WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid passenger vehicle

  1. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

  2. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  3. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  4. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  5. Modeling and design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems for passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Theo; Steinbuch, Maarten; Van Dritten, Roëll; Serrarens, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Designing a hybrid drive train implies, that choices have to be made regarding the drive train structure, component technologies, and - sizes. Designing an appropriate Energy Management Strategy (EMS), that facilitates the usage of the chosen components and drive train structure to its best

  6. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  7. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject to... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5...

  8. Is passenger vehicle incompatibility still a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Nolan, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Passenger cars often are at a disadvantage when colliding with light trucks (sport utility vehicles [SUVs] and pickups) due to differences in mass, vehicle structural alignment, and stiffness. In 2003, vehicle manufacturers agreed to voluntary measures to improve compatibility, especially in front-to-front and front-to-side crashes, with full adherence to be achieved by September 2009. This study examined whether fatality rates are consistent with the expected benefit of this agreement. Analyses examined 2 death rates for 1- to 4-year-old passenger vehicles during 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 in the United States: occupant deaths per million registered vehicle years in these vehicles and deaths in other cars that collided with these vehicles in 2-vehicle crashes per million registered vehicle years. These rates were computed for each study period and for cars/minivans (referred to as cars), SUVs, and pickups by curb weight (in 500-pound increments). The latter death rate, referred to as the car crash partner death rate, also was computed for front-to-front crashes and front-to-side crashes where the front of the 1- to 4-year-old vehicle struck the side of the partner car. In both study periods, occupant death rates generally decreased for each vehicle type both with increasing curb weight and over time. SUVs experienced the greatest declines compared with cars and pickups. This is due in part to the early fitment of electronic stability control in SUVs, which drastically reduced the incidence of single-vehicle rollover crashes. Pickups had the highest death rates in both study periods. Car crash partner death rates generally declined over time for all vehicle categories but more steeply for SUVs and pickups colliding with cars than for cars colliding with cars. In fact, the car crash partner death rates for SUVs and cars were nearly identical during 2008-2009, suggesting that the voluntary design changes for compatibility have been effective. Car crash partner death

  9. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Alternative Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Cihat Onat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable transportation and mobility are key components and central to sustainable development. This research aims to reveal the macro-level social, economic, and environmental impacts of alternative vehicle technologies in the U.S. The studied vehicle technologies are conventional gasoline, hybrid, plug-in hybrid with four different all-electric ranges, and full battery electric vehicles (BEV. In total, 19 macro level sustainability indicators are quantified for a scenario in which electric vehicles are charged through the existing U.S. power grid with no additional infrastructure, and an extreme scenario in which electric vehicles are fully charged with solar charging stations. The analysis covers all life cycle phases from the material extraction, processing, manufacturing, and operation phases to the end-of-life phases of vehicles and batteries. Results of this analysis revealed that the manufacturing phase is the most influential phase in terms of socio-economic impacts compared to other life cycle phases, whereas operation phase is the most dominant phase in the terms of environmental impacts and some of the socio-economic impacts such as human health and economic cost of emissions. Electric vehicles have less air pollution cost and human health impacts compared to conventional gasoline vehicles. The economic cost of emissions and human health impact reduction potential can be up to 45% and 35%, respectively, if electric vehicles are charged through solar charging stations. Electric vehicles have potential to generate income for low and medium skilled workers in the U.S. In addition to quantified sustainability indicators, some sustainability metrics were developed to compare relative sustainability performance alternative passenger vehicles. BEV has the lowest greenhouse gas emissions and ecological land footprint per $ of its contribution to the U.S. GDP, and has the lowest ecological footprint per unit of its energy consumption. The

  10. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  11. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  12. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  13. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  14. Safety of railroad passenger vehicle dynamics : OMNISIM simulation and test correlations for passenger rail cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...

  15. Effects of vehicle power on passenger vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hu, Wen

    2017-07-04

    During the past 2 decades, there have been large increases in mean horsepower and the mean horsepower-to-vehicle weight ratio for all types of new passenger vehicles in the United States. This study examined the relationship between travel speeds and vehicle power, defined as horsepower per 100 pounds of vehicle weight. Speed cameras measured travel speeds and photographed license plates and drivers of passenger vehicles traveling on roadways in Northern Virginia during daytime off-peak hours in spring 2013. The driver licensing agencies in the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia provided vehicle information numbers (VINs) by matching license plate numbers with vehicle registration records and provided the age, gender, and ZIP code of the registered owner(s). VINs were decoded to obtain the curb weight and horsepower of vehicles. The study focused on 26,659 observed vehicles for which information on horsepower was available and the observed age and gender of drivers matched vehicle registration records. Log-linear regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on mean travel speeds, and logistic regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on the likelihood of a vehicle traveling over the speed limit and more than 10 mph over the limit. After controlling for driver characteristics, speed limit, vehicle type, and traffic volume, a 1-unit increase in vehicle power was associated with a 0.7% increase in mean speed, a 2.7% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the speed limit by any amount, and an 11.6% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the limit by 10 mph. All of these increases were highly significant. Speeding persists as a major factor in crashes in the United States. There are indications that travel speeds have increased in recent years. The current findings suggest the trend toward substantially more powerful vehicles may be contributing to higher speeds. Given the strong association between travel speed and crash

  16. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  17. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  18. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY PASSENGER CAR WITH USING OF NON-ELECTRICAL HYBRID DRIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Skrucany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only electrical hybrid technology is used for drivetrain of passenger cars. Also other systems using non-electrical principles (hydraulic or air pressure, mechanical energy storage can be found in current vehicles. There is a quantification of the spared energy by using a hybrid vehicle in the paper. Driving cy-cle ECE 15 was chosen as a platform for simulation of driving resistances.

  19. USING OF NON-CONVENTIONAL FUELS IN HYBRID VEHICLE DRIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Barta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric or hybrid vehicles are becoming increasingly common on roads. While electric vehicles are still more or less intended for city traffic, hybrid vehicles allow normal use due to wider driving range. The use of internal combustion engines in hybrid drives is still an inspiration to find the way to reduce the produc-tion of emissions. Numbers of alternative energy resources were studied as a substitution of conventional fuels for hybrid vehicles drives worldwide. The paper deals with the possibility of using alternative fuels as CNG, LPG and LNG in combination with hybrid drive of a midibus with the capacity of 20 passengers. Various aspects and techniques of hybrid vehicles from energy management system, propulsion system and using of various alternative fuels are explored in this paper. Other related fields of hybrid vehicles such as changes of vehicle weight or influence of electric energy sources on the total vehicle emission production are also included.

  20. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  1. Research on the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanglei; Cao, Jianxiao; Liu, Tao; Yang, Na; Zhao, Hongguang

    2017-05-01

    To study the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof, this paper makes the simulation test on the static collapse of the passenger vehicle roof and analyzes the stress and deformation of the vehicle roof under pressure in accordance with the Roof Crush Resistance of Passenger Cars (GB26134-2010). It studies the optimization on the major stressed parts, pillar A, pillar B and the rail of roof, during the static collapse process of passenger vehicle roof. The result shows that the thickness of pillar A and the roof rail has significant influence on the compressive strength of the roof while that of pillar B has minor influence on the compressive strength of the roof.

  2. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    modifications of the timetable during the vehicle scheduling phase. This planning approach is referred to as the Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is solved using a large neighbourhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. We propose a planning approach which seeks to obtain a favorable trade-off between the conflicting objectives passenger service and operating cost, by allowing some moderate...

  3. Gasoline hybrid pneumatic engine for efficient vehicle powertrain hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The largest applied convertors in passenger cars are the internal combustion engines – gasoline, diesel, adapted also for operating on alternative fuels and hybrid modes. The number of components that are necessary to realize modern future propulsion system is inexorably increasing. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the compressed air is investigated as an innovative solu...

  4. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  5. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  6. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  7. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  8. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2013-01-01

    , by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost...

  9. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovovic, Vladimir [Gentherm Incorporated, Azusa, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Gentherm began work in October 2011 to develop a Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. Partners in this program were BMW and Tenneco. Tenneco, in the role of TIER 1 supplier, developed the system-level packaging of the thermoelectric power generator. As the OEM, BMW Group demonstrated the TEG system in their vehicle in the final program phase. Gentherm demonstrated the performance of the TEG in medium duty and heavy duty vehicles. Technology developed and demonstrated in this program showed potential to reduce fuel consumption in medium and heavy duty vehicles. In light duty vehicles it showed more modest potential.

  10. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  11. The Hybrid Airline Model. Generating Quality for Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different strategies adopted by the airline companies in adapting to the ongoing changes while developing products and services for passengers in order to increase their yield, load factor and passenger satisfaction. Finding a balance between costs and services quality in the airline industry is a crucial task for every airline wanting to gain a competitive advantage on the market. Also, the rise of the hybrid business operating model has brought up many challenges for airlines as the line between legacy carriers and low-cost carriers is getting thinner in terms of costs and innovative ideas to create a superior product for the passengers.

  12. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of...) instituted investigation No. 332-523, U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES... concluded negotiations to modify the FTA, including certain provisions relating to the passenger vehicle...

  13. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However...

  15. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with which...

  16. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  17. The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ≈67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

  18. Stocks, Flows, and Distribution of Critical Metals in Embedded Electronics in Passenger Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Eliette; Løvik, Amund N; Wäger, Patrick; Widmer, Rolf; Lonka, Radek; Müller, Daniel B

    2017-02-07

    One of the major applications of critical metals (CMs) is in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), which is increasingly embedded in other products, notably passenger vehicles. However, recycling strategies for future CM quantities in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) are poorly understood, mainly due to a limited understating of the complexity of automotive embedded EEE. We introduce a harmonization of the network structure of automotive electronics that enables a comprehensive quantification of CMs in all embedded EEE in a vehicle. This network is combined with a material flow analysis along the vehicle lifecycle in Switzerland to quantify the stocks and flows of Ag, Au, Pd, Ru, Dy, La, Nd, and Co in automotive embedded EEE. In vehicles in use, we calculated 5 -2 +3 t precious metals in controllers embedded in all vehicle types and 220 -60 +90 t rare earth elements (REE); found mainly in five electric motors: alternator, starter, radiator-fan and electronic power steering motor embedded in conventional passenger vehicles and drive motor/generator embedded in hybrid and electric vehicles. Dismantling these devices before ELV shredding, as well as postshredder treatment of automobile shredder residue may increase the recovery of CMs from ELVs. Environmental and economic implications of such recycling strategies must be considered.

  19. Stress analysis on passenger deck due to modification from passenger ship to vehicle-carrying ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaydi, A.; Sujiatanti, S. H.; Hariyanto, T. R.

    2018-03-01

    Stress is a basic concept in learning about material mechanism. The main focus that needs to be brought to attention in analyzing stress is strength, which is the structural capacity to carry or distribute loads. The structural capacity not only measured by comparing the maximum stress with the material’s yield strength but also with the permissible stress required by the Indonesian Classification Bureau (BKI), which certainly makes it much safer. This final project analyzes stress in passenger deck that experiences modification due to load changes, from passenger load to vehicle one, carrying: 6-wheels truck with maximum weight of 14 tons, a passenger car with maximum weight of 3.5 tons, and a motorcycle with maximum weight of 0.4 tons. The deck structure is modelled using finite element software. The boundary conditions given to the structural model are fix and simple constraint. The load that works on this deck is the deck load which comes from the vehicles on deck with three vehicles’ arrangement plans. After that, software modelling is conducted for analysis purpose. Analysis result shows a variation of maximum stress that occurs i.e. 135 N/mm2, 133 N/mm2, and 152 N/mm2. Those maximum stresses will not affect the structure of passenger deck’s because the maximum stress that occurs indicates smaller value compared to the Indonesian Classification Bureau’s permissible stress (175 N/mm2) as well as the material’s yield strength (235 N/mm2). Thus, the structural strength of passenger deck is shown to be capable of carrying the weight of vehicles in accordance with the three vehicles’ arrangement plans.

  20. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations How Hybrid Electric Vehicles Work Hybrid electric vehicles combine a primary power source, an energy storage system, and an is used to propel the vehicle during normal drive cycles. The batteries supply additional power for

  1. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor...

  2. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume VI. Cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, K.S.

    1979-09-30

    The purpose of the cost analysis is to determine the economic feasibility of a variety of hybrid vehicles with respect to conventional vehicles specifically designed for the same duty cycle defined by the mission analysis. Several different hybrid configurations including parallel, parallel-flywheel, and series vehicles were evaluated. The ramifications of incorporating examples of advanced batteries, these being the advanced lead-acid, nickel-zinc, and sodium sulfur were also investigated. Vehicles were specifically designed with these batteries and for the driving cycles specified by the mission. Simulated operation on the missions yielded the energy consumption (petroleum and/or electricity) over the driving cycles. It was concluded that: in the event that gasoline prices reach $2.50 to $3.00/gal, hybrid vehicles in many applications will become economically competitive with conventional vehicles without subsidization; in some commercial applications hybrid vehicles could be economically competitive, when the gasoline price ranges from $1.20 to $1.50/gal. The cost per kWh per cycle of the advanced batteries is much more important economically than the specific energy; the series hybrid vehicles were found to be more expensive in comparison to the parallel or parallel-flywheel hybrids when designed as passenger vehicles; and hybrid vehicles designed for private use could become economically competitive and displace up to 50% of the fuel normally used on that mission if subsidies of $500 to $2000 were supplied to the owner/operator. (LCL)

  3. Designing interior space for drivers of passenger vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Brkić Vesna K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a review of our previous papers with certain improvements, so it proves the hypothesis that passenger vehicles are still not sufficiently adapted to man in terms of ergonomics, especially from the aspect of interior space. In the ergonomic adjustment of passenger vehicles, the limits of anthropomeasures and technical limitations, are the most important. The methodology mainly uses operative investigations, and the 'man-vehicle' system is optimized within existing limitations. Here, we also explain original methodology for modeling that space. The fact that there is a point '0' as the origin point of a coordinate system with x, y and z axes of the man-vehicle system, which can be considered to be more or less fixed, enabled us to determine more accurately the mechanical and mathematical codependence in this system. The paper also proves that the anthropomeasures of length have mechanical and mathematical functions which also determine the width, i.e. all three dimensions and provides the design of the space behind the windscreen glass, the position of the steering wheel and the position of the foot commands with space for feet and knees determined, as well as the total space which the driver occupies. It is proved that the floor-ceiling height of a vehicle is primarily affected by the anthropomeasures of seating height and lower leg, while width is affected by the anthropomeasures of lower and upper leg and only then by shoulder width, so that the interior space for the driver of a passenger vehicle is 1250 mm and the width for knees spread at seat level is 926 mm maximum.

  4. Environmental and Financial Evaluation of Passenger Vehicle Technologies in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Messagie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles with alternative drive trains are regarded as a promising substitute for conventional cars, considering the growing concern about oil depletion and the environmental impact of our transportation system. However, “clean” technologies will only be viable when they are cost-efficient. In this paper, the environmental impacts and the financial costs of different vehicle technologies are calculated for an average Belgian driver. Environmentally friendly vehicles are compared with conventional petrol and diesel vehicles. The assessments are done from a life cycle perspective. The effect on human health, resources and ecosystems is considered when calculating the environmental impact. The total cost of ownership (TCO model includes the purchase price, registration and road taxes, insurance, fuel or electricity cost, maintenance, tires replacement, technical control, battery leasing and battery replacement. In the presented analysis different vehicle technologies and fuels are compared (petrol, diesel, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, battery electric vehicles (BEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs on their level of environmental impact and cost per kilometer. The analysis shows a lower environmental impact for electric vehicles. However, electric vehicles have a higher total cost of ownership compared to conventional vehicles, even though the fuel operating costs are significantly lower. The purchase cost of electric vehicles is highly linked to the size of the battery pack, and not to the size of the electric vehicle. This explains the relative high cost for the electric city cars and the comparable cost for the medium and premium cars.

  5. Child passengers injured in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara

    2015-02-01

    During 2010, 171,000 children aged 0-14 were injured in motor vehicle crashes. Despite the severity of the problem, research has been limited, and most of what we know about these children emanates from fatal crash databases. Using information from the General Estimates System, this effort examines the occurrence of non-fatal crashes among children aged 0-14 over the last decade. We found that about 1% of the non-injured children in the file had been driven by a driver who was positive for alcohol. This percentage climbed to about 2% among children who had suffered injuries. Compared with the proportion of alcohol-positive drivers at the time of the crash, the proportion of drivers who sped or failed to obey a traffic signal was significantly higher. The finding that drinking and driving with children did not decrease over time questions the adequacy of the extant child endangerment laws. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications The following technical papers, conference papers, and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hybrid electric fleet vehicle Class 8 Hybrid Electric Delivery Trucks. Mike Lammert. (2011) FedEx Delivery Trucks In-Use and Vehicle

  7. Modeling Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure to Support Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Muratori

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 2014 marked hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs first becoming commercially available in California, where significant investments are being made to promote the adoption of alternative transportation fuels. A refueling infrastructure network that guarantees adequate coverage and expands in line with vehicle sales is required for FCEVs to be successfully adopted by private customers. In this paper, we provide an overview of modelling methodologies used to project hydrogen refueling infrastructure requirements to support FCEV adoption, and we describe, in detail, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s scenario evaluation and regionalization analysis (SERA model. As an example, we use SERA to explore two alternative scenarios of FCEV adoption: one in which FCEV deployment is limited to California and several major cities in the United States; and one in which FCEVs reach widespread adoption, becoming a major option as passenger vehicles across the entire country. Such scenarios can provide guidance and insights for efforts required to deploy the infrastructure supporting transition toward different levels of hydrogen use as a transportation fuel for passenger vehicles in the United States.

  8. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  9. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  10. Natural gas passenger vehicles: challenges and way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahari, B. B.; Hamouda, A. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas vehicles have been used in the world for many years: at present, there are about 3 million vehicles running on natural gas and many governments and vehicle manufactures are involved in programs for further developing the market for natural gas vehicles. In comparison to other forms of energy for vehicles, natural gas (NG) engenders low pressures on the environment. At the same time, because of its technical characteristics, NG is very suitable for motor use. The economic advantage of converting a vehicles (NGVs) would be expected to attract the interest of a great number of people, and achieve rapid and widespread diffusion. On the contrary, traditional fuels still dominate the scene, and show no sign of going out of fashion. The use of natural gas as automotive fuel has become of national and worldwide interests particularly so with the recent increase in petrol price, depleting petrol reserves and stringent control of exhaust emission levels. For automotive applications, shifting from petrol to gas needs technological research and development. Within the framework of the reciprocating piston based engine this development is very challenging with technological issues of low range, refueling infrastructure, heavy fuel storage, safety, emissions control and gas operating pressures. Other issues include available expertise and experience in research management. This paper describes the advances being made with passenger vehicles natural gas engines worldwide and in Malaysia more specific. The significant milestones in the development of NGV in Malaysia and the rationale behind the choice of NGV industry including the NGV vehicle population growth, the development of service station as well as the expansion of the sales volume will be illustrated. The presentation presents also development stages and advances in development, fabrication and testing a Compressed Natural Gas Direct Injection vehicle and NGV refueling station. This presentation discuses the

  11. Meeting U.S. passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in 2016 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, Lynette; Heywood, John

    2011-01-01

    New fuel economy standards require new U.S. passenger vehicles to achieve at least 34.1 miles per gallon (MPG) on average by model year 2016, up from 28.8 MPG today. In this paper, the magnitude, combinations and timings of the changes required in U.S. vehicles that are necessary in order to meet the new standards, as well as a target of doubling the fuel economy within the next two decades are explored. Scenarios of future vehicle characteristics and sales mix indicate that the 2016 mandate is aggressive, requiring significant changes starting from today. New vehicles must forgo horsepower improvements, become lighter, and a greater number will use advanced, more fuel-efficient powertrains, such as smaller turbocharged engines, hybrid-electric drives. Achieving a factor-of-two increase in fuel economy by 2030 is also challenging, but more feasible since the auto industry will have more lead time to respond. A discussion on the feasibility of meeting the new fuel economy mandate is included, considering vehicle production planning realities and challenges in deploying new vehicle technologies into the market. - Research Highlights: → The new 2016 fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles in the U.S. can be met, but are aggressive. → Future vehicles must forgo horsepower improvements, become lighter, and a greater number will use advanced, more fuel efficient powertrains. → The challenge of meeting the fuel economy targets is defined by both the magnitude and the timing of these requirements. → Doubling the fuel economy by 2030 is also challenging, but more feasible since the auto industry will have more lead time to respond.

  12. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A wide variety of hybrid electric vehicle models is currently available. Although HEVs are often -go traffic), further improving fuel economy. Mild hybrid systems cannot power the vehicle using Hybrid Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric

  14. All Electric Passenger Vehicle Sales in India by 2030: Value proposition to Electric Utilities, Government, and Vehicle Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheppard, Colin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    In India, there is growing interest among policymakers, planners, and regulators for aggressive electrification of passenger vehicles. For example, Piyush Goyal, the Minister of State for India’s Ministry of Coal, Power, New and Renewable Energy, announced an aspirational goal of converting all vehicle sales in India to battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by 2030 (Economic Times, 2016). In 2012, India has already announced the National Mission on Electric Mobility (NMEM) sets a countrywide goal of deploying 6 to 7 million hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) by 2020 (DHI, 2012). A major policy motivation for transport electrification is to reduce India’s oil import dependency. The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of full electrification of vehicle sales in India by 2030 on the key stakeholders such as BEV owners, electric utilities, and the government. Specifically, we attempt to answer the following questions: (a) How does the total vehicle ownership cost of BEVs compare with the conventional vehicles? (b) What is the additional load due BEV charging? (c) What is the impact on the power sector investments, costs, and utility revenue? (d) How can smart BEV charging help renewable energy grid integration? (e) What is the impact on the crude oil imports? (f) What is the impact on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions?

  15. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  16. Real world CO2 and NOx emissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Rosalind; Stettler, Marc E J; Molden, Nick; Oxley, Tim; ApSimon, Helen M

    2018-04-15

    In this study CO 2 and NO x emissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars were compared using a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS). The models sampled accounted for 56% of all passenger cars sold in Europe in 2016. We found gasoline vehicles had CO 2 emissions 13-66% higher than diesel. During urban driving, the average CO 2 emission factor was 210.5 (sd. 47) gkm -1 for gasoline and 170.2 (sd. 34) gkm -1 for diesel. Half the gasoline vehicles tested were Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI). Euro 6 GDI engines cars. The average urban NO x emission from Euro 6 diesel vehicles 0.44 (sd. 0.44) gkm -1 was 11 times higher than for gasoline 0.04 (sd. 0.04) gkm -1 . We also analysed two gasoline-electric hybrids which out-performed both gasoline and diesel for NO x and CO 2 . We conclude action is required to mitigate the public health risk created by excessive NO x emissions from modern diesel vehicles. Replacing diesel with gasoline would incur a substantial CO 2 penalty, however greater uptake of hybrid vehicles would likely reduce both CO 2 and NO x emissions. Discrimination of vehicles on the basis of Euro standard is arbitrary and incentives should promote vehicles with the lowest real-world emissions of both NO x and CO 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Overview of hybrid electric vehicle trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haomiao; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Yingshu; Wang, Yun

    2018-04-01

    With the increase of per capita energy consumption, environmental pollution is worsening. Using new alternative sources of energy, reducing the use of conventional fuel-powered engines is imperative. Due to the short period, pure electric vehicles cannot be mass-produced and there are many problems such as imperfect charging facilities. Therefore, the development of hybrid electric vehicles is particularly important in a certain period. In this paper, the classification of hybrid vehicle, research status of hybrid vehicle and future development trends of hybrid vehicles is introduced. It is conducive to the public understanding of hybrid electric vehicles, which has a certain theoretical significance.

  18. Motorcycle crashes potentially preventable by three crash avoidance technologies on passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R

    2018-07-04

    The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the motorcycle crash population that would be potential beneficiaries of 3 crash avoidance technologies recently available on passenger vehicles. Two-vehicle crashes between a motorcycle and a passenger vehicle that occurred in the United States during 2011-2015 were classified by type, with consideration of the functionality of 3 classes of passenger vehicle crash avoidance technologies: frontal crash prevention, lane maintenance, and blind spot detection. Results were expressed as the percentage of crashes potentially preventable by each type of technology, based on all known types of 2-vehicle crashes and based on all crashes involving motorcycles. Frontal crash prevention had the largest potential to prevent 2-vehicle motorcycle crashes with passenger vehicles. The 3 technologies in sum had the potential to prevent 10% of fatal 2-vehicle crashes and 23% of police-reported crashes. However, because 2-vehicle crashes with a passenger vehicle represent fewer than half of all motorcycle crashes, these technologies represent a potential to avoid 4% of all fatal motorcycle crashes and 10% of all police-reported motorcycle crashes. Refining the ability of passenger vehicle crash avoidance systems to detect motorcycles represents an opportunity to improve motorcycle safety. Expanding the capabilities of these technologies represents an even greater opportunity. However, even fully realizing these opportunities can affect only a minority of motorcycle crashes and does not change the need for other motorcycle safety countermeasures such as helmets, universal helmet laws, and antilock braking systems.

  19. The development of hybrid vehicles for the Indian market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhera, R.; Srinivas, A. [Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd., Mumbai (India); Ellinger, R.; Sattler, M. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    The passenger vehicle market in India continues to witness a steady growth rate and expected to do so in the future. While the growth rate is primarily driven by the conventional Internal Combustion based engines, Indian automotive industry is exploring various technological options to comply imminent regulations, remain competitive, reduce emissions and ownership cost. Based on the road trials conducted in various parts of India and subsequent analysis of the traffic characteristics, Hybrid Electric Vehicle promises to be appropriate technology for the near future so as to improve fuel efficiency, performance and reduced emissions. Mahindra and Mahindra has established a clear roadmap for development of HEV. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV's) are seen as a major technology route in order to fulfill future automotive demands with regard to fuel efficiency, emissions, performance and drivability. Mahindra and Mahindra has therefore set-up a clear strategy and roadmap for the development and implementation of HEV's in their product portfolio. The development of hybrid electrical vehicle is also confronted by numerous technical challenges such as Thermal Management, Safety Concept, durability requirements and Noise vibration and Harshness. Also the cost-effectiveness needs to be ensured so as to have a bright market penetration and a viable business. This lecture covers the passenger vehicle sales statistics in India, prevailing traffic characteristics in various types of roads, environmental boundaries and challenges encountered for Indian Market. (orig.)

  20. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    III Composite 4.3% Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV...eliminating the inefficiencies associated with idling, vehicle braking and low engine speed part load efficiency, many improvements can be realized...literature. They can be divided into the following two categories : (1) Time dependent speed profiles, shown in Figure 4, usually defined by the federal

  1. 76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) regarding the calculation of average passenger weights and test vehicle... passenger weights and actual transit vehicle loads. Specifically, FTA proposed to change the average...

  2. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  3. Thermal management of hybrid vehicles. Challenges and solutions; Thermomanagement von Hybridfahrzeugen. Herausforderungen und Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckenberger, T. [Behr GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Higher thermal management demands are placed on hybrid vehicles than on conventional vehicles. The thermal comfort of the passengers must be assured when the combustion engine shuts down, i.e. during start-stop phases and during purely electric driving. Likewise, the particular hybrid modules and components must be cooled to temperature levels that are too low for conventional cooling circuits. Behr is presently developing cooling and climate control systems for all three types of hybrid vehicles: micro-, mild, and full hybrids. (orig.)

  4. The environmental performance of current and future passenger vehicles: Life cycle assessment based on a novel scenario analysis framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian; Hofer, Johannes; Althaus, Hans-Jörg; Del Duce, Andrea; Simons, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We perform Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of current and future passenger vehicles. • We include gasoline, diesel and natural gas as well as battery and fuel cell cars. • An integrated vehicle simulation framework guarantees consistency. • Only electric cars with “clean” electricity and H_2 allow for pollution mitigation. • Complete LCA is mandatory for environmental evaluation of vehicle technologies. - Abstract: This paper contains an evaluation of the environmental performance of a comprehensive set of current and future mid-size passenger vehicles. We present a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based on a novel integrated vehicle simulation framework, which allows for consistency in vehicle parameter settings and consideration of future technological progress. Conventional and hybrid gasoline, diesel and natural gas cars as well as battery and fuel cell electric vehicles (BEV and FCV) are analyzed, taking into account electricity and hydrogen production chains from fossil, nuclear and renewable energy resources. Our results show that a substantial mitigation of climate change can be obtained with electric passenger vehicles, provided that non-fossil energy resources are used for electricity and hydrogen production. However, in terms of other environmental burdens such as acidification, particulate matter formation, and toxicity, BEV may in some cases and FCV are likely to perform worse than modern fossil fueled cars as a consequence of emissions along vehicle and fuel production chains. Therefore, the electrification of road transportation should be accompanied by an integration of life cycle management in vehicle manufacturing chains as well as energy and transport policies in order to counter potential environmental drawbacks.

