying stack and hydrogen tank sizes. The final choice for plant configuration and power management control strategy has been made on the basis of a comparative analysis of the results, aimed at minimizing fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, battery aging rate and at maximizing the power plant overall efficiency. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of realizing a renewable power plant, able to match the needs of electrical power in a remote area, by achieving a good integration of different energy sources and facing the intermittent nature of renewable power sources, with very low use of fossil fuels.

  1. Selection of Technical Reactor Equipment for Modular, Continuous Small-Scale Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Krasberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast process development, flexible production and the utilization of advanced process conditions are the main goals of modular and continuous small-scale plants (MCSPs. A configurable layout of the modules and the use of predefined equipment enable a quick and reliable conceptual process development and scale-up of continuous processes. Therefore, a computer-assisted selection methodology was developed and is presented, which allows the quick selection of plug flow reactor equipment for homogeneous liquid phase reactions. It identifies a favorable technical apparatus and the configuration in the early stages of process development. This can lead to the effective planning and guiding of scale-up experiments and closes the gap between lab and process development.

  2. Thermo-economic modeling of an indirectly coupled solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheddie, Denver F. [Center for Energy Studies, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago; Murray, Renique [Natural Gas Institute of the Americas, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago

    2010-12-15

    Power generation using gas turbine (GT) power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies, resulting in poor fuel to power conversion. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency, in order to improve system efficiencies and economics. The SOFC system is indirectly coupled to the gas turbine power plant, paying careful attention to minimize the disruption to the GT operation. A thermo-economic model is developed for the hybrid power plant, and predicts an optimized power output of 20.6 MW at 49.9% efficiency. The model also predicts a break-even per-unit energy cost of USD 4.65 cents kWh{sup -1} for the hybrid system based on futuristic mass generation SOFC costs. This shows that SOFCs may be indirectly integrated into existing GT power systems to improve their thermodynamic and economic performance. (author)

  3. Gas production and nutritive value of the whole plant and its components in four hybrids of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galassi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize silage is by far the most popular forage in the Po plain, due to its very high DM yield (20-25 t/ha and the high nutritive value (6.40 MJ NEl/kg DM, on av. derived mainly from its starch content. Some studies were performed on the gas production (GP of maize whole plant and its isolated NDF (Deaville and Givens, 2001; Calabrò et al., 2002. However, little is known about the relative feed value of the different plant fractions (Tolera and Sundstol, 1999. Moreover, genetic selection makes available hybrids with specific characteristics in terms of length of maturity, stay-green, grain yield, type of starch, etc. Therefore, it seemed interesting to evaluate the chemical composition and the rumen fermentation (measured as GP of the whole plant (WP and the various plant fractions in different commercial maize hybrids........

  4. Contrast improvement of continuous wave diffuse optical tomography reconstruction by hybrid approach using least square and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Rusha; Dutta, Pranab K

    2015-07-01

    Reconstruction of the absorption coefficient of tissue with good contrast is of key importance in functional diffuse optical imaging. A hybrid approach using model-based iterative image reconstruction and a genetic algorithm is proposed to enhance the contrast of the reconstructed image. The proposed method yields an observed contrast of 98.4%, mean square error of 0.638×10⁻³, and object centroid error of (0.001 to 0.22) mm. Experimental validation of the proposed method has also been provided with tissue-like phantoms which shows a significant improvement in image quality and thus establishes the potential of the method for functional diffuse optical tomography reconstruction with continuous wave setup. A case study of finger joint imaging is illustrated as well to show the prospect of the proposed method in clinical diagnosis. The method can also be applied to the concentration measurement of a region of interest in a turbid medium.

  5. Application of continuous light in a plant factory system 4. Physiological changes and concept of injury induction in plant leaves under continuous light

    OpenAIRE

    畑, 直樹; 桝田, 正治; 村上,賢治; 小林, 昭雄

    2012-01-01

    Physiological changes and concept of injury induction occurring under continuous light are comprehensively reviewed. Continuous light usually reduces photosynthetic rate, which may relate to changes in transpiration and leaf necrosis caused by reactive oxygen species. Other factors apart from photosynthesis may also affect leaf injuries occurring under continuous light. Continuous light sometimes increases carbohydrate and some secondary metabolite contents.

  6. Optimizing a Hybrid Energy Storage System for a Virtual Power Plant for Improved Wind Power Generation: A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Philipp; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Diosi, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes one approach to find two optimum energy storages (ESs) to build a hybrid system which is part of a virtual power plant. Here it means the combination of the hybrid energy storage system and wind power plant (WPP). The discussed approach is applied in a case study on the power...

  7. Use of Methanation for Optimization of a Hybrid Plant Combining Two-Stage Biomass Gasification, SOFCs and a Micro Gas Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of the two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a micro gas turbine (MGT) was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant is a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized...

  8. A CYTOGENETIC AND PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SOMATIC HYBRID PLANTS OBTAINED AFTER FUSION OF 2 DIFFERENT DIHAPLOID CLONES OF POTATO (SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAARA, S; PIJNACKER, L; FERWERDA, MA; WALLIN, A; ERIKSSON, T

    1992-01-01

    Somatic hybrid plants of various ploidy levels obtained after chemical fusion between two dihaploid clones of potato Solanum tuberosum L. have been analysed by cytological, morphological and molecular methods. The hybrid nature of tetraploid and hexaploid plants and the genome dosage in hexaploid hy

  9. Symbolic-numeric hybrid optimization for plant/controller integrated design in H_∞ loop-shaping design

    OpenAIRE

    Kanno, Masaaki; Hara, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a plant/controller design integration method for H_∞ loop-shaping design based on symbolic-numeric hybrid optimization. This approach firstly employs parametric polynomial spectral factorization to accomplish parametric optimization and derive an expression for the optimal cost. Owing to the obtained expression, sensitivity analysis of the achievable performance level with respect to plant parameters is amenable, which allows numerical optimization methods to seek the opti...

  10. A hybrid reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin and continuous Galerkin finite element method for incompressible flows on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandare, Aditya K.; Luo, Hong

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin and continuous Galerkin method based on an incremental pressure projection formulation, termed rDG (PnPm) + CG (Pn) in this paper, is developed for solving the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids. In this method, a reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method (rDG (PnPm)) is used to discretize the velocity and a standard continuous Galerkin method (CG (Pn)) is used to approximate the pressure. The rDG (PnPm) + CG (Pn) method is designed to increase the accuracy of the hybrid DG (Pn) + CG (Pn) method and yet still satisfy Ladyženskaja-Babuška-Brezzi (LBB) condition, thus avoiding the pressure checkerboard instability. An upwind method is used to discretize the nonlinear convective fluxes in the momentum equations in order to suppress spurious oscillations in the velocity field. A number of incompressible flow problems for a variety of flow conditions are computed to numerically assess the spatial order of convergence of the rDG (PnPm) + CG (Pn) method. The numerical experiments indicate that both rDG (P0P1) + CG (P1) and rDG (P1P2) + CG (P1) methods can attain the designed 2nd order and 3rd order accuracy in space for the velocity respectively. Moreover, the 3rd order rDG (P1P2) + CG (P1) method significantly outperforms its 2nd order rDG (P0P1) + CG (P1) and rDG (P1P1) + CG (P1) counterparts: being able to not only increase the accuracy of the velocity by one order but also improve the accuracy of the pressure.

  11. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  12. ITS polymorphisms shed light on hybrid evolution in apomictic plants: a case study on the Ranunculus auricomus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodač, Ladislav; Scheben, Armin Patrick; Hojsgaard, Diego; Paun, Ovidiu; Hörandl, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of reticulate evolutionary histories in plants is still a major methodological challenge. Sequences of the ITS nrDNA are a popular marker to analyze hybrid relationships, but variation of this multicopy spacer region is affected by concerted evolution, high intraindividual polymorphism, and shifts in mode of reproduction. The relevance of changes in secondary structure is still under dispute. We aim to shed light on the extent of polymorphism within and between sexual species and their putative natural as well as synthetic hybrid derivatives in the Ranunculus auricomus complex to test morphology-based hypotheses of hybrid origin and parentage of taxa. We employed direct sequencing of ITS nrDNA from 68 individuals representing three sexuals, their synthetic hybrids and one sympatric natural apomict, as well as cloning of ITS copies in four representative individuals, RNA secondary structure analysis, and landmark geometric morphometric analysis on leaves. Phylogenetic network analyses indicate additivity of parental ITS variants in both synthetic and natural hybrids. The triploid synthetic hybrids are genetically much closer to their maternal progenitors, probably due to ploidy dosage effects, although exhibiting a paternal-like leaf morphology. The natural hybrids are genetically and morphologically closer to the putative paternal progenitor species. Secondary structures of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 were rather conserved in all taxa. The observed similarities in ITS polymorphisms suggest that the natural apomict R. variabilis is an ancient hybrid of the diploid sexual species R. notabilis and the sexual species R. cassubicifolius. The additivity pattern shared by R. variabilis and the synthetic hybrids supports an evolutionary and biogeographical scenario that R. variabilis originated from ancient hybridization. Concerted evolution of ITS copies in R. variabilis is incomplete, probably due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Under the condition of

  13. ITS polymorphisms shed light on hybrid evolution in apomictic plants: a case study on the Ranunculus auricomus complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Hodač

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of reticulate evolutionary histories in plants is still a major methodological challenge. Sequences of the ITS nrDNA are a popular marker to analyze hybrid relationships, but variation of this multicopy spacer region is affected by concerted evolution, high intraindividual polymorphism, and shifts in mode of reproduction. The relevance of changes in secondary structure is still under dispute. We aim to shed light on the extent of polymorphism within and between sexual species and their putative natural as well as synthetic hybrid derivatives in the Ranunculus auricomus complex to test morphology-based hypotheses of hybrid origin and parentage of taxa. We employed direct sequencing of ITS nrDNA from 68 individuals representing three sexuals, their synthetic hybrids and one sympatric natural apomict, as well as cloning of ITS copies in four representative individuals, RNA secondary structure analysis, and landmark geometric morphometric analysis on leaves. Phylogenetic network analyses indicate additivity of parental ITS variants in both synthetic and natural hybrids. The triploid synthetic hybrids are genetically much closer to their maternal progenitors, probably due to ploidy dosage effects, although exhibiting a paternal-like leaf morphology. The natural hybrids are genetically and morphologically closer to the putative paternal progenitor species. Secondary structures of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 were rather conserved in all taxa. The observed similarities in ITS polymorphisms suggest that the natural apomict R. variabilis is an ancient hybrid of the diploid sexual species R. notabilis and the sexual species R. cassubicifolius. The additivity pattern shared by R. variabilis and the synthetic hybrids supports an evolutionary and biogeographical scenario that R. variabilis originated from ancient hybridization. Concerted evolution of ITS copies in R. variabilis is incomplete, probably due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Under the

  14. Two-loop controller for maximizing performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic - fuel cell hybrid power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoungsoo

    The study started with the requirement that a photovoltaic (PV) power source should be integrated with other supplementary power sources whether it operates in a stand-alone or grid-connected mode. First, fuel cells for a backup of varying PV power were compared in detail with batteries and were found to have more operational benefits. Next, maximizing performance of a grid-connected PV-fuel cell hybrid system by use of a two-loop controller was discussed. One loop is a neural network controller for maximum power point tracking, which extracts maximum available solar power from PV arrays under varying conditions of insolation, temperature, and system load. A real/reactive power controller (RRPC) is the other loop. The RRPC meets the system's requirement for real and reactive powers by controlling incoming fuel to fuel cell stacks as well as switching control signals to a power conditioning subsystem. The RRPC is able to achieve more versatile control of real/reactive powers than the conventional power sources since the hybrid power plant does not contain any rotating mass. Results of time-domain simulations prove not only effectiveness of the proposed computer models of the two-loop controller, but also their applicability for use in transient stability analysis of the hybrid power plant. Finally, environmental evaluation of the proposed hybrid plant was made in terms of plant's land requirement and lifetime COsb2 emissions, and then compared with that of the conventional fossil-fuel power generating forms.

  15. Treatment of coke plant wastewater by SND fixed biofilm hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Rong; YANG Kun; YU Zhao-xiang

    2007-01-01

    In this article, coke plant wastewater was treated by a simultaneous nitrifying and denitrifying (SND) fixed biofilm hybrid system. The results showed that suitable parameters of the system were important for the performance of the bio-degradation system. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency in this system was satisfactory, higher than 94%, and ammonia nitrogen was higher than 95%. The effluent COD concentration could meet the discharge standard, except for very few situations. The results showed that a sufficient carbon source was important for making ammonia nitrogen concentration meet the discharge standard. Then the TN removal efficiency in this system can be brought higher than 94%. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is very important to the performance of the SND bio-degradation system, and the suitable DO is about 3.5-4.0 mg/L at the forepart of reactor. In addition, the performance of the system was almost not affected by pH value. The results show that the system is feasible to treat coke plant wastewater.

  16. Solar Field Optical Characterization at Stillwater Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guangdong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory,15013 Denver West Parkway,Golden, CO 80401e-mail: Guangdong.Zhu@nrel.gov; Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Laboratory,15013 Denver West Parkway,Golden, CO 80401

    2017-01-27

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) can provide additional thermal energy to boost geothermal plant power generation. For a newly constructed solar field at a geothermal power plant site, it is critical to properly characterize its performance so that the prediction of thermal power generation can be derived to develop an optimum operating strategy for a hybrid system. In the past, laboratory characterization of a solar collector has often extended into the solar field performance model and has been used to predict the actual solar field performance, disregarding realistic impacting factors. In this work, an extensive measurement on mirror slope error and receiver position error has been performed in the field by using the optical characterization tool called Distant Observer (DO). Combining a solar reflectance sampling procedure, a newly developed solar characterization program called FirstOPTIC and public software for annual performance modeling called System Advisor Model (SAM), a comprehensive solar field optical characterization has been conducted, thus allowing for an informed prediction of solar field annual performance. The paper illustrates this detailed solar field optical characterization procedure and demonstrates how the results help to quantify an appropriate tracking-correction strategy to improve solar field performance. In particular, it is found that an appropriate tracking-offset algorithm can improve the solar field performance by about 15%. The work here provides a valuable reference for the growing CSP industry.

  17. Modelling of a hybrid plant and development of a control system for the Vaesthamn plant based on artificial neural networks; Modellering av hybridanlaeggning samt utveckling av oevervakningssystem foer Vaesthamnsverket baserat paa Artificiella Neurala Naetverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen; Fast, Magnus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

    2006-12-15

    The project aim is to model the hybrid plant at Vaesthamnsverket in Helsingborg using artificial neural networks (ANN). The definition of a hybrid plant is that it uses more than one fuel, in this case a natural gas fuelled gas turbine with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a biomass fuelled steam boiler with steam turbine. The models in the present project are based on operational data from the plant in contrary to previous projects where synthetic (simulated) data has been used in a large extent. The gas turbine represents the subsystem that has received most attention in previous projects, which will also be the case for the present project although models of the HRSG, steam boiler and steam turbine are created since the whole plant is of interest. The completed ANN sub modules are connected in a network, which can be used for e.g. offline simulation and real-time condition monitoring of the plant. A product, including all sub modules, is created in shape of a user-friendly interface in an MS Excel environment. This user interface can be used for continuous monitoring, training personnel and in planning of the operation. The target group is the plant owners and the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). The plant owners interest lies in receiving a product that can assist them when operating the plant, for instance supply them with information about the grade of degradation. The OEMs main interest lies in investigating the possibilities of delivering ANNs, based on synthetic data, along with their new gas turbines. Vaesthamnsverket have contributed with operational data from the plant as well as support in plant related questions. Siemens have contributed with expert knowledge about their gas turbine, the SGT800. The received data has been examined and filtered before used for training ANN models. The models have been evaluated with independent data. The results are very promising with ANN models showing high prediction accuracy. All subsystems can be

  18. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Development of disease tolerant lines of hotpepper by using radiation and interspecific hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Su; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul [Nongwoo Seed Co., Suwon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To obtain disease resistant mutant lines, 6 inbred lines were hotppepers were irradiated with 250Gy of gamma ray and crossed between cultivar and wild species. 1) 4500 M{sub 1} plants were cultivated for obtaining M{sub 2} seed in 6 inbred lines of hotpeppers irradiated with 250 Gy of gamma ray. 2) Crossability was not generally existed among interspecific crosses, crossability between C. annum and C. chacoense was successful except crosses between C. annum, C. pubescens and C. eximium. 3) The embryo disected 45 days after pollination was suitable for embryo culture. 4) Hybrid plants were obtained from the embryo culture of the combination between C. annum and C. chacoense, while abnormal hybrid plants occurred from the combination between C. annum and C. baccatum. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  19. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Versus Next-Generation Sequencing in Plant Genetic Engineering: Challenges and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, Mahbod; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Azizi, Parisa; Hakim, Abdul; Ashkani, Sadegh; Abiri, Rambod

    2015-10-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) is an effective method to identify different genes with different expression levels involved in a variety of biological processes. This method has often been used to study molecular mechanisms of plants in complex relationships with different pathogens and a variety of biotic stresses. Compared to other techniques used in gene expression profiling, SSH needs relatively smaller amounts of the initial materials, with lower costs, and fewer false positives present within the results. Extraction of total RNA from plant species rich in phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, and polysaccharides that easily bind to nucleic acids through cellular mechanisms is difficult and needs to be considered. Remarkable advancement has been achieved in the next-generation sequencing (NGS) field. As a result of progress within fields related to molecular chemistry and biology as well as specialized engineering, parallelization in the sequencing reaction has exceptionally enhanced the overall read number of generated sequences per run. Currently available sequencing platforms support an earlier unparalleled view directly into complex mixes associated with RNA in addition to DNA samples. NGS technology has demonstrated the ability to sequence DNA with remarkable swiftness, therefore allowing previously unthinkable scientific accomplishments along with novel biological purposes. However, the massive amounts of data generated by NGS impose a substantial challenge with regard to data safe-keeping and analysis. This review examines some simple but vital points involved in preparing the initial material for SSH and introduces this method as well as its associated applications to detect different novel genes from different plant species. This review evaluates general concepts, basic applications, plus the probable results of NGS technology in genomics, with unique mention of feasible potential tools as well as bioinformatics.

  20. MR-based truncation and attenuation correction in integrated PET/MR hybrid imaging using HUGE with continuous table motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Maike E; Oehmigen, Mark; Blumhagen, Jan O; Gratz, Marcel; Quick, Harald H

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce and evaluate a method for MR-based attenuation and truncation correction in phantom and patient measurements to improve PET quantification in PET/MR hybrid imaging. The fully MR-based method HUGE (B0 Homogenization using gradient enhancement) provides field-of-view extension in MR imaging, which can be used for truncation correction and improved PET quantification in PET/MR hybrid imaging. The HUGE method in this recent implementation is combined with continuously moving table data acquisition to provide a seamless nontruncated whole-body data set of the outer patient contours to complete the established standard MR-based Dixon-VIBE data for attenuation correction. The method was systematically evaluated in NEMA standard phantom experiments to investigate the impact of HUGE truncation correction on PET quantification. The method was then applied to 24 oncologic patients in whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging. The impact of MR-based truncation correction with HUGE on PET data was compared to the impact of the established PET-based MLAA algorithm for contour detection. In phantom and in all patient measurements, the standard Dixon-VIBE attenuation correction data show geometric distortions and signal truncations at the edges of the MR imaging field-of-view. In contrast, the Dixon-VIBE-based attenuation correction data additionally extended by applying HUGE shows significantly less distortion and truncations and due to the continuously moving table acquisition robustly provides smooth outer contours of the patient arms. In the investigated patient cases, MLAA frequently showed an overestimation of arm volume and associated artifacts limiting contour detection. When applying HUGE, an average relative increase in SUVmean in patients' lesion of 4.2% and for MLAA of 4.6% were measured, when compared to standard Dixon-VIBE only. In specific lesions maximal differences in SUVmean up to 13% for HUGE and 14% for MLAA were measured

  1. Achieving nitrogen removal via nitrite in a pilot-scale continuous pre-denitrification plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Yuan, Zhiguo; Wang, Xiaolian

    2009-02-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is beneficial for carbon-limited biological wastewater treatment plants. However, partial nitrification to nitrite has proven difficult in continuous processes treating domestic wastewater. The nitrite pathway is achieved in this study in a pilot-scale continuous pre-denitrification plant (V=300 L) treating domestic wastewater by controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at 0.4-0.7 mg/L. It is demonstrated that the nitrite pathway could be repeatedly and reliably achieved, with over 95% of the oxidized nitrogen compounds at the end of the aerobic zone being nitrite. The nitrite pathway improved the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 20% in comparison to the nitrate pathway, and also reduced aeration costs by 24%. FISH analysis showed that the nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population gradually reduced at low DO levels, and reached negligible levels when stable nitrite pathway was established. It is hypothesized that NOB was washed out due to its relatively lower affinity with oxygen. A lag phase was observed in the establishment of the nitrite pathway. Several sludge ages were required for the onset of the nitrite pathway after the application of low DO levels. However, nitrite accumulation increased rapidly after that. A similar lag phase was observed for the upset of the nitrite pathway when a DO concentration of 2-3 mg/L was applied. The nitrite pathway negatively impacted on the sludge settleability. A strong correlation between the sludge volume index and the degree of nitrite accumulation was observed.

  2. Condition monitoring and thermoeconomic optimization of operation for a hybrid plant using artificial neural networks; Tillstaandsoevervakning och termoekonomisk driftoptimering av en hybridanlaeggning med artificiella neurala naetverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Magnus; Assadi, Mohsen

    2007-12-15

    The project aim is to model the hybrid plant at Vaesthamnsverket in Helsingborg using artificial neural networks (ANN) and integrating the ANN models, for online condition monitoring and thermoeconomic optimization, at Vaesthamnsverket. The definition of a hybrid plant is that it uses more than one fuel, in this case a natural gas fuelled gas turbine with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a biomass fuelled steam boiler with steam turbine. The project is a continuation of previous projects where ANN training was done with operational data from the plant. The ANN models have, if required, been updated to better suit the purpose of this project. The thermoeconomic optimization takes into account current electricity prices, taxes, fuel prices etc. and calculates the current production cost along with the 'predicted' production cost. The tool also has a built in feature of predicting when a compressor wash is economically beneficial. The user interface is developed together with co-workers at Vaesthamnsverket to ensure its usefulness. The user interface includes functions for warnings and alarms when possible deviations in operation occur and also includes a feature for plotting parameter trends in optional time intervals, both measured values and predicted. The target group is the plant owners and the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). The power plant owners want to acquire a product for condition monitoring and thermoeconomic optimization of e.g. maintenance. The OEMs main interest lies in investigating the possibilities of delivering ANN models along with their new gas turbines. The project has been carried out at Lund University, Department of Energy Sciences, with support from Vaesthamnsverket and Siemens. Vaesthamnsverket have contributed with operational data from the plant as well as support in plant related questions. They have also been involved in the implementation of the ANN models in their computer system and the development of the

  3. A detector insert based on continuous scintillators for hybrid MR–PET imaging of the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rato Mendes, P., E-mail: pedro.rato@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cuerdo, R.; Sarasola, I.; García de Acilu, P.; Navarrete, J.; Vela, O.; Oller, J.C.; Cela, J.M. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Núñez, L.; Pastrana, M. [Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Manuel de Falla 1, 28222 Majadahonda (Spain); Romero, L.; Willmott, C. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-02-21

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) insert for existing magnetic resonance (MR) equipment, aiming at hybrid MR–PET imaging. Our detector block design is based on trapezoid-shaped LYSO:Ce monolithic scintillators coupled to magnetically compatible Hamamatsu S8550-02 silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) matrices with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout from GammaMedica-Ideas (Fornebu, Norway). The detectors are position sensitive, capable of determining the incidence point of 511 keV gammas with an intrinsic spatial resolution on the order of 2 mm by means of supervised learning neural-network (NN) algorithms. These algorithms, apart from providing continuous coordinates, are also intrinsically corrected for depth of interaction effects and thus parallax-free. Recently we have implemented an advanced prototype featuring two heads with four detector blocks each and final front-end and readout electronics, improving the spatial resolution of reconstructed point source images down to 1.7 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM). Presently we are carrying out operational tests of components and systems under magnetic fields using a 3 T MR scanner. In this paper we present a description of our project, a summary of the results obtained with laboratory prototypes, and the strategy to build and install the complete system at the nuclear medicine department of a collaborating hospital.

  4. A Hybrid Secure Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks against Timing Attacks Using Continuous-Time Markov Chain and Queueing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhui Meng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have recently gained popularity for a wide spectrum of applications. Monitoring tasks can be performed in various environments. This may be beneficial in many scenarios, but it certainly exhibits new challenges in terms of security due to increased data transmission over the wireless channel with potentially unknown threats. Among possible security issues are timing attacks, which are not prevented by traditional cryptographic security. Moreover, the limited energy and memory resources prohibit the use of complex security mechanisms in such systems. Therefore, balancing between security and the associated energy consumption becomes a crucial challenge. This paper proposes a secure scheme for WSNs while maintaining the requirement of the security-performance tradeoff. In order to proceed to a quantitative treatment of this problem, a hybrid continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC and queueing model are put forward, and the tradeoff analysis of the security and performance attributes is carried out. By extending and transforming this model, the mean time to security attributes failure is evaluated. Through tradeoff analysis, we show that our scheme can enhance the security of WSNs, and the optimal rekeying rate of the performance and security tradeoff can be obtained.

  5. A detector insert based on continuous scintillators for hybrid MR-PET imaging of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato Mendes, P.; Cuerdo, R.; Sarasola, I.; García de Acilu, P.; Navarrete, J.; Vela, O.; Oller, J. C.; Cela, J. M.; Núñez, L.; Pastrana, M.; Romero, L.; Willmott, C.

    2013-02-01

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) insert for existing magnetic resonance (MR) equipment, aiming at hybrid MR-PET imaging. Our detector block design is based on trapezoid-shaped LYSO:Ce monolithic scintillators coupled to magnetically compatible Hamamatsu S8550-02 silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) matrices with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout from GammaMedica-Ideas (Fornebu, Norway). The detectors are position sensitive, capable of determining the incidence point of 511 keV gammas with an intrinsic spatial resolution on the order of 2 mm by means of supervised learning neural-network (NN) algorithms. These algorithms, apart from providing continuous coordinates, are also intrinsically corrected for depth of interaction effects and thus parallax-free. Recently we have implemented an advanced prototype featuring two heads with four detector blocks each and final front-end and readout electronics, improving the spatial resolution of reconstructed point source images down to 1.7 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM). Presently we are carrying out operational tests of components and systems under magnetic fields using a 3 T MR scanner. In this paper we present a description of our project, a summary of the results obtained with laboratory prototypes, and the strategy to build and install the complete system at the nuclear medicine department of a collaborating hospital.

  6. Circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and their covariation with plant hydraulic traits in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitern, Annika; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Sellin, Arne

    2017-06-01

    Physiological processes taking place in plants are subject to diverse circadian patterns but some of them are poorly documented in natural conditions. The daily dynamics of physico-chemical properties of xylem sap and their covariation with tree hydraulic traits were investigated in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx) in field conditions in order to clarify which environmental drivers govern the daily variation in these parameters. K(+) concentration ([K(+)]), electrical conductivity (σsap), osmolality (Osm) and pH of the xylem sap, as well as branch hydraulic traits, were measured in the field over 24-h cycles. All studied xylem sap properties and hydraulic characteristics including whole-branch (Kwb), leaf blade (Klb) and petiole hydraulic conductances (KP) showed clear daily dynamics. Air temperature (TA) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), but also water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and relative humidity (RH), had significant impacts on KwbKlb, KP, [K(+)] and σsap. Osm varied only with light intensity, while KB varied depending on atmospheric evaporative demand expressed as TA, VPD or RH. Xylem sap pH depended inversely on soil water potential (ΨS) and during daylight also on VPD. Although soil water content was close to saturation during the study period, ΨS influenced also [K(+)] and σsap. The present study presents evidence of coupling between circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and plant hydraulic conductance providing adequate water supply to foliage under environmental conditions characterised by diurnal variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. On the need for new continues measurement techniques at combustion plants; Anlaeggningars behov av ny kontinuerlig maetteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskilsson, David; Samuelsson, Jessica [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to make an inventory regarding the need for new continuous measurement techniques at combustion plants in Sweden. In total 15 interviews at 15 different combustion plants were made. The interviewed plants are of different sizes and use different combustion techniques, fuels, and cleaning equipments. They thereby well reflect the combustion plants present in Sweden today. Among many interesting interview results, we chose to highlight: Continuous measurement of the moisture content of the fuel, which can be used to decide the value of a fuel delivery, or for monitoring or to controlling the combustion (e.g. the speed of the grate); Continuous measurement of the heating value of the fuel, which can be used to decide the value of a fuel delivery, or for monitoring or to controlling the combustion. There is a need for temperature sensors which better withstand the environment in the furnace. Moreover, there is also a need for 3-dimensional measurements of the temperature in the furnace, especially for fluidized beds. This information can be used to control the combustion in different ways, e.g. preventing the bed from sintering. At some plants there was a need to measure the rate of corrosion and the growth of deposits. The measurements can be used to control the fuel mix at an early stage and to thereby avoid problems caused by corrosion and deposits. The measurement results can also be used to control the soot cleaning equipment, fuel mixture and adding of additive. At some of the interviewed plants there was a need to continuously measure the amount of unburned fuel in the ash. The continuous measurement results can be used for automatic control or monitoring of the combustion process. Several plants had problems with their dust instruments. Suitable topics for future work include investigating how the measurement techniques mentioned above may be developed/improved and implemented at the plants.

  8. Solar hybrid power plants: Solar energy contribution in reaching full dispatchability and firmness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge F.; López, Diego; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Rocha, Alberto R.; Pereira, Daniel; Gonzalez, Lucía

    2016-05-01

    Renewable energies for electricity generation have always been considered as a risk for the electricity system due to its lack of dispatchability and firmness. Renewable energies penetration is constrained to strong grids or else its production must be limited to ensure grid stability, which is kept by the usage of hydropower energy or fossil-fueled power plants. CSP technology has an opportunity to arise not only as a dispatchable and firm technology, but also as an alternative that improves grid stability. To achieve that objective, solar hybrid configurations are being developed, being the most representative three different solutions: SAPG, ISCC and HYSOL. A reference scenario in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been defined to compare these solutions, which have been modelled, simulated and evaluated in terms of dispatchability and firmness using ratios defined by the authors. The results show that: a) SAPG obtains the highest firmness KPI values, but no operation constraints have been considered for the coal boiler and the solar energy contribution is limited to 1.7%, b) ISCC provides dispatchable and firm electricity production but its solar energy contribution is limited to a 6.4%, and c) HYSOL presents the higher solar energy contribution of all the technologies considered: 66.0% while providing dispatchable and firm generation in similar conditions as SAPG and ISCC.

  9. Development of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for visualizing CGMMV in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargil, D; Zemach, H; Belausov, E; Lachman, O; Kamenetsky, R; Dombrovsky, A

    2015-10-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), which belongs to the genus Tobamovirus, is a major pathogen of cucurbit crops grown indoors and in open fields. Currently, immunology (e.g., ELISA) and molecular amplification techniques (e.g., RT-PCR) are employed extensively for virus detection in plant tissues and commercial seed lots diagnostics. In this study, a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using oligonucleotides whose 5'-terminals were labeled with red cyanine 3 (Cy3) or green fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), was developed for the visualization of the pathogen in situ. This simple and reliable method allows detection and localization of CGMMV in the vegetative and reproductive tissues of cucumber and melon. When this technique was applied in male flowers, anther tissues were found to be infected; whereas the pollen grains were found to be virus-free. These results have meaningful epidemiological implications for the management of CGMMV, particularly with regard to virus transfer via seed and the role of insects as CGMMV vectors.

  10. Identification of cold tolerance genes from leaves of mangrove plant Kandelia obovata by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jiao; Wang, You-Shao; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jian-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that seriously limits mangrove productivity and distribution, the molecular mechanisms of cold tolerance involved in mangroves are still poorly understood at present. It was used to identify the potential cold-related genes in Kandelia obovata (K. obovata) by suppression subtractive hybridization. 334 cold-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) out of 670 clones were isolated and sequenced. Among these ESTs, 143 unique cDNAs were identified and classified into ten groups, such as metabolism, energy, cell rescue and defense, transcription and photosynthesis according to NCBI blast. Based on bioinformatics analysis, these ESTs were mainly related to response to stimulus and metabolic process, and were included to 72 KEGG pathways. Two selected genes (e.g., aquaporin gene and zinc family protein gene) from the library were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Both the two genes were found to be transcriptionally up-regulated under cold stress, which partly approve the construction of the subtractive cDNA library. The diversity of the putative functions of these genes indicated that cold stress resulted in a complex response in K. obovata. Further investigation on the functions and potential pathways of these genes will facilitate the understanding of the molecular adaptations to cold tolerance in mangrove plants.

  11. Recovery of Hydrogen from Ammonia Plant Tail Gas by Absorption-Hydration Hybrid Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓓; 王秀林; 唐绪龙; 杨兰英; 孙长宇; 陈光进

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the absorption-hydration hybrid method was used to recover (hydrogen + nitrogen) from (hydrogen + nitrogen + methane + argon) tail gas mixtures of synthetic ammonia plant through hydrate formation/dissociation. A high-pressure reactor with magnetic stirrer was used to study the separation efficiency. The in-fluences of the concentration of anti-agglomerant, temperature, pressure, initial gas-liquid volume ratio, and oil-water volume ratio on the separation efficiency were systematically investigated in the presence of tetrahydro-furan (THF). Anti-agglomerant was used to disperse hydrate particles into the condensate phase for water-in-oil emulsion system. Since nitrogen is the material for ammonia production, the objective production in our separation process is (hydrogen + nitrogen). Our experimental results show that by adopting appropriate operating conditions, high concentration of (hydrogen + nitrogen) can be obtained using the proposed technology based on forming hydrate.

  12. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI is introduced as a parameter to predict PV power. AQI, which is an indication of how polluted the air is, has been known to have a strong correlation with power generated by the PV panels. In this paper, a hybrid method based on the model of conventional back propagation (BP neural network for clear weather and BP AQI model for haze weather is used to forecast PV power with conventional parameters like temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and an extra parameter of AQI as input. The results show that the proposed method has less error under haze condition as compared to conventional model of neural network.

  13. For Time-Continuous Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Ayres, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for optimisation in design normatively assume an artefact end-point, disallowing continuous architecture that engages living systems, dynamic behaviour, and complex systems. In our Flora Robotica investigations of symbiotic plant-robot bio-hybrids, we re- quire computational tools...

  14. For Time-Continuous Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Ayres, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for optimisation in design normatively assume an artefact end-point, disallowing continuous architecture that engages living systems, dynamic behaviour, and complex systems. In our Flora Robotica investigations of symbiotic plant-robot bio-hybrids, we re- quire computational tools...

  15. Effect of a type of hybrid on the chemical composition and digestibility of organic matter of whole maize plant silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Podkówka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-year long study (2009-2011 was conducted on seven single-cross and seven three-way-cross corn varieties. Entire chopped plant silage was ensiled in microsiloses of 1.7 l capacity. The content of dry matter, crude, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and starch were determined in the forage produced from silage. The levels of detergent fibre NDF and ADF, as well as ADL-lignin and organic matter digestibility of silage via in vitro method were also determ­ined. Single-cross hybrids showed lower concentrations of crude protein and crude fat and more NFC than three-way-cross (P ≤ 0.01. Other nutrients showed no statistically significant differences. Hybrid type did not affect the digestibility of organic matter. The year of the research had a high statistically significant effect on the nutrient content of dry matter and organic matter digestibility of whole corn plant silage. Influence was stated of the hybrid type and year of the research on crude protein concentration (P ≤ 0.05, acid detergent lignin and crude lignin concentration (P ≤ 0.01 in the studied hybrids of corn.

  16. Design of a DCS Based Model for Continuous Leakage Monitoring System of Rotary Air Preheater of a Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan BHOWMICK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leakage in rotary air preheater makes a considerable contribution to the reduced overall efficiency of fossil-fuel-fired thermal power plants and increase the effect on environment. Since it is normal phenomenon, continuous monitoring of leakage is generally omitted in most power plants. But for accurate analysis of the operation of the thermal power plant, this leakage monitoring plays a vital role. In the present paper, design of a DCS based model for continuous leakages monitoring of rotary air preheater has been described. In the proposed model, the existing DCS based instrumentation system has been modified and online leakage monitoring system has been developed. This model has been installed in a captive power plant with high capacity boilers and very much satisfactory operation of this system has been observed. The observed online data along with their analysis results are presented in this paper.

  17. Stability and Sensitivity Analysis of a Plant Disease Model with Continuous Cultural Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a plant disease model with continuous cultural control strategy and time delay is formulated. Then, how the time delay affects the overall disease progression and, mathematically, how the delay affects the dynamics of the model are investigated. By analyzing the transendental characteristic equation, stability conditions related to the time delay are derived for the disease-free equilibrium. Specially, when R0=1, the Jacobi matrix of the model at the disease-free equilibrium always has a simple zero eigenvalue for all τ≥0. The center manifold reduction and the normal form theory are used to discuss the stability and the steady-state bifurcations of the model near the nonhyperbolic disease-free equilibrium. Then, the sensitivity analysis of the threshold parameter R0 and the positive equilibrium E* is carried out in order to determine the relative importance of different factors responsible for disease transmission. Finally, numerical simulations are employed to support the qualitative results.

  18. Novel roaming and stationary tethered aerial robots for continuous mobile missions in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Rim, Chun T. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cai, Guowei; Seneviratne, Lakmal [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, new tethered aerial robots including roaming tethered aerial robots (RTARs) for radioactive material sampling and stationary tethered aerial robots (STARs) for environment monitoring are proposed to meet extremely-long-endurance missions of nuclear power plants. The flight of the proposed tethered aerial robots may last for a few days or even a few months as long as the tethered cable provides continuous power. A high voltage AC or DC power system was newly adopted to reduce the mass of the tethered cable. The RTAR uses a tethered cable spooled from the aerial robot and an aerial tension control system. The aerial tension control system provides the appropriate tension to the tethered cable, which is accordingly laid down on the ground as the RTAR roams. The STAR includes a tethered cable spooled from the ground and a ground tension control system, which enables the STAR to reach high altitudes. Prototypes of the RTAR and STAR were designed and successfully demonstrated in outdoor environments, where the load power, power type, operating frequency, and flight attitude of the RTAR and STAR were: 180 W, AC 100 kHz, and 20 m; and 300 W, AC or DC 100 kHz, and 80 m, respectively.

  19. High Efficiency Somatic Embrogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Suspension Cultures of an Ornamental Ginger Hybrid (Hedychium muluense x cv ‘Starburst’)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants were successfully regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of an ornamental ginger hybrid, Hedychium muluense x cv ‘Starburst’. H. muluense is a dwarf species and ‘Starburst’ is a hybrid cultivar with white and very fragrant flowers in a circular, wheel-like arrang...

