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Sample records for hybrid performance tests

  1. Diamond and cBN hybrid and nanomodified cutting tools with enhanced performance: Development, testing and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    with 25% of diamond replaced by cBN grains demonstrate 20% increased performance as compared with pure diamond machining tools, and more than two times higher performance as compared with pure cBN tools. Further, cast iron machining efficiency of the wheels modified by hBN particles was 80% more efficient......The potential of enhancement of superhard steel and cast iron cutting tool performance on the basis of microstuctural modifications of the tool materials is studied. Hybrid machining tools with mixed diamond and cBN grains, as well as machining tool with composite nanomodified metallic binder...... are developed, and tested experimentally and numerically. It is demonstrated that both combination of diamond and cBN (hybrid structure) and nanomodification of metallic binder (with hexagonal boron nitride/hBN platelets) lead to sufficient improvement of the cast iron machining performance. The superhard tools...

  2. Performance of Small Bore 60NiTi Hybrid Ball Bearings: Preliminary Life Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam

    2016-01-01

    Small bore (R8 size) hybrid ball bearings made with 60NiTi races and silicon nitride balls are under development for highly corrosive aerospace applications that are also exposed to heavy static (shock) loads. The target application is the vacuum pump used inside the wastewater recycling system on the International Space Station. To verify bearing longevity, life tests are run at 2000rpm for time periods up to 5000 hours. Accelerometers with data tracking are used to monitor operation and the bearings are disassembled and inspected at intervals to assess wear. Preliminary tests show that bearings made from 60NiTi are feasible for this aerospace and potentially other industrial applications that must endure similar operating environments.

  3. Optimizing scanning array performance using gain normalization and timedelay and integrate pixel deselection during readout, hybrid, and focal plane testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. D.; Johnson, Greg A.; Jolivet, Noel D.; Metschuleit, Jeff L.

    1992-07-01

    When testing infrared readouts, detector-readout hybrid assemblies, or focal plane arrays (FPAs), performance optimization is usually limited to adjustment of biases or clock rails, or subtle changes in readout timing. These generally result in global changes to the characteristics of the entire array rather than affecting individual pixels and channels. Using a scanning system that incorporates per channel gain normalization and a redundant time delay and integrate (TDI) architecture in the readout, pixels can be enhanced or deselected using an on- chip static RAM according to user-defined criteria resulting in improved uniformity of performance. A series of tests can be run automatically that evaluate each pixel's behavior at the readout or the hybrid level. When compared to or compiled against array-wide averages or system specifications, a map of dead or degraded pixels is created, and the timing necessary to either normalize each channel from a gain standpoint or mask out individual pixels is applied to the device under test. This technique has been successfully applied to 480 X 6 (120 X 4 X 6 in TDI) scanning architectures in both InSb and HgCdTe systems as well as multiple-chip and dual-band configurations. This paper describes a methodology and details how readout devices were screened and selected for hybridization and FPA build. The chip architecture and control timing is discussed to show how normalization and deselection was accomplished with a minimum of clock lines involved. A software utility is presented that allowed easy graphical interface to the user for manipulating the functions of the device. Algorithms for optimizing performance are then discussed and evaluated. Trade-offs made in optimizing one parameter against another are analyzed. Finally, results are presented demonstrating improved performance, customized by pixel to suit application specifications.

  4. Hybrid GPU-CPU adaptive precision ray-triangle intersection tests for robust high-performance GPU dosimetry computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotte, Lancelot; Bodin, Bruno; Chodorge, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Before an intervention on a nuclear site, it is essential to study different scenarios to identify the less dangerous one for the operator. Therefore, it is mandatory to dispose of an efficient dosimetry simulation code with accurate results. One classical method in radiation protection is the straight-line attenuation method with build-up factors. In the case of 3D industrial scenes composed of meshes, the computation cost resides in the fast computation of all of the intersections between the rays and the triangles of the scene. Efficient GPU algorithms have already been proposed, that enable dosimetry calculation for a huge scene (800000 rays, 800000 triangles) in a fraction of second. But these algorithms are not robust: because of the rounding caused by floating-point arithmetic, the numerical results of the ray-triangle intersection tests can differ from the expected mathematical results. In worst case scenario, this can lead to a computed dose rate dramatically inferior to the real dose rate to which the operator is exposed. In this paper, we present a hybrid GPU-CPU algorithm to manage adaptive precision floating-point arithmetic. This algorithm allows robust ray-triangle intersection tests, with very small loss of performance (less than 5 % overhead), and without any need for scene-dependent tuning. (author)

  5. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  6. Manufacturing and testing VLPC hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, L. R.; Ingram, C. M.; Anderson, E. J.

    1998-11-01

    To insure that the manufacture of VLPC devices is a reliable, cost-effective technology, hybrid assembly procedures and testing methods suitable for large scale production have been developed. This technology has been developed under a contract from Fermilab as part of the D-Zero upgrade program. Each assembled hybrid consists of a VLPC chip mounted on an AlN substrate. The VLPC chip is provided with bonding pads (one connected to each pixel) which are wire bonded to gold traces on the substrate. The VLPC/AlN hybrids are mated in a vacuum sealer using solder preforms and a specially designed carbon boat. After mating, the VLPC pads are bonded to the substrate with an automatic wire bonder. Using this equipment we have achieved a thickness tolerance of ±0.0007 inches and a production rate of 100 parts per hour. After assembly the VLPCs are tested for optical response at an operating temperature of 7K. The parts are tested in a custom designed continuous-flow dewar with a capacity 15 hybrids, and one Lake Shore DT470-SD-11 calibrated temperature sensor mounted to an AlN substrate. Our facility includes five of these dewars with an ultimate test capacity of 75 parts per day. During the course of the Dzero program we have assembled more than 4,000 VLPC hybrids and have tested more than 2,500 with a high yield.

  7. Fabrication and Performance Test of Aluminium Alloy-Rice Husk Ash Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite as Industrial and Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahat Hossain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs used extensively in various engineering fields due to their exceptional mechanical properties. In this present study, aluminium matrix composites (AMCs such as aluminium alloy (A356 reinforced with rice husk ash particles (RHA are made to explore the possibilities of reinforcing aluminium alloy. The stir casting method was applied to produce aluminium alloy (A356 reinforced with various amounts of (2%, 4%, and 6% rice husk ash (RHA particles. Physical treatment was carried out before the rice husk ash manufacturing process. The effect of mechanical strength of the fabricated hybrid composite was investigated. Therefore, impact test, tensile stress, compressive stress, and some other tests were carried out to analyse the mechanical properties. From the experimental results, it was found that maximum tensile, and compressive stress were found at 6% rice husk ash (RHA and aluminium matrix composites (AMCs. In future, the optimum percentages of rice husk ash (RHA to fabricate the hybrid composites will be determined. Also, simulation by finite element method (FEM will be applied for further investigation.

  8. Pressure Drop Test of Hybrid Mixing Vane Spacer Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, D. S.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.; Chun, S. Y.; Chun, T. H

    2007-08-15

    The pressure loss test has been accomplished in the test section containing 5x5 rod bundle with a length of 2 m including 3 spacer grids. The test has been performed for the 5 kinds of spacer grids to compare the pressure loss characteristics: 1. Plain spacer grid which has the same body of the Hybrid but without vane (Plain), 2. Hybrid Vane spacer grid (Hybrid), 3. Hybrid-SC spacer grid which is constructed with coined, chamfered strip and is fabricated by spot welding, 4. Hybrid-LC spacer grid which is constructed with coined, chamfered strip and is fabricated by line welding along intersection line, 5. Westinghouse spacer grid with split vane (Plus-7). The pressure loss coefficient of the Plain, Hybrid, Hybrid-SC, Hybrid-LC, and Plus-7 spacer grid is 0.93, 1.15, 1.02, 1.04, and 1.08, respectively.

  9. The performance of the LHCb Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors in a 25ns structured test-beam

    CERN Document Server

    Perego, Davide Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Particle identification plays an important role in the challenging physics programme of the LHCb experiment. Pion-kaon separation in the wide momentum range 1-100 GeV/$c$ will be achieved by a pair of Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors, using three radiators. Cherenkov photons in the wavelength range 200-600 nm will be detected by pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) developed by LHCb in collaboration with industry. The HPDs and associated electronics have been designed to operate at 40 MHz, the bunch-crossing frequency of the LHC. Final production photon detectors and the full readout chain, coupled for the LHCb data handling system, have been tested for the first time in a particle beam, operating with the nominal 25 ns bunch spacing, in September 2006. A total of 48 HPDs mounted on three RICH columns have been installed inside a customised RICH detector using N$_2$ GeV/$c$ pion beam at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The results of the tests demonstrate that the HPD is a reliable photon detector that meet...

  10. Development history of the Hybrid Test Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummel, M. C.; Burke, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Phase I of a joint Department of Energy/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Program undertook the development of the Hybrid Test Vehicle (HTV), which has subsequently progressed through design, fabrication, and testing and evaluation phases. Attention is presently given to the design and test experience gained during the HTV development program, and a discussion is presented of the design features and performance capabilities of the various 'mule' vehicles, devoted to the separate development of engine microprocessor control, vehicle structure, and mechanical components, whose elements were incorporated into the final HTV design. Computer projections of the HTV's performance are given.

  11. Hybrid Testing of Composite Structures with Single-Axis Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid testing is a substructuring technique where a structure is emulated by modelling a part of it in a numerical model while testing the remainder experimentally. Previous research in hybrid testing has been performed on multi-component structures e.g. damping fixtures, however in this paper...... a hybrid testing platform is introduced for single-component hybrid testing. In this case, the boundary between the numerical model and experimental setup is defined by multiple Degrees-Of-Freedoms (DOFs) which highly complicate the transferring of response between the two substructures. Digital Image...... Correlation (DIC) is therefore implemented for displacement control of the experimental setup. The hybrid testing setup was verified on a multicomponent structure consisting of a beam loaded in three point bending and a numerical structure of a frame. Furthermore, the stability of the hybrid testing loop...

  12. Magnetite Dissolution Performance of HYBRID-II Decontamination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seonbyeong; Lee, Woosung; Won, Huijun; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Wangkyu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted the magnetite dissolution performance test of HYBRID-II (Hydrazine Based Reductive metal Ion Decontamination with sulfuric acid) as a part of decontamination process development. Decontamination performance of HYBRID process was successfully tested with the results of the acceptable decontamination factor (DF) in the previous study. While following-up studies such as the decomposition of the post-decontamination HYBRID solution and corrosion compatibility on the substrate metals of the target reactor coolant system have been continued, we also seek for an alternate version of HYBRID process suitable especially for decommissioning. Inspired by the relationship between the radius of reacting ion and the reactivity, we replaced the nitrate ion in HYBRID with bigger sulfate ion to accommodate the dissolution reaction and named HYBRID-II process. As a preliminary step for the decontamination performance, we tested the magnetite dissolution performance of developing HYBRID-II process and compared the results with those of HYBRID process. HYBRID process developed previously is known have the acceptable decontamination performance, but the relatively larger volume of secondary waste induced by anion exchange resin to treat nitrate ion is the one of the problems related in the development of HYBRID process to be applicable. Therefore we alternatively devised HYBRID-II process using sulfuric acid and tested its dissolution of magnetite in numerous conditions. From the results shown in this study, we can conclude that HYBRID-II process improves the decontamination performance and potentially reduces the volume of secondary waste. Rigorous tests with metal oxide coupons obtained from reactor coolant system will be followed to prove the robustness of HYBRID-II process in the future

  13. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2016-06-16

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  14. Reduction Methods for Real-time Simulations in Hybrid Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    is to divide a structure into a physical substructure and a numerical substructure, and couple these in a test. If the test is conducted in real-time it is referred to as real time hybrid testing. The hybrid testing concept has developed significantly since its introduction in the 1960', both with respect...... is performed on a glass fibre reinforced polymer composite box girder. The test serves as a pilot test for prospective real-time tests on a wind turbine blade. The Taylor basis is implemented in the test, used to perform the numerical simulations. Despite of a number of introduced errors in the real...

  15. Performance of two Pinus patula hybrids in southern Africa | Kanzler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hybrid had similar survival and was more productive than both parent species. Large variation in performance between individual P. patula × P. tecunumanii families suggests that comprehensive testing and selection should be conducted in tandem with any operational deployment of this hybrid. Southern Forests 2012 ...

  16. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  17. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  18. Five Performance Enhancements for Hybrid Hash Join

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graefe, Goetz

    1992-01-01

    .... We discuss five performance enhancements for hybrid hash join algorithms, namely data compression, large cluster sizes and multi-level recursion, role reversal of build and probe inputs, histogram...

  19. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  20. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  1. Development of high performance hybrid rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Christopher R.

    . In order to examine paraffin/additive combustion in a motor environment, I conducted experiments on well characterized aluminum based additives. In particular, I investigate the influence of aluminum, unpassivated aluminum, milled aluminum/polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and aluminum hydride on the performance of paraffin fuels for hybrid rocket propulsion. I use an optically accessible combustor to examine the performance of the fuel mixtures in terms of characteristic velocity efficiency and regression rate. Each combustor test consumes a 12.7 cm long, 1.9 cm diameter fuel strand under 160 kg/m 2s of oxygen at up to 1.4 MPa. The experimental results indicate that the addition of 5 wt.% 30 mum or 80 nm aluminum to paraffin increases the regression rate by approximately 15% compared to neat paraffin grains. At higher aluminum concentrations and nano-scale particles sizes, the increased melt layer viscosity causes slower regression. Alane and Al/PTFE at 12.5 wt.% increase the regression of paraffin by 21% and 32% respectively. Finally, an aging study indicates that paraffin can protect air and moisture sensitive particles from oxidation. The opposed burner and aluminum/paraffin hybrid rocket experiments show that additives can alter bulk fuel properties, such as viscosity, that regulate entrainment. The general effect of melt layer properties on the entrainment and regression rate of paraffin is not well understood. Improved understanding of how solid additives affect the properties and regression of paraffin is essential to maximize performance. In this document I investigate the effect of melt layer properties on paraffin regression using inert additives. Tests are performed in the optical cylindrical combustor at ˜1 MPa under a gaseous oxygen mass flux of ˜160 kg/m2s. The experiments indicate that the regression rate is proportional to mu0.08rho 0.38kappa0.82. In addition, I explore how to predict fuel viscosity, thermal conductivity, and density prior to testing

  2. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; I. Zafina; H. Bosma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a

  3. Tri-State Grain Sorghum Performance Tests, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Balota, Maria; Heiniger, Ron; Ray, Chris; Mehl, H. L.; Rutto, Laban; Ulanch, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Discusses performance of 45 hybrid types of sorghum at test locations in Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Hybrids were evaluated in terms of yield, grain moisture, plant height, mold and anthracnose, and other factors.

  4. DOE Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Test Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yimin [Advanced Vehicle Research Center, Danville, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    Based on the contract NT-42790 to the Department of Energy, “Plug-in Hybrid Ethanol Research Platform”, Advanced Vehicle Research Center (AVRC) Virginia has successfully developed the phase I electric drive train research platform which has been named as Laboratory Rapid Application Testbed (LabRAT). In phase II, LabRAT is to be upgraded into plug-in hybrid research platform, which will be capable of testing power systems for electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles running on conventional as well as alternative fuels. LabRAT is configured as a rolling testbed with plentiful space for installing various component configurations. Component connections are modularized for flexibility and are easily replaced for testing various mechanisms. LabRAT is designed and built as a full functional vehicle chassis with a steering system, brake system and four wheel suspension. The rear drive axle offers maximum flexibility with a quickly changeable gear ratio final drive to accommodate different motor speed requirements. The electric drive system includes an electric motor which is mechanically connected to the rear axle through an integrated speed/torque sensor. Initially, a 100 kW UQM motor and corresponding UQM motor controller is used which can be easily replaced with another motor/controller combination. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is installed, which consists of 108 cells of 100 AH capacity, giving the total energy capacity of 32.5 kWh. Correspondingly, a fully functional battery management system (BMS) is installed to perform battery cell operation monitoring, cell voltage balancing, and reporting battery real time operating parameters to vehicle controller. An advanced vehicle controller ECU is installed for controlling the drive train. The vehicle controller ECU receives traction or braking torque command from driver through accelerator and brake pedal position sensors and battery operating signals from the BMS through CAN BUS

  5. Hybrid maize breeding with doubled haploids: III. Efficiency of early testing prior to doubled haploid production in two-stage selection for testcross performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, C Friedrich H; Utz, H Friedrich; Reif, Jochen C; Wegenast, Thilo; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2007-08-01

    Early testing prior to doubled haploid (DH) production is a promising approach in hybrid maize breeding. We (1) determined the optimum allocation of the number of S(1) families, DH lines, and test locations for two different breeding schemes, (2) compared the maximum selection gain achievable under both breeding schemes, and (3) investigated limitations in the current method of DH production. Selection gain was calculated by numerical integration in two-stage breeding schemes with evaluation of testcross progenies of (1) DH lines in both stages (DHTC), or (2) S(1) families in the first and DH lines within S(1) families in the second stage (S(1)TC-DHTC). Different assumptions were made regarding the budget, variance components, and time of DH production within S(1) families. Maximum selection gain in S(1)TC-DHTC was about 10% larger than in DHTC, indicating the large potential of early testing prior to DH production. The optimum allocation of test resources in S(1)TC-DHTC involved similar numbers of test locations and test candidates in both stages resulting in a large optimum number of S(1) families in the first stage and DH lines within the best two S(1) families in the second stage. The longer cycle length of S(1)TC-DHTC can be compensated by haploid induction of individual S(1) plants instead of S(1) families. However, this reduces selection gain largely due to the current limitations in the DH technique. Substantial increases in haploid induction and chromosome doubling rates as well as reduction in costs of DH production would allow early testing of S(1) lines and subsequent production and testing of DH lines in a breeding scheme that combines high selection gain with a short cycle length.

  6. Hybrid ventilation systems and high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utzinger, D.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). School of Architecture and Urban Planning

    2009-07-01

    This paper described hybrid ventilation design strategies and their impact on 3 high performance buildings located in southern Wisconsin. The Hybrid ventilation systems combined occupant controlled natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation systems. Natural ventilation was shown to provide adequate ventilation when appropriately designed. Proper control integration of natural ventilation into hybrid systems was shown to reduce energy consumption in high performance buildings. This paper also described the lessons learned from the 3 buildings. The author served as energy consultant on all three projects and had the responsibility of designing and integrating the natural ventilation systems into the HVAC control strategy. A post occupancy evaluation of building energy performance has provided learning material for architecture students. The 3 buildings included the Schlitz Audubon Nature Center completed in 2003; the Urban Ecology Center completed in 2004; and the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center completed in 2007. This paper included the size, measured energy utilization intensity and percentage of energy supplied by renewable solar power and bio-fuels on site for each building. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Examples Performance Testing Templates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siple, Bud H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this Performance Testing Program Plan is to identify the process and phased approach that will be implemented at Site XYZ . The purpose of the testing program at Site XYZ is specifically designed to evaluate the effectiveness of systems that are employed at this site. This plan defines tasks to be accomplished to ensure that performance testing is conducted as effectively and efficiently as possible.

  8. Analysis of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter; Przekop, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid wing body center section test article is an all-composite structure made of crown, floor, keel, bulkhead, and rib panels utilizing the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) design concept. The primary goal of this test article is to prove that PRSEUS components are capable of carrying combined loads that are representative of a hybrid wing body pressure cabin design regime. This paper summarizes the analytical approach, analysis results, and failure predictions of the test article. A global finite element model of composite panels, metallic fittings, mechanical fasteners, and the Combined Loads Test System (COLTS) test fixture was used to conduct linear structural strength and stability analyses to validate the specimen under the most critical combination of bending and pressure loading conditions found in the hybrid wing body pressure cabin. Local detail analyses were also performed at locations with high stress concentrations, at Tee-cap noodle interfaces with surrounding laminates, and at fastener locations with high bearing/bypass loads. Failure predictions for different composite and metallic failure modes were made, and nonlinear analyses were also performed to study the structural response of the test article under combined bending and pressure loading. This large-scale specimen test will be conducted at the COLTS facility at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  9. Performance analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic thermal solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Yusof; Yatim, Baharudin; Abu Bakar, Mohd Nazari; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV/T) air heater is a collector that combines thermal and photovoltaic systems in one single hybrid generating unit. It generators both thermal and electrical energies simultaneously. A new design of a double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPC and fins was successfully developed and fabricated at Universiti Kebangsaam Malaysia. This collector tested under actual environmental conditions to study its performance over a range of operating conditions. The test set-up, instrumentation and measurement are described further. It was found that the performance of the collector was in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Results of the outdoors test are presented and discussed(Author)

  10. Performance measurements of hybrid PIN diode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F.; Collins, T.; Herring, J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Wilburn, C.D.

    1990-05-01

    We report on the successful effort to develop hybrid PIN diode arrays and to demonstrate their potential as components of vertex detectors. Hybrid pixel arrays have been fabricated by the Hughes Aircraft Co. by bump bonding readout chips developed by Hughes to an array of PIN diodes manufactured by Micron Semiconductor Inc. These hybrid pixel arrays were constructed in two configurations. One array format having 10 x 64 pixels, each 120 μm square, and the other format having 256 x 256 pixels, each 30 μm square. In both cases, the thickness of the PIN diode layer is 300 μm. Measurements of detector performance show that excellent position resolution can be achieved by interpolation. By determining the centroid of the charge cloud which spreads charge into a number of neighboring pixels, a spatial resolution of a few microns has been attained. The noise has been measured to be about 300 electrons (rms) at room temperature, as expected from KTC and dark current considerations, yielding a signal-to-noise ratio of about 100 for minimum ionizing particles. 4 refs., 13 figs

  11. Test planning and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zola, Maurizio

    2001-01-01

    Testing plan should include Safety guide Q4 - Inspection and testing - A testing plan should be prepared including following information: General information (facility name, item or system reference, procurement document reference, document reference number and status, associated procedures and drawings); A sequential listing of all testing activities; Procedure, work instruction, specification or standard to be followed in respect of each operation and test; Acceptance criteria; Identification of who is performing tests; Identification of hold points; Type of records to be prepared for each test; Persons and organizations having authority for final acceptance. Proposed activities sequence is: visual, electrical and mechanical checks; environmental tests (thermal aging, vibrations aging, radioactive aging); performance evaluation in extreme conditions; dynamic tests with functional checks; final electrical and mechanical checks The planning of the tests should always be performed taking into account an interpretative model: a very tight cooperation is advisable between experimental people and numerical people dealing with the analysis of more or less complex models for the seismic assessment of structures and components. Preparatory phase should include the choice of the following items should be agreed upon with the final user of the tests: Excitation points, Excitation types, Excitation amplitude with respect to frequency, Measuring points. Data acquisition, recording and storage, should take into account the characteristics of the successive data processing: to much data can be cumbersome to be processed, but to few data can make unusable the experimental results. The parameters for time history acquisition should be chosen taking into account data processing: for Shock Response Spectrum calculation some special requirements should be met: frequency bounded signal, high frequency sampling, shock noise. For stationary random-like excitation, the sample length

  12. FHSS DSSS And Hybrid DSFH Performance Evaluation For VSAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina E. Alatabani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The performance of any radio communication system is affected by several factors such as interference and jamming caused by some other parallel networks for the purpose of decreasing the performance of a given system. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum DSSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum FHSS and a hybrid approach of both techniques DSFH are proposed to solve the problem. Whereas DSSS generates a sequence of bit and sends them over a fixed data rate and spread the spectrum with a spreading sequence FHSS send the data into different channels with variable data rates and the hybrid DSFH approach takes advantage of DSSS and uses it in multiple channels. Various modulation techniques which are suitable for Very small aperture terminal VSAT were simulated with each of the mentioned approaches such as Phase Ship Keying PSK Frequency Shift Keying FSK and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QAM to in order to work properly with each technique. The performance of each approach was evaluated in terms of Signal to Noise Ratio vs Bit Error Rate throughput delay and datarate. The results are very close to each other in terms of BER but the best approach was the DSSS. The Hybrid DSFH needs more power to operate so it best fits the applications with high frequencies. The Hybrid DSFH approach was the best of the three tested approaches in terms of throughput delay and datarate. The FHSS technique was average in all the parameters and had greater delay time due to the delay gap in the hopping process.

  13. Effects of Temperature on Hybrid Lens Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Steve; Victoria, Marta; Herrero, Rebeca; Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

    2011-12-01

    In hybrid Silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses, an optical silicone is molded onto a glass substrate and forms the Fresnel structure. These lenses offer a cost effective solution as a primary optical element in point-focus concentrator photovoltaic modules, as well as performance advantages. However, these lenses have a high performance variation with temperature due both to the change in index of refraction of silicone as well as to deformations in the facets caused by coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch. In this study we perform measurements of the light flux at the focal plane of a family of SOG lenses, varying temperature and lens-to-receiver distances. The effect of varying silicone cure temperature and the depth of the silicone between the lens and the glass substrate on temperature dependence was investigated. A preliminary computer model of this behavior is presented.

  14. A Test Setup for Quality Assurance of Front End Hybrids

    CERN Document Server

    Axer, Markus; Camps, Clemens; Commichau, Volker; Flügge, Günter; Franke, Torsten; Hangarter, Klaus; Ilgin, Can; Mnich, Joachim; Niehusmann, Jan; Poettgens, Michael; Schorn, Peter; Schulte, Reiner; Struczinski, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The APV Readout Control (ARC) Test Setup is a compact, cost efficient test and diagnostic tool which is suited for full operation and characterisation of FE hybrids and Si-Detector modules. This note gives an overview of the construction and the features of the test facility. Based on the ARC setup and the experience gained with one prototype FE hybrid, possible quality assurance scenarios for short and long term tests of FE hybrids are also presented.

  15. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...... could reach up to 20% with utilisation of solar energy as supplement energy source in traditional fossil fuel based district heating systems. In this work, the performance of hybrid district energy system for a particular location will be analysed. For performance analysis, mathematical model......District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been...

  16. Reactivity limitations on the performance of hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A neutronic theory for characterizing the hybrid blanket physics is used to show that hybrid performances are limited because of reactivity restrictions. The hybrid must always remain subcritical, even in abnormal conditions. For hybrids devoted to energy production by multiplication of the neutron source power, the restriction is particularly strong, and the electricity recirculation fraction to feed the plant can be too large for its economic feasibility. In hybrids used to breed fissile fuel, the power of LWR maintained by power unit of the hybrid is also limited (to a factor of 10, approx.). (author)

  17. System Performance and Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frei, U.; Oversloot, H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter compares and contrasts the system performance of two widely used solar thermal systems using testing and simulation programs. Solar thermal systems are used in many countries for heating domestically used water. In addition to the simple thermosiphon systems, better designed pumped

  18. Hybrid Modeling Improves Health and Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific Monitoring Inc. was awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to create a new, simplified health-monitoring approach for flight vehicles and flight equipment. The project developed a hybrid physical model concept that provided a structured approach to simplifying complex design models for use in health monitoring, allowing the output or performance of the equipment to be compared to what the design models predicted, so that deterioration or impending failure could be detected before there would be an impact on the equipment's operational capability. Based on the original modeling technology, Scientific Monitoring released I-Trend, a commercial health- and performance-monitoring software product named for its intelligent trending, diagnostics, and prognostics capabilities, as part of the company's complete ICEMS (Intelligent Condition-based Equipment Management System) suite of monitoring and advanced alerting software. I-Trend uses the hybrid physical model to better characterize the nature of health or performance alarms that result in "no fault found" false alarms. Additionally, the use of physical principles helps I-Trend identify problems sooner. I-Trend technology is currently in use in several commercial aviation programs, and the U.S. Air Force recently tapped Scientific Monitoring to develop next-generation engine health-management software for monitoring its fleet of jet engines. Scientific Monitoring has continued the original NASA work, this time under a Phase III SBIR contract with a joint NASA-Pratt & Whitney aviation security program on propulsion-controlled aircraft under missile-damaged aircraft conditions.

  19. Validation of a modification to Performance-Tested Method 010403: microwell DNA hybridization assay for detection of Listeria spp. in selected foods and selected environmental surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles, Susan; Peng, Linda X; Mozola, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    A modification to Performance-Tested Method 010403, GeneQuence Listeria Test (DNAH method), is described. The modified method uses a new media formulation, LESS enrichment broth, in single-step enrichment protocols for both foods and environmental sponge and swab samples. Food samples are enriched for 27-30 h at 30 degrees C, and environmental samples for 24-48 h at 30 degrees C. Implementation of these abbreviated enrichment procedures allows test results to be obtained on a next-day basis. In testing of 14 food types in internal comparative studies with inoculated samples, there were statistically significant differences in method performance between the DNAH method and reference culture procedures for only 2 foods (pasteurized crab meat and lettuce) at the 27 h enrichment time point and for only a single food (pasteurized crab meat) in one trial at the 30 h enrichment time point. Independent laboratory testing with 3 foods showed statistical equivalence between the methods for all foods, and results support the findings of the internal trials. Overall, considering both internal and independent laboratory trials, sensitivity of the DNAH method relative to the reference culture procedures was 90.5%. Results of testing 5 environmental surfaces inoculated with various strains of Listeria spp. showed that the DNAH method was more productive than the reference U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) culture procedure for 3 surfaces (stainless steel, plastic, and cast iron), whereas results were statistically equivalent to the reference method for the other 2 surfaces (ceramic tile and sealed concrete). An independent laboratory trial with ceramic tile inoculated with L. monocytogenes confirmed the effectiveness of the DNAH method at the 24 h time point. Overall, sensitivity of the DNAH method at 24 h relative to that of the USDA-FSIS method was 152%. The DNAH method exhibited extremely high specificity, with only 1% false

  20. Hybrid Gear Performance Under Loss-of-Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Kelsen E.; Berkebile, Stephen P.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid composite gear technology is being investigated to increase power density in rotorcraft drive systems. These gears differ from conventional steel gears in that the structural web material is replaced with a lightweight carbon fiber composite. Past studies have focused on performance of this technology under normal operating conditions, however, for this technology to be viable it must also withstand adverse conditions. The study presented here evaluates the performance of hybrid gears under loss-of-lubrication conditions in NASA Glenn Research Centers Contact Fatigue Test Facility. Two experiments are presented using small-scale 3.5 inch (8.9 cm) pitch diameter hybrid gears and compared to a baseline steel gear pair. Results of these tests show that there are limitations to the use of a hexagonal interlock pattern between the steel and composite. There is also evidence that the presence of polymer in the gear during an oil out event has a potential to increase time to failure. Further studies are planned to expand on these initial findings.

  1. Fabrication and performance analysis of concentrated hybrid photovoltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Krishna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sun is the most important source of renewable source of energy. During the past few decades there has been an ever-increasing interest in Photovoltaic (PV cells as it directly converts solar radiation into electricity. This paper involves the performance study of photovoltaic system under concentrated solar radiation. The main problem with the concentration solar energy is the drastic increase in temperature of the photovoltaic module resulting in a decrease in performance efficiency of the system. This problem of overheating of the system can be overcome by providing cooling which would ensure operation of the module in the optimal temperature range. Hence, the setup would function as a hybrid model serving the dual purpose of power generation while also utilizing the waste heat for water heating applications. The experimental set up consist of a novel arrangement of concentrator and reflector and the cooling system. The Hybrid Photovoltaic System was repeatedly tested under real time conditions on several days. A comparison was drawn between the results obtained from direct exposure of a standard photovoltaic module to that obtained from the hybrid system in order to better understand the improvement in performance parameters. The study shown a significant improvement of output of standard photovoltaic module under the concentrated solar radiation.

  2. The Readout Tests of Freiburg Hybrids using ABCD chips

    CERN Document Server

    Dolezal, Z; Ketterer, C; Ludwig, J; Rieth, G; Rogalla, M; Runge, K; Unno, N

    1999-01-01

    New SCT forward hybrids have been completed in Freiburg. Their performance, based on readout tests using batches of ABCD chips is presented in this note. A so called Kapton hybrid (K1) was equipped with 6 n-type ABCD-2 chips and a 6 cm n-in-n forward detector. A subset of the 768 strips were ganged together to simulate 12 cm long strips. After careful grounding no oscillations were observed. The noise values measured are about 0.3 fC (1900 electrons) for 12 cm strips, 0.18 fC (1200 electrons) for 6 cm strips and below 0.09 fC (550 electrons) for unbonded channels. The gain, extracted with a 3 point response curve fit, was rather high (100 -140) and almost independent of FE-Bias current.

  3. Data Fusion Modeling for an RT3102 and Dewetron System Application in Hybrid Vehicle Stability Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhibin Miao; Hongtian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is p...

  4. Experimental Investigation for Tensile Performance of GFRP-Steel Hybridized Rebar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Woo Seo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tensile performance of the recently developed “FRP Hybrid Bar” at Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology (KICT is experimentally evaluated by the authors. FRP Hybrid Bar is introduced to overcome the low elastic modulus of the existing GFRP bars to be used as a structural member in reinforced concrete structures. The concept of material hybridization is applied to increase elastic modulus of GFRP bars by using steel. This hybridized GFRP bar can be used in concrete structures as a flexural reinforcement with a sufficient level of elastic modulus. In order to verify the effect of material hybridization on tensile properties, tensile tests are conducted. The test results for both FRP Hybrid Bar and the existing GFRP bars are compared. The results indicate that the elastic modulus of FRP Hybrid Bar can be enhanced by up to approximately 250 percent by the material hybridization with a sufficient tensile strength. To ensure the long-term durability of FRP Hybrid Bar to corrosion resistance, the individual and combined effects of environmental conditions on FRP Hybrid Bar itself as well as on the interface between rebar and concrete are currently under investigation.

  5. NASA Hybrid Wing Aircraft Aeroacoustic Test Documentation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Stephanie L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Doty, Michael J.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Hoad, Danny; Becker, Lawrence; Humphreys, William M.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Dan; hide

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) N2A-EXTE model aeroacoustic test. The N2A-EXTE model was tested in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel (14x22 Tunnel) from September 12, 2012 until January 28, 2013 and was designated as test T598. This document contains the following main sections: Section 1 - Introduction, Section 2 - Main Personnel, Section 3 - Test Equipment, Section 4 - Data Acquisition Systems, Section 5 - Instrumentation and Calibration, Section 6 - Test Matrix, Section 7 - Data Processing, and Section 8 - Summary. Due to the amount of material to be documented, this HWB test documentation report does not cover analysis of acquired data, which is to be presented separately by the principal investigators. Also, no attempt was made to include preliminary risk reduction tests (such as Broadband Engine Noise Simulator and Compact Jet Engine Simulator characterization tests, shielding measurement technique studies, and speaker calibration method studies), which were performed in support of this HWB test. Separate reports containing these preliminary tests are referenced where applicable.

  6. Real-world environmental performance of hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Foster, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    With the further development and market introduction of hybrid vehicle technologies in recent years we are now at a stage where we can test whether the proclaimed advantages of hybrid propulsion in terms of fuel efficiency and emission reduction are actually realised. An important issue is that

  7. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David E [El Cerrito, CA; Pollard, Martin J [El Cerrito, CA; Elkin, Christopher J [San Ramon, CA

    2009-02-03

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetic or magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are further improvements to aspects of the hybrid magnetic structure, including additional elements and for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use in biotechnology and high throughput processes.

  8. The Tore Supra Lower Hybrid Test Bed : improvements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, L.; Achard, J.; Beaumont, B.

    2006-01-01

    Within the CIMES project framework in Tore Supra, a klystron TH2103C (3.7 GHz) is under development at THALES ELECTRON DEVICES. It differs from the previous klystrons used in Tore Supra generator mainly in that it has no modulating anode, the RF output power will reach 700 kW CW, by raising the High Voltage value to 76 kV and a beam current up to 23 A. The Tore Supra test bed is a dedicated facility used for high power tests on RF components or on RF transmitters. It has been improved to integrate the TH2103C klystron and a specific 100 kV solide state switch which control the beam current. Since April 2005, the integration of the first tube (without modulating anode) and the 100 kV switch has been completed in the Test Bed and has allowed the modifications and tests of the interfaces and security system for the devices. Improvements were also made on the cooling loop flow to dissipate a power of 1750 kW CW. With these devices, the RF power routinely available in the Lower Hybrid Test Bed is 400 kW CW. With the development of the TH2103C, detailed studies and tests on RF components which will be used up to 750 kW CW on match load or 700 kW on VSWR = 1.4, are necessary to evaluate their performances and thermal behaviour. The test a crucial component, the recombiner, which adds the RF powers coming from the two RF outputs of the TH2103C and inject the resulted power into one WR284 waveguide to a test load or to the plasma, was completed. Two tests have been performed : a thermal study with 400 kW during 1000 s, and RF pulsed tests on short cuts to increase the value of the electric field inside the component. The experiments and calculations (ANSYS and HFSS codes) validate the use of this device with the TH2103C. A module made with two different Beryllium Oxide RF windows, has been under test. The losses on each window are measured by calorimetric measurements and evaluated by computation with HFSS and ANSYS code. The results are compared. In this paper, the

  9. Explosive Cratering Performance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-02

    brush . This omibination of characteristics will enhance test result repeatability. 3.1.2 ’Test Area Selection Parameters. In addition to minimum...slope and absence of brush arr] timber, an optimum test area contains hciw9eneous soil types with virtually identical depth, to allow for constant charge...0 feet, 1 foot, 2 feet, 3 teet , . . . 40 feet. When tapes are fastened to radius stakes at the increment cooresponding to the stake’s distance from

  10. Dynamic Hybrid Component Test for Mission-Critical Distributed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Joon

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to provide dynamic and hybrid survivability mechanisms that test a downloaded component in runtime in the current computing environment by considering N-category, N...

  11. Simulation and Test of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Golf Cart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the simulation model of fuel cell hybrid golf cart (FCHGC, which applies the non-GUI mode of the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR and the genetic algorithm (GA to optimize it. Simulation of the objective function is composed of fuel consumption and vehicle dynamic performance; the variables are the fuel cell stack power sizes and the battery numbers. By means of simulation, the optimal parameters of vehicle power unit, fuel cell stack, and battery pack are worked out. On this basis, GUI mode of ADVISOR is used to select the rated power of vehicle motor. In line with simulation parameters, an electrical golf cart is refitted by adding a 2 kW hydrogen air proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack system and test the FCHGC. The result shows that the simulation data is effective but it needs improving compared with that of the real cart test.

  12. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  13. From hybridization theory to microarray data analysis: performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Fabrice

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several preprocessing methods are available for the analysis of Affymetrix Genechips arrays. The most popular algorithms analyze the measured fluorescence intensities with statistical methods. Here we focus on a novel algorithm, AffyILM, available from Bioconductor, which relies on inputs from hybridization thermodynamics and uses an extended Langmuir isotherm model to compute transcript concentrations. These concentrations are then employed in the statistical analysis. We compared the performance of AffyILM and other traditional methods both in the old and in the newest generation of GeneChips. Results Tissue mixture and Latin Square datasets (provided by Affymetrix were used to assess the performances of the differential expression analysis depending on the preprocessing strategy. A correlation analysis conducted on the tissue mixture data reveals that the median-polish algorithm allows to best summarize AffyILM concentrations computed at the probe-level. Those correlation results are equivalent to the best correlations observed using popular preprocessing methods relying on intensity values. The performances of each tested preprocessing algorithm were quantified using the Latin Square HG-U133A dataset, thanks to the comparison of differential analysis results with the list of spiked genes. The figures of merit generated illustrates that the performances associated to AffyILM(medianpolish, inferred from the present statistical analysis, are comparable to the best performing strategies previously reported. Conclusions Converting probe intensities to estimates of target concentrations prior to the statistical analysis, AffyILM(medianpolish is one of the best performing strategy currently available. Using hybridization theory, probe-level estimates of target concentrations should be identically distributed. In the future, a probe-level multivariate analysis of the concentrations should be compared to the univariate analysis of

  14. King County Metro Transit: Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Laboratory Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, R. R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-09-01

    Paper summarizes chassis dynamometer testing of two 60-foot articulated transit buses, one conventional and one hybrid, at NREL's ReFUEL Laboratory. It includes experimental setup, test procedures, and results from vehicle testing performed at the NREL ReFUEL laboratory.

  15. Basic Attributes Test Retest Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carretta, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    ...% of the students exhibited score improvement on retest, regardless of length of retest interval. Those who performed poorly on the first test generally exhibited larger improvements than those who performed well on the first test...

  16. Personal Rotorcraft Design and Performance with Electric Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent and projected improvements for more or all-electric aviation propulsion systems can enable greater personal mobility, while also reducing environmental impact (noise and emissions). However, all-electric energy storage capability is significantly less than present, hydrocarbon-fueled systems. A system study was performed exploring design and performance assuming hybrid propulsion ranging from traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (gasoline Otto and diesel) to all-electric systems using electric motors generators, with batteries for energy storage and load leveling. Study vehicles were a conventional, single-main rotor (SMR) helicopter and an advanced vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew); the design range for the VTOL aircraft was set to 150 miles (about one hour total flight). Search and rescue (SAR), loiter, and cruise-dominated missions were chosen to illustrate each vehicle and degree of hybrid propulsion strengths and weaknesses. The traditional, SMR helicopter is a hover-optimized design; electric hybridization was performed assuming a parallel hybrid approach by varying degree of hybridization. Many of the helicopter hybrid propulsion combinations have some mission capabilities that might be effective for short range or on-demand mobility missions. However, even for 30 year technology electrical components, all hybrid propulsion systems studied result in less available fuel, lower maximum range, and reduced hover and loiter duration than the baseline vehicle. Results for the VTOL aircraft were more encouraging. Series hybrid combinations reflective of near-term systems could improve range and loiter duration by 30. Advanced, higher performing series hybrid combinations could double or almost triple the VTOL aircrafts range and loiter duration. Additional details on the study assumptions and work performed are given, as well as suggestions for future study effort.

  17. ATLAS ABCD Hybrid Fatal Charge Dosage Test

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhl, A; Grillo, A A; Martinez-McKinney, F; Nielsen, J; Spencer, E; Wilder, M

    2011-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could be subject to various beam loss scenarios. If a severe beam loss event were to occur, it would be beneficial to know how SCT components would be affected. In the SCT detector modules, a key component is the ABCD application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the onboard readout electronics of the system. This ASIC has design specifications that it should withstand a 5 nC charge application within 25 ns, which is the period of the LHC bunch crossing. The first test performed is designed to test this limit, reaching a maximum of 10 nC deposited in 25 ns. One model for beam loss predicts that a large charge, of the order of 106 MIPS, could be incident on the detector. According to detector studies, this causes a local field breakdown between the backplane of the sensor, held at 450 V, and the strips. In this case the signal seen on the readout strip has a rise time of about 1 μs due to a charge screening effect. A...

  18. ATLAS ABCD Hybrid Fatal Charge Dosage Test

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhl, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Grillo, AA; Martinez-McKinney, F; Nielsen, J; Spencer, E; Wilder, M

    2011-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could be subject to various beam loss scenarios. If a severe beam loss event were to occur, it would be beneficial to know how SCT components would be affected. In the SCT detector modules, a key component is the ABCD application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the onboard readout electronics of the system. This ASIC has design specifications that it should withstand a 5nC charge injection within 25 ns, which is the period of the LHC bunch crossing. The first test performed is designed to test this limit, reaching a maximum of 10nC deposited in 25 ns. One model for beam loss predicts that a large charge, of the order of 10^6 MIPS, could be incident on the detector. According to detector studies, this causes a local field breakdown between the backplane of the sensor, held at 450V, and the strips. In this case the signal seen on the readout strip has a rise time of about 1μs due to a charge screening effect. A seco...

  19. Agronomic performance of mini-tomato hybrids from dwarf lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Resende Finzi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little is known about the commercial potential of mini-tomato hybrids obtained from one dwarf parent. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the agronomic performance of mini-tomato hybrids obtained by crossing a dwarf line (A with normal lines with indeterminate (I, determinate (D and semi-determinate (SD growth habits. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Estação Experimental de Hortaliças at the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia-UFU in Monte Carmelo, Brazil. The experiment was completely randomized with 17 treatments and four repetitions. The genetic material consisted of 16 experimental mini-tomato hybrids from the tomato germplasm bank at UFU, and a commercial hybrid (Mascot as a control. The following variables were used to evaluate agronomic performance: fruit weight (g; number of fruits plant-1; productivity (kg plant-1; number of bunches plant-1; number of fruits bunch-1; stem diameter (mm; distance between first bunch and soil (cm; internode length (cm and total soluble solids (°Brix. The growth habit of the parents influenced the performance of the hybrids. In general, the mini-tomato hybrids from dwarf lines differed from the control with respect to all variables except number of fruits plant-1, number of fruits bunch-1 and stem diameter. On average, hybrids from dwarf lines showed higher productivity (20%, shorter internodes (11% and a shorter distance between the first bunch and the ground (30%, relative to the control. Using dwarf lines to obtain mini-tomato hybrids was shown to be viable since the hybrids demonstrated better agronomic performance.

  20. Performance Investigation of a Full-Scale Hybrid Composite Bull Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBerge, Kelsen; Handschuh, Robert; Roberts, Gary; Thorp, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composite gears have been investigated as a weight saving technology for rotorcraft transmissions. These gears differ from conventional steel gears in that the structural material between the shaft interface and the gear rim is replaced with a lightweight carbon fiber composite. The work discussed here is an extension of previous coupon level hybrid gear tests to a full-scale bull gear. The NASA Glenn Research Center High-Speed Helical Gear Rig was modified for this program allowing several hybrid gear web configurations to be tested while utilizing the same gear rim. Testing was performed on both a baseline (steel) web configuration and a hybrid (steel-composite)configuration. Vibration, orbit and temperature data were recorded and compared between configurations. Vibration levels did not differ greatly between the hybrid and steel configurations, nor did temperature differential between inlet and outlet. While orbit shape displayed differences between the hybrid and baseline configurations, the general overall amplitude was comparable. The hybrid configuration discussed here successfully ran at 3300 hp(2,460 kW), however, progressive growth of the orbit while running at this test condition discontinued the test. Researchers continue to search for the cause of this orbit shift.

  1. Exact distribution of a maximally selected Wilcoxon and a new hybrid test of symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Eugene; Meisner, Morris; Wanderling, Joseph

    2014-10-30

    Recently, a maximally selected normalized Wilcoxon, whose asymptotic distribution is a Brownian Bridge, was proposed for testing symmetry of a distribution about zero. The test sequentially discards observations whose absolute value is below increasing thresholds. The Wilcoxon is obtained at each threshold, and the maximum is the test statistic. We develop a recursive function for the exact distribution of a modification of the Max Wilcoxon test (MW) and provide critical values and a program for computing the p-value for a sample. A new hybrid test that combines the sign and MW tests is introduced. The power of MW and the new hybrid test are compared with Modarres and Gastwirth's hybrid test (MGH) and the Max McNemar (MM), under the generalized lambda distributions (GLD) family and two normal mixture models. The MW and the new hybrid test outperform the MGH, which is superior to the MM test in the GLD family. In one mixture model, MM is the least powerful test and the remaining three are essentially equivalent. In the second mixture model, when the zero median assumption is nearly valid, the MW test does well; its performance degrades when this assumption is violated. In the latter case, the MM performs better than MW for the same degree of skewness because the MM simultaneously tests both symmetry and zero median. Data from a genetic study of monozygotic twins discordant for major depressive disorder is used to illustrate the new tests. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Baseline tests of the Kordesh hybrid passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Denington, R. J.; Dustin, M. O.

    1978-01-01

    Performance test results are presented for a four-passenger Austin A40 sedan that was converted to a heat-engine-alternator-and battery-powered hybrid. It is propelled by a conventional, gasoline-fueled, heat-engine-driven alternator and a traction pack powering a series-wound, 10 hp direct-current electric drive motor. The 16 hp gasoline engine drives the 7 kilowatt alternator, which provides electrical power to the drive motor or to the 96 volt traction battery through a rectifier. The propulsion battery consists of eight 12 volt batteries connected in series. The electric motor is coupled to a four-speed standard transmission, which drives the rear wheels. Power to the motor is controlled by a three-step foot throttle, which actuates relays that control armature current and field excitation. Conventional hydraulic brakes are used.

  3. Hybrid microcircuit technology handbook materials, processes, design, testing and production

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1998-01-01

    The Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook integrates the many diverse technologies used in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of hybrid segments crucial to the success of producing reliable circuits in high yields. Among these are: resistor trimming, wire bonding, die attachment, cleaning, hermetic sealing, and moisture analysis. In addition to thin films, thick films, and assembly processes, important chapters on substrate selections, handling (including electrostatic discharge), failure analysis, and documentation are included. A comprehensive chapter of design guidelines will

  4. Performance analysis of switching based hybrid FSO/RF transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid free space optical (FSO)/ radio frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data rate wireless back haul.We present and analyze a switching based transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF system. Specifically, either FSO or RF link will be active at a certain time instance, with FSO link enjoying a higher priority. Analytical expressions have been obtained for the outage probability, average bit error rate and ergodic capacity for the resulting system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the hybrid scheme with FSO only scenario.

  5. Testing hybrid natural inflation with BICEP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo-González, Mariana [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Germán, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, CP 09340, México D.F. (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Hidalgo, Juan Carlos [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sussman, Roberto A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-543, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-06-27

    We analyse Hybrid Natural Inflation in view of the recent results for the tensor index reported by BICEP2. We find that it predicts a large running of the scalar spectrum which is potentially detectable by large scale structure through measurements of clustering of galaxies in combination with CMB data and by 21 cm forest observations. The running of the running is also relatively large becoming close to 10{sup −2}. Along the way, we find general consistency relations at which observables are subject if the slow-roll approximation is imposed. Failure to satisfy these equations by the values obtained for the observables in surveys would be a failure of the slow-roll approximation itself.

  6. The performance of human papillomavirus DNA detection with type 16/18 genotyping by hybrid capture in primary test of cervical cancer screening: a cross-sectional study in 10,669 Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Wu, Q; Wang, X; Fu, Y; Zhang, X; Tian, X; Cheng, B; Lu, B; Yu, X; Lan, S; Lu, W; Ma, D; Cheng, X; Xie, X

    2018-03-05

    We aimed to assess the performance of DH3 human papillomavirus (HPV) assay, a newly developed hybrid capture technique that detects 14 high-risk HPVs with type 16/18 genotyping, as a primary test in cervical cancer screening. Totally 11,356 Chinese women aged 21-65 years participated in a cervical cancer screening program using cytology (Thinprep, Hologic) and HPV testing (Cobas 4800 Test, Roche). Residual samples were used to detect HPV by DH3 HPV. Totally 10,669 women with valid results were included in the study. Of those, 135 were diagnosed as CIN2+, and 83 were diagnosed as CIN3+; 1056 (9.9%) women were DH3 HPV positive and 255 (2.4%) of those were 16/18 positive, while 990 (9.3%) women were Cobas HPV positive and 243 (2.3%) of those were 16/18 positive. DH3 HPV was non-inferior to Cobas HPV in identifying CIN1- and CIN2+ using predetermined thresholds (both p value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of DH3 HPV were 93.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 87.7-96.9), 91.2% (95%CI = 90.6-91.7), 12.0% (95%CI = 10.1-14.1) and 99.9% (95%CI = 99.8-100), respectively, similar to those of Cobas HPV (91.1%, 95%CI = 85.0-5.3; 91.8%, 95%CI = 91.2-92.3; 12.5%, 95%CI = 10.5-14.7; and 99.9%, 95%CI = 99.8-99.9, respectively), in identifying CIN2+ (all p > 0.05). When DH3 HPV and Cobas HPV were respectively used as primary testing in screening strategy, the performance of two strategies were similar in identifying CIN2+. The results were similar in identifying CIN3+. Our data suggests that DH3 HPV performs similarly to Cobas HPV in identifying high-grade CIN in cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Extensive tests of Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPD) used to collect Cherenkov light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsato, E.; Buccheri, A.; DalCorso, F.; Ferroni, F.; Iacovella, F.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Morandin, M.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Posocco, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Stroili, R.; Torassa, E.; Voci, C.