  5. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  6. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-09-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  7. Thermal simulation of a cooling system of hybrid commercial vehicles; Thermalsimulation eine Hybrid-LKW-Kuehlsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, Christoph; Schnoerch, Stefan; Rathberger, Christian [Magna Powertrain Engineering Center Steyr GmbH und Co. KG, St. Valentin (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    In the past few years hybrid vehicles have been in the center of automotive engineering efforts, in particular in the field of passenger cars. But hybrid powertrains will also be important for commercial trucks. This focus on hybrid vehicles leads to high demands on thermal management since the additional components in a hybrid vehicle need appropriate cooling or even heating. In the given paper the simulation of a complete cooling system of a hybrid commercial vehicle will be explained. For this virtual examination the commercial 1D thermal management software KULI will be used, a co-simulation with several programs will not be done deliberately. Yet all aspects which are relevant for a global assessment of the thermal management are considered. The main focus is put on the investigation of appropriate concepts for the fluid circuits, including low and high temperature circuits, electric water pumps, etc. Moreover, also a refrigerant circuit with a chiller for active battery cooling will be used, the appropriate control strategy is implemented as well. For simulating transient profiles a simple driving simulation model is included, using road profile, ambient conditions, and various vehicle parameters as input. In addition an engine model is included which enables the investigation of fuel consumption potentials. This simulation model shows how the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle can be investigated with a single program and with reasonable effort. (orig.)

  8. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  9. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  10. The future of hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangraefschepe, F.; Menegazzi, P.

    2004-12-15

    This new demand from the U.S. market is being taken very seriously by key players in the field. GM and Daimler Chrysler have announced an alliance for the joint development of a hybrid vehicle scheduled to reach the market by 2007. Development projects of this type will require capital investment of several hundred million dollars over the period. Given that it is now imperative to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the hybrid vehicle offers a credible alternative. It is already on the market, despite the constraints inherent to a configuration combining an electric motor and an internal combustion engine, and despite the added cost. The technical choices are complex and varied, depending on the objectives: potential CO{sub 2} emissions gains range from a few percentage points to over 45%, depending on the engine/motor architecture. The gasoline hybrid vehicle is emerging as an alternative to the diesel engine, especially in Japan and the United States, but its growth will depend on the ability of the motor industry to reduce the added cost.

  11. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles.

  12. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  13. Research overview : design specifications for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a method is proposed for determination of the design specifications regarding the energy exchange systems for different chargesustaining hybrid vehicles of different vehicle classes. Hybrid drivetrains for vehicles combine multiple power sources in order to increase the driving

  14. Bridge Condition Assessment based on Vibration Responses of Passenger Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Yabe, Akito

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of assessing the condition of existing short- and medium-span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges based on vibration monitoring data obtained from a public bus. This paper not only describes details of a prototype monitoring system that uses information technology and sensors capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance than conventional ways but also shows a few specific examples of bridge condition assessment based on vehicle vibrations measured by using an in-service public bus equipped with vibration measurement instrumentation. This paper also describes a sensitivity analysis of deteriorating bridges based on simulation of the acceleration response of buses conducted by the 'substructure method' employing a finite element model to verify the above bridge performance results. The main conclusions obtained in this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Because the vibration responses of passenger vehicles, such as buses, have a good linear relationship with the vibration responses of the target bridges, the proposed system can be used as a practical monitoring system for bridge condition assessment. (2) The results of sensitivity analysis performed by the substructure method show that bus vibration responses are useful for evaluating target bridge performance. (3) The proposed method was applied to a network of real bridges in a local area to evaluate its effectiveness. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to prioritize the repair/strengthening works of existing bridges based on various vibration information in order to help bridge administrators establish rational maintenance strategies.

  15. Are the Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gases from Passenger Vehicles Negative?

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Ian W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Energy models suggest that the cost of reducing carbon emissions from the transportation sector is high relative to other sectors, such as electricity generation. However, this paper shows that taxes to reduce passenger vehicle emissions produce large net benefits, rather than costs, when account is taken of (a) their impact on reducing non-carbon externalities from passenger vehicle use, and (b) interactions with the broader fiscal system. Both of these considerations also strengthen the cas...

  16. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Heather; Park, Haram; Paolini, Maion

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used f...

  17. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L H [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  18. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To

  19. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Imagine being able to one that's in a standard hybrid electric vehicle. The larger battery pack allows plug-in hybrids to between fill-ups) that's very similar to the range of a conventional vehicle. A plug-in hybrid vehicle's

  20. Design optimisation of a flywheel hybrid vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, D.B.

    1999-11-04

    This thesis describes the design optimisation of a flywheel hybrid vehicle with respect to fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. The driveline of this passenger car uses two power sources: a small spark ignition internal combustion engine with three-way catalyst, and a highspeed flywheel system for kinetic energy storage. A custom-made continuously variable transmission (CVT) with so-called i{sup 2} control transports energy between these power sources and the vehicle wheels. The driveline includes auxiliary systems for hydraulic, vacuum and electric purposes. In this fully mechanical driveline, parasitic energy losses determine the vehicle's fuel saving potential to a large extent. Practicable energy loss models have been derived to quantify friction losses in bearings, gearwheels, the CVT, clutches and dynamic seals. In addition, the aerodynamic drag in the flywheel system and power consumption of auxiliaries are charted. With the energy loss models available, a calculation procedure is introduced to optimise the flywheel as a subsystem in which the rotor geometry, the safety containment, and the vacuum system are designed for minimum energy use within the context of automotive applications. A first prototype of the flywheel system was tested experimentally and subsequently redesigned to improve rotordynamics and safety aspects. Coast-down experiments with the improved version show that the energy losses have been lowered significantly. The use of a kinetic energy storage device enables the uncoupling of vehicle wheel power and engine power. Therefore, the engine can be smaller and it can be chosen to operate in its region of best efficiency in start-stop mode. On a test-rig, the measured engine fuel consumption was reduced with more than 30 percent when the engine is intermittently restarted with the aid of the flywheel system. Although the start-stop mode proves to be advantageous for fuel consumption, exhaust gas emissions increase temporarily

  1. Sled Tests Using the Hybrid III Rail Safety ATD and Workstation Tables for Passenger Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Hybrid III Rail Safety (H3-RS) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is a crash test dummy developed in the United Kingdom to evaluate abdomen and lower thorax injuries that occur when passengers impact workstation tables during train accidents. The ...

  2. Comparing the Mass, Energy, and Cost Effects of Lightweighting in Conventional and Electric Passenger Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Johannes; Wilhelm, Erik; Schenler, Warren

    2014-01-01

    In this work the effect of weight reduction using advanced lightweight materials on the mass, energy use, and cost of conventional and battery electric passenger vehicles is compared. Analytic vehicle simulation is coupled with cost assessment to find the optimal degree of weight reduction minimizing manufacturing and total costs. The results show a strong secondary weight and cost saving potential for the battery electric vehicles, but a higher sensitivity of vehicle energy use to mass reduc...

  3. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  4. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  5. Fuel conservation and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are the main consumers of gasoline in China. We established a bottom-up model which focuses on the simulation of energy consumptions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation effects of five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, strengthening fuel consumption rate (FCR) limits, vehicle downsizing and promoting electric vehicle (EV) penetration were evaluated. Based on the combination of these measures, the fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were analyzed. Under reference scenario with no measures implemented, the fuel consumptions and life cycle GHG emissions will reach 520 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and 2.15 billion tons in 2050, about 8.1 times the level in 2010. However, substantial fuel conservation can be achieved by implementing the measures. By implementing all five measures together, the fuel consumption will reach 138 Mtoe in 2030 and decrease to 126 Mtoe in 2050, which is only 37.1% and 24.3% of the consumption under reference scenario. Similar potential lies in GHG mitigation. The results and scenarios provided references for the Chinese government’s policy-making. -- Highlights: ► We established a bottom-up model to simulate the fuel consumptions and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. ► Five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, improving fuel efficiency, vehicle downsizing and promoting EV penetration were evaluated. ► The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were provided as references for policy-making.

  6. 3 CFR - Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle and light truck tires from the People's Republic of China (China) are being imported into the... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light Truck... Presidential Determination No. 2009-28 of September 11, 2009 Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light...

  7. The Federal electric and hybrid vehicle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The commercial development and use of electric and hybrid vehicles is discussed with respect to its application as a possible alternative transportation system. A market demonstration is described that seeks to place 10,000 electric hybrid vehicles into public and private sector demonstrations.

  8. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  9. Passenger vehicles that minimize the costs of ownership and environmental damages in the Indian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Elisabeth A.; Patwardhan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Full costs (private and social) are evaluated for Indian passenger cars. • Diesel has low ownership costs, but higher climate and health damages. • Compressed natural gas cars have lower costs and damages than petrol cars. • Electric cars have higher damages due to electricity generation emissions. • CNG and less carbon intensive electricity minimizes Indian cars’ full cost. - Abstract: Rapid expansion of population and income growth in developing countries, such as India, is increasing the demand for many goods and services, including four-wheeled passenger cars. Passenger cars provide personal mobility; however, they also have negative implications for human wellbeing from increased air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, we evaluate the range of passenger vehicles available in the Indian market to identify options that minimize costs, human health effects and climate damages. Our approach is to compare alternative fuel/powertrain vehicles with similar conventional gasoline fueled vehicles and assess the differences in full (private and societal) costs for each pair. Private costs are the combination of capital costs and the discounted expected future fuel costs over the vehicle lifetime. The costs to human health from air quality are calculated using intake fractions to estimate exposure and literature values for the damage costs adjusted by benefits transfer methods. We use the Social Cost of Carbon to estimate climate damages. We find that, on average, the net present value (NPV) of the full costs of compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are lower than comparable gasoline vehicles, while, diesel vehicles have higher costs. Presently, electric vehicles have higher private costs (due to high capital costs) and societal costs (due to electricity generation emissions). Either a less carbon intensive electricity grid or an increase in the CNG fleet would minimize total costs, human health effects and GHG emissions from the

  10. Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those

  11. Trade-off results and preliminary designs of Near-Term Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program involved the development of preliminary designs of electric/heat engine hybrid passenger vehicles. The preliminary designs were developed on the basis of mission analysis, performance specification, and design trade-off studies conducted independently by four contractors. THe resulting designs involve parallel hybrid (heat engine/electric) propulsion systems with significant variation in component selection, power train layout, and control strategy. Each of the four designs is projected by its developer as having the potential to substitute electrical energy for 40% to 70% of the petroleum fuel consumed annually by its conventional counterpart.

  12. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  13. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  14. Consumption and efficiency of a passenger car with a hydrogen/oxygen PEFC based hybrid electric drivetrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F.N.; Dietrich, P.; Tsukada, A.; Koetz, R.; Freunberger, S.A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Paganelli, G.; Laurent, D.; Varenne, P.; Delfino, A.; Magne, P.A.; Walser, D.; Olsommer, D. [Conception et Developpement Michelin, Route Andre-Piller 30, CH-1762 Givisiez (Switzerland)

    2007-08-15

    The main factors for reducing the consumption of a vehicle are reduction of curb weight, air drag and increase in the drivetrain efficiency. Highly efficient drivetrains can be developed based on PEFC technology and curb weight may be limited by an innovative vehicle construction. In this paper, data on consumption and efficiency of a four-place passenger vehicle with a curb weight of 850 kg and an H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fed PEFC/Supercap hybrid electric powertrain are presented. Hydrogen consumption in the New European Driving Cycle is 0.67 kg H{sub 2}/100 km, which corresponds to a gasoline equivalent consumption of 2.5 l/100 km. When including the energy needed to supply pure oxygen, the calculated consumption increases from 0.67 to 0.69-0.79 kg H{sub 2}/100 km, depending on the method of oxygen production. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head

  16. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, J. D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M. K.; Whisler, D. J.

    1980-02-01

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were (1) an Al-air battery only electric vehicle; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  17. New fuel consumption standards for Chinese passenger vehicles and their effects on reductions of oil use and CO2 emissions of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhao; Jin Yuefu; Wang Michael; Wei Wu

    2010-01-01

    A new fuel consumption standard for passenger vehicles in China, the so-called Phase 3 standard, was approved technically in 2009 and will take effect in 2012. This standard aims to introduce advanced energy-saving technologies into passenger vehicles and to reduce the average fuel consumption rate of Chinese new passenger vehicle fleet in 2015 to 7 L/100 km. The Phase 3 standard follows the evaluating system by specifying fuel consumption targets for sixteen individual mass-based classes. Different from compliance with the Phases 1 and 2 fuel consumption standards, compliance of the Phase 3 standard is based on corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) rates for individual automobile companies. A transition period from 2012 to 2014 is designed for manufacturers to gradually adjust their production plans and introduce fuel-efficient technologies. In this paper, we, the designers of the Phase 3 standard, present the design of the overall fuel consumption reduction target, technical feasibility, and policy implications of the Phase 3 standard. We also explore several enforcement approaches for the Phase 3 standard with financial penalties of non-compliance as a priority. Finally, we estimate the overall effect of the Phase 3 standard on oil savings and CO 2 emission reductions.

  18. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on Fuel...

  19. Electric passenger and goods vehicles: A review of UK activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escombe, F.; Rawnsley, A.

    1993-01-01

    The production of electric-powered vehicles has been reduced to only a few hundred, after several thousand had been produced in Great Britain during the past five years. In the framework of this article, the different components of electric-powered vehicles are being examined regarding the economical situation: such as the vehicle itself, the batteries, the motor and the vehicle control. (BWI) [de

  20. Simulation of storage performance on hydropneumatic driveline in dual hybrid hydraulic passenger car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasbari Faizil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The charging process is one of the critical processes in the hydro-pneumatic driveline storage system. It converts the kinetic energy of the vehicle braking and coasting to the compression energy. This energy is stored in the storage device called the accumulator. The system is planned to be used on the dual hydro-pneumatic hybrid driveline and applied to a hydraulic hybrid passenger car. The aim of this paper is to find the effect of charging parameters on the storage performance through simulation. Through the storage behaviour, the desirable and optimal sizing of the accumulator can be selected. The paper emphasized on the effect of pressure elevation, pre-charge pressure, effective volume, thermal reaction and required time of the accumulator’s charging process. The circuit of charging process has been designed and simulated by using the hydraulic tool in the Automation Studio software. The simulation results were corroborated through the component specification for data rationality. Through the simulation, it was found that pre-charge pressure had a significant effect on the charging process. It determined the efficiency of the effective volume. The higher the pressure elevation, the higher the effective volume. Nevertheless, the more energy required to compress the nitrogen gas in the bladder. Besides, in term of volume displacement, higher volume displacement reduced charging time and lower the fluid temperature. The simulation had been positively highlighted the critical point in charging process which later on, benefited the sizing process in the component selection specification.

  1. Modeling and energy management control design for a fuel cell hybrid passenger bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kyle; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and supervisory energy management design of a hybrid fuel cell/battery-powered passenger bus. With growing concerns about petroleum usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector, finding alternative methods for vehicle propulsion is necessary. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are viable possibilities for energy converters due to their high efficiencies and zero emissions. It has been shown that the benefits of PEM fuel cell systems can be greatly improved through hybridization. In this work, the challenge of developing an on-board energy management strategy with near-optimal performance is addressed by a two-step process. First, an optimal control based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) is implemented to find the global optimal solution which minimizes fuel consumption, for different drive cycles, with and without grade. The optimal solutions are analyzed in order to aid in development of a practical controller suitable for on-board implementation, in the form of an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) regulator. Simulation results show that the ARMA controller is capable of achieving fuel economy within 3% of the PMP controller while being able to limit the transient demand on the fuel cell system.

  2. A Numerical Study on Rear-spoiler of Passenger Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Xu-xia Hu; Eric T. T. Wong

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of external aerodynamics is one of the most challenging and important automotive CFD applications. With the rapid developments of digital computers, CFD is used as a practical tool in modern fluid dynamics research. It integrates fluid mechanics disciplines, mathematics and computer science. In this study, two different types of simulations were made, one for the flow around a simplified high speed passenger car with a rear-spoiler and the other for the flow without a rear-spoi...

  3. Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles Work Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would -pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure

  4. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem with Flexible Dwell Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva; Larsen, Allan; van der Hurk, Evelien

    In this talk, we deal with a generalization of the well-known Vehicle Scheduling Problem(VSP) that we call Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem with Flexible Dwell Times (SVSPSP-FDT). The SVSPSP-FDT generalizes the VSP because the original timetables of the trips can...... be changed (i.e., shifted and stretched) in order to minimize a new objective function that aims at minimizing the operational costs plus the waiting times of the passengers at transfer points. Contrary to most generalizations of the VSP, the SVSPSP-FDT establishes the possibility of changing trips' dwell...... times at important transfer points based on expected passenger ows. We introduce a compact mixed integer linear formulation of the SVSPSP-FDT able to address small instances. We also present a meta-heuristic approach to solve medium/large instances of the problem. The e ectiveness of the proposed...

  5. Assessment of a rail vehicle running with the damaged wheel on a ride comfort for passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dižo Ján

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain conditions rail vehicles wheels can be during operation damaged. Then, the profile of wheels is no longer circular, but it is changed depending on the type and severity of defects. When such rail vehicle with the damaged wheel operates, the quality of a ride comfort for passenger is degraded. This article is focused on the assessment of ride comfort for passenger based on results obtained from dynamic analyses. Simulations and calculations were carried out in commercial multibody software. In our research we considered one type of the railway wheel untrueness – wheel-flat. This type of wheel damaging is relatively common and has such influence on the ride comfort for passenger worsening, which needs to be detected and investigated.

  6. Use of nonlinear asymmetrical shock absorber to improve comfort on passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, M.; Pontes, B. R.; Balthazar, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    In this study the behaviour of two different types of shock absorbers, symmetrical (linear) and asymmetrical (nonlinear) is compared for use on passenger vehicles. The analyses use different standard road inputs and include variation of the severity parameter, the asymmetry ratio and the velocity of the vehicle. Performance indices and acceleration values are used to assess the efficacy of the asymmetrical systems. The comparisons show that the asymmetrical system, with nonlinear characteristics, tends to have a smoother and more progressive performance, both for vertical and angular movements. The half-car front asymmetrical system was introduced, and the simulation results show that the use of the asymmetrical system only at the front of the vehicle can further diminish the angular oscillations. As lower levels of acceleration are essential for improved ride comfort, the use of asymmetrical systems for vibrations and impact absorption can be a more advantageous choice for passenger vehicles.

  7. Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman DAF electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, N. B.; Maslowski, E. A.; Soltis, R. F.; Schuh, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An electric vehicle was tested as part of an Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) project to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The Waterman vehicle performance test results are presented in this report. The vehicle is a converted four-passenger DAF 46 sedan. It is powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a three-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 kW motor. The braking system is a conventional hydraulic braking system.

  8. CHOOSING DRIVING CYCLE OF HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vorona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing driving cycles was performed. After comparing some of the cycles, one specific driving cycle was selected for the hybrid vehicle as the most reliable in representing the real moving of the vehicle in operating conditions and which may be reproduced at experimental tests at the modeling roller stand.

  9. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  10. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system

  11. Environmental and Financial Evaluation of Passenger Vehicle Technologies in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Messagie, Maarten; Lebeau, Kenneth; Coosemans, Thierry; Macharis, Cathy; Mierlo, Joeri van

    2013-01-01

    Vehicles with alternative drive trains are regarded as a promising substitute for conventional cars, considering the growing concern about oil depletion and the environmental impact of our transportation system. However, “clean” technologies will only be viable when they are cost-efficient. In this paper, the environmental impacts and the financial costs of different vehicle technologies are calculated for an average Belgian driver. Environmentally friendly vehicles are compared with conventi...

  12. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 2: Supplement to design trade-off studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of studies leading to the preliminary design of a hybrid passenger vehicle which is projected to have the maximum potential for reducing petroleum consumption in the near term are presented. Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicle tradeoffs, assessment of battery power source, and weight and cost analysis of key components are among the topics covered. Performance of auxiliary equipment, such as power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, lighting and electrical accessories, heating and ventilation is discussed along with the selection of preferred passenger compartment heating procedure for the hybrid vehicle. Waste heat from the engine, thermal energy storage, and an auxiliary burner are among the approaches considered.

  13. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Na Zhu

    2016-01-01

    An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid veh...

  14. The hybrid electric vehicle revolution, off road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B.E. [ePower Technologies (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In this presentation the author presents concepts and details of hybrid vehicles in general, including their benefits, then describes off-road hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles have been experimented with for over a century. Demonstrator vehicles include a diesel-electric tractor, an electric lawn tractor, a hybrid snow thrower, and a hybrid wheel loader. A duty cycle for the loader is shown with battery-assisted acceleration, and regenerative braking. Both of these keep the size of the engine small, the loads on it less variable, thus improving fuel economy. A hybrid excavator and its duty cycle is shown. A fuel cell lift truck that is currently in design is illustrated. The author then describes the possibilities of the hydrogen economy where sourcing and infrastructure are yet to be demonstrated on a commercial scale. The author predicts that off-road hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will be commercially viable five years before on-road applications. The author predicts hydrogen sourced from biogas, photovoltaics, and wind power. tabs, figs.

  15. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Beaty, Kevin D [Kalamazoo, MI; Zou, Zhanijang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-07-21

    A battery control system for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery includes a detecting arrangement for determining a vehicle operating state or an intended vehicle operating state and a controller for setting a target state of charge level of the battery based on the vehicle operating state or the intended vehicle operating state. The controller is operable to set a target state of charge level at a first level during a mobile vehicle operating state and at a second level during a stationary vehicle operating state or in anticipation of the vehicle operating in the stationary vehicle operating state. The invention further includes a method for controlling a state of charge of a hybrid vehicle battery.

  16. A unit for environmentally adapted technology for transportation of passengers and goods. Individual personal transportation, electric and hybrid vehicles - a preliminary study; Enhet foer miljoeanpassad teknik foer person- och godstransporter - Individuell persontrafik, el- och hybridfordon - Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauner, D; Lumsden, K [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Transportation and Logistics

    1996-02-01

    A unit for environmentally adapted transport at Chalmers Univ of Technology offers the possibility to enhance competence, to bestow decision makers with information and permits working with the processes needed. Regarding electric propulsion road vehicles, such a unit can coordinate the experiences from the Swedish projects. Further, it may maintain a secretariat and a managerial function to the database which will provide information to research councils, transport administrations and other government organizations, cities etc. The unit may also coordinate and submit research results and, in a long-term perspective, establish and administer field and laboratory vehicle testing. The unit may also function as a link between the vehicle industry and environmental organizations. The initial activities should include the establishment of a national database for electric vehicles and a full-time research post. The present study deals with individual personal transportation. Corresponding studies should be carried out for other areas in order to form a consistent profile for the unit. 38 refs

  17. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Heather; Park, Haram; Paolini, Maion

    2012-04-23

    Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this "hybrid premium" is the cost of the vehicles' batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  18. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix A: Mission analysis and performance specification studies report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a study leading to the preliminary design of a five passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis are presented. The study methodology is described. Vehicle characterizations, the mission description, characterization, and impact on potential sales, and the rationale for the selection of the reference internal combustion engine vehicle are presented. Conclusions and recommendations of the mission analysis and performance specification report are included.

  19. Hybrid Electric Propulsion System for a 4 Passenger VTOL Aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advancement of hybrid-electric propulsion systems for rotorcraft enables vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicles to take advantage of aerodynamic...

  20. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  1. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  2. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  3. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  4. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Heather

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  5. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil. PMID:22540987

  6. Fatal crashes of passenger vehicles before and after adding antilock braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C M; Lund, A K; Trempel, R E; Braver, E R

    1997-11-01

    Fatal crash rates of passenger cars and vans were compared for the last model year before four-wheel antilock brakes were introduced and the first model year for which antilock brakes were standard equipment. Vehicles selected for analysis had no other significant design changes between the model years being compared, and the model years with and without antilocks were no more than two years apart. The overall fatal crash rates were similar for the two model years. However, the vehicles with antilocks were significantly more likely to be involved in crashes fatal to their own occupants, particularly single-vehicle crashes. Conversely, antilock vehicles were less likely to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles or nonoccupants (pedestrians, bicyclists). Overall, antilock brakes appear to have had little effect on fatal crash involvement. Further study is needed to better understand why fatality risk has increased for occupants of antilock vehicles.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Fueling and Driving Options Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle batteries can be charged by an outside sized hybrid electric vehicle. If the vehicle is driven a shorter distance than its all-electric range drives the wheels almost all of the time, but the vehicle can switch to work like a parallel hybrid at

  8. Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

    1997-01-01

    The study focused on the emission reduction and fuel economy benefits of the application of hybrid/electric powertrain technology to tight-duty vehicles (mid-size and compact passenger cars). The approach taken was to calculate the exhaust emissions (gm/mi) energy use (Wh/mi and mpg) for a wide range of vehicle designs (steel and light-weight materials), engines, energy storage devices, control strategies, and driving cycles using two vehicle simulation programs (SIMPLEV and AVTE). The full f...

  9. Neck sprain after motor vehicle accidents in drivers and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Kingma, J; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Neck sprain is a general term denoting a soft tissue injury of the neck, which seldom causes major disability but is considered a modem epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sprain of the neck injury due to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) in both drivers and

  10. Current State of Military Hybrid Vehicle Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    programme were: • EP-50 parallel hybrid light armoured vehicle (LAV-III) and a refuse hauler • advanced hybrid electric drive (AHED) 8 × 8, 20 ton...herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the US Government or the DoA, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. 2 Unclassified. Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release.

  11. Impacts of urban form on future US passenger-vehicle greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, 500 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Urban form - for example, sprawl versus infill development - impacts people's daily travel patterns and annual vehicle-kilometers traveled (VKT). This paper explores how urban form impacts greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from passenger-vehicles, the largest source of urban transportation GHG emissions. Our research uses a recently published urban scaling rule to develop six scenarios for high- and low-sprawl US urban growth. We develop and apply a Monte Carlo approach that describes ensemble statistics for several dozen urban areas rather than forecasting changes in individual urban areas. Then, employing three vehicle- and fuel-technology scenarios, we estimate total passenger VKT and resulting GHG emissions for US urban areas. Our results indicate that comprehensive compact development could reduce US 2000-2020 cumulative emissions by up to 3.2 GtCO{sub 2}e (15-20% of projected cumulative emissions). In general, vehicle GHG mitigation may involve three types of approaches: more-efficient vehicles, lower-GHG fuels, and reduced VKT. Our analyses suggest that all three categories must be evaluated; otherwise, improvements in one or two areas (e.g., vehicle fuel economy, fuel carbon content) can be offset by backsliding in a third area (e.g., VKT growth). (author)

  12. Impacts of urban form on future US passenger-vehicle greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    Urban form - for example, sprawl versus infill development - impacts people's daily travel patterns and annual vehicle-kilometers traveled (VKT). This paper explores how urban form impacts greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from passenger-vehicles, the largest source of urban transportation GHG emissions. Our research uses a recently published urban scaling rule to develop six scenarios for high- and low-sprawl US urban growth. We develop and apply a Monte Carlo approach that describes ensemble statistics for several dozen urban areas rather than forecasting changes in individual urban areas. Then, employing three vehicle- and fuel-technology scenarios, we estimate total passenger VKT and resulting GHG emissions for US urban areas. Our results indicate that comprehensive compact development could reduce US 2000-2020 cumulative emissions by up to 3.2 GtCO 2 e (15-20% of projected cumulative emissions). In general, vehicle GHG mitigation may involve three types of approaches: more-efficient vehicles, lower-GHG fuels, and reduced VKT. Our analyses suggest that all three categories must be evaluated; otherwise, improvements in one or two areas (e.g., vehicle fuel economy, fuel carbon content) can be offset by backsliding in a third area (e.g., VKT growth).