  20. Native root-associated bacteria rescue a plant from a sudden-wilt disease that emerged during continuous cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Rakesh; Luu, Van Thi; Weinhold, Arne; Goldberg, Jay; Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-09-01

    Plants maintain microbial associations whose functions remain largely unknown. For the past 15 y, we have planted the annual postfire tobacco Nicotiana attenuata into an experimental field plot in the plant's native habitat, and for the last 8 y the number of plants dying from a sudden wilt disease has increased, leading to crop failure. Inadvertently we had recapitulated the common agricultural dilemma of pathogen buildup associated with continuous cropping for this native plant. Plants suffered sudden tissue collapse and black roots, symptoms similar to a Fusarium-Alternaria disease complex, recently characterized in a nearby native population and developed into an in vitro pathosystem for N. attenuata. With this in vitro disease system, different protection strategies (fungicide and inoculations with native root-associated bacterial and fungal isolates), together with a biochar soil amendment, were tested further in the field. A field trial with more than 900 plants in two field plots revealed that inoculation with a mixture of native bacterial isolates significantly reduced disease incidence and mortality in the infected field plot without influencing growth, herbivore resistance, or 32 defense and signaling metabolites known to mediate resistance against native herbivores. Tests in a subsequent year revealed that a core consortium of five bacteria was essential for disease reduction. This consortium, but not individual members of the root-associated bacteria community which this plant normally recruits during germination from native seed banks, provides enduring resistance against fungal diseases, demonstrating that native plants develop opportunistic mutualisms with prokaryotes that solve context-dependent ecological problems.

  1. Gamete fertility and ovule number variation in selfed reciprocal F1 hybrid triploid plants are heritable and display epigenetic parent-of-origin effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszynska, Dorota; McKeown, Peter C; Juenger, Thomas E; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, Anna; Geelen, Danny; Spillane, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Polyploidy and hybridization play major roles in plant evolution and reproduction. To investigate the reproductive effects of polyploidy and hybridization in Arabidopsis thaliana, we analyzed fertility of reciprocal pairs of F1 hybrid triploids, generated by reciprocally crossing 89 diploid accessions to a tetraploid Ler-0 line. All F1 hybrid triploid genotypes exhibited dramatically reduced ovule fertility, while variation in ovule number per silique was observed across different F1 triploid genotypes. These two reproductive traits were negatively correlated suggesting a trade-off between increased ovule number and ovule fertility. Furthermore, the ovule fertility of the F1 hybrid triploids displayed both hybrid dysgenesis and hybrid advantage (heterosis) effects. Strikingly, both reproductive traits (ovule fertility, ovule number) displayed epigenetic parent-of-origin effects between genetically identical reciprocal F1 hybrid triploid pairs. In some F1 triploid genotypes, the maternal genome excess F1 hybrid triploid was more fertile, whilst for other accessions the paternal genome excess F1 hybrid triploid was more fertile. Male gametogenesis was not significantly disrupted in F1 triploids. Fertility variation in the F1 triploid A. thaliana is mainly the result of disrupted ovule development. Overall, we demonstrate that in F1 triploid plants both ovule fertility and ovule number are subject to parent-of-origin effects that are genome dosage-dependent.

  2. The disadvantages of being a hybrid during drought: A combined analysis of plant morphology, physiology and leaf proteome in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holá, Dana; Benešová, Monika; Fischer, Lukáš; Haisel, Daniel; Hnilička, František; Hniličková, Helena; Jedelský, Petr L; Kočová, Marie; Procházková, Dagmar; Rothová, Olga; Tůmová, Lenka; Wilhelmová, Naďa

    2017-01-01

    A comparative analysis of various parameters that characterize plant morphology, growth, water status, photosynthesis, cell damage, and antioxidative and osmoprotective systems together with an iTRAQ analysis of the leaf proteome was performed in two inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) differing in drought susceptibility and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. The aim of this study was to dissect the parent-hybrid relationships to better understand the mechanisms of the heterotic effect and its potential association with the stress response. The results clearly showed that the four examined genotypes have completely different strategies for coping with limited water availability and that the inherent properties of the F1 hybrids, i.e. positive heterosis in morphological parameters (or, more generally, a larger plant body) becomes a distinct disadvantage when the water supply is limited. However, although a greater loss of photosynthetic efficiency was an inherent disadvantage, the precise causes and consequences of the original predisposition towards faster growth and biomass accumulation differed even between reciprocal hybrids. Both maternal and paternal parents could be imitated by their progeny in some aspects of the drought response (e.g., the absence of general protein down-regulation, changes in the levels of some carbon fixation or other photosynthetic proteins). Nevertheless, other features (e.g., dehydrin or light-harvesting protein contents, reduced chloroplast proteosynthesis) were quite unique to a particular hybrid. Our study also confirmed that the strategy for leaving stomata open even when the water supply is limited (coupled to a smaller body size and some other physiological properties), observed in one of our inbred lines, is associated with drought-resistance not only during mild drought (as we showed previously) but also during more severe drought conditions.

  3. Intersubgeneric hybridization between Glycine max and G. tomentella: production of F₁, amphidiploid, BC₁, BC₂, BC₃, and fertile soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R J; Nelson, R L

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes methods for unlocking genetic treasure from wild perennial Glycine species of Australia for soybean improvement. The genetic resources of the ca. 26 species of the genus Glycine subgenus Glycine have not been exploited to broaden the genetic base of soybean (Glycine max; 2n = 40). The objectives of this study were to develop methods for producing F1, amphidiploid, BC1, BC2, BC3, and fertile soybean plants from crosses of soybean and the genus Glycine subgenus Glycine species, in order to utilize the subgenus Glycine germplasm in soybean breeding. Soybean cultivars were hybridized with six accessions of 78-chromosome G. tomentella as well as one accession each of 40-chromosome G. tomentella, G. argyrea and G. latifolia. They were chosen because they exhibit resistance to soybean rust. We were successful in producing fertile soybean from soybean cv. 'Dwight' and 78-chromosome G. tomentella accession PI 441001, while other hybrids were discontinued either at F1 or amphidiploid stage. The F1 seeds aborted prior to reaching maturity, so developing seeds from 19 to 21 day old pods were cultured aseptically in various media formulations. Seed maturation and multiple embryo generation media were developed. F1 plants with shoots and roots (2n = 59) were transplanted to pots in greenhouse. Amphidiploid (2n = 118) plants were backcrossed to 'Dwight'. BC1 (2n = 79) plants were propagated through in vitro and 43 mature BC2F1 seeds were harvested. Fifteen surviving BC2F1 plants were morphologically distinct, sterile, and had chromosome numbers ranging 2n = 56-59. Chromosome numbers of the BC3F1 plants ranged 2n = 40-49. Derived fertile soybeans were first planted in the field in 2008 and are being evaluated for yield, resistance to pathogens and pests and tolerance to salt through material transfer agreement.

  4. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) for the localization of viruses and endosymbiotic bacteria in plant and insect tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliot, Adi; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Brumin, Marina; Cathrin, Pakkianathan Britto; Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Skaljac, Marisa; Belausov, Eduard; Czosnek, Henryk; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-02-24

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a name given to a variety of techniques commonly used for visualizing gene transcripts in eukaryotic cells and can be further modified to visualize other components in the cell such as infection with viruses and bacteria. Spatial localization and visualization of viruses and bacteria during the infection process is an essential step that complements expression profiling experiments such as microarrays and RNAseq in response to different stimuli. Understanding the spatiotemporal infections with these agents complements biological experiments aimed at understanding their interaction with cellular components. Several techniques for visualizing viruses and bacteria such as reporter gene systems or immunohistochemical methods are time-consuming, and some are limited to work with model organisms and involve complex methodologies. FISH that targets RNA or DNA species in the cell is a relatively easy and fast method for studying spatiotemporal localization of genes and for diagnostic purposes. This method can be robust and relatively easy to implement when the protocols employ short hybridizing, commercially-purchased probes, which are not expensive. This is particularly robust when sample preparation, fixation, hybridization, and microscopic visualization do not involve complex steps. Here we describe a protocol for localization of bacteria and viruses in insect and plant tissues. The method is based on simple preparation, fixation, and hybridization of insect whole mounts and dissected organs or hand-made plant sections, with 20 base pairs short DNA probes conjugated to fluorescent dyes on their 5' or 3' ends. This protocol has been successfully applied to a number of insect and plant tissues, and can be used to analyze expression of mRNAs or other RNA or DNA species in the cell.

  5. Arsenic removal from contaminated groundwater by membrane-integrated hybrid plant: optimization and control using Visual Basic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortty, S; Sen, M; Pal, P

    2014-03-01

    A simulation software (ARRPA) has been developed in Microsoft Visual Basic platform for optimization and control of a novel membrane-integrated arsenic separation plant in the backdrop of absence of such software. The user-friendly, menu-driven software is based on a dynamic linearized mathematical model, developed for the hybrid treatment scheme. The model captures the chemical kinetics in the pre-treating chemical reactor and the separation and transport phenomena involved in nanofiltration. The software has been validated through extensive experimental investigations. The agreement between the outputs from computer simulation program and the experimental findings are excellent and consistent under varying operating conditions reflecting high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. High values of the overall correlation coefficient (R (2) = 0.989) and Willmott d-index (0.989) are indicators of the capability of the software in analyzing performance of the plant. The software permits pre-analysis, manipulation of input data, helps in optimization and exhibits performance of an integrated plant visually on a graphical platform. Performance analysis of the whole system as well as the individual units is possible using the tool. The software first of its kind in its domain and in the well-known Microsoft Excel environment is likely to be very useful in successful design, optimization and operation of an advanced hybrid treatment plant for removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater.

  6. Continuous plant cell perfusion culture: bioreactor characterization and secreted enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei Wen; Arias, Renee

    2003-01-01

    Culture perfusion is widely practiced in mammalian cell processes to enhance secreted antibody production. Here, we report the development of an efficient continuous perfusion process for the cultivation of plant cell suspensions. The key to this process is a perfusion bioreactor that incorporates an annular settling zone into a stirred-tank bioreactor to achieve continuous cell/medium separation via gravitational sedimentation. From washout experiments, we found that under typical operating conditions (e.g., 200 rpm and 0.3 vvm) the liquid phase in the entire perfusion bioreactor was homogeneous despite the presence of the cylindrical baffle. Using secreted acid phosphatase (APase) produced in Anchusa officinalis cell culture as a model we have studied the perfusion cultures under complete or partial cell retention. The perfusion culture was operated under phosphate limitation to stimulate APase production. Successful operation of the perfusion process over four weeks has been achieved in this work. When A. officinalis cells were grown in the perfusion reactor and perfused at up to 0.4 vvd with complete cell retention, a cell dry weight exceeding 20 g/l could be achieved while secreted APase productivity leveled off at approximately 300 units/l/d. The culture became extremely dense with the maximum packed cell volume (PCV) surpassing 70%. In comparison, the maximum cell dry weight and overall secreted APase productivity in a typical batch culture were 10-12 g/l and 100-150 units/l/d, respectively. Operation of the perfusion culture under extremely high PCV for a prolonged period, however, led to declined oxygen uptake and reduced viability. Subsequently, cell removal via a bleed stream at up to 0.11 vvd was tested and shown to stabilize the culture at a PCV below 60%. With culture bleeding, both specific oxygen uptake rate and viability were shown to increase. This also led to a higher cell dry weight exceeding 25 g/l, and further improvement of secreted APase

  7. Analysis of F1 hybrid and BC1 monosomic alien addition line plants from Brassica oleracea × Sinapis alba by GISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wenhui; ZHANG Sufeng; LI Jun; WANG Lijun; CHEN Bo; FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LUO Lixia

    2006-01-01

    Sterile and semi-fertile F1 plants were obtained by intergeneric sexual hybridization between paternal Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (genome CC, 2n=18) and maternal Sinapis alba (genome SS, 2n=24), BC1 plants were obtained by backcrossing between paternal B. oleracea and maternal semi-fertile F1 plants. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) combined with dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (dcFISH) showed that sterile F1 plants contained 21 chromosomes consisting of one B. oleracea chromosome set and one S.alba chromosome set, belonging to expected hybrids,and semi-fertile F1 plants contained 30 chromosomes consisting of two B. oleracea chromosome sets and one S. alba chromosome set. It is obvious that the semi-fertile F1 plants belong to unexpected hybrids.1 -3 trivalents were detected at meiotic metaphase I of semi-fertile F1 pollen mother cells (PMCs). Different separation ratios of S chromosomes were detected at anaphase I. A monosomic alien addition line(MAAL) was identified by GISH-dcFISH from BC1plants; it contained 19 chromosomes consisting of 18 C chromosomes and 1 S chromosome. At meiotic metaphase I, 9 divalents from B. oleracea and one univalent from S. alba could be detected. Sometimes,one putative C-S trivalent could also be detected.The achievement of B. oleracea-S, alba monosomic alien addition lines lays a foundation for gene introgression, location and cloning.

  8. In situ hybridization for the detection of rust fungi in paraffin embedded plant tissue sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust fungi infect a wide range of plant species making them of particular interest to plant pathologists. In order to study the interactions between these important pathogenic fungi and their host plants it is useful to be able to differentiate fungal tissue from plant tissue. This can be accomplish...

  9. Prospecting the utility of a PMI/mannose selection system for the recovery of transgenic sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukesh; Chengalrayan, Kudithipudi; Abouzid, Ahmed; Gallo, Maria

    2007-05-01

    For the first time, the phosphomannose isomerase (PMI, EC 5.3.1.8)/mannose-based "positive" selection system has been used to obtain genetically engineered sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid var. CP72-2086) plants. Transgenic lines of sugarcane were obtained following biolistic transformation of embryogenic callus with an untranslatable sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) strain E coat protein (CP) gene and the Escherichia coli PMI gene manA, as the selectable marker gene. Postbombardment, transgenic callus was selectively proliferated on modified MS medium containing 13.6 microM 2,4-D, 20 g l(-1) sucrose and 3 g l(-1) mannose. Plant regeneration was obtained on MS basal medium with 2.5 microM TDZ under similar selection conditions, and the regenerants rooted on MS basal medium with 19.7 microM IBA, 20 g l(-1) sucrose, and 1.5 g l(-1) mannose. An increase in mannose concentration from permissive (1.5 g l(-1)) to selective (3 g l(-1)) conditions after 3 weeks improved the overall transformation efficiency by reducing the number of selection escapes. Thirty-four vigorously growing putative transgenic plants were successfully transplanted into the greenhouse. PCR and Southern blot analyses showed that 19 plants were manA-positive and 15 plants were CP-positive, while 13 independent transgenics contained both transgenes. Expression of manA in the transgenic plants was evaluated using a chlorophenol red assay and enzymatic analysis.

  10. Feasibility study of a hybrid plants (photovoltaic–LPG generator system for rural electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adouane Mabrouk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the possibility of using a stand-alone photovoltaic/LPG (liquid petroleum gas generator hybrid power system for low-cost electricity production which can satisfy the energy load requirements of a typical remote and isolated rural area. In this context, the optimal dimensions to improve the technical and economical performances of the hybrid system are determined according to the load energy requirements. The proposed system's installation and operating costs are simulated using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER, the solar radiation and the system components costs as inputs; and then compared with those of other supply options such as diesel generation.

  11. Spectrum-splitting hybrid CSP-CPV solar energy system with standalone and parabolic trough plant retrofit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Matthew; Zweibaum, Nicolas; Lance, Tamir; Ruiz, Maritza; Morad, Ratson

    2016-05-01

    Sunlight to electricity efficiencies of Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) plants are typically on the order of 15%, while commercial solar Photovoltaic (PV) technologies routinely achieve efficiencies of greater than 20%, albeit with much higher conversion efficiencies of photons at the band gap. Hybridizing concentrating solar power and photovoltaic technologies can lead to higher aggregate efficiencies due to the matching of photons to the appropriate converter based on wavelength. This can be accomplished through spectral filtering whereby photons unusable or poorly utilitized by PV (IR and UV) are passed through to a heat collection element, while useful photons (VIS) are reflected onto a concentrating PV (CPV) receiver. The mechanical design and experimental validation of spectral splitting optics is described in conjunction with system level modeling and economic analysis. The implications of this architecture include higher efficiency, lower cost hybrid CSP-PV power systems, as well as the potential to retrofit existing PTC plants to boost their output by ~ 10% at a projected investment cost of less than 1 per additional net Watt and an IRR of 18%, while preserving the dispatchability of the CSP plant's thermal energy storage.

  12. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yun-Xia; WEN Yun-jie; HUANG Jin-li; Li, Gui-Hua; Chai, Xiao; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method) is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P) in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA) is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the dige...

  13. Success Continues: NASA-Developed Plant Health Measurement Technology is Becoming Big Business for Illinois Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Originally produced in 2001, sales of Spectrum Technologies' CM 1000 chlorophyll meter have now topped $290,000 on 140 units. Up-to-date sales figures for 2003 have shown an almost 50% increase over the combined sales totals of 2001 and 2002. The CM 1000 chlorophyll meter identifies the failing health of a plant based on the chlorophyll content of the plant up to 16 days before it is physically detectable by the human eye. Poor health, 'stress' in a plant, is a result of unfavorable growing conditions; lack of nutrients, insufficient water, disease or insect damage.

  14. Isolation of plant transcription factors using a modified yeast one-hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Neil

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The preparation of expressional cDNA libraries for use in the yeast two-hybrid system is quick and efficient when using the dedicated Clontech™ product, the MATCHMAKER Library Construction and Screening Kit 3. This kit employs SMART technology for the amplification of full-length cDNAs, in combination with cloning using homologous recombination. Unfortunately, such cDNA libraries prepared directly in yeast can not be used for the efficient recovery of purified plasmids and thus are incompatible with existing yeast one-hybrid systems, which use yeast transformation for the library screen. Results Here we propose an adaptation of the yeast one-hybrid system for identification and cloning of transcription factors using a MATCHMAKER cDNA library. The procedure is demonstrated using a cDNA library prepared from the liquid part of the multinucleate coenocyte of wheat endosperm. The method is a modification of a standard one-hybrid screening protocol, utilising a mating step to introduce the library construct and reporter construct into the same cell. Several novel full length transcription factors from the homeodomain, AP2 domain and E2F families of transcription factors were identified and isolated. Conclusion In this paper we propose a method to extend the compatibility of MATCHMAKER cDNA libraries from yeast two-hybrid screens to one-hybrid screens. The utility of the new yeast one-hybrid technology is demonstrated by the successful cloning from wheat of full-length cDNAs encoding several transcription factors from three different families.

  15. Dynamic Modeling and Plantwide Control of a Hybrid Power and Chemical Plant: An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Coupled with a Methanol Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick J.

    Gasification has been used in industry on a relatively limited scale for many years, but it is emerging as the premier unit operation in the energy and chemical industries. The switch from expensive and insecure petroleum to solid hydrocarbon sources (coal and biomass) is occurring due to the vast amount of domestic solid resources, national security and global warming issues. Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of "clean coal" technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel gas for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate synthesis gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The coupling of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with a methanol plant can handle swings in power demand by diverting hydrogen gas from a combustion turbine and synthesis gas from the gasifier to a methanol plant for the production of an easily-stored, hydrogen-consuming liquid product. An additional control degree of freedom is provided with this hybrid plant, fundamentally improving the controllability of the process. The idea is to base-load the gasifier and use the more responsive gas-phase units to handle disturbances. During the summer days, power demand can fluctuate up to 50% over a 12-hour period. The winter provides a different problem where spikes of power demand can go up 15% within the hour. The following dissertation develops a hybrid IGCC / methanol plant model, validates the steady-state results with a National Energy Technical Laboratory study, and tests a proposed control structure to handle these significant disturbances. All modeling was performed in the widely used chemical process

  16. Structural Aging Program to evaluate continued performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the Structural Aging (SAG) Program which is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory commission (USNRC). The SAG Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. The program is organized into three technical tasks: Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technologies, and Quantitative Methodology for continued Service Determinations. Objectives and a summary of recent accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented.

  17. Sugarcane Aphid Population Growth, Plant Injury, and Natural Enemies on Selected Grain Sorghum Hybrids in Texas and Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Gordy, John W; Kerns, David L; Woolley, James B; Rooney, William L; Bowling, Robert D

    2017-09-06

    In response to the 2013 outbreak of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), in North America, experiments were conducted at three southern U.S. grain sorghum production locations (Corpus Christi, TX; Winnsboro, LA; Rosenberg, TX). The objectives were to authenticate yield decline on susceptible hybrids (2014 and 2015) and to measure aphid population growth and natural enemy prevalence on susceptible and resistant hybrids with similar genetic background (2014). Yield decline on susceptible hybrids (Tx 2752/Tx430 and DKS53-67) was more substantial when aphid population growth accelerated quickly and peaked above 300 aphids per leaf (50 to nearly 100% yield decline). Location and year variation in maximum aphid density and cumulative aphid-days was high, with doubling time values on the susceptible hybrids ranging between 3.9 and 7.9 d. On resistant Tx2752/Tx2783, leaf injury and yield decline were not seen or less severe than on its paired susceptible Tx2752/Tx430. Aphids declined on Tx2752/Tx2783 after initial colony establishment (Corpus Christi) or took about 60% longer to double in population size when compared with Tx2572/Tx430 (Winnsboro). The predominant natural enemy taxa were aphelinid mummies (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and sryphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), and they were more prevalent during flowering than prior to flowering. They were generally responsive to changes in aphid density of both susceptible and resistant hybrids, but variability points to need for further study. In future research, full season observations should continue as well as more detailed study of potential compatibility of sorghum resistance and biological control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Averaging Level Control to Reduce Off-Spec Material in a Continuous Pharmaceutical Pilot Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakerveld, R.; Benyahia, B.; Heider, P.L.; Zhang, H.; Braatz, R.D.; Barton, P.I.

    2013-01-01

    The judicious use of buffering capacity is important in the development of future continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. The potential benefits are investigated of using optimal-averaging level control for tanks that have buffering capacity for a section of a continuous pharmaceutical pi

  19. Adult plant and seedling resistance to powdery mildew in a Triticum aestivum x Triticum militinae hybrid line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Irena; Peusha, Hilma; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Järve, Kadri

    2006-02-01

    In the progeny of a cross between the common wheat cultivar Tähti and Triticum militinae, a member of the timopheevii group of tetraploid wheats, several hybrid lines were selected that are characterized by improved seedling and adult plant resistance (APR) to powdery mildew. An F2 single-seed descendant mapping population segregating for seedling resistance and APR to powdery mildew was analysed for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The main QTL responsible for APR was detected on the long arm of chromosome 4A tightly linked to the Xgwm160 locus on a T. militinae translocation explaining up to 54% of phenotypic variance. The same translocation influenced seedling resistance to powdery mildew upon inoculation of plants with a synthetic population of Blumeria graminis DC. f. sp. tritici, and explained 28-33% of the phenotypic variance.

  20. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-05

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation.

  1. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Mankamo, T.

    1995-04-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require {open_quotes}immediate{close_quotes} shutdown of the plant. In this paper, we present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion.

  2. Techno-economic analysis of hybrid power system sizing applied to small desalination plants for sustainable operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nagaraj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water and energy are two inseparable commodities that govern the lives of humanity and promote civilization. Energy can be used to produce water in case of scarcity in water. Ironically most of the places that are water stressed are also energy stressed. The cost of extending grid power may be prohibitively high in those cases. Rural/remote locations like hills and islands multiply the problem to a larger magnitude. Use of renewable sources like solar, wind, biomass and other locally available energy sources is the only solution. But these renewable sources are of intermittent nature and have poor availability. Hence, it is practically difficult to produce water with a single source of energy. Naturally, combining two or more sources of energy, known as hybrid power system, is the next available option. This paper carries out a techno-economic analysis of various sizing combinations of systems with solar photo voltaic, wind energy and stored energy in batteries for production of drinking water from a brackish water source. The system can operate the RO plant whenever the power is available, produce drinking water and store in a tank. This paper analyses the model of the entire hybrid power system in MATLAB to simulate the performance of the hybrid power system for different combinations of capacities. Results of the analysis under various input conditions are analyzed.

  3. Effects of Plant Density on Yield and Canopy Micro Environment in Hybrid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-zheng; LUO Xue-jiao; NIE Yi-chun; ZHANG Xian-long

    2014-01-01

    A rational plant population is an important attribute to high yield of cotton, because it can provide a beneifcial micro environment within the canopy for plant growth and development as well as yield formation. A 2-yr ifeld experiment was conducted to determine the optimal plant density based on cotton yield in relation to the canopy micro environment (canopy temperature, relative humidity and light transmittance). Six plant densities (1.2-5.7 plants m-2) were arranged with a completely randomized block design. The highest cotton yield (1 507 kg ha-1) was obtained at 3.0 plants m-2 due to more bolls per unit ground area (79 bolls m-2), while the lowest yield (1 091 kg ha-1) was obtained at 1.2 plants m-2. Under the moderate plant density (3.0 plants m-2), there was a lower mean daily temperature (MDT, 27.1°C) attributing to medium daily minimum temperature (Tmin, 21.9°C) and the lowest daily maximum temperature (Tmax, 35.8°C), a moderate mean canopy light transmittance of 0.51, and lower mean daily relative humidity (MRH) of 79.7%from June to October. The results suggest that 3.0 plants m-2 would be the optimal plant density because it provides a better canopy micro environment.

  4. Continuous monitoring methods for assessment of structural integrity in nuclear power plants; Jatkuvan monitoroinnin menetelmaet rakenteiden eheyden varmistamiseen ydinvoimaloissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkimo, M.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a review of the frequently used continuous monitoring methods that are applied or can possibly be applied in nuclear power plants. The methods covered include condition monitoring and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques that can be used to detect flaws in components and the malfunction of machinery. The specific techniques for water chemistry monitoring are not covered by this report. The systems based on acoustic emission are considered to be suitable for continuous monitoring applications and these are discussed in greater detail compared to other methods. The loose parts monitoring and leak detection systems based on acoustic emission have practical applications in several nuclear power plants. The real-time monitoring of crack-tip movement using the ultrasonic method is also discussed. Some results are also referred to from the research and development work to monitor crack initiation and growth on the surface of high-speed rotating components using the electromagnetic method. Vibration measurements and analysis are mentioned as a usual tool for monitoring the condition of rotating machinery but also some special aspects of nuclear power plants are included. Finally the on-line fatigue and integrity monitoring systems are briefly discussed and given some considerations regarding the material property measurements using continuous non-destructive methods. (orig.). 34 refs.

  5. Continuous monitoring methods for assessment of structural integrity in nuclear power plants; Jatkuvan monitoroinnin menetelmaet rakenteiden eheyden varmistamiseen ydinvoimaloissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkimo, M.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a review of the frequently used continuous monitoring methods that are applied or can possibly be applied in nuclear power plants. The methods covered include condition monitoring and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques that can be used to detect flaws in components and the malfunction of machinery. The specific techniques for water chemistry monitoring are not covered by this report. The systems based on acoustic emission are considered to be suitable for continuous monitoring applications and these are discussed in greater detail compared to other methods. The loose parts monitoring and leak detection systems based on acoustic emission have practical applications in several nuclear power plants. The real-time monitoring of crack-tip movement using the ultrasonic method is also discussed. Some results are also referred to from the research and development work to monitor crack initiation and growth on the surface of high-speed rotating components using the electromagnetic method. Vibration measurements and analysis are mentioned as a usual tool for monitoring the condition of rotating machinery but also some special aspects of nuclear power plants are included. Finally the on-line fatigue and integrity monitoring systems are briefly discussed and given some considerations regarding the material property measurements using continuous non-destructive methods. (orig.). 34 refs.

  6. Uptake and Translocation of Lesser-Chlorinated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Whole Hybrid Poplar Plants after Hydroponic Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiyan; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2009-01-01

    Mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are congeners with greater volatility which remain in air, soils and sediments requiring treatment. In this study, the fate of these PCBs was investigated within whole poplar plants (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) with application for a treatment system such as a confined disposal facility for dredged material. Whole hybrid poplars were exposed hydroponically to a mixture of five congeners, common in the environment, having one to four chlorine atoms per molecule. Results indicated that PCB 3, 15, 28, 52, and 77 were initially sorbed to the root systems. The Root Concentration Factor (RCF) of PCBs during the exposure was calculated and correlated with Kow. PCB congeners were taken up by the roots of hybrid poplar, and the translocation of PCBs to stems was inversely related to congener hydrophobicity (Log Kow). PCB 3 and 15 were translocated to the upper stem at small but significant rates. PCB 28 was translocated to the wood of the main stem but no farther; translocation from the roots was not detected for PCB 52 and 77. The distribution of PCBs within poplars was determined, and mass balances were completed to within 15% for each chemical except for PCB 3, the most volatile congener. This is the first report on the transport of PCBs through whole plants designed for use in treatment at disposal facilities. PMID:18793792

  7. DESIGN OF THE THREE-LEVEL MULTICRITERIAL STRATEGY OF HYBRID MARINE POWER PLANT CONTROL FOR A COMBINED PROPULSION COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Budashko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Efficiency of hybrid ships power plants (SPP combined propulsion complexes (CPC by various criteria for energy management systems strategies. Methodology. Based on the classification system topologies SPP CPC for mechanical, electrical and hybrid types of motors schematic diagrams of management strategies for the criterion of minimum power consumption are defined. Changing the technical component of the traditional approach to building hybrid ships electric power systems (SEPS SPP CPC the principle of modifying the structure of SEPS is applied with the integration of additional static alternative power source as dynamic reserve, which allowed to meet modern requirements for energy efficiency, levels of vibration, noise and degradation effects produced to SPP CPC, in all areas of the energy for the transfer of power from energy to propellers. Modeling of power transmission of energy to propellers in MatLab/Simulink is conducted, using blocks of optimization library and definition of identity markers. Results. Major advantages and disadvantages SPP CPC depending on the topology of energy distribution systems are determined. According to the chosen structure system electricity characteristics were obtained in the process of power transmission SPP CPC and power systems and their control strategies in terms of increased efficiency and eliminate these drawbacks. And finally, mathematical apparatus for research in terms of the development of methods for designing and managing SPP hybrid CPC to reduced fuel consumption, emissions into the environment and improving maintainability, flexibility and comfort level are improved. Originality. The methodology for improving SPP CPC implementation by developing methods of identification markers mutually influencing processes in SPP CPC and the development of implementing these methods of settlement and information systems. Practical value. The method enables iterative optimization parameters SPP CPC, it

  8. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yun-xia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the digests were determined by CFA and VMYC method, respectively. The t test found that there was no any significant difference of the plant P contents measured by the CFA and the VMYC method. A linear equation could best describe their relationship: Y(CFA-P=0.927X(VMYC-P-0.002. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.985 with a significance level(n=69, P<0.01. The CFA method for plant P measurement had a high precision with relative standard deviation(RSD less than 1.5%. It is suggested that the CFA based on Murphy and Riley colorimetric detection can be used to determinate total plant P in the digests solutions with H2SO4-H2O2. The CFA method is labor saving and can handle large numbers of samples. The human error in mixing with other operations is reduced to a great extent.

  9. The use of ion beam to overcome interspecific hybrid inviability in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masayoshi [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1997-03-01

    In order to overcome sexual incompatibility between distantly related species in Nicotiana, the crosses with {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam-irradiated pollen were carried out, and survival hybrids were obtained. They were resistant to tobacco mosaic virus and green peach aphid. (author)

  10. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V

    2015-06-15

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility-fertility restoration system by engineering the in most nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high-level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy-related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1(NT131)) with TBPm3 (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum-specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1(L105A)) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1-mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops.

  11. Enrichment of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) in a continuous flow laboratory scale plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafiriadis, I.; Kapagiannidis, A. G.; Aivasidis, A.

    2009-07-01

    Enhanced Biological Phosphate Removal (EBPR) is a well established method for efficient removal of phosphate during wastewater treatment by using biological instead of chemical phenomena. EBPR is currently implemented at a number of Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and usually phosphate removal occurs by recirculating activated sludge between an anaerobic and a aerobic tank. (Author)

  12. Continuing 137 Cs release to the sea from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kanda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The rate of cesium-137 (137Cs release to the sea from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant for the period until September 2012 was estimated. Publicly released data on 137Cs radioactivity in seawater near the power plant by Tokyo Electric Power Company strongly suggest a continuing release of radionuclides to the sea. The plant has an artificial harbour facility, and the exchange rate of harbour water with surrounding seawater was estimated by the decrease in radioactivity immediately after an intense radioactive water release. The estimated exchange rate of water in the harbour was 0.44 d−1 during the period from 6 to 19 April. The 137Cs radioactivity in the harbour water was substantially higher than that of seawater outside and remained relatively stable after June 2011. A quasi-steady state was assumed with continuous water exchange, and the average release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 93 GBq d−1 in summer 2011 and 8.1 GBq d−1 in summer 2012.

  13. Continuing {sup 137}Cs release to the sea from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant through 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, J. [Tokyo Univ. of Marine Science and Technology (Japan). Dept. of Ocean Sciences

    2013-07-01

    The rate of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) release to the sea from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant for the period until September 2012 was estimated. Publicly released data on {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in seawater near the power plant by Tokyo Electric Power Company strongly suggest a continuing release of radionuclides to the sea. The plant has an artificial harbour facility, and the exchange rate of harbour water with surrounding seawater was estimated by the decrease in radioactivity immediately after an intense radioactive water release. The estimated exchange rate of water in the harbour was 0.44 d{sup -1} during the period from 6 to 19 April. The {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the harbour water was substantially higher than that of seawater outside and remained relatively stable after June 2011. A quasi-steady state was assumed with continuous water exchange, and the average release rate of {sup 137}Cs was estimated to be 93 GBq d{sup -1} in summer 2011 and 8.1 GBq d{sup -1} in summer 2012.

  14. Continuing 137Cs release to the sea from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kanda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rate of cesium-137 (137Cs release to the sea from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant was estimated until September 2012. Based on publicly released data of 137Cs in seawater near the power plant by Tokyo Electric Power Company, a continuing release of radionuclides to the sea is strongly suggested. The plant has an artificial harbour facility, and the exchange rate of harbour water with surrounding seawater was estimated by decrease of radioactivity immediately after an intense event of radioactive water release. The estimated exchange rate of water in the harbour is 0.44 day−1 during the period from 6 to 19 April 2011. 137Cs radioactivity of the harbour water is substantially higher than seawater outside and remained relatively stable after June 2011. A quasi-steady state was assumed with continuous water exchange, and an average release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 93 GBq day−1 in summer 2011 and 8.1 GBq day−1 in summer 2012.

  15. Reactor operating procedures for startup of continuously-operated chemical plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Kösters, P.H.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Rules are presented for the startup of an adiabatic tubular reactor, based on a qualitative analysis of the dynamic behavior of continuously-operated vapor- and liquid-phase processes. The relationships between the process dynamics, operating criteria, and operating constraints are investigated, sin

  16. Super-distant molecular hybridization of plant seeds by ion beam-mediated gene cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The N beam-mediated distant molecular hybridization between Ginkgo biloba I and watermelon was studied. The results showed that the ester gene of Ginkgo biloba L was successfully expressed in two varieties of watermelon. 3-16 and SR2-14-2, in both of which the ester quantities were measured as 17.0756 μg/g and 45.9998 μg/g respectively. Meanwhile, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves of the watennelon expressing ester gene was increased twofold as compared to that of the control, showing that ion beam could mediate distant and/or super-distant donor gene expression in the cells of a receptor. Furthermore, the molecular nechanism of distant hybridization was analyzed.

  17. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P.; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility–fertility restoration system by engineering the inmost nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high–level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy–related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1NT131) with TBPm3 (HFR1NT131-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum–specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1L105A) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1–mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1NT131-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops. PMID:26073981

  18. Short-term and continuing stresses differentially interplay with multiple hormones to regulate plant survival and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cangjing; Liu, Jingjing; Dong, Xinran; Cai, Zhenying; Tian, Weidong; Wang, Xuelu

    2014-05-01

    The stress phytohormone, abscisic acid (ABA), plays important roles in facilitating plants to survive and grow well under a wide range of stress conditions. Previous gene expression studies mainly focused on plant responses to short-term ABA treatment, but the effect of sustained ABA treatment and their difference are poorly studied. Here, we treated plants with ABA for 1 h or 9 d, and our genome-wide analysis indicated the differentially regulated genes under the two conditions were tremendously different. We analyzed other hormones' signaling changes by using their whole sets of known responsive genes as reporters and integrating feedback regulation of their biosynthesis. We found that, under short-term ABA treatment, signaling outputs of growth-promoting hormones, brassinosteroids and gibberellins, and a biotic stress-responsive hormone, jasmonic acid, were significantly inhibited, while auxin and ethylene signaling outputs were promoted. However, sustained ABA treatment repressed cytokinin and gibberellin signaling, but stimulated auxin signaling. Using several sets of hormone-related mutants, we found candidates in corresponding hormonal signaling pathways, including receptors or transcription regulators, are essential in responding to ABA. Our findings indicate interactions of ABA-dependent stress signals with hormones at different levels are involved in plants to survive under transient stress and to adapt to continuing stressful environments.

  19. Plant Characteristics af a Multi-Fuel Sofc-Stirling Hybrid Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    is generated. Simulations for the proposed system were conducted using different fuels which facilitate use of variety of fuels depending on availability. Here, results for Natural Gas (NG), ammonia, Di-Methyl Ether (DME), methanol and ethanol are presented and analysed. System behaviour is further...... efficiency compared with the stand alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the SOFC and Stirling combined configuration, the overall power production has increased by about 10% compared to the stand alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of about 60% are achieved which is remarkable for such small plant...

  20. Overview of activities in the U.S. related to continued service of nuclear power plant concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naus D.J.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Safety-related nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and commentary on continued service assessments of these structures is provided. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status noted. A summary of operating experience related to U.S. nuclear power plant concrete structures is presented. Several candidate areas are identified where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of NPP concrete structures. Finally current ORNL activities related to aging-management of concrete structures are outlined: development of operating experience database, application of structural reliability theory, and compilation of elevated temperature concrete material property data and information.

  1. Rooting of hybrid clones of Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx. by stem cuttings derived from micropropagated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qibin Yu [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Plant Biology; Maentylae, N. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology, Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology; Salonen, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Laeyliaeinen (Finland). Haapastensyrjae Breeding Station

    2001-07-01

    Propagation costs could be cut by replacing part of the micropropagation process with steps involving more traditional techniques. This study explored possibilities for improving existing vegetative propagation techniques for aspen using stem cuttings obtained from micropropagated plants. Vegetative propagation through stem cuttings was studied in 10 micropropagated hybrid aspen clones (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx). Cuttings containing one axillary bud were harvested from the same donor plants twice during the growing season: the first harvest in May and the second harvest in July. Rooting percentage was correlated positively with root length, number of roots and height of cutting plant but negatively with length of rooting. The average rooting percentage was 53% in the first harvest and 27% in second harvest. Indole-3-butyric acid treatments (1.2 mM) significantly improved rooting in the second harvest, but not in the first harvest, suggesting different endogenous auxin levels in the cuttings. A significant variation for most traits related to rooting ability was found among the clones, indicating that clonal effects play an important role in the propagation of aspen. Thus, clones with a good response in shoot growth and rooting could be exploited in large-scale propagation using stem cuttings.