    1997-01-01

    The principle of operation of a newly developed proximity focused Hybrid Photon Detector is described. The HPD characteristics, performance and calibration are reported. Results from beam tests of aerogel threshold counters read out by HPD and the particle identification performance are presented. (orig.)

  8. Genome properties and prospects of genomic prediction of hybrid performance in a breeding program of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Frank; Schrag, Tobias A; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Bauer, Eva; Simianer, Henner; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2014-08-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) serves as model plant for heterosis research and is the crop where hybrid breeding was pioneered. We analyzed genomic and phenotypic data of 1254 hybrids of a typical maize hybrid breeding program based on the important Dent × Flint heterotic pattern. Our main objectives were to investigate genome properties of the parental lines (e.g., allele frequencies, linkage disequilibrium, and phases) and examine the prospects of genomic prediction of hybrid performance. We found high consistency of linkage phases and large differences in allele frequencies between the Dent and Flint heterotic groups in pericentromeric regions. These results can be explained by the Hill-Robertson effect and support the hypothesis of differential fixation of alleles due to pseudo-overdominance in these regions. In pericentromeric regions we also found indications for consistent marker-QTL linkage between heterotic groups. With prediction methods GBLUP and BayesB, the cross-validation prediction accuracy ranged from 0.75 to 0.92 for grain yield and from 0.59 to 0.95 for grain moisture. The prediction accuracy of untested hybrids was highest, if both parents were parents of other hybrids in the training set, and lowest, if none of them were involved in any training set hybrid. Optimizing the composition of the training set in terms of number of lines and hybrids per line could further increase prediction accuracy. We conclude that genomic prediction facilitates a paradigm shift in hybrid breeding by focusing on the performance of experimental hybrids rather than the performance of parental lines in test crosses. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Improved performance of students instructed in a hybrid PBL format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiqin; He, Fengtian

    2013-01-01

    As a result of enrollment expansion, increasing numbers of students are entering into medical school in China. This combined with a shortage of teachers, means that the learning environment typically consists of a large classroom setting with traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) as the major mode to teaching and learning. In this article, we investigate the preferences for hybrid problem-based learning (hybrid-PBL) or LBL in a large classroom setting. Two hundred five second-year undergraduate students in Third Military Medical University were randomly divided to two groups. The hybrid-PBL group contained 101 students and was taught by hybrid LBL (60%) and tutor-less PBL(40%) in a large classroom. The LBL group consisted of 104 students and was taught by LBL in a large classroom too. Post-teaching performance was assessed by multiple choice questions, short-essay questions, and case-analysis questions, while the students' teaching preferences and satisfaction were assessed by questionnaires. Analysis of the results of both groups in the examination of biochemistry revealed significantly higher scores on short-essay questions and case-analysis questions in the hybrid-PBL group. Students considered hybrid-PBL to be an effective learning method and favored it over the lecture format. Furthermore, students reported positive effects of hybrid-PBL in terms of additional learning resources, critical thinking, and fun learning experiences. These results suggest that hybrid-PBL is better than the traditional LBL method at improving students' basic knowledge and problem-solving skills. Students preferred hybrid-PBL and were satisfied with it. The tutor-less PBL pattern in a large classroom setting may be feasible in Chinese medical schools. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The Performance of Barium Sulfate Nanoparticles/polypropylene Hybrid Multifilament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Wang, Xuanjun; Mu, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Shujuan

    2012-01-01

    Nanosize barium sulfate (BaSO4) particles prepared with dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) in ethanol-water reaction system are used to prepare BaSO4/polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites by melt mixing method. It is then made into hybrid fibers by melt spinning and subsequent drawing with different ratios. The hybrid fibers are characterized by rheology, morphology, thermal stability and mechanical properties, respectively. The results indicate that the DBSA-modified BaSO4 can improve the spinnability of BaSO4/PP hybrid multifilament even at high BaSO4 nanoparticles concentration. DBSA can be used as compatibilizer to enhance the interface interaction of BaSO4/PP nanocomposites, because DBSA contains both hydrophobicity long alkyl chain and hydrophilic sulfonic group. Therefore, it can improve the performances of BaSO4/PP hybrid multifilament.

  11. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia); Yahaya, M. S. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  12. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  13. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand

  14. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tim S; Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Kofoed, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region...... of interest was identified from a serial H&E stained slide following tissue cores were transferred to a tissue microarrays (TMA). When using TMA in a routine flow, all patients will be tested for HER2 status with IHC followed by CISH or FISH, thereby providing individual HER2 results. In conclusion, our...... results show that the differences between the HER2 genetic assays do not have an effect on the analytic performance and the CISH technology is superior to high throughput HER2 genetic testing due to scanning speed, while the IQ-FISH may still be a choice for fast low throughput HER2 genetic testing....

  15. Experimentation and cycle performance prediction of hybrid A/C system using automobile exhaust waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Cai, Wenjian; Zhao, Hongxia; Lin, Chen; Yan, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid A/C system is proposed with an ejector cycle and a compressor cycle. • The ejector cycle was driven by automobile's exhausted waste heat. • The system can operate under three modes: compressor, hybrid and ejector. • System modeling and experimental study were performed. • The experimental results show that the COP improvement over 30% can be achieved. - Abstract: A hybrid air-conditioning (A/C) system is proposed which consists of two cycles: (1) an ejector cycle driven by exhausted waste heat; and (2) a compressor A/C cycle. The system can operate under three modes: compressor, hybrid and ejector. Under the hybrid mode, the ejector driven by waste heat reduces the compression ratio (CR) of the compressor and boosts the compressor discharge pressure to the condenser pressure. The governing equations are derived based on energy and mass balances for each component of the system. The performance of the hybrid A/C system under compressor mode and hybrid mode is first analyzed theoretically at design conditions. Then it was tested experimentally through variations of (1) primary pressure from 11 to 23 bar; (2) evaporation pressure from 2.5 to 4.5 bar; and (3) condensation pressure from 9 to 12.5 bar, respectively. The experimental results show that the hybrid system is feasible, and can significantly enhance the performance of the automobile A/C systems, 35.2% COP improvement at the automobile idle conditions and more than 40% COP improvement when the automobile speeds over 80 km/h conditions. The increase of primary pressure and evaporation pressure has a positive effect on system performance while the increase of condensation pressure has a negative effect. The hybrid A/C system has the potential to be adopted in automobiles for the advantages of low cost, durable operation and better energy efficiency.

  16. Uniform peanut performance test 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 14 entries were evaluated at 8 locations....

  17. Mountain bicycle frame testing as an example of practical implementation of hybrid simulation using RTFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Waldemar; Kuś, Wacław

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a practical implementation of hybrid simulation using Real Time Finite Element Method (RTFEM). Hybrid simulation is a technique for investigating dynamic material and structural properties of mechanical systems by performing numerical analysis and experiment at the same time. It applies to mechanical systems with elements too difficult or impossible to model numerically. These elements are tested experimentally, while the rest of the system is simulated numerically. Data between the experiment and numerical simulation are exchanged in real time. Authors use Finite Element Method to perform the numerical simulation. The following paper presents the general algorithm for hybrid simulation using RTFEM and possible improvements of the algorithm for computation time reduction developed by the authors. The paper focuses on practical implementation of presented methods, which involves testing of a mountain bicycle frame, where the shock absorber is tested experimentally while the rest of the frame is simulated numerically.

  18. Composite Strain Hardening Properties of High Performance Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Jothi Jayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid fibres addition in concrete proved to be a promising method to improve the composite mechanical properties of the cementitious system. Fibre combinations involving different fibre lengths and moduli were added in high strength slag based concrete to evaluate the strain hardening properties. Influence of hybrid fibres consisting of steel and polypropylene fibres added in slag based cementitious system (50% CRL was explored. Effects of hybrid fibre addition at optimum volume fraction of 2% of steel fibres and 0.5% of PP fibres (long and short steel fibre combinations were observed in improving the postcrack strength properties of concrete. Test results also indicated that the hybrid steel fibre additions in slag based concrete consisting of short steel and polypropylene (PP fibres exhibited a the highest compressive strength of 48.56 MPa. Comparative analysis on the performance of monofibre concrete consisting of steel and PP fibres had shown lower residual strength compared to hybrid fibre combinations. Hybrid fibres consisting of long steel-PP fibres potentially improved the absolute and residual toughness properties of concrete composite up to a maximum of 94.38% compared to monofibre concrete. In addition, the relative performance levels of different hybrid fibres in improving the matrix strain hardening, postcrack toughness, and residual strength capacity of slag based concretes were evaluated systematically.

  19. Enhanced performance of microbial fuel cell with a bacteria/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Jia; Qu, Youpeng; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Yingjuan; Feng, Yujie

    2017-09-01

    The biofilm on the anode of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a vital component in system, and its formation and characteristic determines the performance of the system. In this study, a bacteria/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid biofilm is fabricated by effectively inserting the MWCNTs into the anode biofilm via an adsorption-filtration method. This hybrid biofilm has been demonstrated to be an efficient structure for improving an anode biofilm performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that the hybrid biofilm takes advantage of the conductivity and structure of MWCNT to enhance the electron transfer and substrate diffusion of the biofilm. With this hybrid biofilm, the current density, power density and coulombic efficiency are increased by 46.2%, 58.8% and 84.6%, respectively, relative to naturally grown biofilm. Furthermore, the start-up time is reduced by 53.8% compared with naturally grown biofilm. The perturbation test demonstrates that this type of hybrid biofilm exhibits strong adsorption ability and enhances the biofilm's resistance to a sudden change of substrate concentration. The superior performance of the hybrid biofilm with MWCNT ;nanowire; matrix compared with naturally grown biofilm demonstrates its great potential for boosting the performance of MFCs.

  20. Calorimeter Preamplifier Hybrid Circuit Test Jig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    There are two ways in which the testing may be initiated, remotely or locally. If the remote operation is desired, an external TTL level signal must be provided to the test jig with the remotellocal switch on the side of the test jig switched to remote. A logic high will initiate the test. A logic low will terminate the test. In the event that an external signal is connected to the test jig while local operation occurs, the local control takes precedence over remote control. Once a DVT has been locked in the ZIF socket and the DIP switches are selected, the Push-to-Test button may be depressed. Momentarily depressing the button will initiate a test with a minimum 400 ms duration. At the same time a PBCLOCK and PBLATCH pulses will be initiated and the power rails +12V, +8V, and -6V will be ramped to full voltage. The time at which the power rails reach the full voltage is about 13 ms and it is synchronized with bypass capacitors placed on COMP input of U20 and U22 and on the output of U23 voltage regulators. The voltage rails are supplied to a ±10% window comparator. A red LED indicates the rail is below or above 10% of the design value. A green LED indicates the rail is within acceptable limits. For DDT with a 5 pF and 10 pF feed back capacitor, the +12V and +8V rails are current-regulated to 19rnA and 22 rnA respectively and the -6V rail is short-circuit protected within the regulator. For DUT with a 22 pF feed back capacitor the current regulation is the same as above except that the +8V rail is current regulated to 43 rnA. The power rails are supplied to the DUT via a 10 (Omega) resistor. The voltage drop across this resistor is sensed by a differential amplifier AD620 and amplified by a gain of 10. An external BNC connection is provided from this point to allow for current measurements by the vendor. The current value for each rail is calculated by measuring the voltage value at this point and divided by (10*10(Omega)). The next stage inverts and amplifies the

  1. Phylogenetic tests of a Cercopithecus monkey hybrid reveal X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A captive Cercopithecus nictitans × C. cephus male was examined at loci on the X- and Y-chromosomes as a test of previously described phylogenetic methods for identifying hybrid Cercopithecus monkeys. The results confirm the reliability of such assays, indicating that they can be of immediate utility for studies of wild ...

  2. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lindbergh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

  3. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  4. Gas-Transport-Property Performance of Hybrid Carbon Molecular Sieve−Polymer Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Mita

    2010-10-06

    High-performance hybrid materials using carbon molecular sieve materials and 6FDA-6FpDA were produced. A detailed analysis of the effects of casting processes and the annealing temperature is reported. Two existing major obstacles, sieve agglomeration and residual stress, were addressed in this work, and subsequently a new membrane formation technique was developed to produce high-performing membranes. The successfully improved interfacial region of the hybrid membranes allows the sieves to increase the selectivity of the membranes above the neat polymer properties. Furthermore, an additional performance enhancement was seen with increased sieve loading in the hybrid membranes, leading to an actual performance above the upper bound for pure polymer membranes. The membranes were also tested under a mixed-gas environment, which further demonstrated promising results. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  6. Hybrid Wing Body Multi-Bay Test Article Analysis and Assembly Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicki, Alexander; Hoffman, Krishna; Linton, Kim A.; Baraja, Jaime; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Thrash, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by The Boeing Company, through its Boeing Research & Technology organization located in Huntington Beach, California, under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. The report documents work performed to structurally analyze and assemble a large-scale Multi-bay Box (MBB) Test Article capable of withstanding bending and internal pressure loadings representative of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft. The work included fabrication of tooling elements for use in the fabrication and assembly of the test article.

  7. Performance Assessment of Hybrid Data Fusion and Tracking Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Stephan; Mensing, Christian; Laaraiedh, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the performance of hybrid data fusion and tracking algorithms evaluated in the WHERE consortium. The focus is on three scenarios. For the small scale indoor scenario with ultra wideband (UWB) complementing cellular communication systems, the accuracy can vary...

  8. Hybridity, coping mechanisms, and academic performance management: Comparing three countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teelken, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in the higher education sectors of the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK concerning accountability and performance measurement in research have resulted in a variety of responses from individual academics. The concept of hybridity enables us to explain these developments over time.

  9. Performance comparison of hydraulic and gravitation HybridICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    into the crystal lattice (Olsson, 1999; Lorain et al., 2000). The purpose of this work was to describe the operation of gravitation and hydraulic HybridICE filters, and compare their performance, in terms of salt removal and ice yield, in the separa- tion of ice from slurry during freeze desalination of mine waters. MAtERIAls And ...

  10. Comparative study on the growth performance of the hybrid catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance of the hybrid catfish Heteroclarias reared in concrete and earthen pond systems were investigated in a 92-day experiment. Experiment was conducted using four rectangular ponds (2 concrete and 2 earthen) each measuring 14 × 6 × 1.5 metres in duplicates. The ponds were uniformly limed, fertilized ...

  11. Agronomic performance of mini-tomato hybrids from dwarf lines

    OpenAIRE

    Finzi, Rafael Resende; Maciel, Gabriel Mascarenhas; Silva, Ernani Clarete da; Luz, Jose Magno Queiroz; Borba, Monique Ellis Aguilar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about the commercial potential of mini-tomato hybrids obtained from one dwarf parent. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the agronomic performance of mini-tomato hybrids obtained by crossing a dwarf line (A) with normal lines with indeterminate (I), determinate (D) and semi-determinate (SD) growth habits. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Estação Experimental de Hortaliças at the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia-UFU in Monte Carmelo, Brazil. The e...

  12. PERFORMANCE OF PROMISING HYBRID RICE IN TWO DIFFERENT ELEVATIONS OF IRRIGATED LOWLAND IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Widyastuti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid rice program has been established since early 1990’s at the Indonesia Center for Rice Research (ICRR. Twenty-four experimental hybrid rice varieties which have been developed were tested in lowland rice fields in Sukamandi (West Java and Batang (Central Java during the dry season and the rainy season of 2012. Randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was used in each location. The results showed that grains yields were affected by locations, seasons, and genotypes. The genotypes x locations x seasons interaction effect was significant; therefore, the best hybrid was different for each location and season. A7/PK36 hybrid has the best performance in Batang during the dry season, while A7/PK40 and A7/PK32 are the best hybrids in the rainy season. In Sukamandi, nine hybrids were identified as better yielder than that of the check cultivar in the dry season, but not so in the rainy season. Using the correlation and path analysis, we found that the number of panicles per hill and the number of filled grains per panicle could be used as selection criteria for yield in hybrid rice.

  13. Design, analysis, and testing of a hybrid scale structural dynamic model of a Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronet, Marc J.; Crawley, Edward F.; Allen, Bradley R.

    1989-01-01

    The impracticality of testing the fully-assembled on-orbit configurations of future large erectable space platforms fosters an increased reliance on other means for verifying predicted structural dynamic performance. One option is scale modeling. This paper discusses the design of a hybrid scale dynamic test model of the Freedom Space Station and its associated suspension system. Hybrid scaling laws are reviewed, followed by scale factor trades, component design examples, and an analytical evaluation of the overall model fidelity. Component and subassembly test results from a six-bay hybrid scale model truss are presented. Potential interactions of gravity and the suspension system with the free-free dynamics of the scale model are investigated. Suspension system design parameters, such as the number, location, mass, and stiffness of the suspension devices are traded to minimize undesirable interactions and form the basis for an overall suspension system concept for the scale model.

  14. Data Fusion Modeling for an RT3102 and Dewetron System Application in Hybrid Vehicle Stability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Miao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is proposed based on the Kalman filter. Then, this modeling is simulated and tested on a sample vehicle, using Carsim and Simulink software to test the results. The results showed the merits of this modeling.

  15. Performance testing With JMeter 29

    CERN Document Server

    Erinle, Bayo

    2013-01-01

    Performance Testing With JMeter 2.9 is a standard tutorial that will help you polish your fundamentals, guide you through various advanced topics, and along the process help you learn new tools and skills.This book is for developers, quality assurance engineers, testers, and test managers new to Apache JMeter, or those who are looking to get a good grounding in how to effectively use and become proficient with it. No prior testing experience is required.

  16. Suited and Unsuited Hybrid III Impact Testing and Finite Element Model Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criteria and injury assessment reference values (IARV) extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). For the ATD IARVs, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Each of these ATDs is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis (also known as the aerospace pelvis) and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. Sled testing of the Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) was performed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WAPFB). Two 5th Percentile ATDs were tested, the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) and NASA owned Hybrid III ATDs with aerospace pelvises. Testing was also conducted with a NASA-owned 95th Percentile Male Hybrid III with aerospace pelvis at WPAFB. Testing was performed using an Orion seat prototype provided by Johnson Space Center (JSC). A 5-point harness comprised of 2 inch webbing was also provided by JSC. For suited runs, a small and extra-large Advanced Crew Escape System (ACES) suit and helmet were also provided by JSC. Impact vectors were combined frontal/spinal and rear/lateral. Some pure spinal and rear axis testing was also performed for model validation. Peak accelerations ranged between 15 and 20-g. This range was targeted because the ATD responses fell close to the IARV defined in the Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) document. Rise times varied between 70 and 110 ms to assess differences in ATD responses and model correlation for different impact energies. The purpose of the test series was to evaluate the Hybrid III ATD models in Orion-specific landing orientations both with and without a spacesuit. The results of these tests were used

  17. Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua

    2013-03-01

    The exciting development of advanced nanostructured materials has driven the rapid growth of research in the field of electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems which are critical to a variety of applications ranging from portable consumer electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, to large industrial scale power and energy management. Owing to their capability to deliver high power performance and extremely long cycle life, electrochemical capacitors (ECs), one of the key EES systems, have attracted increasing attention in the recent years since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review article describes the most recent progress in the development of nanostructured electrode materials for EC technology, with a particular focus on hybrid nanostructured materials that combine carbon based materials with pseudocapacitive metal oxides or conducting polymers for achieving high-performance ECs. This review starts with an overview of EES technologies and the comparison between various EES systems, followed by a brief description of energy storage mechanisms for different types of EC materials. This review emphasizes the exciting development of both hybrid nanomaterials and novel support structures for effective electrochemical utilization and high mass loading of active electrode materials, both of which have brought the energy density of ECs closer to that of batteries while still maintaining their characteristic high power density. Last, future research directions and the remaining challenges toward the rational design and synthesis of hybrid nanostructured electrode materials for next-generation ECs are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Optimizing protection for rear seat occupants : assessing booster performance with realistic belt geometry using the hybrid III 6YO ATD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    A series of sled tests was conducted to examine the performance of booster seats under belt geometries representing the range found in the rear seats of current vehicles. Twelve tests were performed with the standard 6YO Hybrid III ATD and 29 tests w...

  19. Design and RF Test of Broadband Coaxial Hybrid Splitter for ITER ICRF System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J.; Wang, S. J.; Park, B. H.; Yang, H. L.; Kwak, J. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. J. [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The ICRF system of the ITER is required to couple 20 MW to the plasma in the 40∼55 MHz frequency band for RF heating and current drive operation. The corresponding matching system of ICRF antenna must be load-resilient for a wide range of antenna load variations due to mode transitions or edge localized modes. Indeed the use of hybrid splitters ensures that no reflections occur at the generator when the reflections on the adjacent lines are equal both in magnitude and in phase, in which case all reflected power will not be seen by the generators and will be returned to the dummy loads. Most 3 dB coaxial hybrid circuits installed and implemented on the ICRF system is single section coupler providing best performance at the design frequency with narrow bandwidth. The bandwidth of such a single-section 3 dB hybrid coupler is limited to less than 20% due to the quarter wavelength transmission line requirement. The amplitude balance becomes rapidly degraded away from the center frequency. We designed, fabricated and tested a high power, ultra-wideband two-section 3 dB coaxial hybrid coupler over all frequencies from 40 MHz to 55 MHz for ITER ICRF system by configuring asymmetric impedance matching. We have designed, fabricated, and tested a 3-dB wideband hybrid coupler for stable and load resilient operation of the ITER ICRF system. The wideband two section 3-dB coaxial hybrid coupler was well designed by configuring asymmetric impedance matching using HFSS. In the rf measurements, we found that wideband hybrid splitter has an amplitude imbalance of 0.1 dB over all frequencies from 40 MHz to 55 MHz. We expect that wideband hybrid splitter will be applicable to ITER ICRF matching system for load resilient operation at fusion plasmas.

  20. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  1. LFK, FORTRAN Application Performance Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, F.H.

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LFK, the Livermore FORTRAN Kernels, is a computer performance test that measures a realistic floating-point performance range for FORTRAN applications. Informally known as the Livermore Loops test, the LFK test may be used as a computer performance test, as a test of compiler accuracy (via checksums) and efficiency, or as a hardware endurance test. The LFK test, which focuses on FORTRAN as used in computational physics, measures the joint performance of the computer CPU, the compiler, and the computational structures in units of Mega-flops/sec or Mflops. A C language version of subroutine KERNEL is also included which executes 24 samples of C numerical computation. The 24 kernels are a hydrodynamics code fragment, a fragment from an incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient code, the standard inner product function of linear algebra, a fragment from a banded linear equations routine, a segment of a tridiagonal elimination routine, an example of a general linear recurrence equation, an equation of state fragment, part of an alternating direction implicit integration code, an integrate predictor code, a difference predictor code, a first sum, a first difference, a fragment from a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code, a part of a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code, an example of how casually FORTRAN can be written, a Monte Carlo search loop, an example of an implicit conditional computation, a fragment of a two-dimensional explicit hydrodynamics code, a general linear recurrence equation, part of a discrete ordinates transport program, a simple matrix calculation, a segment of a Planck distribution procedure, a two-dimensional implicit hydrodynamics fragment, and determination of the location of the first minimum in an array. 2 - Method of solution: CPU performance rates depend strongly on the maturity of FORTRAN compiler machine code optimization. The LFK test-bed executes the set of 24 kernels three times, resetting the DO

  2. Lack of detection of human papillomavirus infection by hybridization test in prostatic biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzaz, Faten S; Mosli, Hisham A

    2009-01-01

    To explore the possibility of finding human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the prostate tissue of a cohort of Saudi men presenting with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer. A cohort study on prospectively collected tissue samples was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from March 2007 to December 2008 on a total of 56 male patients, age range 50-93 years (average 68), diagnosed as having BPH or prostate cancer. The HPV DNA hybridization by hybrid capture 2 technology was performed on prostate biopsies of these patients to detect 18 types of HPV infection, and differentiate between 2 HPV DNA groups, the low-risk types, and the high/intermediate risk types.The tissues of all the prostatic biopsies were negative for HPV DNA. Our results, using the hybridization test, indicate that it is unlikely that HPV-16 or HPV-18, or the other tested subtypes, enhance the risk of prostate cancer. (author)

  3. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Power Cutting System for Roadheader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrohydraulic hybrid power cutting transmission system for roadheader under specific working condition was proposed in this paper. The overall model for the new system composed of an electric motor model, a hydraulic pump-motor model, a torsional planetary set model, and a hybrid power train model was established. The working mode characteristics were simulated under the conditions of taking the effect of cutting picks into account. The advantages of new hybrid power cutting system about the dynamic response under shock load were investigated compared with the traditional cutting system. The results illustrated that the hybrid power system had an obvious cushioning in terms of the dynamic load of cutting electric motor and planetary gear set. Besides, the hydraulic motor could provide an auxiliary power to improve the performance of the electric motor. With further analysis, a dynamic load was found to have a high relation to the stiffness and damping of coupling in the transmission train. The results could be a useful guide for the design of cutting transmission of roadheader.

  4. GEM: Performance and aging tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.S.; Kadyk, J.; Han, S.H.; Hong, W.S.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Wenzel, W.; Pitts, K.; Martin, M.D.; Hutchins, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Performance and aging tests have been done to characterize Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs), including further design improvements such as a thicker GEM and a closed GEM. Since the effective GEM gain is typically smaller than the absolute GEM gain, due to trapping of avalanche electrons at the bottom GEM electrode, the authors performed field simulations and measurements for better understanding, and discuss methods to eliminate this effect. Other performance parameters of the GEMs are also presented, including absolute GEM gain, short-term and long-term gain stabilities

  5. 76 FR 31860 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III Test Dummy, ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0146] RIN 2127-AK64 Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III Test Dummy, ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department..., 2008, concerning a 50th percentile adult male side crash test dummy called the ``ES-2re'' test dummy...

  6. Optimum allocation of test resources and comparison of breeding strategies for hybrid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, C Friedrich H; Mi, Xuefei; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Reif, Jochen C; Würschum, Tobias

    2014-10-01

    The use of a breeding strategy combining the evaluation of line per se with testcross performance maximizes annual selection gain for hybrid wheat breeding. Recent experimental studies confirmed a high commercial potential for hybrid wheat requiring the design of optimum breeding strategies. Our objectives were to (1) determine the optimum allocation of the type and number of testers, the number of test locations and the number of doubled haploid lines for different breeding strategies, (2) identify the best breeding strategy and (3) elaborate key parameters for an efficient hybrid wheat breeding program. We performed model calculations using the selection gain for grain yield as target variable to optimize the number of lines, testers and test locations in four different breeding strategies. A breeding strategy (BS2) combining the evaluation of line per se performance and general combining ability (GCA) had a far larger annual selection gain across all considered scenarios than a breeding strategy (BS1) focusing only on GCA. In the combined strategy, the production of testcross seed conducted in parallel with the first yield trial for line per se performance (BS2rapid) resulted in a further increase of the annual selection gain. For the current situation in hybrid wheat, this relative superiority of the strategy BS2rapid amounted to 67 % in annual selection gain compared to BS1. Varying a large number of parameters, we identified the high costs for hybrid seed production and the low variance of GCA in hybrid wheat breeding as key parameters limiting selection gain in BS2rapid.

  7. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Liu

    Full Text Available Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1 examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2 explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3 investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs, but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  8. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozheng; Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Longin, C Friedrich H; Reif, Jochen C; Mette, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  9. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozheng; Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Longin, C. Friedrich H.; Reif, Jochen C.; Mette, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population. PMID:27383841

  10. Predicting Hybrid Performances for Quality Traits through Genomic-Assisted Approaches in Central European Wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Guozheng

    2016-07-06

    Bread-making quality traits are central targets for wheat breeding. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the presence of major effect QTLs for quality traits in a Central European elite wheat population, (2) explore the optimal strategy for predicting the hybrid performance for wheat quality traits, and (3) investigate the effects of marker density and the composition and size of the training population on the accuracy of prediction of hybrid performance. In total 135 inbred lines of Central European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 1,604 hybrids derived from them were evaluated for seven quality traits in up to six environments. The 135 parental lines were genotyped using a 90k single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Genome-wide association mapping initially suggested presence of several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but cross-validation rather indicated the absence of major effect QTLs for all quality traits except of 1000-kernel weight. Genomic selection substantially outperformed marker-assisted selection in predicting hybrid performance. A resampling study revealed that increasing the effective population size in the estimation set of hybrids is relevant to boost the accuracy of prediction for an unrelated test population.

  11. Engineering three-dimensional hybrid supercapacitors and microsupercapacitors for high-performance integrated energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Maher F.; Ihns, Melanie; Li, Mengping; Hwang, Jee Youn; Mousavi, Mir F.; Chaney, Lindsay; Lech, Andrew T.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors now play an important role in the progress of hybrid and electric vehicles, consumer electronics, and military and space applications. There is a growing demand in developing hybrid supercapacitor systems to overcome the energy density limitations of the current generation of carbon-based supercapacitors. Here, we demonstrate 3D high-performance hybrid supercapacitors and microsupercapacitors based on graphene and MnO2 by rationally designing the electrode microstructure and combining active materials with electrolytes that operate at high voltages. This results in hybrid electrodes with ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of over 1,100 F/cm3. This corresponds to a specific capacitance of the constituent MnO2 of 1,145 F/g, which is close to the theoretical value of 1,380 F/g. The energy density of the full device varies between 22 and 42 Wh/l depending on the device configuration, which is superior to those of commercially available double-layer supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors, lithium-ion capacitors, and hybrid supercapacitors tested under the same conditions and is comparable to that of lead acid batteries. These hybrid supercapacitors use aqueous electrolytes and are assembled in air without the need for expensive “dry rooms” required for building today’s supercapacitors. Furthermore, we demonstrate a simple technique for the fabrication of supercapacitor arrays for high-voltage applications. These arrays can be integrated with solar cells for efficient energy harvesting and storage systems. PMID:25831542

  12. Application of the X-in-the-Loop Testing Method in the FCV Hybrid Degree Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyu Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of fuel cell vehicle technology, an effective testing method that can be applied to develop and verify the fuel cell vehicle powertrain system is urgently required. This paper presents the X-in-the-Loop (XiL testing method in the fuel cell vehicle (FCV hybrid degree test to resolve the first and key issues for the powertrain system design, and the test process and scenarios were designed. The hybrid degree is redefined into the static hybrid degree for system architecture design and the dynamic hybrid degree for vehicle control strategy design, and an integrated testing platform was introduced and a testing application was implemented by following the designed testing flowchart with two loops. Experimental validations show that the sizing of the FCE (Fuel Cell Engine, battery pack, and traction motor with the powertrain architecture can be determined, the control strategy can be evaluated seamlessly, and a systematic powertrain testing solution can be achieved through the whole development process. This research has developed a new testing platform and proposed a novel testing method on the fuel cell vehicle powertrain system, which will be a contribution to fuel cell vehicle technology and its industrialization.

  13. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Tim S.; Espersen, Maiken L. M.; Kofoed, Vibeke; Dabetic, Tanja; Høgdall, Estrid; Balslev, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate and compare 5 different HER2 genetic assays with different characteristics that could affect the performance to analyze the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) gene copy number under low and high throughput conditions. The study included 108 tissue samples from breast cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region of interest was identified from a serial H&E stained slide following tissue cores were transferred to a tissue microarrays (TMA). When using TMA in a routine flow, all patients will be tested for HER2 status with IHC followed by CISH or FISH, thereby providing individual HER2 results. In conclusion, our results show that the differences between the HER2 genetic assays do not have an effect on the analytic performance and the CISH technology is superior to high throughput HER2 genetic testing due to scanning speed, while the IQ-FISH may still be a choice for fast low throughput HER2 genetic testing. PMID:24383005

  14. DESIGN AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE SOLAR BIOMASS HYBRID DRYER FOR CASHEW DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Dhanuskodi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying of Cashew nut to remove testa is one of the most energy-intensive processes of cashew nut process industry. For this reason a hybrid dryer consisting of a solar flat plate collector, a biomass heater and a drying chamber is designed and fabricated. 40 kg of Cashew nut with initial moisture of 9 % is used in the experiment. The performance test of the dryer is carried out in two modes of operation: hybrid-forced convection and hybrid-natural convection. Drying time and drying efficiency during these two modes of operation are estimated and compared with the sun drying. The system is capable of attaining drying temperature between 50º and 70ºC. In the hybrid forced drying, the required moisture content of 3% is achieved within 7 hours and the average system efficiency is estimated as 5.08%. In the hybrid natural drying, the required moisture content is obtained in 9 hours and the average system efficiency is 3.17%. The fuel consumption during the drying process is 0.5 kg/hr and 0.75 kg/hr for forced mode and natural mode, respectively. The drying process in the hybrid forced mode of operation is twice faster than the sun drying. The dryer can be operated in any climatic conditions: as a solar dryer on normal sunny days, as a biomass dryer at night time and as a hybrid dryer on cloudy days. Based on the experimental study, it is concluded that the developed hybrid dryer is suitable for small scale cashew nut farmers in rural areas of developing countries.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Acoustic-Optical Underwater Swarm Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuela PERSIA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underwater Swarm is a particular Underwater Network configuration characterized by nodes very close one to each other, with mobility capability. The structure of the network is that of a distributed network, in which the nodes, through the exchange of control information, will take decisions in collaborative manner. This type of network raises challenges for its effective design and development, for which the only use of acoustic communication as traditionally suggested in underwater communication could be not enough. A new emerging solution could be a hybrid solution that combines the use of acoustic and optical channel in order to overcome the acoustic channel limitations in underwater environment. In this work, we want to investigate how the acoustic and optical communications influence the Underwater Swarm performance by considering the Low Layers Protocols (Physical Layer, Data Link Layer and Network Layer effects over the two different propagation technologies. Performance simulations have been carried out to suggest how the new hybrid system could be designed. This study will permit to provide useful analysis for the real implementation of an Underwater Swarm based on hybrid communication technology.

  16. Test Driven Development: Performing Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Emily

    The art of Test Driven Development (TDD) is a skill that needs to be learnt, and which needs time and practice to master. In this workshop a select number of conference participants with considerable skill and experience are invited to perform code katas [1]. The aim is for them to demonstrate excellence and the use of Test Driven Development, and result in some high quality code. This would be for the benefit of the many programmers attending the conference, who could come along and witness high quality code being written using TDD, and get a chance to ask questions and provide feedback.

  17. 75 FR 5931 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III Test Dummy, ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0194] RIN 2127-AK64 Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III Test Dummy, ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department... adopted specifications and qualification requirements for a new crash test dummy called the ``ES- 2re...

  18. Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors in Hybrid Topologies —Assessment and Evaluation of Their Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri Van Mierlo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PHEVs and BEVs make use of battery cells optimized for high energy rather than for high power. This means that the power abilities of these batteries are limited. In order to enhance their performance, a hybrid Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS architecture can be used combining batteries with electrical-double layer capacitors (EDLCs. Such a hybridized architecture can be accomplished using passive or active systems. In this paper, the characteristics of these topologies have been analyzed and compared based on a newly developed hybridization simulation tool for association of lithium-ion batteries and EDLCs. The analysis shows that the beneficial impact of the EDLCs brings about enhanced battery performances in terms of energy efficiency and voltage drops, rather than extension of vehicle range. These issues have been particularly studied for the passive and active hybrid topologies. The classical passive and active topologies being expensive and less beneficial in term of cost, volume and weight, a new hybrid configuration based on the parallel combination of lithium-ion and EDLCs on cell level has been proposed in this article. This topology allows reducing cost, volume, and weight and system complexity in a significant way. Furthermore, a number of experimental setups have illustrated the power of the novel topology in terms of battery capacity increase and power capabilities during charging and discharging. Finally, a unique cycle life test campaign demonstrated that the lifetime of highly optimized lithium-ion batteries can be extended up to 30%–40%.

  19. Effects of Hybrid Fibre Reinforcement on Fire Resistance Performance and Char Morphology of Intumescent Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches of fire retardant intumescent coatings reinforced by single Rockwool and single glass wool fibre at various weight percentages and lengths showed some improvements to the mechanical properties of the coatings and the char produced. Therefore, in this research the fibres were combined together in intumescent coating formulation at several weight percentages and fibre lengths to study their effects towards fire resistance performance and char morphology. The hybrid fibre reinforced intumescent coatings were subjected to two types of fire tests; Bunsen burner at 1000°C and the electric furnace at 800°C for 1 hour, respectively. Steel temperature of the coated samples during Bunsen burner test was recorded to determine the fire resistance performance. Thermal stability of the intumescent coatings and chars was determined by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. The morphology of the coatings and char was then examined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS was conducted to obtain elemental composition of the samples. This research concluded that long-hybrid fibre at 12-mm length and 0.6% fibre-weight produced the top performing hybrid fibre intumescent formulation. The hybrid fibres form survived at elevated temperature, hence helped to provide structure and strengthen the char with the highest fire resistance was recorded at steel temperature of 197°C.

  20. Performance testing of supercapacitors: Important issues and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyuan; Gao, Yinghan; Burke, Andrew F.

    2017-09-01

    Supercapacitors are a promising technology for high power energy storage, which have been used in some industrial and vehicles applications. Hence, it is important that information concerning the performance of supercapacitors be detailed and reliable so system designers can make rational decisions regarding the selection of the energy storage components. This paper is concerned with important issues and uncertainties regarding the performance testing of supercapacitors. The effect of different test procedures on the measured characteristics of both commercial and prototype supercapacitors including hybrid supercapacitors have been studied. It was found that the test procedure has a relatively minor effect on the capacitance of carbon/carbon devices and a more significant effect on the capacitance of hybrid supercapacitors. The device characteristic with the greatest uncertainty is the resistance and subsequently the claimed power capability of the device. The energy density should be measured by performing constant power discharges between appropriate voltage limits. This is particularly important in the case of hybrid supercapacitors for which the energy density is rate dependent and the simple relationship E = ½CV2 does not yield accurate estimates of the energy stored. In general, most of the important issues for testing carbon/carbon devices become more serious for hybrid supercapacitors.

  1. Substructure hybrid testing of reinforced concrete shear wall structure using a domain overlapping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Pan, Peng; Gong, Runhua; Wang, Tao; Xue, Weichen

    2017-10-01

    An online hybrid test was carried out on a 40-story 120-m high concrete shear wall structure. The structure was divided into two substructures whereby a physical model of the bottom three stories was tested in the laboratory and the upper 37 stories were simulated numerically using ABAQUS. An overlapping domain method was employed for the bottom three stories to ensure the validity of the boundary conditions of the superstructure. Mixed control was adopted in the test. Displacement control was used to apply the horizontal displacement, while two controlled force actuators were applied to simulate the overturning moment, which is very large and cannot be ignored in the substructure hybrid test of high-rise buildings. A series of tests with earthquake sources of sequentially increasing intensities were carried out. The test results indicate that the proposed hybrid test method is a solution to reproduce the seismic response of high-rise concrete shear wall buildings. The seismic performance of the tested precast high-rise building satisfies the requirements of the Chinese seismic design code.

  2. Modeling and design of a high-performance hybrid actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Badr; Behdinan, Kamran; Zu, Jean

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the model and design of a novel hybrid piezoelectric actuator which provides high active and passive performances for smart structural systems. The actuator is composed of a pair of curved pre-stressed piezoelectric actuators, so-called commercially THUNDER actuators, installed opposite each other using two clamping mechanisms constructed of in-plane fixable hinges, grippers and solid links. A fully mathematical model is developed to describe the active and passive dynamics of the actuator and investigate the effects of its geometrical parameters on the dynamic stiffness, free displacement and blocked force properties. Among the literature that deals with piezoelectric actuators in which THUNDER elements are used as a source of electromechanical power, the proposed study is unique in that it presents a mathematical model that has the ability to predict the actuator characteristics and achieve other phenomena, such as resonances, mode shapes, phase shifts, dips, etc. For model validation, the measurements of the free dynamic response per unit voltage and passive acceleration transmissibility of a particular actuator design are used to check the accuracy of the results predicted by the model. The results reveal that there is a good agreement between the model and experiment. Another experiment is performed to teste the linearity of the actuator system by examining the variation of the output dynamic responses with varying forces and voltages at different frequencies. From the results, it can be concluded that the actuator acts approximately as a linear system at frequencies up to 1000 Hz. A parametric study is achieved here by applying the developed model to analyze the influence of the geometrical parameters of the fixable hinges on the active and passive actuator properties. The model predictions in the frequency range of 0-1000 Hz show that the hinge thickness, radius, and opening angle parameters have great effects on the frequency dynamic

  3. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-09-30

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide >99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of the

  4. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-01-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide and gt;99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50(micro)m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of

  5. Finite Element Analysis and Test Results Comparison for the Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.

  6. Dynamic performance analysis of two regional Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Jun; Kim, Jong S.; Vilim, Richard B.; Binder, William R.; Bragg Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard D.; McKellar, Michael G.; Paredis, Christiaan J.J.

    2016-01-01

    In support of more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, HES (hybrid energy systems) can be designed and operated as FER (flexible energy resources) to meet both electrical and thermal energy needs in the electric grid and industrial sectors. These conceptual systems could effectively and economically be utilized, for example, to manage the increasing levels of dynamic variability and uncertainty introduced by VER (variable energy resources) such as renewable sources (e.g., wind, solar), distributed energy resources, demand response schemes, and modern energy demands (e.g., electric vehicles) with their ever changing usage patterns. HES typically integrate multiple energy inputs (e.g., nuclear and renewable generation) and multiple energy outputs (e.g., electricity, gasoline, fresh water) using complementary energy conversion processes. This paper reports a dynamic analysis of two realistic HES including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by their application in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high renewable penetration. It is performed for regional cases – not generic examples – based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses. - Highlights: • Hybrids including renewables can operate as dispatchable flexible energy resources. • Nuclear energy can address high variability and uncertainty in energy systems. • Nuclear hybrids can reliably provide grid services over various time horizons. • Nuclear energy can provide operating reserves and grid inertia under high renewables. • Nuclear hybrids can greatly reduce GHG emissions and support grid and industry needs.

  7. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Rule Induction Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Nalini, C.; Kongu Engineering College; Balasubramnaie, P.; Kongu Engineering College

    2010-01-01

    Data mining is used to extract potential information from data base. Rule induction is used to extract information from data base and display it in IF-THEN rule format. First the classification algorithm builds a predictive model from the training data set and then measure the accuracy of the model by using test data set.This work proposes a hybrid rule induction algorithm using Cooperative Particle Swarm (PSO) with Tabu search (TS), and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). Real world data base cons...

  8. Performance improvement with a hybrid FOCUS-PDCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, J C; Arnold, F L

    1996-10-01

    In 1995 a team of three members of the quality improvement (QI) department at Hardin Memorial Hospital, Elizabethtown, Kentucky, constructed a unified, simple system of tools and activities drawing on the foundation of FOCUS-PDCA and integrating it with the Joint Commission Improving Organizational Performance (IOP) function and language. The team developed documentation tools and educational activities to support each part of the cycle for improving performance: plan--a planning workshop; design--a hybrid FOCUS-PDCA model; measure and assess--a three-part indicator workshop; and measure, assess, and improve--a redesigned QI report form. To document the entire cycle, the team developed an IOP Notebook and a workshop introducing it. Requirements for process design were established based on the standards. Next, the C phase, traditionally interpreted to clarify the current process by flowcharting, was broadened to include internal and external clarification of the process. APPENDIX-USING THE FOCUS--PDCA HYBRID TO REDESIGN AN ANTIBIOGRAM: The hybrid model's hallmark is its flexibility in supporting projects where the need for redesign over improvement is not clear at the outset. In a year-long study in 1995, a "Critter Ridder" Team at Hardin Memorial Hospital used the model to design an innovative antibiogram. In the C phase, customer input was gathered from physicians and a literature search was conducted to identify other antibiogram formats. The team constructed the antibiogram to meet key quality characteristics-accessibility, information, accuracy, timelines, and layout. Documentation on the IOP Notebook templates demonstrates the team's implementation of the performance improvement standards in its design.

  9. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio [Departamento de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen [Ecotecnia, Roc Boronat 78, 08005 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  10. Acceptance Testing of a Satellite SCADA Photovoltaic-Diesel Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A.; Emrich, C.; Ventre, G.; Wilson, W.; Acosta, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Satellite Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) of a Photovoltaic (PV)/diesel hybrid system was tested using NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) and Ultra Small Aperture Terminal (USAT) ground stations. The setup consisted of a custom-designed PV/diesel hybrid system, located at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), which was controlled and monitored at a "remote" hub via Ka-band satellite link connecting two 1/4 Watt USATs in a SCADA arrangement. The robustness of the communications link was tested for remote monitoring of the health and performance of a PV/diesel hybrid system, and for investigating load control and battery charging strategies to maximize battery capacity and lifetime, and minimize loss of critical load probability. Baseline hardware performance test results demonstrated that continuous two-second data transfers can be accomplished under clear sky conditions with an error rate of less than 1%. The delay introduced by the satellite (1/4 sec) was transparent to synchronization of satellite modem as well as to the PV/diesel-hybrid computer. End-to-end communications link recovery times were less than 36 seconds for loss of power and less than one second for loss of link. The system recovered by resuming operation without any manual intervention, which is important since the 4 dB margin is not sufficient to prevent loss of the satellite link during moderate to heavy rain. Hybrid operations during loss of communications link continued seamlessly but real-time monitoring was interrupted. For this sub-tropical region, the estimated amount of time that the signal fade will exceed the 4 dB margin is about 10%. These results suggest that data rates of 4800 bps and a link margin of 4 dB with a 1/4 Watt transmitter are sufficient for end-to-end operation in this SCADA application.

  11. Nonlinear Analysis and Preliminary Testing Results of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2015-01-01

    A large test article was recently designed, analyzed, fabricated, and successfully tested up to the representative design ultimate loads to demonstrate that stiffened composite panels with through-the-thickness reinforcement are a viable option for the next generation large transport category aircraft, including non-conventional configurations such as the hybrid wing body. This paper focuses on finite element analysis and test data correlation of the hybrid wing body center section test article under mechanical, pressure and combined load conditions. Good agreement between predictive nonlinear finite element analysis and test data is found. Results indicate that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately capture the behavior of the non-circular pressurized and highly-stressed structure when the design approach permits local buckling.

  12. Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.

  13. High accuracy of predicting hybrid performance of Fusarium head blight resistance by mid-parent values in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedaner, Thomas; Schulthess, Albert W; Gowda, Manje; Reif, Jochen C; Longin, C Friedrich H

    2017-02-01

    Mid-parent values of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance tested across several locations are a good predictor of hybrid performance caused by a preponderance of additive gene action in wheat. Hybrid breeding is intensively discussed as one solution to boost yield and yield stability including an enhanced biotic stress resistance. Our objectives were to investigate (1) the heterosis for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, (2) the importance of general (GCA) vs. specific combining ability (SCA) for FHB resistance, and (3) the possibility to predict the FHB resistance of the hybrids by the parental means. We re-analyzed phenotypic data of a large population comprising 1604 hybrids and their 120 female and 15 male parental lines evaluated in inoculation trials across seven environments. Mid-parent heterosis of FHB severity averaged -9%, with a range from -36 to +35%. Mean better parent heterosis was 2% and 78 of the hybrids significantly (P hybrids (r = 0.09, P hybrid performance of FHB severity based on mid-parent values and on GCA effects was high (r = 0.70 and 0.86, respectively; P hybrids are an attractive alternative variety type to improve FHB resistance.

  14. Development of hybrid electric vehicle powertrain test system based on virtue instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmin; Guo, Konghui; Chen, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid powertrain has become the standard configuration of some automobile models. The test system of hybrid vehicle powertrain was developed based on virtual instrument, using electric dynamometer to simulate the work of engines, to test the motor and control unit of the powertrain. The test conditions include starting, acceleration, and deceleration. The results show that the test system can simulate the working conditions of the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain under various conditions.

  15. Energy regenerative suspension test for EEV and hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. A.; Jamil, J. F.; Muhammad, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    The world is demanding on the alternative fuel and reducing the fuel consumption of land transportation especially in the automotive industries. This paper emphasizes the development of the energy regenerative suspension system (EReSS) for energy efficient vehicle (EEV) or hybrid. The EReSS product is fabricated and tested on the laboratory and real vehicle. The test is conducted to test the function of the EReSS system on real vehicle. The test is done using the multimeter to record the reading of voltage produces by the EReSS system that is attached to the vehicle suspension system. The experiment starts by setting the parameters in the EReSS system which is the number of windings with a standard magnet. Road irregularity is one of the important parts of the experiment which is set to be various types of road condition and driving style. A domestic car model is selected for the EReSS test that the system can be installed. The test of the EReSS gives out the maximum output voltage of 5.6 V with 530 windings. Improvement on the material can increase the output voltage. The EReSS is function on the real vehicle by producing voltage by harvesting the kinetic energy from the suspension vibration.

  16. Agronomic Performance of Flue-Cured Tobacco F1 Hybrids Obtained with Different Sources of Male Sterile Cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berbec A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Four cytoplasmic male sterile (cms F1flue-cured hybrids cv. Wiaelica × cv. Virginia Golta (VG, the male fertile analogue and the parental varieties were tested at two locations in Poland in a replicated field trial. The cms sources in the hybrids wereN. suaveolens,N. amplexicaulis,N. bigeloviiand aN. tabacumcms mutant. Under the slight to moderate pressure from black root rot present at the trial sites the hybrids showed a moderate tolerance of the disease characteristic of VG as opposed to medium strong susceptibility of Wislica. Apart from the effect of black root rot tolerance the vegetative vigor of the hybrids (plant height, leaf size, earliness was affected by cytoplasm source. The F1hybrid withN. suaveolens cytoplasm flowered approximately three days later than the remaining hybrids. Of the cms hybrids tested cmsN. bigelovii produced the tallest plants with largest mid-position leaves. Yields of cured leaves were largely influenced by black root rot and were generally higher in VG and in the hybrids than in Wislica. Leaf yields and curability were generally little affected by cms source under low pressure from black root rot. At the site with a relatively high level of black root rot infestation the yields of cmsN. suaveolens were slightly lower but the percentage of light grades slightly higher compared to those of other cms hybrids. CmsN. suaveolens was the best hybrid in terms of money returns at the low black root rot field but it was the poorest hybrid performer under high pressure from the disease. Contents of nitrogen, sugars, nicotine and ash was little affected by source of cms. There was an increased incidence of potato virus Y (PVY and white spots in cmsN. suaveolens and, to a lesser extent, in cmsN. bigelovii as compared to the remaining disease-free entries.