  13. Selection of hybrid vehicle for green environment using multi-attributive border approximation area comparison method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumar Biswas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The mobility sector including all kinds of transportation systems are facing global challenges in re-spect of green environmental issues. There has been a paradigm shift in the concept of design and manufacturing of automotive vehicles keeping in mind the scarcity of fossil fuel and the impact of emission on environment due to burning of it. The addition of hybrid and electric vehicles in pas-senger car segment has got significant momentum to address the global challenges. This research investigates the performance of a group of hybrid vehicles from customers’ perspective. Among the different brands that are available in the hybrid vehicle market, smart customers have given pri-ority to vehicle cost, mileage, tail pipe emission, comfortness and high tank size volume for long drive. Considering these attributes, selection strategy for hybrid vehicles has been developed using entropy based multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (MABAC method. This research highlights the best hybrid vehicle which reduces air pollution in cities with other significant environmental benefits, reduces dependence on foreign energy imports and minimizes the annual fuel cost.

  14. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  15. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  16. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of

  17. Comparing the Mass, Energy, and Cost Effects of Lightweighting in Conventional and Electric Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hofer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effect of weight reduction using advanced lightweight materials on the mass, energy use, and cost of conventional and battery electric passenger vehicles is compared. Analytic vehicle simulation is coupled with cost assessment to find the optimal degree of weight reduction minimizing manufacturing and total costs. The results show a strong secondary weight and cost saving potential for the battery electric vehicles, but a higher sensitivity of vehicle energy use to mass reduction for the conventional vehicle. Generally, light weighting has the potential to lower vehicle costs, however, the results are very sensitive to parameters affecting lifetime fuel costs for conventional and battery costs for electric vehicles. Based on current technology cost estimates it is shown that the optimal amount of primary mass reduction minimizing total costs is similar for conventional and electric vehicles and ranges from 22% to 39%, depending on vehicle range and overall use patterns. The difference between the optimal solutions minimizing manufacturing versus total costs is higher for conventional than battery electric vehicles.

  18. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  19. Hybrid vehicle energy management: singular optimal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delprat, S.; Hofman, T.; Paganelli, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid vehicle energymanagement is often studied in simulation as an optimal control problem. Under strict convexity assumptions, a solution can be developed using Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In practice, however, many engineers do not formally check these assumptions resulting in the possible

  20. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  1. Concept design for hybrid vehicle power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hybridization implies adding a Secondary power source (e.g. electric motor and battery) (S) to a Primary power source (P) in order to improve the driving functions (e.g. fuel economy, driveability (performance)) of the vehicle. The fuel economy isstrongly determined by the energy management

  2. Hybrid drive train technologies for vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Folkson, R.

    This chapter provides a classification of electric hybrid systems for cars and describes the conflicting design challenges involved in designing advanced vehicle propulsion systems. In addition, the chapter provides an analysis of the solution methods currently provided in literature on the coupled

  3. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  4. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  5. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicle technology: TOPTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between 'refueling' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of 'Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  7. Baseline tests of the C. H. Waterman Renault 5 electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, N. B.; Mcbrien, E. F.; Slavick, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Waterman vehicle, a four passenger Renault 5 GTL, performance test results are presented and characterized the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It was powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries through a two-step contactor controller actuated by a foot throttle to change the voltage applied to the 6.7 -kilowatt motor. The motor output shaft was connected to a front-wheel-drive transaxle that contains a four-speed manual transmission and clutch. The braking system was a conventional hydraulic braking system.

  8. Impact of Vehicle Hybridization on Fuel Consumption Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Javad

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution, limited number of knownpetroleum resources and increasing of greenhouse gases have led the governmentsand researchers to have more investigation on Hybrid Electric Vehicles.Considering technical availability and manufacturing facilities with regardingto the final vehicle price, hybridization of conventional vehicles could be abetter choice than designing and manufacturing a new hybrid electric car.Parallel-Series hybrid electric vehicles(power-split) which is used in this study...

  9. Development of hybrid system for mass productive passenger car; Joyoshayo ryosangata hybrid system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, S; Sasaki, S; Matsui, H; Kubo, K [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The Toyota Hybrid System has two power sources which engage depending on driving conditions. An improved efficiency gasoline engine provides the main power to drive the wheels, as in conventional automobiles. Drive power can also be supplied by an electric motor, which derives its electricity from a battery and a Generator. Fuel efficiency is further boosted by other measures, such as automatically cutting the engine when the vehicle is at a stop and regenerating the energy accumulate during deceleration. Compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine running in 10 {center_dot} 15 mode, the CO2 emissions are reduced by half. Moreover, with the use of a motor to reduce engine load during acceleration, HC, CO, and NOx emissions are cut significantly low levels. 13 figs.

  10. Traffic lanes for vehicles of mass public passenger transport on city streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladović Pavle V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the basic measures of regulating public mass passenger transport in a city network are the introduction and management of traffic lanes reserved for the public transportation. These traffic lanes are important for several reasons: faster moving and shorter travelling time for the vehicles, reducing operating costs, improving the safety, increasing passenger comfort, maintaining of the timetable quality, etc. In most cities, an intensive use of the public transport is concentrated in the morning and the afternoon peak period. The state of the public transport system during these periods is reflected in the crowds inside the vehicles, long vehicle queues at intersections and at bus stops, which cause congestion on the streets and result in delays of public transport vehicles. This paper provides an overview of the current situation on an example in the city of Belgrade. The capacity and the quality of service for the street surfaces reserved for the public transportation vehicles were analysed on the aforementioned example.

  11. New evidence concerning fatal crashes of passenger vehicles before and after adding antilock braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C M

    2001-05-01

    Fatal crash rates for passenger cars and vans were compared for the last model year before four-wheel antilock brakes were introduced and the first model year for which antilock brakes were standard equipment. A prior study, based on fatal crash experience through 1995, reported that vehicle models with antilock brakes were more likely than identical but 1-year-earlier models to be involved in crashes fatal to their own occupants, but were less likely to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles. Overall, there was no significant effect of antilocks on the likelihood of fatal crashes. Similar analyses, based on fatal crash experience during 1996-98, yielded very different results. During 1996-98, vehicles with antilock brakes were again less likely than earlier models to be involved in crashes fatal to occupants of other vehicles, but they were no longer overinvolved in crashes fatal to their own occupants.

  12. Hybrid Aerial/Rover Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    A proposed instrumented robotic vehicle called an "aerover" would fly, roll along the ground, and/or float on bodies of liquid, as needed. The aerover would combine features of an aerobot (a robotic lighter-than-air balloon) and a wheeled robot of the "rover" class. An aerover would also look very much like a variant of the "beach-ball" rovers. Although the aerover was conceived for use in scientific exploration of Titan (the largest moon of the planet Saturn), the aerover concept could readily be adapted to similar uses on Earth.

  13. A survey of hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Adnan S.; Younes, Ahmad Bani; Cai, Chenxiao; Cai, Guowei

    2018-04-01

    This article presents a comprehensive overview on the recent advances of miniature hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). For now, two conventional types, i.e., fixed-wing UAV and Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) UAV, dominate the miniature UAVs. Each type has its own inherent limitations on flexibility, payload, flight range, cruising speed, takeoff and landing requirements and endurance. Enhanced popularity and interest are recently gained by the newer type, named hybrid UAV, that integrates the beneficial features of both conventional ones. In this survey paper, a systematic categorization method for the hybrid UAV's platform designs is introduced, first presenting the technical features and representative examples. Next, the hybrid UAV's flight dynamics model and flight control strategies are explained addressing several representative modeling and control work. In addition, key observations, existing challenges and conclusive remarks based on the conducted review are discussed accordingly.

  14. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  15. Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

  16. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g., nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries.

  17. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczur-Uermoessy, G. [DAUG Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft, Esslingen (Germany)

    1998-03-30

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g. nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries. (orig.)

  18. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  19. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register...-0148] RIN 2127-AK93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and...

  20. Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.

  1. Analysis of product efficiency of hybrid vehicles and promotion policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyundo; Oh, Inha

    2010-01-01

    The key aim of this study is to evaluate the product efficiency of current hybrid vehicles and suggest effective policies to promote hybrid vehicles in the Korean automobile market and development trends of hybrid vehicles. The efficiency levels for car models sold in Korea, including hybrid ones, were measured using the recently developed discrete additive data envelopment analysis (DEA) model that reflects consumer preference. The result of the analysis shows that current hybrid vehicles on the market are still at lower competitive advantage than traditional car models with conventional combustion engines and we can suggest a mix of incentive policies to promote the competitiveness of hybrid vehicles. In addition, we also identify two distinctive trends of hybrid vehicle development: environment-oriented hybrid vehicles and performance-oriented hybrid vehicles. It implies that the government should take account of development trends of hybrid vehicles to achieve the policy goals in designing support schemes and automobile companies that are willing to develop hybrid vehicles can also gain some insights for making strategic decisions. (author)

  2. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  3. Comparison of policies on vehicle ownership and use between Beijing and Shanghai and their impacts on fuel consumption by passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Han; Wang Hewu; Ouyang Minggao

    2011-01-01

    The fast growth of vehicle population in China has caused problems such as traffic congestion and excessive fuel consumption. There have been demands for policy control on growth in private vehicle travel demand. Beijing and Shanghai are China's first two cities to implement policies on vehicle ownership and use. In this paper, we compared policies in the two cities and estimated their impacts on fuel consumption by passenger vehicles. The limitation of vehicle use in Beijing provides limited but immediate reduction in fuel consumption. The limitation of vehicle ownership in Shanghai provides large potential of fuel conservation in a longer term. Under current policy, fuel consumptions by passenger vehicles in Beijing and Shanghai in 2020 were estimated to reach 7.5 and 3.9 billion liters, respectively. The experiences of Beijing and Shanghai are highly relevant for cities in China and abroad that are facing the same problems. - Research Highlights: → Beijing and Shanghai are the first two cities in China to implement policies on vehicle ownership and use. This paper compared policies in the two cities and evaluated their effectiveness. → A bottom-up model was established to simulate the fuel consumption by passenger vehicles. By using this model, fuel consumptions by passenger vehicles in Beijing and Shanghai from 1990 to 2020 under two scenarios of current policy and no policy were estimated. Under current policy, fuel consumptions by passenger vehicles in Beijing and Shanghai in 2020 were estimated to reach 7.5 and 3.9 billion liters, respectively. → This paper discussed the benefits and negative impacts of policies in Beijing and Shanghai, which are highly relevant for cities in China and abroad that are facing the problems of traffic congestion and excessive vehicle fuel consumption.

  4. Brake blending strategy for a hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Evan S.

    2000-12-05

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including a transmission for driving a pair of wheels of a vehicle and a heat engine and an electric motor/generator coupled to the transmission. A friction brake system is provided for applying a braking torque to said vehicle. A controller unit generates control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system for controllably braking the vehicle in response to a drivers brake command. The controller unit determines and amount of regenerative torque available and compares this value to a determined amount of brake torque requested for determining the control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system.

  5. Ammonia, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide emissions from five passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Hua Lu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, three unregulated components, ammonia, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide, emitted from five passenger vehicles are investigated. With focus upon emission factors from existing production technology, vehicles produced between 1989 and 1998 with considerable mileage (7000 to 280,000) are chosen. Among the five vehicles, four were sold in the European market, whereas one was sold in the US market. The vehicles are tested on a chassis dynamometer. An EU2000 Driving Cycle (NEDC) and a US Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) of the Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) are used in the study. The regulated emissions are measured using a Horiba Mexa series. Unregulated emissions, ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are analysed by mass spectrometer, gas chromatography and CNT-NA, TIM315-74W method, respectively. Both the unregulated emissions and the regulated emissions show driving cycle dependency; and they are also improved with newer vehicle and emission control technology. However, a gasoline direct injection vehicle (relatively new technology in this study) has rather high regulated emissions, whereas the NH 3 , N 2 O and HCN emissions are low

  6. Ammonia, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide emissions from five passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Hua Lu

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, three unregulated components, ammonia, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide, emitted from five passenger vehicles are investigated. With focus upon emission factors from existing production technology, vehicles produced between 1989 and 1998 with considerable mileage (7000 to 280,000) are chosen. Among the five vehicles, four were sold in the European market, whereas one was sold in the US market. The vehicles are tested on a chassis dynamometer. An EU2000 Driving Cycle (NEDC) and a US Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) of the Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) are used in the study. The regulated emissions are measured using a Horiba Mexa series. Unregulated emissions, ammonia (NH(3)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are analysed by mass spectrometer, gas chromatography and CNT-NA, TIM315-74W method, respectively. Both the unregulated emissions and the regulated emissions show driving cycle dependency; and they are also improved with newer vehicle and emission control technology. However, a gasoline direct injection vehicle (relatively new technology in this study) has rather high regulated emissions, whereas the NH(3), N(2)O and HCN emissions are low.

  7. Multipurpose Educational Modules to Teach Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    The goal of the overall project is to develop a software simulation for a hydraulic hybrid vehicle. The simulation will enable students to compare various hybrid configurations with conventional IC engine performance.

  8. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  9. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  10. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design of a hybrid vehicle which fully meets or exceeds the requirements set forth in the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle Program is documented. Topics addressed include the general layout and styling, the power train specifications with discussion of each major component, vehicle weight and weight breakdown, vehicle performance, measures of energy consumption, and initial cost and ownership cost. Alternative design options considered and their relationship to the design adopted, computer simulation used, and maintenance and reliability considerations are also discussed.

  11. China's fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles. Rationale, policy process, and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Hongyan H.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Tian, Donglian; Zhang, Jinhua

    2009-01-01

    China issued its first Fuel Economy Standards (FES) for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPV) in September 2004, and the first and second phases of the FES took effective in July 2005 and January 2008, respectively. The stringency of the Chinese FES ranks third globally, following the Japanese and European standards. In this paper, we first review the policy-making background, including the motivations, key players, and the process; and then explain the content and the features of the FES and why there was no compliance flexibility built into it. Next, we assess the various aspects of the standard's impact, including fuel economy improvement, technology changes, shift of market composition, and overall fuel savings. Lastly, we comment on the prospect of tightening the existing FES and summarize the complementary policies that have been adopted or may be considered by the Chinese government for further promoting efficient vehicles and reducing transport energy consumption. The Chinese experience is highly relevant for countries that are also experiencing or anticipating rapid growth in personal vehicles, those wishing to moderate an increase in oil demand, or those desirous of vehicle technology upgrades. (author)

  12. Influence of Unsteady Aerodynamics on Driving Dynamics of Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Huemer, J.; Stickel, T.; Sagan, E.; Schwarz, M.; Wall, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with CFD-Methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared to steady state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore innovative vehicle concepts like electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve...

  13. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Mohamed [Automotive and Tractors Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  14. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  15. Retrofits Convert Gas Vehicles into Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Successful space missions can rarely be attributed to a single thing. Rather, they are the result of a system of systems: integrated elements functioning effectively in their individual roles and together with related components, then those systems interacting with and supporting other systems to form a collaborative whole - from the spacecraft itself to the engineering and research teams that design and build it. An example is found in spacecraft power systems. Unlike a gas-powered car or a battery-powered laptop, most spacecraft are powered by multiple energy sources - such as photovoltaic panels, fuel cells, and batteries - working in tandem to ensure the spacecraft functions throughout the course of a mission. As with any system, the appropriate combination of elements and the method of their management are key to high performance and efficiency. One initiative at Glenn Research Center, the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) program, focused on joining new and mature technologies for optimal power systems applications in space and on Earth, with the goal not only to develop ultra-efficient space power systems, but to advance HPM to address global energy issues. The HPM program emerged from Glenn s long history of electric vehicle research dating back to the 1970s, including the NASA Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB) project in the 1990s, which was the largest vehicle to use supercapacitor energy storage.

  16. Hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle performance testing by the US Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and vehicle development programs. The AVTA has tested full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting baseline performance, battery benchmark and fleet tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). Testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 2.5 million test miles. Testing is currently incorporating PHEVs from four different vehicle converters. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory.

  17. Relationship Between Vehicle Size and Fatality Risk in Model Year 1985-93 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Fatality rates per million exposure years are computed by make, model and model year, : based on the crash experience of model year 1985-93 passenger cars and light trucks (pickups) vans : and sport utility vehicles) in the United States during calen...

  18. Hybrid platform. Economical hybrid drive for commercial vehicles; Hybrid Plattform. Wirtschaftlicher Hybridantrieb fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, S.; Lamke, M.; Mohr, M.; Sedlacek, M.; Speck, F.D. [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Up to now, hybrid systems have been adapted to their specific requirements in the various applications for trucks, buses as well as mobile and building machines. From a technical point of view, this does indeed result in optimized hybrid drives for each single vehicle application, but due to small volumes, such single developments are critical from a business point of view. ZF Friedrichshafen AG is providing a solution to the technical and economical requirements of the cost-sensitive CV segment in the form of a modular CV parallel hybrid platform composed of a hybrid module system, an inverter, a battery system, and a hybrid software integrated into the overall vehicle. Thanks to the intelligent combination of assemblies and the use of as many identical parts as possible, platforms are realized which cover power ranges between 60 and 120 kW, voltage ranges between 350 and 650 V, and battery capacities between 2 and 4 kWh. The dimensions of the platform elements are such that integration into the diverse commercial vehicle applications is made easy. The hybrid software required for the vehicle-specific functions is also configurable for the mentioned CV applications. (orig.)

  19. Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristovski, Z.D.; Jayaratne, E.R.; Morawska, L.; Ayoko, G.A.; Lim, M.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds-0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h -1 . Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 10 11 to 10 13 km -1 and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 μg km -1 at 40 to about 1000 μg km -1 at 100 km h -1 . The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km -1 at 40 km h -1 , falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km -1 at 100 km h -1 . At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG

  20. PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENT (PCE OF THROUGH VEHICLES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS IN DHAKA METROPOLITAN CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha SAHA

    2009-01-01

    PCE currently used in Bangladesh is based on the values given in Geometric Design of Highways (MoC, 2001, which is the modification of the values given by Webster (1958 on the study performed in the United Kingdom in the 50's and 60's. But now-a-days, the situation is far different both for traffic and road user as the characteristics have changed from that time. Hence, in this paper an empirical study was carried out to determine the PCE of different types of vehicle that reflect the actual traffic conditions of Dhaka Metropolitan City. Data were collected from ten signalized intersections and the headway ratio method was used to estimate the PCE of different types of vehicle. The main vehicle compositions observed during the study period consist of passenger cars, auto-rickshaws, mini-buses and buses. The PCE obtained in this study were compared to the values established earlier. It was found that the estimated PCE are smaller than those being used in Bangladesh.

  1. Practicability of passenger vehicle driving emission tests according to new European Union procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article compares driving test data using the latest legislative proposals applicable to passenger cars. Several measurements were performed on the same test route in accordance with the RDE test guidelines, which requires a number of criteria to be met. These criteria include: the length of the measuring segments, their overall test time share, and the dynamic characteristics of the drive. A mobile device for reading the EOBD System information was used to record the engine and vehicle operating parameters during tests. This allowed for the monitoring of parameters such as: load value, engine speed and vehicle velocity. The obtained results were then analyzed for their compatibility with the RDE procedure requirements. Despite the same research route, the obtained results were not the same. The analysis also uses the two-dimensional operating time share characteristics expressed in vehicle velocity and acceleration co-ordinates. As a result it was possible to compare the dynamic properties, share of operating time and, consequently, to check the validity of conducted drive tests in terms of their practicability and emission values.

  2. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  3. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  4. Rural and Urban Differences in Passenger-Vehicle-Occupant Deaths and Seat Belt Use Among Adults - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Laurie F; Downs, Jonathan; Stevens, Mark R; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K

    2017-09-22

    Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Compared with urban residents, rural residents are at an increased risk for death from crashes and are less likely to wear seat belts. These differences have not been well described by levels of rurality. 2014. Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths from motor-vehicle crashes and estimate the prevalence of seat belt use. FARS, a census of U.S. motor-vehicle crashes involving one or more deaths, was used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths among adults aged ≥18 years. Passenger-vehicle occupants were defined as persons driving or riding in passenger cars, light trucks, vans, or sport utility vehicles. Death rates per 100,000 population, age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population and the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash, were calculated. BRFSS, an annual, state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population aged ≥18 years, was used to estimate prevalence of seat belt use. FARS and BRFSS data were analyzed by a six-level rural-urban designation, based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture 2013 rural-urban continuum codes, and stratified by census region and type of state seat belt enforcement law (primary or secondary). Within each census region, age-adjusted passenger-vehicle-occupant death rates per 100,000 population increased with increasing rurality, from the most urban to the most rural counties: South, 6.8 to 29.2; Midwest, 5.3 to 25.8; West, 3.9 to 40.0; and Northeast, 3.5 to 10.8. (For the Northeast, data for the most rural counties were not reported because of suppression criteria; comparison is for the most urban to the second-most rural counties.) Similarly, the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash

  5. Thermoelectrics as elements of hybrid-electric vehicle thermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headings, Leon; Washington, Gregory; Jaworski, Christopher M.

    2008-03-01

    Despite vast technological improvements, the traditional internal combustion powered vehicle still achieves only 25- 30% efficiency, with the remainder lost primarily as heat. While the load leveling offered by hybrid-electric vehicle technology helps to improve this overall efficiency, part of the efficiency gains are achieved by making new systems such as regenerative braking viable. In a similar fashion, thermoelectric (TE) energy recovery has long been considered for traditional vehicles with mixed results, but little has been done to consider thermoelectrics in the framework of the unique energy systems of hybrid vehicles. Systems that may not have been viable or even possible with traditional vehicles may offer improvements to system efficiency as well as emissions, vehicle durability, passenger comfort, and cost. This research describes a simulation developed for evaluating and optimizing thermoelectric energy recovery systems and results for four different system configurations. Two novel system configurations are presented which offer the potential for additional benefits such as emissions reduction that will soon be quantified. In addition, a test setup is presented which was constructed for the testing and validation of various thermoelectric recovery systems. Actual test performance was near the expected theoretical performance and supported the conclusions reached from the computer simulations.

  6. Optimal planning of the Nordic transmission system with 100% electric vehicle penetration of passenger cars by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Wu, Qiuwei; Warland, Leif; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the optimal planning of the Nordic backbone transmission system with 100% electric vehicle penetration of passenger cars by 2050. Electric vehicles will play an important role in the future energy systems and can reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transport sector. However, the electric vehicles will increase the electricity consumption and might induce congestions in the transmission systems. In order to deal with the electricity consumption increase from the electric vehicle integration into the power system and maximize the social welfare, the optimal investments of the Nordic transmission system are studied. Case studies were conducted using the market simulation model EMPS (Efi's multi-area power market simulator) and two electric vehicle charging scenarios: a spot price based scenario and a dumb charging scenario. The electric vehicle charging power is assumed to be 3.68 kW with 1 phase 16 A. The complete electrification of the private passenger fleet increases the yearly power demand in the Nordic region with ca 7.5%. The profitable increases in transmission capacities are highest for dumb charging, but are very low for both dumb and spot price based charging compared to a Reference case. - Highlights: • The electric vehicle distribution is done using population and car statistics. • The 100% penetration electric vehicle demand is obtained for Nordic countries. • The optimal investments in the Nordic transmission system with electric vehicles are studied.

  7. System for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics, method for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Yu, Wenhua; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan

    2017-11-21

    The invention provides a single radiator cooling system for use in hybrid electric vehicles, the system comprising a surface in thermal communication with electronics, and subcooled boiling fluid contacting the surface. The invention also provides a single radiator method for simultaneously cooling electronics and an internal combustion engine in a hybrid electric vehicle, the method comprising separating a coolant fluid into a first portion and a second portion; directing the first portion to the electronics and the second portion to the internal combustion engine for a time sufficient to maintain the temperature of the electronics at or below 175.degree. C.; combining the first and second portion to reestablish the coolant fluid; and treating the reestablished coolant fluid to the single radiator for a time sufficient to decrease the temperature of the reestablished coolant fluid to the temperature it had before separation.

  8. Assessment of the potential of hybrid vehicles: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surber, F. T.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of hybrid vehicles as a replacement of the conventional gasoline or diesel fueled internal combustion engine vehicle within the next 20 to 30 years, was assessed. Hybrid vehicle designs and applications which are technically and economically viable were studied to determine if reductions in petroleum usage were large enough to warrant major expenditures of research and development funds. Critical technical areas where research and development can be most usefully concentrated were identified.

  9. Optimal energy management for a flywheel-based hybrid vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and design of an optimal Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for a flywheel-based hybrid vehicle, that does not use any electrical motor/generator, or a battery, for its hybrid functionalities. The hybrid drive train consists of only low-cost components, such as a

  10. Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Hybrid Conversion of Inland Passenger Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litwin Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and growing availability of modern technologies, along with more and more severe environment protection standards which frequently take a form of legal regulations, are the reason why attempts are made to find a quiet and economical propulsion system not only for newly built watercraft units, but also for modernised ones. Correct selection of the propulsion and supply system for a given vessel affects significantly not only the energy efficiency of the propulsions system but also the environment - as this selection is crucial for the noise and exhaust emission levels. The paper presents results of experimental examination of ship power demand performed on a historic passenger ship of 25 m in length. Two variants, referred to as serial and parallel hybrid propulsion systems, were examined with respect to the maximum length of the single-day route covered by the ship. The recorded power demands and environmental impact were compared with those characteristic for the already installed conventional propulsion system. Taking into account a high safety level expected to be ensured on a passenger ship, the serial hybrid system was based on two electric motors working in parallel and supplied from two separate sets of batteries. This solution ensures higher reliability, along with relatively high energy efficiency. The results of the performed examination have revealed that the serial propulsion system is the least harmful to the environment, but its investment cost is the highest. In this context, the optimum solution for the ship owner seems to be a parallel hybrid system of diesel-electric type

  11. Electric and hybrid vehicles: power sources, models, sustainability, infrastructure and the market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pistoia, G

    2010-01-01

    ... for simulation studies Velocity scheduling using traffic preview Hybrid vehicles with telematics Optimal management of hybrid vehicles with telematics Conclusions and future opportunities 1. 2. 3...

  12. Exposure to in-vehicle respirable particulate matter in passenger vehicles under different ventilation conditions and seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Jain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the in-vehicle particulate matter (PM concentration in a number of passenger vehicles under various ventilation modes, land use land cover (LULC in different seasons in megacity Delhi, India. In-vehicle monitoring was conducted in buses, cars and autos (three-wheeler using air-conditioned (AC and Non-AC during peak and off-peak hours. The site selected is a ∼15 km long stretch from Punjabi Bagh to Safdarjung Hospital, based on diversity in LULC, availability of vehicles and heavy traffic flow along the direction of travelling. In-vehicle PM was measured using GRIMM aerosol spectrometer and categorised in three classes (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. The study found that concentration of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher in winters as compared to summers. It was observed that PM concentration was significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher in Non-AC travel modes compared to AC modes. PM concentrations were high near industrial and commercial areas and during traffic congestion showing the influence of LULC. It is also important to highlight that PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher in case of taxis (cars compared to personal cars which varied from 2.5 to 3.5 times higher in case of AC mode and ∼1.5 times in case of Non-AC mode. Exposures to PM concentration were highest in case of Non-AC bus compared AC-Bus, Non-AC cars, autos and AC-cars. PM concentrations in case of autos and Non-AC cars were almost comparable without any significant (p > 0.05 difference. Regression analysis showed significant correlation between ambient and in-vehicle concentration for PM2.5. Regional deposition fractions were calculated using International Commission on Radiological Protection model to show the deposition in head air-pass, trachea-bronchial and alveolar regions. It was found that deposition of PM1 was highest in the alveolar region.

  13. Definition and verification of a set of reusable reference architectures for hybrid vehicle development

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Cian

    2012-01-01

    Current concerns regarding climate change and energy security have resulted in an increasing demand for low carbon vehicles, including: more efficient internal combustion engine vehicles, alternative fuel vehicles, electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Unlike traditional internal combustion engine vehicles and electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles contain a m...