  2. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  3. Effects of whole-plant corn silage hybrid type on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the effect of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) hybrids in dairy cattle diets may allow for better decisions on hybrid selection by dairy producers, as well as indicate potential strategies for the seed corn industry with regard to WPCS hybrids. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis using literature data on the effects of WPCS hybrid type on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows. The meta-analysis was performed using a data set of 162 treatment means from 48 peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2014. Hybrids were divided into 3 categories before analysis. Comparative analysis of WPCS hybrid types differing in stalk characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional, dual-purpose, isogenic, or low-normal fiber digestibility (CONS), brown midrib (BMR), hybrids with greater NDF but lower lignin (%NDF) contents or high in vitro NDF digestibility (HFD), and leafy (LFY). Hybrid types differing in kernel characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional or yellow dent (CONG), NutriDense (ND), high oil (HO), and waxy. Genetically modified (GM) hybrids were compared with their genetically similar non-biotech counterpart (ISO). Except for lower lignin content for BMR and lower starch content for HFD than CONS and LFY, silage nutrient composition was similar among hybrids of different stalk types. A 1.1 kg/d greater intake of DM and 1.5 and 0.05 kg/d greater milk and protein yields, respectively, were observed for BMR compared with CONS and LFY. Likewise, DMI and milk yield were greater for HFD than CONS, but the magnitude of the difference was smaller. Total-tract NDF digestibility was greater, but starch digestibility was reduced, for BMR and HFD compared with CONS or LFY. Silage nutrient composition was similar for hybrids of varied kernel characteristics, except for lower CP and EE content for CONG than ND and HO. Feeding HO WPCS to dairy cows decreased milk fat content

  4. Material and cooling requirements for poly-Bitter resistive magnets and hybrid inserts generating continuous fields up to 50 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, B.J.; Bird, M.D.; Eyssa, Y.M.; Schneider-Muntau, H.J. [National High Magnetic Field Lab., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The new National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), equipped with a 40 MW DC power supply, will design and construct the next generation of high field resistive magnets and hybrid inserts generating DC fields up to 50 T. The authors present a study on the required materials and the necessary cooling characteristics, these magnets need. The configuration selected for this study consists of a combination of thin poly-Bitter and thick Bitter coils optimized in dimensions and power under constraint of maximum design stress and heat removal to obtain maximum field. The study shows that each design requires a different optimum ratio of conductor strength to electrical conductivity and that efficient cooling is only advantageous if strong copper alloys are used. For efficient use of the available power the development of new high strength, high conductivity materials will be necessary. Equally important are improvements in the heat transfer characteristics of these high power density magnets.

  5. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  6. Micropropagation of an elite F1 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus hybrid from the shoot tip of field grown plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalekuzzaman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for rapid micropropagation of an elite F1 hybrid watermelon cultivar using shoot tip of field-grown plants. Maximum frequency (73% of shoot tip showed growth response in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg l-1 benzyl adenine (BA and 0.1 mg l-1 indole-3 acetic acid (IAA. Upon transfer to cytokinin-enriched medium, the cultures produced multiple shoots and 2.0 mg l-1 BA was optimum in this respect. Addition of gibberellic acid (GA3 in the multiplication medium resulted in better growth of shoots. Rooting rate was 100% when shoots were obtained from second subculture were cultured in medium with 1.0 mg l-1 indole-3 butyric acid (IBA. The shoots produced more roots with increasing number of subcultures. About 72% of the regenerated plantlets acclimatized successfully and survived in the soil condition.

  7. Optimizing an Industrial Scale Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Plant Using a Hybrid Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepehr Sadighi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid model for estimating the activity of a commercial Pt-Re/Al2O3 catalyst in an industrial scale heavy naphtha catalytic-reforming unit (CRU is presented. This model is also capable of predicting research octane number (RON and yield of gasoline. In the proposed model, called DANN, the decay function of heterogeneous catalysts is combined with a recurrent-layer artificial neural network. During a life cycle (919 days, fifty-eight points are selected for building and training the DANN (60%, nineteen data points for testing (20%, and the remained ones for validating steps. Results show that DANN can acceptably estimate the activity of catalyst during its life in consideration of all process variables. Moreover, it is confirmed that the proposed model is capable of predicting RON and yield of gasoline for unseen (validating data with AAD% (average absolute deviation of 0.272% and 0.755%, respectively. After validating the model, the octane barrel level (OCB of the plant is maximized by manipulating the inlet temperature of reactors, and hydrogen to hydrocarbon molar ratio whilst all process limitations are taken into account. During a complete life cycle results show that the decision variables, generated by the optimization program, can increase the RON, process yield and OCB of CRU to about 1.15%, 3.21%, and 4.56%, respectively. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 27th July 2014; Revised: 31st May 2015; Accepted: 31th May 2015 How to Cite: Sadighi, S., Mohaddecy, R.S., Norouzian, A. (2015. Optimizing an Industrial Scale Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Plant Using a Hybrid Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm Technique. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10(2: 210-220. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7171.210-220 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7171.210-220  

  8. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  9. Physical mapping resources for large plant genomes: radiation hybrids for wheat D-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ajay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of a high quality reference sequence is a daunting task in crops like wheat with large (~17Gb, highly repetitive (>80% and polyploid genome. To achieve complete sequence assembly of such genomes, development of a high quality physical map is a necessary first step. However, due to the lack of recombination in certain regions of the chromosomes, genetic mapping, which uses recombination frequency to map marker loci, alone is not sufficient to develop high quality marker scaffolds for a sequence ready physical map. Radiation hybrid (RH mapping, which uses radiation induced chromosomal breaks, has proven to be a successful approach for developing marker scaffolds for sequence assembly in animal systems. Here, the development and characterization of a RH panel for the mapping of D-genome of wheat progenitor Aegilops tauschii is reported. Results Radiation dosages of 350 and 450 Gy were optimized for seed irradiation of a synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD wheat with the D-genome of Ae. tauschii accession AL8/78. The surviving plants after irradiation were crossed to durum wheat (AABB, to produce pentaploid RH1s (AABBD, which allows the simultaneous mapping of the whole D-genome. A panel of 1,510 RH1 plants was obtained, of which 592 plants were generated from the mature RH1 seeds, and 918 plants were rescued through embryo culture due to poor germination (1 seeds. This panel showed a homogenous marker loss (2.1% after screening with SSR markers uniformly covering all the D-genome chromosomes. Different marker systems mostly detected different lines with deletions. Using markers covering known distances, the mapping resolution of this RH panel was estimated to be cM/cR ratio of 1:5.2 and 15 distinct bins. Additionally, with this small set of lines, almost all the tested ESTs could be mapped. A set of 399 most informative RH lines with an average deletion frequency of ~10% were identified for developing high density marker

  10. A Hybrid Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Photovoltaic Solar Plant Location Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. I. Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to decaying fossil resource and increasing environmental consciousness, the demand of renewable energy resources is escalating these days. Photovoltaic solar energy is one of the most popular renewable energy resources in places where sunlight is abundant. The selection of a desirable location for constructing a photovoltaic solar plant is the first and one of the most important stages in the plant construction to provide a long-term energy production. In this paper, a comprehensive multiple-criteria decision-making model, which incorporates the interpretive structural modeling (ISM, fuzzy analytic network process (FANP and VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska OptimizacijaI Kompromisno Resenje in Serbian,meaning multi-criteria optimization and compromise solution, is proposed to select the most suitable photovoltaic solar plant location. The ISM is applied first to determine the interrelationships among the criteria and among the sub-criteria,andtheresults are used to construct a decision-making network. The FANP is applied next to solve the network and to calculate the importance weights of the sub-criteria. Finally, the VIKOR is adopted to determine the ranking of the photovoltaic solar plant locations. The proposed model is applied in a case study in evaluating photovoltaic solar plant locations in Taiwan. By applying the proposed model, decision makers can have a better thinking process and make more appropriate decisions justifiably.

  11. [Features of interaction bacterial strains Micrococcus luteus LBK1 from plants varieties/hybrids cucumber and sweet pepper and with fungus Fusarium oxysporum Scelecht].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfeniuk, A; Sterlikova, O; Beznosko, I; Krut', V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of studying the impact of bacterial strain M. luteus LBK1, stimulating the growth and development of plant varieties/hybrids of cucumber and sweet pepper on the intensity of sporulation of the fungus F. oxysporum Scelecht--fusariose rot pathogen.

  12. Optimal integration of hybrid (wind--solar) system with diesel power plant \

    OpenAIRE

    SIDDIQUE, MUHAMMAD NOMAN; Ahmad, Aftab; NAWAZ, MUHAMMAD KASHIF; BUKHARI, SYED BASIT ALI

    2015-01-01

    Most energy worldwide is supplied through conventional energy sources, such as thermal, hydro, and nuclear. There have been serious energy crises in the last couple of years and so it is essential to consider renewable energy sources. This paper proposes a cost-effective solution for integrating a wind--solar system with an existing diesel power plant of a grid-connected site at Taxila, Pakistan. In the case of nonavailability of power from the grid, this diesel power plant acts as a standby ...

  13. Continuous improvement process and waste reduction through a QFD tool: the case of a metallurgic plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni Pentiado Godoy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of QFD for the continuous improvement of production processes and waste reduction actions. To collect the information we used the simple observation and questionnaire with closed questions applied to employees, representing 88.75% of the population that works in the production processes of an industry of metal-mechanic sector, located inRio Grandedo Sul. QFD is an effective method of quality planning, because it provides a diagnosis that underpins the definition of improvement actions aimed at combating waste. Actions were set providing improved communication between the sectors, enabling the delivery of products with specifications that meet customer requirements, on time and the right amounts, at a minimum cost and satisfaction of those involved with the company. The implementation of these actions reduces waste, minimizes the extra work, maximizes effective labor and increases profitability.

  14. Characterization of biomass production, cytology and phenotypes of plants regenerated from embryogenic callus cultures of Pennisetum americanum x P. purpureum (hybrid triploid napiergrass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, K; Schank, S C; Vasil, I K

    1986-11-01

    Five hundred and twenty-four plants of a triploid, sexually sterile hybrid napiergrass (Pennisetum americanum x P. purpureum; 3x=21) were regenerated from embryogenic callus cultures obtained from segments of young inflorescences. Replicated field trials were conducted for two consecutive years to compare the biomass yield, phenotype and cytology of tissue culture regenerants (TC) and vegetatively propagated (V) plants. In the first year total biomass yield of TC plants was significantly greater than V plants but there was no significant difference in the second year. TC plants had more tillers compared to V plants. V plants did not show any morphological variability. The TC population also exhibited a high degree of phenotypic stability (96%). There were 23 phenotypic variants in the TC population of 524, most of them being more dwarf and late-flowering. Detailed morphological analysis of the TC-variant plants suggests that they very likely arose from only a few variant cell lines. Cytological analysis indicated stability of the triploid status in randomly selected regenerants. Two of the morphological variants were hexaploids (6x=42). It is concluded that embryogenic callus cultures can provide useful alternative for the rapid propagation of hybrid napier-grass which is commonly propagated by cuttings.

  15. Design and operation of a geopressured-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R.G.; Hattar, M.M.

    1991-02-01

    The following appendices are included: process flow diagram, piping and instrumentation diagram, new equipment specifications, main single line diagram, shutdown and start-up procedures, data sheets for tests, plant outages, detailed process equations, computer program and sample output, chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy results, and management report data sheets for January 5, 1990 to May 29, 1990. (MHR)

  16. Robust optimisation for self-scheduling and bidding strategies of hybrid CSP-fossil power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pousinho, H.M.I.; Contreras, J.; Pinson, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a profit-maximisation model for a hybrid concentrated solar power (CSP) producer participating in a day-ahead market with bilateral contracts, where there is no correlation between the electricity market price and the solar irradiation. Backup system coordination is included...... between the molten-salt thermal energy storage (TES) and a fossil-fuel backup to overcome solar irradiation insufficiency, but with emission allowances constrained in the backup system to mitigate carbon footprint. A robust optimisation-based approach is proposed to provide the day-ahead self......-schedule under the worst-case realisation of uncertainties due to the electricity market prices and the thermal production from the solar field (SF). These uncertainties are modelled by asymmetric prediction intervals around average values. Additionally, a budget parameter is used to parameterise the degree...

  17. Modelling and Simulation of a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Coupled with a Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Andreassi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The paper presents a simulation of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT power generation system fueled by natural gas. In the system considered, the unreacted fuel from a topping solid oxide fuel cell is burnt in an afterburner to feed a bottoming gas turbine and produce additional power. Combustion gas expands in the gas turbine after having preheated the inlet air and fuel and it is used to generate steam required by the reforming reactions. A novel thermodynamic model has been developed for the fuel cell and implemented into the library of a modular object-oriented Process Simulator, CAMELPro™. The relevant plant performance indicators have been analyzed to evaluate the incremental increase in efficiency brought about by the introduction of the gas turbine and heat regeneration system. Simulations were performed for different values of the main plant parameters.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings. 

  18. The efficient role of aquatic plant (water hyacinth) in treating domestic wastewater in continuous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Din, Mohd Fadhil Md; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Songip, Ahmad Rahman; Singh, Lakhweer; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-01-01

    In this study, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was used to treat domestic wastewater. Ten organic and inorganic parameters were monitored in three weeks for water purification. The six chemical, biological and physical parameters included Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and pH were compared with the Interim National Water Quality Standards, Malaysia River classification (INWQS) and Water Quality Index (WQI). Between 38% to 96% of reduction was observed and water quality has been improved from class III and IV to class II. Analyses for Electricity Conductivity (EC), Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Ammonium (NH4) were also investigated. In all parameters, removal efficiency was in range of 13-17th day (optimum 14th day) which was higher than 3 weeks except DO. It reveals the optimum growth rate of water hyacinth has great effect on waste water purification efficiency in continuous system and nutrient removal was successfully achieved.

  19. Organically bound tritium (OBT) for various plants in the vicinity of a continuous atmospheric tritium release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichot, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CVA/DSTA/SPR/LMSE, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)], E-mail: laurent.vichot@cea.fr; Boyer, C.; Boissieux, T.; Losset, Y.; Pierrat, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CVA/DSTA/SPR/LMSE, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-10-15

    In order to quantify tritium impact on the environmental, we studied vegetation continuously exposed to a tritiated atmosphere. We chose lichens as bio-indicators, trees for determination of past tritium releases of the Valduc Centre, and lettuce as edible vegetables for dose calculation regarding neighbourhood. The Pasquill and Doury models from the literature were tested to estimate tritium concentration in the air around vegetable for distance from the release point less than 500 m. The results in tree rings show that organically bound tritium (OBT) concentration was strongly correlated with tritium releases. Using the GASCON model, the modelled variation of OBT concentration with distance was correlated with the measurements. Although lichens are recognized as bio-indicators, our experiments show that they were not convenient for environmental surveys because their age is not definitive. Thus, tritium integration time cannot be precisely determined. Furthermore, their biological metabolism is not well known and tritium concentration appears to be largely dependent on species. An average conversion rate of HTO to OBT was determined for lettuce of about 0.20-0.24% h{sup -1}. Nevertheless, even if it is equivalent to values already published in the literature for other vegetation, we have shown that this conversion rate, established by weekly samples, varies by a factor of 10 during the different stages of lettuce development, and that its variation is linked to the biomass derivative.

  20. Hybrid Recurrent Laguerre-Orthogonal-Polynomial NN Control System Applied in V-Belt Continuously Variable Transmission System Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the V-belt continuously variable transmission (CVT system driven by permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has much unknown nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, the better control performance design for the linear control design is a time consuming procedure. In order to overcome difficulties for design of the linear controllers, the hybrid recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial neural network (NN control system which has online learning ability to respond to the system’s nonlinear and time-varying behaviors is proposed to control PMSM servo-driven V-belt CVT system under the occurrence of the lumped nonlinear load disturbances. The hybrid recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial NN control system consists of an inspector control, a recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial NN control with adaptive law, and a recouped control with estimated law. Moreover, the adaptive law of online parameters in the recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial NN is derived using the Lyapunov stability theorem. Furthermore, the optimal learning rate of the parameters by means of modified particle swarm optimization (PSO is proposed to achieve fast convergence. Finally, to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, comparative studies are demonstrated by experimental results.

  1. Annual measured and simulated thermal performance analysis of a hybrid solar district heating plant with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    in large solar heating plants for a district heating network, a hybrid solar collector field with 5960 m2 flat plate collectors and 4039 m2 parabolic trough collectors in series was constructed in Taars, Denmark. The design principle is that the flat plate collectors preheat the return water from...... for this type of hybrid solar district heating plants with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in the Nordic region, but also introduce a novel design concept of solar district heating plants to other high solar radiation areas.......Flat plate collectors have relatively low efficiency at the typical supply temperatures of district heating networks (70–95 °C). Parabolic trough collectors retain their high efficiency at these temperatures. To maximize the advantages of flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors...

  2. Next generation laser optics for a hybrid fusion-fission power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Latkowski, J T; Schaffers, K I

    2009-09-10

    The successful completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), followed by a campaign to achieve ignition, creates the proper conditions to begin exploring what development work remains to construct a power plant based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technology. Fundamentally, two distinct NIF laser properties must be overcome. The repetition rate must increase from a shot every four hours to several shots per second. Additionally, the efficiency of converting electricity to laser light must increase by 20x to roughly 10 percent. Solid state diode pumped lasers, commercially available for table top applications, have adequate repetition rates and power conversion efficiencies, however, they operate at a tiny fraction of the required energy for an ICF power plant so would need to be scaled in energy and aperture. This paper describes the optics and coatings that would be needed to support this type of laser architecture.

  3. Hybrid Power Forecasting Model for Photovoltaic Plants Based on Neural Network with Air Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Idris Khan; Honglu Zhu; Jianxi Yao; Danish Khan; Tahir Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    High concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dependency on photovoltaic (PV) power, but its random nature poses a challenge for system operators to precisely predict and forecast PV power. The conventional forecasting methods were accurate for clean weather. But when the PV plants worked under heavy haze, the radiation is negatively impacted and thus reducing PV power; therefore, to deal with haze weather, Air Quality Index (AQI) is introduced as a parameter to predi...

  4. Design and operation of a geopressurized-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R.G.; Hattar, M.M.

    1991-02-01

    This is an appendix to Volume 1 of the report by the same name. Items included are: process flow diagram; piping and instrumentation diagram; new equipment specifications; main single line diagram; shutdown start-up procedures; data sheets for tests; plant outages; detailed process equations; computer program and sample output; chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy results; and management report data sheets January 5, 1990 -- May 29, 1990.

  5. A Hybrid Multidimensional Approach to Select a Country for Global Cement Plant Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khurram Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The globalization and saturated domestic markets force international firms to gradually expand their businesses across the borders to capture potential emerging markets. The decision to select a country for a new cement plant location demands analysis of a large number of factors. It is a multifaceted problem which requires investigation and prioritization of factors in a hierarchical way.This paper uses an FAHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process based procedure proposing a practical framework for solution of the GCPLP (Global Cement Plant Location Problem. It deals with real world ambiguities and handles a broader spectrum of influencing factors. The criteria for selection of a country for a new cement plant installation are prioritized from the FAHP based evaluation made by experts. Different global databases including the World Bank are used for the fuzzy ratings of the alternatives. It has been learnt in this particular problem that cement specific and cost related factors are the most sensitive while legal regulations and economic conditions are relatively less sensitive for the decision makers. Therefore, the countries having strong lime stone reserves, cheaper fuel costs and good internal marketing positions are higher in ranking. The paper concludes with different rankings of the four countries analyzed which assist the strategic managers in making decisions on the basis of mathematically computed results.

  6. Analysis of a plant complex resistance gene locus underlying immune-related hybrid incompatibility and its occurrence in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Alcázar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying speciation in plants include detrimental (incompatible genetic interactions between parental alleles that incur a fitness cost in hybrids. We reported on recessive hybrid incompatibility between an Arabidopsis thaliana strain from Poland, Landsberg erecta (Ler, and many Central Asian A. thaliana strains. The incompatible interaction is determined by a polymorphic cluster of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (TNL RPP1 (Recognition of Peronospora parasitica1-like genes in Ler and alleles of the receptor-like kinase Strubbelig Receptor Family 3 (SRF3 in Central Asian strains Kas-2 or Kond, causing temperature-dependent autoimmunity and loss of growth and reproductive fitness. Here, we genetically dissected the RPP1-like Ler locus to determine contributions of individual RPP1-like Ler (R1-R8 genes to the incompatibility. In a neutral background, expression of most RPP1-like Ler genes, except R3, has no effect on growth or pathogen resistance. Incompatibility involves increased R3 expression and engineered R3 overexpression in a neutral background induces dwarfism and sterility. However, no individual RPP1-like Ler gene is sufficient for incompatibility between Ler and Kas-2 or Kond, suggesting that co-action of at least two RPP1-like members underlies this epistatic interaction. We find that the RPP1-like Ler haplotype is frequent and occurs with other Ler RPP1-like alleles in a local population in Gorzów Wielkopolski (Poland. Only Gorzów individuals carrying the RPP1-like Ler haplotype are incompatible with Kas-2 and Kond, whereas other RPP1-like alleles in the population are compatible. Therefore, the RPP1-like Ler haplotype has been maintained in genetically different individuals at a single site, allowing exploration of forces shaping the evolution of RPP1-like genes at local and regional population scales.

  7. A conceptual design of catalytic gasification fuel cell hybrid power plant with oxygen transfer membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wangying; Han, Minfang

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid power generation system integrating catalytic gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) and gas turbine (GT) is established and system energy analysis is performed. In this work, the catalytic gasifier uses steam, recycled anode off-gas and pure oxygen from OTM system to gasify coal, and heated by hot cathode off-gas at the same time. A zero-dimension SOFC model is applied and verified by fitting experimental data. Thermodynamic analysis is performed to investigate the integrated system performance, and system sensitivities on anode off-gas back flow ratio, SOFC fuel utilization, temperature and pressure are discussed. Main conclusions are as follows: (1) System overall electricity efficiency reaches 60.7%(HHV) while the gasifier operates at 700 °C and SOFC at 850 °C with system pressure at 3.04 bar; (2) oxygen enriched combustion simplify the carbon-dioxide capture process, which derives CO2 of 99.2% purity, but results in a penalty of 6.7% on system electricity efficiency; (3) with SOFC fuel utilization or temperature increasing, the power output of SOFC increases while GT power output decreases, and increasing system pressure can improve both the performance of SOFC and GT.

  8. Continuous measurement of peak hydrogen fluoride exposures in aluminum smelter potrooms: instrument development and in-plant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Neal; Xu, Weizong; Peace, Jon Nathaniel

    2008-02-01

    The aluminum smelting process continuously evolves both sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) gases. The vast majority of these evolved gases are captured by local exhaust ventilation systems and transported to fume treatment centers. Any gas escaping the ventilation systems could create the potential for workplace exposures. Currently, there are no commercially available sensors that are capable of selectively measuring peak concentrations (< 10 sec) of HF in the presence of SO2. This measurement capability is critical for facilitating a better understanding of the etiology of respiratory health effects. This article presents the development and in-plant testing of a portable, tunable diode-based HF sensor that shows equivalent or improved performance relative to NIOSH Method 7902 and is capable of measuring short-term personal peak HF exposure potentials in operating aluminum smelters.

  9. Real-time, continuous, fluorescence sensing in a freely-moving subject with an implanted hybrid VCSEL/CMOS biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Thomas D.; Heitz, Roxana T.; Parashurama, Natesh; Barkin, David B.; Wooley, Bruce A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Harris, James S.; Levi, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Performance improvements in instrumentation for optical imaging have contributed greatly to molecular imaging in living subjects. In order to advance molecular imaging in freely moving, untethered subjects, we designed a miniature vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-based biosensor measuring 1cm3 and weighing 0.7g that accurately detects both fluorophore and tumor-targeted molecular probes in small animals. We integrated a critical enabling component, a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) read-out integrated circuit, which digitized the fluorescence signal to achieve autofluorescence-limited sensitivity. After surgical implantation of the lightweight sensor for two weeks, we obtained continuous and dynamic fluorophore measurements while the subject was un-anesthetized and mobile. The technology demonstrated here represents a critical step in the path toward untethered optical sensing using an integrated optoelectronic implant. PMID:24009996

  10. Non-Invasive Detection of Protein Content in Several Types of Plant Feed Materials Using a Hybrid Near Infrared Spectroscopy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xia; Tang, Shichuan; Li, Guozhen; Zhou, Xingfan

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was applied to construct a hybrid model for the non-invasive detection of protein content in different types of plant feed materials. In total, 829 samples of plant feed materials, which included corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal, corn gluten meal, distillers’ dried grains (DDG) and rapeseed meal, were collected from markets in China. Based on the different preprocessed spectral data, specific models for each type of plant feed material and a hybrid model for all the materials were built. Performances of specific model and hybrid model constructed with full spectrum (full spectrum model) and selected wavenumbers with VIP (variable importance in the projection) scores value bigger than 1.00 (VIP scores model) were also compared. The best spectral preprocessing method for this study was found to be the standard normal variate transformation combined with the first derivative. For both full spectrum and VIP scores model, the prediction performance of the hybrid model was slightly worse than those of the specific models but was nevertheless satisfactory. Moreover, the VIP scores model obtained generally better performances than corresponding full spectrum model. Wavenumbers around 4500 cm-1, 4664 cm-1 and 4836 cm-1 were found to be the key wavenumbers in modeling protein content in these plant feed materials. The values for the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the relative prediction deviation (RPD) obtained with the VIP scores hybrid model were 1.05% and 2.53 for corn DDGS, 0.98% and 4.17 for corn germ meal, 0.75% and 6.99 for corn gluten meal, 1.54% and 4.59 for DDG, and 0.90% and 3.33 for rapeseed meal, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that the protein content in several types of plant feed materials can be determined using a hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy model. And VIP scores method can be used to improve the general predictability of

  11. Predicting leaf gravimetric water content from foliar reflectance across a range of plant species using continuous wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Rivard, Benoit; Sánchez-Azofeifa, Arturo G; Féret, Jean-Baptiste; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Ustin, Susan L

    2012-08-15

    Leaf water content is an important variable for understanding plant physiological properties. This study evaluates a spectral analysis approach, continuous wavelet analysis (CWA), for the spectroscopic estimation of leaf gravimetric water content (GWC, %) and determines robust spectral indicators of GWC across a wide range of plant species from different ecosystems. CWA is both applied to the Leaf Optical Properties Experiment (LOPEX) data set and a synthetic data set consisting of leaf reflectance spectra simulated using the leaf optical properties spectra (PROSPECT) model. The results for the two data sets, including wavelet feature selection and GWC prediction derived using those features, are compared to the results obtained from a previous study for leaf samples collected in the Republic of Panamá (PANAMA), to assess the predictive capabilities and robustness of CWA across species. Furthermore, predictive models of GWC using wavelet features derived from PROSPECT simulations are examined to assess their applicability to measured data. The two measured data sets (LOPEX and PANAMA) reveal five common wavelet feature regions that correlate well with leaf GWC. All three data sets display common wavelet features in three wavelength regions that span 1732-1736 nm at scale 4, 1874-1878 nm at scale 6, and 1338-1341 nm at scale 7 and produce accurate estimates of leaf GWC. This confirms the applicability of the wavelet-based methodology for estimating leaf GWC for leaves representative of various ecosystems. The PROSPECT-derived predictive models perform well on the LOPEX data set but are less successful on the PANAMA data set. The selection of high-scale and low-scale features emphasizes significant changes in both overall amplitude over broad spectral regions and local spectral shape over narrower regions in response to changes in leaf GWC. The wavelet-based spectral analysis tool adds a new dimension to the modeling of plant physiological properties with

  12. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  13. Strategy for Migration of Traditional to Hybrid Control Boards in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This strategy document describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of new digital control room elements in a legacy analog main control room (MCR). Information from previous planning and analysis work serves as the foundation for creating a human-machine interface (HMI) specification for distributed control systems (DCSs) to be implemented as part of nuclear power plant (NPP) modernization. This document reviews ways to take the HMSI specification and use it when migrating legacy displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then an integrated system validation (ISV) in the full-scope control room training simulator. Following successful demonstration of operator performance using the systems during the ISV, the new DCS is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the MCR. This document concludes with a sample project plan, including a 15-month timeline from DCS design through implementation. Included is a discussion of how the U.S. Department of Energy’s Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) can be used to support design and V&V activities. This report completes a Level 4 (M4) milestone under the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program.

  14. Numerical simulation of a hybrid CSP/Biomass 5 MWel power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, João; Oliveira, Armando

    2017-06-01

    The fundamental benefit of using renewable energy systems is undeniable since they rely on a source that will not run out. Nevertheless, they strongly depend on meteorological conditions (solar, wind, etc.), leading to uncertainty of instantaneous energy supply and consequently to grid connection issues. An interesting concept is renewable hybridisation. This consists in the strategic combination of different renewable sources in the power generation portfolio by taking advantage of each technology. Hybridisation of concentrating solar power with biomass denotes a powerful way of assuring system stability and reliability. The main advantage is dispatchability through the whole extent of the operating range. Regarding concentrating solar power heat transfer fluid, direct steam generation is one of the most interesting concepts. Nevertheless, it presents itself technical challenges that are mostly related to the two-phase fluid flow in horizontal pipes, as well as the design of an energy storage system. Also, the use of reheat within the turbine is usually indirectly addressed, hindering system efficiency. These challenges can be addressed through hybridisation with biomass. In this paper, a hybrid renewable electricity generation system is presented. The system relies on a combination of solar and biomass sources to drive a 5 MWel steam turbine. System performance is analysed through numerical simulation using Ebsilon professional software. The use of direct reheat in the turbine is addressed. Results show that hybridisation results in an enhancement of system dispatchability and generation stability. Furthermore, hybridisation enhanced the annual solar field and power block efficiencies, and thus the system annual efficiency (from 7.6% to 20%). The use of direct reheat eliminates steam wetness in the last turbine stage and also improves system efficiency.

  15. Results of Continuous Load Cell Monitoring Field Trial for UF6 Withdrawals at an Operating Industrial Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Bell, Lisa S [ORNL; Conchewski, Curtis A [ORNL; Peters, Benjamin R [ORNL; Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Richardson, Dave [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Continuous load cell monitoring (CLCM) has been implemented and tested for use as a safeguards tool during a 2009 field trial in an operating UF6 transfer facility. The transfer facility is part of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon, Ohio, operated by the United States Enrichment Corporation. During the field trial, two process scales for UF{sub 6} cylinders were continuously monitored for a 6-month period as cylinders were being filled. The collected CLCM data were used in testing an event processor serving as a filter for highlighting measurements representing significant operational activities that are important in verifying declared operations. The collection of CLCM data, coupled with rules-based event processing, can provide inspectors with knowledge of a facility's feed and withdrawal activities occurring between site visits. Such process knowledge promises to enhance the effectiveness of safeguards by enabling inspectors to quantitatively compare declared activities directly with process measurements. Selected results of the field trial and event processing will be presented in the context of their value to an independent inspector and a facility operator.

  16. Recovery and grade prediction of pilot plant flotation column concentrate by a hybrid neural genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Nakhaei; M.R.Mosavi; A.Sam

    2013-01-01

    Today flotation column has become an acceptable means of froth flotation for a fairly broad range of applications,in particular the cleaning of sulfides.Even after having been used for several years in mineral processing plants,the full potential of the flotation column process is still not fully exploited.There is no prediction of process performance for the complete use of available control capabilities.The on-line estimation of grade usually requires a significant amount of work in maintenance and calibration of on-stream analyzers,in order to maintain good accuracy and high availability.These difficulties and the high cost of investment and maintenance of these devices have encouraged the approach of prediction of metal grade and recovery.In this paper,a new approach has been proposed for metallurgical performance prediction in flotation columns using Artificial Neural Network (ANN).Despite of the wide range of applications and flexibility of NNs,there is still no general framework or procedure through which the appropriate network for a specific task can be designed.Design and structural optimization of NNs is still strongly dependent upon the designer's experience.To mitigate this problem,a new method for the auto-design of NNs was used,based on Genetic Algorithm (GA).The new proposed method was evaluated by a case study in pilot plant flotation column at Sarcheshmeh copper plant.The chemical reagents dosage,froth height,air,wash water flow rates,gas holdup,Cu grade in the rougher feed,flotation column feed,column tail and final concentrate streams were used to the simulation by GANN.In this work,multi-layer NNs with Back Propagation (BP) algorithm with 8-17-10-2 and 8-13-6-2 arrangements have been applied to predict the Cu and Mo grades and recoveries,respectively.The correlation coefficient (R) values for the testing sets for Cu and Mo grades were 0.93,0.94 and for their recoveries were 0.93,0.92,respectively.The results discussed in this paper indicate

  17. Fermentative production of poly (γ-glutamic acid) from renewable carbon source and downstream purification through a continuous membrane-integrated hybrid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal

    2015-02-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out on continuous and direct production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) in a hybrid reactor system that integrated conventional fermentative production step with membrane-based downstream separation and purification. Novelty of the integrated system lies in high degree of purity, conversion, yield and productivity of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) through elimination of substrate-product inhibitions of traditional batch production system. This new system is compact, flexible, eco-friendly and largely fouling-free ensuring steady and continuous production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) directly from a renewable carbon source at the rate of 0.91 g/L/h. Cross-flow microfiltration membrane modules ensured almost complete separation and recycle of cells without much fouling problem. Well-screened ultrafiltration membrane module helped to concentrate poly-(γ-glutamic acid) while ensuring recovery and recycle of 96% unconverted carbon source resulting in yield of 0.6g/g along with high product purity.

  18. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.044, P = 0.014, and P = 0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P < 0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P < 0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P = 0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency. PMID:23536543

  19. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.044, P = 0.014, and P = 0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P < 0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P < 0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P = 0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency.

  20. Modeling of Quasi-Four-Phase Flow in Continuous Casting Mold Using Hybrid Eulerian and Lagrangian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Sun, Zhenbang; Li, Baokuan

    2016-12-01

    Lagrangian tracking model combined with Eulerian multi-phase model is employed to predict the time-dependent argon-steel-slag-air quasi-four-phase flow inside a slab continuous casting mold. The Eulerian approach is used for the description of three phases (molten steel, liquid slag, and air at the top of liquid slag layer). The dispersed argon bubble injected from the SEN is treated in the Lagrangian way. The complex interfacial momentum transfers between various phases are considered. Validation is supported by the measurement data of cold model experiments and industrial practice. Close agreements were achieved for the gas volume fraction, liquid flow pattern, level fluctuation, and exposed slag eye phenomena. Many known phenomena and new predictions were successfully reproduced using this model. The vortex slag entrapment phenomenon at the slag-steel interface was obtained using this model, some small slag drops are sucked deep into the liquid pool of molten steel. Varying gas flow rates have a large effect on the steel flow pattern in the upper recirculation zone. Three typical flow patterns inside the mold with different argon gas flow rates have been obtained: double roll, three roll, and single roll. Effects of argon gas flow rate, casting speed, and slag layer thickness on the exposed slag eye and level fluctuation at the slag-steel interface were studied. A dimensionless value of H ave/h was proposed to describe the time-averaged level fluctuation of slag-steel interface. The exposed slag eye near the SEN would be formed when the value of H ave/h is larger than 0.4.

  1. Characterization of continuous and pulsed emission modes of a hybrid micro focus x-ray source for medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin; Rong, John. X.; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterize a micro focus x-ray tube that can operate in both continuous and pulsed emission modes. The micro focus x-ray source (Model L9181-06, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) has a varying focal spot size ranging from 16 μm to 50 μm as the source output power changes from 10 to 39 W. We measured the source output, beam quality, focal spot sizes, kV accuracy, spectra shapes and spatial resolution. Source output was measured using an ionization chamber for various tube voltages (kVs) with varying current (μA) and distances. The beam quality was measured in terms of half value layer (HVL), kV accuracy was measured with a non-invasive kV meter, and the spectra was measured using a compact integrated spectrometer system. The focal spot sizes were measured using a slit method with a CCD detector with a pixel pitch of 22 μm. The spatial resolution was quantitatively measured using the slit method with a CMOS flat panel detector with a 50 μm pixel pitch, and compared to the qualitative results obtained by imaging a contrast bar pattern. The focal spot sizes in the vertical direction were smaller than that of the horizontal direction, the impact of which was visible when comparing the spatial resolution values. Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam quality, spectra shape and spatial resolution effects. There were no significantly large differences, thus providing the motivation for future studies to design and develop stable and robust cone beam imaging systems for various diagnostic applications.

  2. Diversification of the plant-specific hybrid glycine-rich protein (HyGRP genes in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji eFujino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific hybrid proline- or glycine-rich proteins (HyP/GRPs are involved in diverse gene functions including plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The quantitative trait locus, qLTG3-1, enhances seed germination in rice under low-temperature conditions and encodes a member with a glycine-rich motif of the HyP/GRP family. The function of this gene may be related to the weakening of tissue covering the embryo during seed germination. In the present study, the diversification of the HyP/GRP gene family was elucidated in rice based on phylogenetic relationships and gene expression levels. At least 21 members of the HyP/GRP family have been identified in the rice genome and clustered in five regions on four chromosomes by tandem and chromosomal duplications. Of these, OsHyPRP05 (qLTG3-1 and its paralogous gene, OsHyPRP21, had a glycine-rich motif. Furthermore, orthologous genes with a glycine-rich motif and the HyP/GRP gene family were detected in four genome-sequenced monocots: 12 in barley, 10 in Brachypodium, 20 in maize, and 28 in sorghum, using a BLAST search of qLTG3-1 as the query. All members of the HyP/GRP family in these five species were classified into seven main groups, which were clustered together in these species. These results suggested that the HyP/GRP gene family was formed in the ancestral genome before the divergence of these species. The collinearity of chromosomal regions around qLTG3-1 and its orthologous genes were conserved among rice, Brachypodium, sorghum, and maize, indicating that qLTG3-1 and orthologous genes conserve gene function during seed germination.

  3. Continuous within-plant variation as a source of intraspecific functional diversity: Patterns, magnitude, and genetic correlates of leaf variability in Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

    2015-02-01

    Continuous within-plant variation in quantitative traits of reiterated, homologous structures is a component of intraspecific variation, but its contribution to functional diversity remains largely unexplored. For the perennial Helleborus foetidus, we measured functional leaf traits to quantify the contribution of within-plant variation to intraspecific functional variance and evaluate whether within-plant variability itself deserves separate consideration. Within-individual variation in eight leaf traits was quantified for 138 plants sampled from 10 widely spaced locations in the Sierra de Cazorla, southeastern Spain. An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to look for associations between within-plant variability and specific AFLP markers. Leaflets from basal positions in ramets were longer, heavier, had greater surface area and larger stomata, and lower specific area, stomatal index, and stomatal density than those from distal positions. Continuous variation between leaves from the same ramet was the main source of population-wide variance for most traits. Within-plant variability differed among populations. Individuals differed in within-plant variability, which was largely independent of trait means and associated with genetic characteristics. Up to four AFLP markers were associated with the within-plant variability level of a given leaf trait. Subindividual variability in continuous leaf traits was independent of plant means and related to genetic features. The within-individual component generally exceeded the between-individual component of intraspecific variance. Within-plant variation may broaden the ecological breadth and enhance stability and persistence of plant populations and communities and may provide novel insights when incorporated in trait-based community ecology models. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  4. Optimised utilisation of existing incinerators by installation of upstream reactors for treatment of waste with high calorifica value - HYBRID waste treatment plants; Optimierte Nutzung bestehender Abfallverbrennungsanlagen durch Errichtung vorgeschalteter Reaktoren zur Behandlung heizwertreicher Abfaelle - HYBRID-Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Labani, M.