  17. A Hybrid Intelligent Search Algorithm for Automatic Test Data Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of large-scale real-world programs necessitates the automation of software testing. As a basic problem in software testing, the automation of path-wise test data generation is especially important, which is in essence a constraint optimization problem solved by search strategies. Therefore, the constraint processing efficiency of the selected search algorithm is a key factor. Aiming at the increase of search efficiency, a hybrid intelligent algorithm is proposed to efficiently search the solution space of potential test data by making full use of both global and local search methods. Branch and bound is adopted for global search, which gives definite results with relatively less cost. In the search procedure for each variable, hill climbing is adopted for local search, which is enhanced with the initial values selected heuristically based on the monotonicity analysis of branching conditions. They are highly integrated by an efficient ordering method and the backtracking operation. In order to facilitate the search methods, the solution space is represented as state space. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperformed some other methods used in test data generation. The heuristic initial value selection strategy improves the search efficiency greatly and makes the search basically backtrack-free. The results also demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable in engineering.

  18. Design and evaluation of a 3 million DN series-hybrid thrust bearing. [stability tests and fatigue tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibbe, H. W.; Winn, L. W.; Eusepi, M.

    1976-01-01

    The bearing, consisting of a 150-mm ball bearing and a centrifugally actuated, conical, fluid-film bearing, was fatigue tested. Test conditions were representative of a mainshaft ball bearing in a gas turbine engine operating at maximum thrust load to simulate aircraft takeoff conditions. Tests were conducted up to 16000 rpm and at this speed an axial load of 15568 newtons (3500 lb) was safely supported by the hybrid bearing system. Through the series-hybrid bearing principle, the effective ball bearing speed was reduced to approximately one-half of the shaft speed. It was concluded that a speed reduction of this magnitude results in a ten-fold increase in the ball bearing fatigue life. A successful evaluation of fluid-film bearing lubricant supply failure was performed repeatedly at an operating speed of 10,000 rpm. A complete and smooth changeover to full-scale ball bearing operation was effected when the oil supply to the fluid-film bearing was cut off. Reactivation of the fluid-film oil supply system resulted in a flawless return to the original mode of hybrid operation.

  19. 40 CFR 60.8 - Performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance tests. 60.8 Section 60.8... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.8 Performance tests. (a) Except as specified in... conduct performance test(s) and furnish the Administrator a written report of the results of such...

  20. Designing and testing a hybrid lightweight shoulder prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Nobuto; Kita, Kahori; Yu, Wenwei

    2014-01-01

    Lightweight prostheses are preferred in terms of usability in daily living. However, this is not a property easy to realize, especially for shoulder prostheses. High portability, multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) with an appropriate ROM (range of motion), sufficient end-effector power, and suitable viscoelasticity for the safe use in daily living, usually result in a heavy weight. In this paper, a hybrid shoulder prosthesis that combined servo motors and pneumatic elastic actuators, with a weight distribution scheme, was designed to meet the requirements. The prosthetic system was preliminarily tested by comparing its ADL (activities of daily living) motion data with that of an intact arm. The experiment results showed that the shoulder prosthesis could reproduce the motion of an intact arm, thus demonstrate its usability in daily living.

  1. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  2. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Duic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    , the performance of a hybrid district energy system for a small town in Croatia has been analysed. Mathematical model for process analysis and optimisation algorithm for optimal system configuration has been developed and described. The main goal of the system optimisation is to reduce heat production costs....... Several energy sources for heat production have been considered in 8 different simulation cases. Simulation results show that the heat production costs could be reduced with introduction of different energy systems into an existing district heating system. Renewable energy based district heating systems...... could contribute to heat production costs decrease in district heating systems up to 30% in comparison with highly efficient heat production technologies based on conventional fuels....

  3. Design, fabrication and performance of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Two solar stills (single slope passive and single slope photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still) were fabricated and tested at solar energy park, IIT New Delhi (India) for composite climate. Photovoltaic operated DC water pump was used between solar still and photovoltaic (PV) integrated flat plate collector to re-circulate the water through the collectors and transfer it to the solar still. The newly designed hybrid (PV/T) active solar still is self-sustainable and can be used in remote areas, need to transport distilled water from a distance and not connected to grid, but blessed with ample solar energy. Experiments were performed for 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 m water depth, round the year 2006-2007 for both the stills. It has been observed that maximum daily yield of 2.26 kg and 7.22 kg were obtained from passive and hybrid active solar still, respectively at 0.05 m water depth. The daily yield from hybrid active solar still is around 3.2 and 5.5 times higher than the passive solar still in summer and winter month, respectively. The study has shown that this design of the hybrid active solar still also provides higher electrical and overall thermal efficiency, which is about 20% higher than the passive solar still.

  4. Performance of a hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine under various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changwei; Wang, Shuofeng; Zhang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a combustion strategy for the hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine (HHGE). ► The HHGE produced much lower HC and CO emissions at cold start. ► The H 2 -gasoline blends were effective for improving engine performance at idle and part loads. ► The HHGE could run smoothly at lean conditions. -- Abstract: This paper proposed a new combustion strategy for the spark-ignited (SI) engines. A gasoline engine was converted into a hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine (HHGE) by adding a hydrogen injection system and a hybrid electronic control unit. Different from the conventional gasoline and hydrogen–enriched gasoline engines, the HHGE is fueled with the pure hydrogen at cold start to produce almost zero emissions, with the hydrogen–gasoline blends at idle and part loads to further improve thermal efficiency and reduce emissions, and with the pure gasoline to ensure the engine power output at high loads. Because the HHGE is fueled with the pure gasoline at high loads and speeds, experiments are only conducted at clod start, idle and part load conditions. Since lean combustion avails the further improvement of the engine performance, the HHGE was fueled with the lean mixtures in all tests. The experimental results showed that the hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine was started successfully with the pure hydrogen, which produced 94.7% and 99.5% reductions in HC and CO emissions within 100 s from the onset of the cold start, compared with the original gasoline engine. At an excess air ratio of 1.37 and idle conditions, indicated thermal efficiency of the 3% hydrogen–blended gasoline engine was 46.3% higher than that of the original engine. Moreover, the engine cyclic variation was eased, combustion duration was shortened and HC, CO and NOx emissions were effectively reduced for the hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engines.

  5. Hybrid Effect Evaluation of Steel Fiber and Carbon Fiber on the Performance of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weimin; Yin, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Fiber reinforcement is an important method to enhance the performance of concrete. In this study, the compressive test and impact test were conducted, and then the hybrid effect between steel fiber (SF) and carbon fiber (CF) was evaluated by employing the hybrid effect index. Compressive toughness and impact toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) and hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) were explored at steel fiber volume fraction 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and carbon fiber 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%. Results showed that the addition of steel fiber and carbon fiber can increase the compressive strength. SF, CF and the hybridization between them could increase the compressive toughness significantly. The impact test results showed that as the volume of fiber increased, the impact number of the first visible crack and the ultimate failure also increased. The improvement of toughness mainly lay in improving the crack resistance after the first crack. Based on the test results, the positive hybrid effect of steel fiber and carbon fiber existed in hybrid fiber reinforced concrete. The relationship between the compressive toughness and impact toughness was also explored. PMID:28773824

  6. A Hybrid Fuzzy Model for Lean Product Development Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osezua Aikhuele, Daniel; Mohd Turan, Faiz

    2016-02-01

    In the effort for manufacturing companies to meet up with the emerging consumer demands for mass customized products, many are turning to the application of lean in their product development process, and this is gradually moving from being a competitive advantage to a necessity. However, due to lack of clear understanding of the lean performance measurements, many of these companies are unable to implement and fully integrated the lean principle into their product development process. Extensive literature shows that only few studies have focus systematically on the lean product development performance (LPDP) evaluation. In order to fill this gap, the study therefore proposed a novel hybrid model based on Fuzzy Reasoning Approach (FRA), and the extension of Fuzzy-AHP and Fuzzy-TOPSIS methods for the assessment of the LPDP. Unlike the existing methods, the model considers the importance weight of each of the decision makers (Experts) since the performance criteria/attributes are required to be rated, and these experts have different level of expertise. The rating is done using a new fuzzy Likert rating scale (membership-scale) which is designed such that it can address problems resulting from information lost/distortion due to closed-form scaling and the ordinal nature of the existing Likert scale.

  7. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  8. Boxing headguard performance in punch machine tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents a novel laboratory method for assessing boxing headguard impact performance. The method is applied to examine the effects of headguards on head impact dynamics and injury risk. A linear impactor was developed, and a range of impacts was delivered to an instrumented Hybrid III head and neck system both with and without an AIBA (Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur)-approved headguard. Impacts at selected speeds between 4.1 and 8.3 m/s were undertaken. The impactor mass was approximately 4 kg and an interface comprising a semirigid 'fist' with a glove was used. The peak contact forces were in the range 1.9-5.9 kN. Differences in head impact responses between the Top Ten AIBA-approved headguard and bare headform in the lateral and forehead tests were large and/or significant. In the 8.3 m/s fist-glove impacts, the mean peak resultant headform accelerations for bare headform tests was approximately 130 g compared with approximately 85 g in the forehead impacts. In the 6.85 m/s bare headform impacts, mean peak resultant angular head accelerations were in the range of 5200-5600 rad/s(2) and almost halved by the headguard. Linear and angular accelerations in 45° forehead and 60° jaw impacts were reduced by the headguard. The data support the opinion that current AIBA headguards can play an important role in reducing the risk of concussion and superficial injury in boxing competition and training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Evaluation criteria for enhanced solar–coal hybrid power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yawen; Hong, Hui; Jin, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Attention has been directed toward hybridizing solar energy with fossil power plants since the 1990s to improve reliability and efficiency. Appropriate evaluation criteria were important in the design and optimization of solar–fossil hybrid systems. Two new criteria to evaluate the improved thermodynamic performances in a solar hybrid power plant were developed in this study. Correlations determined the main factors influencing the improved thermodynamic performances. The proposed criteria can be used to effectively integrate solar–coal hybridization systems. Typical 100 MW–1000 MW coal-fired power plants hybridized with solar heat at approximately 300 °C, which was used to preheat the feed water before entering the boiler, were evaluated using the criteria. The integration principle of solar–coal hybrid systems was also determined. The proposed evaluation criteria may be simple and reasonable for solar–coal hybrid systems with multi-energy input, thus directing system performance enhancement. - Highlights: • New criteria to evaluate the solar hybrid power plant were developed. • Typical solar–coal hybrid power plants were evaluated using the criteria. • The integration principle of solar–coal hybrid systems was determined. • The benefits of the solar–coal hybrid system are enhanced at lower solar radiation

  10. Modelling of a Hybrid UAV Using Test Flight Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeur, E.J.J.; Chu, Q.P.; De Croon, G.C.H.E.; Remes, B.; De Wagter, C.; Van der Horst, E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of an aircraft capable of both hover as well as fast forward flight (hybrid) has recently been implemented on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Hybrid UAVs combine hover capability with long range and endurance. As UAVs are often required to operate without human intervention, there is a

  11. Where Lab Tests Are Performed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discretion. Now, the trend has expanded to include laboratories offering clinical tests at the individual's request, without consultation with ... and Information, Position Paper. The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science. Available online http://www.ascls.org/position- ...

  12. Effect of Stocking Density on Growth Performance of Hybrids of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus♀ and Oreochromis urolepis urolepis♂ hybrids were reared at stocking densities of control, 5, 10, 15 and 20 fish/m3 at 15 Practical Salinity Units (PSU) in 1m3 plastic tanks for 63 days. They were kept at low, intermediate and high densities respectively. All hybrids were fed on a ...

  13. Operator performance in non-destructive testing: A study of operator performance in a performance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkvist, J.; Edland, A.; Svenson, Ola

    2000-05-01

    In the process industries there is a need of inspecting the integrity of critical components without disrupting the process. Such in-service inspections are typically performed with non-destructive testing (NDT). In NDT the task of the operator is to (based on diagnostic information) decide if the component can remain in service or not. The present study looks at the performance in NDT. The aim is to improve performance, in the long run, by exploring the operators' decision strategies and other underlying factors and to this way find out what makes some operators more successful than others. Sixteen operators performed manual ultrasonic inspections of four test pieces with the aim to detect (implanted) cracks. In addition to these performance demonstration tests (PDT), the operators performed independent ability tests and filled out questionnaires. The results show that operators who trust their gut feeling more than the procedure (when the two come to different results) and that at the same time have a positive attitude towards the procedure have a higher PDT performance. These results indicate the need for operators to be motivated and confident when performing NDT. It was also found that the operators who performed better rated more decision criteria higher in the detection phase than the operators who performed worse. For characterizing it was the other way around. Also, the operators who performed better used more time, both detecting and characterizing, than the operators who performed worse

  14. Operator performance in non-destructive testing: A study of operator performance in a performance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkvist, J.; Edland, A.; Svenson, Ola [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    2000-05-15

    In the process industries there is a need of inspecting the integrity of critical components without disrupting the process. Such in-service inspections are typically performed with non-destructive testing (NDT). In NDT the task of the operator is to (based on diagnostic information) decide if the component can remain in service or not. The present study looks at the performance in NDT. The aim is to improve performance, in the long run, by exploring the operators' decision strategies and other underlying factors and to this way find out what makes some operators more successful than others. Sixteen operators performed manual ultrasonic inspections of four test pieces with the aim to detect (implanted) cracks. In addition to these performance demonstration tests (PDT), the operators performed independent ability tests and filled out questionnaires. The results show that operators who trust their gut feeling more than the procedure (when the two come to different results) and that at the same time have a positive attitude towards the procedure have a higher PDT performance. These results indicate the need for operators to be motivated and confident when performing NDT. It was also found that the operators who performed better rated more decision criteria higher in the detection phase than the operators who performed worse. For characterizing it was the other way around. Also, the operators who performed better used more time, both detecting and characterizing, than the operators who performed worse.

  15. High throughput testing and characterization of IR readouts and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, William J.; Bui, Khang X.; Patel, Manilal J.

    1992-07-01

    A program to upgrade the test capability for IR focal plane arrays and readouts is in progress at Aerojet. The objective of the development is to reduce the number and complexity of the steps in the test process, reduce in socket test time and provide a simplified set up procedure for production testing. There are two areas of study in the program. One is concerned with examining multiple fabrication sources for readout circuits. The application of a commercially available automated test system for production testing and engineering characterization of readouts and focal plane arrays is discussed. The Sentry Series 80 mixed signal tester is being fixtured for low noise measurements and interfacing to dewars for cryogenic testing. The multiuser foreground/background operating system software has the advantage of allowing noise and other statistical calculations to be performed in the background without impeding test measurements. It also has the advantage in production of requiring no manual instrumentation set up or interconnect. The improvements in test throughput and analysis capability will be shown in adapting this class of tester as opposed to assembling test instruments in a custom made computer controlled test approach.

  16. Sled Tests Using the Hybrid III Rail Safety ATD and Workstation Tables for Passenger Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Hybrid III Rail Safety (H3-RS) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is a crash test dummy developed in the United Kingdom to evaluate abdomen and lower thorax injuries that occur when passengers impact workstation tables during train accidents. The ...

  17. Performance studies of pixel hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2006-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  18. Real-Time Performance of Hybrid Mobile Robot Control Utilizing USB Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Augustyn, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the problem of usability of the USB 2.0 protocol in the area of real-time control of a mobile robot. Optimization methods of data transfer handling were proposed. The impact of the optimization results on the entire system’s performance was examined in practice. As a test-bed, a hybrid system composed of two devices communicating by direct USB connection was implemented. The first of the mentioned devices was a 32-bit SoC micro-system serving as a direct control unit, a...

  19. Real-Time Performance of Hybrid Mobile Robot Control Utilizing USB Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Augustyn

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the problem of usability of the USB 2.0 protocol in the area of real-time control of a mobile robot. Optimization methods of data transfer handling were proposed. The impact of the optimization results on the entire system's performance was examined in practice. As a test-bed, a hybrid system composed of two devices communicating by direct USB connection was implemented. The first of the mentioned devices was a 32-bit SoC micro-system serving as a direct control unit, a...

  20. Performance Studies of Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2004-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  1. Assessing current vehicle performance and simulating the performance of hydrogen and hybrid cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bent [Roskilde University, Institute for Nature, Systems and Models, Energy, Environment and Climate group, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-07-15

    A measure of the efficiency in transforming energy input into transport work is defined and applied to road vehicles as well as to sea, air and rail vehicles for passenger or freight transportation. The insight obtained with this measure is compared with the results of applying the conventional measure of kilometres per unit of energy for current fleets of vehicles. Then, simulation methods are used to assess the performance of fuel cell vehicles, electric vehicles and hybrids between the two. The latter are found to provide an optimum performance for a small, efficient passenger car. (author)

  2. Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitivetherapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion.Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve thecost-effectiveness and mental well being of the oung doctors. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 90-97

  3. Dish/Stirling Hybrid-Receiver Sub-Scale Tests and Full-Scale Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andraka, Charles; Bohn, Mark S.; Corey, John; Mehos, Mark; Moreno, James; Rawlinson, Scott

    1999-01-01

    We have designed and tested a prototype dish/Stirling hybrid-receiver combustion system. The system consists of a pre-mixed natural-gas burner heating a pin-finned sodium heat pipe. The design emphasizes simplicity, low cost, and ruggedness. Our test was on a 1/6 th -scale device, with a nominal firing rate of 18kWt, a power throughput of 13kWt, and a sodium vapor temperature of 750 ampersand deg;C. The air/fuel mixture was electrically preheated to 640 ampersand deg;C to simulate recuperation. The test rig was instrumented for temperatures, pressures, flow rates, overall leak rate, and exhaust emissions. The data verify our burner and heat-transfer models. Performance and post-test examinations validate our choice of materials and fabrication methods. Based on the 1/6 th -scale results, we are designing a till-scale hybrid receiver. This is a fully-integrated system, including burner, pin-fin primary heat exchanger, recuperator (in place of the electrical pre-heater used in the prototype system), solar absorber, and sodium heat pipe. The major challenges of the design are to avoid pre-ignition, achieve robust heat-pipe performance, and attain long life of the burner matrix, recuperator, and flue-gas seals. We have used computational fluid dynamics extensively in designing to avoid pre-ignition and for designing the heat-pipe wick, and we have used individual component tests and results of the 1/6 th -scale test to optimize for long life. In this paper, we present our design philosophy and basic details of our design. We describe the sub-scale test rig and compare test results with predictions. Finally, we outline the evolution of our full-scale design, and present its current status

  4. Test Software Functionality, but Test its Performance as Well

    OpenAIRE

    Jovica Đurković; Jelica Trninić; Vuk Vuković

    2011-01-01

    Software product testing has great importance in the detection of errors appearing in the course of software development and reflecting directly on software quality enhancement before its implementation in the working environment. Special priority in the software product testing phase is given to testing software performance. In contrast to functional testing, which should show if software is capable of carrying out planned functions without making errors, performance testing should show if t...

  5. Experimental investigations on performance of liquid desiccant-vapor compression hybrid air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, B. Shaji; Tiwari, Shaligram; Maiya, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    A coupled desiccant column is integrated with a conventional room air conditioner (AC) to enhance dehumidification of the room air. One desiccant column (absorber) is placed after the evaporator the other (regenerator) after the condenser of the AC unit. Such a novel liquid desiccant vapour compression hybrid air conditioning system has been fabricated and tested in a balanced ambient room type calorimeter for very low flow rates of liquid desiccant (lithium bromide solution). The moisture from the cold supply air is transferred to the hot condenser air by the desiccant flowing in the loop, thereby complimenting the dehumidification of the room air at the evaporator. The supply air is also sensibly heated during the dehumidification process by liquid desiccant in the absorber, which together enables the hybrid system to maintain low humidity in the room. Whereas the liquid desiccant is regenerated by the condenser waste heat, the entire cooling is derived only by the AC unit. The experimental results show that an increase of room temperature reduces both dehumidification of process air and regeneration of liquid desiccant, whereas an increase of room specific humidity enhances both these for the flow rate of the liquid desiccant in the range of 0.2–1.6% of the air flow rate through the absorber. - Highlights: • A liquid desiccant vapor compression hybrid system is fabricated and tested. • The liquid desiccant reduces latent load but equally increases sensible load. • Hybrid system performance is studied for varying room temperature and humidity. • Higher room temperature lowers air dehumidification and desiccant regeneration. • Increase of room specific humidity enhances dehumidification and also regeneration

  6. Prediction of hybrid performance in maize with transcriptome data

    OpenAIRE

    Zenke-Philippi, Carola Anna Luise

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on genomic prediction of hybrids employ genetic markers as the main carrier of information. Very few use transcriptomic or metabolomic data despite the fact that the end product of gene expression, i.e., the protein, might carry more information than genetic markers. The main goal of the present study was therefore to investigate whether gene expression profiles can be employed successfully for hybrid prediction in maize. With RR-BLUP, similar accuracies were found for ALFP ma...

  7. Genome-Wide Prediction of the Performance of Three-Way Hybrids in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the grain yield performance of three-way hybrids is challenging. Three-way crosses are relevant for hybrid breeding in barley ( L. and maize ( L. adapted to East Africa. The main goal of our study was to implement and evaluate genome-wide prediction approaches of the performance of three-way hybrids using data of single-cross hybrids for a scenario in which parental lines of the three-way hybrids originate from three genetically distinct subpopulations. We extended the ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction (RRBLUP and devised a genomic selection model allowing for subpopulation-specific marker effects (GSA-RRBLUP: general and subpopulation-specific additive RRBLUP. Using an empirical barley data set, we showed that applying GSA-RRBLUP tripled the prediction ability of three-way hybrids from 0.095 to 0.308 compared with RRBLUP, modeling one additive effect for all three subpopulations. The experimental findings were further substantiated with computer simulations. Our results emphasize the potential of GSA-RRBLUP to improve genome-wide hybrid prediction of three-way hybrids for scenarios of genetically diverse parental populations. Because of the advantages of the GSA-RRBLUP model in dealing with hybrids from different parental populations, it may also be a promising approach to boost the prediction ability for hybrid breeding programs based on genetically diverse heterotic groups.

  8. Performance of Hybrid Corn in Different Environmental Conditions in the Region Of Sinop-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. T. Souza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of corn hybrids in environmental conditions favorable and unfavorable. For this, two experiments were conducted at Sinop / MT, being considered as favorable environmental conditions the use of fertilizer recommended for the crop at planting and coverage, and unfavorable conditions only recommended fertilization at planting. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replicates, with plots of 2 rows of 3 meters. The treatments were: double hybrid (Balu 761, single hybrids (AG 7088 and 30F90Y and triple hybrid (2B688. The characteristics evaluated were number of spikes, husked spikes weight, plant height and height of first spike. Regarding the number of ears, under favorable conditions, the hybrid double (Balu 761 and the triple hybrid (2B688 stood out against the simple hybrid. For the character number of spikes per plant, the husked spike weight in kg the triple hybrid 2B688 stood in relation to other unfavorable conditions. Considering the character plant height and first spike insertion, single hibrid 30F90Y, showed higher estimate in unfavorable conditions. In conclusion, the agronomic performance of types of hybrids varies in relation to environmental conditions and genotypes composition, and in this study the triple hybrid stood out in relation to others. Keywords: Zea mays, fertilization and breeding.

  9. Testing of the Front-End Hybrid Circuits for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gadek, Tomasz; Honma, Alan; Kovacs, Mark Istvan; Raymond, David Mark; Rose, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the CMS tracker for the HL-LHC requires the design of new double-sensor, silicon detector modules, which implement Level 1 trigger functionality in the increased luminosity environment. These new modules will contain two different, high density front-end hybrid circuits, equipped with flip-chip ASICs, auxiliary electronic components and mechanical structures. The hybrids require qualification tests before they are assembled into modules. Test methods are proposed together with the corresponding test hardware and software. They include functional tests and signal injection in a cold environment to find possible failure modes of the hybrids under real operating conditions.

  10. 2009 Ford Mustang Performance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to find the time required for a 2009 Ford Mustang to accelerate from rest to 88 feet per second. We begin with three equations involving force, velocity, and force inverse, which is a value derived from Newton's Law, F=ma. The Mustang has three gears with three different gear ratios that must be used as the car accelerates. We found results from 2000 to 6000 RPMs for all three gears. Once the force inverse was found, we plotted the force inverse vs. velocity graph. The area beneath this curve from 0 to 88 feet per second is the time it takes to reach that speed. Using a Riemann sum approximation, we found that the time to be 4.109 seconds. This is a very brief time and is comparable to 5.2 seconds, the time found in a real test by RSPORTSCARS.com.

  11. Performance of a thermal imager employing a hybrid pyroelectric detector array with MOSFET readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watton, R.; Mansi, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal imager employing a two-dimensional hybrid array of pyroelectric detectors with MOSFET readout has been built. The design and theoretical performance of the detector are discussed, and the results of performance measurements are presented. 8 references

  12. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  13. Research of laser stealth performance test technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-xing; Shi, Sheng-bing; Han, Fu-li; Wu, Yan-lin; Song, Chun-yan

    2014-09-01

    Laser stealth is an important way of photoelectric stealth weapons systems. According to operational principle of laser range finder, we actively explore and study the stealth performance approval testing technology of laser stealth materials, and bring forward and establish the stealth performance field test methods of stealth efficiency evaluation. Through contrastive test of two kinds of materials, the method is correct and effective.

  14. Three state-of-the-art individual electric and hybrid vehicle test reports, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Procedures used in determining the energy efficiency and economy of a gasoline-electric hybrid taxi, an electric passenger car, and an electric van are described. Tabular and graphic data show results of driving cycle and constant speed tests, energy distribution to various components, efficiency of the components, and, for the hybrid vehicle, the emissions.

  15. Heterosis in Swazi-bred Maize Hybrids: The 1993 and 1994 Test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single cross test hybrids made in 1993 among these inbred lines (mostly S and S lines) were yield tested in two replications with parental and commercial checks in the 1993/94 and 1994/95 trial also included single cross test hybrids made in 1994. Trial mean grain yield was 5.5 Mg/ha in 1993/94 and 4.8 Mg/ha in 1994/95.

  16. Performance study of hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, N.; Aglieri-Rinella, G.; Gys, T.; Piedigrossi, D.; Wyllie, K.

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study CP violation and rare phenomena of B mesons with very high accuracy. The LHCb RICH detectors are essential for positive kaon identification, and several strict demands are required of its photon detectors to achieve excellent particle identification performance. In particular, they should have good single photon sensitivity for visible and UV wavelengths and large coverage with fine granularity. HPDs have been developed to meet these requirements in collaboration with industry. They have now been chosen as the photon detector for LHCb, and pre-series tubes are under test prior to mass production. At the same time, more detailed studies are on-going to understand more deeply their characteristics. The result of various performance tests of these tubes as well as the fraction of light reflection in the HPD are described in this paper

  17. Performance assessment of a Multi-fuel Hybrid Engine for Future Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, F.; Gangoli Rao, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents performance assessment of the proposed hybrid engine concept using Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) and kerosene. The multi-fuel hybrid engine is a new engine concept integrated with contra rotating fans, sequential dual combustion chambers to facilitate “Energy Mix” in aviation and a

  18. The Role of Frequent Short Exams in Improving Student Performance in Hybrid Global Business Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakos, George; Whiting, Anita

    2018-01-01

    The authors investigate whether frequent in class exams can improve the performance of students in hybrid global business courses. An experiment was conducted in three hybrid sections of a global business course exposing students to short in class exams. The expectation of a short exam forces students to watch the online lectures and study the…

  19. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

  20. Genomic preselection with genotyping-by-sequencing increases performance of commercial oil palm hybrid crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, David; Bocs, Stéphanie; Riou, Virginie; Ortega-Abboud, Enrique; Tisné, Sébastien; Argout, Xavier; Pomiès, Virginie; Nodichao, Leifi; Lubis, Zulkifli; Cochard, Benoit; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan

    2017-11-02

    There is great potential for the genetic improvement of oil palm yield. Traditional progeny tests allow accurate selection but limit the number of individuals evaluated. Genomic selection (GS) could overcome this constraint. We estimated the accuracy of GS prediction of seven oil yield components using A × B hybrid progeny tests with almost 500 crosses for training and 200 crosses for independent validation. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) yielded +5000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the parents of the crosses. The genomic best linear unbiased prediction method gave genomic predictions using the SNPs of the training and validation sets and the phenotypes of the training crosses. The practical impact was illustrated by quantifying the additional bunch production of the crosses selected in the validation experiment if genomic preselection had been applied in the parental populations before progeny tests. We found that prediction accuracies for cross values plateaued at 500 to 2000 SNPs, with high (0.73) or low (0.28) values depending on traits. Similar results were obtained when parental breeding values were predicted. GS was able to capture genetic differences within parental families, requiring at least 2000 SNPs with less than 5% missing data, imputed using pedigrees. Genomic preselection could have increased the selected hybrids bunch production by more than 10%. Finally, preselection for yield components using GBS is the first possible application of GS in oil palm. This will increase selection intensity, thus improving the performance of commercial hybrids. Further research is required to increase the benefits from GS, which should revolutionize oil palm breeding.

  1. Hybrid Polyamide/Silica Nanocomposites : Synthesis and Mechanical Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, W.E.; Garcia, M.; Schrauwen, B.A.G.; Kooi, B.J.; De Hosson, Jeff Th.M.; Verweij, H.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid inorganic-polymer composite was formed through nanosize silica filler particles (<30 nm) that were incorporated inside a nylon-6 matrix. The composite was microtomed and examined with TEM which revealed that the silica particles were well dispersed and non-aggregated. Optimization of the

  2. Impact of rapport on neuropsychological test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Parsons, Thomas D; Reynolds, Brooke L; Bedford, Lee A

    2018-01-01

    Guides to neuropsychological assessment emphasize the importance of establishing rapport; however, there has been a minimal amount of empirical investigation of the impact of rapport on neuropsychological test performance. In this experiment, participants (N = 98) were randomly assigned to take neuropsychological tests in either a high or low rapport condition. Results showed that we were able to manipulate the level of rapport and that the level of rapport had a significant effect on the Grooved Pegboard Test and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, with other tests nearing statistical significance. These results suggest that the level of rapport may affect neuropsychological test performance.

  3. Performance comparison of hydraulic and gravitation HybridICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HybridICE is an emerging freeze desalination technology for treating complex mine wastewaters. The technology works on the principle that growing ice crystals reject impurities during freezing. The bottleneck in the freeze desalination processes may be the separation of ice from the ice slurry generated in the freeze ...

  4. A Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler for High Performance Image Processing Workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Timothy; Keyrouz, Walid; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S; Halem, Milton; Brady, Mary

    2017-12-01

    Designing applications for scalability is key to improving their performance in hybrid and cluster computing. Scheduling code to utilize parallelism is difficult, particularly when dealing with data dependencies, memory management, data motion, and processor occupancy. The Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler (HTGS) improves programmer productivity when implementing hybrid workflows for multi-core and multi-GPU systems. The Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler (HTGS) is an abstract execution model, framework, and API that increases programmer productivity when implementing hybrid workflows for such systems. HTGS manages dependencies between tasks, represents CPU and GPU memories independently, overlaps computations with disk I/O and memory transfers, keeps multiple GPUs occupied, and uses all available compute resources. Through these abstractions, data motion and memory are explicit; this makes data locality decisions more accessible. To demonstrate the HTGS application program interface (API), we present implementations of two example algorithms: (1) a matrix multiplication that shows how easily task graphs can be used; and (2) a hybrid implementation of microscopy image stitching that reduces code size by ≈ 43% compared to a manually coded hybrid workflow implementation and showcases the minimal overhead of task graphs in HTGS. Both of the HTGS-based implementations show good performance. In image stitching the HTGS implementation achieves similar performance to the hybrid workflow implementation. Matrix multiplication with HTGS achieves 1.3× and 1.8× speedup over the multi-threaded OpenBLAS library for 16k × 16k and 32k × 32k size matrices, respectively.

  5. Evaluating the impact of adding energy storage on the performance of a hybrid power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobus, Headley; Lin, Baochuan; Jimmy, David Henry; Ansumana, Rashid; Malanoski, Anthony P.; Stenger, David

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A photovoltaic-diesel hybrid power system is compared to a diesel-only system. → The efficiency, cost, generator runtime, and fuel consumption are calculated. → Overall efficiency of two systems is very similar. → Reduced operation and maintenance costs for hybrid system gave bigger cost savings. → The hybrid system is more advantageous in serving the same load. -- Abstract: Hybrid power systems have the capability to incorporate significant renewable energy penetration for a small autonomous system while still maintaining reliable grid stability. While there are many papers covering the optimization of component size and dispatch strategy, far fewer papers contain experimental performance data from hybrid systems. Mercy Hospital in Bo, Sierra Leone is converting their power system into a photovoltaic (PV)-diesel hybrid system, thus providing an opportunity to examine the change in system performance before, during, and after the conversion. Due to the seasonal availability of electric power in Sierra Leone, two datasets representing two distinct load profiles are analyzed: Wet Season and Dry Season. The difference in generation efficiency, cost per kW h, generator runtime, and fuel consumption are calculated between a diesel-only generation baseline and the recorded hybrid system performance. The results indicated that the hybrid system significantly reduces operation costs; approximately 37% less during Dry Season and 64% reduction in the Wet Season than a diesel-only generator serving the same load.

  6. Testing a hypothesis of unidirectional hybridization in plants: Observations on Sonneratia, Bruguiera and Ligularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chung-I

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When natural hybridization occurs at sites where the hybridizing species differ in abundance, the pollen load delivered to the rare species should be predominantly from the common species. Previous authors have therefore proposed a hypothesis on the direction of hybridization: interspecific hybrids are more likely to have the female parent from the rare species and the male parent from the common species. We wish to test this hypothesis using data of plant hybridizations both from our own experimentation and from the literature. Results By examining the maternally inherited chloroplast DNA of 6 cases of F1 hybridization from four genera of plants, we infer unidirectional hybridization in most cases. In all 5 cases where the relative abundance of the parental species deviates from parity, however, the direction is predominantly in the direction opposite of the prediction based strictly on numerical abundance. Conclusion Our results show that the observed direction of hybridization is almost always opposite of the predicted direction based on the relative abundance of the hybridizing species. Several alternative hypotheses, including unidirectional postmating isolation and reinforcement of premating isolation, were discussed.

  7. Lifecycle performance. Special issue on management and maintenance, hybrid ventilation concepts, installation-low buildings; Lifecycle performance. Themanummer over beheer en onderhoud, hybride ventilatieconcepten, installatie-arme gebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierauf, I. [Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kurvers, S.R.; Van den Ham, E.R.; Leijten, J.L. [Sectie Climate Design and Sustainability, Afdeling Architectural Engineering and Technology, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands); Juricic, S. [Ecole National des Travaux Publics de l' Etat, Lyon (France); Jacobs, P. [Afdeling Energy and Comfort Systems, TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Versteeg, H. [LBP Sight, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Van Loon, P.P.M. [Stichting Scholen van Morgen, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hoek, H.C.; Van Eeden, H.; Nibbelink, J. [Collectief C-on, Haarlem (Netherlands); Veerman, J.; Maassen, W.H. [Royal Haskoning DHV, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Derksen, A.H.P. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Morren, K. [Universiteit Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    In 9 articles various aspects regarding the title topic are discussed: energy efficiency and user comfort, ventilation in new houses with balanced ventilation, the revised assessment for ventilation performance, air quality in school buildings, buildings with only a few installations, hybrid ventilation, the management and maintenance process, and future performance requirements [Dutch] In 9 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan diverse aspecten m.b.t. het titelonderwerp: energie-efficientie en gebruikerscomfort, ventilatie in nieuwbouwwoningen met balansventilatie, de herziene beoordelingsrichtlijn ventilatie prestatie, luchtkwaliteit in schoolgebouwen, installatie-arme gebouwen, hybride ventilatie, het beheer- en onderhoudsproces, en de toekomstige prestatie-eisen.

  8. Model-based framework for multi-axial real-time hybrid simulation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermandois, Gaston A.; Spencer, Billie F.

    2017-10-01

    Real-time hybrid simulation is an efficient and cost-effective dynamic testing technique for performance evaluation of structural systems subjected to earthquake loading with rate-dependent behavior. A loading assembly with multiple actuators is required to impose realistic boundary conditions on physical specimens. However, such a testing system is expected to exhibit significant dynamic coupling of the actuators and suffer from time lags that are associated with the dynamics of the servo-hydraulic system, as well as control-structure interaction (CSI). One approach to reducing experimental errors considers a multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) controller design, yielding accurate reference tracking and noise rejection. In this paper, a framework for multi-axial real-time hybrid simulation (maRTHS) testing is presented. The methodology employs a real-time feedback-feedforward controller for multiple actuators commanded in Cartesian coordinates. Kinematic transformations between actuator space and Cartesian space are derived for all six-degrees-offreedom of the moving platform. Then, a frequency domain identification technique is used to develop an accurate MIMO transfer function of the system. Further, a Cartesian-domain model-based feedforward-feedback controller is implemented for time lag compensation and to increase the robustness of the reference tracking for given model uncertainty. The framework is implemented using the 1/5th-scale Load and Boundary Condition Box (LBCB) located at the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology, a single-story frame subjected to earthquake loading is tested. One of the columns in the frame is represented physically in the laboratory as a cantilevered steel column. For realtime execution, the numerical substructure, kinematic transformations, and controllers are implemented on a digital signal processor. Results show excellent performance of the maRTHS framework when six

  9. Biomechanical testing of a hybrid locking plate fixation of equine sesamoid osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida da Silveira, E; Levasseur, A; Lacourt, M; Elce, Y; Petit, Y

    2014-01-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties of a hybrid locking compression plate (LCP) construct with the compression screw technique as a treatment for transverse mid-body proximal sesamoid bone fractures. Ten paired forelimbs from abattoir horses were used. The medial proximal sesamoid bone of each limb was osteotomized transversely and randomly assigned, to either repair with a two-hole 3.5 mm LCP or a 4.5 mm cortical screw placed in lag fashion. Each limb was tested biomechanically by axial loading in single cycle until failure. The point of failure was evaluated from the load-displacement curves. Then a gross evaluation and radiographs were performed to identify the mode of failure. The loads to failure of limbs repaired with the hybrid LCP construct (4968 N ± 2167) and the limbs repaired with the screw technique (3009 N ± 1091) were significantly different (p fracture of the apical fragment of the proximal sesamoid bone. The LCP technique has potential to achieve a better fracture stability and healing when applied to mid-body fractures of the proximal sesamoid bone. Further testing, particularly fatigue resistance is required to corroborate its potential as a treatment option for mid-body fractures of the proximal sesamoid bone.

  10. Performance study of new pixel hybrid photon detector prototypes for the LHCb RICH counters

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, M; Allebone, L; Campbell, M; Gys, Thierry; Newby, C; Pickford, A; Piedigrossi, D; Wyllie, K

    2004-01-01

    A pixel Hybrid Photon Detector was developed according to the specific requirements of the LHCb ring imaging Cerenkov counters. This detector comprises a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary readout chip to achieve a 25 ns fast readout and a high signal-to-noise ratio. The detector performance was characterized by varying the pixel threshold, the tube high voltage, the silicon bias voltage and by the determination of the photoelectron detection efficiency. Furthermore accelerated aging and high pixel occupancy tests were performed to verify the long term stability. The results were obtained using Cerenkov light and a fast pulsed light emitting diode. All measurements results are within the expectations and fulfill the design goals. (8 refs).

  11. Hybrid Test Bed of Wind Electric Generator with Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    G.D.Anbarasi Jebaselvi; S.Paramasivam

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the increasing costs of power production and decreasing fossil fuel reserves with the addition of global environmental concerns, renewable energy is now becoming significant fraction of total electricity production in the world. Advancements in the field of wind electric generator technology and power electronics help to achieve rapid progress in hybrid power system which mainly involves wind, solar and diesel energy with a good battery back-up. Here the discussion brings about the ...

  12. Mechanical performance of hybrid polyester composites reinforced Cloisite 30B and kenaf fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnia, N. N.; Surip, S. N.; Ratim, S.; Mahat, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    Hybridization of rubber toughened polyester-kenaf nanocomposite was prepared by adding various percentage of kenaf fiber with 4% Cloisite 30B in unsaturated polyester resin. Composite were prepared by adding filler to modified polyester resin subsequently cross-linked using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and the accelerator cobalt octanoate 1%. Three per hundred rubbers (phr) of liquid natural rubber (LNR) were added in producing this composite. This composite expected to be applied in the interior of passenger cars and truck cabins. This is a quality local product from a combination of good properties polyester and high performance natural fiber, kenaf that is suitable for many applications such as in automotive sector and construction sector. The mechanical and thermal properties of composite were characterized using Durometer Shore-D hardness test, Izod impact test, Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Result shows that addition of LNR give good properties on impact, flexural and hardness compare to without LNR composite. DSC curve shows that all composition of composites is fully cured and good in thermal properties. Addition of higher percentage of kenaf will lead the composite to elastic behavior and decrease the toughened properties of the composite. Hybrid system composite showed the flexural properties within the flexural properties of kenaf - polyester and Cloisite 30B.

  13. High energy density additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these...

  14. High Performance Hybrid Propulsion System for a Small Launch Vehicle, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to design, develop and demonstrate an innovative high-performance, green, storable hybrid propellant system in a high mass...

  15. Optimum Performance-Based Seismic Design Using a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talatahari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid optimization method is presented to optimum seismic design of steel frames considering four performance levels. These performance levels are considered to determine the optimum design of structures to reduce the structural cost. A pushover analysis of steel building frameworks subject to equivalent-static earthquake loading is utilized. The algorithm is based on the concepts of the charged system search in which each agent is affected by local and global best positions stored in the charged memory considering the governing laws of electrical physics. Comparison of the results of the hybrid algorithm with those of other metaheuristic algorithms shows the efficiency of the hybrid algorithm.

  16. Observer Performance Measured against Hybrid Compressed Video Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    reductions on target detection and recognition were measulred. A hybrid DCT/ DPCM compression algorithm was used to manipulate the bit-per-pixel...pulse code modulation ( DPCM ) encoding of the resulting frequency coefficients to achieve intraframe compression. One of the greatest concerns of... DPCM compression algorithm which will be used in the MICNS communi- cations link. This facility was used to compress a subset of the imagery used in the

  17. A review of the performance and structural considerations of paraffin wax hybrid rocket fuels with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Kirsty; Adali, Sarp; Pitot, Jean; Brooks, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Paraffin wax as a hybrid rocket fuel has not been comprehensively characterised, especially regarding the structural feasibility of the material in launch applications. Preliminary structural testing has shown paraffin wax to be a brittle, low strength material, and at risk of failure under launch loading conditions. Structural enhancing additives have been identified, but their effect on motor performance has not always been considered, nor has any standard method of testing been identified between research institutes. A review of existing regression rate measurement techniques on paraffin wax based fuels and the results obtained with various additives are collated and discussed in this paper. The review includes 2D slab motors that enable visualisation of liquefying fuel droplet entrainment and the effect of an increased viscosity on the droplet entrainment mechanism, which can occur with the addition of structural enhancing polymers. An increased viscosity has been shown to reduce the regression rate of liquefying fuels. Viscosity increasing additives that have been tested include EVA and LDPE. Both these additives increase the structural properties of paraffin wax, where the elongation and UTS are improved. Other additives, such as metal hydrides, aluminium and boron generally offer improvements on the regression rate. However, very little consideration has been given to the structural effects these additives have on the wax grain. A 40% aluminised grain, for example, offers a slight increase in the UTS but reduces the elongation of paraffin wax. Geometrically accurate lab-scale motors have also been used to determine the regression rate properties of various additives in paraffin wax. A concise review of all available regression rate testing techniques and results on paraffin wax based hybrid propellants, as well as existing structural testing data, is presented in this paper.

  18. Corrosion performance tests for reinforcing steel in concrete : test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The existing test method to assess the corrosion performance of reinforcing steel embedded in concrete, mainly : ASTM G109, is labor intensive, time consuming, slow to provide comparative results, and often expensive. : However, corrosion of reinforc...

  19. Outage Performance of Hybrid FSO/RF System with Low-Complexity Power Adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2016-02-26

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO) / radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data- rate wireless communication systems. We consider truncated channel inversion based power adaptation strategy for coherent and non- coherent hybrid FSO/RF systems, employing an adaptive combining scheme. Specifically, we activate the RF link along with the FSO link when FSO link quality is unacceptable, and adaptively set RF transmission power to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio at receiver terminal. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are derived. Numerical examples show that, the hybrid FSO/RF systems with power adaptation achieve considerable outage performance improvement over conventional hybrid FSO/RF systems without power adaptation. © 2015 IEEE.

  20. Aerogel Hybrid Composite Materials: Designs and Testing for Multifunctional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    This webinar will introduce the broad spectrum of aerogel composites and their diverse performance properties such as reduced heat transfer to energy storage, and expands specifically on the aerogel/fiber laminate systems and testing methodologies. The multi-functional laminate composite system, AeroFiber, and its construction is designed by varying the type of fiber (e.g. polyester, carbon, Kevlar®, Spectra® or Innegral(TradeMark) and combinations thereof), the aerogel panel type and thickness, and overall layup configuration. The combination and design of materials may be customized and tailored to achieve a range of desired properties in the resulting laminate system. Multi-functional properties include structural strength, impact resistance, reduction in heat transfer, increased fire resistance, mechanical energy absorption, and acoustic energy dampening. Applications include aerospace, aircraft, automotive, boating, building and construction, lightweight portable structures, liquefied natural gas, cryogenics, transportation and energy, sporting equipment, and military protective gear industries.

  1. Performance of cotton leaf curl virus resistant intrahirsutum f/sub 1/ hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The first and foremost effort to combat the devastating cotton leaf curl virus (clcv) disease would be to utilize those clcv resistant germplasm in a hybridization programme which can enhance the possibilities of selecting desirable progenies from segregating populations. In this connection, 16 clcv intrahirsutum F1 hybrids were developed and evaluated for their performance. The hybrids, on an average gave an increase of 26.02 % in seed cotton yield; 11.52 % in bolls per plant; 14.23 % in boll weight; 4.28 % in lint; 3.89 % in fibre length and 8.21 % in earliness against the average of parents. However, among the hybrids, the top three scoring for yield were, BH.121 x Cyto.9/91, Cyto.9/91 x CRIS-226 and VH-137 x CRIS-226. The number of bolls per plant was found to be a major contributing factor for increased yield because the hybrids which set higher bolls correspondingly gave higher yields. Boll weight was not regarded as an important attribute to increase yield because hybrids with moderate boll sizes were among the top three high yielders. For lint %, the hybrids CRIS-129 x LRA-5166 and FH-901 x VH-137 were first for fibre length, whereas CRIS-121 x Cyto.51 and BH-124 x CIM-448 were among the top two rankers. Regarding earliness, the hybrids CRIS-121 x Cyto. 51 gave the highest boll opening percent and next in order was the hybrid VH-137 x DNH-49. Our results thus generally suggest that although the best three hybrids were desirable for other traits, the choice of the hybrids may be made on the priority for characters to be bred. (author)

  2. Evaluation of a series hybrid thrust bearing at DN values to three million. 2: Fabrication and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusepi, M.; Winn, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    Results of tests made to determine the experimental performance of a series hybrid bearing are reported. The bearing consists of a 150 mm ball bearing and a centrifugally actuated, conical, fluid film bearing fitting an envelope with an outer radius of 86.4 mm (3.4 in.) and inner radius of 71 mm (2.8 in.). Tests were conducted up to 16,500 rpm, at which speed an axial load of 15,568 N (3500 lb) was safely supported by the hybrid bearing system. Through the employment of the series hybrid bearing principle, it was possible to reduce the effective ball bearing speed to approximately one-half of the shaft speed. A reduction of this magnitude should result in a tenfold increase in the ball bearing fatigue life. A successful simulation of fluid film bearing lubricant supply failure, performed repeatedly at an operating speed of 10,000 rpm, resulted in complete and smooth change over to full scale ball bearing operation when the oil supply to the fluid film bearing was discontinued. Reactivation of the fluid film supply system produced a flawless return to the original mode of hybrid operation.

  3. Design, fabrication, and testing of a SMA hybrid composite jet engine chevron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Cano, Roberto J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    Control of jet noise continues to be an important research topic. Exhaust nozzle chevrons have been shown to reduce jet noise, but parametric effects are not well understood. Additionally, thrust loss due to chevrons at cruise suggests significant benefit from deployable chevrons. The focus of this study is development of an active chevron concept for the primary purpose of parametric studies for jet noise reduction in the laboratory and technology development to leverage for full scale systems. The active chevron concept employed in this work consists of a laminated composite structure with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators, termed a SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC). The actuators are embedded on one side of the middle surface such that thermal excitation generates a moment and deflects the structure. A brief description of the chevron design is given followed by details of the fabrication approach. Results from bench top tests are presented and correlated with numerical predictions from a model for such structures that was recently implemented in MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS. Excellent performance and agreement with predictions is demonstrated. Results from tests in a representative flow environment are also presented. Excellent performance is again achieved for both open- and closed-loop tests, the latter demonstrating control to a specified immersion into the flow. The actuation authority and immersion performance is shown to be relatively insensitive to nozzle pressure ratio (NPR). Very repeatable immersion control with modest power requirements is demonstrated.

  4. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

  5. The Effects of Humor on Test Anxiety and Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tali, Glenda

    2017-01-01

    Testing in an academic setting provokes anxiety in all students in higher education, particularly nursing students. When students experience high levels of anxiety, the resulting decline in test performance often does not represent an accurate assessment of students' academic achievement. This quantitative, experimental study examined the effects…

  6. Thermal performances of vertical hybrid PV/T air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, I.; Touafek, K.; Bellel, N.; Khelifa, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, numerical analyses and the experimental validation of the thermal behavior of a vertical photovoltaic thermal air collector are investigated. The thermal model is developed using the energy balance equations of the PV/T air collector. Experimental tests are conducted to validate our mathematical model. The tests are performed in the southern Algerian region (Ghardaïa) under clear sky conditions. The prototype of the PV/T air collector is vertically erected and south oriented. The absorber upper plate temperature, glass cover temperature, air temperature in the inlet and outlet of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation are measured. The efficiency of the collector increases with increase in mass flow of air, but the increase in mass flow of air reduces the temperature of the system. The increase in efficiency of the PV/T air collector is due to the increase in the number of fins added. In the experiments, the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the PV/T air collector reaches 10 ° C on November 21, 2014, the interval time is between 10:00 and 14:00, and the temperature of the upper plate reaches 45 ° C at noon. The mathematical model describing the dynamic behavior of the typical PV/T air collector is evaluated by calculating the root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. A good agreement between the experiment and the simulation results is obtained.