  14. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid vehicle systems available in market and under development. Hybrid vehicle technology is a new area and developed rapidly in the field of automotive and mechanical engineering. Students need not only the fundamentals and concepts from college, but also the ability to keep up with the latest technology after their graduation. Therefore, a blended course type is employed to help students have a better understanding of the fundamentals of hybrid vehicle and developing their self-studying ability. Topics in the course have three steps of learning. Firstly, on-ground lecture is given in class, where the instructor explains basic knowledge, such as principles, equations, and design rules.  In this way, the students will have enough background knowledge and be able to conduct further self-reading and research work. Secondly, students are required to go to university’s desire to learn (D2L online system and finish the online part of the topic. In the D2L system, students will find a quiz and its supporting materials. Thirdly, students come back to the on-ground lecture and discuss the quiz in groups with instructor. After the discussion, the instructor gives students a conclusion of the topic and moves forward to the next topic. A computer simulation class is also given to help student better understand the operation strategies of the hybrid vehicle systems and have a trial of design of hybrid vehicle.

  15. Optimal Planning of the Nordic Transmission System with 100% Electric Vehicle Penetration of passenger cars by 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Wu, Qiuwei; Warland, Leif

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the optimal planning of the Nordic backbone transmission system with 100% electric vehicle penetration of passenger cars by 2050. Electric vehicles will play an important role in the future energy systems and can reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transport sector....... However, the electric vehicles will increase the electricity consumption and might induce congestions in the transmission systems. In order to deal with the electricity consumption increase from the electric vehicle integration into the power system and maximize the social welfare, the optimal investments...... of the Nordic transmission system are studied. Case studies were conducted using the market simulation model EMPS and two electric vehicle charging scenarios: a spot price based scenario and a dumb charging scenario. The electric vehicle charging power is assumed to be 3.68 kW with 1 phase 16A. The complete...

  16. Design, construction and integration of hybrid drive components in commercial vehicles. The MAN hybrid drive truck TGL 12.220; Auslegung, Aufbau und Integration von Hybrid-Antriebskomponenten im Nutzfahrzeug. Der MAN Hybrid-Verteiler-Lkw TGL 12.220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschl, Stefan; Hipp, Eberhand; Doebereiner, Rolf [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In contrast to the passenger car the drive train of commercial vehicles is designed basically in view of a maximum efficiency, because the fuel consumption has a determining portion in the vehicle operating expenses of the operators. The pay load of the vehicle also has a high value, in particular in the small and middle segment from 8 t of total weight. In view of pollutant issues the environmental zones which may be also driven by commercial vehicles only from a certain pollutant class were already furnished by many local authority districts. Additional demands for a purely, emission free electric short distance operation can result from suitable emission editions in bigger towns in future. MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG meet these topical challenges with the development of a hybriddelivery truck of the 12 t - class. At this the aim is to meet to the demands after low CO{sub 2} issue and purely electric operation by a powerful battery system and the recuperation of brake energy. For the integration of the hybrid components in the vehicle it was respected to preserve the pay load of the vehicle without limiting the functionality. The dimensioning of the hybrid drive train for a delivery truck vehicle, the vehicle integration and the effects on the lifecycle economics are lighted up in the following. (orig.)

  17. The situation of hybrid vehicles in Japan; Le point sur les vehicules hybrides au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perran, Th.

    2000-01-01

    Among the different competitors of the race on hybrid vehicles development, Honda was the fastest with its Insight model presented in November 1, 1999. This mass production hybrid vehicle can reach performances of 35 km/l. This new record could be obtained thanks to the development of more efficient weak mixture internal combustion engines and to the lightening of vehicles thanks to the massive use of aluminium. Today, each Japanese car manufacturer has his own hybrid vehicle prototype and one can expect a wave of performing hybrid vehicles on the automotive market in 2001. Toyota remains at the top with its second model, the future 6 places HV-M4 model which will be the very first four wheel drive mono-space hybrid vehicle. (J.S.)

  18. Hybrid vehicle assessment. Phase 1: Petroleum savings analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R.; Liddle, S.; Deshpande, G.; Trummel, M.; Vivian, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive analysis of near term electric hybrid vehicles are presented, with emphasis on their potential to save significant amounts of petroleum on a national scale in the 1990s. Performance requirements and expected annual usage patterns of these vehicles are first modeled. The projected U.S. fleet composition is estimated, and conceptual hybrid vehicle designs are conceived and analyzed for petroleum use when driven in the expected annual patterns. These petroleum consumption estimates are then compared to similar estimates for projected 1990 conventional vehicles having the same performance and driven in the same patterns. Results are presented in the form of three utility functions and comparisons of sevral conceptual designs are made. The Hybrid Vehicle (HV) design and assessment techniques are discussed and a general method is explained for selecting the optimum energy management strategy for any vehicle mission battery combination. Conclusions and recommendations are presented, and development recommendations are identified.

  19. Retrospective review of adverse incidents involving passengers seated in wheeled mobility devices while traveling in large accessible transit vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    Characterize wheeled mobility device (WhMD) adverse incidents on large accessible transit vehicles (LATVs) based on vehicle motion, WhMD activity during incident, incident scenario and injury. Retrospective records review. WhMD passengers traveling on LATVs while remaining seated in their. Adverse incidents characterized based on vehicle motion, WhMD activity during incident, and incident scenario. Injury characterized based on outcome, medical attention sought, vehicle activity, WhMD activity and incident scenario. 115 WhMD-related incident reports for years 2000-2005 were analyzed. Most incidents occurred when the LATV was stopped (73.9%), during ingress/egress (42.6%), and at the securement station (33.9%) when the LATV was moving. The combination of WhMD tipping and passenger falling (43.4%) occurred most frequently, and was 1.8 times more likely to occur during ingress/egress than at the securement station. One-third (33.6%) of all incidents resulted in injury, and injuries were equally distributed between ingress/egress (43.6%) and at the securement station (43.6%). WhMD users have a greater chance of incurring injury during ingress/egress than during transit. Research is needed to objectively assess real world transportation experiences of WhMD passengers, and to assess the adequacy of existing federal legislation/guidelines for accessible ramps used in public transportation. Copyright 2009 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of Drivers in Traffic Accidents and Determination of Passenger Position in a Vehicle by Finger Marks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Trapečar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims to illustrate certain investigative activities in the forensic analysis and examination of the scene of traffic accidents. When a traffic accident occurs, the scene must be secured as soon as possible to enable professional and proper forensic investigation. Failure to secure the accident scene might result in losing or contaminating the traces, which makes it more difficult to prove or explain trace evidence in further procedure or even makes such evidence inadmissible. The topic is discussed from the viewpoint of crime scene examination, since analysing and investigating traffic accidents requires a great deal of expertise and attention of the investigators. Complex traffic accidents include feigned accidents, hit-and-run accidents as well as accidents in which the driver and passengers, dead or alive, need to be identified. In identifying the passengers, standard criminal investigation methods as well as police forensic and forensic medicine methods are followed. Such methods include confirming the identities with identity documents, other documents and vehicle ownership, fingerprints, biological traces, fibre traces, contact traces, traces of physical injuries on the driver and passengers, etc. According to the results obtained in fingerprint detection on human skin surfaces, this method can also be applied in confirming physical contact between the driver and the passengers in the accident, e.g. in the event of moving the victims and changing the scene of the accident.   Key words: traffic accidents, accident analysis, driver's identity, passengers' position, finger marks, human skin

  1. Evaluation of a high visibility enforcement project focused on passenger vehicles interacting with commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, F Dennis; Blomberg, Richard D; Peck, Raymond C; Cosgrove, Linda A; Salzberg, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, Washington State applied NHTSA's High Visibility Enforcement model used in the Click It or Ticket seat belt campaign in an attempt to reduce unsafe driving behaviors around commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). The program was called Ticketing Aggressive Cars and Trucks (TACT). This paper details the methods used to evaluate the program's effectiveness and the results of the evaluation. Four high-crash interstate highway corridors, each approximately 25 miles in length, were selected. Two of these corridors received TACT media messages and increased enforcement over an 18-month period while two comparison corridors did not receive any increased media or enforcement. A total of 4,737 contacts were made with drivers during the two enforcement waves, and 72% of these contacts led to a citation. Drivers at the intervention sites who said they saw or heard any of the TACT messages increased from 17.7% in the pre period to a high of 67.3% in the post periods. Drivers at the intervention sites also reported increased exposure to the core message of leaving more space when passing trucks (14% pre to 40% post period). The percentage of drivers who said they leave more room when passing trucks than when passing cars rose from 16% in the pre period to 24% in the post period at the intervention sites, while comparison sites showed no change. Over 150 hours of video recorded by law enforcement officers in unmarked vehicles were utilized to examine violation rates and severity of violations before and after the intervention campaigns. Statistical analyses showed that violation rates were reduced significantly at the intervention sites (between 23% and 46%), while remaining constant at the comparison sites. Analyses of the video data also showed that the seriousness of the residual violations at the intervention sites decreased. Overall, the evaluation results provide a consistent picture of the effectiveness of the TACT pilot project. Success was demonstrated at every step

  2. Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk

  3. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  4. Research on minimum sound specifications for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    This report documents research by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to identify ways : to develop sound specifications for electric and hybrid vehicles. The research was conducted to support activities : related to the implem...

  5. Characteristics of black carbon emissions from in-use light-duty passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuan; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhang, K Max; Wu, Xian; Li, Zhenhua; Hao, Jiming

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating black carbon (BC) emissions from various combustion sources has been considered an urgent policy issue to address the challenges of climate change, air pollution and health risks. Vehicles contribute considerably to total anthropogenic BC emissions and urban BC concentrations. Compared with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, there is much larger uncertainty in BC emission factors for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPVs), in particular for gasoline LDPVs, which warrants further studies. In this study, we employed the dynamometer and the Aethalometer (AE-51) to measure second-by-second BC emissions from eight LDPVs by engine technology and driving cycle. The average BC emission factors under transient cycles (e.g., ECE-15, New European Driving Cycle, NEDC, Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle, WLTC) are 3.6-91.5 mg/km, 7.6 mg/km and 0.13-0.58 mg/km, respectively, for diesel (N = 3), gasoline direct injection (GDI) (N = 1) and gasoline port-fuel injection (PFI) engine categories (N = 4). For gasoline PFI LDPVs, the instantaneous emission profiles show a strong association of peak BC emissions with cold-start and high-speed aggressive driving. Such impacts lead to considerable BC emission contributions in cold-start periods (e.g., the first 47 s-94 s) over the entire cycle (e.g., 18-76% of the NEDC and 13-36% of the WLTC) and increased BC emission factors by 80-440% under the WLTC compared to the NEDC. For diesel BC emissions, the size distribution exhibits a typical unimodal pattern with one single peak appearing approximately from 120 to 150 nm, which is largely consistent with previous studies. Nevertheless, the average mass ratios of BC to particle mass (PM) range from 0.38 to 0.54 for three diesel samples, representing substantial impacts from both driving and engine conditions. The significant discrepancy between gasoline BC emission factors obtained from tailpipe exhaust versus ambient conditions suggest that more comparative

  6. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

  7. Reconciling sectoral abatement strategies with global climate targets: the case of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Dhaniati, Ni Made A; Müller, Daniel B

    2012-01-03

    The IPCC Forth Assessment Report postulates that global warming can be limited to 2 °C by deploying technologies that are currently available or expected to be commercialized in the coming decades. However, neither specific technological pathways nor internationally binding reduction targets for different sectors or countries have been established yet. Using the passenger car stock in China as example we compute direct CO(2) emissions until 2050 depending on population, car utilization, and fuel efficiency and compare them to benchmarks derived by assuming even contribution of all sectors and a unitary global per capita emission quota. Compared to present car utilization in industrialized countries, massive deployment of prototypes of fuel efficient cars could reduce emissions by about 45%, and moderately lower car use could contribute with another 33%. Still, emissions remain about five times higher than the benchmark for the 2 °C global warming target. Therefore an extended analysis, including in particular low-carbon fuels and the impact of urban and transport planning on annual distance traveled and car ownership, should be considered. A cross-sectoral comparison could reveal whether other sectors could bear an overproportional reduction quota instead. The proposed model offers direct interfaces to material industries, fuel production, and scrap vehicle supply.

  8. Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked.

  9. Manitoba plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoemsen, R. [Red River College, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Parsons, R. [Government of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Centre for Emerging Renewable Energy

    2010-07-01

    Manitoba has low electricity rates, the highest proportion of renewables, and a legislated commitment to reduce greenhouse gases. However, the province still relies heavily on oil as everyone else. The mix of energy opportunities in Manitoba were highlighted in this presentation, with particular reference to the commercialization of electric vehicles. Several photographs were presented of the Toyota plug-in hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid electric demonstration vehicle. A demonstration project overview was offered that used technology from A123 Systems Inc. The conversion module and vehicle users were profiled. Topics that were presented related to the demonstration project included monitoring; gasoline fuel economy results; fuel economy variability; cold weather operation; cold weather issues; battery upgrade solutions; and highly qualified personnel. It was concluded that in terms of follow-up, there is a need to combine findings of current plug-in hybrid electric vehicle demonstration with those for the new Toyota production plug-in hybrid vehicles. Key next steps for the demonstration are to address cabin heating requirements; better characterizing winter performance; and implementation of IPLC units on all plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for electricity consumption. figs.

  10. Electric-powered passenger vehicle design study program. Task 1. Tradeoff studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlett, B.H.

    1976-09-16

    Using the baseline vehicle and power system design established previously to meet the performance goals of the program, three power system computer simulation programs were prepared for the basic vehicle tradeoff studies. These programs simulate the performance of the power system and vehicle over different types of driving conditions such as maximum power acceleration, deceleration, city driving cycles, and hill climbing, and permit accurate determination of the benefits of the unique hybrid power system, the total energy required for the suburban city driving cycle, and the extremes of the operating envelopes of the components so that component design options can be defined and studied. Component design tradeoff studies were conducted, including sensitivity studies to show the criticality of the various losses and unknowns in the analytical models. Also, preliminary vehicle layout studies were performed to determine the best locations of the power system and the batteries. Three basic design options are identified for further study. Economic studies were initiated using analytical models to establish the complete vehicle weight and cost breakdowns. Preliminary reliability and safety studies were completed, and maintainability and safety certification criteria established. The detailed analysis of the power system has verified the feasibility of the system and of the performance expectations. Also, the feasibility of energy recovery from regenerative braking has been confirmed. The sensitivity analysis of the power system shows that sufficient margin for unknown design variables is provided. The preliminary economic analysis indicates that the most difficult objective of the study will be the selection of the cost and weight relationships which are required to achieve the overall cost objectives.

  11. Fuel consumption of business passenger cars and plug-in vehicles; Praktijkverbruik van zakelijke personenauto's en plug-in voertuigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2013-05-15

    TNO investigates the use and fuel consumption of private cars since 2008. In this report the results for 2012 are presented. In part 1 the most recent results of statistical analyses of fuel card data, which are used by business-type drivers of passenger cars, are presented. The second part contains the results of an analysis of available fuel consumption data of so-called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and range-extender electric vehicles that have entered the market in 2012 [Dutch] TNO doet al sinds 2008 onderzoek naar het praktijkverbruik van personenauto's. In dit rapport worden de resultaten over 2012 weergegeven. Het eerste deel presenteert de meest recente resultaten van statistische analyses van tankpasdata van door zakelijke rijders gebruikte personenvoertuigen. Het tweede deel bevat de resultaten van een analyse van beschikbare verbruiksgegevens van zogenoemde 'plug-in hybrides' en 'range-extender' elektrische voertuigen die in 2012 op de markt zijn gekomen.

  12. Rule-based energy management strategies for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2007-01-01

    Int. J. of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (IJEHV), The highest control layer of a (hybrid) vehicular drive train is termed the Energy Management Strategy (EMS). In this paper an overview of different control methods is given and a new rule-based EMS is introduced based on the combination of Rule-Based

  13. Real-world environmental performance of hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Foster, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    With the further development and market introduction of hybrid vehicle technologies in recent years we are now at a stage where we can test whether the proclaimed advantages of hybrid propulsion in terms of fuel efficiency and emission reduction are actually realised. An important issue is that

  14. The Impact of Hybrid Vehicles on Street Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Salisbury, Brad; Rozema, Randall

    2006-01-01

    The authors had three purposes: (a) to compare the sound output of a Toyota Corolla, a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE) with that of a hybrid vehicle (Prius) under conditions of acceleration and approach in relation to the potential decision of a pedestrian who is visually impaired to begin to cross the street, (b) to…

  15. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  16. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Veen, W.R. ter; Raadschelders, J.W.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    2000-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) the requirements on batteries are very different from those for battery electric vehicles (BEV). A high power (bipolar) lead-acid battery could be a good alternative for other types of batteries under development for this application. It is potentially cheap and

  17. Research on Energy Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the fuel economy and reduce emissions of hybrid electric vehicles, energy management strategy has received high attention. In this paper, by analyzing the deficiency of existing energy management strategy for hybrid cars, it not only puts forward the minimal equivalent fuel consumption adaptive strategy, but also is the first time to consider the driving dynamics target simultaneously, and to explain the future development direction of China’s hybrid energy management strategy.

  18. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  19. State-of-the-art assessment of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and available literature. The data given include: (1) information and data base (electric and hybrid vehicle systems descriptions, sources of vehicle data and information, and sources of component data); (2) electric vehicles (theoretical background, electric vehicle track tests, user experience, literature data, and summary of electric vehicle status); (3) electric vehicle components (tires, differentials, transmissions, traction motors, controllers, batteries, battery chargers, and component summary); and (4) hybrid vehicles (types of hybrid vehicles, operating modes, hybrid vehicles components, and hybrid vehicles performance characteristics).

  20. Panorama 2011: The development of hybrid and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Car manufacturers are having to deal with increasingly stringent norms and customers who are increasingly demanding with respect to fuel savings. As a result, large numbers of them are now looking into solutions that involve electrifying their vehicles. Hybrid vehicles, some of which can be recharged, and electric vehicles are the new stars of the auto trade shows. But not all manufacturers are necessarily using the same strategies. (author)

  1. Mechanical properties of hybrid kenaf/glass reinforced epoxy composite for passenger car bumper beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoodi, M.M.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ahmad, D.; Ali, Aidy; Khalina, A.; Jonoobi, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that the annual world car production rate will reach 76 million vehicles per year by 2020. New regulations such as the EU End of Life Vehicles (ELV) regulations are forcing car manufacturers to consider the environmental impact of their production and possibly shift from the use of synthetic materials to the use of agro-based materials. Poor mechanical properties and certain manufacturing limitations currently limit the use of agro-based materials to non-structural and semi-structural automotive components. The hybridization of natural fiber with glass fiber provides a method to improve the mechanical properties over natural fibers alone. This research is focused on a hybrid of kenaf/glass fiber to enhance the desired mechanical properties for car bumper beams as automotive structural components with modified sheet molding compound (SMC). A specimen without any modifier is tested and compared with a typical bumper beam material called glass mat thermoplastic (GMT). The results indicate that some mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus are similar to GMT, but impact strength is still low, and shows the potential for utilization of hybrid natural fiber in some car structural components such as bumper beams.

  2. Hybrid Vehicle Technologies and their potential for reducing oil use

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, John

    2006-04-01

    Vehicles with hybrid gasoline-electric powertrains are starting to gain market share. Current hybrid vehicles add an electric motor, battery pack, and power electronics to the conventional powertrain. A variety of engine/motor configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages. In general, efficiency is improved due to engine shut-off at idle, capture of energy during deceleration that is normally lost as heat in the brakes, downsizing of the conventional engine, and, in some cases, propulsion on the electric motor alone. Ongoing increases in hybrid market share are dependent on cost reduction, especially the battery pack, efficiency synergies with other vehicle technologies, use of the high electric power to provide features desired by customers, and future fuel price and availability. Potential barriers include historically low fuel prices, high discounting of the fuel savings by new vehicle purchasers, competing technologies, and tradeoffs with other factors desired by customers, such as performance, utility, safety, and luxury features.

  3. Development & optimization of a rule-based energy management strategy for fuel economy improvement in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfoor, Mostafa

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of conventional vehicle drive systems. This dissertation builds on prior hybrid powertrain development at the University of Idaho. Advanced vehicle models of a passenger car with a conventional powertrain and three different hybrid powertrain layouts were created using GT-Suite. These different powertrain models were validated against a variety of standard driving cycles. The overall fuel economy, energy consumption, and losses were monitored, and a comprehensive energy analysis was performed to compare energy sources and sinks. The GT-Suite model was then used to predict the formula hybrid SAE vehicle performance. Inputs to this model were a numerically predicted engine performance map, an electric motor torque curve, vehicle geometry, and road load parameters derived from a roll-down test. In this case study, the vehicle had a supervisory controller that followed a rule-based energy management strategy to insure a proper power split during hybrid mode operation. The supervisory controller parameters were optimized using discrete grid optimization method that minimized the total amount of fuel consumed during a specific urban driving cycle with an average speed of approximately 30 [mph]. More than a 15% increase in fuel economy was achieved by adding supervisory control and managing power split. The vehicle configuration without the supervisory controller displayed a fuel economy of 25 [mpg]. With the supervisory controller this rose to 29 [mpg]. Wider applications of this research include hybrid vehicle controller designs that can extend the range and survivability of military combat platforms. Furthermore, the

  4. Hybrid vehicle assessment. Phase I. Petroleum savings analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, R.; Liddle, S.; Deshpande, G.; Trummel, M.; Vivian, H.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of near-term electric-hybrid vehicles. Its purpose was to estimate their potential to save significant amounts of petroleum on a national scale in the 1990s. Performance requirements and expected annual usage patterns of these vehicles were first modeled. The projected US fleet composition was estimated, and conceptual hybrid vehicle designs were conceived and analyzed for petroleum use when driven in the expected annual patterns. These petroleum consumption estimates were then compared to similar estimates for projected 1990 conventional vehicles having the same performance and driven in the same patterns. Results are presented in the form of three utility functions and comparisons of several conceptual designs are made. The Hybrid Vehicle (HV) design and assessment techniques are discussed and a general method is explained for selecting the optimum energy management strategy for any vehicle-mission-battery combination. A discussion of lessons learned during the construction and test of the General Electric Hybrid Test Vehicle is also presented. Conclusions and recommendations are presented, and development recommendations are identified.

  5. State-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (PL 94-413) requires that data be developed to characterize the state of the art of vehicles powered by an electric motor and those propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power sources. Data obtained from controlled tests of a representative number of sample vehicles, from information supplied by manufacturers or contained in the literature, and from surveys of fleet operators of individual owners of electric vehicles is discussed. The results of track and dynamometer tests conducted by NASA on 22 electric, 2 hybrid, and 5 conventional vehicles, as well as on 5 spark-ignition-engine-powered vehicles, the conventional counterparts of 5 of the vehicles, are presented.

  6. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  7. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  8. Cooperative Control of Regenerative Braking and Antilock Braking for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new cooperative braking control strategy (CBCS is proposed for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV with both a regenerative braking system and an antilock braking system (ABS to achieve improved braking performance and energy regeneration. The braking system of the vehicle is based on a new method of HEV braking torque distribution that makes the antilock braking system work together with the regenerative braking system harmoniously. In the cooperative braking control strategy, a sliding mode controller (SMC for ABS is designed to maintain the wheel slip within an optimal range by adjusting the hydraulic braking torque continuously; to reduce the chattering in SMC, a boundary-layer method with moderate tuning of a saturation function is also investigated; based on the wheel slip ratio, battery state of charge (SOC, and the motor speed, a fuzzy logic control strategy (FLC is applied to adjust the regenerative braking torque dynamically. In order to evaluate the performance of the cooperative braking control strategy, the braking system model of a hybrid electric vehicle is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK. It is found from the simulation that the cooperative braking control strategy suggested in this paper provides satisfactory braking performance, passenger comfort, and high regenerative efficiency.

  9. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected......‐2013). Also the power capabilities may increase meaning that e.g. acceleration capabilities will improve as well as the top speed. This development occurs due to new battery technology that may experience substantial improvements in the coming years. When looking at plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles...... developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...

  10. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  11. 78 FR 57822 - Lease and Interchange of Vehicles; Motor Carriers of Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... available to Google Android users and Apple iPhone and iPad users from the respective App Stores, or by... placard, sign, or other permanent or removable device on the right (curb) side of the passenger-carrying...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. Hybrid Electric Vehicles Icon cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select Fuel/Technology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Propane (LPG) Next Vehicle Cost

  13. Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. PHEVs are powered by an internal combustion engine that

  14. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified : hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities in this research : are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) solutions ...

  15. Active flywheel control for hybrid vehicle; Compensation active des pulsations de couple dans un vehicule hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tnani, S.; Coirault, P.; Champenois, G. [Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs, Lab. d' Automatique et d' Informatique Industrielle, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2005-01-01

    In the paper, the authors propose a novel control strategy of torque ripple on hybrid vehicle. The combustion engine ripple's are reduced by using an active filter and an AC machine which is mounted on the crank-shaft to generate on inverse torque sequence. The control strategy is based on a multi-objectives state feedback synthesis. A complete modelling of the hybrid propulsion of the vehicle is achieved. Simulation results highlight the interest of the control scheme. (authors)

  16. Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Based on Hybrid Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sideslip angle is essential for active safety control systems. This paper presents a new hybrid Kalman filter to estimate vehicle sideslip angle based on the 3-DoF nonlinear vehicle dynamic model combined with Magic Formula tire model. The hybrid Kalman filter is realized by combining square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF, which has quick convergence and numerical stability, with square-root cubature based receding horizon Kalman FIR filter (SCRHKF, which has robustness against model uncertainty and temporary noise. Moreover, SCKF and SCRHKF work in parallel, and the estimation outputs of two filters are merged by interacting multiple model (IMM approach. Experimental results show the accuracy and robustness of the hybrid Kalman filter.

  17. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  18. Detection and Elimination of a Potential Fire in Engine and Battery Compartments of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macam S. Dattathreya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy deterministic noncontroller type (FDNCT system and an FDNCT inference algorithm (FIA. The FDNCT uses fuzzy inputs and produces a deterministic non-fuzzy output. The FDNCT is an extension and alternative for the existing fuzzy singleton inference algorithm. The research described in this paper applies FDNCT to build an architecture for an intelligent system to detect and to eliminate potential fires in the engine and battery compartments of a hybrid electric vehicle. The fuzzy inputs consist of sensor data from the engine and battery compartments, namely, temperature, moisture, and voltage and current of the battery. The system synthesizes the data and detects potential fires, takes actions for eliminating the hazard, and notifies the passengers about the potential fire using an audible alarm. This paper also presents the computer simulation results of the comparison between the FIA and singleton inference algorithms for detecting potential fires and determining the actions for eliminating them.

  19. Current State of Military Hybrid Vehicle Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV VI Composite 6-9% Fuel...and eliminating the inefficiencies associated with idling, vehicle braking and low engine speed part load efficiency, many improvements could be...different drive cycles were being used to evaluate vehicle performance. These cycles can be divided into the following two categories : (1) Time

  20. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  1. Simulation of hybrid vehicle propulsion with an advanced battery model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallabolu, S.; Kostetzer, L.; Rudnyi, E. [CADFEM GmbH, Grafing (Germany); Geppert, M.; Quinger, D. [LION Smart GmbH, Frieding (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years there has been observed an increasing concern about global warming and greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to the environmental issues the predicted scarcity of oil supplies and the dramatic increase in oil price puts new demands on vehicle design. As a result energy efficiency and reduced emission have become one of main selling point for automobiles. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have therefore become an interesting technology for the governments and automotive industries. HEV are more complicated compared to conventional vehicles due to the fact that these vehicles contain more electrical components such as electric machines, power electronics, electronic continuously variable transmissions (CVT), and embedded powertrain controllers. Advanced energy storage devices and energy converters, such as Li-ion batteries, ultracapacitors, and fuel cells are also considered. A detailed vehicle model used for an energy flow analysis and vehicle performance simulation is necessary. Computer simulation is indispensible to facilitate the examination of the vast hybrid electric vehicle design space with the aim to predict the vehicle performance over driving profiles, estimate fuel consumption and the pollution emissions. There are various types of mathematical models and simulators available to perform system simulation of vehicle propulsion. One of the standard methods to model the complete vehicle powertrain is ''backward quasistatic modeling''. In this method vehicle subsystems are defined based on experiential models in the form of look-up tables and efficiency maps. The interaction between adjacent subsystems of the vehicle is defined through the amount of power flow. Modeling the vehicle subsystems like motor, engine, gearbox and battery is under this technique is based on block diagrams. The vehicle model is applied in two case studies to evaluate the vehicle performance and fuel consumption. In the first case study the affect

  2. Market penetration speed and effects on CO2 reduction of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, Kuniaki; Shinoda, Yukio; Seki, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Hideo; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Abstarct: In order to reduce CO 2 emissions in the passenger vehicle sector, mass introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is required despite their high battery costs. This paper forecasts the rate at which EV/PHEV will penetrate into the market in the future and the effects of that spread on CO 2 reduction by using a learning curve for lithium-ion batteries, distribution of daily travel distance for each vehicle, and an optimal power generation planning model for charging vehicles. Taking into consideration each driver's economical viewpoint, the speed at which the EV/PHEV share of the new passenger vehicle market grows is fairly slow. The optimum calculation in our base case shows that the share of EV/PHEV is only a quarter even in 2050. However, the initial price and progress rate of batteries have a great effect on this share. Therefore, long-term economic support from the government and significant R and D innovation are required to reduce CO 2 drastically through cutting down battery price. The results also show how much the CO 2 emission intensity of power generation affects the CO 2 reduction rate by introducing EV/PHEV. - Highlights: ► Authors minimized the total cost of vehicle and power supply sectors until 2050. ► Simulation results show the penetration speed of PHEVs/EVs is not so fast. ► To accelerate it and reduce CO 2 , subsidies and innovations are required. ► The introduction of PHEVs/EVs is still reasonable even after the nuclear accident.