    2000-07-01

    Waste incineration plants are based on the process of thermal waste treatment, i.e. the generation of power from the controlled conversion of organic reactive residue waste. Statutory requirements forced operators to install powerful flue gas cleaning systems into their existing waste incineration plants. This led to a tremendous increase in cost and treatment prices generating pressure to optimize the process. Currently, markets demand additional capacities for the treatment of waste of elevated heating value ({proportional_to}5,0 MWh/Mg). It is possible to treat this type of waste in a conventional waste incineration plant. However, the elevated heating value dictates a reduction in throughput with ever increasing pressure on costs. This is why current concepts consider the treatment of waste of elevated heating value in specific, so called de-centralized plants. These plants are usually of low throughput with accordingly high specific cost of developing the infrastructure. The capacity of existing waste incineration plants has been investigated in order to assess the potential for optimization. Extensive test runs at the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Plant (MSW) Darmstadt revealed a capacity gap in the flue gas cleaning system even with the incineration unit running at full capacity. This gap could be filled with an additional incineration plant for waste of elevated heating value, whose capacity is matched accordingly. Such additional incineration plant defines in conjunction with the existing waste incineration plant a so called HYBRID Waste Treatment Plant. It is the aim of this treatise to develop an instrument to support the decision making process related to the planning of such plants. (orig.) [German] Abfallverbrennungsanlagen basieren auf dem Verfahren der thermischen Abfallbehandlung; das ist die Energieerzeugung aus der kontrollierten Umwandlung organischer, reaktionsfaehiger Restabfaelle. Aufgrund gesetzlicher Vorgaben mussten bestehende

  5. Modeling and analysis of dynamic behavior of hybrid wind-diesel power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sergio Leonardo

    This thesis develops small-signal and large-signal models to investigate the dynamic performance of a hybrid wind-diesel energy system interfaced to a utility grid. The study system comprises a 3.5-MVA diesel-generator unit operating in parallel with a 750-kVA variable-speed, squirrel-cage induction generator, wind unit. The wind unit is interfaced to the power network through a back-to-back voltage-sourced converter system. The controllers of the machine-side converter regulate the mechanical torque and the shaft speed of the induction generator to obtain maximum power production under fluctuating wind-speed conditions. The controllers of the grid-side converter maintain the dc-link voltage and the ac-side converter terminal voltage within the specified limits and ensure delivery of the captured wind power to the network. The diesel-generator unit is equipped with excitation and governor systems to compensate for (i) output power changes of the wind unit due to the intermittent nature of the wind, and (ii) changes in the load demand. Based on small-signal (eigen) analyses in the MATLABRTM software environment, the controller parameters of the wind and the diesel units are selected to guarantee (i) minimization of transients due to switch over between two consecutive modes of operation, (ii) voltage/angle stability during islanded (autonomous) mode of operation, and (iii) local load requirements in terms of voltage and real/reactive power. The results obtained from time-domain simulations, in the PSCAD RTM/EMTDCRTM software environment, demonstrate that proper adjustment of the controllers of the wind and diesel units promote "ride-through" capability in the event of (i) pre-planned transitions between different modes of operation, (ii) pre-planned islanding and re-connection of the units to the power network, and (iii) short circuits, accidental islanding and subsequent re-connection attempts to the network. The developed eigen analysis tool is structured to

  6. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  7. 植物染色体原位杂交技术的发展与现状%Today and Yesterday on in situ Hybridization of Plant Chromosome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建国; 朱志玉; 石春海; 樊龙江

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,we briefly introduce the development of in situ hybridization of plant chromosome. The fundamental principle and method of many main kinds of in situ hybridization have been reviewed for different research purposes,and their application and development on plant cytogenetics also been recommended.%本文主要介绍植物染色体原位杂交技术的发展历史,评述适用于不同研究目的的各种主要原位杂交技术的基本原理和方法,并介绍该技术在植物细胞遗传学领域的应用和发展。

  8. Dataset of working conditions and thermo-economic performances for hybrid organic Rankine plants fed by solar and low-grade energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardigno, Domenico; Fanelli, Emanuele; Viggiano, Annarita; Braccio, Giacobbe; Magi, Vinicio

    2016-06-01

    This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of a hybrid organic Rankine plant generated by the optimization procedure employed in the research article "A genetic optimization of a hybrid organic Rankine plant for solar and low-grade energy sources" (Scardigno et al., 2015) [1]. The methodology used to obtain the data is described. The operating conditions are subdivided into two separate groups: feasible and unfeasible solutions. In both groups, the values of the design variables are given. Besides, the subset of feasible solutions is described in details, by providing the thermodynamic and economic performances, the temperatures at some characteristic sections of the thermodynamic cycle, the net power, the absorbed powers and the area of the heat exchange surfaces.

  9. Analyses of the use of natural gas in solar power plants (CSP) hybridization in the Sao Francisco Basin (BA); Analise do uso de gas natural na hibridizacao de plantas termosolares (CSP) na Bacia do Sao Francisco (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagueta, Diego Cunha; Penafiel, Rafael Andres Soria; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Dutra, Ricardo M.; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) in Northeast, Brazil. It focused on parabolic trough solar power plants, which is the most mature CSP technology; and evaluated plants rated at 100 MWe, dry cooling systems (due to the low water availability in Northeast), and with and without hybridization based on natural gas (degree of hybridization varying from 25 to 75%). Hence, the capacity factor of the simulated plants hovered between 23 and 98%, according to the degree of hybridization and the choice of the thermodynamic cycle of the natural gas fueled thermal system: Rankine or combined cycle. The CSP plants were simulated at Bom Jesus da Lapa, in the semi-arid region of Bahia. Given the prospects for natural gas resources in the Sao Francisco Basin, different scenarios for the gas prices were tested. Moreover, two scenarios were tested for the cost of the CSP plants, one based on the current financial environment and the other based on incentive policies, such as fiscal incentives and loans. Findings show that while simple plants levelized costs (LCOE) hovered around 520 R$/MWh, for hybrid plants LCOE may reach 140 to 190 R$/MWh. Therefore, this study proposed incentive policies to promote the increasing investment in hybrid CSP plants. (author)

  10. A Hybrid Model for Mapping Relative Differences in Belowground Biomass and Root: Shoot Ratios Using Spectral Reflectance, Foliar N and Plant Biophysical Data within Coastal Marsh

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. O’Connell; Byrd, Kristin B; Maggi Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Broad-scale estimates of belowground biomass are needed to understand wetland resiliency and C and N cycling, but these estimates are difficult to obtain because root:shoot ratios vary considerably both within and between species. We used remotely-sensed estimates of two aboveground plant characteristics, aboveground biomass and % foliar N to explore biomass allocation in low diversity freshwater impounded peatlands (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, CA, USA). We developed a hybrid modeling...

  11. Hydrogen production by the solar-powered hybrid sulfur process: Analysis of the integration of the CSP and chemical plants in selected scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Raffaele; Lanchi, Michela; Turchetti, Luca

    2016-05-01

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) is a water splitting process for hydrogen production powered with high temperature nuclear heat and electric power; among the numerous thermo-chemical and thermo-electro-chemical cycles proposed in the literature, such cycle is considered to have a particularly high potential also if powered by renewable energy. SOL2HY2 (Solar to Hydrogen Hybrid Cycles) is a 3 year research project, co-funded by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU). A significant part of the project activities are devoted to the analysis and optimization of the integration of the solar power plant with the chemical, hydrogen production plant. This work reports a part of the results obtained in such research activity. The analysis presented in this work builds on previous process simulations used to determine the energy requirements of the hydrogen production plant in terms of electric power, medium (550°C) temperature heat. For the supply of medium temperature (MT) heat, a parabolic trough CSP plant using molten salts as heat transfer and storage medium is considered. A central receiver CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) plant is considered to provide high temperature (HT) heat, which is only needed for sulfuric acid decomposition. Finally, electric power is provided by a power block included in the MT solar plant and/or drawn from the grid, depending on the scenario considered. In particular, the analysis presented here focuses on the medium temperature CSP plant, possibly combined with a power block. Different scenarios were analysed by considering plants with different combinations of geographical location and sizing criteria.

  12. Effect of processing routes in a multi-pass continuous hybrid process on mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture evolutions of low-carbon steel wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun Kwang; Baek, Hyun Moo; Joo, Ho Seon; Im, Yong-Taek

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a multi-pass continuous hybrid (CH) process was experimentally applied with up to five passes with three processing routes, A, Bc, and C, to check the practicality of the processing routes and investigate their effect on the mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture evolutions of low-carbon steel wires. According to the present investigation, the wires processed by the 5th pass CH process with route A showed the highest ultimate tensile strength value (762 MPa) compared to those for routes Bc (718 MPa) and C (720 MPa), respectively. Based on the compression test results, the CH processed wire showed good workability when the aspect ratio was smaller than 2.4 for all the processing routes. According to the microstructure and texture evolutions, the grain sizes of the 5th pass CH processed wires decreased for all the processing routes than that of the initial specimen, and the wires showed mixed texture distribution of shear and drawing texture components. From the present investigation, it was concluded that the processing routes of the CH process could strongly affect the microstructure and texture evolutions, resulting in changes of the mechanical properties and workability of the low-carbon steel wires.

  13. An Integrated Optimal Energy Management/Gear-Shifting Strategy for an Electric Continuously Variable Transmission Hybrid Powertrain Using Bacterial Foraging Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuan-Yi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an integrated energy management/gear-shifting strategy by using a bacterial foraging algorithm (BFA in an engine/motor hybrid powertrain with electric continuously variable transmission. A control-oriented vehicle model was constructed on the Matlab/Simulink platform for further integration with developed control strategies. A baseline control strategy with four modes was developed for comparison with the proposed BFA. The BFA was used with five bacterial populations to search for the optimal gear ratio and power-split ratio for minimizing the cost: the equivalent fuel consumption. Three main procedures were followed: chemotaxis, reproduction, and elimination-dispersal. After the vehicle model was integrated with the vehicle control unit with the BFA, two driving patterns, the New European Driving Cycle and the Federal Test Procedure, were used to evaluate the energy consumption improvement and equivalent fuel consumption compared with the baseline. The results show that [18.35%,21.77%] and [8.76%,13.81%] were improved for the optimal energy management and integrated optimization at the first and second driving cycles, respectively. Real-time platform designs and vehicle integration for a dynamometer test will be investigated in the future.

  14. The plant pathogen Phytophthora andina emerged via hybridization of an unknown Phytophthora species and the Irish potato famine pathogen, P. infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Erica M; Cardenas, Martha E; Myers, Kevin; Forbes, Gregory A; Fry, William E; Restrepo, Silvia; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2011-01-01

    Emerging plant pathogens have largely been a consequence of the movement of pathogens to new geographic regions. Another documented mechanism for the emergence of plant pathogens is hybridization between individuals of different species or subspecies, which may allow rapid evolution and adaptation to new hosts or environments. Hybrid plant pathogens have traditionally been difficult to detect or confirm, but the increasing ease of cloning and sequencing PCR products now makes the identification of species that consistently have genes or alleles with phylogenetically divergent origins relatively straightforward. We investigated the genetic origin of Phytophthora andina, an increasingly common pathogen of Andean crops Solanum betaceum, S. muricatum, S. quitoense, and several wild Solanum spp. It has been hypothesized that P. andina is a hybrid between the potato late blight pathogen P. infestans and another Phytophthora species. We tested this hypothesis by cloning four nuclear loci to obtain haplotypes and using these loci to infer the phylogenetic relationships of P. andina to P. infestans and other related species. Sequencing of cloned PCR products in every case revealed two distinct haplotypes for each locus in P. andina, such that each isolate had one allele derived from a P. infestans parent and a second divergent allele derived from an unknown species that is closely related but distinct from P. infestans, P. mirabilis, and P. ipomoeae. To the best of our knowledge, the unknown parent has not yet been collected. We also observed sequence polymorphism among P. andina isolates at three of the four loci, many of which segregate between previously described P. andina clonal lineages. These results provide strong support that P. andina emerged via hybridization between P. infestans and another unknown Phytophthora species also belonging to Phytophthora clade 1c.

  15. The plant pathogen Phytophthora andina emerged via hybridization of an unknown Phytophthora species and the Irish potato famine pathogen, P. infestans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Goss

    Full Text Available Emerging plant pathogens have largely been a consequence of the movement of pathogens to new geographic regions. Another documented mechanism for the emergence of plant pathogens is hybridization between individuals of different species or subspecies, which may allow rapid evolution and adaptation to new hosts or environments. Hybrid plant pathogens have traditionally been difficult to detect or confirm, but the increasing ease of cloning and sequencing PCR products now makes the identification of species that consistently have genes or alleles with phylogenetically divergent origins relatively straightforward. We investigated the genetic origin of Phytophthora andina, an increasingly common pathogen of Andean crops Solanum betaceum, S. muricatum, S. quitoense, and several wild Solanum spp. It has been hypothesized that P. andina is a hybrid between the potato late blight pathogen P. infestans and another Phytophthora species. We tested this hypothesis by cloning four nuclear loci to obtain haplotypes and using these loci to infer the phylogenetic relationships of P. andina to P. infestans and other related species. Sequencing of cloned PCR products in every case revealed two distinct haplotypes for each locus in P. andina, such that each isolate had one allele derived from a P. infestans parent and a second divergent allele derived from an unknown species that is closely related but distinct from P. infestans, P. mirabilis, and P. ipomoeae. To the best of our knowledge, the unknown parent has not yet been collected. We also observed sequence polymorphism among P. andina isolates at three of the four loci, many of which segregate between previously described P. andina clonal lineages. These results provide strong support that P. andina emerged via hybridization between P. infestans and another unknown Phytophthora species also belonging to Phytophthora clade 1c.

  16. 玉米杂交种豫单811的最适密度筛选%Selection of Optimal Planting Density for Maize Hybrid Yudan 811

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦永田; 苏玉杰; 程建梅; 李保峰; 王志红; 付志远; 汤继华

    2013-01-01

    采用方差分析和多重比较分析方法,对不同种植密度下豫单811的植株性状、穗部性状及产量进行了分析,以明确该品种的合理种植密度,结果表明:6.75万~7.5万株/hm2是豫单811的合理种植密度,其增产潜力达到最大的种植密度为7.5万株/hm2.%The methods of variance analysis and multiple comparison analysis were used to analyze the plant characters, panicle traits and yield of maize hybrid Yudan 811 under different planting densities, in order to nail down the reasonable planting density of this variety. The results showed that 67500 -75000 plants/hm2 was the reasonable planting density of Yudan 811, and the planting density for reaching the maximum yield potential of this variety was 75000 plants/hm2.

  17. Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent with peracetic acid and ultraviolet combined treatment: a continuous-flow pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Abelardo; Gehr, Ronald; Vaca, Mabel; López, Raymundo

    2012-03-01

    Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent using a continuous-flow combined peracetic acid/ultraviolet (PAA/UV) radiation system was evaluated. The purpose was to determine whether the maximum microbial content, established under Mexican standards for treated wastewaters meant for reuse--less than 240 most probable number fecal coliforms (FC)/100 mL--could be feasibly accomplished using either disinfectant individually, or the combined PAA/UV system. This meant achieving reduction of up to 5 logs, considering initial concentrations of 6.4 x 10(+6) to 5.8 x 10(+7) colony forming units/100 mL. During the tests performed under these experiments, total coliforms (TC) were counted because FC, at the most, will be equal to TC. Peracetic acid disinfection achieved less than 1.5 logs TC reduction when the C(t) x t product was less than 2.26 mg x minimum (min)/L; 3.8 logs for C(t) x t 4.40 mg x min/L; and 5.9 logs for C(t) x t 24.2 mg x min/L. In continuous-flow UV irradiation tests, at a low-operating flow (21 L/min; conditions which produced an average UV fluence of 13.0 mJ/cm2), the highest TC reduction was close to 2.5 logs. The only condition that produced a disinfection efficiency of approximately 5 logs, when both disinfection agents were used together, was the combined process dosing 30 mg PAA/L at a pilot plant flow of 21 L/min and contact time of 10 minutes to attain an average C(t) x t product of 24.2 mg x min/L and an average UV fluence of 13 mJ/cm2. There was no conclusive evidence of a synergistic effect when both disinfectants were employed in combination as compared to the individual effects achieved when used separately, but this does not take into account the nonlinearity (tailing-off) of the dose-response curve.

  18. Plant Type and Its Effects on Canopy Structure at Heading Stage in Various Ecological Areas for a Two-line Hybrid Rice Combination, Liangyoupeijiu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chuan-gen; HU Ning; YAO Ke-min; XIA Shi-jian; QI Qing-ming

    2010-01-01

    A two-line hybrid rice combination, Liangyoupeijiu, was used to estimate several factors of plant type, and environmental models for these factors at the heading stage were established using the data of eight ecological experimental sites in 2006 and 2007. According to climatic data from 1951 to 2005, the differences in those factors and their effects on plant canopy were analyzed for four rice cropping areas in China, including South China, the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Sichuan Basin, and river valley in Yunnan, China. The thickness of leaf layer (the distance from pulvinus of the third leaf from the top to the tip of flag leaf) and distribution of leaf area could be used as candidate indices for the plant type of a rice canopy.

  19. FEATURES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CORN HYBRIDS DEPENDING ON THE TERMS OF PLANTING AND TMTD-PLUS DISINFECTANT IN THE ARID ZONE CENTRAL CISCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko R. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There was given the review of the results of the study in the arid zone of Central Ciscaucasia, the influence of planting terms and presowing seed treatment by the drug called "TMTD-plus", containing the growth stimulator Krezatsin in its composition, on the development of corn hybrids of different maturity groups of the selection of Krasnodar Research Institute of Agriculture named after P.P. Lukyanenko (Ross 199, Ross 299, Krasnodar 382 and Krasnodar 410 and the All-Russian Research Institute of Corn (Mashuk 170, Newton, RIC 345 and Eric, as well as middlematurity population Rossiyskaya 1. The studies were conducted in accordance with the thematic plan of scientific researches of the chair of crop and forage production of the Stavropol State Agrarian University. The soil surface was presented as southern black earth. The technology of growing of maize on the experimental plot corresponds to the standard one for the present area and cultivar. The predecessor is winter wheat. Sowing was performed in three terms. The first (early sowing term was carried out at t = + 7 ... +8 ° C. The second (recommended - when t = + 10 ... + 12 ° C. The third (later sowing time was carried out at t = +15 ° C. The plant density: early-maturing hybrids – 70 thousand pieces/ha, is mid-maturing ones – 60 thousand pieces/ha, middle-ripe – 50 thousand piece/ha, middle-later ones – 45 thousand pieces/ha. The scheme is single-row, with spacing of 70 cm. The application of the studied drug TMTD-plus helped to reduce the growing season of maize plants for one - two days. Thus, changing the sowing terms of maize hybrids and populations, we can largely control the development of plants changing the length of the growing season to two weeks and form a harvesting conveyor, thereby reducing the intensity of field work

  20. THE MECHANISMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CORN HYBRIDS DEPENDING ON THE TERMS OF PLANTING AND TMTD-PLUS DISINFECTANT IN THE ZONE OF SUFFICIENT MOISTURE OF CENTRAL CISCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko R. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There was given a review of the results of the study in the conditions of sufficient moisture of Central Ciscaucasia, the influence of planting terms and presowing seed treatment by the drug called "TMTDplus", containing Krezatsin growth stimulator in its composition, on the development of corn hybrids of different maturity groups of the selection of Krasnodar Research Institute of Agriculture named after P.P. Lukyanenko (Ross 199, Ross 299, Krasnodar 382 and Krasnodar 410 and the All-Russian Research Institute of Corn (Mashuk 170, Newton, RIC 345 and Eric, as well as middle- maturity population Rossiyskaya 1. The studies were conducted in accordance with the thematic plan of scientific researches of the chair of crop and forage production of the Stavropol State Agrarian University. The soil surface of the experimental station of StavrGAU was presented as leached black soil. The technology of growing of maize on the experimental plot corresponds to the standard one for the present area and cultivar. The predecessor is winter wheat. Sowing was performed in three terms. The first (early sowing term was carried out at t = + 7 ... +8 ° C. The second (recommended - when t = + 10 ... + 12 ° C. The third (later sowing time was carried out at t = +15 ° C. The plant density: early-maturing hybrids – 70 thousand pieces/ha, is mid-maturing ones – 60 thousand pieces/ha, middleripe – 50 thousand piece/ha, middle-later ones – 45 thousand pieces/ha. The scheme is single-row, with spacing of 70 cm. The application of the studied drug TMTD-plus helped to reduce the growing season of maize plants for one - four days. Thus, changing the sowing terms of maize hybrids and populations, we can largely control the development of plants changing the length of the growing season to two weeks and form a harvesting conveyor, thereby reducing the intensity of field work

  1. PLANTS SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT FOR DIFFERENT MAIZE HYBRIDS ARRANJO DE PLANTAS PARA DIFERENTES HÍBRIDOS DE MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Valentini Arf

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Changes recently introduced to maize genotypes have made necessary to reassess the management practices recommendations for this culture, among them the plants spatial arrangement. This study was carried out to evaluate the best plant arrangement design for the maize hybrids XB 6010, XB 6012, XB 7253, XB 9003, and AG 9010, spaced at 0.45 m and 0.90 m among rows. The experiment was conducted on the 2009 harvest time, in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with spacing arranged in strips and the combinations hybrids x populations arranged in a 5x5 factorial scheme for each block. The 50,000 plants ha-1; 60,000 plants ha-1; 70,000 plants ha

  2. Hybrid armature projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  3. Continuous on-line calculation of permissible load change in a pumped storage power plant; Kontinuierliche On-Line Berechnung der zulaessigen Lastaenderung in einem Pumpspeicherwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feyrer, R.

    1994-12-31

    A preliminary simulator establishes the maximum possible load change in a pumped storage power plant. The complex hydraulic system of such power plants renders controlling of their operation difficult. The preliminary simulator continuously determines the maximum permissible turbine output and number of pumps at each instance, thereby facilitating power plant operation control. This simulator is installed at the Witznau power plant and is currently undergoing intense testing. It will be integrated into the new process control system installed in 1994. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Vorabsimulator ermittelt die maximal moegliche Lastaenderung in einem Pumpspeicherwerk. Das komplizierte Wasserfuehrungsystem des Pumpspeicherwerks erschwert die Betriebsfuehrung. Der Vorabsimulator bestimmt kontinuierlich die momentan maximal zulaessige Turbinenleistung und Pumpenanzahl, und erleichtert damit die Betriebsfuehrung des Kraftwerks. Der Vorabsimulator ist im Kraftwerk Witznau installiert und wird derzeit intensiv getestet. Eine Einbindung in die neue Leittechnik, die 1994 installiert wird, ist vorgesehen. (orig.)

  4. Partial resistance to Erwinia carotovora SUBSP. carotovora and plant vigour among F1 hybrids of Zantedeschia cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, R.C.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The potential of breeding Zantedeschia cultivars for resistance to soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (syn. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum) was determined. Hybrids of six cultivars (`Back Magic`, Galaxy`, Pink Persuasion`, Sensation`, `Treasure` and `Florex Gold`)

  5. A Hybrid Model for Mapping Relative Differences in Belowground Biomass and Root:Shoot Ratios Using Spectral Reflectance, Foliar N and Plant Biophysical Data within Coastal Marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. O’Connell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Broad-scale estimates of belowground biomass are needed to understand wetland resiliency and C and N cycling, but these estimates are difficult to obtain because root:shoot ratios vary considerably both within and between species. We used remotely-sensed estimates of two aboveground plant characteristics, aboveground biomass and % foliar N to explore biomass allocation in low diversity freshwater impounded peatlands (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, CA, USA. We developed a hybrid modeling approach to relate remotely-sensed estimates of % foliar N (a surrogate for environmental N and plant available nutrients and aboveground biomass to field-measured belowground biomass for species specific and mixed species models. We estimated up to 90% of variation in foliar N concentration using partial least squares (PLS regression of full-spectrum field spectrometer reflectance data. Landsat 7 reflectance data explained up to 70% of % foliar N and 67% of aboveground biomass. Spectrally estimated foliar N or aboveground biomass had negative relationships with belowground biomass and root:shoot ratio in both Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha, consistent with a balanced growth model, which suggests plants only allocate growth belowground when additional nutrients are necessary to support shoot development. Hybrid models explained up to 76% of variation in belowground biomass and 86% of variation in root:shoot ratio. Our modeling approach provides a method for developing maps of spatial variation in wetland belowground biomass.

  6. A hybrid model for mapping relative differences in belowground biomass and root: Shoot ratios using spectral reflectance, foliar N and plant biophysical data within coastal marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica L. O'Connell,; Byrd, Kristin B.; Maggi Kelly,

    2015-01-01

    Broad-scale estimates of belowground biomass are needed to understand wetland resiliency and C and N cycling, but these estimates are difficult to obtain because root:shoot ratios vary considerably both within and between species. We used remotely-sensed estimates of two aboveground plant characteristics, aboveground biomass and % foliar N to explore biomass allocation in low diversity freshwater impounded peatlands (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, CA, USA). We developed a hybrid modeling approach to relate remotely-sensed estimates of % foliar N (a surrogate for environmental N and plant available nutrients) and aboveground biomass to field-measured belowground biomass for species specific and mixed species models. We estimated up to 90% of variation in foliar N concentration using partial least squares (PLS) regression of full-spectrum field spectrometer reflectance data. Landsat 7 reflectance data explained up to 70% of % foliar N and 67% of aboveground biomass. Spectrally estimated foliar N or aboveground biomass had negative relationships with belowground biomass and root:shoot ratio in both Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha, consistent with a balanced growth model, which suggests plants only allocate growth belowground when additional nutrients are necessary to support shoot development. Hybrid models explained up to 76% of variation in belowground biomass and 86% of variation in root:shoot ratio. Our modeling approach provides a method for developing maps of spatial variation in wetland belowground biomass.

  7. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final stage 2 report. Outline specifications of cogeneration plant; continued

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    Specifications are presented for the electrical equipment, site preparation, building construction and mechanical systems for a dual-purpose power plant to be located on the University of Minnesota campus. This power plant will supply steam and electrical power to a grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System. (LCL)

  8. The continuous improvement system of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde; El sistema de mejora continua de la central nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera C, A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)], e-mail: arr99999@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    This paper describes the continuous improvement system of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde and the achievements in implementing the same and additionally two study cases are presents. In February 2009 is noteworthy because the World Association of Nuclear Operators we identified as a learning organization, qualification which shows that the continuous improvement system has matured, and this system will expose as I get to learn to capitalize on our own experiences and external experiences diffused by the nuclear industry. In 2007 the management of nuclear power plants integrates its improvement systems and calls it continuous improvement system and is presented in the same extensive report that won the National Quality Award. This system is made up of 5 subsystems operating individually and are also related 1) human performance; 2) referential comparison or benchmarking; 3) self-assessment; 4) corrective action and 5) external operating experience. Five subsystems that plan, generate, capture, manage, communicate and protect the knowledge generated during the processes execution of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, as well as from external sources. The target set in 2007 was to increase the intellectual capital to always give response to meeting the security requirements, but creating a higher value to quality, customer, environment protection and society. In brief each of them, highlighting the objective, expectations management, implementation and some benefits. At the end they will describe two study cases selected to illustrate these cases as the organization learns by their continuous improvement system. (Author)

  9. Uses of continuous measuring techniques for optimizing the operation of municipal sewage treatment plants; Einsatzmoeglichkeiten kontinuierlicher Messtechnik zur Betriebsoptimierung kommunaler Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedi, D. [Vermicon AG, Muenchen/Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Three different optimization measures are briefly discussed, each of which was carried out with the support of continuous measurements: efforts to enhance the sedimentation performance of a final sedimentation tank, investigations to establish the nitrification performance of an existing plant, and measurements permitting optimized parametrization of the complex control of a new sewage treatement plant. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Es werden drei verschiedene Optimierungsmassnahmen kurz erlaeutert, die jeweils mit Unterstutzung kontinuierlicher Messungen erfolgten: Arbeiten zur Verbesserung der Sedimentationsleistung eines Nachklaerbeckens, Untersuchungen zur besseren Nachrechnung der Nitrifikationskapazitaet einer bestehenden Anlage und Messungen zur optimierten Parametrierung einer komplexeren Regelung einer neuen Klaeranlage. (orig./SR)

  10. Use of pilot plant scale continuous fryer to simulate industrial production of potato chips: thermal properties of palm olein blends under continuous frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Ismail, Razali

    2014-01-01

    Binary blends of palm olein (PO) with sunflower oil (SFO), canola oil (CNO), and cottonseed oil (CSO) were formulated to assess their stability under continuous frying conditions. The results were then compared with those obtained in PO. The oil blends studied were: (1) 60:40 for PO + SFO; (2) 70:30 for PO + CNO; and (3) 50:50 for PO + CSO. The PO and its blends were used to fry potato chips at 180°C for a total of 56 h of operation. The evolution of analytical parameters such as tocols, induction period, color, p-anisidine value, free fatty acid, smoke point, polar compounds, and polymer compounds were evaluated over the frying time. Blending PO with unsaturated oils was generally proved to keep most qualitative parameters comparable to those demonstrated in PO. Indeed, none of the oils surpassed the legislative limits for used frying. Overall, it was noted that oil containing PO and SFO showed higher resistance toward oxidative and hydrolytic behaviors as compared to the other oil blends.

  11. A Continuing Education Short Course and Engineering Curriculum to Accelerate Workforce Development in Wind Power Plant Design, Construction, and Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinjum, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-11-29

    Significant advances in wind turbine technology and wind turbine power plant capabilities are appearing in the U.S. Sites that only 10 years ago might have been overlooked are being considered for build out. However, the development of a skilled workforce in the engineering fields and construction trades lags the potential market, especially if the industry is expected to site, design, construct, and operate sufficient wind power plant sites to meet the potential for 20% wind energy by 2030. A select few firms have penetrated the engineer-procure-construction (EPC) market of wind power plant construction. Competition and know-how in this market is vital to achieve cost-effective, design-construct solutions. The industry must produce or retrain engineers, contractors, and technicians to meet ambitious goals. Currently, few universities offer undergraduate or graduate classes that teach the basics in designing, building, and maintaining wind power plants that are safe, efficient, and productive.

  12. Application of the Aero-Hydro-Elastic Model, HAWC2-WAMIT, to Offshore Data from Floating Power Plants Hybrid Wind- and Wave-Energy Test Platform, P37

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellew, Sarah; Yde, Anders; Verelst, David Robert

    2014-01-01

    numerical models, which can combine the aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, structural exibility and mooring components. Very little oshore data exists, however, in order to validate these numerical models. Floating Power Plant are the developers of a oating, hybrid wind- and wave-energy device. The device uses...... full-scale prototype, the P80, which has a width of 80 m. As part of the development, Floating Power Plant have completed 4 oshore test-phases (totalling over 2 years oshore operation) on a 37 m wide scaled test device, the P37. This paper focuses on the comparison of one of the leading numerical...... the pitching wave energy devices, not only to increase and smooth the power output from the platform, but also to take the energy from the waves in a controlled manner, resulting in a stable platform for the wind turbine and a safe harbour for O&M. They are currently developing the nal design for their rst...

  13. Application of a Novel and Automated Branched DNA in Situ Hybridization Method for the Rapid and Sensitive Localization of mRNA Molecules in Plant Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Bowling

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A novel branched DNA detection technology, RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH, originally developed for use on human clinical and animal tissues, was adapted for use in plant tissue in an attempt to overcome some of the limitations associated with traditional ISH assays. Methods and Results: Zea mays leaf tissue was formaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE and then probed with the RNAscope ISH assay for two endogenous genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Results from both manual and automated methods showed tissue- and cell-specific mRNA localization patterns expected from these well-studied genes. Conclusions: RNAscope ISH is a sensitive method that generates high-quality, easily interpretable results from FFPE plant tissues. Automation of the RNAscope method on the Ventana Discovery Ultra platform allows significant advantages for repeatability, reduction in variability, and flexibility of workflow processes.

  14. Uso da água por plantas híbridas ou convencionais de arroz irrigado Water use by hybrid and conventional rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Concenço

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características associadas à eficiência do uso da água em plantas de arroz irrigado, híbridas ou convencionais. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de uma planta de arroz da variedade BRS Pelota (convencional ou Inov (híbrida no centro da unidade experimental, que competia com 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ou 5 plantas da variedade BRS Pelota na periferia da unidade experimental, de acordo com o tratamento. Aos 50 DAE, foram realizadas as avaliações de massa seca da parte aérea, condutância estomática de vapores de água, temperatura da folha e taxa de transpiração, sendo calculada ainda a eficiência do uso da água pela relação entre quantidade de CO2 fixado pela fotossíntese e quantidade de água transpirada. Plantas da variedade híbrida foram superiores ou não diferiram das convencionais quanto à eficiência do uso da água.The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics associated to water use efficiency in hybrid or conventional rice plants. The trial was installed under greenhouse conditions, in a completely randomized block design and factorial scheme 2 x 6, with four replications. The treatments consisted of one hybrid (Inov or conventional (BRS Pelota rice plant at the center of the plot surrounded by 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 conventional (BRS Pelota plants. Fifty days after emergence, shoot dry mass, stomatal conductance of water vapor, leaf temperature and transpiration rates were evaluated, as well as water use efficiency through the relation between the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Hybrid rice plants were superior to, or did not differ from, the conventional plants in relation to water use efficiency.

  15. 自然杂交对植物物种生存进化的影响%Effects of Natural Hybridization on Plant Species Survival and Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓慧; 胡世俊

    2012-01-01

    Natural hybridization is a common phenomenon, and the action of human being is accelerating the happenness of natural hy bridization, non-natural hybridization caused by human disturbance has great negative effects on species survival and evolution. We summarize the progress of hybridization and introgression based on the papers issused in recent years in this article. Hybridization not only affects species survival and evolution, but also bring some challenges to theory and practice of plant conservation. Hybridization and introgression has the potential to improve the genetic diversity, and can provide materials for species evolution, improve valuable variation for adaptation, and even lead to the formation of new ecotype or new species. But, small populations have tendency to go ex tinction when they hybridize with another species in greater amount. Natural hybridization challenges the definition of species concept. Hybridization can blur species boundary and promote the formation of " difficult" taxa in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. Natural hybridization can promote evolutionary divergence between taxa by reinforcement of reproductive isolation, it can also lead to the break down of reproductive isolation and species mergence, and hence decrease the species diversity. We conclude that we should focus on the studies of isolation mechanisms, mechanisms of introgression, and how to prevent the negative effects of hybridization and introgres sion in the background of high rate of species invasion and extinction.%自然杂交是一个常见现象,人类活动正加速自然杂交的发生,人类干扰导致的非自然的杂交过程对物种的生存、进化产生许多负面影响,本文根据文献对近年来自然杂交方面的研究进行了综述.自然杂交不仅影响着物种的生存、进化,也对物种的保护问题带来许多理论上与实践上的挑战.杂交与遗传渗入有利于提高物种的遗传多样性,为物种的进化提供

  16. HybHyp--hybridizing the host: the long reach of parasite genes. A new hypothesis to explain host-parasite interrelationships in plant hybrid complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissemann, Volker

    2010-12-01

    Ever since existence of sexuality in plants was accepted in around 1700, questions centred about the role and maintenance of sexual reproduction in general, leading to a number of hypotheses like the Vicar of Bray, the Ratchet or the Hitch-hiker theory. Bell (The masterpiece of nature. The evolution and genetics of sexuality. University of California Press, Berkeley, LA, 1982) formulated the Red Queen Hypothesis (RQH) which explains the persistence of sexual reproduction as an outcome of a coevolutionary arms race between hosts and parasites. By sexual recombination and genetic diversification hosts minimize the risk of pathogen infection. Since virulence of pathogens is genetically determined and often species specific, parasites are mostly adapted to common host genotypes, whereas rare and divergent genotypes are less infected and therefore have a selective advantage. Employing Dawkins (The extended phenotype. The long reach of the gene, 1999) central theorem of the extended phenotype to the RQH, mating systems in hosts might be a result of the long reach of the parasites genes. Here now the hypothesis is proposed, that evolution by hybridisation and polyploidy in host plants is an extended phenotype of parasites, a response of hosts triggered by the parasites genes to slow down the effects of the Red Queen strategy of plants. Thus, hybridisation and polyploidy might have evolved by parasite pressure and not by host strategy. This hypothesis is called the "hybridisation-of-the-host-hypothesis".

  17. Acute hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects of continuous intravenous infusion of a lyophilised aqueous extract of Ajuga iva L. Schreber whole plant in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hilaly, Jaouad; Tahraoui, Adil; Israili, Zafar H; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2007-10-01

    The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of continuous intravenous infusion of a lyophilised aqueous extract of the whole plant Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Labiatae) (AI-extract) was investigated in anesthetized normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The AI-extract was administered to a group of rats by continuous intravenous infusion for 4 h at a dose of 4.2 microg/min/100 g body weight; another group was infused with taurine, the reference compound, at the same dose. In normal rats, AI-extract infusion had no effect on plasma glucose or triglycerides, but plasma cholesterol levels were significantly decreased (22%; PAjuga iva appears to be a useful plant in the therapy of diabetes, a condition in which hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia coexist quite often.

  18. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  19. Nitrogen fertilization for new plantings of hybrid hazelnuts in the Upper Midwest of the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed-propagated hybrids of Corylus avellana and C. americana are a potential crop for the Upper Midwest. Current N recommendations for hazelnuts are based on research on clonally propagated C. avellana in Oregon and may not be applicable in the Upper Midwest due to differing soils, climate, and plan...

  20. An antibody produced in tobacco expressing a hybrid beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase is essentially devoid of plant carbohydrate epitopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bakker; G.J.A. Rouwendal; A.S. Karnoup; D.E.A. Florack; G.M. Stoopen; J.P.F.G. Helsper; R. van Ree; I. van Die; D. Bosch

    2006-01-01

    N-glycosylation of a mAb may have a major impact on its therapeutic merits. Here, we demonstrate that expression of a hybrid enzyme (called xylGaIT), consisting of the N-terminal domain of Arabidopsis thaliana xylosyltra nsf erase and the catalytic domain of human 0-1,4-galactosyltransf erase I (GaI

  1. Suppression subtractive hybridization library construction and identification of epidermal bladder cell related genes in the common ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siranet Roeurn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., a halophytic species, displays modified trichomes, epidermal bladder cells (EBC, on the surfaces of its aerial organs. EBCs serve to sequester excessive salt from underlying metabolically active tissues. To elucidate the molecular determinants governing EBC development in the common ice plant, we constructed a cDNA-based suppression subtractive hybridization library and identified genes differentially expressed between the wild-type and the EBC-less mutant. After hybridization, 38 clones were obtained. Among them, 24 clones had homology with plant genes of known functions, whose roles might not be directly related to EBC-morphology, while 14 clones were homologous to genes of unknown functions. After confirmation by northern blot analysis, 12 out of 14 clones of unknown functions were chosen for semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis, and the results revealed that three clones designated as MW3, MW21, and MW31 preferentially expressed in the EBC-less mutant, whereas the other two designated as WM10 and WM28 preferentially expressed in the wild type. Among these genes, the expression of a putative jasmonate-induced gene, designated as WM28 was completely suppressed in the EBC-mutant. In addition, the deletion of C-box cis-acting element was found in the promoter region of WM28 in the EBC-less mutant. Overexpression of WM28 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased trichome number due to the upregulation of key trichome-related genes GLABRA1 (GL1, and GLABRA3 (GL3. These results demonstrate that WM28 can be an important factor responsible for EBC formation, and also suggest the similarity of developmental mechanism between trichome in Arabidopsis and EBC in common ice plant.