  7. Effect of inorganic/organic ratio and chemical coupling on the performance of porous silica/chitosan hybrid scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daming; Liu, Wei; Feng, Qian; Dong, Chaoqun; Liu, Qisong; Duan, Li; Huang, Jianghong; Zhu, Weimin; Li, Zemeng; Xiong, Jianyi; Liang, Yujie; Chen, Jielin; Sun, Rong; Bian, Liming; Wang, Daping

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid scaffolds have great potential for tissue engineering applications due to controllable mechanical properties and tailorable biodegradation. Here, silica/chitosan hybrid scaffolds were fabricated through the sol-gel method with a freeze drying process. 3-Glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) were used as the covalent inorganic/organic coupling agent and the separate inorganic source, respectively. Hybrid scaffolds with various inorganic/organic weight ratios (I/Os) and molar ratios of chitosan and GPTMS (GCs) were examined and compared in this study. FTIR showed that higher GPTMS content resulted in the increased covalent cross-linking of the chitosan and the silica network in hybrids. Compression testing indicated that increasing the GPTMS content greatly improved the compressive strength of scaffold. LIVE/DEAD assay showed that enhanced cytocompatibility was obtained as the silica content increased. Therefore, the results confirmed that the two parameters I/O and GC can largely influence the scaffold performance, which can be used to tailor the hybrid properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Eurados trial performance test for photon dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, H.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the EURADOS Action entitled Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation, trial performance tests for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters were carried out. Photon, beta and neutron dosemeters were considered...

  9. Integrated Performance Testing for Nonproliferation Support Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, Russell; Bultz, Garl Alan; Byers, Kenneth R.; Yaegle, William

    2013-08-20

    The objective of this workshop is to provide participants with training in testing techniques and methodologies for assessment of the performance of: Physical Protection system elements; Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) system elements.

  10. Summary of functional and performance test procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Gülzow, Erich; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    Different Test Modules (TM) are defined for the functional and performance characterization of a PEMFC stack. The master document TM2.00 defines requirements and methodology for parameter variation, stability and data acquisition.......Different Test Modules (TM) are defined for the functional and performance characterization of a PEMFC stack. The master document TM2.00 defines requirements and methodology for parameter variation, stability and data acquisition....

  11. Mars mission performance enhancement with hybrid nuclear propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, J. E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Noffsinger, K. E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Segna, D. R. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), can effectively deliver the same mass to Mars using much less propellant, consequently requiring less mass delivered to Earth orbit. The lower thrust of NEP requires a spiral trajectory near planetary bodies, which significantly increases the travel time. Although the total travel time is long, the portion of the flight time spent during interplanetary transfer is shorter, because the vehicle is thrusting for much longer periods of time. This has led to the supposition that NEP, although very attractive for cargo missions, is not suitable for piloted missions to Mars. However, with the application of a hybrid application of a hybrid approach to propulsion, the benefits of NEP can be utilized while drastically reducing the overall travel time required. Development of a dual-mode system, which utilizes high-thrust NTP to propel the spacecraft from the planetary gravitational influence and low-thrust NEP to accelerate in interplanetary space, eliminates the spiral trajectory and results in a much faster transit time than could be obtained by either NEP or NTP alone. This results in a mission profile with a lower initial mass in low Earth orbit. In addition, the propulsion system would have the capability to provide electrical power for mission applications.

  12. Work zone performance measures pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Currently, a well-defined and validated set of metrics to use in monitoring work zone performance do not : exist. This pilot test was conducted to assist state DOTs in identifying what work zone performance : measures can and should be targeted, what...

  13. RHIC sextant test: Accelerator systems and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, F.; Trbojevic, D.; Ahrens, L.

    1997-01-01

    One sextant of the RHIC Collider was commissioned in early 1997 with beam. We describe here the performance of the accelerator systems, instrumentation subsystems and application software. We also describe a ramping test without beam that took place after the commissioning with beam. Finally, we analyze the implications of accelerator systems performance and their impact on the planning for RHIC installation and commissioning

  14. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel\\'s MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Brake Performance Analysis of ABS for Eddy Current and Electrohydraulic Hybrid Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an eddy current and electro-hydraulic hybrid brake system to solve problems such as wear, thermal failure, and slow response of traditional vehicle brake system. Mathematical model was built to calculate the torque of the eddy current brake system and hydraulic brake system and analyze the braking force distribution between two types of brake systems. A fuzzy controller on personal computer based on LabVIEW and Matlab was designed and a set of hardware in the loop system was constructed to validate and analyze the performance of the hybrid brake system. Through lots of experiments on dry and wet asphalt roads, the hybrid brake system achieves perfect performance on the experimental bench, the hybrid system reduces abrasion and temperature of the brake disk, response speed is enhanced obviously, fuzzy controller keeps high utilization coefficient due to the optimal slip ratio regulation, and the total brake time has a smaller decrease than traditional hydraulic brake system.

  16. Performance of smokeless gasoline fire test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.F.; Watkins, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Packaging for radioactive materials must perform satisfactorily when subjected to temperatures simulating an accident involving a fire. The new thermal test facility has proved to be a reliable method for satisfactorily performing the required test. The flame provides sufficient heat to assure that the test is valid, and the temperature can be controlled satisfactorily. Also, the air and water mist systems virtually eliminate any smoke and thereby exceed the local EPA requirements. The combination of the two systems provides an inexpensive, low maintenance technique for elimination of the smoke plume

  17. Powertrain instrumentation and test systems development, hybridization, electrification

    CERN Document Server

    Paulweber, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The book deals with the increasingly complex test systems for powertrain components and systems giving an overview of the diverse types of test beds for all components of an advanced powertrain focusing on specific topics such as instrumentation, control, simulation, hardware-in-the-loop, automation or test facility management. This book is intended for powertrain (component) development engineers, test bed planners, test bed operators and beginners.

  18. Testing the 'hybrid susceptibility' and 'phenological sink' hypotheses using the P. balsamifera - P. deltoides hybrid zone and septoria leaf spot [Septoria musiva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoldus, Jared M; Isabel, Nathalie; Floate, Kevin D; Blenis, Peter; Thomas, Barb R

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. This pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses ('Hybrid susceptibility' hypothesis) and (or) to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or) hybridization ('phenological sink' hypothesis). We examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid Populus host genotypes to a leaf spot disease caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria musiva. For this purpose, 214 genotypes were obtained from morphologically pure zones of P. balsamifera and P. deltoides, and from an intervening zone of overlap and hybridization on the drainage of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Genotypes were identified as P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, or hybrid using a suite of 27 species-specific SNP markers. Initially the genetic structure of the hybrid zone was characterized with 27.7% of trees classified as admixed individuals. To test the hybrid susceptibility hypothesis, a subset of 52 genotypes was inoculated with four isolates of S. musiva. Levels of susceptibility were P. balsamifera > F1 hybrid > P. deltoides. A further 53 genotypes were grown in a common garden to assess the effect of genotype on variation in leaf phenology. Leaf phenology was more variable within the category of hybrid genotypes than within categories of either parental species. Leaf phenology was also more variable for the category of trees originating in the hybrid (P. balsamifera - P. deltoides [hybrid and parental genotypes combined]) zone than in adjacent pure zones of the parental species. The results from the inoculation experiment support the hybrid intermediacy hypothesis. The results from the common garden experiment support the 'phenological sink' hypothesis. These findings have greatly increased our understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of fungal pathogens in plant

  19. Oilseed rape grain yield productivity increases with hybrid varietal types: a first balance sheet with post registration tests in France and in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinochet Xavier

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994 several oilseed rape hybrid types were proposed to farmers. Following registration experiments, Cetiom and different equivalent institutions in European Union have tested them in different post registration national networks. Grain yield productivity increases were demonstrated and a first synthesis could be done to check avantages and difficulties which had occurred. For winter types, Hybrid Composits were widely used, mainly in France and in the United Kingdom. Grain yield increases were important in the South and West part of France where their market shares increased up to 50-80%. Nevertheless, many fecondation problems occurred in several places all over Europe. Reasons of such problems were difficult to identify. Several factors, as cold temperatures, nutritionnal competitions, pollen avaibility may be involved to explain low seed sets. Restored Hybrids made with the NPZ hybridation system were successfully tested widely, and has reached significative market shares during 1999-2000 season. Less experiments were carried out with others hybrid types (Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids, Mixed Hybrids. Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids reached the highest grain yield levels but users are waiting for lower glucosinolates seed content hybrids which would come in the next future. Performances comparisons among countries have to be done carefully. Productivity increases with hybrid types could have been over estimated depending of pollinic environments or plot size and possible neighbouring effects. For France, results from field trials networks are coherent with results coming from postal surveys. For spring varieties, Polima restored hybrids and varietal associations have demonstrated a significative advantage compared to classical lines.

  20. Performance and energy management of a novel full hybrid electric powertrain system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Cheng-Ta; Hung, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the performance and energy management between a novel full hybrid electric powertrain and a traditional power-split hybrid system. The developed planetary gearset and dual clutch configuration provides five operation modes. Equations for the torque and speed of power sources for the planetary gearset and dual clutch system and the Toyota Hybrid System are firstly derived. By giving vehicle performance of gradability, maximal speeds in hybrid and pure electric modes, the power sources of the 210 kg target vehicle are: a 125 cc engine and two 1.8 kW motor and generator. The optimal tank-to-wheel efficiencies, ratios of circulating power, and operation points at specific vehicle speeds and out loads are calculated. Simulation results show that the dual-motor electric vehicle mode offers superior performance regarding electric drive; the low capacity of the battery is conducive to reducing manufacturing and maintenance costs; the tank-to-wheel efficiency is mainly operated above 20% while the power split electronic-continuously-variable-transmission mode is the major operation mode, and a maximum of 17% fuel economy improvement is achieved compared with the Toyota Hybrid System in most of the vehicle speed ranges. The outstanding performance warrants further real-system development, especially regarding the implementation in plug-in and sport hybrid powertrain designs. - Highlights: • An innovative power split hybrid powertrain was designed. • Dual-motor electric-vehicle mode highlighted for plug-in function. • Power circulation ratios and five driving modes were analyzed. • Global search method utilized for optimal energy management. • Maximal 17+% fuel improvement compared to Toyota Hybrid System

  1. Performance Test for the SIGMA Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seonyeong; Lee, Hyojeong; Lee, Seongwhan; Shin, Jehyuck; Lee, Jungkyu; Jin, Ho

    2016-12-01

    Scientific CubeSat with Instruments for Global Magnetic Fields and Radiations (SIGMA) is a 3-U size CubeSat that will be operated in low earth orbit (LEO). The SIGMA communication system uses a very high frequency (VHF) band for uplink and an ultra high frequency (UHF) band for downlink. Both frequencies belong to an amateur band. The ground station that communicates with SIGMA is located at Kyung Hee Astronomical Observatory (KHAO). For reliable communication, we carried out a laboratory (LAB) test and far-field tests between the CubeSat and a ground station. In the field test, we considered test parameters such as attenuation, antenna deployment, CubeSat body attitude, and Doppler frequency shift in transmitting commands and receiving data. In this paper, we present a communication performance test of SIGMA, a link budget analysis, and a field test process. We also compare the link budget with the field test results of transmitting commands and receiving data.

  2. Performance of an Orifice Compensated Two-Lobe Hole-Entry Hybrid Journal Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sharana Basavaraja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presented in this paper aims to study the performance of a two-lobe hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system compensated by orifice restrictors. The Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant in the clearance space between the journal and bearing together with the equation of flow through an orifice restrictor has been solved using FEM and Galerkin's method. The bearing performance characteristics results have been simulated for an orifice compensated nonrecessed two-lobe hole-entry hybrid journal bearing symmetric configuration for the various values of offset factor (, restrictor design parameter (2, and the value of external load (0. Further, a comparative study of the performance of a two-lobe hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system with a circular hole-entry symmetric hybrid journal bearing system has also been carried out so that a designer has a better flexibility in choosing a suitable bearing configuration. The simulated numerical results indicate that for the two-lobe symmetric hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system with an offset factor ( greater than one provides 30 to 50 percent larger values of direct stiffness and direct damping coefficients as compared to a circular symmetric hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system.

  3. Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility

  4. MWCNT/TiO2hybrid nano filler toward high-performance epoxy composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Kaushal; Ghosh, P K; Yadav, K L

    2018-03-01

    In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are decorated by TiO 2 nanoparticles and formed a new hybrid structure of filler (MWCNT/TiO 2 hybrid filler). The MWCNT/TiO 2 hybrid filler is reinforced in epoxy matrix and studied the mechanical and anti-corrosion properties of epoxy. The morphology of newly formed MWCNT/TiO 2 hybrid nano filler has been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images of tensile fracture surface confirmed the superior dispersion of MWCNT/TiO 2 in the epoxy matrix. The resultant MWCNT/TiO 2 hybrid-epoxy nanocomposite exhibits superior anti-corrosion and mechanical performance than the nanocomposite produced by loading of only MWCNTs or TiO 2 nanoparticles as well as neat epoxy. For example, tensile strength and storage modulus of epoxy increased by 61% and 43% respectively on loading of MWCNT/TiO 2 hybrid nano filler. Furthermore, the coating of MWCNT/TiO 2 hybrid-epoxy nanocomposite on mild steel reduces the corrosion rate upto 0.87×10 -3 MPY from 16.81MPY. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of eggplant hybrid cultivar ‘BATEM FILIZI’ and determination of yield performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Filiz BOYACI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cultivation is an important part of vegetable production in Turkey. It is highly affected by abiotic stress factors such as low temperatures during growth and development. The present study was aimed to improve new hybrid varieties with high quality and fruit setting under undesirable environmental conditions in eggplant. The 39 inbred lines were developed from eggplant genepool by using pedigree breeding method at the Bati Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute. They were characterized morphologically and evaluated for phylogenetic relationship among them. Selected seven lines were crossed each other to obtain F1 hybrids. Thirteen hybrids from these crosses were examined for their rate of heterosis and heterobeltiosis. These hybrids were not suitable for market demands although F1 hybrids including P350 as parental line had high heterosis rate. Oval fruit shaped P350 inbred line as female parent showed good performance and crossed with long fruit shaped P599 inbred line. The resultant F1 hybrid cultivar higher yielding, suitable for production under greenhouse and highly adaptable was registered with the name of BATEM FILIZI. It is recommended that this hybrid can be used in greenhouse production especially in single crop season.

  6. Hybrid Statistical Testing for Nuclear Material Accounting Data and/or Process Monitoring Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hamada, Michael Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burr, Thomas Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-14

    The two tests employed in the hybrid testing scheme are Page’s cumulative sums for all streams within a Balance Period (maximum of the maximums and average of the maximums) and Crosier’s multivariate cumulative sum applied to incremental cumulative sums across Balance Periods. The role of residuals for both kinds of data is discussed.

  7. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sally (Xiaolei) Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the

  8. Design and flight performance of hybrid underwater glider with controllable wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid underwater glider combines motion modes of traditional autonomous underwater glider and those of autonomous underwater vehicles. Different motion modes need different flight performance, including flight efficiency, static stability, and maneuverability. Conventional hybrid underwater glider with fixed wings can’t achieve optimal flight performance in one flight mission demanding various motion modes. In this article, controllable wings for hybrid underwater glider Petrel II are designed. Angle of attack, sweep angle, and aspect ratio of controllable wings can be changed to adapt to different motion modes. Kinematics and dynamics models of Petrel II are established based on multibody theory. Motion simulations of Petrel II with different wing configurations are conducted in three motion modes, including glide motion, spiral motion, and horizontal turning motion. The simulation results show the impact of wing parameters on flight performance. Field trials demonstrate that the controllable wings can improve the flight performance.

  9. Performance optimum analysis of an irreversible molten carbonate fuel cell–Stirling heat engine hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liwei; Zhang, Houcheng; Gao, Songhua; Yan, Huixian

    2014-01-01

    A new hybrid system mainly consists of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a Stirling heat engine is established, where the Stirling heat engine is driven by the high-quality waste heat generated in the MCFC. Based on the electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, analytical expressions for the efficiency and power output of the hybrid system are derived by taking various irreversible losses into account. It shows that the performance of the MCFC can be greatly enhanced by coupling a Stirling heat engine to further convert the waste heat for power generation. By employing numerical calculations, not only the influences of multiple irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system are analyzed, but also the impacts of some operating conditions such as the operating temperature, input gas compositions and operating pressure on the performance of the hybrid system are also discussed. The investigation method in the present paper is feasible for some other similar energy conversion systems as well. - Highlights: • A model of MCFC–Stirling heat engine hybrid system is established. • Analytical expressions for the efficiency and power output are derived. • MCFC performance can be greatly enhanced by coupling a Stirling heat engine. • Effects of some operating conditions on the performance are discussed. • Optimum operation regions are subdivided by multi-objective optimization method

  10. Performance testing of extremity dosimeters, Study 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.; Reece, W.D.; Hooker, C.D.

    1990-04-01

    The Health Physics Society Standards Committee (HPSSC) Working Group on Performance Testing of Extremity Dosimeters has issued a draft of a proposed standard for extremity dosimeters. The draft standard proposes methods to be used for testing dosimetry systems that determine occupational radiation dose to the extremities and the performance criterion used to determine compliance with the standard. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted two separate evaluations of the performance of extremity dosimeter processors to determine the appropriateness of the draft standard, as well as to obtain information regarding the performance of extremity dosimeters. Based on the information obtained during the facility visits and the results obtained from the performance testing, it was recommended that changes be made to ensure that the draft standard is appropriate for extremity dosimeters. The changes include: subdividing the mixture category and the beta particle category; eliminating the neutron category until appropriate flux-to-dose equivalent conversion factors are derived; and changing the tolerance level for the performance criterion to provide consistency with the performance criterion for whole body dosimeters, and to avoid making the draft standard overly difficult for processors of extremity dosimeters to pass. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  11. NRC valve performance test program - check valve testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmougin, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Valve Performance Test Program addresses the current requirements for testing of pressure isolation valves (PIVs) in light water reactors. Leak rate monitoring is the current method used by operating commercial power plants to survey the condition of their PIVs. ETEC testing of three check valves (4-inch, 6-inch, and 12-inch nominal diameters) indicates that leak rate testing is not a reliable method for detecting impending valve failure. Acoustic emission monitoring of check valves shows promise as a method of detecting loosened internals damage. Future efforts will focus on evaluation of acoustic emission monitoring as a technique for determining check valve condition. Three gate valves also will be tested to evaluate whether the check valve results are applicable to gate type PIVs

  12. Development of turbopump cavitation performance test facility and the test of inducer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Dong Kee; Kim, Chun Tak; Yoon, Min Soo; Cha, Bong Jun; Kim, Jin Han; Yang, Soo Seok

    2001-01-01

    A performance test facility for turbopump inducer cavitation was developed and the inducer cavitation performance tests were performed. Major components of the performance test facility are driving unit, test section, piping, water tank, and data acquisition and control system. The maximum of testing capability of this facility are as follows: flow rate - 30kg/s; pressure - 13 bar, rotational speed - 10,000rpm. This cavitation test facility is characterized by the booster pump installed at the outlet of the pump that extends the flow rate range, and by the pressure control system that makes the line pressure down to vapor pressure. The vacuum pump is used for removing the dissolved air in the water as well as the line pressure. Performance tests were carried out and preliminary data of test model inducer were obtained. The cavitation performance test and cavitation bubble flow visualization were also made. This facility is originally designed for turbopump inducer performance test and cavitation test. However it can be applied to the pump impeller performance test in the future with little modification

  13. Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Scholtens, Brekke E.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient methods for characterizing thermal performance of materials under cryogenic and vacuum conditions have been developed. These methods provide thermal conductivity data on materials under actual-use conditions and are complementary to established methods. The actual-use environment of full temperature difference in combination with vacuum-pressure is essential for understanding insulation system performance. Test articles include solids, foams, powders, layered blankets, composite panels, and other materials. Test methodology and apparatus design for several insulation test cryostats are discussed. The measurement principle is liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimetry. Heat flux capability ranges from approximately 0.5 to 500 watts per square meter; corresponding apparent thermal conductivity values range from below 0.01 up to about 60 mW/m- K. Example data for different insulation materials are also presented. Upon further standardization work, these patented insulation test cryostats can be available to industry for a wide range of practical applications.

  14. A hybrid floating brush seal (HFBS) for improved sealing and wear performance in turbomachinery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott Byran

    A conceptually new type of seal has been developed for gas turbine applications which dramatically reduces wear and leakage associated with current labyrinth and brush seal technologies. The Hybrid Floating Brush Seal (HFBS) combines brush seal and film riding face seal technologies to create a hybrid seal that allows both axial and radial excursions of the sealed shaft, while simultaneously eliminating interface surface speeds (friction and heat) between the rotor and the brush material that characterize standard brush seal technology. A simple test rig was designed to evaluate feasibility of the HFBS under relatively low pressures and rotational speeds (50psig, 5krpm). A second test stand was created to study the effects of centrifugal force on bristle deflection. A third test facility was constructed for prototype development and extensive room temperature testing at moderate pressures and fairly high rotational speeds (100psig, 40krpm). This test rig also allowed the evaluation of the HFBS during axial movement of a rotating shaft. An analytical model to predict the effects of centrifugal force on the bristles of a rotating brush seal was developed. Room temperature analysis of the HFBS proved successful for relatively high operating rotational velocities at moderate pressures with very acceptable leakage rates for gas turbine engines. Brush seals were able to track rotor speeds up to 24krpm while maintaining sealing integrity. The HFBS's ability to function under axial shaft displacement and synchronous dynamic radial loading was also proven successful. Hydrodynamic performance of the face seal was proven to provide adequate stiffness and load carrying capacity to keep the brush seal from contacting the face seal at pressure drops across the brush of up to 100psi. Leakage performance over standard brush seal and labyrinth technology was quite dramatic. The HFBS showed its sealing advantage using much higher radial interference between the rotor and the bristle

  15. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (2008) to detect whether the widely used class of Residual Income based performa......Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (2008) to detect whether the widely used class of Residual Income based...... performance measures —such as Economic Value Added (EVA)— is distorted, leading to unintended agent behavior. The paper uses a difference-in-differences approach to account for changes in economic circumstances and the self-selection of firms using EVA. Our findings indicate that EVA is a distorted...... performance measure that elicits the gaming response....

  16. Testing prospect theory in students’ performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Galdón, Patricia; Nicolau, Juan Luis

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests the existence of ‘reference dependence’ and ‘loss aversion’ in students’ academic performance. Accordingly, achieving a worse than expected academic performance would have a much stronger effect on students’ (dis)satisfaction than obtaining a better than expected grade. Although loss aversion is a well-established finding, some authors have demonstrated that it can be moderated – diminished, to be precise–. Within this line of research, we also examine whether the students’ e...

  17. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Schlienger, Peter; Weilenmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO 2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO 2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO 2 emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO 2 emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO 2 emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO 2 emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO 2 emissions should, therefore, be adapted.

  18. Modeling and performance analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamba, Ravita; Kaushik, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic model of concentrated photovoltaic–thermoelectric system is analysed. • Thomson effect reduces the power output of PV, TE and hybrid PV–TEG system. • Effect of thermocouple number, irradiance, PV and TE current have been studied. • The optimum concentration ratio for maximum power output has been found out. • The overall efficiency and power output of hybrid PV–TEG system has been improved. - Abstract: In this study, a thermodynamic model for analysing the performance of a concentrated photovoltaic–thermoelectric generator (CPV–TEG) hybrid system including Thomson effect in conjunction with Seebeck, Joule and Fourier heat conduction effects has been developed and simulated in MATALB environment. The expressions for calculating the temperature of photovoltaic (PV) module, hot and cold sides of thermoelectric (TE) module are derived analytically as well. The effect of concentration ratio, number of thermocouples in TE module, solar irradiance, PV module current and TE module current on power output and efficiency of the PV, TEG and hybrid PV–TEG system have been studied. The optimum concentration ratio corresponding to maximum power output of the hybrid system has been found out. It has been observed that by considering Thomson effect in TEG module, the power output of the PV, TE and hybrid PV–TEG systems decreases and at C = 1 and 5, it reduces the power output of hybrid system by 0.7% and 4.78% respectively. The results of this study may provide basis for performance optimization of a practical irreversible CPV–TEG hybrid system.

  19. Stabilization with Optimal Performance for Dissipative Discrete-Time Impulsive Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of stabilization with optimal performance for dissipative DIHS (discrete-time impulsive hybrid systems. By using Lyapunov function method, conditions are derived under which the DIHS with zero inputs is GUAS (globally uniformly asymptotically stable. These GUAS results are used to design feedback control law such that a dissipative DIHS is asymptotically stabilized and the value of a hybrid performance functional can be minimized. For the case of linear DIHS with a quadratic supply rate and a quadratic storage function, sufficient and necessary conditions of dissipativity are expressed in matrix inequalities. And the corresponding conditions of optimal quadratic hybrid performance are established. Finally, one example is given to illustrate the results.

  20. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (Review of Economics and Statistics, 90, 428-441) to detect whether the widely...... used class of residual income-based performance measures-such as economic value added (EVA)-is distorted, leading to unintended agent behavior. The paper uses a difference-in-differences approach to account for changes in economic circumstances and the self-selection of firms using EVA. Our findings...... indicate that EVA is a distorted performance measure that elicits the gaming response....

  1. NetBench. Automated Network Performance Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the operation of high performance routers, CERN has developed the NetBench software to run benchmarking tests by injecting various traffic patterns and observing the network devices behaviour in real-time. The tool features a modular design with a Python based console used to inject traffic and collect the results in a database, and a web user

  2. The relationship between standardised test performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that a significant relationship between language proficiency (in terms of performance in standardised reading and writing tests) and LLS use can only be assumed with some confidence in respect of memory and cognitive strategies, but not in respect of compensation, metacognitive, affective and social ...

  3. Real-Time Performance of Hybrid Mobile Robot Control Utilizing USB Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Augustyn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of usability of the USB 2.0 protocol in the area of real-time control of a mobile robot. Optimization methods of data transfer handling were proposed. The impact of the optimization results on the entire system's performance was examined in practice. As a test-bed, a hybrid system composed of two devices communicating by direct USB connection was implemented. The first of the mentioned devices was a 32-bit SoC micro-system serving as a direct control unit, and the second one was an off-the-shelf PDA providing supervisory control and logging. Due to this design, the system meets regimes of the real-time constraints and maintains continuity of a data stream at a large bandwidth. The real-time performances of subsystems and the entire system were experimentally examined depending on various operating conditions. Thanks to the performed experiments, the dependency of real-time limits on operational parameters has been determined.

  4. Development and testing of a hybrid system with a sub-kW open-cathode type PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhen-Ming; Su, Ay; Liu, Ying-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack has been evaluated for a hybrid power system test platform. To simulate vehicle acceleration, the stack was operated under dynamic-loading, and to demonstrate the exchange of power flow between two power sources the hybrid power system was tested under three different modes. A unit cell was fabricated for high stack performance and the stack was constructed with 18 open-cathode type fuel cells. Air which acts as a coolant as well as an oxidant for electrochemical reactions is provided by a pair of fans. The capabilities of the stack for hybrid power system test platform were validated by successful dynamic-loading tests. The performance of the stack for various air fan voltage was evaluated and an optimal value was concluded. The conditions like inlet temperature of H 2 and the stack current were established for maximum power. It was also found that humidification of hydrogen at anode inlet degrades the stack performance and stability due to flooding. Evidence shows that for the higher overall performance, the fuel cell acts continuously on constant current output. The study contributes to the design of mobility hybrid system to get better performance and reliability. - Highlights: • An open-cathode type PEMFC (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) stack (rated output 300 W) was fabricated. • The open-cathode configuration simplifies the design of a stack system. • Assess the feasibility of combining a fuel cell stack in a hybrid system. • The study contributes to the design of mobility hybrid system to get better performance and reliability

  5. Motivation and Test Anxiety in Test Performance across Three Testing Contexts: The CAEL, CET, and GEPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liying; Klinger, Don; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine; Jin, Yan; Wu, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study examined test-takers' motivation, test anxiety, and test performance across a range of social and educational contexts in three high-stakes language tests: the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) Assessment in Canada, the College English Test (CET) in the People's Republic of China, and the General English Proficiency Test (GEPT)…

  6. The Phenotypic Performances of Gerbera Local Bali X Rubby Red Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Yuniarto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gerbera is one of important cut flowers in floriculture industries. It can substitute of chrysanthemum. The novelty of cultivar and superiority of characteristic of gerbera are necessary in the floriculture markets. New cultivars can be created through hybridization between cultivars. This study aimed to find out the phenotypic performances of gerbera hybrids of Local Bali x Rubby Red. The research was conducted in Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, West Java, Indonesia from January 2014 to September 2015. Eight progenies of F1 hybrids and their parents (Local Bali and Rubby Red were used as materials. In the hybridization process Local Bali and Rubby Red were used as female and male parents respectively. Genetic variabilities of Gerbera were achieved through this hybridization. Gerbera progeny no. 20.009 had the longest inflorescence diameter, the biggest outer sepal and the highest number of sepals compared to the others. The flower vase life of this progeny was not significantly difference to the male parent. Qualitative characters observation showed that the hybrids were classified into two groups based on flower type, four groups of outer ray florets and two-disc groups of petal color.

  7. CORRELATION BETWEEN SEED TESTS AND FIELD EMERGENCE OF TWO MAIZE HYBRIDS (SC704 AND SC500)

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. ALILOO; B. SHOKATI

    2011-01-01

    Early emergence and stand establishment of maize (Zea mays L.) are considered to be the most important yield-contributing factors. The influence of seed vigor on these factors is vital. Therefore, five laboratory tests and field experiment were conducted on basis of a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications in 2011, to evaluate the correlation among the seed vigor tests and field emergence of two maize hybrids (SC704 and SC500). In laboratory tests, differences between ...

  8. Bonding performance of self-adhesive flowable composites to enamel, dentin and a nano-hybrid composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jana; Rizk, Marta; Hoch, Monika; Wiegand, Annette

    2017-12-14

    This study aimed to analyze bond strengths of self-adhesive flowable composites on enamel, dentin and nano-hybrid composite. Enamel, dentin and nano-hybrid composite (Venus Diamond, Heraeus Kulzer, Germany) specimens were prepared. Three self-adhesive composites (Constic, DMG, Germany; Fusio Liquid Dentin, Pentron Clinical, USA; Vertise Flow, Kerr Dental, Italy) or a conventional flowable composite (Venus Diamond Flow, Heraeus Kulzer, Germany, etch&rinse technique) were applied to enamel and dentin. Nano-hybrid composite specimens were initially aged by thermal cycling (5000 cycles, 5-55 °C). Surfaces were left untreated or pretreated by mechanical roughening, Al 2 O 3 air abrasion or silica coating/silanization. In half of the composite specimens, an adhesive (Optibond FL, Kerr Dental, Italy) was used prior to the application of the flowable composites. Following thermal cycling (5000 cycles, 5-55 °C) of all specimens, shear bond strengths (SBS) and failure modes were analyzed (each subgroup n = 16). Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVAs/Bonferroni post hoc tests, Weibull statistics and χ 2 -tests (p composites on enamel and dentin were significantly lower (enamel: composite (enamel: 13.0 ± 5.1, dentin: 11.2 ± 6.3), and merely adhesive failures could be observed. On the nano-hybrid composite, SBS were significantly related to the pretreatment. Adhesive application improved SBS of the conventional, but not of the self-adhesive composites. The self-adhesive composite groups showed less cohesive failures than the reference group; the occurence of cohesive failures increased after surface pretreatment. Bonding of self-adhesive flowable composites to enamel and dentin is lower than bonding to a nano-hybrid composite.

  9. Performance assessment of hybrid power generation systems: Economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sharafi, Abdullah; Yilbas, Bekir S.; Sahin, Ahmet Z.; Ayar, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A double-step optimization tool for hybrid power generation systems is introduced. • Economical aspects and the impact of the system on the environment are considered. • A hybrid system comprises PV array-wind turbine-battery-diesel engine is considered. • Real time analysis of the system for full year simulation is carried out. • System optimum configuration at point where total performance index is maximized. - Abstract: This article aims to introduce a double-step performance assessment tool for the hybrid power generation systems. As a case study, a hybrid system comprising PV array, wind-turbine, battery bank and diesel engine is incorporated in hourly based simulations to meet power demand of a residence unit at Dhahran area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Different indicators related to economical and environmental performance assessments of the hybrid system have been considered. In the economic related assessment case, cost of electricity, energy excess percentage, and operating life cycle indicators have been considered and combined to develop the first overall performance index. Renewable contribution, renewable source availability and environmental impact indicators have been considered for the environmental assessment case and they are combined in the second performance index. For either economical or environmental cases, the optimum configuration of the system is achieved by maximizing the first and second overall performance indicators. This innovative optimization tools gives the designer the freedom to assign suitable weights associated with economical aspect, environmental impact, governmental regulations and social impact, for the first and second overall performance indicators, and combine them in the total performance index. The optimum system configuration is at the point where the total performance index is maximized.

  10. Excellent electrochemical performance of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids prepared using a microwave spark assistance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugharaj, A.M.; Ryu, Sung Hun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple synthesis route is explored in preparing graphene-metal nanoparticle hybrids using cost effective microwave radiation process. ► Electrochemical performance of the synthesized graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids have been compared with graphite and silver nanoparticle based anode materials. ► Graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrid exhibits stable charge/discharge characteristics of 714 mAh g −1 and it is significantly higher compared to natural graphite and silver based electrodes. - Abstract: A simple method is described for the synthesis of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids from graphite and silver precursors using microwave spark ignition process. Adding ecofriendly free radical initiators, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide solution leads to the expansion of graphite to graphene nanosheets. Simultaneously, silver ions intercalated between the graphene layers are reduced to silver nanocrystals leading to the development of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies reveal the successful formation of graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the silver nanoparticles formed on the graphene surfaces are face centered cubic crystals. The surface composition and functional groups present on the graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids are corroborated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The lithium storage capacity of the synthesized material, when used as an anode material for rechargeable lithium secondary batteries is investigated. Its first specific discharge capacity is observed to be 580 mAh g −1 and this has been increased to 827 mAh g −1 , by incorporating the silver nanoparticles between the graphene platelets. The reversible capacity of the graphene-silver nanoparticle hybrids is observed to be 714 mAh g −1 , which is significantly higher compared to that of graphene (420 mAh g −1

  11. Hybrid Corporate Performance Prediction Model Considering Technical Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonhyuck Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have tried to predict corporate performance and stock prices to enhance investment profitability using qualitative approaches such as the Delphi method. However, developments in data processing technology and machine-learning algorithms have resulted in efforts to develop quantitative prediction models in various managerial subject areas. We propose a quantitative corporate performance prediction model that applies the support vector regression (SVR algorithm to solve the problem of the overfitting of training data and can be applied to regression problems. The proposed model optimizes the SVR training parameters based on the training data, using the genetic algorithm to achieve sustainable predictability in changeable markets and managerial environments. Technology-intensive companies represent an increasing share of the total economy. The performance and stock prices of these companies are affected by their financial standing and their technological capabilities. Therefore, we apply both financial indicators and technical indicators to establish the proposed prediction model. Here, we use time series data, including financial, patent, and corporate performance information of 44 electronic and IT companies. Then, we predict the performance of these companies as an empirical verification of the prediction performance of the proposed model.

  12. Performance Test for the SIGMA Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonyeong Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific CubeSat with Instruments for Global Magnetic Fields and Radiations (SIGMA is a 3-U size CubeSat that will be operated in low earth orbit (LEO. The SIGMA communication system uses a very high frequency (VHF band for uplink and an ultra high frequency (UHF band for downlink. Both frequencies belong to an amateur band. The ground station that communicates with SIGMA is located at Kyung Hee Astronomical Observatory (KHAO. For reliable communication, we carried out a laboratory (LAB test and far-field tests between the CubeSat and a ground station. In the field test, we considered test parameters such as attenuation, antenna deployment, CubeSat body attitude, and Doppler frequency shift in transmitting commands and receiving data. In this paper, we present a communication performance test of SIGMA, a link budget analysis, and a field test process. We also compare the link budget with the field test results of transmitting commands and receiving data.

  13. Oblique crushing performances of hybrid woven Kenaf fibre reinforced aluminium hollow cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Al Emran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents crushing performances of hybrid woven kenaf fibre reinforced aluminium tubes under axial and oblique compression. According to open literature, lack number of works conducted to study the crushing responses when kenaf fibre in the form of woven is used to reinforce aluminium tubes. There are important parameters are used such as fibre orientations and oblique compression angles. Kenaf fibre in the form of woven is firstly wetted with polyester resin before it is wrapped around the tubes. After composite hardened, the hybrid tubes are quasi-statically compressed and force-displacement curves are recorded. Energy absorption performances are then determined and discussed in term of different fibre orientations and oblique angles. It is found that [±30°] fibre orientations capable to produce higher force-displacement responses and hybrid tubes are produced lower force ratio indicating the role of natural fibre in increasing the capability of energy absorptions.

  14. Catalytic performance of hybrid nanocatalyst for levulinic acid production from glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'aini, Nazlina; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina

    2012-11-01

    Levulinic acid is one of the potential and versatile biomass-derived chemicals. Product analysis via HPLC revealed that the heterogeneous dehydration of glucose over hybrid nanocatalyst exhibited better performance compared to single catalyst. Hybrid nanocatalyst containing H-Y zeolite and CrCl3 could substitute homogenous acid catalyst for attaining high levulinic acid yield. Different CrC3 and H-Y zeolite weight ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 were prepared according to the wetness impregnation method. The hybrid catalyst with a 1:1 weight ratio performed better compared to others with the highest levulinic acid yield reported (93.5%) at 140 °C, 180 min reaction time, 0.1 g catalyst loading and 0.1 g glucose feed. Characterization results revealed that properties such as surface area, mesoporosity and acidic strength of the catalyst have significant effects on glucose dehydration for levulinic acid production.

  15. Hybrid performance in taro (Colocasia esculenta) in relation to genetic dissimilarity of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero-García, José; Letourmy, P; Ivancic, A; Feldmann, P; Courtois, B; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

    2009-07-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) breeding, as other root crop breeding, is based on the production and evaluation of large numbers of hybrids. The selection of parents is based on their phenotypic value in the absence of information concerning general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), or genetic distances between varieties. By combining data from heritability trials and from genetic diversity studies conducted with AFLP and SSR markers, we aimed at studying the relationship between hybrid vigour and genetic dissimilarity between parents. The traits studied included number of suckers, corm weight, corm dimensions, and dry matter content. Correlation coefficients between hybrid gain and dissimilarity values were calculated. The prediction of hybrid performance based on the mid-parent value was compared to the prediction based on a modified expression that takes into account the genetic relationships between parents. Correlations were all but one positive but not statistically significant for all traits, with the exception of the number of suckers, when using SSR markers for dissimilarity calculations. Accordingly, the genetic dissimilarities in the prediction of hybrid performances did not increase the correlation between predicted and observed hybrid vigour values. However, large differences were observed among the residual means from the regression between predicted and observed values when using AFLP or SSR markers, mainly due to the much higher polymorphism revealed by the latter. Models need to be further adapted to the type of molecular marker used, since their ability to reveal different rates of polymorphism will have a direct incidence on the calculation of genetic dissimilarities between genotypes. Nevertheless, since SSR markers are more polymorphic and more informative than AFLP markers, they should be preferentially used for these studies. Low genetic dissimilarity of parents yielded weak heterosis effects and future studies need to be

  16. Performance comparison of optimal fractional order hybrid fuzzy PID controllers for handling oscillatory fractional order processes with dead time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Pan, Indranil; Das, Shantanu

    2013-07-01

    Fuzzy logic based PID controllers have been studied in this paper, considering several combinations of hybrid controllers by grouping the proportional, integral and derivative actions with fuzzy inferencing in different forms. Fractional order (FO) rate of error signal and FO integral of control signal have been used in the design of a family of decomposed hybrid FO fuzzy PID controllers. The input and output scaling factors (SF) along with the integro-differential operators are tuned with real coded genetic algorithm (GA) to produce optimum closed loop performance by simultaneous consideration of the control loop error index and the control signal. Three different classes of fractional order oscillatory processes with various levels of relative dominance between time constant and time delay have been used to test the comparative merits of the proposed family of hybrid fractional order fuzzy PID controllers. Performance comparison of the different FO fuzzy PID controller structures has been done in terms of optimal set-point tracking, load disturbance rejection and minimal variation of manipulated variable or smaller actuator requirement etc. In addition, multi-objective Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) has been used to study the Pareto optimal trade-offs between the set point tracking and control signal, and the set point tracking and load disturbance performance for each of the controller structure to handle the three different types of processes. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical Study on the Seismic Performance of a Steel–Concrete Hybrid Supporting Structure in Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical investigation on the seismic performance of a steel–concrete hybrid structure consisting of reinforced concrete (RC tubular columns and steel braced truss with A-shaped steel frames, which is a novel supporting structural system to house air-cooled condensers (ACC in large-capacity thermal power plants (TPPs. First, the finite element (FE modeling approach for this hybrid structure using the software ABAQUS was validated by a range of pseudo-dynamic tests (PDTs performed on a 1/8-scaled sub-structure. The failure process, lateral displacement responses, changing rules of dynamic characteristic parameters and lateral stiffness with increase of peak ground acceleration (PGA were presented here. Then, nonlinear time-history analysis of the prototype structure was carried out. The dynamic characteristics, base shear force, lateral deformation capacity, stiffness deterioration and damage characteristics were investigated. Despite the structural complexity and irregularity, both experimental and numerical results indicate that the overall seismic performance of this steel–concrete hybrid supporting structure meets the seismic design requirements with respect to the high-intensity earthquakes.

  18. Testing Solutions for Adult Film Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Zachary R

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the nation's adult films are produced in California, and within California, most production occurs in Los Angeles. In order to regulate that content, the County of Los Angeles passed the Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry Act (Measure B) by way of referendum in November 2012. Measure B requires that adult film producers wishing to film in Los Angeles County obtain permits from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, and it also mandates that adult film performers use condoms while filming and "engaging in anal or vaginal sexual intercourse." Nevertheless, between August 2013 and January 2014, several adult film performers in California tested positive for HIV, and the threat of infection remains. Although Measure B is not the best way forward for Los Angeles County, elements of the ordinance should be incorporated into future legislative efforts. Given the economic ramifications of industry flight due to more localized regulations, this Note concludes that California should pass statewide comprehensive reform. Any such new legislation must treat "independent contractors," the classification generally used for adult film performs, as if they were regular employees. Legislation should also couple mandatory testing mechanisms with provisions granting performers the right to choose whether they use condoms. Finally, legislation must include mechanisms that ensure performers' preferences are not improperly tainted by outside forces and pressures. While there will always be risks associated with the production of adult content, if undertaken, these reforms could significantly mitigate those hazards.

  19. Sexual ornaments, body morphology, and swimming performance in naturally hybridizing swordtails (teleostei: xiphophorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Johnson

    Full Text Available Determining the costs of sexual ornaments is complicated by the fact that ornaments are often integrated with other, non-sexual traits, making it difficult to dissect the effect of ornaments independent of other aspects of the phenotype. Hybridization can produce reduced phenotypic integration, allowing one to evaluate performance across a broad range of multivariate trait values. Here we assess the relationship between morphology and performance in the swordtails Xiphophorus malinche and X. birchmanni, two naturally-hybridizing fish species that differ extensively in non-sexual as well as sexual traits. We took advantage of novel trait variation in hybrids to determine if sexual ornaments incur a cost in terms of locomotor ability. For both fast-start and endurance swimming, hybrids performed at least as well as the two parental species. The sexually-dimorphic sword did not impair swimming performance per se. Rather, the sword negatively affected performance only when paired with a sub-optimal body shape. Studies seeking to quantify the costs of ornaments should consider that covariance with non-sexual traits may create the spurious appearance of costs.

  20. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  1. Development and testing of multigroup library with correction of self-shielding effects in fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jun; He Zhaozhong; Zeng Qin; Qiu Yuefeng; Wang Minghuang

    2010-01-01

    A multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library/Self-Shielding) based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluate data has been generated using Bondarenko and flux calculator method for the correction of self-shielding effect of neutronics analyses. To validate the reliability of the multigroup library HENDL2.1/SS, transport calculations for fusion-fission hybrid system FDS-I were performed in this paper. It was verified that the calculations with the HENDL2.1/SS gave almost the same results with MCNP calculations and were better than calculations with the HENDL2.0/MG which is another multigroup library without self-shielding correction. The test results also showed that neglecting resonance self-shielding caused underestimation of the K eff , neutron fluxes and waste transmutation ratios in the multigroup calculations of FDS-I.

  2. Hybrid advection scheme for 3-dimensional atmospheric models. Testing and application for a study of NO{sub x} transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubov, V.A.; Rozanov, E.V. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schlesinger, M.E.; Andronova, N.G. [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The problems of ozone depletion, climate change and atmospheric pollution strongly depend on the processes of production, destruction and transport of chemical species. A hybrid transport scheme was developed, consisting of the semi-Lagrangian scheme for horizontal advection and the Prather scheme for vertical transport, which have been used for the Atmospheric Chemical Transport model to calculate the distributions of different chemical species. The performance of the new hybrid scheme has been evaluated in comparison with other transport schemes on the basis of specially designed tests. The seasonal cycle of the distribution of N{sub 2}O simulated by the model, as well as the dispersion of NO{sub x} exhausted from subsonic aircraft, are in a good agreement with published data. (author) 8 refs.

  3. Chromosomal regions involved in hybrid performance and heterosis: their AFLP(R)-based identification and practical use in prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuylsteke, M; Kuiper, M; Stam, P

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, a novel approach towards the prediction of hybrid performance and heterosis is presented. Here, we describe an approach based on: (i) the assessment of associations between AFLP(R) markers and hybrid performance and specific combining ability (SCA) across a set of hybrids; and (ii) the assumption that the joint effect of genetic factors (loci) determined this way can be obtained by addition. Estimated gene effects for grain yield varied from additive, partial dominance to overdominance. This procedure was applied to 53 interheterotic hybrids out of a 13 by 13 half-diallel among maize inbreds, evaluated for grain yield. The hybrid value, representing the joint effect of the genetic factors, accounted for up to 62.4% of the variation in the hybrid performance observed, whereas the corresponding efficiency of the SCA model was 36.8%. Efficiency of the prediction for hybrid performance was evaluated by means of a cross-validation procedure for grain yield of (i) the 53 interheterotic hybrids and (ii) 16 hybrids partly related to the 13 by 13 half-diallel. Comparisons in prediction efficiency with the 'distance' model were made. Because the map position of the selected markers is known, putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting grain yield, in terms of hybrid performance or heterosis, are identified. Some QTL of grain yield detected in the present study were located in the vicinity of loci reported earlier as having quantitative effects on grain yield.

  4. Performance test of 100 W linear compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, J; Ko, D. Y.; Park, S. J.; Kim, H. B.; Hong, Y. J.; Yeom, H. K.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present test results of developed 100 W class linear compressor for Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator. The fabricated linear compressor has dual-opposed configuration, free piston and moving magnet type linear motor. Power transfer, efficiency and required pressure waveform are predicted with designed and measured specifications. In experiments, room temperature test with flow impedance is conducted to evaluate performance of developed linear compressor. Flow impedance is loaded to compressor with metering valve for flow resistance, inertance tube for flow inertance and buffer volumes for flow compliance. Several operating parameters such as input voltage, current, piston displacement and pressure wave are measured for various operating frequency and fixed input current level. Behaviors of dynamics and performance of linear compressor as varying flow impedance are discussed with measured experimental results. The developed linear compressor shows 124 W of input power, 86 % of motor efficiency and 60 % of compressor efficiency at its resonant operating condition.

  5. Testing Devices Garner Data on Insulation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To develop a test instrument that could garner measurements of the thermal performance of insulation under extreme conditions, researchers at Kennedy Space Center devised the Cryostat 1 and then Cryostat 2. McLean, Virginia-based QinetiQ North America licensed the technology and plans to market it to organizations developing materials for things like piping and storage tank insulation, refrigeration, appliances, and consumer goods.

  6. evaluation of striga-resistant early maize hybrids and test locations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    to evaluate selected Striga-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids for grain yield and stability of performance based on multiple ... infestation based on multiple traits than based on yield per se, suggesting that grain yield alone is not a precise predictor of ..... environment interaction components were not significant, there was ...

  7. Proof test of hybrid shrink fits with ceramic hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M; Binz, H, E-mail: markus.wagner@iktd.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-10-29

    Advanced ceramic machine components are required in many applications because of their specific material properties like high hardness, resistance to chemicals, corrosion and wear, low specific weight etc. The most suitable shaft-hub connection to ceramics is an interference fit assembly because it is free of geometrical notches and transmission of forces takes place in a large area. Such a shrink fit is rated for endurance strength when the stress intensity factor is below the specific value K{sub I0} where no crack growth occurs. The total component suddenly fails, when the stress intensity factor exceeds the K{sub IC} value. The load to the press fit during the joining process, caused by the interference of the assembly, could be regulated by ambient conditions. In case of undetected material defects or microcracks in the ceramic and if the stress intensity is below K{sub IC}, the ceramic will not fail but a crack could grow. Thus, the joining process only seems to be a proof test. When the load during operation leads to a stress intensity that remains higher than K{sub I0} the crack grows until the whole ceramic component fails. This effect was verified in tests at the Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design.

  8. An Evaluation of Molecular Dynamics Performance on the Hybrid Cray XK6 Supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W. Michael; Nguyen, Trung D.; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A.; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Rack, Philip D.; Berger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    For many years, the drive towards computational physics studies that match the size and time-scales of experiment has been fueled by increases in processor and interconnect performance that could be exploited with relatively little modification to existing codes. Engineering and electrical power constraints have disrupted this trend, requiring more drastic changes to both hardware and software solutions. Here, we present details of the Cray XK6 architecture that achieves increased performance with the use of GPU accelerators. We review software development efforts in the LAMMPS molecular dynamics package that have been implemented in order to utilize hybrid high performance computers. We present benchmark results for solid-state, biological, and mesoscopic systems and discuss some challenges for utilizing hybrid systems. We present some early work in improving application performance on the XK6 and performance results for the simulation of liquid copper nanostructures with the embedded atom method.

  9. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Zancolli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX. Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species.

  10. High-performance aqueous asymmetric electrochemical capacitor based on graphene oxide/cobalt(II)-tetrapyrazinoporphyrazine hybrids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lekitima, JN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AEC falls within the range usually observed for nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries (30–100 W h kg−1), but more importantly, shows better power performance than NiMH batteries (0.25–1 kW kg−1) widely used in hybrid vehicles such as Toyota Prius...