  3. The solution to be prioritized: the hybrid vehicle; La solution a privilegier: le vehicule hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-06-01

    In term of carbon dioxide emissions as well as in term of energy consumption, the most efficient solution could be the important introduction of hybrid vehicles from the beginning of 2005. However the development of the electric powered vehicle could be beneficial for the greenhouse effect until 2020. The motorization by fuel cells seems less performing. (N.C.)

  4. A PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle real time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqiao

    In recent years, environmental friendly technologies and alternative energy solutions have drawn a lot of public attentions due to global energy crisis and pollution issues. Fuel cell (FC), a technology invented almost at the same time as the internal combustion (IC) engine, is now the focus of the automotive industry again. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has zero emission and its efficiency is significantly higher than the conventional IC engine power vehicles. Among a variety of FCV technologies, proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC vehicle appears to be far more attractive and mature. The prototype PEMFC vehicle has been developed and demonstrated to the public by nearly all the major automotive manufacturers in recent years. However, to the interest of the public research, publications and documentations on the PEMFC vehicle technology are rarely available due to its proprietary nature, which essentially makes it a secured technology. This dissertation demonstrates a real world application of a PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle. Through presenting the vehicle design concept, developing the real time control system and generating generic operation principles, this dissertation targets at establishing the public knowledge base on this new technology. A complete PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle design, including vehicle components layout, process flow diagram, real time control system architecture, subsystem structures and control algorithms, is presented in order to help understand the whole vehicle system. The design concept is validated through the vehicle demonstration. Generic operating principles are established along with the validation process, which helps populate this emerging technology. Thereafter, further improvements and future research directions are discussed.

  5. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  7. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  8. Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Analysis (Milestone Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; O' Keefe, M.; Simpson, A.; Thornton, M.

    2006-11-01

    NREL's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) analysis activities made great strides in FY06 to objectively assess PHEV technology, support the larger U.S. Department of Energy PHEV assessment effort, and share technical knowledge with the vehicle research community and vehicle manufacturers. This report provides research papers and presentations developed in FY06 to support these efforts. The report focuses on the areas of fuel economy reporting methods, cost and consumption benefit analysis, real-world performance expectations, and energy management strategies.

  9. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  10. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century.

  11. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2004 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect on January 1, 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and also required that companies submit reports containing information concerning the company's fleets. This report presented a summary of the regulatory requirements relating to nitric oxide (NO x ) fleet average emissions for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the new regulations. The effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO x emission program at achieving environmental performance objectives was also evaluated. A summary of the fleet average NO x emission performance of individual companies was presented, as well as the overall Canadian fleet average of the 2004 model year based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports. A total of 21 companies submitted reports covering 2004 model year vehicles in 10 test groups, comprising 1,350,719 vehicles of the 2004 model year manufactured or imported for the purpose of sale in Canada. The average NO x value for the entire Canadian LDV/LDT fleet was 0.2016463 grams per mile. The average NO x values for the entire Canadian HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.321976 grams per mile. It was concluded that the NO x values for both fleets were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations for the 2004 model year. 9 tabs

  12. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin

    In this thesis, in order to investigate the impact of charging load from plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a stochastic model is developed in Matlab. In this model, two main types of PHEVs are defined: public transportation vehicles and private vehicles. Different charging time schedule, charging speed and battery capacity are considered for each type of vehicles. The simulation results reveal that there will be two load peaks (at noon and in evening) when the penetration level of PHEVs increases continuously to 30% in 2030. Therefore, optimization tool is utilized to shift load peaks. This optimization process is based on real time pricing and wind power output data. With the help of smart grid, power allocated to each vehicle could be controlled. As a result, this optimization could fulfill the goal of shifting load peaks to valley areas where real time price is low or wind output is high.

  13. Hybrid Underwater Vehicle: ARV Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang DENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of SMU-I, a new autonomous & remotely-operated vehicle (ARV is described. Since it has both the characteristics of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV and remote operated underwater vehicle (ROV, it is able to achieve precision fix station operation and manual timely intervention. In the paper the initial design of basic components, such as vehicle, propulsion, batteries etc. and the control design of motion are introduced and analyzed. ROV’s conventional cable is replaced by a fiber optic cable, which makes it available for high-bandwidth real-time video, data telemetry and high-quality teleoperation. Furthermore, with the aid of the manual real-time remote operation and ranging sonar, it also resolves the AUV’s conflicting issue, which can absolutely adapt the actual complex sea environment and satisfy the unknown mission need. The whole battery system is designed as two-battery banks, whose voltages and temperatures are monitored through CAN (controller area network bus to avoid battery fire and explosion. A fuzzy-PID controller is designed for its motion control, including depth control and direction control. The controller synthesizes the advantage of fuzzy control and PID control, utilizes the fuzzy rules to on-line tune the parameters of PID controller, and achieves a better control effect. Experiment results demonstrate to show the effectiveness of the test-bed.

  14. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  15. Building Blocks for Transport-Class Hybrid and Turboelectric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovsky, Amy; Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    NASA has been investing in research efforts to define potential vehicles that use hybrid and turboelectric propulsion to enable savings in fuel burn and carbon usage. This paper overviews the fundamental building blocks that have been derived from those studies and details what key performance parameters have been defined, what key ground and flight tests need to occur, and highlights progress toward each.

  16. Hybrid vehicle optimal control : Linear interpolation and singular control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delprat, S.; Hofman, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid vehicle energy management can be formulated as an optimal control problem. Considering that the fuel consumption is often computed using linear interpolation over lookup table data, a rigorous analysis of the necessary conditions provided by the Pontryagin Minimum Principle is conducted. For

  17. Analyzing the performance index for a hybrid electric vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D. V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A. F A

    2011-01-01

    The definition of a performance index for the optimization design and optimal control problem of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle is not often considered and analyzed explicitly. In literature, there is no study about proposing a method of building or evaluating whether a performance index is appropriate.

  18. Energy management control concepts with preview for hybrid commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeven, van V.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Pesgens, M.F.M.; Koffrie, R.

    2010-01-01

    In a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), the main task of an Energy Management Strategy (EMS) is to determine the power-split of the total power demand into a power requests to the internal combustion engine and the electro motor. In this work, real-time implementable previewing strategies (utilizing

  19. DIAGNOSTICS CONCEPTION OF ELECTRICAL DRIVE OF A HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Borodenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual approach to creat the diagnostic system of the power elements of the electric drive of the hybrid vehicle has been considered. Approbation of the imitation model of electric drive with brushless DC electric motor as a diagnostic object has been carried out.

  20. New taxation on passenger vehicles and energy consumption. Impact on energy and CO{sub 2} from changed taxation in April 2007; Nye bilafgifter og energiforbrug. Energi- og CO{sub 2}-maessige effekter af afgiftsaendringen i april 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, R.; Vestergaard, L.; Hedegaard Soerensen, C. (Tetraplan A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2009-01-15

    In April 2007 the Danish taxation on passenger vehicles was changed to, amongst other things, lower the CO{sub 2} emission. The changed taxation affects one out of five people, who have purchased a new vehicle for passenger use. And it has improved the overall fuel efficiency of the newly sold passenger vehicles by three percent. However, much of the improvement is based on a shift from gasoline to diesel engines leading to only a slightly lower overall energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission - about a half percent. The general trend of downsizing and shift from gasoline to diesel engines is only partly due to the changed taxation. Rising oil and fuel prices as well as increased focus on energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission are the major reason for buying a more fuel efficient vehicle for passenger use. Three out of four people buying new passenger vehicles are willing to choose a more fuel efficient type if the purchase tax and thus the price is lowered. Half of the people buying new passenger vehicles also agree on changing the taxation on passenger vehicles from a purchase based tax, which is quit high in Denmark, to a tax based on the use of the vehicles. Moreover, a majority agree that the taxes on passenger vehicles should, to an even larger extend than today, be based on energy use and CO{sub 2} emission. (au)

  1. Model Predictive Control for Connected Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model predictive control system for connected hybrid electric vehicles to improve fuel economy. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the battery charge and discharge profile and the driving velocity profile are simultaneously optimized. One is energy management for HEV for Pbatt; the other is for the energy consumption minimizing problem of acc control of two vehicles. Second, a system for connected hybrid electric vehicles has been developed considering varying drag coefficients and the road gradients. Third, the fuel model of a typical hybrid electric vehicle is developed using the maps of the engine efficiency characteristics. Fourth, simulations and analysis (under different parameters, i.e., road conditions, vehicle state of charge, etc. are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method to achieve higher fuel efficiency. The model predictive control problem is solved using numerical computation method: continuation and generalized minimum residual method. Computer simulation results reveal improvements in fuel economy using the proposed control method.

  2. Electric energy storage systems for future hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, Hans; Huelshorst, Thomas [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Elektrochemische Energiewandlung und Speichersystemtechnik, ISEA, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Electric energy storage systems play a key role in today's and even more in future hybrid and electric vehicles. They enable new additional functionalities like Start/Stop, regenerative braking or electric boost and pure electric drive. This article discusses properties and requirements of battery systems like power provision, energy capacity, life time as a function of the hybrid concepts and the real operating conditions of the today's and future hybrid drivetrains. Battery cell technology, component sizing, system design, operating strategy safety measures and diagnosis, modularity and vehicle integration are important battery development topics. A final assessment will draw the conclusion that future drivetrain concepts with higher degree of electrician will be significantly dependent on the progress of battery technology. (orig.)

  3. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  4. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicle simulation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are summarized. Altogether, 111 programs were identified as being in a usable state. The complexity of the existing programs spans a range from a page of simple desktop calculator instructions to 300,000 lines of a high-level programming language. The capability to simulate electric vehicles was most common, heat-engines second, and hybrid vehicles least common. Batch-operated programs are slightly more common than interactive ones, and one-third can be operated in either mode. The most commonly used language was FORTRAN, the language typically used by engineers. The higher-level simulation languages (e.g. SIMSCRIPT, GPSS, SIMULA) used by "model builders" were conspicuously lacking.

  5. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  6. A Proposal for CO2 Abatement in Urban Areas: The UDR1–Lethe© Turbo-Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lora

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For years the interest of the University of Roma 1 (UDR1 research group has been focused on the development of a Hybrid Series vehicle (called Lethe©, different from standard ones, thanks to the use of a Gas Turbine (GT set as a thermal engine. The reason for this choice resides in the opportunity to reduce weight and dimensions, in comparison to a traditional Internal Combustion Engine. It’s currently not possible to use the GT engine set directly for the vehicle traction, so the UDR1 HS configuration only shows the GT set connected with the electric generator. The result is that the traction is purely electric. The resulting engine configuration is commonly described as a Hybrid Series Plug In. Several previous studies have been carried out, and this research has allowed us to define the correct ratio (Degree of Hybridization between the installed power of the battery pack and that of the GT electric generator which simultaneously guarantee the main life for the battery package and the capacity of the vehicle to complete a common mission without lack of energy or stopping. This article reports the final step of the research: once all data has been calculated, how to “hybridize” a commercial city car, passenger sedan or any other vehicle.

  7. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  8. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  9. A Hybrid Approach to Tactical Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC...and the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) (Ehsani, Gao, & Emadi, 2010). Of the six major types of fuel cells; the PEMFC , SOFC, and AFC are... PEMFC (21st Century Truck Program, 2000). There are a number of advantages of using a fuel cell as the primary power source for a vehicle. All fuel

  10. Hybrid vehicles - an alternative for the Swedish market; Hybridfordon - ett alternativ foer den svenska bilparken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, Karl-Erik; Bucksch, S

    2000-06-01

    The object of this report is to assemble information on and describe the situation for the development of hybrid vehicles and various alternatives within this field of development. In the report the description is concentrated mainly on the combination of combustion engine and electric battery, which is the most common combination in present day hybrid vehicles. In order to take a glimpse into the future even the combination of fuel cells and electric battery is described. The light duty electric hybrid vehicles which have been developed up to now are mainly parallel hybrids. If the development of hybrid systems takes place it will most certainly concern light duty vehicles which will come to be parallel hybrids equipped with an Otto or a diesel engine, depending on what the manufacturers wish to back. In the report the use of series hybrid vehicles is estimated to be limited to heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. Hybrids will not be likely to be relevant for heavy-duty vehicles, with the exception of those lorries which operate in city centres, i.e. lorries which are used to distribute goods to shops, garbage vehicles and certain types of working vehicle for service purposes. Continued development of the hybrid system for buses seems uncertain for various reasons. If there is a technical breakthrough in the manufacture of batteries and simultaneously the manufacturers increase their efforts to develop hybrid vehicles, the situation can be changed so that there is a speedier introduction of hybrid vehicles for heavy-duty vehicles.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversions Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  13. A Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Based Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Society desires vehicles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced emissions. This presents a challenge and an opportunity for industry and the government. The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a Hybrid Power Management (HPM) based vehicle architecture for space and terrestrial vehicles. GRC's Electrical and Electromagnetics Branch of the Avionics and Electrical Systems Division initiated the HPM Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, providing all power to a common energy storage system, which is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems, as well as provide power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. This flexible vehicle architecture can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve system efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. This unique vehicle architecture has the potential to alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, stimulate the economy, and enable new missions.

  14. Improving the Performance Attributes of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Hot Climates through Key-Off Battery Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Shojaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambient conditions can have a significant impact on the average and maximum temperature of the battery of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Given the sensitivity of the ageing mechanisms of typical battery cells to temperature, a significant variability in battery lifetime has been reported with geographical location. In addition, high battery temperature and the associated cooling requirements can cause poor passenger thermal comfort, while extreme battery temperatures can negatively impact the power output of the battery, limiting the available electric traction torque. Avoiding such issues requires enabling battery cooling even when the vehicle is parked and not plugged in (key-off, but the associated extra energy requirements make applying key-off cooling a non-trivial decision. In this paper, a representative plug-in parallel hybrid electric vehicle model is used to simulate a typical 24-h duty cycle to quantify the impact of hot ambient conditions on three performance attributes of the vehicle: the battery lifetime, passenger thermal comfort and fuel economy. Key-off cooling is defined as an optimal control problem in view of the duty cycle of the vehicle. The problem is then solved using the dynamic programming method. Controlling key-off cooling through this method leads to significant improvements in the battery lifetime, while benefiting the fuel economy and thermal comfort attributes. To further improve the battery lifetime, partial charging of the battery is considered. An algorithm is developed that determines the optimum combination of key-off cooling and the level of battery charge. Simulation results confirm the benefits of the proposed method.

  15. Influence of diffusion of fuel-efficient motor vehicles on gasoline demand for individual user owned passenger cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Takahiro

    2000-01-01

    Trends in the demand for petrol in Japan for cars owned by individuals are discussed with reference to expected improvements in fuel efficiency for new models and the results of a survey of user preferences for fuel-efficient vehicles. Demand for petrol in Japan has continued to increase in line with the number of cars used by individual owners. A questionnaire on motor vehicles sent to households found that, while cost and body style were the primary factors in car purchase, three-quarters of respondents would consider buying a low fuel consumption (LFC) version of the model chosen. The influence of LFC vehicles on future demand for petrol was estimated for up to 2015 by combining market timing with consumer preferences. Comparison of the estimated petrol consumption by LFC cars with the Government's requirement for reduced energy use by the transport sector in order to meet its climate change targets indicated a shortfall and a need to increase consumer demand for LFC vehicles. Government measures to reduce energy use in the transport sector, fuel efficiency targets for 2010, major LFC cars, fuel efficiency improvements by major Japanese motor manufacturers and scenarios for assessing the influence of LFC cars are summarised in five tables. Trends in petrol consumption and estimated use by individual user owned passenger cars are shown graphically

  16. Visibility of children behind 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles using glances, mirrors, and backup cameras and parking sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; Brethwaite, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study identified the areas behind vehicles where younger and older children are not visible and measured the extent to which vehicle technologies improve visibility. Rear visibility of targets simulating the heights of a 12-15-month-old, a 30-36-month-old, and a 60-72-month-old child was assessed in 21 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles with a backup camera or a backup camera plus parking sensor system. The average blind zone for a 12-15-month-old was twice as large as it was for a 60-72-month-old. Large SUVs had the worst rear visibility and small cars had the best. Increases in rear visibility provided by backup cameras were larger than the non-visible areas detected by parking sensors, but parking sensors detected objects in areas near the rear of the vehicle that were not visible in the camera or other fields of view. Overall, backup cameras and backup cameras plus parking sensors reduced the blind zone by around 90 percent on average and have the potential to prevent backover crashes if drivers use the technology appropriately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined braking system for hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulekina, A. V.; Bakholdin, P. A.; Shchurov, N. I.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of surface vehicle’s existing braking systems. The technical solution and brake-system design were developed for use of regenerative braking energy. A technical parameters comparison of energy storage devices of various types was made. Based on the comparative analysis, it was decided to use supercapacitor because of its applicability for an electric drive intermittent operation. The calculation methods of retarder key components were proposed. Therefrom, it was made a conclusion that rebuild gasoline-electric vehicles are more efficient than gasoline ones.

  18. [The use of seatbelts and child seats in drivers and passengers of motor vehicles in four metropolitan areas in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Trejo, Arturo; Leenen, Iwin

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the rate of seatbelt and child seat use in drivers and passengers of motor vehicles in four metropolitan areas in Mexico (Guadalajara, León, Monterrey and Mexico City). To evaluate the impact of the Mexican Initiative for Road Safety (IMESEVI) in this respect. Data were collected at the start of IMESEVI (June 2008) and one year after the program's implementation (October 2009) in the four participating metropolitan areas. In particular, the use of seatbelts and child seats was observed in occupants of automobiles, station wagons, and light trucks. The sample included 28,412 (pre) and 52,274 (post) individuals, of which 1,454 (pre) and 1,679 (post) were younger than five years old. The data analysis was based on a hierarchical logistic model. Globally, the probability of using either safety device is 46% (95% CI: 43-49%) at baseline and 52% (95% CI: 48-55%) at the post measurement, with large differences, though, among the four participating metropolitan areas. Factors that significantly affect their use include the individual's position in the vehicle, the type and age of the vehicle, and the individual's sex. Child seat use is very limited. At baseline, about 17% (95% CI: 11-25%) of children below five years old travelled in a special seat, with this number increasing to 26% (95% CI: 19-34%) after the implementation of IMESEVI. Child seat use for children above four years is virtually nonexistent. Continued efforts are required to raise the public awareness of the importance of using safety devices, especially for passengers in the back of the car as well as with respect to the use of adapted seats for small children.

  19. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Serve; Fricke, Birger [Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Europe, Suesterfeldstr. 200, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent [Ford Sustainable Mobility Technologies, 15050 Commerce Drive North, Dearborn, MI 48120 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential ''battery pack'' system suppliers are discussed. (author)

  20. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Servé; Fricke, Birger; Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential "battery pack" system suppliers are discussed.

  1. On the electrification of road transport - Learning rates and price forecasts for hybrid-electric and battery-electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Patel, Martin K.; Junginger, Martin; Perujo, Adolfo; Bonnel, Pierre; Grootveld, Geert van

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) are currently more expensive than conventional passenger cars but may become cheaper due to technological learning. Here, we obtain insight into the prospects of future price decline by establishing ex-post learning rates for HEVs and ex-ante price forecasts for HEVs and BEVs. Since 1997, HEVs have shown a robust decline in their price and price differential at learning rates of 7±2% and 23±5%, respectively. By 2010, HEVs were only 31±22 € 2010 kW −1 more expensive than conventional cars. Mass-produced BEVs are currently introduced into the market at prices of 479±171 € 2010 kW −1 , which is 285±213 € 2010 kW −1 and 316±209 € 2010 kW −1 more expensive than HEVs and conventional cars. Our forecast suggests that price breakeven with these vehicles may only be achieved by 2026 and 2032, when 50 and 80 million BEVs, respectively, would have been produced worldwide. We estimate that BEVs may require until then global learning investments of 100–150 billion € which is less than the global subsidies for fossil fuel consumption paid in 2009. These findings suggest that HEVs, including plug-in HEVs, could become the dominant vehicle technology in the next two decades, while BEVs may require long-term policy support. - Highlights: ► Learning rates for hybrid-electric and battery-electric vehicles. ► Prices and price differentials of hybrid-electric vehicles show a robust decline. ► Battery-electric vehicles may require policy support for decades.

  2. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: Economic efficiency and market chances of different business models; Plug-in Hybridfahrzeuge: Wirtschaftlichkeit und Marktchancen verschiedener Geschaeftsmodelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackbarth, Andre; Schuermann, Gregor [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftswissenschaften insb. Energieoekonomik,; RWTH Aachen (DE). E.ON Energy Research Center, Institut fuer Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN); Madlener, Reinhard [Technische Hochschule Aachen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (VKA)

    2009-07-15

    The German traffic sector is strongly dependent on fossil fuels. Electric vehicles could reduce this dependence and also help to keep CO2 emissions low. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are a technology option that may facilitate the transition to electromobility. The authors investigate the economic efficiencies and amortisation periods of PHEV on the basis of two different business models, i.e. passenger cars (compact and medium-sized) and light vans. It is shown that under the assumed boundary conditions PHEV are not economically efficient at present. The influence of various parameters on economic efficiency and amortisation period is investigated by means of a sensitivity analysis. (orig.)

  3. Military Hybrid Vehicle Optimization and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Iep S 2 lep K R 2 ) T ( S 2 K R2 ) We + + lgp (R+S) + lvp (R+S) = e Igp (R+S) + Ivp (R+S) - CR STg KRTm ---+ (2) Ivp... Iep = Ic + Ie B = 4Rbatt Cbatt C = T + 1\\1! R. . f + 0.5 Cd Rtire3 apw/ fb t1re r 9 K 2 and the vehicle constants are defined as: Unclass·ified...3_ + lvpRWr + 2IvpSwr +. IvpS2 wr + IvpS2 w,.] lep K Iep K Iep I< R lgp K R Iep K Iep I< Iep K R Igp I< R b = R W + S W + C R + Iep S 2 we + Iep K

  4. Sensorless Suitability Analysis of Hybrid PM Machines for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben Nørregaard; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2009-01-01

    Electrical machines for traction in electric vehicles are an essential component which attract attention with respect to machine design and control as a part of the emerging renewable industry. For the hybrid electric machine to replace the familiar behaviour of the combustion engine torque......, control seems necessary to implement. For hybrid permanent magnet (PM) machines torque control in an indirect fashion using dq-current control is frequently done. This approach requires knowledge about the machine shaft position which may be obtained sensorless. In this article a method based on accurate...

  5. Aerodynamic resistance reduction of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducting full-scale wind tunnel tests on 16 vehicles. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current 4-passenger prototype automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Characteristic effects of aspect ratio or fineness ratio which might appear if electric vehicle shape proportions were to vary significantly from current automobiles were identified. Some preliminary results indicate a 5 to 10% variation in drag over the range of interest. Effective drag coefficient wind-weighting factors over J227a driving cycles in the presence of annual mean wind fields were identified. Such coefficients, when properly weighted, were found to be from 5 to 65% greater than the zero-yaw drag coefficient in the cases presented. A vehicle aerodynamics bibliography of over 160 entries, in six general categories is included.

  6. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle system controller (20) is presented for a LSR parallel hybrid electric vehicle having an engine (10), a motor (12), wheels (14), a transmission (16) and a battery (18). The vehicle system controller (20) has a state machine having a plurality of predefined states (22-32) that represent operating modes for the vehicle. A set of rules is defined for controlling the transition between any two states in the state machine. The states (22-32) are prioritized according to driver demands, energy management concerns and system fault occurrences. The vehicle system controller (20) controls the transitions from a lower priority state to a higher priority state based on the set of rules. In addition, the vehicle system controller (20) will control a transition to a lower state from a higher state when the conditions no longer warrant staying in the current state. A unique set of output commands is defined for each state for the purpose of controlling lower level subsystem controllers. These commands serve to achieve the desire vehicle functionality within each state and insure smooth transitions between states.

  7. A new type of hybrid vehicle in Japan; Un nouveau type de vehicule hybride au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, P.

    2004-04-01

    During the 37. edition of the Tokyo Motor Show in October 2003, several fuel cell hybrid vehicles were presented by Japanese car makers who grant considerable budgets to develop less polluting vehicles. The trend chosen by Japanese car manufacturers concerns the hybrid system combining fuel cell and battery. Stress has been put also on intelligent systems for navigation and safety but also on the design and comfort. However, even if the environment protection is the main challenge of the Japanese automotive industry, the driving pleasure remains the most profitable medium-term market to be exploitable by industrialists. (J.S.)

  8. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  9. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  10. Component sizing optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaolan; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xueyan; Xu, Jun; Ren, Xiaolong

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as one of the most promising means to improve the near-term sustainability of the transportation and stationary energy sectors. This paper describes a methodology for the optimization of PHEVs component sizing using parallel chaos optimization algorithm (PCOA). In this approach, the objective function is defined so as to minimize the drivetrain cost. In addition, the driving performance requirements are considered as constraints. Finally, the optimization process is performed over three different all electric range (AER) and two types of batteries. The results from computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and the reduction in drivetrian cost while ensuring the vehicle performance.

  11. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael Alan

    2001-03-06

    Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

  12. THE INJURY SEVERITY RATE DIFFERENCES IN PASSENGER CARS AND PICK UP TRUCKS RELATED TWO VEHICLE INVOLVED MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of large vehicle involvement on motor vehicle crash (MVC rates and severity has long been a concern in MVC analysis literature. Injuries in drivers and occupants are related to several key factors: the mass of the case vehicle and mass of its collision partner and speed of case vehicle and collision partner at the time of the crash. Objective: To evaluate the relative risk of injury occurrence in collisions between picks up trucks (PU and passenger sedan cars (PS. Methods: Data from the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC crash data base was used to determine MVC rates and injury occurrence. Descriptive characteristics of the injury location and injury type were analyzed comparing the Odds Ratios and chi-squares. Results: PS occupants received more injuries; Odds Ratio was 2.49 (95% confidence interval: 2.15–2.88. Conclusion: Occupants in PS which collide with PU were at twice the risk of injuries. Concussion, whiplash, lacerations and abrasion were more frequent in PS drivers and occupants than in PU drivers and occupants. Overall, PS drivers/occupants experienced greater injuries than PU drivers/occupants in PU-PS collisions. In this paper, results are shown as odds ratios comparing occupants injuries in PS (case group with occupant injuries in PU (control group.

  13. Potency of Thermoelectric Generator for Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Putra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric Generator (TEG has been known as electricity generation for many years. If the temperature difference occurred between two difference semi conductor materials, the current will flow in the material and produced difference voltage. This principle is known as Seebeck effect that is the opposite of Peltier effect Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC. This research was conducted to test the potential of electric source from twelve peltier modules. Then, these thermoelectric generators were applied in hybrid car by using waste heat from the combustion engine. The experiment has been conducted with variations of peltier module arrangements (series and parallels and heater as heat source for the thermoelectric generator, with variations of heater voltage input (110V and 220V applied. The experimental result showed that twelve of peltier modules arranged in series and heater voltage of 220V generated power output of 8.11 Watts with average temperature difference of 42.82°C. This result shows that TEG has a bright prospect as alternative electric source.