  2. Effects of weir height and reservoir widening on sediment continuity at run-of-river hydropower plants in gravel bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Christine; Schobesberger, Johannes; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-08-01

    This study conducted scaled physical model tests of a run-of-river hydropower plant (RoR). The physical model represented an idealized gravel bed river with a width of 20 m, a slope of 0.005, a mean annual flow of 15 m3 s- 1 and a 1-year flood flow of 80 m3 s- 1. Substrate and bed load had a characteristic grain size dm of 56 mm. The model scale was 1:20. The study was designed to test the effects of weir height and reservoir widening on sediment continuity and flushing efficiency at low-head RoR plants. Three different weir heights and two reservoir widths were investigated to assess and quantify their influence. As long as equilibrium conditions had not been established in the reservoir the flushing efficiency was low and thus the sediment continuity was not met. The experiments revealed that both parameters had a significant effect regarding the time needed to reach equilibrium conditions. The equilibrium slope that established was independent of weir height. Weir height, however, determined the starting point from where the equilibrium slope was built up. Accordingly, an increase in weir height will increase the reservoir bed levels by the same amount. A large weir height leads to huge sedimentation volumes and thus to a lack of sediments and to river bed erosion downstream of the hydropower plant. It could also considerably increase the flood risk at the head of the reservoir. This calls for regular maintenance work to re-establish flood safety. The experimental results suggest new concepts of low weir heights and cross sectional reservoir widths in the design of low-head RoR plants to facilitate frequent and efficient flushings, to enhance sediment continuity, and to reduce maintenance and operational costs.

  3. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P.; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  4. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  5. Phylogenetic characterization and promoter expression analysis of a novel hybrid protein disulfide isomerase/cargo receptor subfamily unique to plants and chromalveolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Christen Y L; Wong, Katharine; Christopher, David A

    2016-02-01

    Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) play critical roles in protein folding by catalyzing the formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds in nascent secretory proteins. There are six distinct PDI subfamilies in terrestrial plants. A unique feature of PDI-C subfamily members is their homology to the yeast retrograde (Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum) cargo receptor proteins, Erv41p and Erv46p. Here, we demonstrate that plant Erv41p/Erv46p-like proteins are divided into three subfamilies: ERV-A, ERV-B and PDI-C, which all possess the N-proximal and C-proximal conserved domains of yeast Erv41p and Erv46p. However, in PDI-C isoforms, these domains are separated by a thioredoxin domain. The distribution of PDI-C isoforms among eukaryotes indicates that the PDI-C subfamily likely arose through an ancient exon-shuffling event that occurred before the divergence of plants from stramenopiles and rhizarians. Arabidopsis has three PDI-C genes: PDI7, PDI12, and PDI13. PDI12- and PDI13-promoter: β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene fusions are co-expressed in pollen and stipules, while PDI7 is distinctly expressed in the style, hydathodes, and leaf vasculature. The PDI-C thioredoxin domain active site motif CxxS is evolutionarily conserved among land plants. Whereas PDI12 and PDI13 retain the CxxS motif, PDI7 has a CxxC motif similar to classical PDIs. We hypothesize that PDI12 and PDI13 maintain the ancestral roles of PDI-C in Arabidopsis, while PDI7 has undergone neofunctionalization. The unusual PDI/cargo receptor hybrid arrangement in PDI-C isoforms has no counterpart in animals or yeast, and predicts the need for pairing redox functions with cargo receptor processes during protein trafficking in plants and other PDI-C containing organisms.

  6. Minimization of temperature ranges between the top and bottom of an air flow controlling device through hybrid control in a plant factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seung-Mi; Kwon, Sook-Youn; Lim, Jae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    To maintain the production timing, productivity, and product quality of plant factories, it is necessary to keep the growth environment uniform. A vertical multistage type of plant factory involves different levels of growing trays, which results in the problem of difference in temperature among vertically different locations. To address it, it is necessary to install air flow devices such as air flow fan and cooling/heating device at the proper locations in order to facilitate air circulation in the facility as well as develop a controlling technology for efficient operation. Accordingly, this study compares the temperature and air distribution within the space of a vertical multistage closed-type plant factory by controlling cooling/heating devices and air flow fans harmoniously by means of the specially designed testbed. The experiment results indicate that in the hybrid control of cooling and heating devices and air flow fans, the difference in temperature decreased by as much as 78.9% compared to that when only cooling and heating devices were operated; the air distribution was improved by as much as 63.4%.

  7. 连作对植物的危害及形成原因%Damage of Continuous Cropping on Plants and Its Formation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许华; 蒋梦娇; 魏宇昆; 颜亨梅

    2012-01-01

    The influences of continuous cropping on the morphology, physiology, quality and yield of plants were summarized; and the formation mechanism of continuous cropping obstacle was analyzed from six different aspects, including changes of pests, nutrition content, physicochemical properties, autotoxin substances, enzymatic activities and microbial communities of the soil. The complexity of interaction among plants, soil microbes, soil enzymes and soil nutrients was pointed out to provide prospects for future study on the mechanism of continuous cropping obstacle.%综述了连作对植物形态、生理、品质和产量的影响,并从土壤病虫害、土壤养分、土壤理化性质、土壤自毒物质、土壤酶活性和土壤微生物群落的变化6个方面阐述了连作障碍形成的原因,指出了植物-土壤微生物-土壤酶-土壤养分4者之间相互影响的复杂性,并对今后植物连作障碍机理研究的重点进行了展望.

  8. Thermodynamic analyses of municipal solid waste gasification plant integrated with solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be considered a valid biomass to be used in a power plant. The major advantage is the reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions not only within large cities but also globally. Another advantage is that by their use it is possible to reduce the waste...... process is usually based on an atmospheric-pressure circulating fluidized bed gasifier coupled to a tar-cracking vessel. Syngas can be used as fuel in different kind of power plant such as gas turbine cycle, steam cycle, combined cycle, internal and external combustion engine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell...... (SOFC).In the present study, a MSW gasification plant integrated with SOFC is combined with a Stirling engine to recover the energy of the off-gases from the topping SOFC cycle. Detailed plant design is proposed and thermodynamic analysis is performed. Relevant parameters have been studied to optimize...

  9. Plants Growth Rate in Evapotranspiration continuous system reactors as the 2nd Treatment at Anaerobic-evapotranspiration system with High Strength Ammonium in Leachate Influent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrus Zaman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium is one of parameter which responsible to leachate toxicity. Preliminary research was shown that the Fimbristylis globulosa (water plant, Alocasia macrorrhiza (terrestrial plant and Eleusine indica (terrestrial grass were potential plants for used as object in evaporation reactor system with high strength ammonium  concentration in leachate treatment. This research was integrated of anaerobic system with evapotranspiration system with continuous influent using ammonium concentration in leachate was 2000 mg/l NH4-N. Plants growth rate was analyzed for 25 days operated. The result shown that average of thallus growth rate of Fimbristylis globulosa was 17,5 cm d-1. The average of leaf and thallus growth rate of Alocasia macrorrhiza was 18,1 cm d-1 and 3,2 cm d-1 respectively. The average of blade and thallus of Eleusine indica were same that was 4,7 cm d-1.This research conclude that integration system of anaerobic and evpotranspiration was be potential used for high strength ammonium in leachate treatment.

  10. Intercropping of green garlic (Allium sativum L. induces nutrient concentration changes in the soil and plants in continuously cropped cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. in a plastic tunnel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Xiao

    Full Text Available A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and manganese (Mn in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.

  11. Continuous integrated treatment of olive mill waste waters by pilot plant experiment; Trattamento integrato in continuo di acque di vegetazione con impianto pilota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minardi, M.; Bortone, C. [Sistema S.r.l., Taranto (Italy); Aresta, M. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica, Centro Ricerche METEA

    2001-10-01

    This research has dealt with the treatment of olive mill waters, through the use of a pilot bench-scale plant. The plant is feeded in continuous mode and implements a primary treatment (sand filtering and irradiation with ultra-violet rays) and a secondary treatment (anoxic and aerobic biological treatment). [Italian] Questa ricerca e' consistita nella messa a punto di una tecnica combinata pr il trattamento di acque di vegetazione mediante l'uso di un impianto pilota da banco che e' stato alimentato in continuo con acqua di vegetazione non diluita. In via preliminare, e' stata effettuata una filtrazione su sabbia e un irraggiamento con luce UV (trattamento primario), cui e' seguito un trattamento di tipo secondario attraverso una successione di due stadi biologici, anossico ed aerobico. L'effluente ha proprieta' tali da poter essere vantaggiosamente usato per fertirrigazione.

  12. Gas exchange and plant growth after defoliation on Leandra lacunosa, a cerrado woody species with continuous leaf production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Damascos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and physiological leaf traits were studied on control and defoliated potted Leandra lacunosa young plants. After defoliation, remaining bottom leaves showed no significant change in net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance values with time, but the leaf transpiration rate was higher. The production of the new leaves was greater after defoliation in top defoliated plants. Bottom defoliated plants increased stem extension rates and net photosynthesis transitorily. Two months after defoliation, control and defoliated plants did not differ in stem length and root dry mass values. In spite of smaller area and photosynthetic capacity, remaining bottom leaves were able to compensate top leaves elimination. The effectiveness of this compensatory response, however, depended on the ability of new leaves to escape from herbivores.Características morfológicas e fisiológicas foliares foram estudadas em indivíduos jovens envasados de Leandra lacunosa que sofreram desfolhamento e em indivíduos controle. Após o desfolhamento, as folhas remanescentes da parte inferior não apresentaram mudanças significativas dos valores de fotossíntese e condutância estomática. Entretanto, a taxa de transpiração foliar foi maior quando comparada com plantas desfolhadas em porções inferiores. A rebrota de folhas foi maior após o desfolhamento da parte superior. Nas plantas desfolhadas em porções inferiores, ocorreu, momentaneamente, aumento da taxa fotossintética e da extensão do caule. Após dois meses de desfolhamento as plantas controle e desfolhadas não diferiram quanto aos valores do comprimento do caule e massa seca da raiz. Portanto, apesar da menor área foliar e menor capacidade fotossintética, as folhas na parte inferior foram capazes de compensar a eliminação das folhas superiores. A efetividade desta resposta compensatória, no entanto, dependerá da habilidade das novas folhas emitidas escaparem do ataque dos herbívoros.

  13. Preliminary carbon dioxide capture technical and economic feasibility study evaluation of carbon dioxide capture from existing fired plants by hybrid sorption using solid sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Envergex, Srivats; Browers, Bruce; Thumbi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Barr Engineering Co. was retained by the Institute for Energy Studies (IES) at University of North Dakota (UND) to conduct a technical and economic feasibility analysis of an innovative hybrid sorbent technology (CACHYS™) for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion–derived flue gas. The project team for this effort consists of the University of North Dakota, Envergex LLC, Barr Engineering Co., and Solex Thermal Science, along with industrial support from Allete, BNI Coal, SaskPower, and the North Dakota Lignite Energy Council. An initial economic and feasibility study of the CACHYS™ concept, including definition of the process, development of process flow diagrams (PFDs), material and energy balances, equipment selection, sizing and costing, and estimation of overall capital and operating costs, is performed by Barr with information provided by UND and Envergex. The technology—Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS™)—is a novel solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and a low-cost method of heat management. The technology’s other key component is the use of a low-cost sorbent.

  14. Selection of hybrids and edible citrus species with a high content in the diosmin functional compound. Modulating effect of plant growth regulators on contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, F R; Del Río, J A

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify species, hybrids, and cultivars of edible Citrus species with high contents of diosmin as a functional compound and also to identify the developmental progress of the fruit in which it reaches maximum levels; these findings would be useful for extraction purposes and for the modulating effect of plant growth regulators on diosmin content to increase the level of this flavone. The results obtained reveal that the highest contents of diosmin are present in immature fruits of certain varieties of citron (Buda's finger) and lemon (Meyer), whereas the contents in the edible parts of the fruits are irrelevant from a pharmacological point of view. Similarly, it is shown that it is possible to increase the content of this flavone using hormonal treatments (6-benzylaminopurine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) during the early stages of fruit growth.

  15. Dependence of the productivity of maize and soybean intercropping systems on hybrid type and plant arrangement pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolijanović Željko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping systems could improve utilization of the most important resources (soil, water and nutrients, provide a better control of weeds, pests and diseases, and finally higher productivity, especially under rain-fed growing conditions. This study aimed to determine the effects of three maize (Zea mays L. prolific hybrids (FAO 500, 600 and 700 and the spatial intercrop patterns on the above-ground biomass and grain yields of maize and soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill, on chernozem soil type at Zemun Polje, Belgrade, in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications and three treatments: 3 rows of maize and 3 rows of soybean in strips for each maize hybrid (three variants, 3 rows of maize and 3 rows of soybean in alternate rows for each hybrid (another three variants and monocrops of both maize and soybeans. To optimize the ecological and economic benefits of maize/soybean intercrop in terms of yield, variety selection and compatibility of the component crops should be made using established agronomic management practices involving the two crops. Suitable maize varieties for maize/soybean intercrop systems are varieties that have less dense canopy. These varieties would therefore have lesser shading effect to the understory beans. However, establishment of an appropriate spatial arrangement of the component crops would be essential to alleviate negative effects especially on the less competitive crop. The intercropping system in alternate rows showed significantly higher above-ground biomass and grain yields in comparation with both the strip intercropping system and maize monocrops in 2004. Soybean gave significantly lower above-ground biomass and grain yield in intercrops than in monocrops. Maize prolific hybrid growing in intercropping with soybean as legume crop, increased productivity of cropping system, especially in favourable agroecological conditions. Maize and soybean yields

  16. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  17. The Presentation of a Two Stages Model for an Optimum Operation of a Hybrid System of Wind-Pumped Storage Power Plant in the Power Market Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Akbarpour

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a new method in power market environment. One of the weaknesses in the utilization of wind units is severe dependence of output power level on wind. However, considering the high uncertainty in the prediction of wind speed and wind forecast unit production capacity is also having an error. Also, regarding to the uncontrollable generators of this type, it is better to use combined systems for utilization. This study presents a new model based on the a two stage for an optimum operation of a hybrid system of windpumped storage power plant in the power market environment that causes to provide a successful presentation condition in market environments for the producers of wind power. In the suggestive hybrid system of windpumped storage power plant of this study the modeling is done in two stages for the optimum presence in power market environment with the a most possible benefit. At first, the suggestive model is optimized regarding to uncertainty in the prediction of power price and producing the wind power, for presenting the suggestion of power to market, in order to gain the most benefit. At the second stage, the suggestive model is optimized regarding to uncertainty in producing wind power, in order to gain the most benefit and paying the least penalty for unbalancing in market for operation of the system. In this study, the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO is used for optimization. At the end of a model example for applying the results of the proposed model will be examined and analyzes the results. Results show that the model is an appropriate method for the operation of this combined system in market environment.

  18. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  19. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization analysis provides new insights into the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) response to the plant probiotic microorganism Trichoderma longibrachiatum MK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Monica; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Proietti, Silvia; Bertini, Laura; Lorito, Matteo; Ruocco, Michelina; Caruso, Carla; Chiusano, Maria L; Tucci, Marina

    2016-01-15

    Trichoderma species include widespread rhizosphere-colonising fungi that may establish an opportunistic interaction with the plant, resulting in growth promotion and/or increased tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. For this reason, Trichoderma-based formulations are largely used in agriculture to improve yield while reducing the application of agro-chemicals. By using the Suppression Subtractive Hybridization method, we identified molecular mechanisms activated during the in vitro interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and the selected strain MK1 of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, and which may participate in the stimulation of plant growth and systemic resistance. Screening and sequence analysis of the subtractive library resulted in forty unique transcripts. Their annotation in functional categories revealed enrichment in cell defence/stress and primary metabolism categories, while secondary metabolism and transport were less represented. Increased transcription of genes involved in defence, cell wall reinforcement and signalling of reactive oxygen species suggests that improved plant pathogen resistance induced by T. longibrachiatum MK1 in tomato may occur through stimulation of the above mechanisms. The array of activated defence-related genes indicates that different signalling pathways, beside the jasmonate/ethylene-dependent one, collaborate to fine-tune the plant response. Our results also suggest that the growth stimulation effect of MK1 on tomato may involve a set of genes controlling protein synthesis and turnover as well as energy metabolism and photosynthesis. Transcriptional profiling of several defence-related genes at different time points of the tomato-Trichoderma interaction, and after subsequent inoculation with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea, provided novel information on genes that may specifically modulate the tomato response to T. longibrachiatum, B. cinerea or both.

  20. Application of Pulse Spark Discharges for Scale Prevention and Continuous Filtration Methods in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young; Fridman, Alexander

    2012-06-30

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop a new scale-prevention technology by continuously precipitating and removing dissolved mineral ions (such as calcium and magnesium) in cooling water while the COC could be doubled from the present standard value of 3.5. The hypothesis of the present study was that if we could successfully precipitate and remove the excess calcium ions in cooling water, we could prevent condenser-tube fouling and at the same time double the COC. The approach in the study was to utilize pulse spark discharges directly in water to precipitate dissolved mineral ions in recirculating cooling water into relatively large suspended particles, which could be removed by a self-cleaning filter. The present study began with a basic scientific research to better understand the mechanism of pulse spark discharges in water and conducted a series of validation experiments using hard water in a laboratory cooling tower. Task 1 of the present work was to demonstrate if the spark discharge could precipitate the mineral ions in water. Task 2 was to demonstrate if the selfcleaning filter could continuously remove these precipitated calcium particles such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. Task 3 was to demonstrate if the scale could be prevented or minimized at condenser tubes with a COC of 8 or (almost) zero blowdown. In Task 1, we successfully completed the validation study that confirmed the precipitation of dissolved calcium ions in cooling water with the supporting data of calcium hardness over time as measured by a calcium ion probe. In Task 2, we confirmed through experimental tests that the self-cleaning filter could continuously remove precipitated calcium particles in a simulated laboratory cooling tower such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. In addition, chemical water analysis data were obtained which were used to confirm the COC calculation. In Task 3, we conducted a series

  1. A pilot study applying the plant Anchored Hybrid Enrichment method to New World sages (Salvia subgenus Calosphace; Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso-Martínez, Itzi; Salazar, Gerardo A; Martínez-Gordillo, Martha; Magallón, Susana; Sánchez-Reyes, Luna; Moriarty Lemmon, Emily; Lemmon, Alan R; Sazatornil, Federico; Granados Mendoza, Carolina

    2017-02-09

    We conducted a pilot study using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment to resolve relationships among a mostly Neotropical sage lineage that may have undergone a recent evolutionary radiation. Conventional markers (ITS, trnL-trnF and trnH-psbA) have not been able to resolve the relationships among species nor within portions of the backbone of the lineage. We sampled 12 representative species of subgenus Calosphace and included one species of Salvia's s.l. closest relative, Lepechinia, as outgroup. Hybrid enrichment and sequencing were successful, yielding 448 alignments of individual loci with an average length of 704bp. The performance of the phylogenomic data in phylogenetic reconstruction was superior to that of conventional markers, increasing both support and resolution. Because the captured loci vary in the amount of net phylogenetic informativeness at different phylogenetic depths, these data are promising in phylogenetic reconstruction of this group and likely other lineages within Lamiales. However, special attention should be placed on the amount of phylogenetic noise that the data could potentially contain. A prior exploration step using phylogenetic informativeness profiles to detect loci with sites with disproportionately high substitution rates (showing "phantom" spikes) and, if required, the ensuing filtering of the problematic data is recommended. In our dataset, filtering resulted in increased support and resolution for the shallow nodes in maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees resulting from concatenated analyses of all the loci. Additionally, it is expected that an increase in sampling (loci and taxa) will aid in resolving weakly supported, short deep internal branches.

  2. Prioritization of a plant polysaccharide over a mucus carbohydrate is enforced by a Bacteroides hybrid two-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jonathan B; Sonnenburg, Justin L

    2012-08-01

    Bacteroides is a dominant genus within the intestinal microbiota of healthy humans. Key adaptations of the Bacteroides to the dynamic intestinal ecosystem include a diverse repertoire of genes involved in sensing and processing numerous diet- and host-derived polysaccharides. One such adaptation is the carbohydrate-sensing hybrid two-component system (HTCS) family of signalling sensors, which has been widely expanded within the Bacteroides. Using Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron as a model, we have created a chimeric HTCS consisting of the well-characterized sensing domain of one HTCS, BT1754, and the regulatory domain of another HTCS, BT0366, to explore the regulatory capabilities of these molecules. We found that the BT0366 regulatory region directly binds to and mediates induction of the adjacent polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) using whole-genome transcriptional profiling after inducing signalling through our chimeric protein. We also found that BT0366 activation simultaneously leads to repression of distal PULs involved in mucus carbohydrate consumption. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which an HTCS enforces a nutrient hierarchy within the Bacteroides via induction and repression of multiple PULs. Thus, hybrid two-component systems provide a mechanism for prioritizing consumption of carbohydrates through simultaneous binding and regulation of multiple polysaccharide utilization loci. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Effects of different irrigation methods and plant densities on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn cultivar (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Karasahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The yield and quality of corn silage is related to genotype as well as factors such as climate, soil conditions, altitude, planting time, plant density, irrigation, and harvesting time. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation methods (drip, subsoil drip, and subsoil capillary and different plant densities (102 040, 119 040, and 142 850 plant ha-1 on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey in 2011 and 2012 under ecological conditions in Eskipazar-Karabuk, Turkey. Plant densities were significantly different on fresh ear ratio and plant crude protein (CP yield in both years under study. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained with 102 040 and 119 040 plant ha-1 densities and the highest plant CP yield with 142 850 plant ha-1. While the irrigation method x plant density interactions were significant for silage CP ratio in the first year, they were significant on fresh ear ratio in the second year. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 119 040 plant ha-1 and drip x 119 040 plant ha-1 interactions; the highest plant and silage CP ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 142 850 plant ha-1 and subsoil drip x 102 040 plant ha-1 interactions. As a result of the research, high Flieg scores were obtained from each irrigation method and plant density. When plant CP yield is taken into consideration, the 142 850 plant ha-1 density is more important.

  4. Salinity and ripening on/off the plant effects on lycopene synthesis and chlorophyll breakdown in hybrid Raf tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-González, María J.; Schouten, Rob E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Cruz Sánchez-Guerrero, M.; Medrano, Evangelina; Rio-Celestino, del Mercedes; Lorenzo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiology of fruit colour in tomato as affected by salinity and ripening on and off the plant. Chlorophyll and lycopene levels were repeatedly measured in ninety Raf tomatoes over a period of eight days using remittance spectroscopy. Fruits were subjecte

  5. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a snakin-defensin hybrid protein expressed in tobacco and potato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, for the first time, functionally active recombinant cysteine-rich plant proteins snakin-1 (SN1) and defensin (PTH1) were successfully expressed and purified using a prokaryotic (bacterial) expression system. The overall level of antimicrobial activities of SN1 and PTH1 produced in Esc...

  6. An Improved Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Chemical Plant Layout Optimization with Novel Non-overlapping and Toxic Gas Dispersion Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuan; WANG Zhenyu; ZHU Qunxiong

    2013-01-01

    New approaches for facility distribution in chemical plants are proposed including an improved non-overlapping constraint based on projection relationships of facilities and a novel toxic gas dispersion constraint.In consideration of the large number of variables in the plant layout model,our new method can significantly reduce the number of variables with their own projection relationships.Also,as toxic gas dispersion is a usual incident in a chemical plant,a simple approach to describe the gas leakage is proposed,which can clearly represent the constraints of potential emission source and sitting facilities.For solving the plant layout model,an improved genetic algorithm (GA) based on infeasible solution fix technique is proposed,which improves the globe search ability of GA.The case study and experiment show that a better layout plan can be obtained with our method,and the safety factors such as gas dispersion and minimum distances can be well handled in the solution.

  7. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Xiao, En-Rong; Xu, Dan; Zhou, Yin; He, Feng; Liu, Bi-Yun; Zeng, Lei; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o), closed-circuit (SMFC-c), aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o) and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c). The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the sediments

  8. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Xiao, En-Rong; Xu, Dan; Zhou, Yin; He, Feng; Liu, Bi-Yun; Zeng, Lei; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o), closed-circuit (SMFC-c), aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o) and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c). The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the sediments

  9. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Communities on Soil Quality and the Growth of Cucumber Seedlings in a Greenhouse Soil of Continuously Planting Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; CHEN Ying-Long; LI Min; LIN Xian-Gui; LIU Run-Jin

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to determine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities on soil properties and the growth of cucumber seedlings in a degraded soil that had been used for continuous cucumber monoculture in a greenhouse for 15 years.In the experiment,AMF communities (created by combining various AMF species that were found to be dominant in natural farm soil) were inoculated into the degraded soil,and then the soil was planted with cucumber.Inoculation with AMF communities did not affect soil pH but increased soil aggregate stability and decreased the concentrations of salt ions and electrical conductivity (EC) in the soil.Inoculation with AMF communities increased the numbers of culturable bacteria and actinomycetes but reduced the number of fungi. AMF communities increased plant growth,soluble sugar content,chlorophyll content,and root activity compared to non-mycorrhizal or a single AMF species treatments. Improvements of soil quality and plant growth were greatest with the following two communities:Glomus etunicatum + G.mosseae + Gigaspora margarita + Acaulospora lacunosa and G.aggregatum + G.etunicatum +G.mosseae + G.versiforme + G.margarita + A.lacunosa.The results suggested that certain AMF communities could substantially improve the quality of degraded soil.

  10. Different changes of soil nematode communities in replant and continuous-planting peach orchards and their indicative value for peach replant problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X. Y.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term changes of soil nematode diversity and distribution patterns in replant peach orchard (RPO and continuous-planting peach orchard (CPPO were assessed to evaluate different effects on nematode community and function by RPO and CPPO, in relation to peach replant problem from the point of soil fauna. Observations were conducted on a silt loam soil, and soil sampling was performed four times through the growing season of peach trees in the period from 2006 to 2008 in Pinggu, Beijing. The result showed that RPO differed from CPPO by its higher abundance of plant feeding nematodes but lower abundance of bacterivore nematodes, as well as significantly higher values of plant parasite index but lower nematode biodiversity. Obviously, the absolute abundance of Paratylenchus in RPO was higher than that in CPPO, which could be a key factor for the peach replant problems from the part of soil nematode. Nematode function indices and weighted nematode fauna profile analysis were no significantly different in the two peach ecosystems, but they represented an indication of high disturbance, N-enriched, bacterial decomposition pathway.

  11. Enhanced azo dye removal in a continuously operated up-flow anaerobic filter packed with henna plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingang; Wu, Mengke; Chen, Jianjun; Liu, Xiuyan; Chen, Tingting; Wen, Yue; Tang, Junhong; Xie, Zhengmiao

    2015-12-15

    Effects of henna plant biomass (stem) packed in an up-flow anaerobic bio-filter (UAF) on an azo dye (AO7) removal were investigated. AO7 removal, sulfanilic acid (SA) formation, and pseudo first-order kinetic constants for these reactions (kAO7 and kSA) were higher in the henna-added UAF (R2) than in the control UAF without henna (R1). The maximum kAO7 in R1 and R2 were 0.0345 and 0.2024 cm(-1), respectively, on day 18; the corresponding molar ratios of SA formation to AO7 removal were 0.582 and 0.990. Adsorption and endogenous bio-reduction were the main AO7 removal pathways in R1, while in R2 bio-reduction was the dominant. Organics in henna could be released and fermented to volatile fatty acids, acting as effective electron donors for AO7 reduction, which was accelerated by soluble and/or fixed lawsone. Afterwards, the removal process weakened over time, indicating the demand of electron donation and lawsone-releasing during the long-term operation of UAF.

  12. Conjugated Polymer-Based Hybrid Materials for Turn-On Detection of CO2 in Plant Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongbo; Fan, Yibing; Xing, Chengfen; Niu, Ruimin; Chai, Ran; Zhan, Yong; Qi, Junjie; An, Hailong; Xu, Jialiang

    2016-06-21

    Detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) is of fundamental importance in diverse applications ranging from environmental analysis to agricultural production. In this work, a hybrid probe based on guanidinium-pendent oligofluorene (G-OF) and water-soluble conjugated polythiophene (PTP) has been developed for the turn on detection of CO2 with low background signal, taking advantage of the efficient fluorescence quenching of the tight aggregate of G-OF/PTP. In the presence of CO2, the electrostatic repulsion between G-OF and PTP can be effectively enhanced through protonation of the side chains, leading to the disaggregation and thus the "turn-on" fluorescence. The strategy allows for the light-up visible detection of CO2 with high sensitivity. Importantly, this system is capable of sensitively monitoring the concentration changes of CO2 in the process of the photosynthesis, which represents a concept to monitor the photosynthesis based on water-soluble conjugated polymers.

  13. Marked depletion of glycosylation sites in HIV-1 gp120 under selection pressure by the mannose-specific plant lectins of Hippeastrum hybrid and Galanthus nivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, Jan; Van Laethem, Kristel; Hatse, Sigrid; Froeyen, Matheus; Van Damme, Els; Bolmstedt, Anders; Peumans, Willy; De Clercq, Erik; Schols, Dominique

    2005-05-01

    The plant lectins from Hippeastrum hybrid (HHA) and Galanthus nivalis (GNA) are 50,000-D tetramers showing specificity for alpha-(1,3) and/or alpha-(1,6)-mannose oligomers. They inhibit HIV-1 infection at a 50% effective concentration of 0.2 to 0.3 microg/ml. Escalating HHA or GNA concentrations (up to 500 microg/ml) led to the isolation of three HIV-1(III(B)) strains in CEM T cell cultures that were highly resistant to HHA and GNA, several other related mannose-specific plant lectins, and the monoclonal antibody 2G12, modestly resistant to the mannose-specific cyanovirin, which is derived from a blue-green alga, but fully susceptible to other HIV entry inhibitors as well as HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors. These mutant virus strains were devoid of up to seven or eight of 22 glycosylation sites in the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 because of mutations at the Asn or Thr/Ser sites of the N-glycosylation motifs. In one of the strains, a novel glycosylation site was created near a deleted glycosylation site. The affected glycosylation sites were predominantly clustered in regions of gp120 that are not involved in the direct interaction with either CD4, CCR5, CXCR4, or gp41. The mutant viruses containing the deleted glycosylation sites were markedly more infectious in CEM T-cell cultures than wild-type virus.

  14. Tracking and quantification of nitrifying bacteria in biofilm and mixed liquor of a partial nitrification MBBR pilot plant using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzazou, Tarik; Araujo, Rosa M; Auset, María; Salvadó, Humbert

    2016-01-15

    A moving bead biofilm reactor (MBBR) pilot plant was implemented as a partial nitrification process for pre-treatment of ammonium-rich liquors (676 ± 195 mg L(-1)), and studied for 479 days under variations in hydraulic retention time. The main purpose of this work, was the study of dynamics abundance of total bacteria and single-cells nitrifying bacteria belonging to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in biofilms and mixed liquor of the plant. The microbial monitoring was successfully achieved using fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with flocs disaggregation protocol as a useful microbial monitoring tool. A partial nitrification process with a N-NH4(+) removal rate of about 38.6 ± 14.8% was successfully achieved at 211 days after start-up, with a clear dominance of AOB, which accounted for 11.3 ± 17.0% of total bacterial cells compared with only 2.1 ± 4.0% of NOB. The effluent obtained was subsequently supplied to an Anammox reactor for complete ammonium treatment.

  15. JOINT ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID POWER SUPPLY FOR LARGE SCALE RO-DESALINATION PLANT: WITH AND WITHOUT CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMAN A. TORA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi- objective optimization approach is introduced to define a hybrid power supply system for a large scale RO- desalination plant. The target is to integrate a number of locally available energy resources to generate the electricity demand of the RO- desalination plant with minimizing both the electricity generation cost and the greenhouse gas emissions whereby carbon dioxide sequestration may be an option. The considered energy resources and technologies are wind turbines, solar PV, combined cycles with natural gas turbines, combined cycles with coal gasification, pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization, and biomass combined heat and power CHP. These variable energy resources are investigated under different constraints on the renewable energy contribution. Likewise, the effect of carbon dioxide sequestration is included. Accordingly, five scenarios have been analyzed. Trade- offs between the minimum electricity generation cost and the minimum greenhouse gas emissions have been determined and represented in Pareto curves using the constraint method (. The results highlight that among the studied fossil fuel technologies, the integrated combined cycle natural gas turbines can provide considerable fraction of the needed power supply. Likewise, wind turbines are the most effective technology among renewable energy options. When CO2 sequestration applied, the costs increase and significant changes in the optimum combination of renewable energy resources have been monitored. In that case, solar PV starts to appreciably compete. The optimum mix of energy resources extends to include biomass CHP as well.

  16. GhHyPRP4, a cotton gene encoding putative hybrid proline-rich protein, is preferentially expressed in leaves and involved in plant response to cold stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gengqing Huang; Siying Gong; Wenliang Xu; Peng Li; Dejing Zhang; Lixia Qin; Wen Li; Xuebao Li

    2011-01-01

    Plant hybrid proline-rich proteins (HyPRPs) usually consist of an N-terminal signal peptide, a central prolinerich domain, and a conserved eight-cysteine motif C-terminal domain. In this study, one gene (designated as GhHyPRP4) encoding putative HyPRP was isolated from cotton cDNA library. Northern blot and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that GhHyPRP4 was preferentially expressed in leaves. Under cold stress, GhHyPRP4 expression was significantly up-regulated in leaves of cotton seedlings.Using the genome walking approach, a promoter fragment of GhHyPRP4 gene was isolated from cotton genome.GUS (β-glucuronidase) gene driven by GhHyPRP4 promoter was specifically expressed in leaves and cotyledons of the transgenic 4rabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore,GUS expression in leaves was remarkably induced by cold stress. Overexpression of GhHyPRP4 in yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) significantly enhanced the cell survival rate upon treatment under -20℃ for 60 h.These data suggested that GhHyPRP4 may be involved in plant response to cold stress during seedling development of cotton.

  17. Thermodynamic analyses of municipal solid waste gasification plant integrated with solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    is subject to chemical treatments through air or/and steam utilization; the result is a synthesis gas, called "Syngas" which is principally composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Traces of hydrogen sulfide could also be present which can easily be separated in a desulfurization reactor. The gasification...... process is usually based on an atmospheric-pressure circulating fluidized bed gasifier coupled to a tar-cracking vessel. Syngas can be used as fuel in different kind of power plant such as gas turbine cycle, steam cycle, combined cycle, internal and external combustion engine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell...... with incineration technologies. Moreover waste incinerators require the installation of sophisticated exhaust gas cleaning equipment that can be large and expensive and are not necessary in the studied plant....

  18. Thermodynamic analyses of municipal solid waste gasification plant integrated with solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling hybrid system

    OpenAIRE

    Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be considered a valid biomass to be used in a power plant. The major advantage is the reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions not only within large cities but also globally. Another advantage is that by their use it is possible to reduce the waste storage in landfills and devote these spaces to other human activities. It is also important to point out that this kind of renewable energy suffers significantly less availability which characterizes o...

  19. Tracking and quantification of nitrifying bacteria in biofilm and mixed liquor of a partial nitrification MBBR pilot plant using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abzazou, Tarik, E-mail: tabzazou@ub.edu [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Araujo, Rosa M., E-mail: raraujo@ub.edu [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Auset, María, E-mail: maria.auset.vallejo@acciona.com [ACCIONA AGUA, S.A., Av de les Garrigues 22, El Prat de Llobregat, 08820 Barcelona (Spain); Salvadó, Humbert, E-mail: hsalvado@ub.edu [Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    A moving bead biofilm reactor (MBBR) pilot plant was implemented as a partial nitrification process for pre-treatment of ammonium-rich liquors (676 ± 195 mg L{sup −1}), and studied for 479 days under variations in hydraulic retention time. The main purpose of this work, was the study of dynamics abundance of total bacteria and single-cells nitrifying bacteria belonging to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in biofilms and mixed liquor of the plant. The microbial monitoring was successfully achieved using fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with flocs disaggregation protocol as a useful microbial monitoring tool. A partial nitrification process with a N-NH{sub 4}{sup +} removal rate of about 38.6 ± 14.8% was successfully achieved at 211 days after start-up, with a clear dominance of AOB, which accounted for 11.3 ± 17.0% of total bacterial cells compared with only 2.1 ± 4.0% of NOB. The effluent obtained was subsequently supplied to an Anammox reactor for complete ammonium treatment. - Highlights: • Partial nitrification process in a MBBR fed with ammonium-rich liquor was achieved. • The operational key parameters were the HRT and temperature. • DAPI and FISH were useful to monitoring microbial composition of MBBR pilot plant. • The AOB were the dominant nitrifying bacteria, presenting 11.3% of total bacteria. • A significant correlation (R = 0.68) between AOB and ammonia removal was found.

  20. Quantitative use of fluorescent in situ hybridization to examine relationships between mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes and foaming in activated sludge plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, R J; Curtis, T P; Goodfellow, M; Stainsby, F M; Bingley, M

    2000-03-01

    The formation of viscous foams on aeration basins and secondary clarifiers of activated sludge plants is a common and widespread problem. Foam formation is often attributed to the presence of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes (mycolata). In order to examine the relationship between the number of mycolata and foam, we developed a group-specific probe targeting the 16S rRNA of the mycolata, a protocol to permeabilize mycolata, and a statistically robust quantification method. Statistical analyses showed that a lipase-based permeabilization method was quantitatively superior to previously described methods (P < 0.05). When mixed liquor and foam samples were examined, most of the mycolata present were rods or cocci, although filamentous mycolata were also observed. A nested analysis of variance showed that virtually all of the measured variance occurred between fields of view and not between samples. On this basis we determined that as few as five fields of view could be used to give a statistically meaningful sample. Quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to examine the relationship between foaming and the concentration of mycolata in a 20-m(3) completely mixed activated sludge plant. Foaming occurred when the number of mycolata exceeded a certain threshold value. Baffling of the plant affected foaming without affecting the number of mycolata. We tentatively estimated that the threshold foaming concentration of mycolata was about 2 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) or 4 x 10(12) cells m(-2). We concluded that quantitative use of FISH is feasible and that quantification is a prerequisite for rational investigation of foaming in activated sludge.