  11. Students' Game Performance Improvements during a Hybrid Sport Education-Step-Game-Approach Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter; Pereira, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a hybrid combination of sport education and the step-game-approach (SGA) on students' gameplay performance in volleyball, taking into account their sex and skill-level. Seventeen seventh-grade students (seven girls, 10 boys, average age 11.8) participated in a 25-lesson volleyball season, in which the…

  12. Electrochemical Performance of Low-Carbon Steel in Alkaline Model Solutions Containing Hybrid Aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Hu, J.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Boshkov, N.; Radeva, T.; Milkova, V.; Van Breugel, K.

    2010-01-01

    This work reports on the electrochemical performance of low-carbon steel electrodes in model alkaline solutions in the presence of 4.9.10-4 g/l hybrid aggregates i.e. cement extract, containing PDADMAC (poly (diallyl, dimethyl ammonium chloride) / PAA (Poly (acrylic acid)/ PDADMAC over a CaO core.

  13. Effect of silage maize hybrid (dry down vs. stay green) on dairy cow performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Schooten, van H.A.; Laar, van H.

    2008-01-01

    A randomized block design experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two contrasting silage maize hybrids (DD: dry down vs. SG: stay green) harvested at 33% dry matter (DM) on in situ degradation and dairy cow performance. Thirty-eight Red-HF cows were assigned to two silage treatments and

  14. Can Ferroelectric Polarization Explain the High Performance of Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherkar, Tejas; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells based on the use of hybrid halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), now exceeds 20%. Recently, it was suggested that this high performance originates from the presence of ferroelectricity in the perovskite, which is hypothesized to lower

  15. Energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, battery hybrid power supply system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, and battery hybrid power supply system. The procedure starts by the identification of the hourly load requirements for a typical target consumer and the concept of load...

  16. High-performance hybrid pervaporation membranes with superior hydrothermal and acid stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Kreiter, R.; van Veen, H.M.; Blank, D.H.A.; Vente, J.F.; ten Elshof, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid membrane has been prepared with exceptional performance in dewatering applications. The only precursor used in the sol-gel synthesis of the selective layer was organically linked 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE). The microporous structure of this layer enables

  17. High-performance hybrid pervaporation membranes with superior hydrothermal and acid stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Kreiter, Robert; van Veen, Henk M.; Blank, David H.A.; Vente, Jaap F.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2008-01-01

    A new organic–inorganic hybrid membrane has been prepared with exceptional performance in dewatering applications. The only precursor used in the sol–gel synthesis of the selective layer was organically linked 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE). The microporous structure of this layer enables

  18. Tensile and Flexural Test on Kenaf Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Z.; Yunus, S.; Masdek, N. R. N. M.; Taib, Y. M.; Azhar, I. I. S.; Hyie, K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The widely use of synthetic materials like carbon and fiberglass in various industries such as automotive and aircraft has lead to human health and environment problems. Therefore, the use of natural fibres such as kenaf has received higher attention as reinforcement. Kenaf or the scientific name is Hibiscus Cannabinus. L is one of the group of Malvecea plant which in the early days, the application of kenaf served only rope and canvas. However, it has more advantages than synthetic materials such as; widely availaible, renewable, lightweight, non-abbrasiveness during processing, high specific strength, free from health hazard and biodegradeable. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of different arrangement of kenaf and fiberglass composites on Young’s Modulus. The material composite was hardened with polyester resin and their properties was characterized. The tensile and the flexural properties is determined using an Instron universal tensile testing machine and carried out by following ASTM D3039 for tensile and ASTM D790 for a flexural test. The experimental program was designed to correlate the flexural and tensile Young’s Modulus of kenaf and fiberglass composite under the same load condition but different arrangement of kenaf and fiberglass on the mold . The resistance to change in shape was described by the behavior and characteristic of the composite materials. The stiffness or the elastic modulus of the composite material was determined at the end of the experiment. The results obtained show that the [±90FG/0/90/90/0/±90FG] kenaf/fiberglass composite arrangement has the highest elastic value.

  19. Fabrication, testing, and analysis of anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composites: volume 1: technical report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Kyle K. (Wetzel Engineering, Inc. Lawrence, Kansas); Hermann, Thomas M. (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas); Locke, James (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas)

    2005-11-01

    Anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composite laminates have been fabricated, tested, and analyzed. The laminates have been fabricated using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Five fiber complexes and a two-part epoxy resin system have been used in the study to fabricate panels of twenty different laminate constructions. These panels have been subjected to physical testing to measure density, fiber volume fraction, and void fraction. Coupons machined from these panels have also been subjected to mechanical testing to measure elastic properties and strength of the laminates using tensile, compressive, transverse tensile, and in-plane shear tests. Interlaminar shear strength has also been measured. Out-of-plane displacement, axial strain, transverse strain, and inplane shear strain have also been measured using photogrammetry data obtained during edgewise compression tests. The test data have been reduced to characterize the elastic properties and strength of the laminates. Constraints imposed by test fixtures might be expected to affect measurements of the moduli of anisotropic materials; classical lamination theory has been used to assess the magnitude of such effects and correct the experimental data for the same. The tensile moduli generally correlate well with experiment without correction and indicate that factors other than end constraints dominate. The results suggest that shear moduli of the anisotropic materials are affected by end constraints. Classical lamination theory has also been used to characterize the level of extension-shear coupling in the anisotropic laminates. Three factors affecting the coupling have been examined: the volume fraction of unbalanced off-axis layers, the angle of the off-axis layers, and the composition of the fibers (i.e., carbon or glass) used as the axial reinforcement. The results indicate that extension/shear coupling is maximized with the least loss in axial tensile stiffness by using carbon fibers oriented 15{sup

  20. A high performance hybrid battery based on aluminum anode and LiFePO4 cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Bi, Zhonghe; Liu, Hansan; Fang, Youxing; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, M Parans; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2016-01-28

    A novel hybrid battery utilizing an aluminum anode, a LiFePO4 cathode and an acidic ionic liquid electrolyte based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) (EMImCl-AlCl3, 1-1.1 in molar ratio) with or without LiAlCl4 is proposed. The hybrid ion battery delivers an initial high capacity of 160 mA h g(-1) at a current rate of C/5. It also shows good rate capability and cycling performance.

  1. Performance of non-recessed hole-entry hybrid journal bearing operating under turbulent regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathi Ram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of turbulent flow on non-recessed hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system has been investigated numerically. For turbulent flow of lubricant in compensated hole-entry hybrid journal bearing by CFV, the Reynolds equation has been modified and solved using finite element method. The performance characteristics parameters of bearing have been presented for different values of Reynolds numbers. The bearing provides the higher values of minimum fluid film thickness and fluid film stiffness coefficients for constant restrictor design parameter when bearing operates under turbulent regime than laminar regime.

  2. On the Performance of RF-FSO Links with and without Hybrid ARQ

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies the performance of hybrid radiofrequency (RF) and free-space optical (FSO) links assuming perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver. Considering the cases with and without hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ), we derive closed-form expressions for the message decoding probabilities as well as the throughput and the outage probability of the RF-FSO setups. We also evaluate the effect of adaptive power allocation and different channel conditions on the throughput and the outage probability. The results show the efficiency of the RF-FSO links in different conditions.

  3. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  4. Integration, Testing, and Validation of a Small Hybrid-Electric Remotely-Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    numerous different types of controllers ; some of the most common are rule-based, fuzzy logic, and neural networks. Harmon’s initial work was with neural...Bench testing No, but included on PIC to facilitate bench testing. No 8.1. Design 1: The PIC32 Hybrid Controller 8.1.1. Concept Overview... Controller PIC32MX795F ( PIC ) Microchip Kestrel Autopilot Procerus Motor Controller Whistle Solo Elmo Motion Control ICE Servo Futaba Emergency

  5. Development and Testing of a Green-Propellant Micro-Hybrid Thruster with Electrostatic Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Judson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    , requiring an energy input of 14,850 Joules for catalytic dissociation. The hydrocarbon-seeded micro-hybrid was also adapted as a non-pyrotechnic ignitor for a 900 N (200-lbf) thrust hybrid motor. The motor was successfully ignited 4 consecutive times with no hardware swaps or propellant additions. The amount of ABS seed material that can be fit into the injector cap is the only limit to the number of available repeat firings. This series of tests marks the first time a hybrid motor was ever ignited by other than a solid-propellant pyrotechnic charge or bi-propellant flame ignitor. Nitrous oxide hybrid motors are typically difficult to ignite and usually require multiple solid-propellant charges to initiate combustion, so this nonpyrotechnic ignition is a significant accomplishment. The controlled hydrocarbon-seeding approach is fundamentally different from all other green propellant solutions offered by the aerospace industry. Although the proposed system is more correctly a hybrid technology; the system retains all the simple features of a monopropellant design. To date no optimization study has been performed to identify the best grain geometry for electrostatic ignition. Fortunately, because the grain segments are fabricated using rapid-prototyping technology, changing the grain geometry is as simple as modifying the 3-D printer CAD-file. Vacuum Isp exceeding 270 seconds has been demonstrated (Ref v), a value significantly higher than those offered by competing green monopropellant options. The propellants of choice, N2O/GOX and ABS are 100% non-toxic, non-explosive, and environmentally benign. Because the inert oxidizer and fuel components are mixed only within the combustion chamber, the system retains the inherent safety of a hybrid rocket and can be piggy-backed as a secondary payload with no overall mission risk increase to the primary payload, an excellent characteristic for secondary launch systems.

  6. Hybrid Building Performance Simulation Models for Industrial Energy Efficiency Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Smolek

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the challenge of achieving environmental sustainability, industrial production plants, as large contributors to the overall energy demand of a country, are prime candidates for applying energy efficiency measures. A modelling approach using cubes is used to decompose a production facility into manageable modules. All aspects of the facility are considered, classified into the building, energy system, production and logistics. This approach leads to specific challenges for building performance simulations since all parts of the facility are highly interconnected. To meet this challenge, models for the building, thermal zones, energy converters and energy grids are presented and the interfaces to the production and logistics equipment are illustrated. The advantages and limitations of the chosen approach are discussed. In an example implementation, the feasibility of the approach and models is shown. Different scenarios are simulated to highlight the models and the results are compared.

  7. HYBRID CONTINUUM-DISCONTINUUM MODELLING OF ROCK FRACUTRE PROCESS IN BRAZILIAN TENSILE STRENGTH TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming An

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid continuum-discontinuum method is introduced to model the rock failure process in Brazilian tensile strength (BTS test. The key component of the hybrid continuum-discontinuum method, i.e. transition from continuum to discontinuum through fracture and fragmentation, is introduced in detail. A laboratory test is conducted first to capture the rock fracture pattern in the BTS test while the tensile strength is calculated according to the peak value of the loading forces. Then the proposed method is used to model the rock behaviour during BTS test. The stress propagation is modelled and compared with those modelled by finite element method in literatures. In addition, the crack initiation and propagation are captured and compared with the facture patter in laboratory test. Moreover, the force-loading displacement curve is obtained which represents a typical brittle material failure process. Furthermore, the stress distributions along the vertical direction are compared with the theoretical solution. It is concluded that the hybrid continuum-discontinuum method can model the stress propagation process and the entire rock failure process in BTS test. The proposed method is a valuable numerical tool for studying the rock behaviour involving the fracture and fragmentation processes.

  8. A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  9. Computationally Probing the Performance of Hybrid, Heterogeneous, and Homogeneous Iridium-Based Catalysts for Water Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Melchor, Max [SUNCAT Center for Interface Science and Catalysis, Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford CA (United States); Vilella, Laia [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Tarragona (Spain); Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); López, Núria [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Tarragona (Spain); Vojvodic, Aleksandra [SUNCAT Center for Interface Science and Catalysis, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park CA (United States)

    2016-04-29

    An attractive strategy to improve the performance of water oxidation catalysts would be to anchor a homogeneous molecular catalyst on a heterogeneous solid surface to create a hybrid catalyst. The idea of this combined system is to take advantage of the individual properties of each of the two catalyst components. We use Density Functional Theory to determine the stability and activity of a model hybrid water oxidation catalyst consisting of a dimeric Ir complex attached on the IrO2(110) surface through two oxygen atoms. We find that homogeneous catalysts can be bound to its matrix oxide without losing significant activity. Hence, designing hybrid systems that benefit from both the high tunability of activity of homogeneous catalysts and the stability of heterogeneous systems seems feasible.

  10. Practical Switching-Based Hybrid FSO/RF Transmission and Its Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer

    2014-10-01

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless backhaul. We present and analyze a switching-based transmission scheme for the hybrid FSO/RF system. Specifically, either the FSO or RF link will be active at a certain time instance, with the FSO link enjoying a higher priority. We considered both a single-threshold case and a dual-threshold case for FSO link operation. Analytical expressions have been obtained for the outage probability, average bit error rate, and ergodic capacity for the resulting system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the hybrid scheme with the FSO-only scenario.

  11. Improvement of two-stage GM refrigerator performance using a hybrid regenerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, G.; Makuuchi, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Onishi, A.; Li, R.; Satoh, T.; Kanazawa, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To improve the performance of two-stage GM refrigerators, a hybrid regenerator with magnetic materials of Er 3 Ni and ErNi 0.9 Co 0.1 was used in the 2nd stage regenerator because of its large heat exchange capacity. The largest refrigeration capacity achieved with the hybrid regenerator was 0.95W at helium liquefied temperature of 4.2K. This capacity is 15.9% greater than the 0.82W refrigerator with only Er 3 Ni as the 2nd regenerator material. Use of the hybrid regenerator not only increases the refrigeration capacity at 4.2K, but also allows the 4K GM refrigerator to be used with large 1st stage refrigeration capacity, thus making it more practical

  12. Performance analysis of hybrid photovoltaic/diesel energy system under Malaysian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.; Yousof, M.F.M.; Arshad, S.N.M.; Anwari, M.; Yatim, A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Standalone diesel generating system utilized in remote areas has long been practiced in Malaysia. Due to highly fluctuating diesel price, such a system is seemed to be uneconomical, especially in the long run if the supply of electricity for rural areas solely depends on such diesel generating system. This paper would analyze the potential use of hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/diesel energy system in remote locations. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) HOMER software was used to perform the techno-economic feasibility of hybrid PV/diesel energy system. The investigation demonstrated the impact of PV penetration and battery storage on energy production, cost of energy and number of operational hours of diesel generators for the given hybrid configurations. Emphasis has also been placed on percentage fuel savings and reduction in carbon emissions of different hybrid systems. At the end of this paper, suitability of utilizing hybrid PV/diesel energy system over standalone diesel system would be discussed mainly based on different solar irradiances and diesel prices. (author)

  13. Performance of super hybrid rice cultivars grown under no-tillage and direct seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Good progress has been made in the super hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. breeding in China. However, rice yield not only depends on the genetic characteristics but also on the agronomic practices. No-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS is a simplified cultivation technology that greatly simplifies both land preparation and crop establishment. Aiming to determine the grain yield performance of super hybrid rice under NTDS and to identify critical factors that determine grain yield, field experiments were conducted in Nanxian, Hunan Province, China in 2009 and 2010. Two super hybrid cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu and Y-liangyou 1, were grown under conventional tillage and transplanting (CTTP and NTDS. Grain yield, yield components, biomass production, crop growth rate and biomass accumulation during sowing to heading (HD and HD to maturity were measured for each cultivar. There was no difference in grain yield under NTDS and CTTP. However, grain yield differed with cultivar and year. Y-liangyou 1 produced 4 % higher grain yield than Liangyoupeijiu in 2009, whereas in 2010 both cultivars yielded similarly. Grain yields of both cultivars were higher in 2009 than in 2010. Higher grain yield of Y-liangyou 1 in 2009 was associated with higher spikelet filling (spikelet filling percentage and grain weight, which resulted from higher biomass production. Crop growth rate after HD was critical for biomass production by the super hybrid rice. We suggest that increasing the crop growth rate after HD is an effective approach to increase grain yield of super hybrid rice under NTDS.

  14. Preparation and electrochemical performance of hyper-networked Li4Ti5O12/carbon hybrid nanofiber sheets for a battery-supercapacitor hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong Soo; Kim, TaeHoon; Im, Ji Hyuk; Park, Chong Rae

    2011-10-01

    Hyper-networked Li4Ti5O12/carbon hybrid nanofiber sheets that contain both a faradaically rechargeable battery-type component, namely Li4Ti5O12, and a non-faradaically rechargeable supercapacitor-type component, namely N-enriched carbon, are prepared by electrospinning and their dual function as a negative electrode of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and a capacitor is tested for a new class of hybrid energy storage (denoted BatCap). An aqueous solution composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone, lithium hydroxide, titanium(IV) bis(ammonium-lactato)dihydroxide and ammonium persulfate is electrospun to obtain hyper-networked nanofiber sheets. Next, the sheets are exposed to pyrrole monomer vapor to prepare the polypyrrole-coated nanofiber sheets (PPy-HNS). The hyper-networked Li4Ti5O12/N-enriched carbon hybrid nanofiber sheets (LTO/C-HNS) are then obtained by a stepwise heat treatment of the PPy-HNS. The LTO/C-HNS deliver a specific capacity of 135 mAh g - 1 at 4000 mA g - 1 as a negative electrode for LIBs. In addition, potentiodynamic experiments are performed using a full cell with activated carbon (AC) as the positive electrode and LTO/C-HNS as the negative electrode to estimate the capacitance properties. This new asymmetric electrode system exhibits a high energy density of 91 W kg - 1 and 22 W kg - 1 at power densities of 50 W kg - 1 and 4000 W kg - 1, respectively, which are superior to the values observed for the {AC} \\parallel {AC} symmetric electrode system.

  15. High- and Reproducible-Performance Graphene/II-VI Semiconductor Film Hybrid Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fan; Jia, Feixiang; Cai, Caoyuan; Xu, Zhihao; Wu, Congjun; Ma, Yang; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    High- and reproducible-performance photodetectors are critical to the development of many technologies, which mainly include one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure based and film based photodetectors. The former suffer from a huge performance variation because the performance is quite sensitive to the synthesis microenvironment of 1D nanostructure. Herein, we show that the graphene/semiconductor film hybrid photodetectors not only possess a high performance but also have a reproducible performance. As a demo, the as-produced graphene/ZnS film hybrid photodetector shows a high responsivity of 1.7 × 107 A/W and a fast response speed of 50 ms, and shows a highly reproducible performance, in terms of narrow distribution of photocurrent (38–65 μA) and response speed (40–60 ms) for 20 devices. Graphene/ZnSe film and graphene/CdSe film hybrid photodetectors fabricated by this method also show a high and reproducible performance. The general method is compatible with the conventional planar process, and would be easily standardized and thus pay a way for the photodetector applications. PMID:27349692

  16. HYBRID DATA APPROACH FOR SELECTING EFFECTIVE TEST CASES DURING THE REGRESSION TESTING

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, M.; Shrimali, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    In the software industry, software testing becomes more important in the entire software development life cycle. Software testing is one of the fundamental components of software quality assurances. Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC)is a process involved in testing the complete software, which includes Regression Testing, Unit Testing, Smoke Testing, Integration Testing, Interface Testing, System Testing & etc. In the STLC of Regression testing, test case selection is one of the most importan...

  17. Performance testing of a hydrogen heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alario, J.; Kosson, R.

    1980-01-01

    Test results are presented for a reentrant groove heat pipe with hydrogen working fluid. The heat pipe became operational between 20 and 30 K after a cooldown from 77 K without any difficulty. Steady-state performance data taken over a 19 to 23 K temperature range indicated the following: (1) maximum heat transport capacity 5.4 W-m (2) static wicking height 1.42 cm and (3) overall heat pipe conductance 1.7 W/C. These data agreed remarkably well with extrapolations made from comparable ammonia test results. The maximum heat transport capacity is 9.5% larger than the extrapolated value, but the static wicking height is the same. The overall conductance is 29% of the ammonia value, which is close to the ratio of liquid thermal conductivities (24%). Also, recovery from a completely frozen condition was accomplished within 5 min by simply applying an evaporater heat load of 1.8 W

  18. Fuel accident performance testing for small HTRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, W.; Pott, G.; Nabielek, H.

    1990-04-01

    Irradiated spherical fuel elements containing 16400 coated UO 2 particles each were heated at temperatures between 1600 and 1800°C and the fission product release was measured. The demonstrated fission product retention at 1600°C establishes the basis for the design of small modular HTRs which inherently limit the temperature to 1600°C by passive means. In addition to this demonstration, the test data show that modern TRISO fuels provide an ample performance margin: release normally sets in at 1800°C; this occurs at 1600°C only with fuels irradiated under conditions which significantly exceed current reactor design requirements.

  19. Eurados trial performance test for photon dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, H.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the EURADOS Action entitled Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation, trial performance tests for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters were carried out. Photon, beta and neutron dosemeters were considered...... 312 single results, 26 fell outside the limits of the trumpet curve and 32 were outside the range 1/1.5 to 1.5. Most outliers resulted from high energy R-F irradiations without electronic equilibrium. These fields are not routinely encountered by many of the participating dosimetry services...

  20. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with encapsulated silicon pixel detector and readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.; George, K.A.; Girone, M.; Gys, T.; Jolly, S.; Piedigrossi, D.; Riedler, P.; Rozema, P.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings report on the performance of the latest prototype pixel hybrid photon detector in preparation for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The prototype encapsulates a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary read-out chip with short (25 ns) peaking time and low ( - ) detection threshold. A brief description of the prototype is given, followed by the preliminary results of the characterisation of the prototype behaviour when tested using a low intensity pulsed light emitting diode. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained using previous prototypes. The proceedings conclude with a summary of the current status and future plans

  1. Radioautographic test for genetic cotton transformation by pCaVItoxneo hybrid plasmid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamkhodjaeva, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Search for novel technologies in biology, application of up-to-date methods in gene engineering, manipulation with the recombinant DNA, in particular, open opportunities for experiments with plants. To identify some DNA fragments in an organism's genome, radioautographic methods, such as dot- and blot-hybridization are frequently used. As a rule, genomic DNA is first isolated from the plant's organ. Its purification and subsequent manipulation is followed by hybridization with a probe labeled with radioactive components. The purified DNA, cDNA of RNA reverse transcription or a DNA fragment cloned in E-coli could serve as the probe. Radioautography shows homologically hybridized fragments. We have performed express dot-hybridization analysis on hybrid plasmid transformation of G.Hirsutum L. (108F) and G. Barbadense L. (C-6037) cotton sorts. pCaVItoxneo plasmid obtained on the basis of independently replicated plasmid-like DNA of the G.Hirsutum L. (pGHm2) cotton mitochondria was used (Yusupov T., 1994). There are hybrid two-domain gene of insectotoxin and enzymatically active kanamycine - phosphotransferase in the plasmid. The whole content is controlled by the plant promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus (19 S SFMV). The plasmid in question was added to the pollen sprouting medium followed by the transfer of the suspension on the pistil stigmas of the pre-prepared cotton flowers. The seed budding as the result of the experiment were analyzed by means of dot-hybridization method. DNA probes used for radioactive hybridization were labeled by method of Fainberg and Vagelstein (1990). To perform that DNA was dissolved in Tris-EDTA (10:1), containing 10mM of Tris HCl and 1mM EDTA, denaturated at 100 d eg C for 2 minutes with subsequent addition of oligonucleotide primers and annealing. DNA synthesis in the presence of 32 P labeled dATP and dCTP (Tashkent) was performed in the reaction mixture of potassium-phosphate buffer containing 67mM of MgCl 2 , 1 mg/ml of

  2. [Testing of germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-nian; Jiang, Dan; Liu, Ying-ying; Ding, Wei-min; Ding, Qi-shuo; Zha, Liang-yu

    2014-06-01

    Germination rate of rice seeds was measured according to technical stipulation of germination testing for agricultural crop seeds at present. There existed many faults for this technical stipulation such as long experimental period, more costing and higher professional requirement. A rapid and non-invasive method was put forward to measure the germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two varieties of hybrid rice seeds were aged artificially at temperature 45 degrees C and humidity 100% condition for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds with different aging time were acquired individually by near-infrared spectra analyzer. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds were randomly divided into calibration set (168 samples) and prediction set (112 samples). Gormination rate of rice seed with different aging time was tested. Regression model was established by using partial least squares (PLS). The effect of the different spectral bands on the accuracy of models was analyzed and the effect of the different spectral preprocessing methods on the accuracy of models was also compared. Optimal model was achieved under the whole bands and by using standardization and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) preprocessing algorithms with CM2000 software for spectral data of 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds, the coefficient of determination of the calibration set (Rc) and that of the prediction set (Rp) were 0.965 and 0.931 individually, standard error of calibration set (SEC) and that of prediction set (SEP) were 1.929 and 2.899 respectively. Relative error between tested value and predicted value for prediction set of rice seeds is below 4.2%. The experimental results show that it is feasible that rice germination rate is detected rapidly and nondestructively by using the near-infrared spectroscopy analysis technology.

  3. Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell's inequality using two different atomic isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballance, C J; Schäfer, V M; Home, J P; Szwer, D J; Webster, S C; Allcock, D T C; Linke, N M; Harty, T P; Aude Craik, D P L; Stacey, D N; Steane, A M; Lucas, D M

    2015-12-17

    Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing (QIP). Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected or heralded entangled states involving pairs of photons, single photons and single atoms, or different nuclei in the solid state, have also been produced. Here we use a deterministic quantum logic gate to generate a 'hybrid' entangled state of two trapped-ion qubits held in different isotopes of calcium, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make a test of Bell's inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits' energy splittings, to produce a maximally entangled state of one (40)Ca(+) qubit and one (43)Ca(+) qubit, held 3.5 micrometres apart in the same ion trap, with 99.8 ± 0.6 per cent fidelity. We test the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) version of Bell's inequality for this novel entangled state and find that it is violated by 15 standard deviations; in this test, we close the detection loophole but not the locality loophole. Mixed-species quantum logic is a powerful technique for the construction of a quantum computer based on trapped ions, as it allows protection of memory qubits while other qubits undergo logic operations or are used as photonic interfaces to other processing units. The entangling gate mechanism used here can also be applied to qubits stored in different atomic elements; this would allow both memory and logic gate errors caused by photon scattering to be reduced below the levels required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, which is an essential prerequisite for general-purpose quantum computing.

  4. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  5. Dynamic Performance Comparison for MPPT-PV Systems using Hybrid Pspice/Matlab Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouchiche, N.; Becherif, M.; HadjArab, A.; Aitcheikh, M. S.; Ramadan, H. S.; Cheknane, A.

    2016-10-01

    The power generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) module depends on the surrounding irradiance and temperature. This paper presents a hybrid Matlab™/Pspice™ simulation model of PV system, combined with Cadence software SLPS. The hybridization is performed in order to gain the advantages of both simulation tools such as accuracy and efficiency in both Pspice electronic circuit and Matlab™ mathematical modelling respectively. For this purpose, the PV panel and the boost converter are developed using Pspice™ and hybridized with the mathematical Matlab™ model of maximum power point method controller (MPPT) through SLPS. The main objective is verify the significance of using the proposed hybrid simulation techniques in comparing the different MPPT algorithms such as the perturbation and observation (P&O), incremental of conductance (Inc-Cond) and counter reaction voltage using pilot cell (Pilot-Cell). Various simulations are performed under different atmospheric conditions in order to evaluate the dynamic behaviour for the system under study in terms of stability, efficiency and rapidity.

  6. A terahertz performance of hybrid single walled CNT based amplifier with analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Song, Hanjung

    2018-01-01

    This work is focuses on terahertz performance of hybrid single walled carbon nanotube (CNT) based amplifier and proposed for measurement of soil parameters application. The proposed circuit topology provides hybrid structure which achieves wide impedance bandwidth of 0.33 THz within range of 1.07-THz to 1.42-THz with fractional amount of 28%. The single walled RF CNT network executes proposed ambition and proves its ability to resonant at 1.25-THz with analytical approach. Moreover, a RF based microstrip transmission line radiator used as compensator in the circuit topology which achieves more than 30 dB of gain. A proper methodology is chosen for achieves stability at circuit level in order to obtain desired optimal conditions. The fundamental approach optimizes matched impedance condition at (50+j0) Ω and noise variation with impact of series resistances for the proposed hybrid circuit topology and demonstrates the accuracy of performance parameters at the circuit level. The chip fabrication of the proposed circuit by using RF based commercial CMOS process of 45 nm which reveals promising results with simulation one. Additionally, power measurement analysis achieves highest output power of 26 dBm with power added efficiency of 78%. The succeed minimum noise figure from 0.6 dB to 0.4 dB is outstanding achievement for circuit topology at terahertz range. The chip area of hybrid circuit is 0.65 mm2 and power consumption of 9.6 mW.

  7. Performance analysis of a no-frost hybrid air conditioning system with integrated liquid desiccant dehumidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li; Dang, Chaobin; Hihara, Eiji [Department of Human and Engineered Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-Shi, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    This paper reports a performance analysis for a hybrid air conditioning system. In this system, the sensible heat load is primarily treated by a vapor compression heat hump; the latent heat load is treated by a liquid dehumidification system that uses a lithium chloride solution as a desiccant. In addition, by decreasing the humidity ratio of air flowing through the outdoor heat exchanger of the vapor compression heat pump, frosting can be retarded. The overall system performance was evaluated by a cycle simulation conducted both in summer and winter modes. Compared to a traditional air conditioning system, the hybrid air conditioning system improves the coefficient of performance (COP) by approximately 20% and 100% in summer and winter, respectively. (author)

  8. High performance technique for database applicationsusing a hybrid GPU/CPU platform

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-28

    Many database applications, such as sequence comparing, sequence searching, and sequence matching, etc, process large database sequences. we introduce a novel and efficient technique to improve the performance of database applica- tions by using a Hybrid GPU/CPU platform. In particular, our technique solves the problem of the low efficiency result- ing from running short-length sequences in a database on a GPU. To verify our technique, we applied it to the widely used Smith-Waterman algorithm. The experimental results show that our Hybrid GPU/CPU technique improves the average performance by a factor of 2.2, and improves the peak performance by a factor of 2.8 when compared to earlier implementations. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

  9. Three-year randomised clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of hybrid composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Senthamaraiselvi; Elsen, Liesbeth; Lijnen, Inge; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Lambrechts, Paul

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of conventional hybrid (Tetric Ceram), micro-filled hybrid (Gradia Direct Posterior) and nano-hybrid (Tetric EvoCeram, TEC) posterior composite restorations in a 3-year randomised clinical trial. Sixteen Tetric Ceram, 17 TEC and 16 Gradia Direct Posterior restorations were placed in human molars and evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months of clinical service according to US Public Health Service criteria. The gypsum replicas at each recall were used for 3D laser scanning to quantify wear, and the epoxy resin replicas were observed under scanning electron microscope to study the qualitative wear patterns. After 3 years of clinical service, the three hybrid restorative materials performed clinically well in posterior cavities. Within the observation period, the nano-hybrid and micro-hybrid restorations evolved better in polishability with improved surface gloss retention than the conventional hybrid counterpart. The three hybrid composites showed enamel-like vertical wear and cavity-size dependant volume loss magnitude. Qualitatively, while the micro-filled and nano-hybrid composite restorations exhibited signs of fatigue similar to the conventional hybrid composite restorations at heavy occlusal contact area, their light occlusal contact areas showed less surface pitting after 3 years of clinical service.

  10. Three-year randomised clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of hybrid composite restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Palaniappan, Senthamaraiselvi; Elsen, Liesbeth; Lijnen, Inge; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Lambrechts, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of conventional hybrid (Tetric Ceram), micro-filled hybrid (Gradia Direct Posterior) and nano-hybrid (Tetric EvoCeram, TEC) posterior composite restorations in a 3-year randomised clinical trial. Sixteen Tetric Ceram, 17 TEC and 16 Gradia Direct Posterior restorations were placed in human molars and evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36?months of clinical service according to US Public H...

  11. Performance of a Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting filter/GaAs low noise amplifier hybrid circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Toncich, S. S.; Chorey, C. M.; Bonetti, R. R.; Williams, A. E.

    1992-01-01

    A superconducting 7.3 GHz two-pole microstrip bandpass filter and a GaAs low noise amplifier (LNA) were combined into a hybrid circuit and characterized at liquid nitrogen temperatures. This superconducting/seismology circuit's performance was compared to a gold filter/GaAs LNA hybrid circuit. The superconducting filter/GaAs LNA hybrid circuit showed higher gain and lower noise figure than its gold counterpart.

  12. Development and Testing of a Mobile Robot with Hybrid Legged-Wheeled Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Barbu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present the development and testing process of a mobile robot with hybrid legged-wheeled locomotion, that can be used for exploring dangerous environments. The robot has a high adaptability to rough terrain by being able to modify its ride height, to overpass step or ditch type obstacles and most of all, being able to operate while overturned or to revert itself into the normal operating position.

  13. Dynamic performance of self-operated three-way valve used in a hybrid air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Penglei; Zhou, Dehai; Shi, Wenxing; Li, Xianting; Wang, Baolong

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid air conditioner combining a thermosyphon cycle with a vapor compression refrigeration cycle has a large energy saving potential compared with a common air conditioner for spaces requiring year-round cooling. The performance of the switch between the vapor compression mode and the thermosyphon mode largely impacts the safety and reliability of hybrid air conditioners. Therefore, a self-operated three-way valve is proposed. A thermodynamic model and a kinetic model are developed in this paper to evaluate the dynamic performance of the switch valve. The effects of the spring force constant, compressor discharging volume, fit clearance and piston length on the dynamic performance of the switch valve are analyzed. In conclusion, the proposed self-operated three-way valve can realize the switch operation accurately. - Highlights: •A self-operated three-way valve is proposed for hybrid air conditioners. •The thermodynamic model and kinetic model of the self-operated three-way valve are developed. •The validity of models is verified by experiments. •Effects of four main design parameters on the operating performance of the valve are researched

  14. Shape-controlled fabrication of magnetite silver hybrid nanoparticles with high performance magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qi; Liu, Dongfang; Guo, Dawei; Yang, Fang; Pang, Xingyun; Che, Renchao; Zhou, Naizhen; Xie, Jun; Sun, Jianfei; Huang, Zhihai; Gu, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (NPs)-based hyperthermia is a promising non-invasive approach for cancer therapy. However, the heat transfer efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 NPs is relative low, which hinders their practical clinical applications. Therefore, it is promising to improve the magnetic hyperthermia efficiency by exploring the higher performance magnetic NPs-based hybrid nanostructures. In the current study, it presents a straightforward in situ reduction method for the shape-controlled preparation of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) silver (Ag) hybrid NPs designed as magnetic hyperthermia heat mediators. The magnetite silver hybrid NPs with core-shell (Fe 3 O 4 @Ag) or heteromer (Fe 3 O 4 -Ag) structures exhibited a higher biocompatibility with SMMC-7721 cells and L02 cells than the individual Ag NPs. Importantly, in the magnetic hyperthermia, with the exposure to alternating current magnetic field, the Fe 3 O 4 @Ag and Fe 3 O 4 -Ag hybrid NPs indicated much better tumor suppression effect against SMMC-7721 cells than the individual Fe 3 O 4 NPs in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that the hybridisation of Fe 3 O 4 and Ag NPs could greatly enhance the magnetic hyperthermia efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 NPs. Therefore, the Fe 3 O 4 @Ag and Fe 3 O 4 -Ag hybrid NPs can be used to be as high performance magnetic hyperthermia mediators based on a simple and effective preparation approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CFC and HFC recycling equipments: Test performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picini, P.; Caropreso, G.; Cicoli, G.; Posarelli, M.

    1996-12-01

    Actual regulatory conditions about ozone layer depleting chemicals set problems on their disposal and on the management of plants still using illegal CFCs. Anyway fluids that will replace CFCs (i.e. HFCs) will not be allowed to be spread into the atmosphere, due to their high costs and to the greenhouse effect. A viable solution would be the recovery, purification and recycle of contaminated fluids. ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment), in cooperation with ICF (Industria Componenti Frigoriferi) Company leader in the field of air refrigerating and conditioning, patented a device able to extract, to clean and to recycle CFC 12 and HFC 134a in the refrigerating systems. This paper presents experimental data from the qualification tests on a device performing the above mentioned operations regarding systems that use HFC 134a as process fluid

  16. Design, development, and testing of a hybrid in situ testing device for building joint sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Embree, N.; Buch, C.; Williams, R. S.

    2005-04-01

    The testing of sealant samples has been restricted to devices that either focus on fatiguing multiple samples or quantifying the mechanical properties of a single sample. This manuscript describes a device that combines these two instrumental designs: the ability to both fatigue and characterize multiple sealant samples at the same time. This device employs precise movement capability combined with a stiff loading frame and accurate force measurement for the characterization of five ASTM C719 sealant samples. The performance of this device is demonstrated by monitoring the changes in mechanical properties of silicone sealant during the first 90h of cure. A complete description of the apparatus, results from the study of curing and analysis is included.

  17. Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) response to head impacts and potential implications for athletic headgear testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Morr, Douglas; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-09-01

    The Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is the most widely used human impact testing surrogate and has historically been used in automotive or military testing. More recently, this ATD is finding use in applications evaluating athletic helmet protectivity, quantifying head impact dosage and estimating injury risk. But ATD head-neck response has not been quantified in omnidirectional athletic-type head impacts absent axial preload. It is probable that headgear injury reduction that can be quantified in a laboratory, including in American football, boxing, hockey, lacrosse and soccer, is related to a number of interrelated kinetic and kinematic factors, such as head center of gravity linear acceleration, head angular acceleration, head angular velocity, occipito-cervical mechanics and neck stiffness. Therefore, we characterized ATD head-neck dynamic response to direct head impacts in a series of front, oblique front and lateral head impacts. Key findings were: (1) impacts producing highest ATD resultant center of gravity linear acceleration resulted in the lowest resultant occipito-cervical spine bending moment/force. (2) Resultant ATD head angular velocity and angular acceleration did not appear coupled to impact direction at lower impact energy levels; these parameters were coupled at higher energy levels. (3) The ATD had progressively increasing occipito-cervical stiffness in extension, torsion and lateral bending, respectively. Because the ATD neck influenced head and neck impact dosage parameters, testing agencies, manufacturers and researchers should consider using the Hybrid III head form attached to a neck as a means to quantify head and neck injury risks as opposed to systems that do not utilize a neck. This heightened understanding of Hybrid III ATD head-neck response, and consideration of order of stiffest axes in the lateral, oblique and extension directions, respectively, should aid in the development of head and neck injury

  18. Dual-colour chromogenic in-situ hybridization is a potential alternative to fluorescence in-situ hybridization in HER2 testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheng-Cheng; Pintye, Mariann; Chang, Liang-Che; Chen, Huang-Yang; Yeh, Kun-Yan; Chein, Hui-Ping; Lee, Nin; Chen, Jim-Ray

    2011-11-01

    Dual-colour chromogenic in-situ hybridization (dc-CISH) is an emerging methodology for characterizing genomic alterations. This study was aimed at evaluating the performance of a dc-CISH kit (ZytoVision) in determining human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in breast cancer. Two hundred and twenty-eight invasive breast carcinomas arranged in tissue microarrays were analysed in parallel with dc-CISH, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemistry. Of 227 tumours with available FISH and dc-CISH results, HER2 amplification and non-amplification were detected in 49 (21.6%) and 178 (78.4%) tumours, respectively, by both assays. The concordance between dc-CISH and FISH results showed 100% agreement (κ-coefficient=1.00). Immunohistochemically, 162 (71%), 25 (11.0%) and 41 (18%) tumours were scored 0/1+, 2+, and 3+, respectively. The corresponding results with both FISH and dc-CISH demonstrated HER2 amplification in two (3.2%), nine (36%) and 38 (93%) tumours, respectively. Complete consensus among these three methods was observed in 197 cases, representing 98% of all 3+ and 0/1+ tumours (κ-coefficient=0.92). Confirmatory testing of 25 2+ tumours showed complete consensus between FISH and dc-CISH. dc-CISH is a promising alternative to FISH in HER2 testing, and the single-institute incidence of HER2 amplification in breast cancer in Taiwan is 21.2%. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  19. Izod impact performance of hybrid carbon nanotube-alumina filled epoxy nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M. R.; Akil, H. Md.; Kudus, M. H. Abdul; Bakhtiar, N. S. A. Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) was hybridized with alumina (Al2O3) particles via chemical vapour deposition using nickel as a metal catalyst. The purpose of hybridization between CNT and Al2O3 particles is to prevent the agglomeration of the CNT due to van der Walls forces as well as to improve the impact performance of the epoxy nanocomposites. The Al2O3 particles work as “transport” for the CNT to homogenously disperse within the epoxy matrix. As a comparative study, the CNT-Al2O3 was also prepared through a physical mixing method. The assessment showed that the CNT-Al2O3 hybrid filler produced more homogeneous dispersion in the epoxy matrix with a higher Izod impact strength than the physically mixed CNT-Al2O3 filler. The izod impact strength of epoxy nanocomposites at 5 % wt of CNT-Al2O3 hybrid has increased up to 32 % compared to the neat epoxy.

  20. Performance Configuration of Raman-EDFA Hybrid Optical Amplifier for WDM Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidin, N.; Taib, N. I. A.; Abidin, M. S. Z.; Hasbullah, N. F.; Ralib, A. A. M.

    2017-06-01

    A hybrid configuration of Raman amplifier and erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is proposed to obtain a better performance in term of gain, noise figure and flat gain. It is based on the optimum parameter configuration of a singly-based Raman amplifier and EDFA. The best parameter for both amplification has been analyze in terms of its input signal power, pump power and their fiber length whereas the best erbium ion density has also been analyze in EDFA setup. All the parameters are varied to some values to get the optimum result. The simulation is done by using Optisystem 14.0 software. The hybrid amplifier consists of Raman amplifier with multi-pump power set up and bidirectional pump power of EDFA with the pump wavelength of 980 nm is designed and simulated in order to obtain higher gain and lower noise figure. From the simulation of the hybrid configuration, the optimum output has been achieved. The hybrid configurations exhibit the average gain of 46 dB and average noise figure of 3 dB. The flat gain obtained is between 1530 nm to 1600 nm which include C-Band and L-Band frequency with the gain bandwidth of 70 nm.

  1. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...... collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector...

  2. Solving Problems in Various Domains by Hybrid Models of High Performance Computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii Rogozhin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a hybrid model of high performance computations. The model is based on membrane system (P~system where some membranes may contain quantum device that is triggered by the data entering the membrane. This model is supposed to take advantages of both biomolecular and quantum paradigms and to overcome some of their inherent limitations. The proposed approach is demonstrated through two selected problems: SAT, and image retrieving.

  3. Experimental investigation on the dynamic performance of a hybrid PEM fuel cell/battery system for lightweight electric vehicle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yong; Yuan, Wei; Pan, Minqiang; Wan, Zhenping

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid system combining a 2 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and a lead-acid battery pack is developed for a lightweight cruising vehicle. The dynamic performances of this PEMFC system with and without the assistance of the batteries are systematically investigated in a series of laboratory and road tests. The stack current and voltage have timely dynamic responses to the load variations. Particularly, the current overshoot and voltage undershoot both happen during the step-up load tests. These phenomena are closely related to the charge double-layer effect and the mass transfer mechanisms such as the water and gas transport and distribution in the fuel cell. When the external load is beyond the range of the fuel cell system, the battery immediately participates in power output with a higher transient discharging current especially in the accelerating and climbing processes. The DC-DC converter exhibits a satisfying performance in adaptive modulation. It helps rectify the voltage output in a rigid manner and prevent the fuel cell system from being overloaded. The dynamic responses of other operating parameters such as the anodic operating pressure and the inlet and outlet temperatures are also investigated. The results show that such a hybrid system is able to dynamically satisfy the vehicular power demand.

  4. Improved cider fermentation performance and quality with newly generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Frederico; Krogerus, Kristoffer; Vidgren, Virve; Sandell, Mari; Gibson, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Yeast cryotolerance may be advantageous for cider making, where low temperatures are usually employed. Here, we crossed the cryotolerant S. eubayanus with a S. cerevisiae wine strain and assessed the suitability of the hybrids for low-temperature cider fermentation. All strains fermented the juice to 5% ABV, but at different rates; hybrid strains outperformed S. cerevisiae, which was sensitive to low temperatures. The best hybrid fermented similarly to S. eubayanus. S. eubayanus produced sulphurous off flavours which masked a high concentration of fruity ester notes. This phenotype was absent in the hybrid strains, resulting in distinctly fruitier ciders. Aroma was assessed by an independent consumer panel, which rated the hybrid ciders as identical to the wine strain cider. Both were significantly more pleasant than the S. eubayanus cider. Interspecific hybridization can apparently be used effectively to improve low-temperature fermentation performance without compromising product quality.

  5. Constructing ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} hybrids with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance in photo-generated cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiwei, E-mail: vivizhg@yahoo.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266590 (China); Guo, Hanlin; Sun, Haiqing [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); Zeng, Rongchang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266590 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} hybrids were synthesized. • Flat band potential shift facilitates electron injection to the coupled metal. • Electrons and holes transfer in the hybrids promotes electron–hole separation. • Synergistic effects of the ternary components make the hybrids photo-chargeable. - Abstract: Ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were constructed through a stepwise synthetic route. The hybrids exhibit remarkable enhancement in photoelectrochemical performance. The transfer of photo-excited carriers in the ternary composites facilitates the photo-induced electron-hole separation. Meanwhile, the flat band potential shift of the hybrids increases the inner electric field intensity that drives the photo-excited electron migration from the composites to the coupled metal. Furthermore, the ternary hybrids were found firstly to be photo-chargeable, which shows application potentials in photo-generated cathodic protection in dark.

  6. CFD Predictions for Transonic Performance of the ERA Hybrid Wing-Body Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, Karen A.; Luckring, James M.; McMillin, S. Naomi; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Roman, Dino

    2016-01-01

    A computational study was performed for a Hybrid Wing Body configuration that was focused at transonic cruise performance conditions. In the absence of experimental data, two fully independent computational fluid dynamics analyses were conducted to add confidence to the estimated transonic performance predictions. The primary analysis was performed by Boeing with the structured overset-mesh code OVERFLOW. The secondary analysis was performed by NASA Langley Research Center with the unstructured-mesh code USM3D. Both analyses were performed at full-scale flight conditions and included three configurations customary to drag buildup and interference analysis: a powered complete configuration, the configuration with the nacelle/pylon removed, and the powered nacelle in isolation. The results in this paper are focused primarily on transonic performance up to cruise and through drag rise. Comparisons between the CFD results were very good despite some minor geometric differences in the two analyses.

  7. Performance evaluation and parametric optimum design of a molten carbonate fuel cell-thermophotovoltaic cell hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhimin; Liao, Tianjun; Zhou, Yinghui; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A molten carbonate fuel cell-thermophotovoltaic cell hybrid system is established. • The performance characteristics of the hybrid system are systematically evaluated. • The optimal regions of the power output density and efficiency are determined. • The values of key parameters at the maximum power output density are calculated. • The proposed system is proved to have advantages over other hybrid systems. - Abstract: A new model of the hybrid system composed of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a thermophotovoltaic cell (TPVC) is proposed to recovery the waste heat produced by the MCFC. Expressions for the power output and the efficiency of the hybrid system are analytically derived. The performance characteristics of the hybrid system are evaluated. It is found that when the current density of the MCFC, voltage output of the TPVC, electrode area ratio of the MCFC to the TPVC, and energy gap of the material in the photovoltaic cell are optimally chosen, the maximum power output density of the hybrid system is obviously larger than that of the single MCFC. Moreover, the improved percentages of the maximum power output density of the proposed model relative to that of the single MCFC are calculated for differently operating temperatures of the MCFC and are compared with those of some MCFC-based hybrid systems reported in the literature, and consequently, the advantages of the MCFC-TPVC hybrid system are revealed.

  8. Modelling and Experimental Testing of Hybrid Joints Made of: Aluminium Adherends, Adhesive Layers and Rivets for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski T.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary demands in different branches of engineering require application of new multi-component materials and structural systems. Appropriately chosen joining technology can offer significant enhancement of structural system performance in terms of effectiveness, reliability, safety and other design criteria. The modern applications of complex joints are of great technological interest as they permit to combine and to enhance the individual effects of each kind of joint. This is of great importance for modern applications in different branches of engineering: aerospace, mechanical and civil. Therefore in this paper we will focus on the analysis of mechanical response of adhesive joint of aluminium strips reinforced by rivets. The aim of the paper is to investigate experimentally the mechanical behaviour of adhesive joint of aluminium strips reinforced by rivets for industrial applications in aerospace. The considered joint was subjected to uniaxial loading. The tests in this paper were performed for: • classical adhesive joint in order to investigate material parameters for numerical modelling of the hybrid joint • hybrid joining of the structural elements in order to investigate the reinforcement effect. The experiments with application of digital image ARAMIS system allowed for on-line monitoring of the deformation process of the considered joining elements. The particular distributions of displacement fields at the joint surface were estimated for any stage of loading process. Numerical modelling was performed for experimentally investigated specimens. The materials parameters, necessary for calculation, were estimated from experiments. FEA modelling was done with the help of ABAQUS code.

  9. Performance analysis of hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system with multi-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Tian; Wang, Baolong; Wu, Wei; Shi, Wenxing; Li, Xianting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The hybrid GCHP system with multi-functions is proposed. • The system maintains the soil temperature and heating reliability steady. • The multi-functional operation of HCUT can save more energy of the system. - Abstract: Underground thermal imbalance is a significant problem for ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems that serve predominately heated buildings in cold regions, which extract more heat from the ground and inject less heat, especially in buildings requiring domestic hot water (DHW). To solve this problem, a previously developed heat compensation unit with thermosyphon (HCUT) is integrated with a GCHP unit to build a hybrid GCHP system. To improve the energy savings of this hybrid GCHP system, the HCUT unit is set to have multiple functions (heat compensation, direct DHW and direct space heating) in this paper. To analyze the improved system performance, a hotel requiring air-conditioning and DHW is selected and simulated in three typical cold cities using the dynamic software DeST and TRNSYS. The results indicate that the hybrid GCHP system can maintain the underground thermal balance while keeping the indoor air temperature within the design range. Furthermore, the HCUT unit efficiently reduces the energy consumption via its multi-functional operations. Compared to the previous system that only used HCUT for heat compensation, adding the direct DHW function further saves 7.5–11.0% energy in heat compensation (HC) and DHW (i.e., 3.6–4.8% of the whole system). Simultaneously adding the direct DHW and space heating functions to the HCUT can save 9.8–12.9% energy in HC and DHW (i.e., 5.1–6.0% of the whole system). The hybrid GCHP system with a multi-functional HCUT provides more energy savings while maintaining the underground thermal balance in cold regions that demand both air-conditioning and DHW

  10. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Karim, Hasanul; Lin, Yirong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Islam, Md Tariqul; Noveron, Juan C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Ramabadran, Navaneet [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO{sub 2} nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode–electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge–discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  11. Veriflow Campylobacter. Performance tested method 101201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelsson, Adam C; Brown, Ashley S; Puri, Amrita; Keough, Martin P; Pascal, Benjamin J; Gaudioso, Zara E

    2014-01-01

    Veriflow Campylobacter is a molecular based assay for the presumptive and qualitative detection of the most common occurring foodborne Campylobacter species: C. jejuni and C. coli. The assay utilizes a PCR detection method coupled with a rapid, visual, flow-based assay that develops in 3 min post PCR amplification and requires only 24 h of non-specialized enrichment for maximum sensitivity. The Veriflow Campylobacter system eliminates the need for microaerobic chambers, gel electrophoresis or fluorophore based detection of target amplification, and does not require complex data analysis. This Performance Tested Method validation study demonstrated the ability of the Veriflow method to detect naturally occurring Campylobacterfrom chicken carcass rinsates. In the reference comparison study, Chi-square and probability of detection analyses of two unpaired studies indicated that there was no significant difference between the Veriflow Campylobacter method and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) reference method. There was no indication of false positive or false negative detection in the reference comparison study, and all 50 C. jejuni and C. coli strains were detected, while 35 nonspecific organisms were undetected in the exclusivity/ inclusivity study. The study results show that Veriflow Campylobacter is a sensitive, selective and robust assay for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in chicken carcass rinsates.