  14. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  15. Design of digital load torque observer in hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yukun; Zhang, Haoming; Wang, Yinghai

    2008-12-01

    In hybrid electric vehicle, engine begain to work only when motor was in high speed in order to decrease tail gas emission. However, permanent magnet motor was sensitive to its load, adding engine to the system always made its speed drop sharply, which caused engine to work in low efficiency again and produced much more environment pollution. Dynamic load torque model of permanent magnet synchronous motor is established on the basic of motor mechanical equation and permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control theory, Full- digital load torque observer and compensation control system is made based on TMS320F2407A. Experiment results prove load torque observer and compensation control system can detect and compensate torque disturbing effectively, which can solve load torque disturbing and decrease gas pollution of hybrid electric vehicle.

  16. On use of hybrid rocket propulsion for suborbital vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okninski, Adam

    2018-04-01

    While the majority of operating suborbital rockets use solid rocket propulsion, recent advancements in the field of hybrid rocket motors lead to renewed interest in their use in sounding rockets. This paper presents results of optimisation of sounding rockets using hybrid propulsion. An overview of vehicles under development during the last decade, as well as heritage systems is provided. Different propellant combinations are discussed and their performance assessment is given. While Liquid Oxygen, Nitrous Oxide and Nitric Acid have been widely tested with various solid fuels in flight, Hydrogen Peroxide remains an oxidiser with very limited sounding rocket applications. The benefits of hybrid propulsion for sounding rockets are given. In case of hybrid rocket motors the thrust curve can be optimised for each flight, using a flow regulator, depending on the payload and mission. Results of studies concerning the optimal burn duration and nozzle selection are given. Specific considerations are provided for the Polish ILR-33 "Amber" sounding rocket. Low regression rates, which up to date were viewed as a drawback of hybrid propulsion may be used to the benefit of maximising rocket performance if small solid rocket boosters are used during the initial flight period. While increased interest in hybrid propulsion is present, no up-to-date reference concerning use of hybrid rocket propulsion for sounding rockets is available. The ultimate goal of the paper is to provide insight into the sensitivity of different design parameters on performance of hybrid sounding rockets and delve into the potential and challenges of using hybrid rocket technology for expendable suborbital applications.

  17. Electric Motor-Generator for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odvářka, Erik; Mebarki, Abdeslam; Gerada, David; Brown, Neil; Ondrůšek, Čestmír

    2009-01-01

    Several topologies of electrical machines can be used to meet requirements for application in a hybrid electric vehicle. This paper describes process of an electric motor-generator selection, considering electromagnetic, thermal and basic control design. The requested electrical machine must develop 45 kW in continuous operation at 1300 rpm with field weakening capability up to 2500 rpm. Both radial and axial flux topologies are considered as potential candidates. A family of axial flux machi...

  18. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Suntharalingam, P

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  19. Cost Performance Estimating Relationships for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-31

    Permanent magnet motors are more likely to be used as generators, while AC induction motors are more efficiently used as motors. Inverters/controllers can...than permanent magnet motors . Switched Reluctance motors are also used on hybrid electric vehicles, but are not used as widely as either AC...induction or permanent magnet motors , and are not analyzed here. Methodology The motor estimates are based on power, with kilowatts being the unit of

  20. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  1. Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Brian D.

    For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the

  2. Nonlinear model predictive control of a passenger vehicle for automated lane changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, A.F.; Marquez-Ruiz, A.; Espinosa, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a nonlinear Model Predictive Control (MPC) for lane changes, based on a simplified Single Track Model (STM) of the vehicle. The STM includes the position of the vehicle in global coordinates as a state so that the position of the target lane can be specified to the MPC for

  3. Which energy source for road transport in the future? A comparison of battery, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierlo, J. van; Maggetto, G.; Lataire, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen era is foreseen following the European research programme in a time horizon of 2020-2040. But there will be clearly a choice to be made between an electron economy (direct use of the produced electricity) and the so called 'hydrogen economy' which leads to the introduction of an intermediate hydrogen production, transport and distribution process before the final use in an electrical process. This paper considers only passenger car and delivery vans applications. In this field a big time gap is to be filled between the situation today, the occurrence of oil shortage in a quite short future and this time horizon 2020-2040. Today's intermediate solutions are clearly based on hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles. The performances of these solutions are putting a lot of questions on the necessity of a hydrogen economy for future transportation. The paper discusses performances of hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles in comparison of the future hydrogen fuel cell based systems which are now in R and D phase and a very beginning of field demonstration

  4. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  5. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  6. Dynamic force profile in hydraulic hybrid vehicles: a numerical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh-Motlagh, Amin; Elahinia, Mohammad H.

    2010-04-01

    A hybrid hydraulic vehicle (HHV) combines a hydraulic sub-system with the conventional drivetrain in order to improve fuel economy for heavy vehicles. The added hydraulic module manages the storage and release of fluid power necessary to assist the motion of the vehicle. The power collected by a pump/motor (P/M) from the regenerative braking phase is stored in a high-pressure accumulator and then released by the P/M to the driveshaft during the acceleration phase. This technology is effective in significantly improving fuel-economy for heavy-class vehicles with frequent stop-and-go drive schedules. Despite improved fuel economy and higher vehicle acceleration, noise and vibrations are one of the main problems of these vehicles. The dual function P/Ms are the main source of noise and vibration in a HHV. This study investigates the dynamics of a P/M and particularly the profile and frequency-dependence of the dynamic forces generated by a bent-axis P/M unit. To this end, the fluid dynamics side of the problem has been simplified for investigating the system from a dynamics perspective. A mathematical model of a bent axis P/M has been developed to investigate the cause of vibration and noise in HHVs. The forces are calculated in time and frequency domains. The results of this work can be used to study the vibration response of the chassis and to design effective vibration isolation systems for HHVs.

  7. Merging mobility and energy vision with hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle infrastructure integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yiming; Chowdhury, Mashrur; Ma Yongchang; Pisu, Pierluigi

    2012-01-01

    As the U.S. federal government is seeking useful applications of Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration (VII) and encouraging a greener and more efficient automobile industry, this paper demonstrated a path to meet the national transportation goal via VII. An impact study was conducted in a midsize U.S. metropolitan area on the potential of utilizing VII communication in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) operations by simulating a VII-enabled vehicle framework for both conventional HEV and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The data collection and communication capability of the VII system allowed the prediction of speed profiles at the vehicle level with an average error rate of 13.2%. With the prediction, at the individual vehicle level, VII technology allowed PHEV and HEV to achieve additional benefits with an approximately 3% decrease in total energy consumption and emission. At the network level, the benefit–cost analysis indicated that the benefit–cost ratios for PHEV and HEV of the VII vehicle network exceed one at the fleet penetration rate of 20% and 30%, respectively. Our findings encourage to support public and private investments in VII infrastructure and its integration with HEV and PHEV in order to reap the increased energy savings from these vehicles. - Highlights: ► A VII-HEV/PHEV framework was simulated for a midsized U.S. metropolitan area. ► A VII-based prediction algorithm was developed for the framework. ► Significant improvement in energy efficiency and emission was achieved at single vehicle level. ► Network analysis was conducted to show cost-effectiveness of this framework.

  8. Hardware in the loop platform development for hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, E. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Fowler, E.; Stevens, M.B. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fraser, M.W. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This paper described a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) validation simulation system designed to evaluate hybrid control strategies. The system was designed to reduce development costs and improve the safety of hybrid vehicle control systems. Model-based design processes for power trains typically include a series of processes to assess the real time and physical limitations of control systems prior to in-vehicle testing. The study used a 70 kW nickel metal hydride battery; a 67 kW 3-phase induction traction motor; and, a high voltage DC-DC converter within a fuel cell Chevrolet Equinox. Two physical vehicle controllers were used to interface with the virtual vehicle simulation in real time. System performance was monitored with a supervisory computer. A software in the loop (SIL) process was conducted to assess torque control and regenerative braking algorithm validation. An analysis of the controller code showed that a Simulink-native integrator block was updating too slowly. A custom integration term calculation was written. The charge control was then validated and tuned. It was concluded that use of the HIL system mitigated the risk of component damage through the identification and correction of unstable control logic. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  10. The near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Performance specifications were determined for a hybrid vehicle designed to achieve the greatest reduction in fuel consumption. Based on the results of systems level studies, a baseline vehicle was constructed with the following basic paramaters: a heat engine power peak of 53 kW (VW gasoline engine); a traction motor power peak of 30 kW (Siemens 1GV1, separately excited); a heat engine fraction of 0.64; a vehicle curb weight of 2080 kg; a lead acid battery (35 kg weight); and a battery weight fraction of 0.17. The heat engine and the traction motor are coupled together with their combined output driving a 3 speed automatic transmission with lockup torque converter. The heat engine is equipped withe a clutch which allows it to be decoupled from the system.

  11. Ultracapacitors for fuel saving in small size hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solero, L.; Lidozzi, A.; Serrao, V. [University ROMA TRE, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Eng., Via della Vasca Navale, 79 - 00146 Roma (Italy); Martellucci, L. [University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Electrical Eng., Via Eudossiana, 18 - 00184 Roma (Italy); Rossi, E. [ENEA, Via Anguillarese, 301 - 00060 S. Maria Galeria, Roma (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to describe a small size hybrid vehicle having ultracapacitors as on-board storage unit. The vehicle on-board main power supply is achieved by a genset being formed of a 250 cm{sup 3} internal combustion engine and a permanent magnet synchronous electric generator, whereas 4 16V-500F ultracapacitors modules are connected in series in order to supply as well as to store the power peaks during respectively acceleration and braking vehicle modes of operation. The traction power is provided by a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor, whereas a distributed power electronic interface is in charge of all the required electronic conversions as well of controlling the operating conditions for each power unit. The paper discusses the implemented control strategy and shows experimental results on the modes of operation of both generation unit and storage unit. (author)

  12. Well-to-wheel analysis of direct and indirect use of natural gas in passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, Scott J.; Wagner, Robert M.; Graves, Ronald L.; Keller, Martin; Green, Johney B.

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of natural gas in the United States because of the number of existing natural gas reserves and the recent advances in extracting unconventional reserves has been one of the main drivers for low natural gas prices. A question arises of what is the optimal use of natural gas as a transportation fuel. Is it more efficient to use natural gas in a stationary power application to generate electricity to charge electric vehicles, compress natural gas for onboard combustion in vehicles, or re-form natural gas into a denser transportation fuel? This study investigates the well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from various natural gas to transportation fuel pathways and compares the results to conventional gasoline vehicles and electric vehicles using the US electrical generation mix. Specifically, natural gas vehicles running on compressed natural gas are compared against electric vehicles charged with electricity produced solely from natural gas combustion in stationary power plants. The results of the study show that the dependency on the combustion efficiency of natural gas in stationary power can outweigh the inherent efficiency of electric vehicles, thus highlighting the importance of examining energy use on a well-to-wheels basis. - Highlights: • Well-to-wheels analysis shows differences in use of natural gas for transportation. • Well-to-wheels approach needed to evaluate total energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. • Well-to-wheels energy and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions depend on efficiency of the prime mover. • Efficiency of power generation critical for low GHG emissions with electric vehicles. • Fuel economy critical for low GHG emissions with compressed natural gas vehicles

  13. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's evaluation of the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year 2013) HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. Launched in March 2015, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data - fuel economy, maintenance costs, and drive cycles - from the HHVs and the conventional diesel vehicles. The fuel economy of heavy-duty vehicles, such as refuse trucks, is largely dependent on the load carried and the drive cycles on which they operate. In the right applications, HHVs offer a potential fuel-cost advantage over their conventional counterparts. This advantage is contingent, however, on driving behavior and drive cycles with high kinetic intensity that take advantage of regenerative braking. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs. Based on the field data, NREL will develop a validated vehicle model using the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator, also known as FASTSim, to study the impacts of route selection and other vehicle parameters. NREL is also analyzing fueling and maintenance data to support total-cost-of-ownership estimations and forecasts. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation compared to similar conventional vehicles and to provide unbiased technical information to interested stakeholders.

  14. Voith hybrid systems - parallel hybrid for rail vehicles; Voith Hybridsysteme - Parallelhybrid fuer Schienenfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groezinger, Thomas; Berger, Juergen; Discher, Andreas; Bartosch, Stephan [Voith Turbo GmbH und Co. KG (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The article presents a variety of ways help to save fuel, reduce noise and minimize harmful emissions for rail vehicles. These ECO components can be used separately or in combination with drive systems for various types of hybrid concepts. For example, via a hydrostatic or electric hybrid system can recuperate and store braking energy and utilize it for powering the vehicle or driving auxiliary systems. Another system converts lost heat from the drive motor into mechanical or electrical energy. With EcoConsult, Voith Turbo also offers a ''toolbox'' comprising software, hardware and consultancy which allows identifying the exact operating conditions and a reliable calculation of the life cycle cost (LCC) for a variety of vehicle categories and operating profiles. (orig.)

  15. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  16. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  17. Modeling real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions with high resolution for light-duty passenger vehicles in a traffic populated city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Un, Puikei; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Modeling fuel consumption of light-duty passenger vehicles has created substantial concerns due to the uncertainty from real-world operating conditions. Macao is world-renowned for its tourism industry and high population density. An empirical model is developed to estimate real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions for gasoline-powered light-duty passenger vehicles in Macao by considering local fleet configuration and operating conditions. Thanks to increasingly stringent fuel consumption limits in vehicle manufacturing countries, estimated type-approval fuel consumption for light-duty passenger vehicles in Macao by model year was reduced from 7.4 L/100 km in 1995 to 5.9 L/100 km in 2012, although a significant upsizing trend has considerably offset potential energy-saving benefit. However, lower driving speed and the air-conditioning usage tend to raise fleet-average fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission factors, which are estimated to be 10.1 L/100 km and 240 g/km in 2010. Fleet-total fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are modeled through registered vehicle population-based and link-level traffic demand approaches and the results satisfactorily coincide with the historical record of fuel sales in Macao. Temporal and spatial variations in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles further highlight the importance of effective traffic management in congested areas of Macao. - Highlights: • A fuel consumption model is developed for Macao's light-duty passenger cars. • Increased vehicle size partially offset energy benefit from tightened fuel consumption standard. • Lower speed and use of air-conditioning greatly increase fuel use of Macao light-duty passenger cars. • A high resolution inventory of fuel use and carbon dioxide emissions is built with link-level traffic data. • Policy suggestions are provided to mitigate fuel use in a traffic populated city.

  18. A magneto rheological hybrid damper for railway vehicles suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe GHITA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High speed railway vehicles features a specific lateral oscillation resulting from the coupled lateral displacement and yaw of the wheelset which leads to a sinusoid movement of the wheelset along the track, transferred to the entire vehicle. The amplitude of this oscillation is strongly dependant on vehicle’s velocity. Over a certain value, namely the critical speed, the instability phenomenon so-called hunting occurs. To raise the vehicle’s critical speed different designs of the suspension all leading to a much stiffer vehicle can be envisaged. Different simulations prove that a stiffer central suspension will decrease the passenger’s comfort in terms of lateral accelerations of the carboy. The authors propose a semi-active magneto rheological suspension to improve the vehicle’s comfort at high speeds. The suspension has as executive elements hybrid magneto rheological dampers operating under sequential control strategy type balance logic. Using an original mathematical model for the lateral dynamics of the vehicle the responses of the system with passive and semi-active suspensions are simulated. It is shown that the semi-active suspension can improve the vehicle performances.

  19. Lithium-ion batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles; Lithium-Ionen-Batterie-Entwicklung fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Michael; Birke, Peter; Schiemann, Michael; Moerstaedt, Uwe [Continental AG, Berlin (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich HEV

    2009-03-15

    Continental is the first company worldwide to produce lithium-ion batteries for a serial production vehicle (Mercedes S 400 Hybrid). The supplier describes cell and system strategies, as well as safety relevant production details and integration strategies, which determine the application in hybrid and electric vehicles. (orig.)

  20. Recent evidence concerning higher NO x emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Beevers, Sean D.; Tate, James E.; Westmoreland, Emily J.; Williams, Martin L.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient trends in nitrogen oxides (NO x) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) for many air pollution monitoring sites in European cities have stabilised in recent years. The lack of a decrease in the concentration of NO x and in particular NO 2 is of concern given European air quality standards are set in law. The lack of decrease in the concentration of NO x and NO 2 is also in clear disagreement with emission inventory estimates and projections. This work undertakes a comprehensive analysis of recent vehicle emissions remote sensing data from seven urban locations across the UK. The large sample size of 84,269 vehicles was carefully cross-referenced to a detailed and comprehensive database of vehicle information. We find that there are significant discrepancies between current UK/European estimates of NO x emissions and those derived from the remote sensing data for several important classes of vehicle. In the case of light duty diesel vehicles it is found that NO x emissions have changed little over 20 years or so over a period when the proportion of directly emitted NO 2 has increased substantially. For diesel cars it is found that absolute emissions of NO x are higher across all legislative classes than suggested by UK and other European emission inventories. Moreover, the analysis shows that more recent technology diesel cars (Euro 3-5) have clear increasing NO x emissions as a function of Vehicle Specific Power, which is absent for older technology vehicles. Under higher engine loads, these newer model diesel cars have a NO x/CO 2 ratio twice that of older model cars, which may be related to the increased use of turbo-charging. Current emissions of NO x from early technology catalyst-equipped petrol cars (Euro 1/2) were also found to be higher than emission inventory estimates - and comparable with NO x emissions from diesel cars. For heavy duty vehicles, it is found that NO x emissions were relatively stable until the introduction of Euro IV technology when

  1. Safety and interaction of patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators driving a hybrid vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondato, Fernando; Bazzell, Jane; Schwartz, Linda; Mc Donald, Bruce W; Fisher, Robert; Anderson, S Shawn; Galindo, Arcenio; Dueck, Amylou C; Scott, Luis R

    2017-01-15

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect the function of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have increased popularity and are a potential source of EMI. Little is known about the in vivo effects of EMI generated by HEV on ICD. This study evaluated the in vivo interaction between EMI generated by HEV with ICD. Thirty patients (73±9 y/o; 80% male) with stable ICD function were exposed to EMI generated by a Toyota Prius Hybrid®. The vehicle was lifted above the ground, allowing safe changes in engine rotation and consequent variations in electromagnetic emission. EMI was measured (NARDA STS® model EHP-50C) and expressed in A/m (magnetic), Volts/m (electrical), and Hertz (frequency). Six positions were evaluated: driver, front passenger, right and left back seats, outside, at the back and front of the car. Each position was evaluated at idle, 30 mph, 60 mph and variable speeds (acceleration-deceleration-brake). All ICD devices were continuously monitored during the study. The levels of EMI generated were low (highest mean levels: 2.09A/m at right back seat at 30 mph; and 3.5V/m at driver seat at variable speeds). No episode of oversensing or inadvertent change in ICD programming was observed. It is safe for patients with ICD to interact with HEV. This is the first study to address this issue using an in vivo model. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the interaction of different models of HEV or electric engine with ICD or unipolar pacemakers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal Control of Engine Warmup in Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Reeven Vital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An Internal Combustion Engine (ICE under cold conditions experiences increased friction losses due to a high viscosity of the lubricant. With the additional control freedom present in hybrid electric vehicles, the losses during warmup can be minimized and fuel can be saved. In this paper, firstly, a control-oriented model of the ICE, describing the warmup behavior, is developed and validated on measured vehicle data. Secondly, the two-state, non-autonomous fuel optimization, for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle with stop-start functionality, is solved using optimal control theory. The principal behavior of the Lagrange multipliers is explicitly derived, including the discontinuities (jumps that are caused by the constraints on the lubricant temperature and the energy in the battery system. The minimization of the Hamiltonian for this two-state problem is also explicitly solved, resulting in a computationally efficient algorithm. The optimal controller shows the fuel benefit, as a function of the initial temperature, for a long-haul truck simulated on the FTP-75.

  3. Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle.

  4. KASTOR – A VEHICLE AND CREW SCHEDULING SYSTEM FOR REGULAR BUS PASSENGER TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav PALÚCH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in vehicle and crew scheduling is to arrange a given set of bus trips into running boards while minimizing certain objectives and complying with a given set of constraints. This scheduling was solved several tens years ago manually by a dispatcher who used his skill, experience, knowledge of history, and intuition. This attitude worked quite well in small instances but could not be applied in larger ones. Development of computers brought opportunities to build computerized vehicle and crew optimization systems. This paper describes a computer system KASTOR developed for vehicle and crew optimization, which complies with the special requirements of Czech and Slovak bus providers, and is significantly different from those in some west European countries.

  5. An energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Chunhua; Xu, Guoqing; Xu, Kun; Pan, Zhongming; Liang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information. • Vehicle velocity profile and fuel consumption are optimized at the same time. • It is proved that a further energy saving is achieved by the proposed approach. • The proposed approach is useful especially for autonomous hybrid vehicles. - Abstract: The traffic preview information is very helpful for hybrid vehicles when distributing the power requirement of the vehicle to power sources and when determining the next driving route of the vehicle. In this research, an energy management approach for hybrid vehicles is proposed, which optimizes the vehicle velocity profile while minimizing the fuel consumption with the help of the traffic preview information, so that a further energy saving for hybrid vehicles can be achieved. The Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) is adopted on the proposed approach. A fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV) is selected as an example, and the proposed energy management approach is applied to the FCHV in a computer simulation environment for the offline and online cases respectively. Simulation results show that the fuel economy of the FCHV is improved by the proposed energy management approach compared to a benchmark case where the driving cycle is fixed and only the hybrid power split (allocation) ratio is optimized. The proposed energy management approach is useful especially for the autonomous hybrid vehicles.

  6. IEA implementing agreement for hybrid and electric vehicle technologies and programmes, Annex VII hybrid vehicles : Topic 13, assessment of the energy consumption of hybrid trucks using ADVISOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, J.; Winkel, R.G.; Geraets, R.; Verbakel, M.J.L.

    2002-01-01

    This topic report focuses on the possible benefits of the application of a hybrid powertrain in heavy-duty vehicles. The main objective is to assess whether a significant reduction in fuel consumption is feasible. An average Dutch distribution truck with a conventional driveline will be compared to

  7. Electric vehicles and India's low carbon passenger transport: A long-term co-benefits assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, Subash; Pathak, Minal; Shukla, Priyadarshi

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles have attracted the attention of India's policy makers as clean technology alternatives due to their multiple advantages like higher efficiency and lower air pollution in short to medium term and reduced CO2 emissions as electricity gets decarbonized in the long-run under low...... carbon scenarios. This paper uses an energy system model ANSWER-MARKAL to analyse the role of electric vehicles (EV) in India. The modelling assessment spans the period 2010 to 2050 and analyses future EV demand in India under three scenarios: i) a ‘Reference’ scenario which includes the continuation...

  8. Heat transfer enhancement of a modularised thermoelectric power generator for passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Huang, Kuo; Yan, Yuying; Li, Yong; Twaha, Ssennoga; Zhu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Shape-adapted thermoelectric module for highly compact heat recovery exchanger assembly. •Heat pipe-assisted heat transfer enhancement method for better power output. •Highest power output ratio to the total volume of heat recovery exchanger. •Cascaded thermoelectric system can be scaled and extended for various power output. •Self-clamping design of thermoelectric module can solve the thermomechanical imbalances. -- Abstract: Transport represents over a quarter of Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and is the leading cause of air pollution in cities. It has not seen the same gradual decline in emissions as other sectors. Recently, the thermoelectric power generation (TEG) technology emerges as an alternative solution to the emission reduction challenge in this area. In this paper, we present an innovative pathway to an improved heat supply into the concentric shape-adapted TEG modules, integrating the heat pipe technologies. It relies on a phase changing approach which enhances the heat flux through the TEG surface. In order to improve the heat transfer for higher efficiency, in our work, the heat pipes are configured in the radial direction of the exhaust streams. The analysis shows that the power output is adequate for the limited space under the chassis of the passenger car. Much effort can also be applied to obtain enhanced convective heat transfer by adjusting the heat pipes at the dual sides of the concentric TEG modules. Heat enhancement at the hot side of the TEG has an effective impact on the total power out of the TEG modules. However, such improvements can be offset by the adjustment made from the coolant side. Predictably, the whole temperature profile of TEG system is subject to the durability and operational limitations of each component. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of heat transfer versus the TEG power generation under two possible configurations in the passenger car. The highest power output per

  9. The cost of fuel economy in the Indian passenger vehicle market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugh, Randy; Cropper, Maureen; Narain, Urvashi

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how fuel economy is valued in the Indian car market, we compute the cost to Indian consumers of purchasing a more fuel-efficient vehicle and compare it to the benefit of lower fuel costs over the life of the vehicle. We estimate hedonic price functions for four market segments (petrol hatchbacks, diesel hatchbacks, petrol sedans, and diesel sedans) to compute 95% confidence intervals for the marginal cost to the consumer for an increase in fuel economy. We find that the associated present value of fuel savings falls within the 95% confidence interval for most specifications, in all market segments, for the years 2002 through 2006. Thus, we fail to consistently reject the hypothesis that consumers appropriately value fuel economy. - Highlights: → We examine the tradeoffs faced by new vehicle consumers in India. → We use hedonic price functions and instrumental variables. → We find no support for the hypothesis that consumers undervalue fuel economy. → Some consumers are willing to forgo substantial potential savings to own their preferred vehicle.

  10. Optimal Energy Control Strategy Design for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled, and its optimal energy control is studied in this paper. The fundamental architecture of the parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled feed-forwardly, together with necessary dynamic features of subsystem or components. Dynamic programming (DP technique is adopted to find the optimal control strategy including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and the motor subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the fuel economy can be achieved in the heavy-duty vehicle cycle from the natural driving statistics.

  11. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Some Theoretical Considerations on Consumption Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carlucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Solving the problem of the lack of environmental sustainability in transport activities requires the involvement of new technologies, particularly in populated cities where mobility activities play a major role in generating externalities. The move from cars powered by conventional internal combustion engines to cars powered by alternative energies can make an important contribution to reducing emissions and achieving a more sustainable transport system. Unfortunately, green car market development still remains uncertain because of the higher production costs of batteries and engines. In this context, surprisingly little attention has been devoted to analysing the economic factors affecting consumers’ behaviour in the choice of hybrid electric vehicles. To fill this gap, the diffusion process of hybrid technology as well as intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and the crowding-out effect on consumers’ purchasing decisions are taken under consideration. Finally, some policy recommendations are provided.

  12. A Storable, Hybrid Mars Ascent Vehicle Technology Demonstrator for the 2020 Launch Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, A. A.; Karabeyoglu, M. A.; Cantwell, B. J.; Reeve, R.; Goldstein, B. G.; Hubbard, G. S.

    2012-06-01

    A Phoenix sized mission including a reduced payload, two-stage, hybrid Mars Ascent Vehicle technology demonstrator is proposed for the 2020 opportunity. The hybrid MAV is storable on Mars and would retire risk for a Mars Sample Return campaign.

  13. Hybrid CNG propulsion for fleet vehicles: emission reduction potential and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, P. [BC Research Institute, BC (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A project (1) to build an experimental hybrid electric vehicle to be used as a test bed for the development of EZEV-oriented technologies, (2) to develop a control system to manage the energy use in a series hybrid vehicle, (3) to evaluate the suitability of valve regulated lead acid batteries for hybrid propulsion, and (4) to investigate the feasibility of using hybrid propulsion for medium duty fleet vehicles was discussed. In this context, the electric G-Van, the BCRI hybrid G-Van battery, the hybrid power unit, and the electronic control unit were described. The concept of hybrid vehicle control, and the control system software were explained, and a summary of the hybrid system efficiency test was provided.

  14. Design Optimization of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangun, Firdause; Idres, Moumen; Abdullah, Kassim

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an optimization work on hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain using Genetic Algorithm (GA) method. It focused on optimization of the parameters of powertrain components including supercapacitors to obtain maximum fuel economy. Vehicle modelling is based on Quasi-Static-Simulation (QSS) backward-facing approach. A combined city (FTP-75)-highway (HWFET) drive cycle is utilized for the design process. Seeking global optimum solution, GA was executed with different initial settings to obtain sets of optimal parameters. Starting from a benchmark HEV, optimization results in a smaller engine (2 l instead of 3 l) and a larger battery (15.66 kWh instead of 2.01 kWh). This leads to a reduction of 38.3% in fuel consumption and 30.5% in equivalent fuel consumption. Optimized parameters are also compared with actual values for HEV in the market.