  1. Growth and Productivity of Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Amanullah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha-1 each on the productivity profitability of small land rice (Oryza sativa L. grower under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P ha-1 fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1, impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep & poultry manures and P levels was studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied as check was investigated. In experiment (2, three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues & wheat straw and P levels was studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied as check. Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p≤0.05 less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues had resulted in higher rice productivity (90 = 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha-1. In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures. In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic resides had higher rice productivity over wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw. On the average, the rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than the rice grown under crop residues. We concluded from this study that application of 90 kg P ha-1 along with combined application of animal manures especially poultry manure could increase rice productivity. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha-1 along with combined application of animal

  2. An approach to identify putative hybrids in the 'coalescent stochasticity zone', as exemplified in the African plant genus Streptocarpus (Gesneriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Margaret J; Pirie, Michael D; Hughes, Mark; Möller, Michael; Edwards, Trevor J; Bellstedt, Dirk U

    2013-04-01

    The inference of phylogenetic relationships is often complicated by differing evolutionary histories of independently-inherited markers. The causes of the resulting gene tree incongruence can be challenging to identify, often relying on coalescent simulations dependent on unverifiable assumptions. We investigated alternative techniques using the South African rosulate species of Streptocarpus as a study group. Two independent gene trees - from the nuclear ITS region and from three concatenated plastid regions (trnL-F, rpl20-rps12 and trnC-D) - displayed widespread, strongly supported incongruence. We investigated the causes by detecting genetic exchange across morphological borders using morphological optimizations and genetic exchange across species boundaries using the genealogical sorting index. Incongruence between gene trees was associated with ancestral shifts in growth form (in four species) but not in pollination syndrome, suggesting introgression limited by reproductive barriers. Genealogical sorting index calculations showed polyphyly of two additional species, while individuals of all others were significantly associated. In one case the association was stronger according to the internal transcribed spacer data than according to the plastid data, which, given the smaller effective population size of the plastid, may also indicate introgression. These approaches offer alternative ways to identify potential hybridization events where incomplete lineage sorting cannot be rejected using simulations. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Disaggregating polyploidy, parental genome dosage and hybridity contributions to heterosis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fort, Antoine; Ryder, Peter; Mckeown, P.C.; Wijnen, Cris; Aarts, M.G.; Sulpice, Ronan; Spillane, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Heterosis is the phenomenon whereby hybrid offspring of genetically divergent parents display superior characteristics compared with their parents. Although hybridity and polyploidy can influence heterosis in hybrid plants, the differential contributions of hybridity vs polyploidy to heterosis ef

  4. PCA of soil fertility under different gaps of continuously planting Chinese fir%杉木多代连栽后土壤肥力变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉盛; 何宗明; 陈光水; 谢锦升; 俞新妥

    2001-01-01

    通过选择邻近分布,母岩一致,树龄相近且为近成熟林等可比性较强的一代、二代、三代杉木林标准地,研究杂木林及不同栽杉代数杉木林土壤水分物理性质、土壤养分和腐殖质及土壤生化活性的差异,并采用主成分分析(PCA)法对不同林分类型土壤肥力进行排序。结果显示:表层土壤(0~20 cm)肥力以杂木林最高,其次为一代杉木林的,二代和三代杉木林的则最差;底层土壤(20~40 cm)肥力以杂木林最高,一代、二代和三代杉木林的均较差。建议降低人为干扰频率和强度及改善林分群落结构来提高杉木人工林土壤肥力,从而实现杉木林的可持续经营。%Through selecting strong comparative plots with close location, same native rock and similar tree age in Chinese fir plantation of the first, the second and the third planting, the soil hydrophysical properties, nutrition, humus and biochemical activities were further studied, and soil fertility was classified by PCA method under broadleaved forest and Chinese fir plantation of different continuously planting. The results indicated that, among the soil fertility at topsoil in different stands, broadleaved forest occupied first place, the first planting Chinese fir come second, and the second and third planting Chinese fir were relatively poor; that among soil fertility at subsoil, broadleaved forest was quite well, and Chinese fir plantation of the first, the second, the third planting were relatively poor; and that the key to improve soil fertility in man-made forest and attain sustainable management of forest land is to decrease the frequency and intensity of artificial disturbance , and to ameliorate the community structure of Chinese fir plantation.

  5. Acetic acid recovery from a hybrid biological-hydrothermal treatment process of sewage sludge - a pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Dare, P; Estcourt, G; Gapes, D; Lei, R; McDonald, B; Wijaya, N

    2015-01-01

    A two-stage process consisting of anaerobic fermentation followed by sub-critical wet oxidation was used to generate acetic acid from sewage sludge at pilot scale. Volatile fatty acids, dominated by propionic acid, were produced over 4-6 days in the 2,000 L fermentation reactor, which also achieved 31% solids reduction. Approximately 96% of the carbon was retained in solution over the fermentation stage. Using a 200 L wet oxidation reactor operating in batch mode, the second stage achieved 98% volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and 67% total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) destruction. Acetic acid produced in this stage was recalcitrant to further degradation and was retained in solution. The gross yield from VSS was 16% for acetic acid and 21% for volatile fatty acids across the process, higher than reported yields for wet oxidation alone. The pilot plant results showed that 72% of the incoming phosphorus was retained in the solids, 94% of the nitrogen became concentrated in solution and 41% of the carbon was converted to a soluble state, in a more degradable form. Acetic acid produced from the process has the potential to be used to offset ethanol requirements in biological nutrient removal plants.

  6. 50 CFR 23.43 - What are the requirements for a wildlife hybrid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for a wildlife hybrid? 23.43 Section 23.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  7. Fluorescent in situ hybridization for the localization of viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms in insect and plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliot, Adi; Ghanim, Murad

    2016-04-01

    Methods for the localization of cellular components such as nucleic acids, proteins, cellular vesicles and more, and the localization of microorganisms including viruses, bacteria and fungi have become an important part of any research program in biological sciences that enable the visualization of these components in fixed and live tissues without the need for complex processing steps. The rapid development of microscopy tools and technologies as well as related fluorescent markers and fluorophores for many cellular components, and the ability to design DNA and RNA sequence-based molecular probes and antibodies which can be visualized fluorescently, have rapidly advanced this field. This review will focus on some of the localizations methods which have been used in plants and insect pests in agriculture, and other microorganisms, which are rapidly advancing the research in agriculture-related fields.

  8. Potential improvement to a citric wastewater treatment plant using bio-hydrogen and a hybrid energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiaohua; Yang, Haijun; Berthold, Sascha; Doetsch, Christian; Shen, Jianquan

    Treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater is characterized as cost-consuming. The conventional technology uses the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process (A 2/O), which does not produce hydrogen. There is potential for energy saving using hydrogen utilization associated with wastewater treatment because hydrogen can be produced from organic wastewater using anaerobic fermentation. A 50 m 3 pilot bio-reactor for hydrogen production was constructed in Shandong Province, China in 2006 but to date the hydrogen produced has not been utilized. In this work, a technical-economic model based on hydrogen utilization is presented and analyzed to estimate the potential improvement to a citric wastewater plant. The model assesses the size, capital cost, annual cost, system efficiency and electricity cost under different configurations. In a stand-alone situation, the power production from hydrogen is not sufficient for the required load, thus a photovoltaic array (PV) is employed as the power supply. The simulated results show that the combination of solar and bio-hydrogen has a much higher cost compared with the A 2/O process. When the grid is connected, the system cost achieved is 0.238 US t -1 wastewater, which is lower than 0.257 US t -1 by the A 2/O process. The results reveal that a simulated improvement by using bio-hydrogen and a FC system is effective and feasible for the citric wastewater plant, even when compared to the current cost of the A 2/O process. In addition, lead acid and vanadium flow batteries were compared for energy storage service. The results show that a vanadium battery has lower cost and higher efficiency due to its long lifespan and energy efficiency. Additionally, the cost distribution of components shows that the PV dominates the cost in the stand-alone situation, while the bio-reactor is the main cost component in the parallel grid.

  9. A hybrid breath hold and continued respiration-triggered technique for time-resolved 3D MRI perfusion studies in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintze, C. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologie; Stemmer, A. [Siemens AG (Germany). Healthcare Sector; Bock, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (DE). Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie] (and others)

    2010-01-15

    Assessment of lung cancer perfusion is impaired by respiratory motion. Imaging times for contrast agent wash-out studies often exceed breath hold capabilities, and respiration triggering reduces temporal resolution. Temporally resolved volume acquisition of entire tumors is required to assess heterogeneity. Therefore, we developed and evaluated an MR measurement technique that exceeds a single breath hold, and provides a variable temporal resolution during acquisition while suspending breath-dependent motion. 20 patients with suspected lung cancer were subjected to perfusion studies using a spoiled 3D gradient echo sequence after bolus injection of 0.07 mmol/kg body weight of Gd-DTPA. 10 acquisitions in expiratory breath hold were followed by 50 navigator-triggered acquisitions under free breathing. Post-processing allowed for co-registration of the 3D data sets. An ROI-based visualization of the signal-time curves was performed. In all cases motion-suspended, time-resolved volume data sets (40 x 33 x 10 cm{sup 3}, voxel size: 2.1 x 2.1 x 5.0 mm{sup 3}) were generated with a variable, initially high temporal resolution (2.25 sec) that was synchronized with the breath pattern and covered up to 8(1)/(2) min. In 7 / 20 cases a remaining offset could be reduced by rigid co-registration. The tumors showed fast wash-in, followed by rapid signal decay (8 / 20) or a plateau. The feasibility of a perfusion study with hybrid breath hold and navigator-triggered time-resolved 3D MRI which combines high initial temporal resolution during breath hold with a long wash-out period under free breathing was demonstrated. (orig.)

  10. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Analysis of Genes Regulated by Application of Exogenous Abscisic Acid in Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum L. Leaves under Chilling Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Guo

    Full Text Available Low temperature is one of the major factors limiting pepper (Capsicum annuum L. production during winter and early spring in non-tropical regions. Application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA effectively alleviates the symptoms of chilling injury, such as wilting and formation of necrotic lesions on pepper leaves; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. The aim of this study was to identify genes that are differentially up- or downregulated in ABA-pretreated hot pepper seedlings incubated at 6°C for 48 h, using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method. A total of 235 high-quality ESTs were isolated, clustered and assembled into a collection of 73 unigenes including 18 contigs and 55 singletons. A total of 37 unigenes (50.68% showed similarities to genes with known functions in the non-redundant database; the other 36 unigenes (49.32% showed low similarities or unknown functions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the 37 unigenes could be classified into nine functional categories. The expression profiles of 18 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR; the expression levels of 10 of these genes were at least two-fold higher in the ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress than water-pretreated (control plants under chilling stress. In contrast, the other eight genes were downregulated in ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress, with expression levels that were one-third or less of the levels observed in control seedlings under chilling stress. These results suggest that ABA can positively and negatively regulate genes in pepper plants under chilling stress.

  11. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Analysis of Genes Regulated by Application of Exogenous Abscisic Acid in Pepper Plant (Capsicum annuum L.) Leaves under Chilling Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Li; Chen, Ru-Gang; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Yin, Yan-Xu; Li, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the major factors limiting pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production during winter and early spring in non-tropical regions. Application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) effectively alleviates the symptoms of chilling injury, such as wilting and formation of necrotic lesions on pepper leaves; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. The aim of this study was to identify genes that are differentially up- or downregulated in ABA-pretreated hot pepper seedlings incubated at 6°C for 48 h, using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. A total of 235 high-quality ESTs were isolated, clustered and assembled into a collection of 73 unigenes including 18 contigs and 55 singletons. A total of 37 unigenes (50.68%) showed similarities to genes with known functions in the non-redundant database; the other 36 unigenes (49.32%) showed low similarities or unknown functions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the 37 unigenes could be classified into nine functional categories. The expression profiles of 18 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR; the expression levels of 10 of these genes were at least two-fold higher in the ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress than water-pretreated (control) plants under chilling stress. In contrast, the other eight genes were downregulated in ABA-pretreated seedlings under chilling stress, with expression levels that were one-third or less of the levels observed in control seedlings under chilling stress. These results suggest that ABA can positively and negatively regulate genes in pepper plants under chilling stress.

  12. Liquid Hybridization and Solid Phase Detection: A Highly Sensitive and Accurate Strategy for MicroRNA Detection in Plants and Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fosheng Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in nearly every aspect of biology, including physiological, biochemical, developmental and pathological processes. Therefore, a highly sensitive and accurate method of detection of miRNAs has great potential in research on theory and application, such as the clinical approach to medicine, animal and plant production, as well as stress response. Here, we report a strategic method to detect miRNAs from multicellular organisms, which mainly includes liquid hybridization and solid phase detection (LHSPD; it has been verified in various species and is much more sensitive than traditional biotin-labeled Northern blots. By using this strategy and chemiluminescent detection with digoxigenin (DIG-labeled or biotin-labeled oligonucleotide probes, as low as 0.01–0.25 fmol [for DIG-CDP Star (disodium2-chloro-5-(4-methoxyspiro{1,2-dioxetane-3,2′-(5′-chlorotricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decan}-4-ylphenyl phosphate system], 0.005–0.1 fmol (for biotin-CDP Star system, or 0.05–0.5 fmol (for biotin-luminol system of miRNA can be detected and one-base difference can be distinguished between miRNA sequences. Moreover, LHSPD performed very well in the quantitative analysis of miRNAs, and the whole process can be completed within about 9 h. The strategy of LHSPD provides an effective solution for rapid, accurate, and sensitive detection and quantitative analysis of miRNAs in plants and animals.

  13. Development of somatic hybrids Solanum × michoacanum Bitter. (Rydb.) (+) S. tuberosum L. and autofused 4x S. × michoacanum plants as potential sources of late blight resistance for potato breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyda, P; Jakuczun, H; Dębski, K; Sliwka, J; Thieme, R; Nachtigall, M; Wasilewicz-Flis, I; Zimnoch-Guzowska, E

    2013-08-01

    Phytophthora infestans resistant somatic hybrids of S. × michoacanum (+) S. tuberosum and autofused 4 x S. × michoacanum were obtained. Our material is promising to introgress resistance from S. × michoacanum into cultivated potato background. Solanum × michoacanum (Bitter.) Rydb. (mch) is a wild diploid (2n = 2x = 24) potato species derived from spontaneous cross of S. bulbocastanum and S. pinnatisectum. This hybrid is a 1 EBN (endosperm balance number) species and can cross effectively only with other 1 EBN species. Plants of mch are resistant to Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary. To introgress late blight resistance genes from mch into S. tuberosum (tbr), genepool somatic hybridization between mch and susceptible diploid potato clones (2n = 2x = 24) or potato cultivar Rywal (2n = 4x = 48) was performed. In total 18,775 calli were obtained from postfusion products from which 1,482 formed shoots. The Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR), Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequences (CAPS) and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses confirmed hybrid nature of 228 plants and 116 autofused 4x mch. After evaluation of morphological features, flowering, pollen stainability, tuberization and ploidy level, 118 somatic hybrids and 116 autofused 4x mch were tested for late blight resistance using the detached leaf assay. After two seasons of testing three somatic hybrids and 109 4x mch were resistant. Resistant forms have adequate pollen stainability for use in crossing programme and are a promising material useful for introgression resistance from mch into the cultivated potato background.

  14. FAULT PROPAGATION AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS FOR DESIGNING AN ONLINE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR THE SECONDARY LOOP OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PART OF A HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huijuan; Diao, Xiaoxu; Li, Boyuan; Smidts, Carol; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon

    2017-03-01

    This paper studies the propagation and effects of faults of critical components that pertain to the secondary loop of a nuclear power plant found in Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems (NHES). This information is used to design an on-line monitoring (OLM) system which is capable of detecting and forecasting faults that are likely to occur during NHES operation. In this research, the causes, features, and effects of possible faults are investigated by simulating the propagation of faults in the secondary loop. The simulation is accomplished by using the Integrated System Failure Analysis (ISFA). ISFA is used for analyzing hardware and software faults during the conceptual design phase. In this paper, the models of system components required by ISFA are initially constructed. Then, the fault propagation analysis is implemented, which is conducted under the bounds set by acceptance criteria derived from the design of an OLM system. The result of the fault simulation is utilized to build a database for fault detection and diagnosis, provide preventive measures, and propose an optimization plan for the OLM system.

  15. Screening of agonistic activities against four nuclear receptors in wastewater treatment plants in Japan using a yeast two-hybrid assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daisuke Inoue; Koki Nakama; Kazuko Sawada; Taro Watanabe; Hisae Matsui; Kazunari Sei; Tsuyoshi Nakanishi; Michihiko Ike

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential endocrine disruptive effects through multiple nuclear receptors (NRs), especially non-steroidal NRs, in municipal wastewater, we examined the agonistic activities on four NRs (estrogen receptor c, thyroid hormone receptor α, retinoic acid receptor α and retinoid X receptor α) of untreated and treated wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Japan using a yeast two-hybrid assay.Investigation of the infiuent and effluent of seven WWTPs revealed that agonistic activities against steroidal and non-steroidal NRs were always detected in the infiuents and partially remained in the effluents.Further investigation of four WWTPs employing conventional activated sludge, pseudo-anoxic-oxic, anoxic-oxic and anaerobic-anoxic-oxic processes revealed that the ability to reduce the agonistic activity against each of the four NRs varies depending on the treatment process.These results indicated that municipal wastewater in Japan commonly contains endocrine disrupting chemicals that exert agonistic activities on steroidal and non-steroidal NRs, and that some of these chemicals are released into the natural aquatic environment.Although the results obtained in yeast assays suggested that measured levels of non-steroidal NR agonists in the effluent of WWTPs were not likely to cause any biological effect, further study is required to assess their possible risks in detail.

  16. Finding the Balance to Combat a Hybrid Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Russell W. Glenn adds to Hoffman’s definition by stating, “a hybrid threat may employ political, military, economic, social , and information means, as...bud of the plant. Besides illegal opium, the poppy is used in the production of morphine . 134Department of Defense, JP 1-02, Department of Defense...consideration of the people through continuous interaction , but also supported building a rapport with the people, and promoting security through a

  17. San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, hybrid electric plant renewable energies in the rural communities development; Planta electrica hibrida San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, las energias renovables en el desarrollo de las comunidades rurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    The hybrid electric plant of San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, is described in terms of its environmental goals, operating process and contribution to the development of that rural community of the Baja California Peninsula. San Juanico hybrid electric plant is organized in three electrical generation systems that work in parallel: one uses solar energy, another wind energy and a third one uses diesel fuel. [Spanish] Se describe la planta hibrida de San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, en terminos de los objetivos ambientales que condujeron a su realizacion, asi como de su proceso operativo y de la participacion que tiene en el desarrollo de esa comunidad rural de la peninsula de Baja California, Mexico. La planta hibrida de San Juanico esta constituida por tres sistemas de generacion de electrcicidad que operan en paralelo: uno utiliza energia radiante del sol, otro energia del viento y un tercero utiliza diesel.

  18. Exchange of diesel generator's retrofitting by PV-diesel hybrid plants in the south of Morocco; Sustitucion de grupos electrogenos por pequenas centrales hibridas FV-diesel en el sur de Marruecos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Cano, J.; Narvarte Fernandez, L.; Lorenzo Pigueiras, E.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a pilot experience of diesel generator's retrofitting by PV-diesel hybrid plants in two rural villages in the south of Morocco. After two operating years, we are ready to present the obtained results, especially, those that can be useful for future electrification projects based on this technology, such as the introduction of the energy service, the energy consumption of users and the managerial aspects that contribute to the long-term sustainability of these systems. (Author)

  19. Evolutionary Design of Both Topologies and Parameters of a Hybrid Dynamical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of open-ended plants for hybrid dynamical systems--i.e. both their topologies and parameters. Hybrid bond graphs are used to represent dynamical systems involving both continuous and discrete system dynamics. Genetic programming, with some...... special mechanisms incorporated, is used as a search tool to explore the open-ended design space of hybrid bond graphs. Combination of these two tools--i.e., hybrid bond graphs (HGBs) and genetic programming (GP)--leads to an approach called HBGGP that can automatically generate viable design candidates...... of hybrid dynamical systems that fulfill predefined design specifications. A comprehensive investigation of a case study of DC-DC converter design demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the HBGGP approach. Important characteristics of the approach are also discussed, with some future research...

  20. Phytoremediation of Groundwater at Air Force Plant 4, Carswell, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    swings in soil water potential through transpiration and by the continual addition of water-retentive organic matter. In essence , the 6 plant-microbe...ability of trees to act as pumps was noted in the late 19th century when Eucalyptus trees were planted in Italy and Algeria to dry up marshes. The...development of short rotation crops such as cottonwoods, hybrid poplar, willow, eucalyptus , or other energy crops, requires consideration of operational

  1. Performance of a novel baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration hybrid system under continuous operation for simultaneous nutrient removal and mitigation of brine discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Pathak, Nirenkumar

    2017-03-14

    The present study investigated the performance of an integrated osmotic and microfiltration membrane bioreactor system for wastewater treatment employing baffles in the reactor. Thus, this reactor design enables both aerobic and anoxic processes in an attempt to reduce the process footprint and energy costs associated with continuous aeration. The process performance was evaluated in terms of water flux, salinity build up in the bioreactor, organic and nutrient removal and microbial activity using synthetic reverse osmosis (RO) brine as draw solution (DS). The incorporation of MF membrane was effective in maintaining a reasonable salinity level (612-1434 mg/L) in the reactor which resulted in a much lower flux decline (i.e. 11.48 to 6.98 LMH) as compared to previous studies. The stable operation of the osmotic membrane bioreactor–forward osmosis (OMBR-FO) process resulted in an effective removal of both organic matter (97.84%) and nutrient (phosphate 87.36% and total nitrogen 94.28%), respectively.

  2. Continuous Time Model Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Shenhuai Gao

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an easy to follow method for continuous time model estimation. It serves as an introduction on how to convert a state space model from continuous time to discrete time, how to decompose a hybrid stochastic model into a trend model plus a noise model, how to estimate the trend model by simulation, and how to calculate standard errors from estimation of the noise model. It also discusses the numerical difficulties involved in discrete time models that bring about the unit ...

  3. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  4. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  5. 甜橙与酸橙体细胞杂种核质组成鉴定%Characterization of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Compositions of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Sweet Orange and Sour Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继红; 徐小勇; 邓秀新

    2004-01-01

    In the present research, flow cytometry (FCM), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) were employed to analyze somatic hybrid plants derived from electrofusion between embryogenic protoplasts of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Shamouti)and leaf-derived protoplasts of sour orange (C. aurantium L.). FCM showed that all of the somatic hybrid plants had two-fold fluorescence intensity values of the diploid control, indicating that they were tetraploids.SSR and CAPS were used to characterize the compositions of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of the somatic hybrid plants. As for SSR four primer pairs were tried and two showed polymorphisms between the fusion parents. With both primer pairs the somatic hybrid plants encompassed DNA bands from both parents,indicating that they were heterokaryonic hybrids. Amplification with some universal primers, followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases, could distinguish the fusion parents from each other. As far as mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA compositions were concerned the somatic hybrid plants shared the same banding patterns as the embryogenic parents for all of the polymorphic primer/enzyme combinations.The results herein demonstrated that the somatic hybrid plants inherited their nuclear genome from both fusion parents, whereas the cytoplasmic genomes were possibly only contributed by the embryogenic parent. Merits of the analytical methods and nuclear and cytoplasmic inheritance of citrus tetraploid somatic hybrids, together with their application, are discussed herein.%采用流式细胞术(flow cytometry,FCM)、简单重复序列(simple sequence repeat,SSR)和酶切扩增多型性序列(cleaved amplifiedpolymorphic sequence,CAPS)等技术分析酸橙(Citrus aurantium L.)叶肉原生质体和甜橙(C.sinenis Osbeck cv.Shamouti)胚性愈伤组织原生质体电融合再生的体细胞杂种.FCM研究结果表明,所有的体细胞杂种植株荧

  6. Solution of the transport equation in stationary state and X Y geometry, using continuous and discontinuous hybrid nodal schemes; Solucion de la ecuacion de transporte en estado estacionario y geometria X Y, usando esquemas nodales hibridos continuos y discontinuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolocostli M, V.; Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: xvicente@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    In this work it is described the development and the application of the NH-FEM schemes, Hybrid Nodal schemes using the Finite Element method in the solution of the neutron transport equation in stationary state and X Y geometry, of which two families of schemes were developed, one of which corresponds to the continuous and the other to the discontinuous ones, inside those first its are had the Bi-Quadratic Bi Q, and to the Bi-cubic BiC, while for the seconds the Discontinuous Bi-lineal DBiL and the Discontinuous Bi-quadratic DBiQ. These schemes were implemented in a program to which was denominated TNHXY, Transport of neutrons with Hybrid Nodal schemes in X Y geometry. One of the immediate applications of the schemes NH-FEM it will be in the analysis of assemblies of nuclear fuel, particularly of the BWR type. The validation of the TNHXY program was made with two test problems or benchmark, already solved by other authors with numerical techniques and to compare results. The first of them consists in an it BWR fuel assemble in an arrangement 7x7 without rod and with control rod providing numerical results. The second is a fuel assemble of mixed oxides (MOX) in an arrangement 10x10. This last problem it is known as the Benchmark problem WPPR of the NEA Data Bank and the results are compared with those of other commercial codes as HELIOS, MCNP-4B and CPM-3. (Author)

  7. Continuous within-plant variation as a source of intraspecific functional diversity: Patterns, magnitude, and genetic correlates of leaf variability in Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrera, Carlos M; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    .... For the perennial Helleborus foetidus, we measured functional leaf traits to quantify the contribution of within-plant variation to intraspecific functional variance and evaluate whether within-plant...

  8. Espaçamentos e densidades de milho com diferentes ciclos no oeste de Santa Catarina, Brazil Spacing and plant populations of hybrids with different cycles in the west of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Delmar Flesch

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a densidade populacional e espaçamento entre fileiras ideais para milho no Oeste Catarinense, foram conduzidos dois experimentos (um com híbrido de ciclo precoce e outro com híbrido de ciclo normal nos anos agrícolas 1995/96, 1996/1997 e 1997/98, em Chapecó. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados arranjados em parcelas subdivididas, com a parcela principal composta de quatro espaçamentos entre fileiras (70, 85, 100 e 115cm e a sub-parcela de quatro densidades populacionais (30000, 50000, 70000 e 90000 plantas ha-1. Os híbridos responderam de forma quadrática ao aumento da população de plantas, apresentando máxima eficiência técnica ao redor de 74000 plantas ha-1. As populações de 50000, 70000 e 90000 plantas ha-1, de ambos os híbridos, tiveram produtividade de grãos semelhantes entre si e superiores a 30000 plantas ha-1. O híbrido de ciclo precoce foi mais produtivo a 70 e 85cm do que a 115cm, enquanto o híbrido de ciclo normal não teve diferença entre os espaçamentos. O aumento da população de plantas reduziu significativamente o peso de mil grãos, o número de grãos/espiga e o número de espigas/planta.To determine the ideal plant population and row spacing for corn, two trials were carried out (one with earlier hybrid and other with normal cycle hybrid during the growing seasons of 1995/96, 1996/97 and 1997/98, in Chapecó, in the West of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The experimental design of both trials was complete randomized blocks arranged in split-plots, with main plot composed of four row spacings (70, 85, 100 and 115cm and subplot composed of four stands (30000, 50000, 70000 and 90000 plants ha-1. Both hybrids had quadratic response to the increase in plant population with maximum technical efficiency around 74000 plants ha-1. Populations of 50000, 70000 and 90000 plants ha-1 of both hybrids had similar grain yields and superior to 30000 plants ha-1. The earlier hybrid had

  9. Postharvest and sensory evaluation of selected ‘Hass’-‘Bacon’ avocado hybrids grown in East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a high-value fruit that continues to increase in consumer demand. A population of ‘Hass’-‘Bacon’ hybrids was planted at USDA-ARS, Fort Pierce as part of a study to find selections with good horticultural and postharvest quality traits for Florida. Extensive pheno...

  10. High-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method for wave propagation simulation in complex geophysical media (elastic, acoustic and hydro-acoustic); an unifying framework to couple continuous Spectral Element and Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrana, Sebastien; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Guillot, Laurent; Mariotti, Christian

    2015-04-01

    assessed against classical SEMs and DGMs through two-dimensional geophysical examples, as well as the coupling between hybridized SEMs and DGMs in the same computational domain. Finally on-going extension of this HDG method for three-dimensional wave propagation phenomena will be outlined in conclusion. References: Chaljub, E., Komatitsch, D., Vilotte, J.-P., Capdeville, Y., Valette, B., Festa, G., Spectral Element analysis in seismology, Advances in Geophysics, 48, 365-419, 2006. Cockburn, B., Gopalakrishnan, J., Lazarov, R., Unified hybridization of discontinuous Galerkin, mixed and continuous Galerkin methods for second order elliptic problems, SIAM J. Num. Anal., 47, 2, 1319-1365, 2009. Dumbser, M. and M. Käser, An abitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for elastic waves on unstructured meshes II : the three-dimensional isotropic case, Geophys. J. Int., 167 (1), 319-336, 2006. Etienne, V., Chaljub, E., Virieux, J., Glinsky N., A hp-adaptative Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for 3-D elastic wave modelling, Geophys. J. Int., 183, 941-962, 2010. Komatitsch, D. and J.-P. Vilotte, The Spectral Element Method : An efficient tool to simulate the seismic response of 2-D and 3-D geological structures, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 88, 368-392, 1998. Nguyen, N., Peraire, J., Cockburn, B., High-order implicit hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin methods for acoustics and elastodynamics, J. Comp. Physics, 230, 10, 3695-3718, 2011. Wilcox, L., Stadler, G., Burstede, C., Ghattas, O., A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation through coupled elastic-acoustic media, J. Comp. Phys., 229, 9379-9386, 2010.

  11. Influence of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment on Anaerobic Digestion of Secondary Thickened Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery in Sewage Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hephzibah, D.; Kumaran, P.; Saifuddin, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work elucidates the effects of pre-treatment of secondary thickened sludge (STS) for enhancement of biogas production that has great potential to generate energy for the utilization of the sewage treatment plant (STP) itself. Microwave pre-treatment has been adopted for this study. Experiment works have been designed and conducted to examine the effectiveness of continuous flow microwave pre-treatment on the solubility of STS, digestibility of STS and biogas production at a power level of 80 W for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. A few characteristics of the sewage sludge were monitored daily to identify the effect of pre-treatment on the sludge. The soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)/total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ratio increased by 0.1, 1.0 and 1.8%, while the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of the pre-treated sludge improved by 4.4, 5.1, 5.9% at the irradiation time of 5, 10 and 15 minutes, respectively at a microwave power level of 80 W. Besides that, the digestate also indicates that the pre-treated sludge undergoes efficient VS removal and TCOD removal after anaerobic digestion compared to the untreated sludge. Moreover, the biogas quantity increased by an average of 19.2, 24.1 and 32.2% in 5, 10 and 15 minutes irradiation time respectively compared to the untreated sludge. The additional quantity of biogas generated has shown a great potential for sustainable energy generation that can be utilized internally by the STP.

  12. Application of in situ Hybridization in Plant Molecular Cytogenetics Research%DNA分子原位杂交(in situ hybridization)在植物分子细胞遗传学研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    别同德; 张伯桥; 高德荣; 程顺和; 马谈斌

    2008-01-01

    DNA分子原位杂交(in situ hybridization,ISH)是植物分子细胞遗传学研究的重要工具.简要回顾了DNA分子原位杂交的起源和发展,详细综述了基因组原位杂交(genomic in situ hybridization, GISH)在植物细胞遗传学研究中的应用以及荧光原位杂交(Fluorescence in situ hybridization, FISH)在植物物理作图和染色体识别中的应用.还介绍了Fiber-FISH、BAC-FISH以及Immuno-FISH等新兴技术,最后对FISH技术进行了展望.

  13. Effects of hybrid planting of emergent and submerged macrophytes on water quality of Beidagang Reservoir%挺水植物与沉水植物组配对北大港水库水质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常素云; 赵静静; 刘小川; 罗莎; 刘波

    2014-01-01

    As local dominant species in the Beidagang Reservoir , the emergent macrophytes , Typha, and the euryhaline submerged macrophytes , including Labyrinth potamogetonaceae, Ceratophyllum, and Myriophyllum were selected to study the effects of hybrid planting of Typha and various submerged plants on water purification .The results show that the best removal effect on NH 3-N and TP can be achieved by hybrid planting of Typha and Labyrinth potamogetonaceae, with the removal rates being 62.1% and 83.9%, respectively .The best removal effect on TN and COD can be achieved by hybrid planting of Typha and Ceratophyllum, with the removal rates being 93.3%and 30.4%, respectively .Matlab software was used to analyze the water quality after experiments . The results show that hybrid planting of Typha and Ceratophyllum can improve the water purification capability to the greatest extent .%选取北大港水库当地优势种挺水植物香蒲和广盐性沉水植物篦齿眼子菜、金鱼藻、狐尾藻为研究对象,研究香蒲与不同沉水植物的组配试验对水体净化效果的影响。结果表明:香蒲与篦齿眼子菜组配对水体NH3-N、TP的去除效果最好,去除率分别为62.1%、83.9%;香蒲与金鱼藻组配对TN、COD的去除效果最佳,去除率分别为93.3%、30.4%。利用Matlab软件平台对试验结束时的水质进行分析,发现香蒲与金鱼藻组配方式对水体的净化能力最强。

  14. N. Sarkozy confirms the continued operation of the Fessenheim plant; N. Sarkozy confirme la poursuite de l'exploitation de la centrale de Fessenheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-01-15

    In january 2012, the French authority for nuclear safety (ASN) assured that all the reactors operating in France are safe, including the oldest plant: Fessenheim. President Sarkozy has confirmed the decision not to decommission the Fessenheim plant. The socialist candidate F. Hollande has promised to stop Fessenheim plant and to decrease the contribution of nuclear energy in the production of electricity from 75% to 50% by 2025 if he is elected. (A.C.)

  15. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  16. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  17. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  18. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  19. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  20. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  1. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...... processes to be embedded into the logic. The semantics thus provides a secure link to hybrid system models based on a general theory of dynamical systems....

  2. Photosynthetic characteristics of hybrid and conventional rice plants as a function of plant competition Características fotossintéticas de plantas de arroz híbridas e convencionais em função da intensidade de competição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Concenço

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics related to the photosynthetic ability of hybrid and inbred rice varieties, as a way to assess which of the two presented higher potential to stand out under conditions of competition. The trial was set in a greenhouse in completely randomized block design and 2 x 6 factorial scheme with four replications. Factor A consisted of rice varieties (hybrid or inbred and factor B by competition levels. Treatments consisted in maintaining one plant of either BRS Pelota (inbred or Inov (hybrid variety at the center of the plot, under competition with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 plants of the variety BRS Pelota at the periphery of the experimental unit, according to the treatment. Fifty days after emergence (DAE, sub-stomatal CO2 concentration (Ci - mmol mol-1, photosynthetic rate (A - mmol m-2 s-1 and CO2 consumed (DC - mmol mol-1 were quantified, as well as shoot dry mass(SDM.Hybrid plants present higher photosynthesis capacity than inbred plants, when competing with up to 3 times its own density. When under the same competitive intensity, hybrid plants surpass the inbred. However, it should be emphasized that, when in farm condition, the lower competitive capacity with weeds often attributed to the hybrid varieties, probably is due to their lower planting density, but if weed competition is kept at low levels, hybrid rice plants may perform in the same way or usually better than inbred plants.Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar características relacionadas a capacidade fotossintética de variedades de arroz híbridas e convencionais, de forma a quantificar seu potencial de competição. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados e esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. O fator A consistiu de variedades de arroz (convencional e híbrida e o fator B de níveis de competição. Os tratamentos consistiram em manter uma planta da

  3. Rendimento de grãos de híbridos de milho em duas densidades de plantas com e sem a retirada dos perfilhos Grain yield of maize hybrids at two plant densities with and without tillers removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O milho não possui um mecanismo efetivo de compensação de espaços vazios na lavoura. Desse modo, híbridos perfilhadores podem ser mais eficientes no aproveitamento dos recursos ambientais, principalmente sob baixas populações de plantas. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho agronômico de híbridos de milho cultivados em duas densidades de plantas, com e sem a presença de perfilhos. O ensaio foi implantado em Lages, Santa Catarina, nos anos agrícolas de 2005/2006 e 2006/2007. Foram avaliados três híbridos: AS1560, PENTA e P30F53. Cada híbrido foi cultivado nas densidades de 4,0 e 7,0pl m-2, mantendo-se os perfilhos produzidos até o final do ciclo ou removendo-os quando as plantas estavam com nove folhas expandidas. Foram determinados a percentagem de plantas perfilhadas em quatro estádios fenológicos da cultura, o rendimento de grãos e os componentes do rendimento. Os híbridos P30F53 e AS 1560 perfilharam mais que o PENTA na densidade de 4pl m-2. No primeiro ano do estudo, o destino dos perfilhos não interferiu sobre o rendimento de grãos. Em 2006/2007, a manutenção dos perfilhos propiciou maior rendimento de grãos que a sua remoção para todos os híbridos avaliados, na densidade de 4pl m-2. Os resultados obtidos no trabalho demonstraram que a remoção dos perfilhos não traz benefícios ao desempenho agronômico do milho e que a sua manutenção pode incrementar o rendimento de grãos quando a lavoura é conduzida com baixas densidades de plantas.Maize does not have an effective mechanism to compensate empty spaces in the field. Therefore, tillering hybrids may be more efficient to use environmental resources, especially under low plant populations. This reserach was carried out aiming to evaluate the agronomic performance of maize hybrids grown at two plant densities, with and without tiller's presence. The experiment was set in Lages, SC, Brazil, during the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 growing

  4. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    the critical reactors. This combination consumes about 20% of the thorium initially loaded in the hybrid reactor ({approx}200 GWd/tHM), partially during hybrid operation, but mostly during operation in the critical reactor. The plant support ratio is low compared to the one attainable using continuous fuel chemical reprocessing, which can yield a plant support ratio of about 20, but the resulting fuel cycle offers better proliferation resistance as fissile material is never separated from the other fuel components.

  5. Phenotypic variability in the field of Saccharum spp. hybrid cv. ‘C87-51’plants regenerated via somatic embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Freire-Seijo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is a crop of great economic importance that has been propagated by tissue culture through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. The present research had as objective to determine the phenotypic variability in the field of sugar cane cv. 'C87-51' plants obtained by somatic embryogenesis in liquid culture media. Plants regenerated from somatic embryos were planted in the field next to plants propagated via organogenesis and from cuttings that were used as control. The evaluations were carried out seven months after planting in cane plant and first shoot and the variables evaluated were stem height, stem diameter, number of stems per seedlings, number of active leaves per stem and Brix. Besides, morphological characteristics were described. Plants out of type were not found in the evaluated populations. The results demonstrated that the plant regeneration pathway significantly influences the development of plants under field conditions. The propagation of sugarcane plants cv. 'C87-51' by somatic embryogenesis in liquid culture medium only induces phenotypic changes in field associated with in vitro rejuvenation similar to those previously reported for plants obtained by organogenesis. Therefore, it can be used as a method of mass propagation of plants.   Keywords: bioreactor, somatic embryos, somaclonal variation, sugarcane

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-TIERED INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED CORN HYBRIDS EXPRESSING THE PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANT, BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant increase in genetically modified corn planting driven by biofuel demand is expected for the 2007 growing season with future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with ma...