  12. TRISO-Fuel Element Performance Modeling for the Hybrid LIFE Engine with Pu Fuel Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMange, P; Marian, J; Caro, M; Caro, A

    2010-02-18

    A TRISO-coated fuel thermo-mechanical performance study is performed for the hybrid LIFE engine to test the viability of TRISO particles to achieve ultra-high burnup of a weapons-grade Pu blanket. Our methodology includes full elastic anisotropy, time and temperature varying material properties for all TRISO layers, and a procedure to remap the elastic solutions in order to achieve fast fluences up to 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2} (E > 0.18 MeV). In order to model fast fluences in the range of {approx} 7 {approx} 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2}, for which no data exist, careful scalings and extrapolations of the known TRISO material properties are carried out under a number of potential scenarios. A number of findings can be extracted from our study. First, failure of the internal pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layer occurs within the first two months of operation. Then, the particles behave as BISO-coated particles, with the internal pressure being withstood directly by the SiC layer. Later, after 1.6 years, the remaining PyC crumbles due to void swelling and the fuel particle becomes a single-SiC-layer particle. Unrestrained by the PyC layers, and at the temperatures and fluences in the LIFE engine, the SiC layer maintains reasonably-low tensile stresses until the end-of-life. Second, the PyC creep constant, K, has a striking influence on the fuel performance of TRISO-coated particles, whose stresses scale almost inversely proportional to K. Obtaining more reliable measurements, especially at higher fluences, is an imperative for the fidelity of our models. Finally, varying the geometry of the TRISO-coated fuel particles results in little differences in the scope of fuel performance. The mechanical integrity of 2-cm graphite pebbles that act as fuel matrix has also been studied and it is concluded that they can reliable serve the entire LIFE burnup cycle without failure.

  13. Hybrid HVDC converters and their impact on power system dynamic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qahraman, B.; Gole, A.M. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Fernando, I.T. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Hydro Power Planning Dept.

    2006-07-01

    Hybrid converter high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems are now being used to connect different AC systems. This paper discussed the increased stability and terminal AC voltage control offered by hybrid converter HVDC systems. The hybrid topology used both line commutated converter (LCC) and voltage sourced converter (VSC) systems. The converter voltage rating was limited to the highest voltage level permissible for a VSC converter. The paper examined dynamic control performance, fault recovery transient performance, and the commutation failure susceptibility of the proposed scheme. Harmonic filters were installed to account for LCC voltage harmonics and the high frequencies at which the VSC switches. Terminal voltage control, real power control, and inverter DC capacitor voltage control systems were described. A phase locked loop (PLL) was used to synchronize the system with AC network voltages as well as to generate the synchronizing angle signal used to generating firing pulses for the VSC. The converter was compared to a conventional CIGRE benchmark converter. Results of the comparison showed that the coordinated controller was more effective in responding to both small and large dynamic changes in power. It was concluded that the converter configuration may be used to deliver power in systems with sensitive loads. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Polyimide-CNTs hybrid membrane to enhance high performance CO2 separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the CO2 separation performance of a hybrid membranes flat sheet based on polyimide incorporated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs particles. CNTs was selected and its loading were a 1 wt% in total solid. The hybrid composite membranes were fabricated in order to increase their separation performance for the gaseous mixture of CO2 and CH4. Hybrid Composite  membrane incorporated carbon nanotubes were mannufactured  by the dry-wet phase inversion technique using flat sheet membrane casting machine system,  in which the CNTs were embedded into the polyimide membrane and the resulting membranes were characterized. The results from the FESEM, DSC and FTIR analysis confirmed that chemical modification on carbon nanotubes surface had taken place. Sieve-in-a-cage’ morphology observed shows the poor adhesion between polymer and unmodified CNT. The results revealed that the good multi-wall carbon nanotubes dispersion leads to enhanced gas permeation properties. It is also concluded that addition of carbon nanotubes particles into the matrix of Polyimide polymer has significant effect on the membrane structure and properties.

  15. Nanocellulose Derivative/Silica Hybrid Core-Shell Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell silica microspheres with a nanocellulose derivative in the hybrid shell were successfully prepared as a chiral stationary phase by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The hybrid shell assembled on the silica core was formed using a surfactant as template by the copolymerization reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the nanocellulose derivative bearing triethoxysilyl and 3,5-dimethylphenyl groups. The resulting nanocellulose hybrid core-shell chiral packing materials (CPMs were characterized and packed into columns, and their enantioseparation performance was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that CPMs exhibited uniform surface morphology and core-shell structures. Various types of chiral compounds were efficiently separated under normal and reversed phase mode. Moreover, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran as mobile phase additives could obviously improve the resolution during the chiral separation processes. CPMs still have good chiral separation property when eluted with solvent systems with a high content of tetrahydrofuran and chloroform, which proved the high solvent resistance of this new material.

  16. Performance, costs, and GHG emissions of PV-hybrid systems : current status and avenues for improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M.M.D. [RER Renewable Energy Research, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The performance of a baseline 300 W photovoltaic (PV) hybrid system was investigated and compared with a prime power system, a genset battery system, and a PV-battery system. The analysis considered initial and annual costs, energy production, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An economic analysis of the overall life-cycle cost of the systems was provided. Simulations were used to determine system performance in both residential areas and in a remote off-grid industrial scenario. Hourly monitored weather data for a 5 year period in various Canadian cities were used to simulate 6 different PV-hybrid system configurations, namely 14 genset-battery configurations, 2 prime power configurations, and a stand-alone PV-battery system. A battery with 2 days of autonomy was used for both the genset battery and the PV hybrid system. The prime power system consisted of a 5 kW diesel genset and a rectifier with a 92.5 per cent efficiency at 50 W. The PV array was designed to achieve an annual solar fraction of 65 per cent. Data collected from a GNB Absolyte IIP absorbent glass mat batter was used to characterize the current-voltage behaviour of the battery model. The study considered battery capacity deterioration, fractions of solar energy wasted, as well as the fraction of wasted energy that could be avoided through the use of non-seasonal storage. The overall cost of generating electricity was calculated by considering equivalent annual costs divided by the electrical energy required annually. Results of the analysis indicated that prime power systems were not suitable for remote, industrial applications. Results of the residential analysis indicated that the PV-battery system was less economically viable than either the genset-battery or the PV hybrid system. The higher fuel consumption of the genset-battery system resulted in greenhouse gas emissions that were 3 times as high as those observed with the hybrid system, which generated 0.9 tonnes of carbon dioxide

  17. Operation Performance Evaluation of Power Grid Enterprise Using a Hybrid BWM-TOPSIS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei You

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity market reform is in progress in China, and the operational performance of power grid enterprises are vital for its healthy and sustainable development in the current electricity market environment. In this paper, a hybrid multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM framework for operational performance evaluation of a power grid enterprise is proposed from the perspective of sustainability. The latest MCDM method, namely the best-worst method (BWM was employed to determine the weights of all criteria, and the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS was applied to rank the operation performance of a power grid enterprise. The evaluation index system was built based on the concept of sustainability, which includes three criteria (namely economy, society, and environment and seven sub-criteria. Four power grid enterprises were selected to perform the empirical analysis, and the results indicate that power grid enterprise A1 has the best operation performance. The proposed hybrid BWM-TOPSIS-based framework for operation performance evaluation of a power grid enterprise is effective and practical.

  18. Authenticity, acceptability, and feasibility of a hybrid gynecology station for the Papanicolaou test as part of a clinical skills examination in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Oh, Younglim; Im, Sunju; Kim, Do-Kyong; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Roh, HyeRin

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the authenticity, acceptability, and feasibility of a hybrid station that combined a standardized patient encounter and a simulated Papanicolaou test. We introduced a hybrid station in the routine clinical skills examination (CSE) for 335 third-year medical students at 4 universities in Korea from December 1 to December 3, 2014. After the tests, we conducted an anonymous survey on the authenticity, acceptability, and feasibility of the hybrid station. A total of 334 medical students and 17 professors completed the survey. A majority of the students (71.6%) and professors (82.4%) agreed that the hybrid station was more authentic than the standard CSE. Over 60 percent of the students and professors responded that the station was acceptable for assessing the students' competence. Most of the students (75.2%) and professors (82.4%) assessed the required tasks as being feasible after reading the instructions. Our results showed that the hybrid CSE station was a highly authentic, acceptable, and feasible way to assess medical students' performance.

  19. On the performance of accelerated particle swarm optimization for charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation electrification has undergone major changes since the last decade. Success of smart grid with renewable energy integration solely depends upon the large-scale penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs for a sustainable and carbon-free transportation sector. One of the key performance indicators in hybrid electric vehicle is the State-of-Charge (SoC which needs to be optimized for the betterment of charging infrastructure using stochastic computational methods. In this paper, a newly emerged Accelerated particle swarm optimization (APSO technique was applied and compared with standard particle swarm optimization (PSO considering charging time and battery capacity. Simulation results obtained for maximizing the highly nonlinear objective function indicate that APSO achieves some improvements in terms of best fitness and computation time.

  20. PEMFC performance of MEAS based on Nafion{sup R} and sPSEBS hybrid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Carretero, F.J.; Compan, V. [Univ, Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Dept. Termodinamica Aplicada; Suarez, K.; Solorza, O. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica; Riande, E. [Inst. de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Important scientific, technical and economic problems must be solved before widespread commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The main issues facing the development of commercial low temperature fuel cells are the synthesis of efficient solid electrolytes separating the anode from the cathode as well as the development of cheaper catalysts for fuel oxidation. This study involved the preparation of hybrid membranes based on Nafion 117 and sulfonated Calprene H6120 containing partially sulfonated inorganic fillers such as silica, SBA-15 and sepiolite. The feasibility of using the membranes as polyelectrolytes for low temperature fuel cells was then evaluated. The water uptake of Nafion hybrid membranes is 1/3 to 1/4 of that in composite membranes based on sulfonated Calprene H6120. The proton conductivity of Nafion 117 hybrid membranes-electrode assemblies is nearly 1/5 of the pristine Nafion membrane assembly. Sulfonated Calprene H6120 hybrid membranes typically have better proton conductivity than the Nafion 117 composites. The performance of fuel cells containing different MEAs was examined by measuring their polarization curves in different operating conditions. The kinetic parameters governing the voltage dependence on current density were also estimated. It was concluded that the superior performance of the fuel cells with MEAs of NAF-SEP, sPSEBS-SIL and sPSEBS-SBA is not due to the membranes themselves, but to the kinetic processes that occur at the electrodes, which in this study were less efficient for fuel cells with the Nafion MEA. 34 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. Use of DNA polymorphism for characterization and assessment of genetic purity testing in Rice hybrids (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M.Sudharani , K.RajyaLakshmi, A.Vishnuvardhan Reddy, K.Bharathi and N.RamaRaju

    2013-01-01

    The investigation for genetic purity testing of hybrids in rice (Oryza sativa L.) using microsatellite markers was conducted on two rice hybrids (DRRH-2 and DRRH-3) and their corresponding parents (IR68897A, DR-714-1-2R, APMS-6A and RPHR-1005) at Seed Research and Technology Centre, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during wet and dry seasons of 2011. The objective of the study is to identify the signature markers to differentiate parents and hybrids and also to replace grow out test, which has been u...

  2. Agronomic performance of transgenic and isogenic corn hybrids in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Souza Prado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Theoretically, isogenic hybrids should not present any differences in their genetic makeup due to recombinant DNA technology. However, these materials may behave differently in relation to adaptability and stability. This study aimed at evaluating the agronomic performance of transgenic corn and their isogenic hybrids in two locations in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Three isogenic simple hybrids and two transgenic varieties of each hybrid were evaluated. The first and second corn crop of 2013/14 were simultaneously analyzed in Dourados and Caarapó, two locations in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, totaling four environments x season conditions that were evaluated.. A randomized complete block design with three replicates per location was used, and the treatments were arranged in a 3 × 3 factorial design (three genetically modified and three conventional hybrids, with three replicates per site. Characteristics such as plant height, ear height, male flowers, female flowers, and grain yield were evaluated. The parameters adaptability and stability were estimated using the Eberhart and Russell model. In all environments, transgenic hybrids showed higher average grain yield. Considering the environments, AG 7000, a conventional isogenic hybrid, obtained the highest average grain yield. The most stable and productive hybrids were DKB 390 VT PRO and AG 7000 YG, both transgenic. All assessed hybrids exhibited greater average plant height, ear height, and grain yield in Caarapó during the second corn crop, demonstrating that the environment at that site and time was more favorable.

  3. 47 CFR 76.601 - Performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Prior to requiring any additional testing pursuant to § 76.601(c), the local franchising authority shall... signal quality problems which need to be corrected. The Commission may request cable operators to test...

  4. Hybrid utilization of solar energy. Part 2. Performance analyses of heating system with air hybrid collector; Taiyo energy no hybrid riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kuki shunetsu hybrid collector wo mochiita danbo system no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the effective utilization of solar energy at houses, a heating system using an air hybrid collector (capable of simultaneously performing heat collection and photovoltaic power generation). As the specimen house, a wooden house of a total floor area of 120m{sup 2} was simulated. Collected air is fanned into a crushed stone heat accumulator (capable of storing one day`s collection) or into a living room. The output of solar cell arrays is put into a heat pump (capable of handling a maximum hourly load of 36,327kJ/h) via an inverter so as to drive the fan (corresponding to average insolation on the heat collecting plate of 10.7MJ/hm{sup 2} and heat collecting efficiency of 40%), and shortage in power if any is supplied from the system interconnection. A hybrid collector, as compared with the conventional air collector, is lower in thermal efficiency but the merit that it exhibits with respect to power generation is far greater than what is needed to counterbalance the demerit. When the hybrid system is in heating operation, there is an ideal heat cycle of collection, accumulation, and radiation when the load is light, but the balance between accumulation and radiation is disturbed when the load is heavy. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkesson, Anders

    2008-05-01

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  6. Performance-Driven Hybrid Full-Body Character Control for Navigation and Interaction in Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousas, Christos; Anagnostopoulos, Christos-Nikolaos

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a hybrid character control interface that provides the ability to synthesize in real-time a variety of actions based on the user's performance capture. The proposed methodology enables three different performance interaction modules: the performance animation control that enables the direct mapping of the user's pose to the character, the motion controller that synthesizes the desired motion of the character based on an activity recognition methodology, and the hybrid control that lies within the performance animation and the motion controller. With the methodology presented, the user will have the freedom to interact within the virtual environment, as well as the ability to manipulate the character and to synthesize a variety of actions that cannot be performed directly by him/her, but which the system synthesizes. Therefore, the user is able to interact with the virtual environment in a more sophisticated fashion. This paper presents examples of different scenarios based on the three different full-body character control methodologies.

  7. Simulating Study on Drive System Performance for Hybrid Electric Bus Based on ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric bus has a number of advantages when compared with ordinary passenger cars, but in the dynamic matching and the vehicle performance are difficult to detect, thus limits its development process. In this paper, combined with the actual models, the hybrid electric bus module parameters were modified in the software of ADVISOR (Advanced Vehicle Simulator, main including: module of the vehicle, the wheel module, motor module, a battery module and engine module, three kinds of bus models for A, B and C were established, and the related performance that need to be analyzed was set up, such as acceleration, gradability, emissions and energy utilization and so on, in order to ensure the vehicle running in the same environment and convenient for comparison, a fixed vehicle driving cycles was chose, then the simulation results was analyzed, and the various performance was compared with the dynamic indicators and economic indicators which determined by referencing of traditional city bus standard and each other, and finally, the performance optimal model of B was chose out which can meet the demand, its related performance parameters of the simulation results are as follows: the best gradability is 26%, maximum speed is 72.7km/h, maximum acceleration is 1.7m/s2, 0~50km/h acceleration time is 9.5s and fuel consumption is 25L/km.

  8. Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Creer, J.M.

    1988-10-01

    REA-2023 Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EGandG Idaho, Inc., using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented. The cask designs include: solid and liquid neutron shields; lead, steel, and nodular cast iron gamma shields; stainless steel, aluminum, and copper baskets; and borated materials for criticality control. 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system final report II : long term performance of hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the investigation of the long term structural performance of a : hybrid FRP-concrete (HFRPC) bridge deck on steel girders. The study aimed at : assessing three long term aspects pertaining to the HFRPC bridge deck: (1) creep : c...

  10. Performance Analysis of High Speed Hybrid CMOS Full Adder Circuits for Low Voltage VLSI Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Wairya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of high-speed and low-voltage full adder circuits. Our approach is based on hybrid design full adder circuits combined in a single unit. A high performance adder cell using an XOR-XNOR (3T design style is discussed. This paper also discusses a high-speed conventional full adder design combined with MOSCAP Majority function circuit in one unit to implement a hybrid full adder circuit. Moreover, it presents low-power Majority-function-based 1-bit full addersthat use MOS capacitors (MOSCAP in its structure. This technique helps in reducing power consumption, propagation delay, and area of digital circuits while maintaining low complexity of logic design. Simulation results illustrate the superiority of the designed adder circuits over the conventional CMOS, TG, and hybrid adder circuits in terms of power, delay, power delay product (PDP, and energy delay product (EDP. Postlayout simulation results illustrate the superiority of the newly designed majority adder circuits against the reported conventional adder circuits. The design is implemented on UMC 0.18 m process models in Cadence Virtuoso Schematic Composer at 1.8 V single-ended supply voltage, and simulations are carried out on Spectre S.

  11. Energy performance of an integrated bio-and-thermal hybrid system for lignocellulosic biomass waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyi; Zhang, Jingxin; Tong, Yen Wah; Yang, Wenming; Dai, Yanjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass waste, a heterogeneous complex of biodegradables and non-biodegradables, accounts for large proportion of municipal solid waste. Due to limitation of single-stage treatment, a two-stage hybrid AD-gasification system was proposed in this work, in which AD acted as pre-treatment to convert biodegradables into biogas followed by gasification converting solid residue into syngas. Energy performance of single and two-stage systems treating 3 typical lignocellulosic wastes was studied using both experimental and numerical methods. In comparison with conventional single-stage gasification treatment, this hybrid system could significantly improve the quality of produced gas for all selected biomass wastes and show its potential in enhancing total gas energy production by a maximum value of 27% for brewer's spent grain treatment at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3gVS/L/day. The maximum overall efficiency of the hybrid system for horticultural waste treatment was 75.2% at OLR of 11.3gVS/L/day, 5.5% higher than conventional single-stage system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Manufacturing Process Performance by CONWIP Hybridization of Pull Controlled Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth O.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is pioneering an innovative tactic for the synchronization of multi-stage, multi-line, production system. This tactic is mainly depends on the optimization policy, by means of distinct event simulation process for modeling, analysis and distinction of the execution of two alternatives of Kanban control mechanism namely SEKCS (Simultaneous Extended Kanban Control System and IEKCS (Independent Extended Kanban Control System. At this juncture the authors putting forward the two variants of Extended Kanban control system with the hybridization of CONWIP control policy to incite HSEKCS (Hybrid Simultaneous Extended Kanban Control System and HIEKCS (Hybrid Independent Extended Kanban Control System to make use of pooled benefits of a representative production situation in addition to improve the outcome. Therefore in this study the comparison in between different systems of proposed HEKCS specifically are HSEKCS and HIEKCS compared with the Extended Kanban Control Systems variants SEKCS and IEKCS. Simulation studies were conducted for all the five control policies considered and modeled on a multi-line, multi-stage assembly production control system. The relative performance parameters like Throughput or Production rate, Average Waiting Time and Average Work-in-Process, were assessed by means of exponentially varying demands.

  13. Innovative architecture design for high performance organic and hybrid multi-junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Spyropoulos, George D.; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-08-01

    The multi-junction concept is especially attractive for the photovoltaic (PV) research community owing to its potential to overcome the Schockley-Queisser limit of single-junction solar cells. Tremendous research interests are now focused on the development of high-performance absorbers and novel device architectures for emerging PV technologies, such as organic and perovskite PVs. It has been predicted that the multi-junction concept is able to boost the organic and perovskite PV technologies approaching the 20% and 30% benchmarks, respectively, showing a bright future of commercialization of the emerging PV technologies. In this contribution, we will demonstrate innovative architecture design for solution-processed, highly functional organic and hybrid multi-junction solar cells. A simple but elegant approach to fabricating organic and hybrid multi-junction solar cells will be introduced. By laminating single organic/hybrid solar cells together through an intermediate layer, the manufacturing cost and complexity of large-scale multi-junction solar cells can be significantly reduced. This smart approach to balancing the photocurrents as well as open circuit voltages in multi-junction solar cells will be demonstrated and discussed in detail.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parameter values for the minimum scrubber makeup water flow rate and, for scrubbers that operate with recirculation, the minimum recirculation water flow rate. During the emission test, each operating parameter...

  15. Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Chang, Jae-Byum; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Aleman, Julio; Batzaya, Byambaa; Krishnadoss, Vaishali; Ramanujam, Aishwarya Aravamudhan; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Boyden, Edward S; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-15

    To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such "hybrid microscopy" methods--combining physical and optical magnifications--can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes ("mini-microscopes"), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics--a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)--is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places.

  16. Earthquake early warning performance tests for Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, N.; Wenzel, F.; Erdik, M.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Marmara Region is the most densily populated region in Turkey. The greater area of the mega-city Istanbul inhabits about 14 million people. The city is located in the direct vicinity of the Main Marmara Fault, a dextral strike-slip fault system intersecting the Sea of Marmara, which is the western continuation of the North Anatolian Fault [Le Pichon et al., 2001]. Its closest distance to the city of Istanbul ranges between 15 and 20 km. Recent estimates by Parsons [2004] give a probability of more than 40% of a M ≥ 7 earthquake that will affect Istanbul within the next 30 years. Due to this high seismic risk, earthquake early warning is an important task in disaster management and seismic risk reduction, increasing the safety of millions of people living in and around Istanbul and reducing economic losses. The Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System (IERREWS) includes a set of 10 strong-motion sensors used for early warning which are installed between Istanbul and the Main Marmara Fault. The system works on the exceedance of amplitude thresholds, whereas three alarm levels are defined at three different thresholds [Erdik et al., 2003]. In the context of the research project EDIM (Earthquake Disaster Information System for the Marmara Region, Turkey), the early warning network is planned to be extended by an additional set of 10 strong-motion sensors installed around the Sea of Marmara to include the greater Marmara Region into the early warning process. We present performance tests of both the existing and the planned extended early warning network using ground motion simulations for 280 synthetic earthquakes along the Main Marmara Fault with moment magnitudes between 4.5 and 7.5. We apply the amplitude thresholds of IERREWS, as well as, for comparison, an early warning algorithm based on artificial neural networks which estimates hypocentral location and magnitude of the occurring earthquake. The estimates are updated continuously with

  17. Demonstration and field trial of a resilient hybrid NG-PON test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Josep; Polo, Victor; Schrenk, Bernhard; Lazaro, Jose A.; Bonada, Francesc; Lopez, Eduardo T.; Omella, Mireia; Saliou, Fabienne; Le, Quang T.; Chanclou, Philippe; Leino, Dmitri; Soila, Risto; Spirou, Spiros; Costa, Liliana; Teixeira, Antonio; Tosi-Beleffi, Giorgio M.; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    A multi-layer next generation PON prototype has been built and tested, to show the feasibility of extended hybrid DWDM/TDM-XGPON FTTH networks with resilient optically-integrated ring-trees architecture, supporting broadband multimedia services. It constitutes a transparent common platform for the coexistence of multiple operators sharing the optical infrastructure of the central metro ring, passively combining the access and the metropolitan network sections. It features 32 wavelength connections at 10 Gbps, up to 1000 users distributed in 16 independent resilient sub-PONs over 100 km. This paper summarizes the network operation, demonstration and field trial results.

  18. Performance evaluation and parametric optimization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell/heat-driven heat pump hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Chen, J. [Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2012-06-15

    With the help of the current models of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and three-heat-source heat pumps, a generic model of a PEM fuel cell/heat-driven heat pump hybrid system is established, so that the waste heat produced in the PEM fuel cell may be availably utilized. Based on the theory of electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, expressions for the efficiency and power output of the PEM fuel cell, the coefficient of performance and rate of pumping heat of the heat-driven heat pump, and the equivalent efficiency and power output of the hybrid system are derived. The curves of the equivalent efficiency and power output of the hybrid system varying with the electric current density and the equivalent power output versus efficiency curves are represented through numerical calculation. The general performance characteristics of the hybrid system are analyzed. The optimally operating regions of some important parameters of the hybrid system are determined. The influence of some main irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system is discussed in detail. The advantages of the hybrid system are revealed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Battery Test Manual For 12 Volt Start/Stop Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belt, Jeffrey R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This manual was prepared by and for the United Stated Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Electrochemical Energy Storage Team. It is based on the targets established for 12 Volt Start/Stop energy storage development and is similar (with some important changes) to an earlier manual for the former FreedomCAR program. The specific procedures were developed primarily to characterize the performance of energy storage devices relative to the USABC requirements. However, it is anticipated that these procedures will have some utility for characterizing 12 Volt Start/Stop hybrid energy storage device behavior in general.

  20. Transient Lift-Off Test Results for an Experimental Hybrid Bearing in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Table 20 Start and stop points of rub from super synchronous vibration observation ..... 81 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution...between 0.45-0.50. The pressure ratio ( rcP ) is the recess pressure divided by the supply pressure as shown in Eq. (1). as ar rc PP PP P − − = (1...Ratio on the Performance of an Orifice-Compensated Hybrid Bearing,” ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, 120, No. 4, October 1998, pp. 930-936

  1. Hybrid Composite Laminates Reinforced with Kevlar/Carbon/Glass Woven Fabrics for Ballistic Impact Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Randjbaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  2. Hybrid composite laminates reinforced with Kevlar/carbon/glass woven fabrics for ballistic impact testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randjbaran, Elias; Zahari, Rizal; Jalil, Nawal Aswan Abdul; Majid, Dayang Laila Abang Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  3. Analysis of the performance of a passive hybrid powerplant to power a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle for a high altitude mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau, Jordi; Sánchez, Fernando; Lozano, Antonio; Barroso, Jorge; Barreras, Félix

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research is to analyze the performance of a passive hybrid powerplant control system to be implemented in a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle capable to ascend up to the high troposphere (10,000 m). The powerplant is based on a high-temperature PEM fuel cell connected in parallel to a set of lithium-polymer batteries and regulated by two power diodes. Test performed in steady state demonstrates that the use of the hybrid system increases the efficiency of the stack by more than 7% because the voltage at the main DC bus is limited by the batteries. The robustness of the passive control system is proved in a long-term test in which random perturbations of ±15% are applied to the average power that would be demanded during the ascent flight. The hybridization of the stack with the batteries eliminates sudden peaks in the current generated by the stack, which are responsible for prompt degradation phenomena that drastically reduce its useful lifetime. The study demonstrates that with the passive hybrid powerplant it is possible to reach the target height with the gas storage system considered in the application, contrary to what happens with the simple power plant.

  4. Parametric study and performance analysis of hybrid rocket motors with double-tube configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanjia; Zhao, Bo; Lorente, Arnau Pons; Wang, Jue

    2017-03-01

    The practical implementation of hybrid rocket motors has historically been hampered by the slow regression rate of the solid fuel. In recent years, the research on advanced injector designs has achieved notable results in the enhancement of the regression rate and combustion efficiency of hybrid rockets. Following this path, this work studies a new configuration called double-tube characterized by injecting the gaseous oxidizer through a head end injector and an inner tube with injector holes distributed along the motor longitudinal axis. This design has demonstrated a significant potential for improving the performance of hybrid rockets by means of a better mixing of the species achieved through a customized injection of the oxidizer. Indeed, the CFD analysis of the double-tube configuration has revealed that this design may increase the regression rate over 50% with respect to the same motor with a conventional axial showerhead injector. However, in order to fully exploit the advantages of the double-tube concept, it is necessary to acquire a deeper understanding of the influence of the different design parameters in the overall performance. In this way, a parametric study is carried out taking into account the variation of the oxidizer mass flux rate, the ratio of oxidizer mass flow rate injected through the inner tube to the total oxidizer mass flow rate, and injection angle. The data for the analysis have been gathered from a large series of three-dimensional numerical simulations that considered the changes in the design parameters. The propellant combination adopted consists of gaseous oxygen as oxidizer and high-density polyethylene as solid fuel. Furthermore, the numerical model comprises Navier-Stokes equations, k-ε turbulence model, eddy-dissipation combustion model and solid-fuel pyrolysis, which is computed through user-defined functions. This numerical model was previously validated by analyzing the computational and experimental results obtained for

  5. Performance comparison of a new hybrid conjugate gradient method under exact and inexact line searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, N. H. A.; Mohamed, N. S.; Zull, N.; Shoid, S.; Rivaie, M.; Mamat, M.

    2017-09-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) method is one of iterative techniques prominently used in solving unconstrained optimization problems due to its simplicity, low memory storage, and good convergence analysis. This paper presents a new hybrid conjugate gradient method, named NRM1 method. The method is analyzed under the exact and inexact line searches in given conditions. Theoretically, proofs show that the NRM1 method satisfies the sufficient descent condition with both line searches. The computational result indicates that NRM1 method is capable in solving the standard unconstrained optimization problems used. On the other hand, the NRM1 method performs better under inexact line search compared with exact line search.

  6. Performance of the hybrid wireless mesh protocol for wireless mesh networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Magnus; Staalhagen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    . These challenges must first be overcome before satisfactory network stability and throughput can be achieved. This paper studies the performance of the Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol, the proposed routing protocol for the upcoming IEEE 802.11s standard. HWMP supports two modes of path selection: reactive...... and proactive. Two scenarios of different node density are considered for both path selection modes. The results presented in this paper are based on a simulation model of the HWMP specification in the IEEE 802.11s draft 4.0 implemented in OPNET Modeler....

  7. Enhanced performance of hybrid solar cells using longer arms of quantum cadmium selenide tetrapods

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced device performance of hybrid solar cells based on tetrapod (TP)-shaped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and conjugated polymer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can be obtained by using longer armed tetrapods which aids in better spatial connectivity, thus decreasing charge hopping events which lead to better charge transport. Longer tetrapods with 10 nm arm length lead to improved power conversion efficiency of 1.12% compared to 0.80% of device having 5 nm short-armed tetrapods:P3HT photoactive blends.

  8. The hybrid K-edge/K-XRF densitometer: Principles - design - performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottmar, H.; Eberle, H.

    1991-02-01

    The Euratom Safeguards Directorate (ESD) has recently installed a hybrid K-edge/K-XRF densitometer in a commerical reprocessing plant for the safeguarding of nuclear materials. This instrument, developed at KfK Karlsruhe, offers for the first time analytical measurement capabilities for timely on-site input accountancy verification. Lectures providing informations on measurement principles, instrument design features and performance data have been given to inspectors of ESD to make them familiar with the new instrument. This report summarizes the essential materials presented during these courses. (orig.) [de

  9. Performance evaluations of hybrid modulation with different optical labels over PDQ in high bit-rate OLS network systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Li, Y; Kang, T Z; Zhang, T S; Ji, J H; Yang, S W

    2016-11-14

    Two orthogonal modulation optical label switching(OLS) schemes, which are based on payload of polarization multiplexing-differential quadrature phase shift keying(POLMUX-DQPSK or PDQ) modulated with identifications of duobinary (DB) label and pulse position modulation(PPM) label, are researched in high bit-rate OLS network. The BER performance of hybrid modulation with payload and label signals are discussed and evaluated in theory and simulation. The theoretical BER expressions of PDQ, PDQ-DB and PDQ-PPM are given with analysis method of hybrid modulation encoding in different the bit-rate ratios of payload and label. Theoretical derivation results are shown that the payload of hybrid modulation has a certain gain of receiver sensitivity than payload without label. The sizes of payload BER gain obtained from hybrid modulation are related to the different types of label. The simulation results are consistent with that of theoretical conclusions. The extinction ratio (ER) conflicting between hybrid encoding of intensity and phase types can be compromised and optimized in OLS system of hybrid modulation. The BER analysis method of hybrid modulation encoding in OLS system can be applied to other n-ary hybrid modulation or combination modulation systems.

  10. Proof of Performance Test Report MANTIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    ... (NVESD), Humanitarian Demining Branch (HD), the assessment was conducted by HD staff members and supported by engineers from the United Kingdom under the auspices of the International Evaluation Test Program for Humanitarian Demining (ITEP...

  11. Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Balota, Maria; Oakes, Joseph; Mehl, H. L.; Acharya, Bhupendra

    2017-01-01

    Offers data about the grain sorghum testing program, and evaluations of commercial and experimental varieties of grain sorghum. Statistical analyses are provided, as well as information on relative yield, grain moisture, head mold, and more.

  12. Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Balota, Maria; Oakes, Joseph; Thomason, Wade Everett; Pitman, Robert Melvin, 1948-; Mehl, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Offers data about the grain sorghum testing program, and evaluations of commercial and experimental varieties of grain sorghum. Statistical analyses are provided, as well as information on relative yield, grain moisture, head mold, and more.

  13. Numerical research of hydrodynamic performance of hybrid CRP podded propulsor in steering conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Jiaqi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of steering conditions to hybrid CRP podded propulsor,the calculation of the NACA0012 open-water rudder's lift coefficient was carried out by applying the RANS method combined with the SST k-ω turbulence model, and the near wall mesh arrangement and near wall treatment method applied in numerical calculation were selected through comparisons between the experimental results and the calculation results. The hydrodynamic performance of a podded propulsor was predicted on the basis of the above, and the calculation results showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The object of the research was a hybrid CRP podded propulsor, and its hydrodynamic performance in steering conditions was predicted by applying the numerical method above. Conclusions were drawn on the relationship between hydrodynamic performance parameters and steering angle, i.e. larger magnitudes of the after propeller thrust, pod horizontal force and steering moment will be acquired at larger steering angles, and the fore propeller thrust is basically as invariant as the pod steering. The internal reasons were also analyzed. Research shows that the propeller has good maneuverability,and will have wide application prospect.

  14. Performance analysis of four-partition desiccant wheel and hybrid dehumidification air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jongsoo; Yamaguchi, Seiichi; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao [Department of Applied Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, School of Fundamental Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1-58-210 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    A desiccant dehumidification system with air can decrease energy consumption because it can be driven by low-grade waste heat below 80 C. If this system can be driven by low-temperature heat sources whose temperature is below 50 C, exhausted heat from fuel cells or air conditioners that exist everywhere can be used as heat sources. This could lead to considerable energy saving. This study provides a detailed evaluation of the performance of a four-partition desiccant wheel to make a low-temperature driving heat source possible and achieve considerable energy saving by the simulation and experiment. Further, the study investigates the in-depth performance of a hybrid air-conditioning system with a four-partition desiccant wheel by simulation. As a result, it was clear that there exists an optimum rotational speed to maximize the dehumidification performance and that the hybrid air-conditioning system improves COP by approximately 94% as compared to the conventional vapour compression-type refrigerator. (author)

  15. Nuclear material control and accountancy planning and performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mike Enhinger; Dennis Wilkey; Rod Martin; Ken Byers; Brian Smith

    1999-01-01

    An overview of performance testing as used at U.S. Department of Energy facilities is provided. Performance tests are performed on specific aspects of the regulations or site policy. The key issues in establishing a performance testing program are: identifying what needs to be tested; determining how to test; establishing criteria to evaluate test results. The program elements of performance testing program consist of: planning; coordination; conduct; evaluation. A performance test may be conducted of personnel or equipment. The DOE orders for nuclear material control and accountancy are divided into three functional areas: program administration, material accounting, and material control. Examples performance tests may be conducted on program administration, accounting, measurement and measurement control, inventory, and containment [ru

  16. Manufacturing experience and test results of the PS prototype flexible hybrid circuit for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacs, Mark Istvan; Gadek, Tomasz; Honma, Alan; Vasey, Francois

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Tracker Phase-2 Upgrade for HL-LHC requires High Density Interconnect (HDI) flexible hybrid circuits to build modules with low mass and high granularity. The hybrids are carbon fibre reinforced flexible circuits with flip-chips and passives. Three different manufacturers produced prototype hybrids for the Pixel-Strip type modules. The first part of the presentation will focus on the design challenges of this state of the art circuit. Afterwards, the difficulties and experience related to the circuit manufacturing and assembly are presented. The description of quality inspection methods with comprehensive test results will lead to the conclusion.

  17. Structural Performance of a Hybrid FRP-Aluminum Modular Triangular Truss System Subjected to Various Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid FRP-aluminum truss system has been employed in a two-rut modular bridge superstructure composed of twin inverted triangular trusses. The actual flexural behavior of a one-rut truss has been previously investigated under the on-axis loading test; however, the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to an off-axis load is still not fully understood. In this paper, a geometrical linear finite element model is introduced and validated by the on-axis loading test; the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to off-axis load was numerically obtained; the dissimilarities of the structural performance between the two different loading cases are investigated in detail. The results indicated that (1 the structural behavior of the off-axis load differs from that of the on-axis load, and the off-axis load is the critical loading condition controlling the structural performance of the triangular truss; (2 under the off-axis load, the FRP trussed members and connectors bear certain out-of-plane bending moments and are subjected to a complicated stress state; and (3 the stress state of these members does not match that of the initial design, and optimization for the redesign of these members is needed, especially for the pretightened teeth connectors.

  18. Phase 1: ISOCELL demonstration test performance review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatwin, T.D.

    1991-04-01

    This document consolidates and organizes information available concerning cryogenic retrieval of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes and is mainly derived from a report on the ISOCELL Demonstration Project prepared by Concept RKK, Ltd. ISOCELL cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust. A test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in Carnation, Washington by Concept RKK, Ltd. Test conditions were compared to possible testing conditions at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze wet soil into a soil block capable of being lifted. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Preliminary test of an imaging probe for nuclear medicine using hybrid pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Ennio; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Russo, P

    2002-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 mu m pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 mu m pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-mu m thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 mu m circular holes with 170 mu m pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order ...

  20. Facile Preparation of Phosphotungstic Acid-Impregnated Yeast Hybrid Microspheres and Their Photocatalytic Performance for Decolorization of Azo Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphotungstic acid (HPW-impregnated yeast hybrid microspheres were prepared by impregnation-adsorption technique through tuning pH of the aqueous yeast suspensions. The obtained products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis, respectively. FE-SEM and EDS ascertain that the HPW has been effectively introduced onto the surface of yeast, and the resulting samples retain ellipsoid shape, with the uniform size (length 4.5 ± 0.2 μm, width 3.0 ± 0.3 μm and good monodispersion. XRD pattern indicates that the main crystal structure of as-synthesized HPW@yeast microsphere is Keggin structure. TG-DTA states that the HPW in composites has better thermal stability than pure HPW. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR elucidates that the functional groups or chemical bonds inherited from the pristine yeast cell were critical to the assembling of the composites. UV-Vis shows that the obtained samples have a good responding to UV light. The settling ability indicates that the hybrid microspheres possess an excellent suspension performance. In the test of catalytic activity, the HPW@yeast microsphere exhibits a high photocatalytic activity for the decoloration of Methylene blue and Congo red dye aqueous solutions, and there are a few activity losses after four cycles of uses.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Lower-Energy Energy Storage Alternatives for Full-Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-11

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle fuel use. However, the incremental cost of HEVs such as the Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The b b b b battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can correspondingly improve the vehicle-level cost/benefit relationship. Such an improvement would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Program managers asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collaborate with a USABC Workgroup and analyze the trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the decade-old minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL’s analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than the previous targets, which prompted USABC to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform, and laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results with alternate energy storage configurations as compared to the production battery system. The alternate energy storage technologies considered include lithium-ion capacitors -- i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery

  2. Geographically distributed hybrid testing & collaboration between geotechnical centrifuge and structures laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaghi, Mobin; Martínez, Ignacio Lamata; Dietz, Matt S.; Williams, Martin S.; Blakeborough, Anthony; Crewe, Adam J.; Taylor, Colin A.; Madabhushi, S. P. Gopal; Haigh, Stuart K.

    2018-01-01

    Distributed Hybrid Testing (DHT) is an experimental technique designed to capitalise on advances in modern networking infrastructure to overcome traditional laboratory capacity limitations. By coupling the heterogeneous test apparatus and computational resources of geographically distributed laboratories, DHT provides the means to take on complex, multi-disciplinary challenges with new forms of communication and collaboration. To introduce the opportunity and practicability afforded by DHT, here an exemplar multi-site test is addressed in which a dedicated fibre network and suite of custom software is used to connect the geotechnical centrifuge at the University of Cambridge with a variety of structural dynamics loading apparatus at the University of Oxford and the University of Bristol. While centrifuge time-scaling prevents real-time rates of loading in this test, such experiments may be used to gain valuable insights into physical phenomena, test procedure and accuracy. These and other related experiments have led to the development of the real-time DHT technique and the creation of a flexible framework that aims to facilitate future distributed tests within the UK and beyond. As a further example, a real-time DHT experiment between structural labs using this framework for testing across the Internet is also presented.

  3. Performance evaluation of aluminium test piece against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image processing with Catphan 700 uses the automated Quality Assurance software restricted to only Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine images. For this reason, an aluminium (Al) test piece device was fabricated for image processing in different image format for spatial resolution measurement.

  4. GPS Device Testing Based on User Performance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    1. Rationale for a Test Program Based on User Performance Metrics ; 2. Roberson and Associates Test Program ; 3. Status of, and Revisions to, the Roberson and Associates Test Program ; 4. Comparison of Roberson and DOT/Volpe Programs

  5. Factors affecting the auction price of Veldram performance tested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The popularity of these auctions for performance tested rams (89.4 % of rams sold) indicate that Veld tested rams were sought after by buyers. The sale price of 296 Veld tested Dorper rams sold between 1994 and 2001, covering seven different tests, were compared with their measured and observed performances.

  6. Performance Modeling of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on Large-scale Multicore Cluster Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore clusters: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and Blue Gene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore clusters because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyro kinetic Toroidal Code in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore clusters. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore clusters. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground source heat exchanger, rooftop photovoltaic panels, and a heat pump cycle. Exergetic efficiency of the solar-geothermal heat pump system does not exceed 10 percent, and most exergy destruction takes place in photovoltaic panel, condenser, and evaporator. Although SI of PV system remains constant during a year, SI of GSHP varies depending on cooling and heating mode. The results also show that utilization of this hybrid system can reduce CO2 emissions by almost 70 tons per year.

  8. Hybrid structure of polyaniline/ZnO nanograss and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell with performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shibu; Wei Wei; Chen Xiangnan; Jiang Man; Zhou Zuowan

    2012-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) hybridized ZnO photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was primarily prepared via a two-step process which involved hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanograss on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and subsequently chemisorption of PANI on the surfaces of the ZnO nanorods. The PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the results indicated that there were chemical interactions between PANI and ZnO. Both pure ZnO nanograss and PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were applied to DSSC. The results of photoelectrochemical measurement showed that the photocurrent density of PANI (100 mg/L) hybridized ZnO nanograss photoanode was significantly enhanced, and the overall light-conversion efficiency increased by 60%. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) displayed that the electron densities in photoanodes of PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were larger than that in pure ZnO nanograss. This is ascribed to more effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring occurred in the hybrid photoanode. - Graphical abstract: Operational principle of the DSSC: the introduced hybridizing PANI layer performs effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring. Highlights: ► PANI/ZnO nanograss hybrid materials as photoanode in Dye-sensitized solar cell. ► Photoelectric conversion efficiency after hybridization was enhanced by 60%. ► PANI hybridizing ZnO nanograss induced a rapid charge separation.

  9. Deducing hybrid performance from parental metabolic profiles of young primary roots of maize by using a multivariate diallel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, Kristen; Lisec, Jan; Römisch-Margl, Lilla; Selbig, Joachim; Gierl, Alfons; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Nikoloski, Zoran; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis, the greater vigor of hybrids compared to their parents, has been exploited in maize breeding for more than 100 years to produce ever better performing elite hybrids of increased yield. Despite extensive research, the underlying mechanisms shaping the extent of heterosis are not well understood, rendering the process of selecting an optimal set of parental lines tedious. This study is based on a dataset consisting of 112 metabolite levels in young roots of four parental maize inbred lines and their corresponding twelve hybrids, along with the roots' biomass as a heterotic trait. Because the parental biomass is a poor predictor for hybrid biomass, we established a model framework to deduce the biomass of the hybrid from metabolite profiles of its parental lines. In the proposed framework, the hybrid metabolite levels are expressed relative to the parental levels by incorporating the standard concept of additivity/dominance, which we name the Combined Relative Level (CRL). Our modeling strategy includes a feature selection step on the parental levels which are demonstrated to be predictive of CRL across many hybrid metabolites. We demonstrate that these selected parental metabolites are further predictive of hybrid biomass. Our approach directly employs the diallel structure in a multivariate fashion, whereby we attempt to not only predict macroscopic phenotype (biomass), but also molecular phenotype (metabolite profiles). Therefore, our study provides the first steps for further investigations of the genetic determinants to metabolism and, ultimately, growth. Finally, our success on the small-scale experiments implies a valid strategy for large-scale experiments, where parental metabolite profiles may be used together with profiles of selected hybrids as a training set to predict biomass of all possible hybrids.

  10. Deducing hybrid performance from parental metabolic profiles of young primary roots of maize by using a multivariate diallel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Feher

    Full Text Available Heterosis, the greater vigor of hybrids compared to their parents, has been exploited in maize breeding for more than 100 years to produce ever better performing elite hybrids of increased yield. Despite extensive research, the underlying mechanisms shaping the extent of heterosis are not well understood, rendering the process of selecting an optimal set of parental lines tedious. This study is based on a dataset consisting of 112 metabolite levels in young roots of four parental maize inbred lines and their corresponding twelve hybrids, along with the roots' biomass as a heterotic trait. Because the parental biomass is a poor predictor for hybrid biomass, we established a model framework to deduce the biomass of the hybrid from metabolite profiles of its parental lines. In the proposed framework, the hybrid metabolite levels are expressed relative to the parental levels by incorporating the standard concept of additivity/dominance, which we name the Combined Relative Level (CRL. Our modeling strategy includes a feature selection step on the parental levels which are demonstrated to be predictive of CRL across many hybrid metabolites. We demonstrate that these selected parental metabolites are further predictive of hybrid biomass. Our approach directly employs the diallel structure in a multivariate fashion, whereby we attempt to not only predict macroscopic phenotype (biomass, but also molecular phenotype (metabolite profiles. Therefore, our study provides the first steps for further investigations of the genetic determinants to metabolism and, ultimately, growth. Finally, our success on the small-scale experiments implies a valid strategy for large-scale experiments, where parental metabolite profiles may be used together with profiles of selected hybrids as a training set to predict biomass of all possible hybrids.

  11. Dynamic simulation of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle during the federal test procedure-75 driving cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sanggyu; Min, Kyoungdoug

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a FCHV dynamic model. • Integration of a PEMFC system dynamic model with the electric vehicle model. • Investigation of the dynamic behavior of the FCEV and PEMFC system during FTP-75. • Capturing the dynamic correlation among components in PEMFC system during FTP-75. - Abstract: The dynamic behavior of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system is a crucial factor to ensure the safe and effective operation of fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs). Specifically, water and thermal management are critical to stabilize the performance of the PEMFC during severe load changes. In the present study, the FCHV dynamic model is developed. The dynamic model of the PEMFC system developed by Matlab–Simulink® is integrated into the electric vehicle model embedded in the Amesim®. The dynamic model of the PEMFC system is composed of a PEMFC stack, an air feeding system, and a thermal management system (TMS). The component models of PEMFC, a shell-and-tube gas-to-gas membrane humidifier, and a heat exchanger are validated via a comparison with the experimental data. The FCHV model is simulated during a federal test procedure (FTP)-75 driving cycle. One system configuration and control strategy is adopted to attain optimal water and thermal management in the PEMFC system. The vehicle speed obtained from the FCHV model aptly tracks the target velocity profile of the FTP-75 cycle within an error of ±0.5%. The dynamic behavior and correlation of each component in the PEMFC system is investigated. The mass and heat transfer in the PEMFC, a humidifier, and a heat exchanger are resolved to determine the species concentration and the temperature more accurately with discretization in the flow’s perpendicular direction. Discretization in the flow parallel direction of humidifier and heat exchanger model makes it possible to capture the distribution of the characteristics. The present model can be used to attain the optimization of the system

  12. Sympatric host races of the European corn borer: adaptation to host plants and hybrid performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, V; Thomas, Y; Bourguet, D

    2007-09-01

    The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a major pest of maize crops. In Europe, two sympatric host races are found: one feeds on maize (Zea mays) and the other mainly on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). The two host races are genetically differentiated, seldom crossing in the laboratory or in the field, and females preferentially lay eggs on their native host species. We conducted two independent experiments, in field and greenhouse conditions, to determine whether the two host races are locally adapted to their host species. The effect of larval density and the performance of hybrids were also investigated. Despite some differences in overall larval feeding performance, both experiments revealed consistent patterns of local adaptation for survival and for larval weight in males. In females the same trend was observed but with weaker statistical support. F1 hybrids did not seem to be disadvantaged compared with the two parental races. Overall, our results showed that both host races are physiologically adapted to their native host. The fitness trade-off between the two host plants provides a potential driving force for ecological speciation in this species.

  13. Performance Analysis of High-Speed Deep/Shallow Recessed Hybrid Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a theoretical analysis of the performance of deep/shallow recessed hybrid bearing. It is intended that, on the basis of the numerical results drawn from this study, appropriate shallow recess depth and width can be determined for use in the bearing design process. By adopting bulk flow theory, the turbulent Reynolds equation and energy equation are modified and solved numerically including concentrated inertia effects at the recess edge with different depth and width of shallow recess. The results indicate that the load capacity, drag torque increases as the depth of shallow recess is shallower and the width ratio (half angle of deep recess versus half angle of shallow recess is smaller. In contrast, the flow rate decreases as the depth of shallow recess is shallower and the width ratio is smaller. Nevertheless, the appropriate design of the depth and width of shallow recess might well induce the performance of high-speed deep/shallow recessed hybrid bearing.