  15. Component sizing optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaolan; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xueyan; Xu, Jun; Ren, Xiaolong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are considered as one of the most promising means to improve the near-term sustainability of the transportation and stationary energy sectors. This paper describes a methodology for the optimization of PHEVs component sizing using parallel chaos optimization algorithm (PCOA). In this approach, the objective function is defined so as to minimize the drivetrain cost. In addition, the driving performance requirements are considered as constraints. Finally, the optimization process is performed over three different all electric range (AER) and two types of batteries. The results from computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and the reduction in drivetrian cost while ensuring the vehicle performance. (author)

  16. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Electric Vehicle over Different Driving Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Aishwarya; Bansal, Hari Om

    2017-02-01

    Article aims to find the nature and response of a hybrid vehicle on various standard driving cycles. Road profile parameters play an important role in determining the fuel efficiency. Typical parameters of road profile can be reduced to a useful smaller set using principal component analysis and independent component analysis. Resultant data set obtained after size reduction may result in more appropriate and important parameter cluster. With reduced parameter set fuel economies over various driving cycles, are ranked using TOPSIS and VIKOR multi-criteria decision making methods. The ranking trend is then compared with the fuel economies achieved after driving the vehicle over respective roads. Control strategy responsible for power split is optimized using genetic algorithm. 1RC battery model and modified SOC estimation method are considered for the simulation and improved results compared with the default are obtained.

  17. Combined Optimal Sizing and Control for a Hybrid Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal sizing and control of a hybrid tracked vehicle is presented and solved in this paper. A driving schedule obtained from field tests is used to represent typical tracked vehicle operations. Dynamics of the diesel engine-permanent magnetic AC synchronous generator set, the lithium-ion battery pack, and the power split between them are modeled and validated through experiments. Two coupled optimizations, one for the plant parameters, forming the outer optimization loop and one for the control strategy, forming the inner optimization loop, are used to achieve minimum fuel consumption under the selected driving schedule. The dynamic programming technique is applied to find the optimal controller in the inner loop while the component parameters are optimized iteratively in the outer loop. The results are analyzed, and the relationship between the key parameters is observed to keep the optimal sizing and control simultaneously.

  18. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  19. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real

  20. Evaluation of sounds for hybrid and electric vehicles operating at low speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), operated at low speeds may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic creating a safety issue. This field study compares the auditory detectability of num...

  1. Karakats: the Bricolage of Hybrid Vehicles that Skate and Swim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Laviolette

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the material culture of ‘karakat’ (Russian karakatitsa hybrid vehicles in the town of Kallaste, east Estonia. It focuses on the social factors that allow karakat culture to change. The region of study was part of the Soviet Union so the phenomenon of self-assembled vehicles implies socialist and communist considerations. Local people are still surrounded by the material legacy of that time. Technological assemblages from the past therefore continue to live in the present. It was popular in the USSR to maintain off-road vehicles, which were put together with the owner’s own hands. Such a bricolage technique has been preserved since the middle of the 20th century and is something that is used as a marker of local identity. The distribution of spare parts was problematic in former Soviet times and this has influenced the way men now make karakats. Current owners spend a lot of time servicing their vehicles. The issue of masculinity is highly relevant here because dealing with technology is seen as a masculine activity. Moreover, because it is increasingly open to tourists, karakat culture is becoming a tradable commodity.

  2. Utility emissions associated with electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This project is a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the emission impacts of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHVs). The study determines local and regional emission impacts under a variety of scenarios, covering both conservative and optimistic assumptions about vehicle efficiency, power plant efficiency, and other factors. In all scenarios, EHV use significantly reduces urban emissions of CO, VOC, and TSP. Changes in NO x and CO 2 emissions are very sensitive to average or marginal power plant emissions and vehicle efficiency assumptions. NO x and CO 2 emissions changes vary dramatically by region. Certain combinations of EHV and CV scenarios and regions result in significant reductions, while other combinations result in significant increases. Careful use of these results is advised. In all scenarios, SO 2 increases with EHV use although the amount is small-less than 1% of total utility emissions even vath the deployment of 12 million EHVS. But because of emission cap provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, national SO 2 totals will not be allowed to increase. Thus, utilities will have to apply more stringent measures to combat increased SO 2 emissions due to the increased use of electric vehicles

  3. Simulation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. F.; Cole, G. H.

    Computer programs for the simulation of the operation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems are described. These programs treat cases in which high energy density ultracapacitors or high power density pulse batteries are used to load level the main energy storage battery in the vehicle. A generalized control strategy for splitting the power between the main battery and the pulse power devices is implemented such that the user can specify the nominal battery power as a function of the state-of-charge of the ultracapacitor or pulse power battery. The programs display graphically on the screen, as they run, the power from both the main battery and the pulse power device and the state-of-charge of the pulse power device. After each run is completed, a summary is printed out from which the effect of load leveling the battery on vehicle range and energy consumption can be determined. Default input files are provided with the programs so various combinations of vehicles, driveline components, and batteries of special current interest to the EV community can be run with either type of pulse power device. Typical simulation results are shown including cases in which the pulse power devices are connected in parallel with the main battery without interface electronics.

  4. Intelligent emission-sensitive routing for plugin hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhou, Xingshe

    2016-01-01

    The existing transportation sector creates heavily environmental impacts and is a prime cause for the current climate change. The need to reduce emissions from this sector has stimulated efforts to speed up the application of electric vehicles (EVs). A subset of EVs, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), backup batteries with combustion engine, which makes PHEVs have a comparable driving range to conventional vehicles. However, this hybridization comes at a cost of higher emissions than all-electric vehicles. This paper studies the routing problem for PHEVs to minimize emissions. The existing shortest-path based algorithms cannot be applied to solving this problem, because of the several new challenges: (1) an optimal route may contain circles caused by detour for recharging; (2) emissions of PHEVs not only depend on the driving distance, but also depend on the terrain and the state of charge (SOC) of batteries; (3) batteries can harvest energy by regenerative braking, which makes some road segments have negative energy consumption. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a green navigation algorithm (GNA) which finds the optimal strategies: where to go and where to recharge. GNA discretizes the SOC, then makes the PHEV routing problem to satisfy the principle of optimality. Finally, GNA adopts dynamic programming to solve the problem. We evaluate GNA using synthetic maps generated by the delaunay triangulation. The results show that GNA can save more than 10 % energy and reduce 10 % emissions when compared to the shortest path algorithm. We also observe that PHEVs with the battery capacity of 10-15 KWh detour most and nearly no detour when larger than 30 KWh. This observation gives some insights when developing PHEVs.

  5. 78 FR 2868 - Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks, medium and heavy duty trucks and buses, low... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  6. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  7. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  8. Procedure for the Design of a Hybrid-Series Vehicle and the Hybridization Degree Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Coccia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For years, the interest of the UDR1 research group has focused on the development of a Hybrid Series (HS vehicle, different from the standard one thanks to the use of a Gas Turbine set (GT as a thermal engine. The reason for this choice resides in the opportunity to reduce weight and dimensions, in comparison to a traditional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE. It is not possible to use the GT engine set directly for the vehicle traction, therefore the UDR1 HS configuration shows the GT set connected with the electric generator only. The result is that the traction is purely electric. The resulting engine configuration is a commonly defined Hybrid Series. Many efforts are spent in the definition of a generic scientific method to define the correct ratio (Degree of Hybridization between the installed power of the battery pack and that of the GT electric generator, which simultaneously guarantees the life of the battery pack and the capacity of the vehicle to complete a common mission without lack of energy or stopping. This article reports a method to define the power ratio between battery pack and GT generator, applied to a recent commission for the development of a mini city bus.

  9. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles-A low-carbon solution for Ireland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2006, the primary energy requirement of the Irish transport sector increased by 166%. Associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have followed a corresponding trajectory, and are responsible-at least in part-for Ireland's probable failure to meet its Kyoto targets. As in most countries, Ireland's transport sector is almost totally reliant on oil-a commodity for which Ireland is totally dependent on imports-and therefore vulnerable to supply and price shocks. Conversely, the efficiency and carbon intensity of the Irish electricity supply system have both improved dramatically over the same period, with significant further improvements projected over the coming decade. This paper analyses the prospects for leveraging these changes by increasing the electrification of the Irish transport sector. Specifically, the potential benefits of plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) are assessed, in terms of reducing primary energy requirement (PER) and CO 2 emissions. It is shown that, on a per-km basis, PHEV offer the potential for reductions of 50% or more in passenger car PER and CO 2 intensity. However, the time required to turn over the existing fleet means that a decade or more will be required to significantly impact PER and emissions of the PC fleet.

  10. Investigations on an energy efficient air conditioning of hybrid vehicles and electric-powered vehicles; Untersuchungen zur energieeffizienten Klimatisierung von Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurich, Joerg; Baumgart, Rico; Danzer, Christoph; Unwerth, Thomas von [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Professur Alternative Fahrzeugantriebe

    2012-11-01

    The energy-efficient air conditioning of passenger cells is an ever-increasing challenge in the development of electric vehicles because the electric heating in particular reduces the cruising range significantly. For this reason, a simulation model has been developed at Chemnitz University of Technology, which simulates the whole air conditioning system including the passenger cell and the complete powertrain in electric cars. Using this model, different optimization approaches have been analyzed and evaluated concerning the cruising range. This paper first illustrates how much the cruising range of an exemplary electric vehicle is reduced by using the electric heating under different wintery weather conditions. Afterwards, the exploitation of the waste heat produced by the powertrain components (electric motor and power electronics) will be explained. Finally, it shall be described to what extent this exploitation increases the cruising range. (orig.)

  11. Development of a hybrid pneumatic-power vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K. David; Tzeng, S.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Many complex technologies have been developed and applied to improve the energy efficiency and exhaust emission of an engine under different driving conditions. The overall thermal efficiency of an internal-combustion engine, however, can be maintained at only about 20-30%, with aggravated problems in the design and development, such as overall difficulty, excessive time consumption or excessively high cost. For electric cars, there is still no major technological breakthrough for the rapid recharging of a large capacity battery and detection of remaining power in it. Although all currently available hybrid-power engines are able to lower the amount of exhaust emissions and the fuel consumption of the engine, they are still unable to achieve a stable and optimal running condition immediately after ignition; hence the engine's thermal-efficiency remains low. To solve the aforementioned problems, an innovative concept - a hybrid pneumatic power-system (HPPS), which stores 'flow work' instead of storing electrochemical energy of the battery - is introduced. This innovative power system not only ensures that the internal-combustion ensures optimally but also recycles the exhaust flow to propel the vehicle. The optimization of the internal-combustion and recycling of the exhaust energy can increase the vehicle's efficiency from an original 15% to 33%, an overall increase of 18%

  12. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  13. Shifting primary energy source and NOx emission location with plug-in hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karman, Deniz

    2011-06-01

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) present an interesting technological opportunity for using non-fossil primary energy in light duty passenger vehicles, with the associated potential for reducing air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, to the extent that the electric power grid is fed by non-fossil sources. This perspective, accompanying the article by Thompson et al (2011) in this issue, will touch on two other studies that are directly related: the Argonne study (Elgowainy et al 2010) and a PhD thesis from Utrecht (van Vliet 2010). Thompson et al (2011) have examined air quality effects in a case where the grid is predominantly fossil fed. They estimate a reduction of 7.42 tons/day of NOx from motor vehicles as a result of substituting electric VMTs for 20% of the light duty gasoline vehicle miles traveled. To estimate the impact of this reduction on air quality they also consider the increases in NOx emissions due to the increased load on electricity generating units. The NOx emission increases are estimated as 4.0, 5.5 and 6.3 tons for the Convenience, Battery and Night charging scenarios respectively. The net reductions are thus in the 1.1-3.4 tons/day range. The air quality modelling results presented show that the air quality impact from a ground-level ozone perspective is favorable overall, and while the effect is stronger in some localities, the difference between the three scenarios is small. This is quite significant and suggests that localization of the NOx emissions to point sources has a more pronounced effect than the absolute reductions achieved. Furthermore it demonstrates that localization of NOx emissions to electricity generating units by using PHEVs in vehicle traffic has beneficial effects for air quality not only by minimizing direct human exposure to motor vehicle emissions, but also due to reduced exposure to secondary pollutants (i.e. ozone). In an electric power grid with a smaller share of fossil fired generating units, the beneficial

  14. Analysis of impacts on urban air quality by restricting the operation of passenger vehicles during Asian Game events in Busan, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Jun, Na-Young; Lee, Haengah Kim

    This study is an analysis of the impacts on urban air quality of restricting the operation of passenger vehicles during the 24th Asian Games (AG). Passenger vehicles in Busan were not allowed to operate on the alternative days during the AG period. This restricted operation of passenger vehicles was enforced to improve an urban air quality in Busan during the AG period. The average usage rate of passenger vehicles under an alternate (or restricted) operation was 95.4% and thus the average traffic flow rate (vehicle operation speed) increased approximately 28.1% as compared to normal periods. We analyzed the ambient concentrations of criteria air pollutants measured at 13 air-monitoring stations in Busan (Pusan), Korea, for the three periods of "before (13-28 September 2002)", "during (29 September-14 October 2002)" and "after (15-30 October 2002)" the AG. The 1-h, 24-h and 16-day averages or median concentrations of each classified term were compared to those of other terms. The median concentrations, based on 24-h average data of each day, of PM 10, CO, NO 2, and SO 2 in the ambient during the alternate operation period of 16 days substantially increased as compared to the terms before or after. However, the median concentration of O 3 during the AG period was slightly less than that of the term before. The ambient O 3 concentrations during daytime (12:00-19:00) under alternate operation substantially increased as compared to the terms before or after. However, the ambient O 3 concentrations during nighttime (22:00-07:00) under alternate operation decreased when compared to the terms before or after. For the alternate operation period of passenger vehicles, the average concentrations of PM 10, NO 2, SO 2, and daytime O 3 measured at the air-monitoring stations near the stadiums were much higher than those of the other areas excluding the stadium areas. However, average CO concentrations at the other areas were higher than those nearby the stadiums during the

  15. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  16. Development of commercial hybrid electric vehicle with native key components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bakhmutov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives of development of medium weight cargo vehicles with hybrid powertrain including Russian native key components are considered in this article. Series-parallel scheme of HEV is more relevant owing to limitations of series and parallel schemes. An example of this technology is described. This technical solution has good facilities for variation of HEV and AWD type. The authors have patented it. In addition, another main issue is to choose the types of key components with good correlation for parameters of ICE, electric motors, batteries, and inverter. Using mathematical model of the vehicle a selection and correlation of technical characteristics were carried out to meet ecological and economical requirements. After computing calculation two control strategies were accepted. The first strategy contributes to good fuel consumption, while the other one is aimed at ecology. Researchers use test benches to confirm the results of calculation, and this one was built by the authors applying native components. The result of experiment on the test bench is the growth of fuel consumption of the medium weight cargo vehicle by 25% and compliance with ecological class Euro-4.

  17. Stochastic Optimal Control of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Qin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategies (EMSs in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are highly related to the fuel economy and emission performances. However, EMS constitutes a challenging problem due to the complex structure of a HEV and the unknown or partially known driving cycles. To meet this problem, this paper adopts a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP method for the EMS of a specially designed vehicle, a pre-transmission single-shaft torque-coupling parallel HEV. In this parallel HEV, the auto clutch output is connected to the transmission input through an electric motor, which benefits an efficient motor assist operation. In this EMS, demanded torque of driver is modeled as a one-state Markov process to represent the uncertainty of future driving situations. The obtained EMS has been evaluated with ADVISOR2002 over two standard government drive cycles and a self-defined one, and compared with a dynamic programming (DP one and a rule-based one. Simulation results have shown the real-time performance of the proposed approach, and potential vehicle performance improvement relative to the rule-based one.

  18. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix D: Sensitivity analysis resport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Parametric analyses, using a hybrid vehicle synthesis and economics program (HYVELD) are described investigating the sensitivity of hybrid vehicle cost, fuel usage, utility, and marketability to changes in travel statistics, energy costs, vehicle lifetime and maintenance, owner use patterns, internal combustion engine (ICE) reference vehicle fuel economy, and drive-line component costs and type. The lowest initial cost of the hybrid vehicle would be $1200 to $1500 higher than that of the conventional vehicle. For nominal energy costs ($1.00/gal for gasoline and 4.2 cents/kWh for electricity), the ownership cost of the hybrid vehicle is projected to be 0.5 to 1.0 cents/mi less than the conventional ICE vehicle. To attain this ownership cost differential, the lifetime of the hybrid vehicle must be extended to 12 years and its maintenance cost reduced by 25 percent compared with the conventional vehicle. The ownership cost advantage of the hybrid vehicle increases rapidly as the price of fuel increases from $1 to $2/gal.

  19. Electric vehicles and India's low carbon passenger transport: A long-term co-benefits assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, Subash; Pathak, Minal; Shukla, Priyadarshi

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles have attracted the attention of India's policy makers as clean technology alternatives due to their multiple advantages like higher efficiency and lower air pollution in short to medium term and reduced CO2 emissions as electricity gets decarbonized in the long-run under low......) are related to sourcing of raw materials for batteries and battery reprocessing and disposal. The findings show that: i) in the reference scenario, the EVs 2-wheelers will achieve a significant share by 2050. Electric 4-wheelers though would have a small share even in 2050; ii) EV push policies though lead...... to significant diffusion of electric 2- wheelers in India by 2030. These policies enhance diffusion of electric 4-wheelers only if financial incentives are sustained in the long-term, iii) the application of global carbon price on the Indian economy in the 2° C stabilization scenario increases competitiveness...

  20. Parametric modeling of components for selection and specification of hybrid vehicle drivetrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Druten, van R.M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Drivetrain hybridization implies adding a Secondary power source to a Primary power source in order to improve a multiple of driving functions: Fuel economy, Emissions, Driveability, Comfort and Safety. Designing a hybrid vehicle drivetrain fulfilling the required vehicle driving functions is

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-10-12

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  2. Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.

  3. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : phase III final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities proposed in this research proposal are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (N...

  4. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : phase II, final report, March 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities proposed in this research proposal are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (N...

  5. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : phase II final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities proposed in this research proposal are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (N...

  6. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : phase I final report, March 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities proposed in this research proposal are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (N...

  7. Dynamic simulation of urban hybrid electric vehicles; Dynamische Simulation von Stadthybridfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winke, Florian; Bargende, Michael [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen (IVK)

    2013-09-15

    As a result of the rising requirements on the development process of modern vehicles, simulation models for the prediction of fuel efficiency have become an irreplaceable tool in the automotive industry. Especially for the design of hybrid electric drivetrains, the increasingly short development cycles can only be met by the use of efficient simulation models. At the IVK of the University of Stuttgart, different approaches to simulating the longitudinal dynamics of hybrid electric vehicles were analysed and compared within the presented project. The focus of the investigations was on urban operation. The objective was to develop a hybrid vehicle concept that allows an equitable comparison with pure battery electric vehicles. (orig.)

  8. In-situ Study of Seating Static Comfort in Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seraj Umi Salmah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s automotive market, comfort is huge selling point of a vehicle. Priority is given by buyers to how comfortable a seat feels during purchase decisions. The measure of comfort is harmonious mix of many aspects such as human ergonomics and physiological factors. However, a gap still exists between objective and subjective measures due to lack of emphasis by past researchers. This is particularly obvious in the lumbar support feature that has still not been able to address the health problems related to driving. This project focuses on bridging the gap by giving users the ability to define true preferred posture in realistic settings. This is done by the creation of a apparatus that allows users to individually manipulate the seat contour for optimum support in more segments than just lumbar area. The experiment is performed in 3 parts, where in each part different segments of the apparatus are manipulatable (lumbar segment, sacral & thoracic segment, and all segments. Sixty human subjects’ statistics are recorded (gender, age, BMI and height and the subjects are palpated to locate internal joints. These joints are marked and postural angles between them are measured using a goniometer. In each seat configuration, the angles are measured and a comfort rating is taken to be compared. It was found that the posture angles are different among the 3 experiments, and there is a change in comfort felt. Some human factors have also been proven to contribute heavily to angles chosen by occupants.

  9. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  10. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Frank A., E-mail: bender@isys.uni-stuttgart.de; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection.

  11. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Frank A.; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection

  12. Hybrid Wing Body Planform Design with Vehicle Sketch Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.; Olson, Erik D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to provide an update on NASA s current tools for design and analysis of hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with an emphasis on Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP). NASA started HWB analysis using the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS). That capability is enhanced using Phoenix Integration's ModelCenter(Registered TradeMark). Model Center enables multifidelity analysis tools to be linked as an integrated structure. Two major components are linked to FLOPS as an example; a planform discretization tool and VSP. The planform discretization tool ensures the planform is smooth and continuous. VSP is used to display the output geometry. This example shows that a smooth & continuous HWB planform can be displayed as a three-dimensional model and rapidly sized and analyzed.

  13. Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pecht

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The battery management system (BMS is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. This paper addresses concerns for current BMSs. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS. Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well.

  14. The Impact of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Incentives on Demand and the Determinants of Hybrid-Vehicle Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggieri, Alison

    According to the Energy Information Administration, transportation currently accounts for over 60% of U.S. oil demand (E.I.A. 2010). Improving automobile energy efficiency could therefore reduce oil consumption and the negative environmental effects of automobile use. Subsidies for energy-efficient technologies such as hybrid-electric vehicles have gained political popularity since their introduction into the market and therefore have been implemented with increasing frequency. After the introduction of hybrid-electric vehicles into the U.S. market, the federal government initially implemented a 2000 federal tax deduction for these vehicles (later increased to a 3500 credit). Many states followed, offering various exemptions, such as high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane use, and excise-tax, sales-tax, and income-tax exemptions. Because not all states have implemented these subsidies, this policy topic is an ideal candidate for an outcome evaluation using an observational study postulation. States adopt incentives for different reasons based on factors that make adoption more attractive, however, so it is first necessary to identify these differences that predict policy adoption. This allows for the evaluative work to control for self selection bias. Three classes of internal determinants of policy adoption, political context, problem severity, and institutional support, and one type of external diffusion factor, are tested using logistic regression. Results suggest that the number of neighboring states that have already adopted incentives are consistently a determinant of diffusion for all three types of incentives test, HOV lane exemptions, sales-tax exemptions, and income-tax exemptions. In terms of internal factors, constituent support, a type of political context, predicts, sale-tax, income-tax, and HOV lane exemptions, but that the other two classes of determinants, problem severity and institutional support, were not universally significant across types of

  15. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Siavash Sadeghi; Mojtaba Mirsalim; Arash Hassanpour Isfahani

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicl...

  16. Personal exposures to asbestos fibers during brake maintenance of passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely-García, María Fernanda; Sánchez, Mauricio; Breysse, Patrick N; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P

    2012-11-01

    Brake linings and brake pads are among the asbestos-containing products that are readily available in Colombia. When sold separated from their support, brake linings require extensive manipulation involving several steps that include drilling, countersinking, riveting, bonding, cutting, beveling, and grinding. Without this manipulation, brake linings cannot be installed in a vehicle. The manipulation process may release asbestos fibers, which may expose brake mechanics to the fibers. Three brake repair shops located in Bogotá (Colombia) were sampled for 3 or 4 consecutive days using US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 and 7402. Standard procedures for quality control were followed during the sampling process, and asbestos samples were analyzed by an American Industrial Hygiene Association accredited laboratory. Personal samples were collected to assess full-shift and short-term exposures. Area samples were also collected close to the brake-lining manipulation equipment and within office facilities. Activities were documented during the sampling process. Using Phase Contrast Microscopy Equivalent counts to estimate air asbestos concentrations, all personal samples [i.e. 8-h time-weighted averages (TWAs) and 30-min personal samples] were in compliance with the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards. Personal asbestos concentrations based on transmission electron microscopy counts were extremely high, ranging from 0.006 to 3.493 f cm(-3) for 8-h TWA and from 0.015 to 8.835 f cm(-3) for 30-min samples. All asbestos fibers detected were chrysotile. Cleaning facilities and grinding linings resulted in the highest asbestos exposures based on transmission electron microscopy counts. There were also some samples that did not comply with the NIOSH's recommended exposure limits. The results indicate that the brake mechanics sampled are exposed to extremely high asbestos concentrations (i.e. based on transmission

  17. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  18. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybrid neural network bushing model for vehicle dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Seung Kyu; Yoo, Wan Suk

    2008-01-01

    Although the linear model was widely used for the bushing model in vehicle suspension systems, it could not express the nonlinear characteristics of bushing in terms of the amplitude and the frequency. An artificial neural network model was suggested to consider the hysteretic responses of bushings. This model, however, often diverges due to the uncertainties of the neural network under the unexpected excitation inputs. In this paper, a hybrid neural network bushing model combining linear and neural network is suggested. A linear model was employed to represent linear stiffness and damping effects, and the artificial neural network algorithm was adopted to take into account the hysteretic responses. A rubber test was performed to capture bushing characteristics, where sine excitation with different frequencies and amplitudes is applied. Random test results were used to update the weighting factors of the neural network model. It is proven that the proposed model has more robust characteristics than a simple neural network model under step excitation input. A full car simulation was carried out to verify the proposed bushing models. It was shown that the hybrid model results are almost identical to the linear model under several maneuvers

  20. Optimal powertrain dimensioning and potential assessment of hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgovski, Nikolce

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), compared to conventional vehicles, complement the traditional combustion engine with one, or several electric motors and an energy buffer, typically a battery and/or an ultra capacitor. This gives the vehicle an additional degree of freedom that allows for a more efficient operation, by e.g. recuperating braking energy, or operating the engine at higher efficiency. In order to be cost effective, the HEV may need to include a downsized engine and a carefully selected energy buffer. The optimal size of the powertrain components depends on the powertrain configuration, ability to draw electric energy from the grid, charging infrastructure, drive patterns, varying fuel, electricity and energy buffer prices and on how well adapted is the buffer energy management to driving conditions. This thesis provides two main contributions for optimal dimensioning of HEV powertrains while optimally controlling the energy use of the buffer on prescribed routes. The first contribution is described by a methodology and a tool for potential assessment of HEV powertrains. The tool minimizes the need for interaction from the user by automizing the processes of powertrain simplification and optimization. The HEV powertrain models are simplified by removing unnecessary dynamics in order to speed up computation time and allow Dynamic Programming to be used to optimize the energy management. The tool makes it possible to work with non-transparent models, e.g. models which are compiled, or hidden for intellectual property reasons. The second contribution describes modeling steps to reformulate the powertrain dimensioning and control problem as a convex optimization problem. The method considers quadratic losses for the powertrain components and the resulting problem is a semi definite convex program. The optimization is time efficient with computation time that does not increase exponentially with the number of states. This makes it possible to include more

  1. Impact of electric range and fossil fuel price level on the economics of plug-in hybrid vehicles and greenhouse gas abatement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özdemir, Enver Doruk; Hartmann, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the energy consumption shares of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) for electricity from the grid and conventional fuel depending on electric driving range are estimated. The resulting mobility costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement costs per vehicle kilometer for the year 2030 are calculated and optimal electric driving range (which indicates the size of the battery) is found for different oil price levels with the help of a MATLAB based model for a typical compact passenger car (e.g. VW Golf). The results show that the optimum electric driving range for minimum mobility costs of a PHEV is between 12 and 32 km. Furthermore, optimum GHG abatement costs are achieved with an electric driving range between 16 and 23 km. These results are considerable lower than most market ready PHEVs (electric driving range of 50 to 100 km), which shows that the automobile industry should concentrate on shorter electric driving range for PHEVs in the near future to offer cost optimum mobility and low GHG abatement costs. However, the oil price level and the consumer driving habits impact heavily on the cost performance as well as the optimum electric driving range of plug-in hybrid vehicles. - Highlights: ► We analyze the energy consumption (and share of grid electricity) of plug-in hybrid vehicles. ► We analyzed the mobility costs and GHG abatement costs depending on electric driving range. ► Mobility costs of plug-in hybrid vehicles can be lower than those of conventional diesel vehicles in 2030. ► The optimum mobility costs are achieved with the electric driving range between 12 and 32 km. ► The optimum GHG abatement costs are achieved with the electric driving range between 16 and 23 km.