  7. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  8. 杂交稻元丰优86在永定种植表现及高产栽培技术%Planting Performance and High-yielding Cultivation Techniques of Hybrid Rice Combination Yuanfengyou 86 in Yongding Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游梅兰

    2014-01-01

    Yuanfengyou 86, derived from the CMS line Yuanfeng A and a restorer line Minghui 86, was a new hybrid rice combination. Yuanfengyou 86 was registered and released for commercial production by National Crop Variety Appraisal Committee in Fujian province in 2011. During the year of 2012-1013, Yuanfengyou 86 was introduced and planted in Yongding county of Fujian province. In this paper, we introduced planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques of Yuanfengyou 86.%元丰优86是用元丰A×明恢86配组育成的三系杂交稻新品种,2011年通过福建省品种审定。2012—2013年在永定县仙师乡示范种植,掌握其特征特性和高产栽培技术。

  9. Resposta de híbridos de milho irrigado à densidade de plantas em três épocas de semeadura Response of irrigated corn hybrids to plant density in three sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A determinação da densidade ótima de semeadura do milho, além de ser influenciada pelas características dos híbridos, pelo nível de fertilidade do solo e pela disponibilidade hídrica, pode também variar de acordo com a época da semeadura, uma vez que ela afeta o crescimento e desenvolvimento da planta. Com o objetivo de determinar a densidade ótima de planta em híbridos de milho com elevado potencial de rendimento de grãos, em três épocas de semeadura, com relação a rendimento de grãos, componentes do rendimento e outras características agronômicas, foram feitos quatro experimentos na região fisiográfica da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, município de Eldorado do Sul, com suplementação hídrica por aspersão. Os tratamentos constaram de quatro híbridos (Pioneer 3063, Pioneer 3207, XL 212 e Cargill 901, quatro densidades de plantas (50, 70, 90 e 110.000 pl/ha e de três épocas de semeadura (agosto, outubro e dezembro. Não há resposta à densidade de plantas dos híbridos de milho testados nas épocas de semeadura de agosto e dezembro. O aumento na densidade de plantas somente foi vantajosa na semeadura de outubro, quando se obtiveram maiores rendimentos de grãos na densidade de 70.000 pl/ha, independentemente do híbrido avaliado, nas duas estações de crescimento.Plant density response of corn besides influenced by hybrids traits, soil fertility level and water availability, could also vary with sowing date, since it affects plant growth and development. With the objective of determining the most adequate plant density of corn hybrids with high potential grain yields, in three sowing dates, in relation to grain yields, yield components and other agronomic traits, four experiments were conducted in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with complementary irrigation. The treatments were composed by four hybrids (Pioneer 3063, Pioneer 3207, XL 212 and Cargill 901, four plant densities (50, 70, 90 and 110

  10. Genetic Phenotype of Catechins in Tea Plants Hybrid F1 Generation%茶树杂交F1代儿茶素类的遗传表型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂良剑; 郑金贵; 林金科; 杨志坚; 林用松; 黄则栋; 赵文净; 孙平; 严婷婷

    2012-01-01

    以高EGCG茶树新品系为主要杂交亲本,分析其杂交F1代儿茶素类的遗传表型.结果表明:杂交F1代的EGC、EC、EGCG、ECG、酯型儿茶素类、简单儿茶素类、TC(儿茶素总量)、酯型儿茶素类/TC、简单儿茶素类/TC、EGCG/咖啡碱、EGCG/TC、儿茶素(类)品质指数等指标,不同株系差异很大;不同杂交组合存在显著差异,Kruskal Wallis检验和稳健检验均达显著性水平;不同杂交组合的分离存在极显著性差异,方差齐性检验表明达到极显著性水平.不同杂交组合F1代TC的分布因亲本的遗传力而定;不同杂交组合F1代高EGCG单株、高酯型儿茶素类单株和高儿茶素(类)品质指数单株的分布也因亲本的遗传力而定.%The hybrid F1 generation of the new tea plants with high EGCG content were used in this experimentation to study the genetic phenotype of catechins. The results showed that (a) the contents of EGC, EC, EGCG, ECG, ester-catechins, simple catechins and TC (total catechins), the ratios of ester-catechins/TC, simple catechins/TC, EGCG/caffeine and EGCG/TC, as well as the catechin quality index of the tea plants differed significantly among different varieties; (b) the differences among the hybrid combinations reached a significant level according to Kruskal Wallis and the robust tests; and (c) the different hybrid combinations separated very significantly from one another based on the homogeneity of variance test. The TC distribution in the F1 generation of the hybrid combinations was determined by the genetic heritability. The distribution of individual plants with high EGCG, high ester-catechins and high quality catechins index was also determined by the heritability of their parents' genetic.

  11. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  12. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  13. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  14. Hybrid Dynamical Systems Modeling, Stability, and Robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Rafal; Teel, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid dynamical systems exhibit continuous and instantaneous changes, having features of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamical systems. Filled with a wealth of examples to illustrate concepts, this book presents a complete theory of robust asymptotic stability for hybrid dynamical systems that is applicable to the design of hybrid control algorithms--algorithms that feature logic, timers, or combinations of digital and analog components. With the tools of modern mathematical analysis, Hybrid Dynamical Systems unifies and generalizes earlier developments in continuous-time and discret

  15. Incidência e severidade de doenças de quatro híbridos de milho cultivados com diferentes densidades de plantas Disease incidence and severity of four maize hybrids grown at different plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Sangoi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Os híbridos modernos de milho apresentam maior potencial produtivo do que os cultivares utilizados no passado, especialmente sob situações de estresse, como densidade de semeadura elevada e deficiência hídrica. É possível que o maior rendimento de grãos dos genótipos modernos nessas condições se deva, em parte, a sua melhor sanidade. Este trabalho foi conduzido em Lages, SC, com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência e severidade das principais doenças foliares, de colmo e espiga de híbridos de milho cultivados no Planalto Catarinense, em diferentes densidades de semeadura. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas. Na parcela principal, foram testadas três populações de planta, equivalentes a 50000, 75000 e 100000pl ha-1. Nas subparcelas, testaram-se quatro híbridos: Ag 12, Ag 28, Ag 303 e Ag 9012, os quais foram cultivados de forma expressiva nas décadas de 60, 70, 80, e 90, respectivamente. O aumento da população de plantas promoveu um incremento na incidência das doenças de colmo causadas por Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotrichum graminicola e Diplodia maydis. Esse aumento na quantidade de doenças foi mais intenso nos híbridos Ag 12 e Ag 28, contribuindo para aumentar a percentagem de plantas acamadas e quebradas destes materiais na colheita. O híbrido Ag 9012 apresentou menor incidência e severidade das doenças de espiga causadas por Fusarium moniliforme e Diplodia maydis, independentemente da densidade de semeadura. Não foi constatada menor severidade a doenças foliares no híbrido Ag 9012, em relação aos híbridos mais antigos.Modern maize hybrids have greater yield potential than cultivars used in the past, particularly under stressful conditions such as high plant population and water deficit. It is possible that the yield advantage presented by modern genotypes is partially due to their better ability to resist major maize diseases. This experiment was carried out to

  16. Evaluation of two hybrid poplar clones as constructed wetland plant species for treating saline water high in boron and selenium, or waters only high in boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland mesocosms were constructed to assess two salt- and B-tolerant hybrid poplar clones (Populus trichocarpa ×P. deltoides×P. nigra '345-1' and '347-14') for treating saline water high in boron (B) and selenium (Se). In addition, a hydroponic experiment was performed to test the B tolerance and B...

  17. Radiation hybrid maps of D-genome of Aegilops tauschii and their application in sequence assembly of large and complex plant genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The large and complex genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., ~17 Gb) requires high-resolution genome maps saturated with ordered markers to assist in anchoring and orienting BAC contigs/ sequence scaffolds for whole genome sequence assembly. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping has proven to be an e...

  18. The yeast three-hybrid system as an experimental platform to identify proteins interacting with small signaling molecules in plant cells: Potential and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eCottier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical genetics is a powerful scientific strategy that utilizes small bioactive molecules as experimental tools to unravel biological processes. Bioactive compounds occurring in nature represent an enormous diversity of structures that can be used to dissect functions of biological systems. Once the bioactivity of a natural or synthetic compound has been critically evaluated the challenge remains to identify its molecular target and mode of action, which usually is a time consuming and labor-intensive process. To facilitate this task, we decided to implement the yeast three-hybrid (Y3H technology as a general experimental platform to scan the whole Arabidopsis proteome for targets of small signaling molecules. The Y3H technology is based on the yeast two-hybrid system and allows direct cloning of proteins that interact in vivo with a synthetic hybrid ligand, which comprises the biologically active molecule of interest covalently linked to methotrexate (Mtx. In yeast nucleus the hybrid ligand connects two fusion proteins: the Mtx part binding to dihydrofolate reductase fused to a DNA binding domain (encoded in the yeast strain, and the bioactive molecule part binding to its potential protein target fused to a DNA activating domain (encoded on a cDNA expression vector. During cDNA library screening, the formation of this ternary, transcriptional activator complex leads to reporter gene activation in yeast cells, and thereby allows selection of the putative targets of small bioactive molecules of interest. Here we present the strategy and experimental details for construction and application of a Y3H platform, including chemical synthesis of different hybrid ligands, construction of suitable cDNA libraries, the choice of yeast strains, and appropriate screening conditions. Based on the results obtained and the current literature we discussed the perspectives and limitations of the Y3H approach for identifying targets of small bioactive molecules.

  19. Evaluating the Pedagogical Potential of Hybrid Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Tzur; Levin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines how the use of hybrid models--that consist of the interacting continuous and discrete processes--may assist in teaching system thinking. We report an experiment in which undergraduate students were asked to choose between a hybrid and a continuous solution for a number of control problems. A correlation has been found between…

  20. Contribution of computer science in continuous radioactivity survey in plants and environment of Centre d'Etudes de Saclay; Apport de l'informatique dans les controles en continu de la radioactivite des installations et de l'environnement du Centre d'Etudes de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulot, J.P.; Castri, J.; Robinet, G.; Travaillon, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dept. Secruite Controle et Environnement, Centre d' Etudes de Saclay (France)

    1992-07-01

    Assignments of radiations survey board (local staff warning and overall follow up of plants) benefit by an important contribution of computer science in two fields: quality of measurements, principally measures of radioactive atmospheric aerosols pollution, increase of overall follow up by peripherals, especially by continuous recording measures. The connection, by local network, of all survey boards can enable us further application as decision making for incidental cases. (author)

  1. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  2. 云南秋海棠属植物有性杂交特性%Property of sexual hybridization plants of Begonia in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景秀; 管开云; 孔繁才; 神戸敏成

    2013-01-01

    通过云南秋海棠属植物属下5个系统分类组的种类及外来园艺品种共109个组合的有性杂交试验,以系统分类组合、园艺分类组合(不同茎的形态类型组合)分别进行方差分析。结果表明:云南秋海棠属植物属下等级的系统分类组内、组间的有性杂交,以及不同茎的形态类型的有性杂交均无显著差异,亲和力较强而可育性高,可在云南秋海棠属植物属内进行广泛地远缘杂交;云南产秋海棠属植物原种与外来园艺品种间的有性杂交亲和性弱而可育性低,需选择花粉粒和胚囊正常发育的外来园艺品种大量杂交,并采用切实可行的技术措施克服远缘杂交不育,以期培育新颖奇特的秋海棠属植物新品种。%We conducted cross-breeding experiments of 109 combinations,five sections of phylogenetic classification species of Begonia in Yunnan and overseas cultivar Begonia.Variance analysis of sexual hybridization of all the com-binations was conducted.The results showed that sexual hybridization of in section,among section and different mor-photypes of Yunnan Begonia stems did not show significant deviation.However,avidity and fertility of these Begon-ias were high and sexual hybridization between Yunnan Begonia and cultivars from overseas avidity and fertility was lower.This meaned that when trying to create new hybrid species between Yunnan Begonia and overseas cultivars,it was suggested to choose cultivars whose pollen grain and embryonic sac were normally developed,to conduct hybrid work.The results also highlighted the necessity of introducing feasible technology on distant hybridization.Thus,it is well expected to create new cultivars for Begonia.

  3. Prestressed hybrids of AAC and HPC : The BCE (Block Composed Element) building system. A conceptual study

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    There is an important potential for a development of a building system, if the present AACblock plants are completed with high performance concrete and pre-stressing technique. This can be done as a continuation of a present AAC production or in a site factory. Hybrid cooperation between AAC and concrete is not a new technology. Traditionally, AAC is covered with rendering. The wetted material is first sprayed with cement slurry after which comes lime/cement-based rendering which strengthens ...

  4. 连铸组中间包问题的MTSP模型及混合优化算法%Hybrid Optimization Algorithm for Solving Combining Tundish MTSP Model on Continuous Casting Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易剑; 谭树彬; 李维刚; 杜斌

    2012-01-01

    针对连铸计划中的组中间包问题,建立了多旅行商问题(MTSP)模型,提出了一种结合启发式、k-opt邻域搜索和EDA进化的混合优化算法.该算法首先利用启发式规则确定虚拟炉次的个数,从而确定染色体编码长度,每个染色体代表一种中包组合方案,然后设计了基于概率矩阵模型的EDA进化算法对染色体进行全局寻优,并使用k-opt邻域搜索进行局部优化.EDA算法不需要设计如遗传算法(GA)那样的交叉算子,避免了交叉导致的编码非法性问题.通过对企业实际生产数据进行仿真计算,其结果表明了算法具有良好的优化性能和实用性.%The combining tundish problem on continuous casting plan was described and the multiple traveling salesman problem (MTSP) model was constructed. A hybrid optimization algorithm composed of the heuristic method, the k-opt neighborhood search, and the estimation of distribution algorithms (EDA) was proposed to solve the model. First, a heuristic method was used to determine the counts of dummy furnace which were involved in chromosome code to fix on the code length. Each chromosome presented a scheme of combining tundish and then the probability matrix model of the EDA was designed to optimize chromosome globally. Moreover, the k-opt was used as local search strategy. Unlike genetic algorithm(GA), the EDA had no crossover operator, therefore the illegal code resulted from crossover operator was avoided. Simulation results on the real production data indicated that the proposed algorithm had fairly good performance and utility.

  5. Asymmetrical gene flow in a hybrid zone of Hawaiian Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae species with contrasting mating systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa E Wallace

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical gene flow, which has frequently been documented in naturally occurring hybrid zones, can result from various genetic and demographic factors. Understanding these factors is important for determining the ecological conditions that permitted hybridization and the evolutionary potential inherent in hybrids. Here, we characterized morphological, nuclear, and chloroplast variation in a putative hybrid zone between Schiedea menziesii and S. salicaria, endemic Hawaiian species with contrasting breeding systems. Schiedea menziesii is hermaphroditic with moderate selfing; S. salicaria is gynodioecious and wind-pollinated, with partially selfing hermaphrodites and largely outcrossed females. We tested three hypotheses: 1 putative hybrids were derived from natural crosses between S. menziesii and S. salicaria, 2 gene flow via pollen is unidirectional from S. salicaria to S. menziesii and 3 in the hybrid zone, traits associated with wind pollination would be favored as a result of pollen-swamping by S. salicaria. Schiedea menziesii and S. salicaria have distinct morphologies and chloroplast genomes but are less differentiated at the nuclear loci. Hybrids are most similar to S. menziesii at chloroplast loci, exhibit nuclear allele frequencies in common with both parental species, and resemble S. salicaria in pollen production and pollen size, traits important to wind pollination. Additionally, unlike S. menziesii, the hybrid zone contains many females, suggesting that the nuclear gene responsible for male sterility in S. salicaria has been transferred to hybrid plants. Continued selection of nuclear genes in the hybrid zone may result in a population that resembles S. salicaria, but retains chloroplast lineage(s of S. menziesii.

  6. PLANT DENSITY AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF MAIZE HYBRIDS IN NARROW ROW SPACING DENSIDADE DE PLANTAS E CARACTERÍSTICAS AGRONÔMICAS DE HÍBRIDOS DE MILHO SOB ESPAÇAMENTO REDUZIDO ENTRE LINHAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Morais Guimarães

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of maize hybrids cultivated under different population densities in narrow row spacing (0.45 m. Two field experiments were installed to evaluate six commercial hybrids (A 2555, A 2288, AG 9010, AG 6690, P 30F88 and Valent grown in five plant densities (40,000; 53,000; 71,000; 84,000; and 97,000 plants per hectare, in Goiânia and Jataí, Goiás State, during the growing season of 2002/2003. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks, arranged in a 6x5 factorial design with four replicates. In the Goiânia experiment, the treatments were carried out using a split plot design. In the experiment of Goiânia, the treatments were carried out using a split plot design. The means of ear insertion, plant height, stalk lodging, ear length, ear diameter, corncob diameter, kernels per ear, weight of 100 kernels and grain yield was significantly influenced by plant density in both experiments. Grain yield was increased for plant densities higher than 70,000 plants per hectare, indicating that the use of narrow row spacing associated to the presence of shorter plant stature hybrids, favors enhancements in plant density. The grain yield was significantly affected by the interaction between hybrid and plant density in both fields. This indicates that, depending of the hybrid, the reduction of row spacing to 0.45 m is a managing practice that allows an increment in the sowing density.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays; cultivar; plant arrangement; agronomic trait; grain yield.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de híbridos de milho (A 2555, A 2288, AG 9010, AG 6690, P 30F88 e Valent, cultivados em diferentes densidades populacionais (40 mil, 53 mil, 71 mil, 84 mil e 97 mil plantas por hectare e sob espaçamento reduzido

  7. 一种新型风光热电站的风光互补性研究及成本分析%Wind-Solar Complementarity and Cost Analysis of New Solar-Wind Hybrid Thermal Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐欢; 袁越; 张新松; 傅质馨

    2013-01-01

    考虑到风电并网因风功率波动性所引起的电能质量与电网稳定性问题,提出了一种新型的风能利用形式风热装置,并将风热装置引入槽式光热电站,构建了一种新的可再生能源发电形式——风光热电站,给出了风热装置与槽式光热电站的连接方式,基于美国国家新能源研究所在科罗拉多州戈尔登地区实测的2011年全年风速、光照强度数据,利用牛顿插值法计算风电输出功率,同时采用槽式光热电站输出功率模型计算其输出功率,从风热装置与槽式光热电站发电量的角度,分析了风能光能在时域上的互补性,进而对风光热电站进行了成本估计,为验证风光热电站的可行性与优势提供了依据.%As the wind power fluctuation of the integrated wind farm influences the power quality and the stability of the grid. This paper proposes a new way of utilizing wind energy-wind-heat device and estimates its cost. Considering the instability of the trough system's generation and its high investment cost, a new sustainable energy generation technology-solar/wind hybrid thermal power plant is presented and its combination is given. Based on the actual irradiance and wind speed dates of Golden, Colorado, USA which are provided by American National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the Newton interpolation method is applied to calculate the wind power. Meanwhile trough system's output model is used to calculate its output. According to the generation of the wind thermal device and the trough system, the wind/solar complementarity is studied, which gives a strong prove to the feasibility of the solar/wind hybrid thermal power plant. Finally, a cost estimation of the solar/wind hybrid thermal power plant is studied.

  8. Modeling and analysis using hybrid Petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    Ghomri, Latéfa

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the use of hybrid Petri nets (PNs) for modeling and control of hybrid dynamic systems (HDS). Modeling, analysis and control of HDS attract ever more of researchers' attention and several works have been devoted to these topics. We consider in this paper the extensions of the PN formalism (initially conceived for modeling and analysis of discrete event systems) in the direction of hybrid modeling. We present, first, the continuous PN models. These models are obtained from discrete PNs by the fluidification of the markings. They constitute the first steps in the extension of PNs toward hybrid modeling. Then, we present two hybrid PN models, which differ in the class of HDS they can deal with. The first one is used for deterministic HDS modeling, whereas the second one can deal with HDS with nondeterministic behavior. Keywords: Hybrid dynamic systems; D-elementary hybrid Petri nets; Hybrid automata; Controller synthesis

  9. The hybrid MPC-MINLP algorithm for optimal operation of coal-fired power plants with solvent based post-combustion CO2 capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuda Abdul Manaf

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm that combines model predictive control (MPC with MINLP optimization and demonstrates its application for coal-fired power plants retrofitted with solvent based post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC plant. The objective function of the optimization algorithm works at a primary level to maximize plant economic revenue while considering an optimal carbon capture profile. At a secondary level, the MPC algorithm is used to control the performance of the PCC plant. Two techno-economic scenarios based on fixed (capture rate is constant and flexible (capture rate is variable operation modes are developed using actual electricity prices (2011 with fixed carbon prices ($AUD 5, 25, 50/tonne-CO2 for 24 h periods. Results show that fixed operation mode can bring about a ratio of net operating revenue deficit at an average of 6% against the superior flexible operation mode.

  10. Robust control of a parallel hybrid drivetrain with a CVT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T.; Schroeder, D. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the design of a robust control system for a parallel hybrid drivetrain is presented. The drivetrain is based on a continuously variable transmission (CVT) and is therefore a highly nonlinear multiple-input-multiple-output system (MIMO-System). Input-Output-Linearization offers the possibility of linearizing and of decoupling the system. Since for example the vehicle mass varies with the load and the efficiency of the gearbox depends strongly on the actual working point, an exact linearization of the plant will mostly fail. Therefore a robust control algorithm based on sliding mode is used to control the drivetrain.

  11. 利用宿根进行棉花不育系制种的技术体系研究%Technical System of Hybrid Seed Production with Perennial Plants of Cotton Sterile Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小军; 岳福良; 张小红; 侯睿; 张相琼; 李文均

    2015-01-01

    核不育两系法制种最大的缺点是由于核不育基因的遗传特点使保持系与不育系无法分开,通常制种时需要在蕾期将母本分离出的50%可育株识别并拔除,增加了制种成本和纯度风险。本研究利用中亚热带特殊冬暖、冬春干旱条件,在棉花核不育系作母本制种时,第1年剔除其中50%的可育株制种后,将不育株宿根越冬,第2年作为完全不育株用于制种。2006—2011年调查了不同宿根年限、冬季间套短季蔬菜、不同修剪时间和修剪方法对棉花宿根制种的影响。结果表明,棉花宿根后生长期延长,较同期播种的实生苗提前10 d 进入生殖生长,单株结铃数显著增加,单铃重略有下降。宿根1~2年其产量比不宿根高10.3%~5.9%,第3年略降低但不显著,第4~第5年显著减产9.4%~14.0%。随着宿根年限的延长,植株基部老根明显畸形。在5年以内宿根株凋亡率与宿根年限及土地类型的关系不显著,但与土壤水分含量及修枝方法有关。最佳的宿根方法为,冬季棉行不间种作物,不修枝,槽平地于灌水时(3月中下旬),坡台地于旱季结束的第一场雨后(6月初),在地面高10 cm 处将主茎及其下部发出的早期再生芽贴近主茎剪除,然后保留新发出的一级再生芽1~2个并进行水肥管理。%It is hard to separate maintainer line and sterile line in two-line-system hybrid breeding, so half of the fertile plants derived from maternal line should be pulled out at bud stage, which increases the cost of seed production and the risk of hybrid seed purity. In this research, taking advantage of specific weather conditions of warm winter and dry winter-spring season in the mid-subtropical zone, we explored hybrid seed production with overwintered perennial sterile plants after eliminating the 50%fertile plants from the nuclear sterile line in the first year. From 2006 to 2011, we investigated various

  12. Haramachi Thermal Power Plant design and works of marine independent drainage and buried continuous wall shaft; Haramachi Kryoku Hatsudensho kaijo dokuritsugata hosuiko to chichu renzokuheki tateko no sekkei/seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, N.; Sato, S. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Sendai (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    For the drainage of condenser cooling water watercourse of the power generator No.1 and No.2 of Haramachi thermal power plant, a submarine tunnel system was adopted in the consideration of geological character around the plant, economy, and relation to the other civil works. The undersea drainage system was adopted since it gave the least effect on the environment. The water course shaft is located just below the drain outlet. The shaft wall was constructed according to the buried continuous wall work method, and the buried continuous wall that was adopted to drill its inside. The design and works of special works such as marine independent drainage and buried continuous wall shaft were described. The outline of novel techniques adopted in the works were also reported. The novel techniques are: (1) Improvement in work efficiency and horizontal accuracy by adopting the torsion measurement equipment, (2) Stabilization of drilling work by adopting the PHPA stabilizer liquid (copolymer of acrylamide and acrylic acid), and (3) Reduction of waste volume by using the flocculant in the effluent treatment process. 7 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Seed quality and water use characteristics of maize landraces compared with selected commercial hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Mazvimbakupa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding seed quality and water use characteristics of maize (Zea mays L. landraces will improve food security among subsistence farmers who still cultivate them. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed quality and water use characteristics of two maize landraces (GQ1 and GQ2 compared with two commercial hybrids (SC701 and PAN53. Seed quality was determined by the standard germination, electrical conductivity, and tetrazolium tests. A controlled environment study was conducted in which the landraces were compared with hybrids across three water treatments (30% ETc; 50% ETc, and 80% ETc. Although landrace GQ2 performed at par with the hybrids, overall, seed quality tests showed that hybrids had superior seed quality than landraces. This was also confirmed by highly significant emergence results (P < 0.001 from pot trials where SC701 and PAN53 had higher emergence (100% and 94.44%, respectively compared with GQ2 (86.11% and GQ1 (61.11%. Subjecting landraces and hybrids to water stress (50% and 30% ETc resulted in shorter plants with fewer leaves and earlier tasselling compared with non-stressed plants (80% ETc. Plant height for the 30% ETc water treatment was 156.1 cm compared with 175.8 cm for the 80% ETc water treatment, while plants under the 30% ETc water treatment tasseled at 105.4 d compared with 129.5 d for the 80% ETc water treatment. The GQ2 landrace continued to perform similar to, and often better, than the hybrid varieties, especially under stress conditions. Yield was poor under controlled conditions. Performance of the GQ2 landrace for both seed quality tests and under controlled conditions shows that landraces remain an important germplasm resource.

  14. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  15. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  16. Contrasting colonization and plant growth promoting capacity between wild type and gfp-derative of the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 in hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens N.; van der Lelie D.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, D.; Timmermans, J.-P.; Prinsen, E.; Van Oevelen, S.; D" Haen, J.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2011-06-09

    This study aims to investigate the colonization of poplar by the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 and its capacity to promote plant growth. Poplar cuttings were inoculated with P. putida W619 (wild-type or gfp-labelled). The colonization of both strains was investigated and morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed to evaluate plant growth promotion. Inoculation with P. putida W619 (wild-type) resulted in remarkable growth promotion, decreased activities of antioxidative defence related enzymes, and reduced stomatal resistance, all indicative of improved plant health and growth in comparison with the non-inoculated cuttings. In contrast, inoculation with gfp-labelled P. putida W619 did not promote growth; it even had a negative effect on plant health and growth. Furthermore, compared to the wildtype strain, colonization by the gfp-labelled P. putida W619::gfp1 was much lower; it only colonized the rhizosphere and root cortex while the wild-type strain also colonized the root xylem vessels. Despite the strong plant growth promoting capacity of P. putida W619 (wild-type), after gfp labelling its growth promoting characteristics disappeared and its colonization capacity was strongly influenced; for these reasons gfp labelling should be applied with sufficient caution.

  17. Influence of Continuous Drought on Nectar Secreting of Nectar Plant and Optimization of Bee Breeding Technology%持续干旱对蜜源植物泌蜜的影响及养蜂技术优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余玉生; 张学文; 卢焕仙; 张祖芸; 赵洪木; 夏培康

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of three years continuous drought on flowering and nectar secreting of nectar plant, corresponding bee breeding technologies were adopted to improve economic benefits of beekeeping.From July 2009 to June 2012, a tracking survey was conducted to six kinds of nectar plant (common vetch, pomegranates, lobular eucalyptus, wild ageratum, loquat and Elsholtzia rugulosa Hemsl), and then the situations of flowering and nectar secreting of each nectar plant during three years were compared.According to the comparison results, corresponding breeding technologies for bee were chosen.The results showed that flowering and nectar secreting of major nectar plants were influenced greatly by continuous drought, but complementary nectar plants secreted nectar relatively good for suitable temperature and no heavy rain and wind.Therefore, if adopting corresponding breeding technologies in continuous drought years, it also can obtain a good economic benefit.%为了了解云南省持续3年干旱对蜜源植物开花流蜜的影响,采取相应的蜜蜂饲养技术提高养蜂经济效益.2009年7月~2012年6月对苕子、石榴、小叶桉树、野藿香、枇杷、野坝子6种蜜源植物进行跟踪调查,对比每一种蜜源植物3年开花流蜜情况,并对蜜蜂采取相应的饲养管理技术.结果表明:主要蜜源植物开花泌蜜受到很大的影响,辅助蜜源植物反而因温度适合,没有大雨或大风的影响而流蜜相对较好.这说明在持续干旱年份只要采取相应的饲养技术,即可获得很好的经济效益.

  18. Performance of hybrid photovoltaic collector

    OpenAIRE

    Garbisu Eugui, Josu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present project is the study of the performance of a combined photovoltaic-thermal plant, called also hybrid system, located in south Italy, evaluating the efficiency of the photovoltaic and thermal systems and the advantage respect to the two single plants (photovoltaic and thermal ). This research project has two objectives fundamentals of efficiency improvement energy from solar photovoltaic panels. On one hand, increase photovoltaic efficiency, at the same time an...

  19. Study on Cross Fruitfulness and Growth Characteristics of Hybrids of Astragalus Linn.Plant%黄芪属植物杂交结实性与杂交种生长特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智勇; 赵景峰; 石凤翎; 伊风艳; 高翠萍

    2013-01-01

    Using Astragalus adsurgens ×A. membranaceus as female parent, Astraglus membrana-ceus(Fish. )Bge. as male parent, hybridization was conducted, the seed setting rate, seed vigor and seedling survival rate were compared between inbred and backcross first generation. In addition, the female parent above mentioned was crossed with A. adsurgens Pall. cv. Zahua(purple flower, white flower) , Astragalus dahuricus, A. adsurgens, A. adsurgens Pall. cv. Zhongsha No. 2, Astraglus membranaceus respectively, the growth characteristics of hybrids were studied. The results showed that seed setting rate of backcross first generation was 73. 55%, but the germination, survival rate of seedling on inbred and back-cross first generation were much lower. Hybrid had a lot of branch, plant type was compact and vertical; among 6 hybrids, No. 2,No. 4 and No. 6 were better in characteristics, but No. 4 had potential ability of high yield.%以黄芪草(Astragalus adsurgens×A.membranaceus)为母本,以膜荚黄芪为父本进行杂交试验,比较回交与自交的结实性、种子活力、幼苗成活率;另外,以上述母本再与杂花沙打旺(白花、紫花)、达乌里黄芪、野生斜茎黄芪和中沙2号杂交,研究黄芪属种间杂交种生长特性.结果表明:自交与回交相比,回交一代的结实率较高(73.55%),而回交一代和自交种子的发芽率、幼苗成活率均较低;6个杂交种的分枝数较多,株型多数为紧凑直立,以2号、4号、6号杂交种性状表现较优,其中4号杂交种具有牧草高产的潜在能力.

  20. Plant Distribution and Habitat, Other, Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) plant distribution in Wisconsin - Milfoil hybrid, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin DNR Bureau of Watershed Management.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Plant Distribution and Habitat, Other dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of...

  1. Comparative genomic in situ hybridization analysis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... different parents/ancestors/genomes in hybrid plants to be distinguished ... sequences in common between the two species. Therefore, cGISH ... genomic organization and genome evolution in plants. (Zoller et al., 2001).

  2. 氯碱厂持续改进项目及成果%Continuous improvement projects and achievements in chlor-alkali plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿俊; 董雷

    2012-01-01

    Continuous improvement projects and energy saving of primary brine, electrolysis, chlorine treatment process was introduced. Improvements to enhance operations, significant economic and environmental benefits were acquired.%介绍了一次盐水、电解、氯气处理、氢气处理工序的持续改进项目及节能降耗情况。通过改进,取得了显著的经济效益和环境效益。

  3. Sistemas híbridos con base en las energías renovables para el suministro de energía a plantas desaladoras / Hybrid systems with base in the renewable energy for the energy supply to desalination plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivis Ávila‐Prats

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo se modelan los sistemas híbridos con base en las energías renovables, quegaranticen las necesidades energéticas en plantas desaladoras de ósmosis inversa, con unacapacidad de hasta 50 m3 de producción diaria, a fin de obtener la combinación óptima. Para elprocesamiento de los datos se hará uso del software especializado HOMER. Se tomarán comoelementos de partida: la demanda eléctrica de una planta desaladora tipo, las especificacionestécnicas de los equipos propuestos, así como los potenciales de radiación solar y las velocidades deviento de la región analizada (Islas Canarias.Las conclusiones muestran que el sistema híbrido óptimo, desde el punto de vista técnico-económicopara el suministro de energía a desaladoras de ósmosis inversa con capacidad de producción de 50m3/día, será un sistema eólico- diesel, compuesto por: dos aerogeneradores, un banco de baterías yun generador diesel. Se demuestra que la velocidad del viento es la variable termodinámicadeterminante para la configuración de los sistemas híbridos estudiados, considerando los potencialesenergéticos naturales existentes en la región estudiada.Palabras claves: desalinización, ósmosis inversa, HOMER, Islas Canarias, sistemas híbridos, energíasrenovables._____________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the following work the hybrid systems with base in the renewable energy are modeled, to comparemany different design options based on their technical and economic merits. The energy necessitieswill be guaranteed in reverse osmosis desalination plants, with a capacity of up to 50 m3 of dailyproduction. The data processing was analyzed using the computer model, HOMER. The departureelements were: the electric demand of the desalination plant, the technical specifications of theequipments, as well as the potentials of solar radiation and the speeds of wind of the analyzed region(Canary Island

  4. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization analysis provides new insights into the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) response to the plant probiotic microorganism Trichoderma longibrachiatum MK1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Palma, Monica; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Proietti, S.; Bertini, Laura; Lorito, Matteo; Ruocco, Michelina; Chiusano, Maria l; Tucci, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species include widespread rhizosphere-colonizing fungi that may establish an opportunistic interaction with the plant, resulting in growth promotion and/or increased tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. For this reason, Trichoderma-based formulations are largely used in agriculture

  5. A laboratory and pilot plant scaled continuous stirred reactor separator for the production of ethanol from sugars, corn grits/starch or biomass streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Lei, Shuiwang; Zhou, Chongde

    1995-10-01

    An improved bio-reactor has been developed to allow the high speed, continues, low energy conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) incorporates gas stripping of the ethanol using a recalculating gas stream between cascading stirred reactors in series. We have operated a 4 liter lab scale unit, and built and operated a 24,000 liter pilot scale version of the bioreactor. High rates of fermentation are maintained in the reactor stages using a highly flocculent yeast strain. Ethanol is recovered from the stripping gas using a hydrophobic solvent absorber (isothermal), after which the gas is returned to the bioreactor. Ethanol can then be removed from the solvent to recover a highly concentrated ethanol product. We have applied the lab scale CSRS to sugars (glucose/sucrose), molasses, and raw starch with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the starch granules (SSF). The pilot scale CSRS has been operated as a cascade reactor using dextrins as a feed. Operating data from both the lab and pilot scale CSRS are presented. Details of how the system might be applied to cellulosics, with some preliminary data are also given.

  6. Planting Performance and High-yielding Cultivation Techniques of Hybrid Rice Combination Yiyou 673 in Anxi Country%优质超级稻宜优673在安溪种植表现及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖全省

    2014-01-01

    Yiyou 673, derived from the CMS line Yixiang 1A and a restorer line Fuhui 673, was a new hybrid rice combination developed by Rice Research Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. It was registered and released in 2006 in Fujian province. Yiyou 673 was introduced and planted in Anxi county of Fujian province for extensive adaptability, rice quality, high and stable yield. In this paper, we introduced planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques of Yiyou 673.%宜优673是福建省农业科学院水稻研究所用不育系宜香1A与恢复系福恢673配组而成的三系杂交水稻品种,于2006年通过福建省品种审定。在安溪县种植表现丰产、稳产、米质优、后期转色好等特点。介绍了宜优673在安溪县种植表现及高产栽培技术。

  7. Proof of concept of the CaO/Ca(OH)2 reaction in a continuous heat-exchanger BFB reactor for thermochemical heat storage in CSP plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé, Sylvie; Criado, Yolanda A.; Huille, Arthur; Abanades, J. Carlos

    2017-06-01

    The CaO/Ca(OH)2 hydration/dehydration reaction has long been identified as a attractive method for storing CSP heat. However, the technology applications are still at laboratory scale (TG or small fixed beds). The objective of this work is to investigate the hydration and dehydration reactions performance in a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) which offers a good potential with regards to heat and mass transfers and upscaling at industrial level. The reactions are first investigated in a 5.5 kW batch BFB, the main conditions are the bed temperature (400-500°C), the molar fraction of steam in the fluidizing gas (0-0.8), the fluidizing gas velocity (0.2-0.7 m/s) and the mass of lime in the batch (1.5-3.5 kg). To assist in the interpretation of the experimental results, a standard 1D bubbling reactor model is formulated and fitted to the experimental results. The results indicate that the hydration reaction is mainly controlled by the slow kinetics of the CaO material tested while significant emulsion-bubble mass-transfer resistances are identified during dehydration due to the much faster dehydration kinetics. In the continuity of these preliminary investigations, a continuous 15.5 kW BFB set-up has been designed, manufactured and started with the objective to operate the hydration and dehydration reactions in steady state during a few hours, and to investigate conditions of faster reactivity such as higher steam molar fractions (up to 1), temperatures (up to 600°C) and velocities (up to 1.5 m/s).

  8. Exploitation continuation of Fessenheim nuclear plant nr 1 reactor after thirty years of operation; Poursuite d'exploitation du reacteur n.1 de la centrale nucleaire de fessenheim apres trente annees de fonctionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    After having recalled the regulatory framework, this report indicates how the Fukushima accident has been taken into account by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) for the decision of keeping on operating the Fessenheim nuclear plant. Then, after a general presentation of nuclear installations, the report describes some peculiarities of the Fessenheim power plant with respect to the other French nuclear plants. It comments and discusses various issues: reactor exploitation, fuel management, vessel exploitation, exploitation of the main secondary circuits, of the confinement enclosure, and of other equipment. It recalls significant events, exploitation rules, and modifications brought to the reactor. It gives a global assessment. The authors report the safety re-examination (approach, compliance examination, security re-assessment), controls performed during decennial inspection (main controls and tests, implementation of modifications foreseen by safety re-examination, significant events, monitoring by the ASN, reactor restarting after the third decennial inspection). Perspectives are then discussed for the ten following years in terms of maintenance policy, ageing management, reactor vessel serviceability, and additional actions within the frame of ageing management. The operation continuation is then discussed

  9. Energy efficiency project: continuous rolling mill profiles plant of Barra Mansa Votorantim Siderurgia; Projeto de eficiencia energetica: laminador continuo de perfis da Usina Barra Mansa Votorantim Siderurgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decnop, Luiz Eduardo Machado [LD Engenharia Ltda, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Franca, Rafael Latini; Silva, Bruno Jose Carvalho; Antunes, Raphael Jose Simoes [Votorantim Siderurgia, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    This work shows the development and implementation of a plan to increase energy efficiency and consequent reduction in production costs of profiles. The plant has a varied mix, large differences among products (1 kg/m to 30 kg/m) that resulting in a large gaps between bars and high level of interruption. It was necessary to reduce the impacts of fixed charges that weighed heavily in the cost. The methodology was to identify, among the main elements contributing to the consumption of electricity, what is the real need of each input as the quality, quantity, intensity and permanence, to perform strictly their intended function in the process. Then the comparison of these results with the engineering solutions adopted in the current design of the equipment. Thus was taken to waste all resources available beyond the strict needs. This ranking conducted the study to optimize the delivery of each resource taking into account the difficulty and risk of possible technical solutions, taking as a premise to develop definitive solutions with full automation of security functions to ensure stability and security of gains. The results were the reduction of 147 kWh/t to 105 kWh/t in the LCP (-37%), and a 50% reduction in energy expended in the WTP. (author)

  10. Ethylene production and petiole growth in rumex plants induced by soil waterlogging: the application of a continuous flow system and a laser driven intracavity photoacoustic detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voesenek, L A; Harren, F J; Bögemann, G M; Blom, C W; Reuss, J

    1990-11-01

    Petiole growth of Rumex acetosa L., Rumex crispus L., and Rumex palustris Sm. in response to soil waterlogging was studied in relation to production of the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. Ethylene production was monitored in a flow-through system and a recently developed laser driven photoacoustic detection system, which allowed ethylene measurements as low as 6 picoliters per liter. R. acetosa showed a two-fold increase in ethylene production correlated with a slight enhancement of the growth of the petiole that developed during the waterlogging treatment. Both R. crispus and R. palustris showed a strong petiole elongation of existing as well as newly formed petioles, which was correlated with a 20-fold increase in ethylene production after approximately 7 days. Increased rates of ethylene production in R. palustris were related to a strong increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and a slight, but detectable, increase in ethylene forming enzyme activity. In R. acetosa on the other hand, only a very small increase in ACC concentration was observed. Changes in ethylene production in Rumex are strongly correlated with variation in ACC content and ethylene forming enzyme activity. The interaction between ethylene production/internal concentration and ethylene sensitivity of the three Rumex species is discussed in relation to their field location in a flooding gradient and their differential resistance toward waterlogging and submergence.