  14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovhannisyan Galina G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comet assay and micronucleus (MN test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing directly. FISH combined with MN test is able to characterize the occurrence of different chromosomes in MN and to identify potential chromosomal targets of mutagenic substances. Thus, combination of FISH with the comet assay or MN test proved to be promising techniques for evaluation of the distribution of DNA and chromosome damage in the entire genome of individual cells. FISH technique also permits to study comet and MN formation, necessary for correct application of these methods. This paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic toxicology.

  15. Hybrid nanostructured C-dot decorated Fe3O4 electrode materials for superior electrochemical energy storage performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, K; Deb, P

    2015-05-21

    Research on energy storage devices has created a niche owing to the ever increasing demand for alternative energy production and its efficient utilisation. Here, a novel composite of Fe3O4 nanospheres and carbon quantum dots (C-dots) have been synthesized by a two step chemical route. Hybrids of C-dots with metal oxides can contribute to charge storage capacity through the combined effect of Faradaic pseudocapacitance from the Fe3O4 and the excellent electrical properties of the C-dots, which are a promising new member of the carbon family. The structural and morphological properties of the obtained Fe3O4-C hybrid nanocomposite were extensively studied. Detailed electrochemical studies show that the high performance of the magnetically responsive Fe3O4-C hybrid nanocomposite makes it an efficient supercapacitor electrode material. The remarkable improvement in the electrochemical performance of the Fe3O4-C hybrid nanocomposite is attributed to the Faradaic pseudocapacitance of Fe3O4 coupled with the high electrical conductivity of the C-dot which aided in fast transport and ionic motion during the charge-discharge cycles. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies of Fe3O4-C hybrid nanocomposite show that the nanosystem delivers a maximum specific capacitance of ∼208 F g(-1). These results demonstrate that the novel Fe3O4-C hybrid nanocomposite has great potential as a high performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

  16. Investigations on self-starting and performance characteristics of simple H and hybrid H-Savonius vertical axis wind rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuyan, S.; Biswas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid H-Savonius vertical axis wind rotor for built-in environmental wind speeds. • Self-starting characteristics of unsymmetrical H-rotor and Hybrid H-Savonius rotor. • Comparisons between unsymmetrical H-rotor and Hybrid rotor at same experimental conditions. • Insight of the performances of optimum hybrid H-Savonius rotor. • Higher power performance of the optimum rotor compared with some existing VAWT rotors. - Abstract: With recent surge in fossil fuel prices and demands for renewable energy sources, vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) technologies have emerged out as one of the prime growing sector for small-scale power generation in the built environment. In such an environment, self-starting and high performances are of utmost importance. Amongst all VAWT designs, H-rotor, being a lift-driven device, exhibits a high power coefficient. However, it suffers from poor starting behavior due to its conventional symmetrical NACA airfoil blades. The objective of the present study is to design a VAWT rotor that possesses both self-starting and high power coefficient simultaneously. For this, a three bladed H-rotor with unsymmetrical cambered S818 airfoil blades is investigated, which shows self-starting characteristics at many of the azimuthal angles. However to make the rotor completely self-starting, the same H-rotor is incorporated in a hybrid system with Savonius rotor as its starter. It is found that the hybrid design fully exhibits self-starting capability at all azimuthal positions, signified by the positive static torque coefficient values. For improving power performance of the hybrid rotor, the same is subjected to rigorous experimentations on the wind tunnel at different Reynolds numbers (Re) between 1.44 × 10 5 and 2.31 × 10 5 for five different overlap conditions in the Savonius rotor part. The performance coefficients of the hybrid rotor are compared with the simple H-rotor. Out of all the designs investigated, the maximum Cp

  17. Unified performance analysis of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over free-space optical channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we introduce a novel unified expression for the distribution of a single FSO link modeled by the Gamma fading that accounts for pointing errors subject to both types of detection techniques at the receiver side (i.e. heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD)). Then, we provide analytical expressions for the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate for HARQ with IR, assuming a maximum number of rounds for the HARQ protocol. In our study, the communication rate per HARQ round is constant. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of HARQ in improving the performance and reliability of FSO communication systems. All the given results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  18. Selective Mechanical Transfer Deposition of Langmuir Graphene Films for High-Performance Silver Nanowire Hybrid Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, Matthew J; Ogilvie, Sean P; Alomairy, Sultan; Vöckerodt, Terence; Myles, David; Cann, Maria; Chan, Helios; Jurewicz, Izabela; King, Alice A K; Dalton, Alan B

    2017-10-31

    In this work, we present silver nanowire hybrid electrodes prepared through the addition of small quantities of pristine graphene by mechanical transfer deposition from surface-assembled Langmuir films. This technique is a fast, efficient, and facile method for modifying the optoelectronic performance of AgNW films. We demonstrate that it is possible to use this technique to perform two-step device production by selective patterning of the stamp used, leading to controlled variation in the local sheet resistance across a device. This is particularly attractive for producing extremely low cost sensors on arbitrarily large scales. Our aim is to address some of the concerns surrounding the use of AgNW films as replacements for indium tin oxide (ITO), namely, the use of scarce materials and poor stability of AgNWs against flexural and environmental degradation.

  19. Easily exchangeable x-ray mirrors and hybrid monochromator modules a study of their performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fan. [Philips Analytical, Asia Pacific, Toa Payoh, (Singapore); Kogan, V. [Philips Analytical, EA Almelo, (Netherlands); Saito, K. [Philips Analytical, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    Full text: PreFix prealigned optical mounts allowing rapid and easily changeover will be presented. The benefits of laterally graded multilayer X-Ray mirrors coupled with these Prefix mounts - conversion of divergent beam to parallel beam, increase of intensity by a factor of 3-7, monochromation to {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 and a dynamic range of 10 {sup 4-5} CpS will be demonstrated in areas such as Thin Film and Powder analysis. Data will be shown on a diffraction profile of thin film (Cr/SiO{sub 2}) with and without a mirror and Si powder with and without a mirror. Further enhancement will be demonstrated by combining a channel cut monochromator-collimator with an X-Ray mirror to produce a high intensity, parallel, pure Cu K{alpha}1 beam with a high intensity of up to 4.5 x 10{sup 8} cps and a divergence down to 0.01 deg. The applicability to various ranging from High Resolution to thin film/reflectivity to Rietveld structural refinement and to phase analysis will be shown. The Rocking curve of HEMT 10nm InGaAs on InP will be presented using various `standard` optics and hybrid optics, also Si powder and a Rietveld refinement of CuS0{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}0 and Aspirin. A comparison of the benefits and application of X-Ray Mirrors and Hybrid Mirror/Monochromators will be given. The data presented will show that by using X-Ray Mirrors and Hybrid modules the performance of standard `Laboratory` Diffractometers can be greatly enhanced to a level previously unachievable with great practical benefits. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc.

  20. Drop performance test and evaluation for HANARO shutoff units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y. H.; Cho, Y. K.; Lee, J. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Woo, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    The function of the shutoff units of the HANARO is to rapidly insert the shutoff rod into the reactor core for safe shutdown of reactor. This paper describes drop performance test and evaluation for a shutoff unit for the technical verification of lifetime extension and localization of the HANARO shutoff units. We have performed preliminary drop performance tests for a shutoff unit at 1/2-core test loop and analyzed through the comparison with the test results performed during design verification test and the results of the periodic performance test in HANARO. It shows that the results of the local fabrication, installation and alignment for the shutoff unit meet the basic performance requirements, Furthermore, the performance evaluation method of the periodic drop test of the HANARO shutoff units is a conservative method comparing with the real drop time

  1. Hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system final report I : development and system performance validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems was applied to both bridge : superstructure and deck systems. Results from the both experimental and computational analysis for : both the hybrid bridge superstructure and deck ...

  2. Presentation and Performance Evaluation of a Novel Stator-Permanent-Magnet Hybrid Stepping Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binglin Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new type of hybrid stepping motor (HSM with permanent magnets (PMs embedded in the stator, namely the stator-permanent-magnet hybrid stepping motor (SHSM, is presented. It has the same operation principles as the traditional HSM, with a 2-D distributed magnetic field nature and superiorities such as simpler rotor structure, easier PM cooling, higher torque and power density, and higher power grade. Its structural topology and operation principles are initially presented. Then an investigation on the performance comparison between the HSM and the SHSM, in terms of PM flux density, PM torque, detent torque, positional holding accuracy, stator core saturation issue, PM flux leakage, and PM utilization rate is carried out theoretically to make an assessment of the performance superiorities of the SHSM. A prototype of a 2-phase 8-pole 50-rotor-tooth SHSM is fabricated and experimentally compared with the HSM by using finite element analysis (FEA to verify the motor’s operational feasibility and the theoretical analysis. The FEA and experimental results show that the proposed SHSM has performance advantages such as higher torque density, higher power grade, and higher pull-out torque, holding torque, and torque-speed property, although it has performance defects such as higher torque ripple and relatively lower positional holding accuracy in the open-loop operation than the conventional HSM. Consequently, this novel SHSM is more suitable for electromechanical energy conversion applications rather than positioning mechanisms, especially taking into account the open-loop control advantage.

  3. Genetic improvement on Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis): growth and viability performance in F1 hybrids of different populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi; Kong, Jie; Li, Wendong; Luan, Sheng; Yang, Cuihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2008-11-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis distributed in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China and the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. Different geographical populations represent potentially different genetic resources. To learn further the characteristics of different geographical population, crosses among two wild and three farmed populations were produced. The two wild populations were from the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea (WYP), and the west coast of the Korean Peninsula and coast (WKN). The three farmed populations included the offspring of first generation of wild shrimp from coast in Korea (FKN), the Huang Hai (the Yellow Sea in Chinese) No.1 (HH1), and JK98. The phenotypes growth and survival rates of these populations were compared to confirm the feasibility for crossbreeding. The body length (BL), carapace length (CL), carapace width (CW), height of the second and third abdominal segment (HST), width of the second and third abdominal segment (WST), length of the first abdominal segment (LF), length of the last abdominal segment (LL), live body weight (BW), and survival rate were measured. Different combinations were statistically performed with ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results show that the survival rate of JK98(♀)×WKN(♂) was the highest, followed by WYP(♀)×WKN(♂), FKN(♀)×WYP(♂), FKN(♀)×HH1(♂) and WYP(♀)×FKN(♂); the body weight of FKN(♀)sxHH1(♂) was the highest, followed by FKN(♀)×WYP(♂), WYP(♀)×WKN(♂), WYP(♀)×FKN(♂) and JK98(♀)×WKN(♂); the total length had the same ranking as the body weight. All growth traits in hybrids JK98(♀)×WKN(♂) were the lowest among all combinations. F1 hybrids had significant difference (P0.05) in other growth traits and survival rate. The results of Duncan’s Multiple Range Test are that BL and CL of JK98(♀)×WKN(♂) were significantly different from the other combinations; HST different from the combination of FKN(♀)×WYP(♂), FKN(♀)×HH1(♂) and WYP

  4. Testing of an innovative small size hybrid PV-fuel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancaspro, N. [ENEA Area Sperimentale Monte Aquilone, Manfredonia (Italy); Privato, C. [ENEA R.C. Portici, Portici (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    An innovative small size hybrid photovoltaic-electrical fuel generator was planned and realized in the ENEA Monte Aquilone Test Site, located in the South of Italy, near Manfredonia (Apulia, Italy). This generator utilizes an innovative equipment, a modular battery inverter Sunny Island made by SMA, provided with a bi-directional converter to charge and discharge the batteries and with a new electronic switch that defines the current operating mode. The Sunny Island is an equipment capable to control the battery loading and at the same time to optimise the voltage and frequency of the bus AC on which different electrical loads and energy systems are connected. A simple single-phase power supply can be arranged with one single Sunny Island and a standard battery pack. The energy systems can be selected between several generators depending on availability: photovoltaic plants, small wind plants and fuel units. The goal of this project is to demonstrate that the use of bidirectional converter allows to reduce the size and the cost of a PV system for island application and, at the same time, to enhance the reliability of the produced electrical power by using an additional back up electrical fuel generator. In order to make a comparison of the management and realization costs among several systems, the sizing of components was determined in the different cases: classic PV system and hybrid with electrical fuel generator. (orig.)

  5. On the Performance of Grooming Strategies for Offloading IP Flows onto Lightpaths in Hybrid Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, Rudolf; Fioreze, Tiago; Granville, L.; Pras, Aiko

    Hybrid networks take data forwarding decisions at multiple network levels. In order to make an efficient use of hybrid networks, traffic engineering solutions (e.g., routing and data grooming techniques) are commonly employed. Within the specific context of a self-managed hybrid optical and packet

  6. Performance of broodstock and hybrid juvenile of Egyptian and sangkuriang Clarias gariepinus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Zulfania

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate reproduction of broodstock and intraspecific hybrid juvenile performance of Egyptian (M and sangkuriang (S strain African catfish Clarias gariepinus at nursery phase. Intraspecific hybridization of African catfish was carried out reciprocally (SM and MS and purebreed (SS and MM, each was with three replicates. Fish spawning was conducted by artificial fertilization, and larvae were reared at 1st, 2nd and 3rd nursery phases, subsequently. The results showed that broodstock performance (male and female of both strains were not significantly different (P>0.05 on all reproduction traits, except female’s gonadosomatic index. Fertilization and hatching rates of all hybrids were not significantly different (P>0.05. MM juvenile had higher growth performances than other juvenile hybrids. Heterosis of total length, standard length, and body weight were varied, whereas the survival showed positive heterosis. SM juvenile showed positive growth heterosis in 3rd nursery phase (total length, standard length, and body weight were 2.61%; 2.16%, and 4.79% respectively. Survival heterosis of MS juvenile (24.20% for total length; 103.13% for standard length and 11.62% body weight was higher than SM juvenile (6.86%; 48.57%, and 3.09% on all nursery phases Keywords: African catfish, intraspecific hybridization, growth, survival, heterosis  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji performa reproduksi induk dan benih hasil hibridisasi intraspesifik ikan lele Afrika Clarias gariepinus strain Sangkuriang (S dan Mesir (M pada fase pendederan. Hibridisasi intraspesifik ikan lele Afrika dilakukan secara resiprokal (SM dan MS dan galur murni (SS dan MM masing-masing dengan tiga ulangan. Pemijahan dilakukan secara buatan dan larva yang dihasilkan dipelihara pada fase pendederan pertama, kedua, dan ketiga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa performa induk ikan lele jantan dan betina pada kedua strain tidak berbeda

  7. New test methods for BIPV. Results from IP performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jol, J.C.; Van Kampen, B.J.M.; De Boer, B.J.; Reil, F.; Geyer, D.

    2009-11-01

    Within the Performance project new test procedures for PV building products and the building performance as a whole when PV is applied in buildings have been drafted. It has resulted in a first draft of new test procedures for PV building products and proposals for tests for novel BIPV technology like thin film. The test proposed are a module breakage test for BIPV products, a fire safety test for BIPV products and a dynamic load test for BIPV products. Furthermore first proposals of how flexible PV modules could be tested in an appropriate way to ensure long time quality and safety of these new products are presented.

  8. Hybrid local piezoelectric and conductive functions for high performance airborne sound absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Statharas, Eleftherios Christos; Yao, Kui; Sharifzadeh Mirshekarloo, Meysam; Chen, Shuting; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2017-12-01

    A concept of hybrid local piezoelectric and electrical conductive functions for improving airborne sound absorption is proposed and demonstrated in composite foam made of porous polar polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) mixed with conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). According to our hybrid material function design, the local piezoelectric effect in the PVDF matrix with the polar structure and the electrical resistive loss of SWCNT enhanced sound energy conversion to electrical energy and subsequently to thermal energy, respectively, in addition to the other known sound absorption mechanisms in a porous material. It is found that the overall energy conversion and hence the sound absorption performance are maximized when the concentration of the SWCNT is around the conductivity percolation threshold. For the optimal composition of PVDF/5 wt. % SWCNT, a sound reduction coefficient of larger than 0.58 has been obtained, with a high sound absorption coefficient higher than 50% at 600 Hz, showing their great values for passive noise mitigation even at a low frequency.

  9. Simulation of storage performance on hydropneumatic driveline in dual hybrid hydraulic passenger car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasbari Faizil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The charging process is one of the critical processes in the hydro-pneumatic driveline storage system. It converts the kinetic energy of the vehicle braking and coasting to the compression energy. This energy is stored in the storage device called the accumulator. The system is planned to be used on the dual hydro-pneumatic hybrid driveline and applied to a hydraulic hybrid passenger car. The aim of this paper is to find the effect of charging parameters on the storage performance through simulation. Through the storage behaviour, the desirable and optimal sizing of the accumulator can be selected. The paper emphasized on the effect of pressure elevation, pre-charge pressure, effective volume, thermal reaction and required time of the accumulator’s charging process. The circuit of charging process has been designed and simulated by using the hydraulic tool in the Automation Studio software. The simulation results were corroborated through the component specification for data rationality. Through the simulation, it was found that pre-charge pressure had a significant effect on the charging process. It determined the efficiency of the effective volume. The higher the pressure elevation, the higher the effective volume. Nevertheless, the more energy required to compress the nitrogen gas in the bladder. Besides, in term of volume displacement, higher volume displacement reduced charging time and lower the fluid temperature. The simulation had been positively highlighted the critical point in charging process which later on, benefited the sizing process in the component selection specification.

  10. Performance of Hybrid Steel Fibers Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Air Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alias Yusof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the experimental data and simulation on the performance of hybrid steel fiber reinforced concrete (HSFRC and also normal reinforced concrete (NRC subjected to air blast loading. HSFRC concrete mix consists of a combination of 70% long steel hook end fibre and also 30% of short steel hook end fibre with a volume fraction of 1.5% mix. A total of six concrete panels were subjected to air blast using plastic explosive (PE4 weighing 1 kg each at standoff distance of 0.3 meter. The parameters measured are mode of failure under static and blast loading and also peak overpressure that resulted from detonation using high speed data acquisition system. In addition to this simulation work using AUTODYN was carried out and validated using experimental data. The experimental results indicate that hybrid steel fiber reinforced concrete panel (HSFRC possesses excellent resistance to air blast loading as compared to normal reinforced concrete (NRC panel. The simulation results were also found to be close with experimental data. Therefore the results have been validated using experimental data.

  11. Performance Analysis of a MCFC/MGT Hybrid Power System Bi-Fueled by City Gas and Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of a molten carbonate fuel cell and micro gas turbine (MCFC/MGT hybrid power system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The performance of the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system and MFCF/MGT hybrid power system response have been investigated experimentally and numerically. Results show that the MCFC, steam reformer, and catalytic combustor models are in agreement with the experimental results of the system fueled by city gas only and the system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas. The MFCF/MGT hybrid power system can have manifest operation with the addition of biogas at a flow rate of up to 150.0 Nm3·h−1, which is about 50% of the overall input heat value. In addition, the MCFC and MGT outputs decrease with the increase in the flow rate of added biogas, with an overall power generation efficiency ranging from 39.0% to 42.0%. Furthermore, the MCFC/MGT hybrid power system can be operated stably both at low amplitude with slow current change and large amplitude with rapid power conditions. Finally, the MCFC/MGT hybrid system bi-fueled by city gas and biogas may be applicable to the energy supply of the micro–grid network.

  12. Performance study of sugar-yeast-ethanol bio-hybrid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Justin P.; Mackie, David M.; Benyamin, Marcus; Ganguli, Rahul; Sumner, James J.

    2015-05-01

    Renewable alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons for energy generation are of general interest for a variety of political, economic, environmental, and practical reasons. In particular, energy from biomass has many advantages, including safety, sustainability, and the ability to be scavenged from native ecosystems or from waste streams. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can take advantage of microorganism metabolism to efficiently use sugar and other biomolecules as fuel, but are limited by low power densities. In contrast, direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) take advantage of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) to generate electricity from alcohols at much higher power densities. Here, we investigate a novel bio-hybrid fuel cell design prepared using commercial off-the-shelf DAFCs. In the bio-hybrid fuel cells, biomass such as sugar is fermented by yeast to ethanol, which can be used to fuel a DAFC. A separation membrane between the fermentation and the DAFC is used to purify the fermentate while avoiding any parasitic power losses. However, shifting the DAFCs from pure alcohol-water solutions to filtered fermented media introduces complications related to how the starting materials, fermentation byproducts, and DAFC waste products affect both the fermentation and the long-term DAFC performance. This study examines the impact of separation membrane pore size, fermentation/fuel cell byproducts, alcohol and salt concentrations, and load resistance on fuel cell performance. Under optimized conditions, the performance obtained is comparable to that of a similar DAFC run with a pure alcohol-water mixture. Additionally, the modified DAFC can provide useable amounts of power for weeks.

  13. Implementation and performance test of cloud platform based on Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingxian; Guo, Jianhong; Ren, Chunlan

    2018-01-01

    Hadoop, as an open source project for the Apache foundation, is a distributed computing framework that deals with large amounts of data and has been widely used in the Internet industry. Therefore, it is meaningful to study the implementation of Hadoop platform and the performance of test platform. The purpose of this subject is to study the method of building Hadoop platform and to study the performance of test platform. This paper presents a method to implement Hadoop platform and a test platform performance method. Experimental results show that the proposed test performance method is effective and it can detect the performance of Hadoop platform.

  14. Collaborative Group Testing Benefits High- and Low-Performing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    We used collaborative group testing in a veterinary physiology course (65 students) to test the hypothesis that all students (e.g., high-performing and low-performing students of each group) benefit from collaborative group testing. In this format, students answered questions in the traditional format as individuals. Immediately after completing…

  15. Real-world injury patterns associated with Hybrid III sternal deflections in frontal crash tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbelow, Matthew L; Farmer, Charles M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the peak sternal deflection measurements recorded by the Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropometric test device (ATD) in frontal crash tests and injury and fatality outcomes for drivers in field crashes. ATD sternal deflection data were obtained from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety's 64 km/h, 40 percent overlap crashworthiness evaluation tests for vehicles with seat belt crash tensioners, load limiters, and good-rated structure. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) was queried for frontal crashes of these vehicles in which the driver was restrained by a seat belt and air bag. Injury probability curves were calculated by frontal crash type using the injuries coded in NASS-CDS and peak ATD sternal deflection data. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) front-to-front crashes with exactly one driver death were also studied to determine whether the difference in measured sternal deflections for the 2 vehicles was related to the odds of fatality. For center impacts, moderate overlaps, and large overlaps in NASS-CDS, the probability of the driver sustaining an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score ≥ 3 thoracic injury, or any nonextremity AIS ≥ 3 injury, increased with increasing ATD sternal deflection measured in crash tests. For small overlaps, however, these probabilities decreased with increasing deflection. For FARS crashes, the fatally injured driver more often was in the vehicle with the lower measured deflection in crash tests (55 vs. 45%). After controlling for other factors, a 5-mm difference in measured sternal deflections between the 2 vehicles was associated with a fatality odds ratio of 0.762 for the driver in the vehicle with the greater deflection (95% confidence interval = 0.373, 1.449). Restraint systems that reduce peak Hybrid III sternal deflection in a moderate overlap crash test are beneficial in real-world crashes with similar or greater

  16. OLED Hybrid Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Biosensing for Point of Care Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Acharya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a microfluidic platform with external hybrid integration of an organic light emitting diode (OLED as an excitation source. This device can be used as a simple and cost effective biosensing element. The device is capable of rapid in-situ detection of biological elements such as sensing of interaction of antigen with fluorescent tagged antibody conjugates. These portable microfluidic systems have great potential for use an OLED in a single chip with very high accuracy and sensitivity for various point-of-care (POC diagnosis and lab on a chip (LOC applications, as the miniaturization of the biosensor is essential for handling smaller sample volumes in order to achieve high throughput. The biosensing element was successfully tested to detect anti-sheep IgG conjugates tagged to Alexafluor using a fluorescence based immunoassay method.

  17. SUBJECTIVITY AND HYBRIDITY IN THE AGE OF INTERACTIVE INTERNET MEDIA: THE MUSICAL PERFORMANCES OF CHARICE PEMPENGCO AND ARNEL PINEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi-Anne Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines hybrid subjectivity in the performances by and in the reception of musical artists utilizing the technology of interactive Internet media. It focuses on the career trajectories of the popular Filipino music performers Charice Pempengco and Arnel Pineda, taking into account how their transnational presence and dissemination through internet media communities affect perceptions of locality, nationality and race.

  18. Fenestration System Performance Research, Testing, and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Benney

    2009-11-30

    The US DOE was and is instrumental to NFRC's beginning and its continued success. The 2005 to 2009 funding enables NFRC to continue expanding and create new, improved ratings procedures. Research funded by the US DOE enables increased fenestration energy rating accuracy. International harmonization efforts supported by the US DOE allow the US to be the global leader in fenestration energy ratings. Many other governments are working with the NFRC to share its experience and knowledge toward development of their own national fenestration rating process similar to the NFRC's. The broad and diverse membership composition of NFRC allows anyone with a fenestration interest to come forward with an idea or improvement to the entire fenestration community for consideration. The NFRC looks forward to the next several years of growth while remaining the nation's resource for fair, accurate, and credible fenestration product energy ratings. NFRC continues to improve its rating system by considering new research, methodologies, and expanding to include new fenestration products. Currently, NFRC is working towards attachment energy ratings. Attachments are blinds, shades, awnings, and overhangs. Attachments may enable a building to achieve significant energy savings. An NFRC rating will enable fair competition, a basis for code references, and a new ENERGY STAR product category. NFRC also is developing rating methods to consider non specular glazing such as fritted glass. Commercial applications frequently use fritted glazing, but no rating method exists. NFRC is testing new software that may enable this new rating and contribute further to energy conservation. Around the world, many nations are seeking new energy conservation methods and NFRC is poised to harmonize its rating system assisting these nations to better manage and conserve energy in buildings by using NFRC rated and labeled fenestration products. As this report has shown, much more work needs to be

  19. Performance characteristics of a MW-class SOFC/GT hybrid system based on a commercially available gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tae Won; Sohn, Jeong Lak; Kim, Tong Seop; Ro, Sung Tack

    The ultimate purpose of a SOFC/GT hybrid system is for distributed power generation applications. Therefore, this study investigates the possible extension of a SOFC/GT hybrid system to multi-MW power cases. Because of the matured technology of gas turbines and their commercial availability, it was reasonable to construct a hybrid system with an off-the-shelf gas turbine. Based on a commercially available gas turbine, performance analysis was conducted to find the total appropriate power for the hybrid system with consideration of the maximum allowable cell temperature. In order to maintain high performance characteristics of the hybrid system during part-load operations, it was necessary to find the optimal control strategy for the system according to the change in power required. The results of the performance analysis for part-load conditions showed that supplied fuel and air must be changed simultaneously. Furthermore, in order to prevent performance degradation, it was found that both cell temperature and turbine inlet temperature must be maintained as close as possible to design-point conditions.

  20. Development and experimental testing of a hybrid Stirling engine-adsorption chiller auxiliary power unit for heavy trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannery, Barry; Lattin, Robert; Finckh, Oliver; Berresheim, Harald; Monaghan, Rory F.D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Free-piston Stirling engine for truck APU. • Waste heat driven adsorption chiller for cab air conditioning. • Reduced-order model comparing proposed system to existing technology. • Experimental test data from prototype test rig. - Abstract: This paper identifies the key technical requirements for a heavy truck auxiliary power unit (APU) and explores a potential alternative technology for use in a next-generation APU which could eliminate key problems related to emissions, noise and maintenance experienced today by conventional diesel engine-vapour compression APUs. The potential performance of a novel hybrid Stirling engine-adsorption chiller concept is investigated and benchmarked against the incumbent technology using a reduced-order model based on experimental data. Experimental results from a Stirling-adsorption system (SAS) prototype test rig are also presented which highlight system integration dynamics and overall performance. The adsorption chiller achieved an average COP of 0.42 ± 0.06 and 2.3 ± 0.1 kW t of cooling capacity at the baseline test condition. The prototype SAS test rig demonstrates that there appear to be no major technology barriers remaining that would prevent adoption of the SAS concept in a next-generation APU. Such a system could offer a reduction of exhaust emissions, greenhouse gases (GHG), ozone-depleting substances, noise, low maintenance and the potential for fuel flexibility and higher reliability. Preliminary modelling results indicate that the proposed system could offer superior overall electrical and cooling efficiencies compared to incumbent APUs and demonstrate a payback period of 4.6 years.

  1. SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding Performance during 4-Point Tubular Bend Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IJ van Rooyen; WR Lloyd; TL Trowbridge; SR Novascone; KM Wendt; SM Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE) established the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to develop technologies and other solutions to improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development Pathway in the LWRS program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. Recent investigations of potential options for “accident tolerant” nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding. One of the proposed SiC-based fuel cladding designs being investigated incorporates a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) as a structural material supplementing an internal Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) liner tube, referred to as the hybrid clad design. Characterization of the advanced cladding designs will include a number of out-of-pile (nonnuclear) tests, followed by in-pile irradiation testing of the most promising designs. One of the out-of-pile characterization tests provides measurement of the mechanical properties of the cladding tube using four point bend testing. Although the material properties of the different subsystems (materials) will be determined separately, in this paper we present results of 4-point bending tests performed on fully assembled hybrid cladding tube mock-ups, an assembled Zr-4 cladding tube mock-up as a standard and initial testing results on bare SiC-CMC sleeves to assist in defining design parameters. The hybrid mock-up samples incorporated SiC-CMC sleeves fabricated with 7 polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) cycles. To provide comparative information; both 1- and 2-ply braided SiC-CMC sleeves were used in this development study. Preliminary stress simulations were performed using the BISON nuclear fuel performance code to show the stress distribution differences for varying lengths between loading points

  2. Reliability performance testing of totally encapsulating chemical protective suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.; Swearengen, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The need to assure a high degree of reliability for totally encapsulating chemical protective (TECP) suits has been recognized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hazards Control Department for some time. The following four tests were proposed as necessary to provide complete evaluation of TECP suit performance: 1. Quantitative leak test (ASTM draft), 2. Worst-case chemical exposure test (conceptual), 3. Pressure leak-rate test (complete, ASTM F1057-87), and 4. Chemical leak-rate test (ASTM draft). This paper reports on these tests which should be applied to measuring TECP suit performance in two stages: design qualification tests and field use tests. Test 1, 2, and 3 are used as design qualification tests, and tests 3 and 4 are used as field use tests

  3. Influence of Micropolar Lubrication on the Performance of 4-Pocket Capillary Compensated Conical Hybrid Journal Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish C. Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a theoretical analysis of 4-pocket capillary compensated conical hybrid journal bearing system operating with micropolar lubricant. The modified Reynolds equation for a conical journal bearing system operating with micropolar lubricant has been derived. In the present study, Eringen's micropolar theory has been used to model micropolar lubrication in cylindrical coordinate system. The study has been carried out for the different values of micropolar parameters, that is, characteristic length ( and coupling number (. The conical bearing configurations having semicone angle 10∘, 20∘, 30∘, and 40∘ have been studied. The study suggests that micropolar lubricant offers better performance vis- á-vis Newtonian lubricant for bearing configurations having values of semicone angle 10∘and 20∘.

  4. Influence of Hybrid Perovskite Fabrication Methods on Film Formation, Electronic Structure, and Solar Cell Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnier, Tobias; Emara, Jennifer; Olthof, Selina; Meerholz, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic halide perovskites have lately been a topic of great interest in the field of solar cell applications, with the potential to achieve device efficiencies exceeding other thin film device technologies. Yet, large variations in device efficiency and basic physical properties are reported. This is due to unintentional variations during film processing, which have not been sufficiently investigated so far. We therefore conducted an extensive study of the morphology and electronic structure of a large number of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite where we show how the preparation method as well as the mixing ratio of educts methylammonium iodide and lead(II) iodide impact properties like film formation, crystal structure, density of states, energy levels, and ultimately the solar cell performance. PMID:28287555

  5. Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-02-23

    An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.

  6. Enhancing hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode performance using Ag2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid-direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of a molten slurry of solid carbon black and (Li-K)2CO3 added to the anode chamber of a solid oxide fuel cell, was characterized using current-potential-power density curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Two...... types of experimental setups were employed in this study, an anode-supported full cell configuration (two electrodes, two atmospheres setup) and a 3-electrode electrolyte-supported half-cell setup (single atmosphere). Anode processes with and without catalysts were investigated as a function...... of temperature (700-800 °C) and anode sweep gas (N2, 4-100% CO2 in N2-CO2). It was shown that the addition of silver based catalysts (Ag, Ag2O, Ag2CO3) into the carbon-carbonate slurry enhanced the performance of the HDCFC....

  7. Electrophoretic Deposition for the Fabrication of High-Performance Metal-Ceramic Hybrid Cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Junghwan; Jung, Yangil; Park, Dongjun; Kim, Hyungil; Park, Jeongyong; Koo, Yanghyun

    2014-01-01

    Metal-ceramic hybrid cladding consisting of a Zr liner and SiC f /SiC composite is one of the candidate systems. To achieve a high-performance metal-ceramic hybrid cladding, it is important to synthesize the SiC f /SiC composites with high flexural strength. The most common interphases, such as pyrolytic carbon (PyC) and boron nitride (BN) coating, have been applied on the surface of SiC fibers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). In addition, the SiC matrix phase for SiC f /SiC composites has been commonly formed by CVI and polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP), which are very costly and complicated processes. For this reason, the fabrication process of SiC f /SiC composites that is low-cost and simple has been strongly needed. In this study, weak phase coating using a commercial colloidal carbon black suspension was performed on SiC fibers through electrophoretic deposition (EPD), and carbon-coated SiC f /SiC composites were fabricated by EPD. The mechanical properties at room temperature were evaluated to investigate the effect of the carbon interfacial layer on the mechanical properties of carbon-coated SiC f /SiC composites. In this study, it was concluded that the EPD method is effective for homogeneous carbon black coating on SiC fibers, and that the carbon coating layer on SiC fibers plays an important role in optimizing the interface between fibers and the matrix, and enhances the toughness of carbon-coated SiC f /SiC composites during fracture

  8. Freeze-thaw performance testing of whole concrete railroad ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Freezing and thawing durability tests of prestressed concrete ties are normally performed according to ASTM C666 specifications. Small specimens are cut from the shoulders of concrete ties and tested through 300 cycles of freezing and thawing. Saw-cu...

  9. Performance analysis of a novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain using a CNG engine and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Zhang, Weilin; Wang, Enhua; Yang, Fuyuan; Li, Jianqiu; Li, Zhongyan; Yu, Ping; Ye, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four different types of hybrid powertrain for heavy-duty vehicles are reviewed. • A novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain is proposed and models are developed. • Performance characteristics are analyzed and compared to a conventional powertrain. • Fuel saving potential is evaluated and explained using energy efficiency method. - Abstract: Energy conservation is a very important task for the automotive industry. The use of hybrid electric vehicles can improve energy efficiency, thus reducing fuel consumption and carbon emissions. In this research, the performance characteristics of a novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain for a transit bus are presented. The power sources are a combination of a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine and supercapacitors. A mathematical model for the coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain is established. Subsequently, an analysis program is developed based on Matlab and Advisor. The parameters are specified using experimental data. Afterwards, a rule-based control strategy is designed and optimized from the viewpoint of energy efficiency. Later, the system performance is evaluated using the Chinese Transit Bus City Driving Cycle and compared to a conventional powertrain. The results indicate that the proposed coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain can fulfill the requirements of the transit bus and enhance the energy efficiency dramatically. Moreover, the average energy efficiency of the supercapacitors was found to be above 97% over the entire driving cycle. Using supercapacitors as energy storage devices for the coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain can effectively recover the kinetic energy during regenerative braking and is a good solution for transit buses that require frequent acceleration and deceleration.

  10. Comparison of hydro-pneumatic accumulator’s charging performance under different thermal process for dual hybrid driveline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasbari, F.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.; Yusof, A. A.; Daud, N. M.; Ali, T.

    2017-10-01

    The hydro-pneumatic accumulator is broadly used in heavy industry as leaking compensator. Lately, much interest has been developed to study the component as energy storage. The important element in the selection of accumulator is performance. Hence, research was conducted to examine the use of thermal process condition and its impingement on the accumulator as an energy store. For charging process, the performance is influenced by the thermal process because it involves temperature change and heat transfer. Both processes are producing a different performance. The storage system is planned to be adapted in the dual hybrid driveline. A simulation study has been conducted by using Automation Studio software which focusses on two different processes called isothermal and adiabatic. The process has involved a schematic design, functional testing, parameter setting, and pretense. The result has shown that the thermal process affected the fluid power parameters such as power, effective storage capacity, and temperature differentials. The isothermal process produced higher effective volume compared to adiabatic process, stored higher power and had lower temperature differentials. Regarding charging speed, the adiabatic was faster. However, it was a lack of storage capacity.

  11. Kernel number as a positive target trait for prediction of hybrid performance under low-nitrogen stress as revealed by diallel analysis under contrasting nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuxiu; Sun, Zhen; Xu, Xiaojie; Li, Wen-Xue; Zou, Cheng; Wang, Shanhong; Xu, Yunbi; Xie, Chuanxiao

    2014-12-01

    Environmental sustainability concerns make improving yield under lower N input a desirable breeding goal. To evaluate genetic variation and heterosis for low-N tolerance breeding, 28 F1 hybrids from a diallel scheme, along with their eight parental lines, were tested for agronomic traits including kernel number per ear (KNE) and grain yield per plant (GY), in replicated plots over two years under low-nitrogen (LN, without nitrogen application) and normal-nitrogen (NN, 220 kg N ha(-1)) conditions. Taken together the heritability in this and our previous studies, the correlation with grain yield, and the sensitivity to the stress for target trait selection, KNE was a good secondary target trait for LN selection in maize breeding. KNE also showed much higher mid-parent heterosis than hundred-kernel weight under both nitrogen levels, particularly under LN, indicating that KNE contributed the majority of GY heterosis, particularly under LN. Therefore, KNE can be used as a positive target trait for hybrid performance prediction in LN tolerance breeding. Our results also suggest that breeding hybrids for LN tolerance largely relies on phenotypic evaluation of hybrids under LN condition and yield under LN might be improved more by selection for KNE than by direct selection for GY per se.

  12. Hybrid Lithium-ion Capacitor / Lithium-ion Battery System for Extended Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work focused on testing the Li-ion supercapacitors to confirm their performance and safety.  The li-ion supercaps were found to be safe under several...

  13. Testing parasite 'intimacy': the whipworm Trichuris muris in the European house mouse hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasimuddin; Bryja, Josef; Ribas, Alexis; Baird, Stuart J E; Piálek, Jaroslav; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2016-05-01

    Host-parasite interaction studies across hybrid zones often focus on host genetic variation, treating parasites as homogeneous. 'Intimately' associated hosts and parasites might be expected to show similar patterns of genetic structure. In the literature, factors such as no intermediate host and no free-living stage have been proposed as 'intimacy' factors likely constraining parasites to closely follow the evolutionary history of their hosts. To test whether the whipworm, Trichuris muris, is intimately associated with its house mouse host, we studied its population genetics across the European house mouse hybrid zone (HMHZ) which has a strong central barrier to gene flow between mouse taxa. T. muris has a direct life cycle and nonmobile free stage: if these traits constrain the parasite to an intimate association with its host we expect a geographic break in the parasite genetic structure across the HMHZ. We genotyped 205 worms from 56 localities across the HMHZ and additionally T. muris collected from sympatric woodmice (Apodemus spp.) and allopatric murine species, using mt-COX1, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA and 10 microsatellites. We show four haplogroups of mt-COX1 and three clear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 clades in the HMHZ suggesting a complex demographic/phylogeographic history. Microsatellites show strong structure between groups of localities. However, no marker type shows a break across the HMHZ. Whipworms from Apodemus in the HMHZ cluster, and share mitochondrial haplotypes, with those from house mice. We conclude Trichuris should not be regarded as an 'intimate' parasite of the house mouse: while its life history might suggest intimacy, passage through alternate hosts is sufficiently common to erase signal of genetic structure associated with any particular host taxon.

  14. Lean production in improving supply chain performance through hybrid model SCOR 11.0 - system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Chairul; Fatcha Mubiena, Ghaida; Immawan, Taufiq; Hassan, Azmi

    2016-02-01

    Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) is a method to measure supply chain serving the business process framework, performance indicators and unique technologies to support communication and collaboration among supply chain partners. The objective of this paper is to measure Supply Chain Management performance by using SCOR version 11.0 for production typology of MTS-MTO in Indonesian Batik Industry. This research combines SCOR's model and System Dynamics in order to predict the complex activities on batik industry. The hybrid SCOR-SD could identify the interaction among five attributes with the associated variables simultaneously. The results are obtained after the performance of lean production application is increased and the targets are achieved, even exceeding the target. For reliability attributes that associated with perfect order fulfilment started from 2015 to 2019 respectively are calculated as 80.06%, 103.53%, 105.58%, 93.76%, and 72.17%. Responsiveness attributes associated with the order fulfilment cycle time, respectively 122.45%, 149.10%, 159.26%, 131.53%, and 119.36%. Attributes associated with the total cost of service charge respectively 93.46%, 93.53%, 93.45%, 93.49, and 93.49%. Attributes associated with cash management assets to cash cycle time in a row were 160%, 153%, 146.3%, 150%, and 126.7%. The latter attribute is agility attributes associated with supply chain flexibility upside respectively 100%, 87.2%, 100%, 82%, and 82%.

  15. Hybrid Signal Processing Technique to Improve the Defect Estimation in Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Testing of Composite Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Kumar Anubhav; Raisutis, Renaldas; Samaitis, Vykintas

    2017-12-09

    This work proposes a novel hybrid signal processing technique to extract information on disbond-type defects from a single B-scan in the process of non-destructive testing (NDT) of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) material using ultrasonic guided waves (GW). The selected GFRP sample has been a segment of wind turbine blade, which possessed an aerodynamic shape. Two disbond type defects having diameters of 15 mm and 25 mm were artificially constructed on its trailing edge. The experiment has been performed using the low-frequency ultrasonic system developed at the Ultrasound Institute of Kaunas University of Technology and only one side of the sample was accessed. A special configuration of the transmitting and receiving transducers fixed on a movable panel with a separation distance of 50 mm was proposed for recording the ultrasonic guided wave signals at each one-millimeter step along the scanning distance up to 500 mm. Finally, the hybrid signal processing technique comprising the valuable features of the three most promising signal processing techniques: cross-correlation, wavelet transform, and Hilbert-Huang transform has been applied to the received signals for the extraction of defects information from a single B-scan image. The wavelet transform and cross-correlation techniques have been combined in order to extract the approximated size and location of the defects and measurements of time delays. Thereafter, Hilbert-Huang transform has been applied to the wavelet transformed signal to compare the variation of instantaneous frequencies and instantaneous amplitudes of the defect-free and defective signals.

  16. Hybrid Signal Processing Technique to Improve the Defect Estimation in Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Testing of Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisutis, Renaldas; Samaitis, Vykintas

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a novel hybrid signal processing technique to extract information on disbond-type defects from a single B-scan in the process of non-destructive testing (NDT) of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) material using ultrasonic guided waves (GW). The selected GFRP sample has been a segment of wind turbine blade, which possessed an aerodynamic shape. Two disbond type defects having diameters of 15 mm and 25 mm were artificially constructed on its trailing edge. The experiment has been performed using the low-frequency ultrasonic system developed at the Ultrasound Institute of Kaunas University of Technology and only one side of the sample was accessed. A special configuration of the transmitting and receiving transducers fixed on a movable panel with a separation distance of 50 mm was proposed for recording the ultrasonic guided wave signals at each one-millimeter step along the scanning distance up to 500 mm. Finally, the hybrid signal processing technique comprising the valuable features of the three most promising signal processing techniques: cross-correlation, wavelet transform, and Hilbert–Huang transform has been applied to the received signals for the extraction of defects information from a single B-scan image. The wavelet transform and cross-correlation techniques have been combined in order to extract the approximated size and location of the defects and measurements of time delays. Thereafter, Hilbert–Huang transform has been applied to the wavelet transformed signal to compare the variation of instantaneous frequencies and instantaneous amplitudes of the defect-free and defective signals. PMID:29232845

  17. 40 CFR 63.2354 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? 63.2354 Section 63.2354 Protection of Environment... tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? (a)(1) For each performance test... procedures specified in subpart SS of this part. (3) For each performance evaluation of a continuous emission...

  18. Feasibility study on the demonstrative test on the hybrid mini hydroelectric power generation technology. 2; Hybrid gata mini suiryoku hatsuden gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho shiken kanosei chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A study was made for the purpose of electrification of unelectrified zones of the mountainous areas in developing countries using extremely small hydroelectric power facilities. The target for this project is a development of a micro hydroelectric power system with a size of about 5kW, which is estimated regarding that 1 village has 80 houses and each house needs electricity of 60W. In the study, the low-head system using a weir of irrigation channels in Subang pref. of West Java state was selected by the evaluation of access, stability of flow rate, natural conditions, etc. The hydroelectric power plant is of a flow-in method in which water is taken from the left bank and is injected/discharged to the downstream of the left bank. As the hybrid complementary power source, hybrid battery with a two-hour charging time at peak and a capacity of 3.5kWh was considered. When estimating the construction cost of the hybrid micro hydroelectric power system and equalizing by durable years, the operational cost per kW is 15 times higher than the benefits which local people receive. It was judged to be difficult to say that the micro hydroelectric power system is economically feasible. It was predicted that the financial profit during the demonstrative test is good, according to a trial calculation of income from power rates and the operational cost. 18 refs., 90 figs., 53 tabs.

  19. Development and testing of 11- and 24-inch hybrid motors under the joint government/industry IR&D program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, T. A.; Carpenter, R. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Shaeffer, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Establishment of a test facility and associated 11-in.-diameter motor for hybrid propulsion technology development at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is discussed in this paper. Results of twenty 11-in.-diameter motor tests with a UTF-29901 (60 percent polycyclopentadiene, 40 percent hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/gaseous oxygen propellant system are presented. Tests at this scale have developed fuel regression correlations for comparison with results of yet-to-be-completed, 24-in.-diameter motor tests; demonstrated combustion efficiency levels in the 95 percent range for both single- and multiple-port grain configurations; have shown smooth and stable throttling characteristics over flight-type throttle ranges; and have begun to establish criteria for stable combustion in hybrid motors. The testing of 24-in. motors has not as yet been initiated and is not addressed.

  20. Tungsten oxides as interfacial layers for improved performance in hybrid optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilopoulou, M., E-mail: mariva@imel.demokritos.gr [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos, Terma Patriarchou Grigoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Palilis, L.C.; Georgiadou, D.G.; Argitis, P. [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos, Terma Patriarchou Grigoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Kennou, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500, Patras (Greece); Kostis, I. [Department of Electronics, Technological and Educational Institute of Pireaus, 12244 Aegaleo (Greece); Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, University of the Aegean, 83200 Karlovassi (Greece); Papadimitropoulos, G. [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos, Terma Patriarchou Grigoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Stathopoulos, N.A. [Department of Electronics, Technological and Educational Institute of Pireaus, 12244 Aegaleo (Greece); Iliadis, A.A. [Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, University of the Aegean, 83200 Karlovassi (Greece); Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Konofaos, N. [Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, University of the Aegean, 83200 Karlovassi (Greece); Davazoglou, D. [Institute of Microelectronics, NCSR Demokritos, Terma Patriarchou Grigoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Sygellou, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500, Patras (Greece)

    2011-06-30

    Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) films with thicknesses ranging from 30 to 100 nm were grown by Hot Filament Vapor Deposition (HFVD). Films were studied by X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) and were found to be stoichiometric. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Samples had a granular form with grains in the order of 100 nm. The surface roughness was found to increase with film thickness. HFVD WO{sub 3} films were used as conducting interfacial layers in advanced hybrid organic-inorganic optoelectronic devices. Hybrid-Organic Light Emitting Diodes (Hy-OLEDs) and Organic Photovoltaics (Hy-OPVs) were fabricated with these films as anode and/or as cathode interfacial conducting layers. The Hy-OLEDs showed significantly higher current density and a lower turn-on voltage when a thin WO{sub 3} layer was inserted at the anode/polymer interface, while when inserted at the cathode/polymer interface the device performance was found to deteriorate. The improvement was attributed to a more efficient hole injection and transport from the Fermi level of the anode to the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) of a yellow emitting copolymer (YEP). On the other hand, the insertion of a thin WO{sub 3} layer at the cathode/polymer interface of Hy-OPV devices based on a polythiophene-fullerene bulk-heterojunction blend photoactive layer resulted in an increase of the produced photogenerated current, more likely due to improved electron extraction at the Al cathode.

  1. Dynamics modelling and Hybrid Suppression Control of space robots performing cooperative object manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafshan, P.; Moosavian, S. Ali A.

    2013-10-01

    Dynamics modelling and control of multi-body space robotic systems composed of rigid and flexible elements is elaborated here. Control of such systems is highly complicated due to severe under-actuated condition caused by flexible elements, and an inherent uneven nonlinear dynamics. Therefore, developing a compact dynamics model with the requirement of limited computations is extremely useful for controller design, also to develop simulation studies in support of design improvement, and finally for practical implementations. In this paper, the Rigid-Flexible Interactive dynamics Modelling (RFIM) approach is introduced as a combination of Lagrange and Newton-Euler methods, in which the motion equations of rigid and flexible members are separately developed in an explicit closed form. These equations are then assembled and solved simultaneously at each time step by considering the mutual interaction and constraint forces. The proposed approach yields a compact model rather than common accumulation approach that leads to a massive set of equations in which the dynamics of flexible elements is united with the dynamics equations of rigid members. To reveal such merits of this new approach, a Hybrid Suppression Control (HSC) for a cooperative object manipulation task will be proposed, and applied to usual space systems. A Wheeled Mobile Robotic (WMR) system with flexible appendages as a typical space rover is considered which contains a rigid main body equipped with two manipulating arms and two flexible solar panels, and next a Space Free Flying Robotic system (SFFR) with flexible members is studied. Modelling verification of these complicated systems is vigorously performed using ANSYS and ADAMS programs, while the limited computations of RFIM approach provides an efficient tool for the proposed controller design. Furthermore, it will be shown that the vibrations of the flexible solar panels results in disturbing forces on the base which may produce undesirable errors

  2. Diagnostic accuracy: theoretical models for preimplantation genetic testing of a single nucleus using the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scriven, P. N.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and use theoretical models to investigate the accuracy of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in testing a single nucleus from a preimplantation embryo without the complicating effect of mosaicism. Mathematical models were constructed for

  3. Beam test performance of the SKIROC2 ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Frisson, T; Anduze, M; Augustin, J.E; Bonis, J; Boudry, V; Bourgeois, C; Brient, J.C; Callier, S; Cerutti, M; Chen, S; Cornat, R; Cornebise, P; Cuisy, D; David, J; De la Taille, C; Dulucq, F; Frotin, M; Gastaldi, F; Ghislain, P; Giraud, J; Gonnin, A; Grondin, D; Guliyev, E; Hostachy, J.Y; Jeans, D; Kamiya, Y; Kawagoe, K; Kozakai, C; Lacour, D; Lavergne, L; Lee, S.H; Magniette, F; Ono, H; Poeschl, R; Rouëné, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Song, H.S; Sudo, Y; Thiebault, A; Tran, H; Ueno, H; Van der Kolk, N; Yoshioka, T

    2015-01-01

    Beam tests of the first layers of CALICE silicon tungsten ECAL technological prototype were performed in April and July 2012 using 1–6 GeV electron beam at DESY. This paper presents an analysis of the SKIROC2 readout ASIC performance under test beam conditions.

  4. Incremental exercise test performance with and without a respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Despite their widespread use in exercise testing, few data are available on the effect of wearing respiratory gas collection (RGC) systems on exercise test performance. Industrial- type mask wear is thought to impair exercise performance through increased respiratory dead space, flow resistance and/or discomfort ...

  5. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills.

  6. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the proof-of-concept of an electric traction power system with a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell range extender, usable for automotive class electrical vehicles. The hybrid system concept examined, consists of a power system where the primary power...... is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...... monoxide, the HTPEM fuel cell system can efficiently use a liquid methanol/water mixture of 60%/40% by volume, as fuel instead of compressed hydrogen, enabling potentially a higher volumetric energy density. In order to test the performance of such a system, the experimental validation conducted uses...

  7. Hybrid maize breeding with doubled haploids: I. One-stage versus two-stage selection for testcross performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, C Friedrich H; Utz, H Friedrich; Reif, Jochen C; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2006-03-01

    Optimum allocation of resources is of fundamental importance for the efficiency of breeding programs. The objectives of our study were to (1) determine the optimum allocation for the number of lines and test locations in hybrid maize breeding with doubled haploids (DHs) regarding two optimization criteria, the selection gain deltaG(k) and the probability P(k) of identifying superior genotypes, (2) compare both optimization criteria including their standard deviations (SDs), and (3) investigate the influence of production costs of DHs on the optimum allocation. For different budgets, number of finally selected lines, ratios of variance components, and production costs of DHs, the optimum allocation of test resources under one- and two-stage selection for testcross performance with a given tester was determined by using Monte Carlo simulations. In one-stage selection, lines are tested in field trials in a single year. In two-stage selection, optimum allocation of resources involves evaluation of (1) a large number of lines in a small number of test locations in the first year and (2) a small number of the selected superior lines in a large number of test locations in the second year, thereby maximizing both optimization criteria. Furthermore, to have a realistic chance of identifying a superior genotype, the probability P(k) of identifying superior genotypes should be greater than 75%. For budgets between 200 and 5,000 field plot equivalents, P(k) > 75% was reached only for genotypes belonging to the best 5% of the population. As the optimum allocation for P(k)(5%) was similar to that for deltaG(k), the choice of the optimization criterion was not crucial. The production costs of DHs had only a minor effect on the optimum number of locations and on values of the optimization criteria.

  8. A HYBRID BALANCED SCORECARD AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS FOR MEASURING PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI GUNARSIH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement on an organization whether it is a profit or nonprofit, has to be conducted in order to evaluate plan attainment. This measurement is considered incomplete as the performance of a company is not only based on financial perspective, but also other perspectives. Balanced Score Card (BSC is a performance measurement method using four perspectives: financial, customers, internal business processes and learning and growth. BSC measurement can be applied on profit and non-profit organizations. BSC focuses on causality (cause and effect which is based only on linear correlation. This situation is the weakness on BSC because it cannot continue to the specific forward step that can predict the future activities. In this study, BSC is combined with System Dynamics (SD that can identify the interaction among four perspectives and also related variable through a causal loop design model. Hybrid modelling design between BSC and SD gives an effective and interesting contemporary study. Then, the model performed with 2012 data input and performance forecasting until 2017. The result obtained for the financial perspectives related to fund absorption from 2013 until 2017 consecutively 100%, 100%, 85%, 72% and 100% with the most influential variable of tax and non-tax by 44.3% and the smallest variable effect is levies variable with 0,08%.Perspectives toward customers related to the efficiency and effective value by 50%, 43%, 43%, 48%, 49 % to customer dissatisfaction variable 48.09%, and 12.03% of customer's satisfaction. Internal business process perspective relates to the value of the total effective capacity by 80%, 71%, 69%, 71%, and 70%. With the most influential variable is the productivity and innovation for 50.77% and 1.94% variable staff morale. The last perspectives is learning and growth effective value for 50%, 44%, 56%, 47%, 46% with the most influential variable is the skill level of workers 27.98% and the smallest effect is

  9. Comparison of interactive video test performance to overall class performance in a biomechanics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Guinevere S.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study compared interactive video test performance and students' overall class performance. The hypothesis was that there would be a difference in video test performance compared to overall class performance. Methods: A total of 30 students participated in the pilot study from a master's level biomechanics course. Students completed four interactive video tests using EduCanon; content of videos included base of support, lever systems, scapulohumeral rhythm, and postural analysis. This content was reviewed with class discussion after completion of the interactive video test. The tests administered counted toward the participation portion of the final student grade. Student performance on the EduCanon interactive video test was compared to overall class grade using a paired t-test. Results: All 30 students completed the 4 EduCanon interactive video tests. Final class grades were greater compared to cumulative EduCanon test performance. There was no difference between performance using interactive video testing compared to students' overall class performance (t[29] = −1.43, p = .16). Conclusion: The results of this study did not support improved student assessment performance with incorporation of interactive video testing in the classroom environment. Continued research into new testing strategies is recommended to identify additional effective testing in the classroom. PMID:29227719

  10. DEVELOPING an ENGLISH PERFORMANCE TEST for INCOMING INDONESIAN COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Glenny Wullur

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts This study constructed, developed and validated an English Performance test as a complementary to an existing placement test in Universitas Klabat, Manado, Indonesia.  It is designed to provide a valid criterion-based measurement within the placement programs of the said university. The study aimed to answer the following questions: (1 What test tasks and items are needed in a performance test based on current language testing theory? (2 Is the performance test valid? (3 Is the scoring of the performance test reliable? (4 Is the performance test practical and predictive? And (5 What are the ratings of the resultant performance test? The steps in developing a performance test involved conducting needs analysis, establishing attributes of good performance test, and constructing test specification based on current language testing theory.  The speech event chosen which would generate language use was applying for financial assistance.  From this speech event, four activities were elicited: (1 writing a letter of inquiry, (2 completing an application form, (3 making an appointment for interview, (4 giving an oral presentation/interview.  These activities represent the four authentic tasks in which the desirable modes/channel of communication, language functions and skills, genre, and topic are integrated. The developed test is divided into four sections corresponding with the elicited tasks: (1 Formal letter, (2 Application form, (3 Making Appointment, and (4 Oral Presentation. The test was validated in several ways: (1 face validation compared the scores of Indonesian studying in the Philippines and in Indonesia, and found that the scores are highly correlated at Spearman ρ = .85.  (2 The content validation relied on the evaluation of expert informants.  The finding shows that the content coverage and relevance of the test is highly satisfactory. (3 The concurrent validation was conducted to the existing placement test and found

  11. Testing the Efficacy of MyPsychlab to Replace Traditional Instruction in a Hybrid Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kasey L.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Galazyn, Magdalena; Donnelly, Seamus

    2016-01-01

    Online course-packs are marketed as improving grades in introductory-level coursework, yet it is unknown whether these course-packs can effectively replace, as opposed to supplement, in-class instruction. This study compared learning outcomes for Introductory Psychology students in hybrid and traditional sections, with hybrid sections replacing…

  12. 49 CFR 563.10 - Crash test performance and survivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crash test performance and survivability. 563.10... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.10 Crash test...,” must be recorded in the format specified by § 563.8, exist at the completion of the crash test, and be...

  13. Item Response Theory Models for Performance Decline during Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Sometimes, test-takers may not be able to attempt all items to the best of their ability (with full effort) due to personal factors (e.g., low motivation) or testing conditions (e.g., time limit), resulting in poor performances on certain items, especially those located toward the end of a test. Standard item response theory (IRT) models fail to…

  14. The Relation of Task to Performance in Testing Verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradman, Harry L.; Hanania, Edith

    A study investigated the variability of language performance on different types of testing task, global versus discrete-focus. Three tests (cloze, multiple-choice, and fill-in-the-blank) were developed to measure learners' knowledge of five verb forms. The tests, containing corresponding items designed to elicit equivalent structures, were…

  15. Cognitive Fatigue Influences Students’ Performance on Standardized Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Gino, Francesca; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We identify one potential source of bias that influences children’s performance on standardized tests and that is predictable based on psychological theory: the time at which students take the test. Using test data for all children attending Danish public schools between school years 2009...

  16. Testing the Performance Characteristics of Manipulating Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Kumičáková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at an issue of assessment of performance criteria of manipulating industrial robots with focusing on positioning performance. There are presented: the testing of one-directional pose accuracy and repeatability on Robot Fanuc LR Mate 200iC within the Laboratory of the Department of Automation and Production Systems and processing of the measured data. The laser interferometer Renishaw and digital indicator Mitutoyo Digimatic were used for performing the testing experiments.

  17. Mechanism of enhanced performance on a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell using sawdust biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangbin; Jiang, Cairong; Liu, Juan; Tao, Haoliang; Meng, Xie; Connor, Paul; Hui, Jianing; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Jianjun; Irvine, John T. S.

    2018-04-01

    Biomass is expected to play a significant role in power generation in the near future. With the uprising of carbon fuel cells, hybrid direct carbon fuel cells (HDCFCs) show its intrinsic and incomparable advantages in the generation of clean energy with higher efficiency. In this study, two types of biomass treated by physical sieve and pyrolysis from raw sawdust are investigated on an anode-supported HDCFC. The structure and thermal analysis indicate that raw sawdust has well-formed cellulose I phase with very low ash. Electrochemical performance behaviors for sieved and pyrolyzed sawdust combined with various weight ratios of carbonate are compared in N2 and CO2 purge gas. The results show that the power output of sieved sawdust with 789 mWcm-2 is superior to that of pyrolyzed sawdust in CO2 flowing, as well as in N2 flowing. The anode reaction mechanism for the discrepancy of two fuels is explained and the emphasis is also placed on the modified oxygen-reduction cycle mechanism of catalytic effects of Li2CO3 and K2CO3 salts in promoting cell performance.

  18. Performance and driveline analyses of engine capacity in range extender engine hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praptijanto, Achmad; Santoso, Widodo Budi; Nur, Arifin; Wahono, Bambang; Putrasari, Yanuandri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, range extender engine designed should be able to meet the power needs of a power generator of hybrid electrical vehicle that has a minimum of 18 kW. Using this baseline model, the following range extenders will be compared between conventional SI piston engine (Baseline, BsL), engine capacity 1998 cm3, and efficiency-oriented SI piston with engine capacity 999 cm3 and 499 cm3 with 86 mm bore and stroke square gasoline engine in the performance, emission prediction of range extender engine, standard of charge by using engine and vehicle simulation software tools. In AVL Boost simulation software, range extender engine simulated from 1000 to 6000 rpm engine loads. The highest peak engine power brake reached up to 38 kW at 4500 rpm. On the other hand the highest torque achieved in 100 Nm at 3500 rpm. After that using AVL cruise simulation software, the model of range extended electric vehicle in series configuration with main components such as internal combustion engine, generator, electric motor, battery and the arthemis model rural road cycle was used to simulate the vehicle model. The simulation results show that engine with engine capacity 999 cm3 reported the economical performances of the engine and the emission and the control of engine cycle parameters.

  19. Design, manufacture and performance evaluation of HTS electromagnets for the hybrid magnetic levitation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, S.Y.; Hwang, Y.J.; Choi, S.; Na, J.B.; Kim, Y.J.; Chang, K.S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, D.K. [Chungju National University, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C.Y. [Ultra High-Speed Train Research Department, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang-Si 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, T.K., E-mail: tkko@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    A high speed electromagnetic suspension (EMS) maglev has emerged as the solution to speed limit problem that conventional high-speed railroad has. In the EMS maglev, small levitation gap needs uniform guide-way which leads to increase the construction cost. The large levitation gap can reduce the construction cost. However it is hard for normal conducting electromagnet to produce larger magneto-motive force (MMF) for generating levitation force as increased levitation gap. This is because normal conductors have limited rating current to their specific volume. Therefore, the superconducting electromagnet can be one of the solutions for producing both large levitation gap and sufficient MMF. The superconducting electromagnets have incomparably high allowable current density than what normal conductors have. In this paper, the prototype of high temperature superconducting (HTS) electromagnets were designed and manufactured applicable to hybrid electromagnetic suspension system (H-EMS). The H-EMS consists of control coils for levitation control and superconducting coils for producing MMF for levitation. The required MMF for generating given levitation force was calculated by both equations of ideal U-core magnet and magnetic field analysis using the finite element method (FEM). The HTS electromagnets were designed as double pancakes with Bi-2223/Ag tapes. Experiments to confirm its operating performance were performed in liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}).

  20. PaRSEC: A Software Framework for Performance and Productivity on Hybrid, Manycore Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, Jack [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-06-30

    As the era of computer architectures dominated by serial processors ends, the convergence of several unprecedented challenges suggests that closing the longstanding "application–architecture performance gap" will become more challenging than ever. To address this problem, the Parallel Runtime Scheduling and Execution Control (PaRSEC) project created a modular software framework that achieved two major objectives: first, it built a task-based runtime capable of delivering portable performance to a wide range of science and engineering applications at all levels of the platform pyramid, including the upcoming 100 Pflop/s systems and then exascale; and second, it supported and facilitated the work of developers in migrating their legacy codes and writing entirely new ones for the emerging hybrid and massively parallel manycore processor system designs. PaRSEC will support multiple domain-specific languages capable of increasing the developers' productivity while also providing the runtime with the constructs and flexibility necessary to exploit the maximal parallelism from parallel applications. Extensive preliminary research in dense linear algebra showed convincingly that a parameterized task graph representation that symbolically describes the algorithm content can achieve the project's twofold objective within that domain. The research also strongly suggested that this powerful method could be generalized to a far-wider variety of applications.

  1. Effect of hybrid carbon nanotubes-bimetallic composite particles on the performance of polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun-Young [Department of Material Processing, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea); Division of Applied Chemical Engineering, Department of Polymer Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea); Kim, Whi-Dong; Kim, Soo H. [Department of Nanosystem and Nanoprocess Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Kim, Do-Geun; Kim, Jong-Kuk; Jeong, Yong-Soo; Kang, Jae-Wook [Department of Material Processing, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea); Kim, Joo Hyun [Division of Applied Chemical Engineering, Department of Polymer Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea); Lee, Jae Keun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    Hybrid carbon nanotubes-bimetallic composite nanoparticles with sea urchin-like structures (SU-CNTs) were introduced to bulk heterojunction polymer-fullerene solar cells to improve their performance. The SU-CNTs were composed of multi-walled CNTs, which were grown radially over the entire surface of the bimetallic nanoparticles composed of Ni and Al. SU-CNTs with a precisely controlled length of {proportional_to}200{+-}40 nm were dispersed homogenously in a polymer active layer. Compared with a pristine device (i.e., without SU-CNTs), the SU-CNTs-doped organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells showed an improved short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency from 7.5 to 9.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and 2.1{+-}0.1% to 2.2{+-}0.2% (max. 2.5%), respectively. The specially designed SU-CNTs have strong potential as an effective exciton dissociation medium in the polymer active layer to enhance the performance of organic solar cells. (author)

  2. Performance and delay analysis of hybrid ARQ with incremental redundancy over double rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy over double Rayleigh channels, a common model for the fading amplitude of vehicle-to-vehicle communication systems. We investigate the performance of HARQ from an information theoretic perspective. Analytical expressions are derived for the \\\\epsilon-outage capacity, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate of HARQ with incremental redundancy assuming a maximum number of HARQ rounds. Moreover, we evaluate the delay experienced by Poisson arriving packets for HARQ with incremental redundancy. We provide analytical expressions for the expected waiting time, the packet\\'s sojourn time in the queue, the average consumed power, and the energy efficiency. In our study, the communication rate per HARQ round is adjusted to the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) such that a target outage probability is not exceeded. This setting conforms with communication systems in which a quality of service is expected regardless of the channel conditions. Our analysis underscores the importance of HARQ in improving the spectral efficiency and reliability of communication systems. We demonstrate as well that the explored HARQ scheme achieves full diversity. Additionally, we investigate the tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency.

  3. A Novel Hybrid MCDM Procedure for Achieving Aspired Earned Value Project Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Yan Chou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A better-performing project gains more subsequent businesses. Many organizations worldwide apply an earned value management (EVM system to monitor and control their projects’ performance. However, a successful EVM application requires handling multiple interinfluenced criteria with feedback effects for decision-making and continuous improvements throughout the application life cycle. The conventional decision approaches assume that preferences between criteria are independent and put their focuses on decision-making. This study employs a hybrid multiple criteria decision-making (HMCDM method to devise a novel procedure to fulfil the deficiencies. The proposed procedure enables us to evaluate interinfluence effects and gap indices among criteria/dimensions/alternatives and then systemize the evaluation results in a context of influential network relation map (INRM. The INRM provides managers with visual information to find a route in making application decisions, while identifying critical gaps for continuous improvements. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposed procedure. The results show that, by employing the HMCDM method, the proposed procedure can provide organizations with a foundation to ensure that the aspired EVM application outcomes are achieved at different levels within an organization.

  4. Chromosomal regions involved in hybrid performance and heterosis : their AFLP-based identification and practical use in prediction models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuylsteke, M.; Kuiper, M.; Stam, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach towards the prediction of hybrid performance and heterosis is presented. Here, we describe an approach based on: (i) the assessment of associations between AFLPÒ22 AFLPÒ is a registered trademark of Keygene N.V. ,33 The methylation AFLPÒ method is subject to a patent

  5. Sandwich nucleic acid hybridization: a method with a universally usable labeled probe for various specific tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, H.; Leser, U.; Haus, M.; Gu, S.Y.; Pathmanathan, R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of recombinant m13 phages as hybridization probes offers a considerable advantage over the commonly used recombinant plasmids as the preparation of the DNA probe is very simple and it can easily be labeled directly, e.g. with isotopes with long half-life like 125 I and used for hybridization. However, as the application of nucleic acid hybridization for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes becomes almost unavoidable, the logistic problems of keeping numerous individually labeled hybridization probes increase considerably and may reach prohibitory levels in less well-equipped laboratories. In a new sandwich technique, the first step involves hybridization with an unlabeled recombinant m13 DNA carrying an insert of the desired specificity. In a second step a universally usable labeled probe directed against the m13 part of the recombinant phage DNA is applied. This reduces considerably the problem of preparing and keeping multiple labeled probes in stock. (Auth.)

  6. Performance analysis of a hybrid fingerprint extracted from optical coherence tomography fingertip scans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darlow, Luke N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hybrid fingerprint is a local-quality-specific blend of the surface and internal fingerprints, extracted from optical coherence tomography scans. Owing to its origin, and the manner in which it is obtained, the Hybrid fingerprint is a high...

  7. Assessing Student Performance in Hybrid versus Web-Facilitated Personal Health Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Blankson, Faustina; Kempland, Monica; Schaefer, Courtney

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of web-facilitated and hybrid course delivery formats on student learning outcomes for four sections of an undergraduate Personal Health course at a public institution. This is a quasi-experimental study. Two sections were taught as hybrid classes and two sections were taught as webfacilitated classes.…

  8. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  9. Implementation and Operational Research: Cost and Efficiency of a Hybrid Mobile Multidisease Testing Approach With High HIV Testing Coverage in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei; Chamie, Gabriel; Mwai, Daniel; Clark, Tamara D; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Charlebois, Edwin D; Petersen, Maya; Kabami, Jane; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Kadede, Kevin; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Sang, Norton; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V; Kahn, James G

    2016-11-01

    In 2013-2014, we achieved 89% adult HIV testing coverage using a hybrid testing approach in 32 communities in Uganda and Kenya (SEARCH: NCT01864603). To inform scalability, we sought to determine: (1) overall cost and efficiency of this approach; and (2) costs associated with point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing, multidisease services, and community mobilization. We applied microcosting methods to estimate costs of population-wide HIV testing in 12 SEARCH trial communities. Main intervention components of the hybrid approach are census, multidisease community health campaigns (CHC), and home-based testing for CHC nonattendees. POC CD4 tests were provided for all HIV-infected participants. Data were extracted from expenditure records, activity registers, staff interviews, and time and motion logs. The mean cost per adult tested for HIV was $20.5 (range: $17.1-$32.1) (2014 US$), including a POC CD4 test at $16 per HIV+ person identified. Cost per adult tested for HIV was $13.8 at CHC vs. $31.7 by home-based testing. The cost per HIV+ adult identified was $231 ($87-$1245), with variability due mainly to HIV prevalence among persons tested (ie, HIV positivity rate). The marginal costs of multidisease testing at CHCs were $1.16/person for hypertension and diabetes, and $0.90 for malaria. Community mobilization constituted 15.3% of total costs. The hybrid testing approach achieved very high HIV testing coverage, with POC CD4, at costs similar to previously reported mobile, home-based, or venue-based HIV testing approaches in sub-Saharan Africa. By leveraging HIV infrastructure, multidisease services were offered at low marginal costs.

  10. The Performance test of Mechanical Sodium Pump with Water Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum; Ko, Bock Seong; Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Yoon Sang

    2015-01-01

    As contrasted with PWR(Pressurized light Water Reactor) using water as a coolant, sodium is used as a coolant in SFR because of its low melting temperature, high thermal conductivity, the high boiling temperature allowing the reactors to operate at ambient pressure, and low neutron absorption cross section which is required to achieve a high neutron flux. But, sodium is violently reactive with water or oxygen like the other alkali metal. So Very strict requirements are demanded to design and fabricate of sodium experimental facilities. Furthermore, performance testing in high temperature sodium environments is more expensive and time consuming and need an extra precautions because operating and maintaining of sodium experimental facilities are very difficult. The present paper describes performance test results of mechanical sodium pump with water which has been performed with some design changes using water test facility in SAM JIN Industrial Co. To compare the hydraulic characteristic of model pump with water and sodium, the performance test of model pump were performed using vender's experimental facility for mechanical sodium pump. To accommodate non-uniform thermal expansion and to secure the operability and the safety, the gap size of some parts of original model pump was modified. Performance tests of modified mechanical sodium pump with water were successfully performed. Water is therefore often selected as a surrogate test fluid because it is not only cheap, easily available and easy to handle but also its important hydraulic properties (density and kinematic viscosity) are very similar to that of the sodium. Normal practice to thoroughly test a design or component before applied or installed in reactor is important to ensure the safety and operability in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). So, in order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of the PHTS pump of DSFR (600 MWe Demonstraion SFR), the performance tests of the model pump such as performance

  11. Model tests on dynamic performance of RC shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshio; Shibata, Akenori; Inoue, Norio; Muroi, Kazuo.

    1991-01-01

    For the inelastic dynamic response analysis of a reactor building subjected to earthquakes, it is essentially important to properly evaluate its restoring force characteristics under dynamic loading condition and its damping performance. Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main structural members of a reactor building, and dominate its seismic behavior. In order to obtain the basic information on the dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance of shear walls, the dynamic test using a large shaking table, static displacement control test and the pseudo-dynamic test on the models of a shear wall were conducted. In the dynamic test, four specimens were tested on a large shaking table. In the static test, four specimens were tested, and in the pseudo-dynamic test, three specimens were tested. These tests are outlined. The results of these tests were compared, placing emphasis on the restoring force characteristics and damping performance of the RC wall models. The strength was higher in the dynamic test models than in the static test models mainly due to the effect of loading rate. (K.I.)

  12. On the light-induced enhancement in photovoltaic performance of PEDOT:PSS/Si organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhui; Yang, Linlin; Ge, Kunpeng; Chen, Bingbing; Shen, Yanjiao; Guo, Jianxin; Liu, Haixu; Xu, Ying; Fan, Jiandong; Mai, Yaohua

    2017-10-01

    Light-induced degradation has been identified to be a critical issue for most silicon-based solar cell technologies. This study presents an observation of an opposite light-induced enhancement (LIE) effect in photovoltaic performance in poly(3,4-ethylthiophene):polystyrenesulfonate/n-Si organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells. The reduced density of interface states under light soaking (LS) is found to be responsible for the LIE of the hybrid solar cells. An increased minor carrier lifetime under LS and a switchable photoluminescence intensity while applying a voltage bias are observed, providing evidence for the underlying physical mechanism.

  13. Important Details in Performing and Interpreting the Scratch Collapse Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Lorna C; Yee, Andrew; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2018-02-01

    The utility of the scratch collapse test has been demonstrated in examination of patients with carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes and long thoracic and peroneal nerve compressions. In the authors' clinic, this lesser known test plays a key role in peripheral nerve examination where localization of the nerve irritation or injury is not fully understood. Test utility and accuracy in patients with more challenging presentations likely correlate with tester understanding and experience. This article offers a clear outline of all stages of the test to improve interrater reliability. The nuances of test performance are described, including a description of situations where the scratch collapse test is deemed inappropriate. Four clinical scenarios where the scratch collapse test may be useful are included. Corresponding video content is provided to improve performance and interpretation of the scratch collapse test. Diagnostic, V.

  14. Performance Analysis of Isolated Hybrid Power Plant Model with Dynamic Load Conditions - Morning, Noon and Afternoon Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawati, Rina

    2018-02-01

    Diesel Generator with Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Plant is one of the solutions for supply electric demand to isolated area. The energy sources that can be used for hybrid system are such as photovoltaic, wind turbine, and biomass or biogas, because these sources are almost available in every isolated area. This research used a model of hybrid system from diesel generator and 1.28 kWp photovoltaic power plant. The reliability and some of power quality of this system tested by 1300VA house hold daily load characteristic effectively 24 hour. Power quality and some electricity parameters during transition mode for each resource will be analyzed. Furthermore the power quality analyze will be conducted and evaluated base on Electrical Engineers' Association (EEA).

  15. Performance Analysis of Isolated Hybrid Power Plant Model with Dynamic Load Conditions – Morning, Noon and Afternoon Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawati Rina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel Generator with Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Plant is one of the solutions for supply electric demand to isolated area. The energy sources that can be used for hybrid system are such as photovoltaic, wind turbine, and biomass or biogas, because these sources are almost available in every isolated area. This research used a model of hybrid system from diesel generator and 1.28 kWp photovoltaic power plant. The reliability and some of power quality of this system tested by 1300VA house hold daily load characteristic effectively 24 hour. Power quality and some electricity parameters during transition mode for each resource will be analyzed. Furthermore the power quality analyze will be conducted and evaluated base on Electrical Engineers’ Association (EEA.

  16. The influence of hybrid alumina/titania materials as electron transmission layer in planar high-performance perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songyang; Xia, Chao; Zhang, Chongzhen; Song, Weidong; Qi, Mingyue; Wang, Rupeng; Zhao, Liangliang; Li, Shuti

    2017-11-01

    As one of main layers in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs), electron transport materials (ETM) play an important role in getting high photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE). Here, we investigate Al2O3/TiO2 hybrid materials as electron transmission layer in planar perovskite solar cells. The hybrid Al2O3/TiO2 material is proved to induce a better crystal quality of CH3NH3PbCl3- x I x perovskite layer as confirmed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The new-formed compact rough surface of ETM is responsible for the better excited electron transmission and light absorption, thus resulting in the improvement of short-circuit current ( J sc). Meanwhile, the embedded Al2O3 plays a key role in shifting the conduction band edge of ETM, thereby leading to the improvement of photo-voltage. The optimal value is obtained with the test of sequential changing Al2O3/TiO2 concentration ratio. Compared to the device with pure TiO2 as ETM, the devices assembled with Al2O3/TiO2 hybrid ETM showed improvement in J sc (from 13.65 to 18.71 mA/cm2) as well as in V oc (from 0.95 to 1.00 V), which brings about 27.6% enhancement in PCE based on the multifunctional hybrid TiO2/ Al2O3 ETM.

  17. Nuclebras' installations for performance tests of nuclear power plants components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos Paiva, I.P. de; Avelar Esteves, F. de; Horta, J.A.L.; Resende, M.F.R.; Pinheiro, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The reasons for Nuclebras' Nuclear Technology Development Center to implement a laboratory for supporting Brazilian manufactures, giving to them the means for performing functional tests of industrial products, are presented. A brief description of facilities under construction: the components Test Loop and Facility for Testing N.P.P. components under Accident conditions, and other already in operation, as well as its objectives and main technical characteristics. Some test results had already obtained are also presented. (Author) [pt

  18. A Framework for Fully Automated Performance Testing for Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markoska, Elena; Johansen, Aslak; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2018-01-01

    , setup of performance tests has been manual and labor-intensive and has required intimate knowledge of buildings’ complexity and systems. The emergence of the concept of smart buildings has provided an opportunity to overcome this restriction. In this paper, we propose a framework for automated......A significant proportion of energy consumption by buildings worldwide, estimated to ca. 40%, has yielded a high importance to studying buildings’ performance. Performance testing is a mean by which buildings can be continuously commissioned to ensure that they operate as designed. Historically...... performance testing of smart buildings that utilizes metadata models. The approach features automatic detection of applicable performance tests using metadata queries and their corresponding instantiation, as well as continuous commissioning based on metadata. The presented approach has been implemented...

  19. Test anxiety, perfectionism, goal orientation, and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, KoUn; Rice, Kenneth G

    2011-03-01

    Dimensions of perfectionism and goal orientation have been reported to have differential relationships with test anxiety. However, the degree of inter-relationship between different dimensions of perfectionism, the 2 × 2 model of goal orientations proposed by Elliot and McGregor, cognitive test anxiety, and academic performance indicators is not known. Based on data from 134 university students, we conducted correlation and regression analyses to test associations between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, four types of goal orientations, cognitive test anxiety, and two indicators of academic performance: proximal cognitive performance on a word list recall test and distal academic performance in terms of grade point average. Cognitive test anxiety was inversely associated with both performance indicators, and positively associated with maladaptive perfectionism and avoidance goal orientations. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism accounted for significant variance in cognitive test anxiety after controlling for approach and avoidance goal orientations. Overall, nearly 50% of the variance in cognitive test anxiety could be attributed to gender, goal orientations, and perfectionism. Results suggested that students who are highly test anxious are likely to be women who endorse avoidance goal orientations and are maladaptively perfectionistic.

  20. a Cabinet Level Thermal Test Vehicle to Evaluate Hybrid Double-Sided Cooling Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qihong; Joshi, Yogendra

    Packaging of power semiconductor devices presents some of the greatest thermal design challenges due to the resulting high heat fluxes. Advanced cooling techniques are desired to help meet these demands for current and future devices. A hybrid double-sided approach combining micro-channel liquid cooling, thermoelectric cooling, and forced air convection is investigated via a test vehicle for the thermal management of electronic cabinets. A reduction of 74% in the chip junction temperature rise was achieved by using double-sided cooling, compared to single-sided air convection. Further reduction can be achieved by utilizing thermoelectric cooling (TEC). Additional reductions of 22.4% and 6.5% were achieved by utilizing TEC in single-sided air cooling and double-sided cooling, respectively. The effect of water flow rates through the air-to-liquid heat exchanger and the microchannel heat sink on the chip junction temperature rise was insignificant, compared to the effect of TEC, and cooling configuration.

  1. Asperity Degradation and Damage in the Direct Shear Test: A Hybrid FEM/DEM Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, A.; Stead, D.

    2008-04-01

    This paper investigates the processes of joint surface damage and near-surface intact rock tensile failure using a hybrid FEM/DEM code. Selected Barton and Choubey JRC profiles were simulated in direct shear tests and the surface damage mechanisms investigated in terms of joint surface wear or tensile fracturing of intact rock along the joint plane. Shear strength and displacement profiles for each joint profile are numerically simulated. Numerical results agree closely with published experimental observations. Furthermore, results show that dilation along the joint is controlled dominantly by the joint surface geometry and the applied normal stress. Significant dilation is expected to occur where there is a large asperity provided the applied normal stress is low. In this case, joint surface damage is limited to surface wear. In contrast, when the applied normal stress is high, dilation will be low and damage is composed of both surface wear and asperity breakage through near-joint-surface intact rock tensile failure. Local joint dilation angles vary in proportion to the magnitude of the dilation. Several joint profiles with different geometrical configurations were simulated within a slope and the possible modes of joint surface damage were investigated. It was found that due to low normal stresses acting on the joint surfaces within a slope the dominant mode of joint surface damage is by yielding and surface wear of asperities.

  2. High performance sodium-ion hybrid capacitor based on Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Binson; Shaijumon, M. M.

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid Na-ion capacitors bridge the performance gap between Na-ion batteries and supercapacitors and offer excellent energy and power characteristics. However, designing efficient anode and cathode materials with improved kinetics and long cycle life is essential for practical implementation of this technology. Herein, layered sodium titanium oxide hydroxide, Na2Ti2O4(OH)2, synthesized through hydrothermal technique, is studied as efficient anode material for hybrid Na-ion capacitor. Half-cell electrochemical studies vs. Na/Na+ showed excellent performance for Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 electrode, with ∼57.2% of the total capacity (323.3 C g-1 at 1.0 mV s-1) dominated by capacitive behavior and the remaining due to Na-intercalation. The obtained values are in good agreement with Trasatti plots indicating the potential of this material as efficient anode for hybrid Na-ion capacitor. Further, a full cell Na-ion capacitor is fabricated with Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 as anode and chemically activated Rice Husk Derived Porous Carbon (RHDPC-KOH) as cathode by using organic electrolyte. The hybrid device, operated at a maximum cell voltage of 4 V, exhibits stable electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of ∼65 Wh kg-1 (at 500 W kg-1, 0.20 A g-1) and with more than ∼ 93% capacitive retention after 3000 cycles.

  3. Personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11. Now in it's fourth edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). One of the goals of this current revision was the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonization to U.S. personal dosemeter performance testing. The testing philosophy of ANSI/HPS N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing and is thus different from the testing philosophy used in the rest of the world. In this paper, the history of performance testing in the U.S. is briefly reviewed. Also described is the revision that produced the fourth edition of this standard, which has taken place over the last three years (2005-2008) by a working group representing national standards laboratories, government laboratories, the military, dosimetry vendors, universities and the nuclear power industry. (author)

  4. The study of the energetic performance in test cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentea, Cristian; Tuca, Alexandra; Oprean, Mircea; Marius, Bataus

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important subsystems of modern passenger cars is the transmission. This paper aims to investigate the global performances of a modern transmission in different test cycles including the newly introduced WLTC (Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle). The study is done using a complex model developed in a performant simulation environment. Transmission efficiency calculation is emphasized, the efficiency being considered variable depending on engine torque, engine speed and gear ratio. The main important parameters (vehicle speed fluctuation, overall transmission efficiency, fuel consumption ratio) needed to compare test cycles and the transmissions performance are determined.

  5. Overview on MOX fuel for LWRs: Design, performance and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Callens, C.; Goll, W.; Lippens, M.

    2000-01-01

    This overview looks at the historical background to the design, performance and testing of LWR MOX fuel over the last 30 to 40 years. It briefly examines the scenarios which encouraged the development of MOX fuel for utilisation in LWRs and looks at the design changes required on moving from UO 2 to MOX fuel. The paper summarises the national irradiation testing programmes, the commercial developments and performance data obtained throughout this period, highlighting those aspects which have had an impact on manufacturing and design choices. The paper thus provides the historical background information for the contributed papers in Session 3 (Fuel Design, Performance and Testing) of the symposium. (author)

  6. A New Hybrid Method for Improving the Performance of Myocardial Infarction Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Hamidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Myocardial Infarction, also known as heart attack, normally occurs due to such causes as smoking, family history, diabetes, and so on. It is recognized as one of the leading causes of death in the world. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the performance of classification models in order to predict Myocardial Infarction, using a feature selection method that includes Forward Selection and Genetic Algorithm. Materials & Methods: The Myocardial Infarction data set used in this study contains the information related to 519 visitors to Shahid Madani Specialized Hospital of Khorramabad, Iran. This data set includes 33 features. The proposed method includes a hybrid feature selection method in order to enhance the performance of classification algorithms. The first step of this method selects the features using Forward Selection. At the second step, the selected features were given to a genetic algorithm, in order to select the best features. Classification algorithms entail Ada Boost, Naïve Bayes, J48 decision tree and simpleCART are applied to the data set with selected features, for predicting Myocardial Infarction. Results: The best results have been achieved after applying the proposed feature selection method, which were obtained via simpleCART and J48 algorithms with the accuracies of 96.53% and 96.34%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results, the performances of classification algorithms are improved. So, applying the proposed feature selection method, along with classification algorithms seem to be considered as a confident method with respect to predicting the Myocardial Infarction.

  7. Research on the productive performance of hybrid offspring of rabbits reared in household system (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Bura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment consisted in using 5 females hybrid which have been mated with 3 male pure-bred. Each couple was monitored for pup and mother body weight and also the consumption of succulent feed, bulky and concentrated. Both parents and offspring were kept in cages made of wood and wire mesh. Under the cages there was a tray of galvanized steel sheet for collecting manure. During the experiment, female New Zealand and the Californian Red hybrid have given birth 4 times, producing 43 cubs (pups 10.75/birth and 31 pups (pups 7.75/birth. The other 3 females gave birth only once a year. All pups survived until weaning (30 days. Weaned pups from female New Zealand Red hybrid at time of weaning had a mean body mass of between 341.20 to 602.20 g/pups, and those from female Californian hybrid were between 374.00 to 803.33 g/pup. At weaning, pups from female Chinchilla Mare hybrid weighed on average 546.75 g/pup, the ones from the French hybrid female Great Silver weighed 433.00 g/pup, and those from the New Zealand Red primiparous female hybrid weighed784.00 g/weaned puppies. Between the 11th and the 30th day of lactation, most females have lost body weight, the highest being 489.00 g/lactating female.

  8. Graphene/MnO2 hybrid nanosheets as high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Wang, Bei; Su, Dawei; Wang, Ying; Chen, Shuangqiang; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets were prepared by incorporating graphene and MnO 2 nanosheets in ethylene glycol. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses confirmed nanosheet morphology of the hybrid materials. Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte. We found that the graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets with a weight ratio of 1:4 (graphene:MnO 2 ) delivered the highest specific capacitance of 320 F g −1 . Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets also exhibited good capacitance retention on 2000 cycles. - Highlights: • Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were fabricated. • The specific capacitance is strongly dependent on graphene/MnO 2 ratios. • The graphene/MnO 2 hybrid electrode (1:4) exhibited high specific capacitance. • The electrode retained 84% of the initial specific capacitance after 2000 cycles

  9. Performance Testing of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Breedon, Richard; Andreev, M. Tripathi V; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Lisowsky, B; Matthey, Christina; Rakness, Gregory; Wenman, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The production, installation, and testing of 468 cathode strip chambers for the endcap muon system of the CMS experiment played a critical role in the preparation of the endcap muon system for the final commissioning. Common testing procedures and sets of standard equipment were used at 5 international assembly centers. The chambers were then thoroughly retested after shipment to CERN. Final testing was performed after chamber installation on the steel disks in the CMS detector assembly building. The structure of the detector quality control procedure is presented along with the results of chamber performance validation tests.

  10. Investigation of Coating Performance of UV-Curable Hybrid Polymers Containing 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane Coated on Aluminum Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çakır

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes preparation and characterization of fluorine-containing organic-inorganic hybrid coatings. The organic part consists of bisphenol-A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol diacrylate resin and 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate reactive diluent. The inorganically rich part comprises trimethoxysilane-terminated urethane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane, 3-(trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate and sol–gel precursors that are products of hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Bisphenol-A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol diacrylate resin was added to the inorganic part in predetermined amounts. The resultant mixture was utilized in the preparation of free films as well as coatings on aluminum substrates. Thermal and mechanical tests such as DSC, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA, and tensile and shore D hardness tests were performed on free films. Water contact angle, gloss, Taber abrasion test, cross-cut and tubular impact tests were conducted on the coated samples. SEM examination and EDS analysis was performed on the fractured surfaces of free films. The hybrid coatings on the aluminum sheets gave rise to properties such as moderately glossed surface; low wear rate and hydrophobicity. Tensile strength of free films increased with up to 10% inorganic content in the hybrid structure and this increase was approximately three times that of the control sample. As expected; the % strain value decreased by 17.3 with the increase in inorganic content and elastic modulus values increased by a factor of approximately 6. Resistance to ketone-based solvents was proven and an increase in hardness was observed as the ratio of the inorganic part increased. Samples which contain 10% sol–gel content were observed to provide optimal properties.

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Starter Generator in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Moo-Yeon; Lim, Dong; Kim, Sung

    2015-01-01

    The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations ...

  12. Repeatability testing of a new Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Laura C; Ryu, Yeonsu; Kang, Yun-Seok; Bolte, John H

    2017-05-29

    Vehicle safety is improving, thus decreasing the number of life-threatening injuries and increasing the need for research in other areas of the body. The current child anthropomorphic test device (ATD) does not have the capabilities or instrumentation to measure many of the potential interactions between the lower extremity and the vehicle interior. A prototype Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD lower extremity (ATD-LE) was developed and contains a tibia load cell and a more biofidelic ankle. The repeatability of the device has not yet been assessed; thus, the objective was to evaluate the repeatability of the ATD-LE. Additionally, a dynamic assessment was conducted to quantify injury threshold values. A pneumatic ram impactor was used at 2 velocities to evaluate repeatability. The ATD-LE was fixed to a table and impacted on the plantar aspect of the forefoot. Three repeated trials at 1.3 and 2.3 m/s without shoes and 2.3 m/s with shoes were conducted. The consistency of tibia force (N), bending moment (Nm), ankle range of motion (ROM, °), and stiffness (Nm/°) were quantified. A dynamic assessment using knee bolster airbag (KBA) tests was also conducted. The ATD-LE was positioned to mimic 3 worst-case scenarios: toes touching the mid-dashboard, touching the lower dashboard, and flat on the floor prior to airbag deployment. The impact responses in the femur and tibia were directly collected and compared with published injury threshold values. Ram impact testing indicated primarily excellent repeatability for the variables tested. For all 3 conditions the coefficients of variance (CV) were as follows: tibia force, 1.9-2.7%; tibia moment, 1.0-2.2%; ROM, 1.3-1.4%; ankle stiffness, 4.8-15.6%. The shoe-on condition resulted in a 25% reduction in tibia force and a 56% reduction in tibia bending moment. The KBA tests indicate that the highest injury risk may be when the toes touch the lower dashboard, due to the high bending moments recorded in the tibia at 76.2 Nm, which was

  13. Correspondence between performance of Eucalyptus spp trees selected from family and clonal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, C A F; Gonçalves, F M A; Rosse, L N; Costa, R R G F; Ramalho, M A P

    2011-06-21

    We examined the correspondence in performance between trees selected from a family test and their respective clones from a clonal test of Eucalyptus. Full-sib families were obtained from controlled pollination among individuals of Eucalyptus grandis and between E. grandis and E. urophylla. The hybridizations did not follow a factorial scheme. The family tests were carried out at three locations in Eunápolis and Itabela counties, in Bahia, Brazil, in 2003. Four hundred and ninety-seven high-performance trees were selected, by the individual BLUP procedure, in the family tests at two years of age, based on wood volume. The clones from these trees and 14 checks were evaluated in clonal tests carried out in the same region in 2006. The wood volume of the clones was evaluated at two years of age. Trait correlation between the trees selected from the family and clonal tests was low. The estimate of the coincidence between the best trees and the best clones using an average of the different intensities of selection was only 27%. These results demonstrate that the selection of trees in the family test should not be too drastic; otherwise the chance plus clones may be overlooked.

  14. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with 80% active area for the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Barber, G J; Bibby, J H; Campbell, M; Duane, A; Gys, Thierry; Montenegro, J; Piedigrossi, D; Schomaker, R; Snoeys, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated Si pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based on an electrostatically focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of ~5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The performance of full-scale prototypes equipped with 61-pixel anodes and external analogue readout is presented. The average signal-to-noise ratio is ~11 with a peaking time of 1.2 mu s. The tube active-to-total surface ratio is 81.7%, which meets the LHCb requirements. The spatial precision is measured to be better than 90 mu m. A cluster of three such tubes has been installed in the LHCb RICH 1 prototype where Cherenkov gas rings have been successfully detected. Progress towards the encapsulation of new pixel electronics into a tube is also reported. In pa...

  15. Parametric investigation of secondary injection in post-chamber on combustion performance for hybrid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guobiao; Cao, Binbin; Zhu, Hao; Tian, Hui; Ma, Xuan

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this effort is to study the combustion performance of a hybrid rocket motor with the help of 3D steady-state numerical simulation, which applies 90% hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene as the fuel. A method of secondary oxidizer injection in post-chamber is introduced to investigate the flow field characteristics and combustion efficiency. The secondary injection medium is the mixed gas coming from liquid hydrogen peroxide catalytic decomposition. The secondary injectors are uniformly set along the circumferential direction of the post-chamber. The simulation results obtained by above model are verified by experimental data. Three influencing parameters are considered: secondary injection diameter, secondary injection angle and secondary injection numbers. Simulation results reveals that this design could improve the combustion efficiency with respect to the same motor without secondary injection. Besides, the secondary injection almost has no effect on the regression rate and fuel sueface temperature distribution. It is also presented that the oxidizer is injected by 8 secondary injectors with a diameter of 7-8 mm in the direction of 120°in post-chamber is identified as the optimized secondary injection pattern, through which combustion efficiency, specific impulse efficiency as well as utilization of propellants are all improved obviously.

  16. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with 80% active area for the rich counters of LHCB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Alemi, M.; Barber, G.; Bibby, J.; Campbell, M.; Duane, A.; Gys, T.; Montenegro, J.; Piedigrossi, D.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wotton, S.; Wyllie, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based on an electrostatically focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of ∼5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The performance of full-scale prototypes equipped with 61-pixel anodes and external analogue readout is presented. The average signal-to-noise ratio is ∼11 with a peaking time of 1.2 μs. The tube active-to-total surface ratio is 81.7%, which meets the LHCb requirements. The spatial precision is measured to be better than 90 μm. A cluster of three such tubes has been installed in the LHCb RICH 1 prototype where Cherenkov gas rings have been successfully detected. Progress towards the encapsulation of new pixel electronics into a tube is also reported. In particular, the status of the development of a binary readout chip with a peaking time of 25 ns and a low and uniform detection threshold is summarized

  17. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with 80% active area for the rich counters of LHCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, E.; Alemi, M.; Barber, G.; Bibby, J.; Campbell, M.; Duane, A.; Gys, T. E-mail: thierry.gys@cern.ch; Montenegro, J.; Piedigrossi, D.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wotton, S.; Wyllie, K

    2000-03-11

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based on an electrostatically focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of {approx}5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The performance of full-scale prototypes equipped with 61-pixel anodes and external analogue readout is presented. The average signal-to-noise ratio is {approx}11 with a peaking time of 1.2 {mu}s. The tube active-to-total surface ratio is 81.7%, which meets the LHCb requirements. The spatial precision is measured to be better than 90 {mu}m. A cluster of three such tubes has been installed in the LHCb RICH 1 prototype where Cherenkov gas rings have been successfully detected. Progress towards the encapsulation of new pixel electronics into a tube is also reported. In particular, the status of the development of a binary readout chip with a peaking time of 25 ns and a low and uniform detection threshold is summarized.

  18. Comparative performance of UASB and anaerobic hybrid reactors for the treatment of complex phenolic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2012-11-01

    The performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR) was investigated for the treatment of simulated coal wastewater containing toxic phenolics at different hydraulic retention times (0.75-0.33d). Fast start-up and granulation of biomass could be achieved in an AHR (45d) than UASB (58d) reactor. Reduction of HRT from 1.5 to 0.33d resulted in a decline in phenolics removal efficiency from 99% to 77% in AHR and 95% to 68% in UASB reactor respectively. AHR could withstand 2.5 times the selected phenolics loading compared to UASB reactor that could not withstand even 1.2 times the selected phenolics loading. Residence time distribution (RTD) study revealed a plug flow regime in the AHR and completely mixed regime in UASB reactor respectively. Energy economics of the reactors revealed that 12,159MJd(-1) more energy can be generated using AHR than UASB reactor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance Enhancement of Hybrid Solar Cells via Surface Modification with Diluted P3HT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, E L; Yap, C C; Yahaya, M; Salleh, M M

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification of ZnO nanorods with diluted P3HT in inverted hybrid solar cell was studied. ZnO nanorods were grown on ZnO nanoparticles-coated FTO substrate via chemical bath deposition. 0.2 mM solution of Eosin-Y was spin-coated onto ZnO nanorods at a spinning speed of 1000 rpm for 60 s. Diluted P3HT (0.5 mg/ml) was then coated on ZnO nanorods by using two different methods, namely spin coating and immersion technique. The fabrication process was followed by depositing P3HT from a 25 mg/ml solution. A device without surface modification was also made for comparison. The structure of the devices was FTO / Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorods/P3HT/Ag. The optical properties of the samples were investigated and the devices performance was characterized by IV measurement under 100 mW/cm 2 simulated AM 1.5G sunlight. It was found that device coated with diluted P3HT via immersion method showed the highest efficiency, followed by without surface modification and that coated with diluted P3HT using spin coating method.

  20. Surface design and engineering of hierarchical hybrid nanostructures for asymmetric supercapacitors with improved electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Demetra S; Hatton, T Alan

    2015-06-01

    With the current rising world demand for energy sufficiency, there is an increased necessity for the development of efficient energy storage devices. To address these needs, the scientific community has focused on the improvement of the electrochemical properties of the most well known energy storage devices; the Li-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors. Despite the fact that supercapacitors exhibit high power densities, good reversibility and long cycle life, they still exhibit lower energy densities than batteries, which limit their practical application. Various strategies have been employed to circumvent this problem, specifically targetting an increase in the specific capacitance and the broadening of the potential window of operation of these systems. In recent years, sophisticated surface design and engineering of hierarchical hybrid nanostructures has facilitated significant improvements in the specific and volumetric storage capabilities of supercapacitors. These nanostructured electrodes exhibit higher surface areas for ion adsorption and reduced ion diffusion lengths for the electrolyte ions. Significant advances have also been achieved in broadening the electrochemical window of operation of these systems, as realized via the development of asymmetric two-electrode cells consisting of nanocomposite positive and negative electrodes with complementary electrochemical windows, which operate in environmentally benign aqueous media. We provide an overview of the diverse approaches, in terms of chemistry and nanoscale architecture, employed recently for the development of asymmetric supercapacitors of improved electrochemical performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.