  11. Quantitative Use of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization To Examine Relationships between Mycolic Acid-Containing Actinomycetes and Foaming in Activated Sludge Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, Russell J.; Curtis, Thomas P; GOODFELLOW, Michael; Stainsby, Fiona M.; Bingley, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The formation of viscous foams on aeration basins and secondary clarifiers of activated sludge plants is a common and widespread problem. Foam formation is often attributed to the presence of mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes (mycolata). In order to examine the relationship between the number of mycolata and foam, we developed a group-specific probe targeting the 16S rRNA of the mycolata, a protocol to permeabilize mycolata, and a statistically robust quantification method. Statistical an...

  12. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  13. Programmed cell death and hybrid incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A; Barr, C M

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new theory to explain developmental aberrations in plant hybrids. In our theory, hybrid incompatibilities arise from imbalances in the mechanisms that cause male sterility in hermaphroditic plants. Mitochondria often cause male sterility by killing the tapetal tissue that nurtures pollen mother cells. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria destroy the tapetum by triggering standard pathways of programmed cell death. Some nuclear genotypes repress mitochondrial male sterility and restore pollen fertility. Normal regulation of tapetal development therefore arises from a delicate balance between the disruptive effects of mitochondria and the defensive countermeasures of the nuclear genes. In hybrids, incompatibilities between male-sterile mitochondria and nuclear restorers may frequently upset the regulatory control of programmed cell death, causing tapetal abnormalities and male sterility. We propose that hybrid misregulation of programmed cell death may also spill over into other tissues, explaining various developmental aberrations observed in hybrids.

  14. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  15. Nonthermal inactivation and sublethal injury of Lactobacillus plantarum in apple cider by a pilot plant scale continuous supercritical carbon dioxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Geveke, David J

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO(2)) for inactivating Lactobacillus plantarum in apple cider using a continuous system with a gas-liquid metal contactor. Pasteurized apple cider without preservatives was inoculated with L. plantarum and processed using a SCCO(2) system at a CO(2) concentration range of 0-12% (g CO(2)/100g product), outlet temperatures of 34, 38, and 42 °C, a system pressure of 7.6 MPa, and a flow rate of 1 L/min. Processing with SCCO(2) significantly (Pcider, resulting in a 5 log reduction with 8% CO(2) at 42 °C. The response surface model indicated that both CO(2) concentration and temperature contributed to the microbial inactivation. The extent of sublethal injury in surviving cells in processed apple cider increased as CO(2) concentration and processing temperature increased, however the percent injury dramatically decreased during SCCO(2) processing at 42 °C. Structural damage in cell membranes after SCCO(2) processing was observed by SEM. Refrigeration (4 °C) after SCCO(2) processing effectively inhibited the re-growth of surviving L. plantarum during storage for 28 days. Thus this study suggests that SCCO(2) processing is effective in eliminating L. plantarum and could be applicable for nonthermal pasteurization of apple cider. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Wankel engine for hybrid powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butti, A. [Univ. of Florence (Italy); Site, V.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Wankel engine is suited to be used to drive hybrid propulsion systems. The main disadvantage of hybrid propulsion systems is the complexity that causes a high weight and large dimensions. For these reason hybrid systems are more suitable for large size vehicle (buses, vans) rather than for small passenger cars. A considerable reduction of hybrid systems weight and dimensions can be obtained using a Wankel rotary engine instead of a conventional engine. The Wankel engine is light, compact, simple, and produces low noise and low vibrations. Therefore a Wankel engine powered hybrid system is suited to be used on small cars. In this paper a 1,000 kg parallel hybrid car with continuously variable transmission and a 6,000 kg series hybrid minibus both equipped with Wankel engines are considered. The Wankel engine works at steady state to minimize fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The simulation of the behavior of these two vehicles during a ECE + EUDC test cycle is presented in order to evaluate the performances of the systems.

  17. Control for a class of hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA hybrid control system is a control theoretic model for a computer controlled engineering system. A definition of a hybrid control system is formulated that consists of a product of a finite state automaton and of a family of continuous control systems. An example of a transportation

  18. 线性连续时变系统的状态和输入混合估计:一种对策方法%Hybrid Estimation of State and Input for Linear Continuous Time-varying Systems: A Game Theory Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓军; 翁正新; 田作华; 施颂椒

    2005-01-01

    The H∞ hybrid estimation problem for linear continuous time-varying systems is investigated in this paper, where estimated signals are linear combination of state and input. Design objective requires the worst-case energy gain from disturbance to estimation error be less than a prescribed level. Optimal solution of the hybrid estimation problem is the saddle point of a two-player zero sum differential game. Based on the differential game approach, necessary and sufficient solvable conditions for the hybrid estimation problem are provided in terms of solutions to a Riccati differential equation. Moreover, one possible estimator is proposed if the solvable conditions are satisfied.The estimator is characterized by a gain matrix and an output mapping matrix that reflects the internal relations between the unknown input and output estimation error. Both state and unknown inputs estimation are realized by the proposed estimator. Thus, the results in this paper are also capable of dealing with fault diagnosis problems of linear time-varying systems. At last, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed approach.

  19. Occurrence of Potato virus X on hybrid dock in Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzik, K

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid dock of Uteush (Rumex patientia L. x Rumex tianschanicus A. Los., the family Polygonaceae) is a perspective high productive crop and in the last decade its farming area has continuously grown in Czech Republic. However, the introduction of this non-native perennial crop into a present plant production creates a new potential reservoir for some plant viruses. Also, the hybrid dock could become a host of currently uncommon or insignificant viruses. We screened two dock-farming localities situated in south-west and north-east part of the Czech Republic for the presence of potyviruses, potexviruses, and carlaviruses. In the south-west part of the country, we detected a high incidence of Potato virus X (PVX, the genus Potexvirus). In contrast, in the north-east part of the country we did not detect any dock plants infected with PVX. Next, two other viruses, Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) and Radish mosaic virus (RaMV) were mechanically inoculated and tested for their survival capacity and multiplication in the hybrid dock. Both viruses were detected 9 months after inoculation in the infected plants.

  20. One-pot preparation of a mixed-mode organic-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column and its application in determination of endogenous gibberellins in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Hao, Yan-Hong; Ding, Jun; Xu, Sheng-Nan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-10-16

    A newly improved one-pot method, based on "thiol-ene" click chemistry and sol-gel approach in microemulsion system, was developed for the preparation of C8/PO(OH)2-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column. The prepared monolith possesses large specific surface area, narrow mesopore size distribution and high column efficiency. The monolithic column was demonstrated to have cation exchange/reversed-phase (CX/RP) mixed-mode retention for analytes on nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). On the basis of the developed nano-LC system with MS detector coupled to pipette tip solid phase extraction (PT-SPE) and derivatization process, we then realized simultaneous determination of 10 gibberellins (GAs) with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.003-0.025 ng/mL). Furthermore, 6 endogenous GAs in only 5mg rice leaves (fresh weight) were successfully detected and quantified. The developed PT-SPE-nano-LC-MS strategy may offer promising applications in the determination of low abundant bioactive molecules from complex matrix.

  1. The application of continuous wavelet transform and least squares support vector machine for the simultaneous quantitative spectrophotometric determination of Myricetin, Kaempferol and Quercetin as flavonoids in pharmaceutical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Darabi, Golnaz

    2016-01-05

    Flavonoids are γ-benzopyrone derivatives, which are highly regarded in these researchers for their antioxidant property. In this study, two new signals processing methods been coupled with UV spectroscopy for spectral resolution and simultaneous quantitative determination of Myricetin, Kaempferol and Quercetin as flavonoids in Laurel, St. John's Wort and Green Tea without the need for any previous separation procedure. The developed methods are continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) methods integrated with UV spectroscopy individually. Different wavelet families were tested by CWT method and finally the Daubechies wavelet family (Db4) for Myricetin and the Gaussian wavelet families for Kaempferol (Gaus3) and Quercetin (Gaus7) were selected and applied for simultaneous analysis under the optimal conditions. The LS-SVM was applied to build the flavonoids prediction model based on absorption spectra. The root mean square errors for prediction (RMSEP) of Myricetin, Kaempferol and Quercetin were 0.0552, 0.0275 and 0.0374, respectively. The developed methods were validated by the analysis of the various synthetic mixtures associated with a well- known flavonoid contents. Mean recovery values of Myricetin, Kaempferol and Quercetin, in CWT method were 100.123, 100.253, 100.439 and in LS-SVM method were 99.94, 99.81 and 99.682, respectively. The results achieved by analyzing the real samples from the CWT and LS-SVM methods were compared to the HPLC reference method and the results were very close to the reference method. Meanwhile, the obtained results of the one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) test revealed that there was no significant difference between the suggested methods.

  2. The application of continuous wavelet transform and least squares support vector machine for the simultaneous quantitative spectrophotometric determination of Myricetin, Kaempferol and Quercetin as flavonoids in pharmaceutical plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Darabi, Golnaz

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are γ-benzopyrone derivatives, which are highly regarded in these researchers for their antioxidant property. In this study, two new signals processing methods been coupled with UV spectroscopy for spectral resolution and simultaneous quantitative determination of Myricetin, Kaempferol and Quercetin as flavonoids in Laurel, St. John's Wort and Green Tea without the need for any previous separation procedure. The developed methods are continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) methods integrated with UV spectroscopy individually. Different wavelet families were tested by CWT method and finally the Daubechies wavelet family (Db4) for Myricetin and the Gaussian wavelet families for Kaempferol (Gaus3) and Quercetin (Gaus7) were selected and applied for simultaneous analysis under the optimal conditions. The LS-SVM was applied to build the flavonoids prediction model based on absorption spectra. The root mean square errors for prediction (RMSEP) of Myricetin, Kaempferol and Quercetin were 0.0552, 0.0275 and 0.0374, respectively. The developed methods were validated by the analysis of the various synthetic mixtures associated with a well- known flavonoid contents. Mean recovery values of Myricetin, Kaempferol and Quercetin, in CWT method were 100.123, 100.253, 100.439 and in LS-SVM method were 99.94, 99.81 and 99.682, respectively. The results achieved by analyzing the real samples from the CWT and LS-SVM methods were compared to the HPLC reference method and the results were very close to the reference method. Meanwhile, the obtained results of the one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) test revealed that there was no significant difference between the suggested methods.

  3. Characteristics of fertile somatic hybrids of G. hirsutum L. and G. trilobum generated via protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X S; Chu, B J; Liu, R E; Sun, J; Brian, Joseph Jones; Wang, H Z; Shuijin, Zhu; Sun, Y Q

    2012-11-01

    Fertile somatic hybrids between tetraploid upland cotton G. hirsutum L. cv. Coker 312 and wild cotton G. trilobum were generated by symmetric electrofusion. Comparisons of morphology, combined with flow cytometric, RAPD, SRAP and AFLP analyses confirmed the hybrid nature of the regenerated plants. The hybrids differed morphologically from the parent plants. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the hybrids had DNA similar in amount to the total combined DNA content of the two parents, and the use of molecular markers revealed that the hybrids contained genomic fragments from both fusion parents, further indicating the hybrid nature of the regenerated plants. The stability of the morphological features of the hybrids was examined in following generations. The hexaploid fusion plants showed strong photosynthesis and a high expression level of some photosystem-related genes. Our results suggest that novel traits may be incorporated in cotton breeding programs through the production of somatic hybrids and the backcrossing of these plants with elite cultivars.

  4. Synthesis of positively charged hybrid PHMB-stabilized silver nanoparticles: the search for a new type of active substances used in plant protection products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutyakov, Yurii A.; Kudrinsky, Alexey A.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Zakharova, Olga V.; Klimov, Alexey I.; Yapryntsev, Alexey D.; Zherebin, Pavel M.; Shapoval, Olga A.; Lisichkin, Georgii V.

    2017-07-01

    Modern agriculture calls for a decrease in pesticide application, particularly in order to decrease the negative impact on the environment. Therefore the development of new active substances and plant protection products (PPP) to minimize the chemical load on ecosystems is a very important problem. Substances based on silver nanoparticles are a promising solution of this problem because of the fact that in correct doses such products significantly increase yields and decrease crop diseases while displaying low toxicity to humans and animals. In this paper we for the first time propose application of polymeric guanidine compounds with varying chain lengths (from 10 to 130 elementary links) for the design and synthesis of modified silver nanoparticles to be used as the basis of a new generation of PPP. Colloidal solutions of nanocrystalline silver containing 0.5 g l-1 of silver and 0.01-0.4 g l-1 of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) were obtained by reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride in the presence of PHMB. The field experiment has shown that silver-containing solutions have a positive effect on agronomic properties of potato, wheat and apple. Also the increase in activity of such antioxidant system enzymes as peroxidase and catalase in the tissues of plants treated with nanosilver has been registered.

  5. Process development and exergy cost sensitivity analysis of a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell power plant and carbon dioxide capturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Ansarinasab, Hojat; Moftakhari Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-10-01

    An integrated power plant with a net electrical power output of 3.71 × 105 kW is developed and investigated. The electrical efficiency of the process is found to be 60.1%. The process includes three main sub-systems: molten carbonate fuel cell system, heat recovery section and cryogenic carbon dioxide capturing process. Conventional and advanced exergoeconomic methods are used for analyzing the process. Advanced exergoeconomic analysis is a comprehensive evaluation tool which combines an exergetic approach with economic analysis procedures. With this method, investment and exergy destruction costs of the process components are divided into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts. Results of the conventional exergoeconomic analyses demonstrate that the combustion chamber has the largest exergy destruction rate (182 MW) and cost rate (13,100 /h). Also, the total process cost rate can be decreased by reducing the cost rate of the fuel cell and improving the efficiency of the combustion chamber and heat recovery steam generator. Based on the total avoidable endogenous cost rate, the priority for modification is the heat recovery steam generator, a compressor and a turbine of the power plant, in rank order. A sensitivity analysis is done to investigate the exergoeconomic factor parameters through changing the effective parameter variations.

  6. Limit Cycle Analysis in a Class of Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Favela-Contreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems are those that inherently combine discrete and continuous dynamics. This paper considers the hybrid system model to be an extension of the discrete automata associating a continuous evolution with each discrete state. This model is called the hybrid automaton. In this work, we achieve a mathematical formulation of the steady state and we show a way to obtain the initial conditions region to reach a specific limit cycle for a class of uncoupled and coupled continuous-linear hybrid systems. The continuous-linear term is used in the sense of the system theory and, in this sense, continuous-linear hybrid automata will be defined. Thus, some properties and theorems that govern the hybrid automata dynamic behavior to evaluate a limit cycle existence have been established; this content is explained under a theoretical framework.

  7. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  8. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant......A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  9. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Results In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste and 253,507 (Fer distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs. In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE data. Conclusions A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in

  10. Simulation and analysis of continuous leakage and diffusion of H2 in plant%厂房内H2连续泄漏扩散的模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爽; 王志荣; 蒋军成

    2011-01-01

    利用计箅流体动力学软件Fluent对厂房内易燃易爆气体H2泄漏扩散过程进行了数值模拟,研究H2连续泄漏扩散规律.计算结果表明,厂房内H2泄漏一定时间后扩散将达到稳定,室内H2浓度将不再变化;根据室内H2浓度分布规律,得出H2泄漏报警装置应设在泄漏口正对墙壁上,且厂房的排风口应开设在H2钢瓶喷射方向上的屋顶处;结合H2的毒性级别和爆炸极限,划分该厂房为紧急防爆疏散区,必须在泄漏初期进行紧急人员疏散并做好防火防爆措施.研究结果为厂房内H2泄漏事故应急救援、泄漏报警装置及排风口的位置设置提供重要技术支持和理论依据.%Simulation of leakage and diffusion process of flammable and explosive gas H2 in plant was carried out by computational fluid dynamics software Fluent. The rule of continuous leakage and diffusion of H2 was revealed. The results showed that leakage and diffusion of H2 in plant would be stable after a certain time and the concentration of H2 indoor would not change any more. According to the distribution rule of concentration of H2 indoor, the leak a-larms of H2 should be located on the wall opposite to the leakage hole, and the plant's air vents should be set on the roof in the direction of jet. Combining with toxicity level and explosion limit of H2, the plant was characterized as the explosion prevention and emergency evacuation zone, and emergency evacuation and explosion prevention measures must be done early after leakage. The results of the research provide important technical support and theoretical basis for the emergency rescue, location of leak alarms and air vents of the H2 leakage in plant.

  11. Consensus of Hybrid Multi-Agent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanshi; Ma, Jingying; Wang, Long

    2017-01-27

    In this brief, we consider the consensus problem of hybrid multiagent systems. First, the hybrid multiagent system is proposed, which is composed of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamic agents. Then, three kinds of consensus protocols are presented for the hybrid multiagent system. The analysis tool developed in this brief is based on the matrix theory and graph theory. With different restrictions of the sampling period, some necessary and sufficient conditions are established for solving the consensus of the hybrid multiagent system. The consensus states are also obtained under different protocols. Finally, simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  12. Respuesta en rendimiento de híbridos de maíz a diferentes distancias entre surcos y densidades de plantas Yield response of maize hybrids to different distances between furrows and density plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Soltero-Díaz

    Full Text Available La producción de maíz en surcos angostos, es una técnica nueva que se está evaluando en México. Durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 2007, se llevó a cabo este trabajo de investigación en el cultivo de maíz en tres localidades ubicadas en la región Ciénega de Chapala, en el estado de Jalisco. El experimento tuvo como objetivo evaluar el distanciamiento entre surcos (76 y 50 cm, tres densidades de plantas (75 000, 90 000 y 105 000 plantas ha-1 y cinco híbridos; para conocer con cual tratamiento se obtiene el rendimiento más alto. Con las combinaciones de los tres factores estudiados se obtuvo un factorial completo de 30 tratamientos; se utilizó el diseño experimental bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones y un arreglo en parcelas divididas, siendo la parcela grande la distancia entre surcos y como subparcelas a los factores híbridos y densidades de plantas, respectivamente. Se realizó el análisis de varianza en conjunto y comparación de medias para la variable rendimiento de grano utilizando el programa SAS. Los resultados indican que el rendimiento de grano más alto se obtuvo con el surcado angosto a 50 cm y una densidad de al menos 90 000 plantas ha-1; el rendimiento de grano aumentó 9.06% al reducir la distancia entre surcos de 76 a 50 cm; por lo tanto, se sugiere utilizar esta recomendación para aumentar la producción comercial de maíz en la región antes mencionada.Maize farming in narrow furrows is a new technique that is being evaluated in Mexico. This investigation was carried out during the 2007 spring-summer cycle, on maize farming in three locations in the area of Ciénega de Chapala, in the state of Jalisco. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the distance between furrows (76 and 50 cm, three plant densities (75 000, 90 000 and 105 000 plants ha-1 and five hybrids, in order to know which treatment provides the highest yield. With the combination of all three studied factors, a complete factorial

  13. High-Order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) Method for Wave Propagation Simulation in Complex Geophysical Media - Elastic, Acoustic and Hydro-Acoustic - an Unifying Framework to Couple Continuous Spectral Element and Discontinuous Galerkin Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébastien, T.; Vilotte, J. P.; Guillot, L.; Mariotti, C.

    2014-12-01

    Today seismological observation systems combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna that provide complementary observations of source-radiated waves in heterogeneous and complex geophysical media. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-physics - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasonic - wave simulation methods. A popular approach is the Spectral Element Method (SEM) (Chaljub et al, 2006) which is high-order accurate (low dispersion error), very flexible to parallelization and computationally attractive due to efficient sum factorization technique and diagonal mass matrix. However SEMs suffer from lack of flexibility in handling complex geometry and multi-physics wave propagation. High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGMs), i.e. Dumbser et al (2006), Etienne et al. (2010), Wilcox et al (2010), are recent alternatives that can handle complex geometry, space-and-time adaptativity, and allow efficient multi-physics wave coupling at interfaces. However, DGMs are more memory demanding and less computationally attractive than SEMs, especially when explicit time stepping is used. We propose a new class of higher-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements (HDGSEM) methods for spatial discretization of wave equations, following the unifying framework for hybridization of Cockburn et al (2009) and Nguyen et al (2011), which allows for a single implementation of conforming and non-conforming SEMs. When used with energy conserving explicit time integration schemes, HDGSEM is flexible to handle complex geometry, computationally attractive and has significantly less degrees of freedom than classical DGMs, i.e., the only coupled unknowns are the single-valued numerical traces of the velocity field on the element's faces. The formulation can be extended to model fractional energy loss at interfaces between elastic, acoustic and hydro-acoustic media. Accuracy and performance of the HDGSEM are illustrated and

  14. Resolving colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on plant root surfaces by combining fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (ME μXRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeker, Linnea K; Root, Robert A; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2016-12-01

    Metal(loid)-contamination of the environment due to anthropogenic activities is a global problem. Understanding the fate of contaminants requires elucidation of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metal(loid) speciation from molecular to field scales. Improved methods are needed to assess micro-scale processes, such as those occurring at biogeochemical interfaces between plant tissues, microbial cells, and metal(loid)s. Here we present an advanced method that combines fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with synchrotron-based multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging (ME μXRF) to examine colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on root surfaces of plants used to phytostabilize metalliferous mine tailings. Bacteria were visualized on a small root section using SytoBC nucleic acid stain and FISH probes targeting the domain Bacteria and a specific group (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, or Actinobacteria). The same root region was then analyzed for elemental distribution and metal(loid) speciation of As and Fe using ME μXRF. The FISH and ME μXRF images were aligned using ImageJ software to correlate microbiological and geochemical results. Results from quantitative analysis of colocalization show a significantly higher fraction of As colocalized with Fe-oxide plaques on the root surfaces (fraction of overlap 0.49±0.19) than to bacteria (0.072±0.052) (pbacteria that colocalized with metal(loid)s, Actinobacteria, known for their metal tolerance, had a higher correlation with both As and Fe than Alphaproteobacteria or Gammaproteobacteria. This method demonstrates how coupling these micro-techniques can expand our understanding of micro-scale interactions between roots, metal(loid)s and microbes, information that should lead to improved mechanistic models of metal(loid) speciation and fate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  16. Hybrid Random Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Freno, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an exciting new synthesis of directed and undirected, discrete and continuous graphical models. Combining elements of Bayesian networks and Markov random fields, the newly introduced hybrid random fields are an interesting approach to get the best of both these worlds, with an added promise of modularity and scalability. The authors have written an enjoyable book---rigorous in the treatment of the mathematical background, but also enlivened by interesting and original historical and philosophical perspectives. -- Manfred Jaeger, Aalborg Universitet The book not only marks an

  17. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  18. Quality Protein Maize Response to Nitrogen Rate and Plant Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Protein Maize Response to Nitrogen Rate and Plant Density in the Guinea Savanna Zone of Ghana. ... protein maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid to plant density and nitrogen (N) fertilizer. ... Optimal N rate was not affected by plant density.

  19. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Dynamic Systems Using Hybrid Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    GHOMRI Latefa; Alla, Hassane

    2008-01-01

    Some extensions of PNs permitting HDS modeling were presented here. The first models to be presented are continuous PNs. This model may be used for modeling either a continuous system or a discrete system. In this case, it is an approximation that is often satisfactory. Hybrid PNs combine in the same formalism a discrete PN and a continuous PN. Two hybrid PN models were considered in this chapter. The first, called the hybrid PN, has a deterministic behavior; this means that we can predict th...

  20. Hybrid percolation transition in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Byungnam

    Percolation has been one of the most applied statistical models. Percolation transition is one of the most robust continuous transitions known thus far. However, recent extensive researches reveal that it exhibits diverse types of phase transitions such as discontinuous and hybrid phase transitions. Here hybrid phase transition means the phase transition exhibiting natures of both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions simultaneously. Examples include k-core percolation, cascading failures in interdependent networks, synchronization, etc. Thus far, it is not manifest if the critical behavior of hybrid percolation transitions conforms to the conventional scaling laws of second-order phase transition. Here, we investigate the critical behaviors of hybrid percolation transitions in the cascading failure model in inter-dependent networks and the restricted Erdos-Renyi model. We find that the critical behaviors of the hybrid percolation transitions contain some features that cannot be described by the conventional theory of second-order percolation transitions.

  1. Hybrid instrument applied to human reliability study in event of loss of external electric power in a nuclear power plant; Instrumento hibrido aplicado ao estudo da confiabilidade humana em evento de perda de energia eletrica externa em usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Eduardo Ferraz

    2015-04-01

    The study projects in highly complex installations involves robust modeling, supported by conceptual and mathematical tools, to carry out systematic research and structured the different risk scenarios that can lead to unwanted events from occurring equipment failures or human errors. In the context of classical modeling, the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) seeks to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the project particularity and their operational facilities, including the identification of factors or scenarios that contribute to the risk and consequent comparison options for increasing safety. In this context, the aim of the thesis is to develop a hybrid instrument (CPP-HI) innovative, from the integrated modeling techniques of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), concepts of Human Reliability Analysis and Probabilistic Composition of Preferences (PCP). In support of modeling and validation of the CPP-HI, a simulation was performed on a triggering event 'Loss of External Electric Power' - PEEE, in a Nuclear Power plant. The results were simulated in a virtual environment (sensitivity analysis) and are robust to the study of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the PSA. (author)

  2. Planting Performance and High-yielding Cultivation Techniques for Hybrid Rice Combination Shenliangyou 862 at Yong,an City%深两优862在永安市种植表现与高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林增贵

    2016-01-01

    深两优862是由江苏明天种业科技有限公司、南昌穗民农业科技有限公司、临湘市兆农科技研发中心,用深08S与R5662配组育成的杂交水稻新品种。具有长势旺,分蘖力强,成穗率高,有效穗多,高产稳产,米质优等特点。介绍深两优862在永安市种植表现与高产栽培技术。%A new hybrid rice combination Shenliangyou 862 derived from the cross of a sterile line Shen 08S and a restorer line R5662 was developed by Jiangsu Mingtian Seed Science and Technology Co., Ltd, Nan-chang Suimin Agricultural Science and Technology Co., Ltd and Linxiang Zhaonong Science and Technology Research and Development Center. It showed the characteristics of vigorous growth, strong tillering ability, high earbearing tiller percentage, more effective panicle number, high and stable yield, and good quality. Planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques for Shenliangyou 862 at Yong,an city was in-troduced in this paper.

  3. SURVEY OF DEOXYNIVALENOL, DIACETOXYSCIRPENOL, AND T2 TOXIN IN POPCORN HYBRIDS PLANTED IN THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO AND IN POPCORN COMMERCIALIZED IN THE CITY OF CAMPINAS, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Adriana de Queiroz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, and T2 toxin (T2 in popcorn was investigated in 90 samples, belonging to 2 commercial and 28 experimental hybrids planted at experimental stations of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas at the locations of Campinas, Mococa, and Capão Bonito, and in 15 samples of popcorn, 9 branded and 6 unbranded, acquired from commercial outlets in the city of Campinas, SP. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector combined with an alumina:carbon cleanup column. The detection limits were 30ng/g for DON, 50ng/g for DAS, and 40ng/g for T2. Five samples were contaminated with DON, four of them commercial and one from an experimental cultivar. The level of contamination in the commercial samples ranged from 30 to 40ng/g. The sample from the experimental cultivar contained 770ng/g DON. DAS and T2 were not detected in any of the popcorn samples analyzed.

  4. Impacts of climate warming on hybrid zone movement: Geographically diffuse and biologically porous "species borders"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Mark Scriber

    2011-01-01

    The ecology and evolutionary biology of insect-plant associations has realized extensive attention, especially during the past 60 years. The classifications (categorical designations) of continuous variation in biodiversity, ranging from global patterns (e.g., latitudinal gradients in species richness/diversity and degree of herbivore feeding specialization) to localized insect-plant associations that span the biospectrum from polyphenisms,polymorphisms, biotypes, demes, host races, to cryptic species, remain academically contentious. Semantic and biosystematic (taxonomical) disagreements sometimes detract from more important ecological and evolutionary processes that drive diversification, the dynarnics of gene flow and local extinctions. This review addresses several aspects of insect specialization, host-associated divergence and ecological (including "hybrid") speciation,with special reference to the climate warming impacts on species borders of hybridizing swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae). Interspecific hybrid introgression may result in collapse of multi-species communities or increase species numbers via homoploid hybrid speeiation. We may see diverging, merging, or emerging genotypes across hybrid zones,all part of the ongoing processes of evolution. Molecular analyses of genetic mosaics and genomic dynamics with "divergence hitchhiking", combined with ecological, ethological and physiological studies of "species porosity", have already begun to unveil some answers for some important ecological/evolutionary questions. (i) How rapidly can host-associated divergence lead to new species (and why doesn't it always do so, e.g., resulting in "incomplete" speciation)? (ii) How might "speeiation genes" function, and how/where would we find them? (iii) Can oscillations from specialists to generalists and back to specialists help explain global diversity in herbivorous insects? (iv) How could recombinant interspecific hybridization lead to divergence and

  5. Assessing the techno-economics of modular hybrid solar thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Han; Chinnici, Alfonso; Dally, Bassam; Nathan, Graham

    2017-06-01

    A techno-economic assessment was performed on modular hybrid solar thermal (in particular, solar power tower) systems with combustion from natural gas as backup to provide a continuous supply of electricity. Two different configurations were compared, i.e. a Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor (HSRC), in which the functions of a solar cavity receiver and a combustor are integrated into a single device, and a Solar Gas Hybrid (SGH), which is a reference hybrid solar thermal system with a standalone solar-only cavity receiver and a backup boiler. The techno-economic benefits were assessed by varying the size of the modular components, i.e. the heliostat field and the solar receivers. It was found that for modularization to be cost effective requires more than the increased learning from higher production of a larger number of smaller units, such as access to alternative, lower-cost manufacturing methods and/or the use of a low melting point Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) such as sodium to reduce parasitic losses. In particular, for a plant with 30 units of 1MWth modules, the Levelized Cost of Electricity is competitive compared with a single unit of 30MWth after ˜100 plants are installed for both the HSRC and SGH if the systems employ the use of sodium as the heat transfer fluid.

  6. HYBRID GREY WOLF OPTIMIZATION-PATTERN SEARCH (hGWO-PS OPTIMIZED 2DOF-PID CONTROLLERS FOR LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL (LFC IN INTERCONNECTED THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Soni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Grey Wolf Optimization and Pattern Search Technique (hGWO-PS has been introduced to optimize the parameters of two Degree of Freedom Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller (2DOF-PID for controlling the load frequency in Automatic Generation Control (AGC for interconnected power system. The interconnected two area power system of non-reheat thermal power plants consisting of 2DOF-PID controller in each area has been considered for design and analysis. Firstly, the proposed approach has been implemented in the aforementioned standard test system and thereafter, the robustness of the system consisting 2DOF-PID controller optimized by proposed technique has been estimated using the sensitivity analysis for the same. The robustness of the system consisting of 2DOF-PID controller optimized by proposed scheme is examined by varying the parameters of standard test system, loading conditions during operation, size and location of the disturbances. The performance of the 2DOF-PID controller optimized by proposed approach has also been compared with recently published approaches in the literature. The simulation results show that the proposed hGWOPS optimized 2DOF-PID controller shows far better performance than recently published approaches in the literature in terms of dynamic response. The simulation results also show that system performances hardly change when the operating load condition and system parameters are changed by ±50% from their nominal values, i.e. the proposed controllers are quite robust for a wide range of the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values.

  7. Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Trezzi Casa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A adequada combinação entre a escolha da densidade de plantas e do híbrido é um dos fatores que contribuem para o aumento da produtividade do milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do incremento na densidade de plantas sobre a incidência de podridões do colmo, de grãos ardidos e o rendimento de grãos de dois híbridos de milho contrastantes quanto a tolerância ao adensamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lages, SC, nas safras agrícolas 2002/03 e 2003/04, em área de semeadura direta e monocultura, sob sucessão de cobertura morta constituída de aveia preta+ervilhaca. Estudou-se a combinação de dois fatores: híbrido e densidades, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com parcela sub-dividida. Na parcela principal avaliaram os híbridos: Speed (simples, tolerante ao adensamento e AG 303 (duplo, intolerante ao adensamento. Nas sub-parcelas testaram-se cinco densidades de plantas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mil plantas ha-1. O aumento da densidade de plantas, proporcionou incremento linear na incidência das podridões do colmo e grãos ardidos para os dois híbridos e duas safras avaliadas. O fungo Colletotrichum graminicola foi o mais detectado em colmos doentes, seguido do Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides e Stenocarpella sp. Nos grãos ardidos, os fungos predominantes foram F. verticillioides, F. graminearum e Penicillium spp. O híbrido AG 303 demonstrou menor resposta no rendimento do que o híbrido Speed com o aumento da população de plantas. Não foi observada associação direta entre o maior rendimento de grãos do híbrido simples em estandes adensados e a menor incidência de doenças de colmo e de grãos ardidos.The combination between plant density and hybrid choice is an important factor to enhance maize grain yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the increasing of plant density on the incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of two maize hybrids with

  8. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  9. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  10. Production of haploid plants from ten hybrids of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through wide hybridization with maize (Zea mays L. Producción de plantas haploides a partir de 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (Triticum aestivum L. mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to obtain haploid plants of bread wheat through wide hybridization with maize. The experimental material included ten bread wheat hybrids (female parent and one population of maize (pollen donor. Two assays were carried out in two different seasons (summer and winter. Wheat spikes were manually emasculated, each spike was pollinated twice with fresh pollen of maize and a solution of 2,4-D (100 mg l-1 was sprayed on pollinated florets and injected in the upper internode. Fifteen and 21 days after pollination caryopses were removed and surface sterilized. Embryos were cultured in tubes containing B5 medium. The ten hybrid combinations produced caryopses, but only eight of these hybrids produced embryos and, in six of them, the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets. The results showed that there is genotypic influence of the wheat parents on the percentage of haploid embryo formation, in accordance with the results obtained by other authors. Regardless of the genotype, the sowing season and the harvest date, 69.4% of the pollinated flowers gave place to the formation of caryopses, 5.5% of these caryopses developed into presumably haploid embryos (for their morphological phenotypes and 26.1 % of the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener plantas haploides de trigo para pan mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz. Se utilizaron 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (madre y una población de maíz (donante de polen; se llevaron a cabo dos ensayos en distintas estaciones de cultivo. Cada espiga de trigo fue emasculada manualmente y polinizada dos veces con polen fresco de maíz; las flores polinizadas se pulverizaron con una solución de 2,4-D (100 mg l-1, la que también se inyectó en la base de la espiga. Las semillas se cosecharon a los 15 y 21 días posteriores a la polinización. Los embriones recuperados se colocaron en tubos conteniendo medio de

  11. Hybrid Simulation of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jacob Herold

    Hybrid simulation is a substructural method combining a numerical simulation with a physical experiment. A structure is thereby simulated under the assumption that a substructure’s response is well known and easily modelled while a given substructure is studied more accurately in a physical...... of freedom. In this dissertation the main focus is to develop hybrid simulation for composite structures e.g. wind turbine blades where the boundary between the numerical model and the physical experiment is continues i.e. in principal infinite amount of degrees of freedom. This highly complicates...

  12. Características agronômicas e estruturais de híbridos de sorgo em função de diferentes densidades de plantio Agronomic characteristics of sorghum hybrids cultivated with different plant populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Mendes Avelino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as características agronômicas dos híbridos de sorgo, AG-2005 (duplo propósito e VOLUMAX (forrageiro para produção de silagem, cultivados nos espaçamentos de 1,00; 0,75; e 0,50 m entre linhas em Neossolo Quartzarênico Órtico, resultando nas densidades de 140.000; 186.666 e 280.000 plantas por hectares, respectivamente. Para tais avaliações foi utilizado o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso num arranjo fatorial (2 x 3. Foram determinadas as produções de matéria seca total (PMST, de lâmina foliar (PMLF, de caule (PMSC e de panícula (PMSP, bem como suas proporções na planta inteira. Ocorreu interação significativa entre híbrido de sorgo e espaçamento para as características PMST, PMSLF e PMSP. O híbrido VOLUMAX apresentou produções semelhantes nos três espaçamentos testados. O AG-2005 apresentou maior PMST (9.474,59 vs 6.842,91 kg ha-1 e PMSP (6.355,77 vs 3.032,40 kg ha-1 em relação ao VOLUMAX no espaçamento 0,50 m. O AG-2005 foi superior ao VOLUMAX no percentual de panícula nos espaçamentos 1,00 m (57,06 vs 40,22% e 0,50 m (66,99 vs 43,55% e o VOLUMAX foi superior no percentual de colmo nos espaçamentos 1,00 e 0,50 m. Recomenda-se o uso do híbrido AG-2005 cultivado sob espaçamento de 0,50 m para produção de silagem, em virtude da maior produção de MS por área, maior percentual de panícula e menor percentual de colmo na composição da planta em comparação ao híbrido VOLUMAX.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of two sorghum hybrids for silage production, AG-2005 (double purpose and VOLUMAX (forage cultivated with different row spacing 1; 0.75 and 0.50 m, on Orthic Quartzarenic Neosol, resulting in 140,000; 186,666 e 280,000 plants per ha, respectively. A randomized block design with four replicates was used and the treatments consisted on a factorial arrangement 2 x 3. Were determined the total dry matter production (PMST, of leaves

  13. Effects of continuous planting of poplars on soil biological activity and nutrients%杨树多代连作对土壤养分特征和生物活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉莎; 张金池; 陆茜; 司登宇; 卓为君; 李梅花; 李世昌

    2014-01-01

    以江苏丰县大沙河林场杨树多代连作人工林为对象,研究根际、非根际土壤的养分特征、酶活性及微生物数量变化,探讨多代连作对人工林地力的影响。结果表明:①杨树根际土养分含量、土壤酶(脲酶、蔗糖酶、碱性磷酸酶、过氧化氢酶)活性以及微生物(真菌、放线菌、细菌)数量均高于非根际土壤,而根际土pH和多酚氧化酶活性则低于非根际土;②土壤脲酶、蔗糖酶、碱性磷酸酶、过氧化氢酶活性的增强以及微生物数量的增加有利于土壤有机质的累积及多数养分元素的转化,但多酚氧化酶活性越大,养分含量越低;土壤pH的下降对多数土壤酶活性及微生物有不利影响;真菌与土壤酶活性的整体相关性要比放线菌和细菌密切;③杨树多代连作,会造成根际土壤pH相对于非根际的降低,并且逐代连作后根际土壤pH下降更多,而杨树多代连作会造成根际土壤多酚氧化酶活性逐代的升高,还会造成根际土壤中养分、脲酶、蔗糖酶、碱性磷酸酶、过氧化氢酶及微生物的逐代减弱,其中有些指标甚至会低于非根际土壤。综上,在江苏丰县应避免杨树连作,可更换品种或进行树种轮栽以缓解连作对地力带来的不利影响,注重维系土壤酶活性和微生物数量水平,同时采取措施减弱土壤的酸化程度。%The continuously planted poplar plantations in Dashahe Forest Farm, Fengxian county, Jiangsu province were chosen to study the characteristics of nutrients, soil enzymes and microorganisms in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere. Effects of continuous planting of poplars on the soil fertility of artificial forests were also discussed. The results showed as follows:①The content of soil nutrient, activity of soil enzymes ( urease, invertase, alkaline phosphatase, catalase) and the number of microorganisms ( fungi, actinomyces, bacteria) in

  14. The controversial telomeres of lily plants.

    Science.gov (U