  2. Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

    1980-11-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

  3. A Pilot Study of Pedestrians with Visual Impairments Detecting Traffic Gaps and Surges Containing Hybrid Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Hapeman, Julie; Wiener, William

    2011-03-01

    The increasing number of hybrid and quiet internal combustion engine vehicles may impact the travel abilities of pedestrians who are blind. Pedestrians who rely on auditory cues for structuring their travel may face challenges in making crossing decisions in the presence of quiet vehicles. This article describes results of initial studies looking at the crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind at an uncontrolled crossing (no traffic control) and a light controlled intersection. The presence of hybrid vehicles was a factor in each situation. At the uncontrolled crossing, Toyota hybrids were most difficult to detect but crossing decisions were made more often in small gaps ended by a Honda hybrid. These effects were seen only at speed under 20 mph. At the light controlled intersection, parallel surges of traffic were most difficult to detect when made up only of a Ford Escape hybrid. Results suggest that more controlled studies of vehicle characteristics impacting crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind are warranted.

  4. MODELLING AND CONTROL OF POWER-SPLIT HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE USING FUZZY LOGIC METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Khajavi, Mehrdad Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, automotive manufactures increasingly have lead to development of hybrid vehicles due to energy consumption growing and increased emissions. the power-split hybrids due to the simultaneous using of speed and torque couplings has integrated advantage of series and parallel hybrid systems and minimize their disadvantages , however the power-split hybrids control strategy is far more complex than other types. Generally the control strategy tries to use the optimize operating point of HE...

  5. Electric and hybrid vehicle self-certification and verification procedures: Market Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The process by which a manufacturer of an electric or hybrid vehicle certifies that his vehicle meets the DOE Performance Standards for Demonstration is described. Such certification is required for any vehicles to be purchased under the Market Demonstration Program. It also explains the verification testing process followed by DOE for testing to verify compliance. Finally, the document outlines manufacturer responsibilities and presents procedures for recertification of vehicles that have failed verification testing.

  6. A dynamic simulation tool for the battery-hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.M. [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii, Manoa (United States); Ramaswamy, S.; Cunningham, J.M. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Hauer, K.H. [xcellvision, Major-Hirst-Strasse 11, 38422 Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    This paper describes a dynamic fuel cell vehicle simulation tool for the battery-hybrid direct-hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. The emphasis is on simulation of the hybridized hydrogen fuel cell system within an existing fuel cell vehicle simulation tool. The discussion is focused on the simulation of the sub-systems that are unique to the hybridized direct-hydrogen vehicle, and builds on a previous paper that described a simulation tool for the load-following direct-hydrogen vehicle. The configuration of the general fuel cell vehicle simulation tool has been previously presented in detail, and is only briefly reviewed in the introduction to this paper. Strictly speaking, the results provided in this paper only serve as an example that is valid for the specific fuel cell vehicle design configuration analyzed. Different design choices may lead to different results, depending strongly on the parameters used and choices taken during the detailed design process required for this highly non-linear and n-dimensional system. The primary purpose of this paper is not to provide a dynamic simulation tool that is the ''final word'' for the ''optimal'' hybrid fuel cell vehicle design. The primary purpose is to provide an explanation of a simulation method for analyzing the energetic aspects of a hybrid fuel cell vehicle. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  8. Developments in batteries and fuel cells for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to ever increasing threats of climate change, urban air pollution and costly and depleting oil and gas sources a lot of work is being done for the development of electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and all electric vehicles are powered by batteries or by hydrogen and fuel cells are the main types of vehicles being developed. Main types of batteries which can be used for electric vehicles are lead-acid, Ni-Cd, Nickel-Metal-Hybrid ( NiMH) and Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries which are discussed and compared. Lithium ion battery is the mostly used battery. Developments in the lithium ion batteries are discussed and reviewed. Redox flow batteries are also potential candidates for electric vehicles and are described. Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce fuel consumption considerably and is a good midterm solution. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles are discussed. Electric vehicles are necessary to mitigate the effects of pollution and dependence on oil. For all the electric vehicles there are two options: batteries and fuel Cells. Batteries are useful for small vehicles and shorter distances but for vehicle range greater than 150 km fuel cells are superior to batteries in terms of cost, efficiency and durability even using natural gas and other fuels in addition to hydrogen. Ultimate solution for electric vehicles are hydrogen and fuel cells and this opinion is also shared by most of the automobile manufacturers. Developments in fuel cells and their applications for automobiles are described and reviewed. Comparisons have been done in the literature between batteries and fuel cells and are described. (author)

  9. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different

  10. Hybrid vehicle system studies and optimized hydrogen engine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R.; Aceves, S.

    1995-04-01

    We have done system studies of series hydrogen hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. We have evaluated the impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy. Experiments in an available engine at the Sandia CRF demonstrated NO(x) emissions of 10 to 20 ppM at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO(x) concentrations must be less than 180 ppM to meet the 0.2 g/mile ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. LLNL has designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing Onan engine. This head features 15:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses. Initial testing shows promise of achieving an indicated efficiency of nearly 50% and emissions of less than 100 ppM NO(x). Hydrocarbons and CO are to be measured, but are expected to be very low since their only source is engine lubricating oil. A successful friction reduction program on the Onan engine should result in a brake thermal efficiency of about 42% compared to today's gasoline engines of 32%. Based on system studies requirements, the next generation engine will be about 2 liter displacement and is projected to achieve 46% brake thermal efficiency with outputs of 15 kW for cruise and 40 kW for hill climb.

  11. Modeling hydraulic regenerative hybrid vehicles using AMESim and Matlab/Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Alfred; Smid, Edzko; Eshraghi, Moji; Caldwell, Niall; Woody, Dan

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the overview of the simulation modeling of a hydraulic system with regenerative braking used to improve vehicle emissions and fuel economy. Two simulation software packages were used together to enhance the simulation capability for fuel economy results and development of vehicle and hybrid control strategy. AMESim, a hydraulic simulation software package modeled the complex hydraulic circuit and component hardware and was interlinked with a Matlab/Simulink model of the vehicle, engine and the control strategy required to operate the vehicle and the hydraulic hybrid system through various North American and European drive cycles.

  12. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and ''through-the-ground'' parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains. (author)

  13. Analysis and optimization of hybrid electric vehicle thermal management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamut, H. S.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G. F.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the thermal management system of a hybrid electric vehicle is optimized using single and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms in order to maximize the exergy efficiency and minimize the cost and environmental impact of the system. The objective functions are defined and decision variables, along with their respective system constraints, are selected for the analysis. In the multi-objective optimization, a Pareto frontier is obtained and a single desirable optimal solution is selected based on LINMAP decision-making process. The corresponding solutions are compared against the exergetic, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental single objective optimization results. The results show that the exergy efficiency, total cost rate and environmental impact rate for the baseline system are determined to be 0.29, ¢28 h-1 and 77.3 mPts h-1 respectively. Moreover, based on the exergoeconomic optimization, 14% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower cost can be achieved, compared to baseline parameters at an expense of a 14% increase in the environmental impact. Based on the exergoenvironmental optimization, a 13% higher exergy efficiency and 5% lower environmental impact can be achieved at the expense of a 27% increase in the total cost.

  14. Driving cycle suitable layout of permanent magnet synchronous machines for hybrid vehicles and electric powered vehicles; Fahrzyklusgerechte Auslegung von permanentmagneterregten Synchronmaschinen fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finken, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    An increasing environmental awareness and the prospect of a shortage of fossil resources will result in a development of efficient vehicles with a lower consumption of fuel. In addition to the hybrid electric vehicle, the electric powered vehicle increasingly is focused in the development of vehicles. A good efficiency is the most important demand on the electrical machine. The author of the book under consideration reports on exemplary operating point distributions for various vehicle concepts and user profiles. After comparing the most common types of machine in terms of the use in electrified powertrains, the permanent magnet synchronous machine is selected and discussed in detail. A table shows the advantages and disadvantages of all considered geometries and variations. Thus, a suitable combination of geometry for a given vehicle concept and its requirements are selected.

  15. Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hallaj, Said; Selman, J. R.

    A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be "scaled-up safely", i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes than the commercially available near-2-Ah cells. Here, we review a novel thermal management system using phase-change material (PCM). A prototype of this PCM-based system is presently being manufactured. A PCM-based system has never been tested before with lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and battery packs, although its mode of operation is exceptionally well suited for the cell chemistry of the most common commercially available Li-ion batteries. The thermal management system described here is intended specifically for EV/HEV applications. It has a high potential for providing effective thermal management without introducing moving components. Thereby, the performance of EV/HEV batteries may be improved without complicating the system design and incurring major additional cost, as is the case with "active" cooling systems requiring air or liquid circulation.

  16. Synthetic fuels for transportation : background paper #1 : the future potential of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    This report presents a comprehensive review of the future of electric and hybrid : vehicles through the year 2010 in the United States. It was prepared for the : Office of Technology Assessment as background information for its study, : "Synthetic Fu...

  17. Improving the energy density of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVS) and evaluating plug-in HHVS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report describes analyses performed by researchers at The University of Toledo (UT) in : collaboration with researchers at the University of Detroit Mercy (UDM) on the project : Improving the Energy Density of Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles (HHVs)...

  18. The Swedish electric and hybrid vehicle R, D and D program. Seminar October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This publication presents a selection of the ongoing projects in the form of abstracts, within the KFB RDD-program Electric- and Hybrid Vehicles. These projects were presented at a project manager seminar 20-21 October 1998

  19. Hybrid Computational Model for High-Altitude Aeroassist Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid continuum/noncontinuum computational model will be developed for analyzing the aerodynamics and heating on aeroassist vehicles. Unique features of this...

  20. Fuel Economy and Performance of Mild Hybrids with Ultracapacitors: Simulations and Vehicle Test Results (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.; Lustbader, J.; Tataria, H.

    2009-06-01

    NREL worked with GM and demonstrated equivalent performance in the Saturn Vue Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) hybrid vehicle whether running with its stock batteries or a retrofit ultracapacitor system.

  1. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, C; Kandlikar, M

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km

  2. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Jing Junqing; Luo Yanling

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range.

  3. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Junqing Jing; Yanling Luo [Jiangsu Xuzhou Construction Machinery Research Institute, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-01-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range. (author)

  4. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimental Model with CAN Network Real Time Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATOI, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental model with a distributed control system of a hybrid electrical vehicle is presented. A communication CAN network of high speed (1 Mbps assures a distributed control of the all components. The modeling and the control of different operating regimes are realized on an experimental test-bench of a hybrid electrical vehicle. The experimental results concerning the variations of the mains variables (currents, torques, speeds are presented.

  5. Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yang; Chao Wang; Quanrang Zhang; Xiaolong He

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-dow...

  6. Development of power management concepts for the electrical power system in passenger vehicles; Entwicklung von Energiemanagement-Konzepten fuer das elektrische Bordnetz im Kraftfahrzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meir, F.; Bertram, M.; Christ, T. [BMW Group (Germany); Reuss, H.-C. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). IVK; Morawietz, L.; Buechner, S. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The implementation of innovative systems in passenger vehicles requires a stable electric power supply. Moreover, the increasing demand on electric energy causes a larger influence on the fuel consumption. The task of an intelligent Power Management System is to optimise power generation as well as to achieve a reliable supply for electric loads. This paper deals with tools for development and evaluation of these functions. The preliminary design of control concepts is based on simulation. The simulation models are completely described by an object-oriented modeling language. Parameters of components from present power systems are extracted from measurements in the vehicle and with the help of a Hardware-in-the-Loop test bench. First simulation results indicate the quality of the new power management concepts. In parallel, these concepts can be approved on the test bench. (orig.)

  7. Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet-Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, I.; Wessely, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising transport related greenhouse gas emissions is crucial in order to derive policies that strive towards more energy-efficient on-road passenger mobility. We focus on the efficacy of technological efficiency improvements in mitigating climate-relevant emissions from car use in light of shifting demand patterns towards bigger, heavier and more powerful cars. The analysis is descriptive in nature and based on a bottom-up database that was originally collated for the purpose of the present study. Technological data on car models, which includes tested fuel consumption, engine size, power and weight, is related to registered car stock and, in parts, to newly registered cars. From this, we obtain an original database of the Austrian passenger car fleet, i.e. information on consumer choice of specific car models, segregated by gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Conclusions are derived for policies aimed at reducing the fossil fuel consumption of the moving vehicle fleet in order to contribute to a low carbon society.

  8. Parametric modeling of components for selection and specification of hybrid vehicle drivetrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Druten, van R.M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.

    2007-01-01

    Drivetrain hybridization implies adding a secondary power source (electric machine/battery) to a primary power source (engine/filled fuel tank) in order to improve: fuel economy, emissions, drivability (performance), comfort and safety. Designing a hybrid vehicle drivetrain fulfilling the required

  9. Presentation of electric motor and motor control technology for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles; Denki jidosha hybrid sha yo motor oyobi motor seigyo gijutsu no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudaira, N.; Masakik, R.; Tajima, F. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    The authors have developed a motor drive system for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. This system consists of a permanent magnet type synchronous motor, an inverter using insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and a controller based on a single-chip microcomputer. To achieve a compact and light weight synchronous motor, an internal permanent magnet type rotor structure was designed. This paper presents motor control technology for electric vehicles, such as an optimization method of field weakening control and a new current control method. (author)

  10. Model-based eco-driving and integrated powertrain control for (hybrid) electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, T.; Spronkmans, S.; Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) is engaged in research, development and testing of a range of technologies relating to hybrid and electric vehicle energy management and performance. The impact of driver behaviour on vehicle energy consumption is a significant

  11. Acoustic characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles and the safety of pedestrians who are blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...

  12. Auditory detectability of hybrid electric vehicles by pedestrians who are blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...

  13. An optimal control-based algorithm for hybrid electric vehicle using preview route information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D.V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Control strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are generally aimed at optimally choosing the power distribution between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor in order to minimize the fuel consumption and/or emissions. Using vehicle navigation systems in combination with

  14. Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

    1999-06-18

    This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

  15. Plug-in hybrid vehicle GHG impacts in California: Integrating consumer-informed recharge profiles with an electricity-dispatch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.; McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) may reduce source-to-wheel Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from passenger vehicles. The two primary advances are the incorporation of (1) explicit measures of consumer interest in and potential use of different types of PHEVs and (2) a model of the California electricity grid capable of differentiating hourly and seasonal GHG emissions by generation source. We construct PHEV emissions scenarios to address inherent relationships between vehicle design, driving and recharging behaviors, seasonal and time-of-day variation in GHG-intensity of electricity, and total GHG emissions. A sample of 877 California new vehicle buyers provide data on driving, time of day recharge access, and PHEV design interests. The elicited data differ substantially from the assumptions used in previous analyses. We construct electricity demand profiles scaled to one million PHEVs and input them into an hourly California electricity supply model to simulate GHG emissions. Compared to conventional vehicles, consumer-designed PHEVs cut marginal (incremental) GHG emissions by more than one-third in current California energy scenarios and by one-quarter in future energy scenarios-reductions similar to those simulated for all-electric PHEV designs. Across the emissions scenarios, long-term GHG reductions depends on reducing the carbon intensity of the grid. - Research highlights: → We estimate California Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHEV) GHGs using consumer data and an electricity supply model. → Consumer-designed (mostly 'blended') PHEVs can reduce GHG emissions compared to conventional vehicles. → These PHEVs can also reduce GHG emissions relative to 'all-electric' PHEV designs. → 'All-electric' designs may further reduce GHG emissions as electricity carbon intensity falls. → Ranking of GHG savings from off-peak versus daytime charging scenarios depends on electricity carbon intensity.

  16. Electric and hybrid vehicle program. Quarterly report, January-February-March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Highlights of program developments are discussed, and ETV-1 test results are described. The temperature effects on lead-acid battery performance from 27 to 55/sup 0/C are reported, and the status of demonstration electric vehicle orders and deliveries is summarized. The certification and testing status of demonstration project vehicles is outlined, and a personnel directory for the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program is included. (WHK)

  17. Journey predictive energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmaraj Ram Manohar, Ravi Shankar

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) is widely seen as an interim solution for the decarbonisation of the transport sector. Within a PHEV, determining the required energy storage capacity of the battery remains one of the primary concerns for vehicle manufacturers and system integrators. This fact is particularly pertinent since the battery constitutes the largest contributor to vehicle mass. Furthermore, the financial cost associated with the procurement, d...

  18. Mild hybrids with CVT: comparison of electrical and mechanical torque assist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druten, van R.M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.; Vroemen, B.G.; Tillaart, van den E.L.; de Haas, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper evaluates two mild hybrid drive trains for a mid-class passenger car with a gasoline engine by means of comptuer simulation. The term mild hybrid is used for vehicles with sustained electric propulsion. The mild hybrid drive trains both have a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) with

  19. Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power System Optimization Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wu, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), compared with conventional vehicles, have complex structures and more component parameters. If variables optimization designs are carried on all these parameters, it will increase the difficulty and the convergence of algorithm program, so this paper chooses the parameters which has a major influence on the vehicle fuel consumption to make it all work at maximum efficiency. First, HEV powertrain components modelling are built. Second, taking a tandem hybrid structure as an example, genetic algorithm is used in this paper to optimize fuel consumption and emissions. Simulation results in ADVISOR verify the feasibility of the proposed genetic optimization algorithm.

  20. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  1. US Department of Energy Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The advanced vehicle testing activity (AVTA), part of the US Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modelling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full-size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and internal combustion engine vehicles powered by hydrogen. Currently, the AVTA is conducting a significant evaluation of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) produced by major automotive manufacturers. The results are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the 'real world' performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. The initial fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that determined by the manufacturer and also varies significantly with environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over the life of a given vehicle (160 000 miles).

  2. Data Fusion Modeling for an RT3102 and Dewetron System Application in Hybrid Vehicle Stability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Miao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is proposed based on the Kalman filter. Then, this modeling is simulated and tested on a sample vehicle, using Carsim and Simulink software to test the results. The results showed the merits of this modeling.

  3. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study on the Coating Removal from Passenger-Vehicle Plastics for Recycling by Using Water Jet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The recovery and utilization of automotive plastics are a global concern because of the increasing number of end-of-life vehicles. In-depth studies on technologies for the removal of coatings from automotive plastics can contribute to the high value-added levels of the recycling and utilization of automotive plastic. The liquid waste generated by removing chemical paint by using traditional methods is difficult to handle and readily produces secondary pollution. Therefore, new, clean, and highly efficient techniques of paint removal must be developed. In this article, a method of coating removal from passenger-vehicle plastics was generated based on high-pressure water jet technology to facilitate the recycling of these plastics. The established technology was theoretically analyzed, numerically simulated, and experimentally studied. The high-pressure water jet equipment for the removal of automotive-plastic coatings was constructed through research and testing, and the detailed experiments on coating removal rate were performed by using this equipment. The results showed that high-pressure water jet technology can effectively remove coatings on the surfaces of passenger-vehicle plastics. The research also revealed that the coating removal rate increased as jet pressure ( P) increased and then decreased when jet moving speed ( Vn) increased. The rate decreased as the distance from nozzle to work piece ( S nw ) and the nozzle angle ( Φ) increased. The mathematical model for the rate of removal of coatings from bumper surfaces by water jet was derived based on the experiment data and can effectively predict coating removal rate under different operating conditions.

  4. Model-based design approaches for plug-in hybrid vehicle design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, C.J. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Stevens, M.B.; Fowler, M.W. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fraser, R.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Wilhelm, E.J. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Energy Systems Analysis

    2007-07-01

    A model-based design process for plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) was presented. The paper discussed steps between the initial design concept and a working vehicle prototype, and focused on an investigation of the software-in-the-loop (SIL), hardware-in-the-loop (HIL), and component-in-the-loop (CIL) design phases. The role and benefits of using simulation were also reviewed. A method for mapping and identifying components was provided along with a hybrid control strategy and component-level control optimization process. The role of simulation in component evaluation, architecture design, and de-bugging procedures was discussed, as well as the role simulation networks can play in speeding deployment times. The simulations focused on work performed on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox converted to a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV). Components were aggregated to create a complete virtual vehicle. A simplified vehicle model was implemented onto the on-board vehicle control hardware. Optimization metrics were estimated at 10 alpha values during each control loop iteration. The simulation was then used to tune the control system under a variety of drive cycles and conditions. A CIL technique was used to place a physical hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) component under the control of a real time HEV/PHEV simulation. It was concluded that controllers should have a standardized component description that supports integration into advanced testing procedures. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  5. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of the stress affecting drivers and passengers induced by dust and vehicle exhausts of metropolitan traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemmelt, H.; Hoeppe, P.; Praml, G.; Schierl, R.; Zielinsky, M.

    1993-01-01

    The metropolitan traffic stresses in like manner the bus driver and the passenger by raised concentrations of traffic emissions. We will determine quantitatively the concentrations of dust, dust adsorbed elements (lead, platinum, PAH's), anorganic noxious gases (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide) and the organic poisonous gases ( a.o. benzene, toluene, xylenes) in their distribution in place and time in buses and trams. (orig.) [de

  7. Can UK passenger vehicles be designed to meet 2020 emissions targets? A novel methodology to forecast fuel consumption with uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Niall P.D.; Bishop, Justin D.K.; Choudhary, Ruchi; Boies, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces a Bayesian methodology to quantify new car fuel consumption. • Model presents user with more realistic, on-road, fuel consumption estimates. • Sources of NEDC uncertainty attributed to imprecise assumptions for resistances. • Fuel consumption of average UK car projected to exceed 2020 emissions standards. - Abstract: Vehicle manufacturers are required to reduce their European sales-weighted emissions to 95 g CO_2/km by 2020, with the aim of reducing on-road fleet fuel consumption. Nevertheless, current fuel consumption models are not suited for the European market and are unable to account for uncertainties when used to forecast passenger vehicle energy-use. Therefore, a new methodology is detailed herein to quantify new car fleet fuel consumption based on vehicle design metrics. The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) is shown to underestimate on-road fuel consumption in Spark (SI) and Compression Ignition (CI) vehicles by an average of 16% and 13%, respectively. A Bayesian fuel consumption model attributes these discrepancies to differences in rolling, frictional and aerodynamic resistances. Using projected inputs for engine size, vehicle mass, and compression ratio, the likely average 2020 on-road fuel consumption was estimated to be 7.6 L/100 km for SI and 6.4 L/100 km for CI vehicles. These compared to NEDC based estimates of 5.34 L/100 km (SI) and 4.28 L/100 km (CI), both of which exceeded mandatory 2020 fuel equivalent emissions standards by 30.2% and 18.9%, respectively. The results highlight the need for more stringent technological developments for manufacturers to ensure adherence to targets, and the requirements for more accurate measurement techniques that account for discrepancies between standardised and on-road fuel consumption.

  8. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; Zheng, Jincheng; Su, Yongmao; Zhao, Jinghui

    2013-01-01

    This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe) regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV). Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simul...

  9. M1078 Hybrid Hydraulic Vehicle Fuel Economy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    hydraulic energy stored in the accumulators. Park Mechanism Not Required – Vehicle air brake system used to immobilize vehicle when parked – Same...power to the transmission to accelerate the vehicle forward and maintain a desired speed. For regenerative braking , the switching valve is set to...assist, brake energy recovery, dual mode braking ( regenerative and service brakes ), engine stop/start, silent watch mode, and stationary tool use

  10. Test and development of a solar-hybrid vehicle prototype and turbo-compressor model for automotive engines

    OpenAIRE

    Naddeo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    2014 - 2015 In last decade, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) have emerged as real alternatives to engine-driven vehicles, in order to reduce fuel consumption and emissions.... [edited by author] XIV n.s.

  11. S 400 BlueHYBRID. First hybrid vehicle with Li-ion technology; S 400 BlueHYBRID. Erstes Hybridfahrzeug mit Li-Ionen-Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollrath, Oliver; Armstrong, Neil; Schenk, Juergen; Bitsche, Otmar; Lamm, Arnold [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Mercedes Benz advances the electrification of the drive strand in all performance classes and in all models from the start-stop system till to the full hybrid. Thereby, the S 400 BlueHYBRID presents the first Mercedes-Benz hybrid. Equipped with the characteristics of a start-stop system, with a recovery of the brake energy and with an electrical support of the drive, this hybrid obtains a saving of the consumption of approximately 20 %. By means of the design of the components and by means of the selection of a standard installation size, all hybrid-specific construction units in the vehicle porch could be arranged. Here, a special role comes to the used battery technology, since it became possible to arrange the hybrid battery in the size and the building area of a conventional starter battery accordingly.

  12. Emissions impacts and benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

    2009-02-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and byimproving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEVfleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NOx emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions can be reduced even further.

  13. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV. Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simulink and makes a simulation analysis of the control strategy of regenerative braking. The results show that this strategy can equip the hydraulic hybrid vehicle with strong brake energy recovery power in typical urban drive state.

  14. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Paul

    2012-05-31

    This is the final report of the UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence which spanned from 2005-2012. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program, to provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills to create advanced automotive technologies. The UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence established in 2005 is focused on research, education, industrial collaboration and outreach within automotive technology. UC Davis has had two independent GATE centers with separate well-defined objectives and research programs from 1998. The Fuel Cell Center, administered by ITS-Davis, has focused on fuel cell technology. The Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (HEV Center), administered by the Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, has focused on the development of plug-in hybrid technology using internal combustion engines. The merger of these two centers in 2005 has broadened the scope of research and lead to higher visibility of the activity. UC Davis's existing GATE centers have become the campus's research focal points on fuel cells and hybrid-electric vehicles, and the home for graduate students who are studying advanced automotive technologies. The centers have been highly successful in attracting, training, and placing top-notch students into fuel cell and hybrid programs in both industry and government.

  15. Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwi Seong; Oh, Byeong Soo

    The most promising vehicle engine that can overcome the problem of present internal combustion is the hydrogen fuel cell. Fuel cells are devices that change chemical energy directly into electrical energy without combustion. Pure fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles (i.e. a combination of fuel cell and battery) as energy sources are studied. Considerations of efficiency, fuel economy, and the characteristics of power output in hybridization of fuel cell vehicle are necessary. In the case of Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle simulation, hybridization is more efficient than a pure fuel cell vehicle. The reason is that it is possible to capture regenerative braking energy and to operate the fuel cell system within a more efficient range by using battery. Life-cycle cost is largely affected by the fuel cell size, fuel cell cost, and hydrogen cost. When the cost of fuel cell is high, hybridization is profitable, but when the cost of fuel cell is less than 400 US$/kW, a pure fuel cell vehicle is more profitable.

  16. Licensing of non intrusive inspection equipment s for load and passengers vehicles that use X rays with energies up to 9 MeV. Mexican experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz M, G. A.; Jimenez C, I.

    2013-10-01

    In the last years and like part of the extensive program of national security, in Mexico have been introduced a great quantity of non intrusive inspection equipment s for load and passengers vehicles that use X rays up to 9 MeV. Due to the great variety of equipment s, the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexican regulator organ) has established specific guidelines for their licensing and use supervision. In this work the adopted guidelines are exposed in the technical and administrative evaluation for the later licensing of these equipment s. Relative particular questions to the site of these equipment s and the impact in the public opinion that their use can generate are discussed. (author)

  17. The impact of government incentives for hybrid-electric vehicles: Evidence from US states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of government incentives policies designed to promote the adoption of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). As a primary methodology, it employs cross-sectional analysis of hybrid registration data over time from US states to test the relationship between hybrid adoption and a variety of socioeconomic and policy variables. It also compares hybrid adoption patterns over time to the US average for specific states that have changed incentive policies, to examine how differences in incentive schemes influence their efficacy. The results of these analyses suggest a strong relationship between gasoline prices and hybrid adoption, but a much weaker relationship between incentive policies and hybrid adoption. Incentives that provide payments upfront also appear to be the most effective

  18. Layout design and energetic analysis of a complex diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finesso, Roberto; Spessa, Ezio; Venditti, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Layout design, energetic and cost analysis of complex parallel hybrid vehicles. • Development of global and real-time optimizers for control strategy identification. • Rule-based control strategies to minimize fuel consumption and NO x . • Energy share across each working mode for battery and thermal engine. - Abstract: The present paper is focused on the design, optimization and analysis of a complex parallel hybrid electric vehicle, equipped with two electric machines on both the front and rear axles, and on the evaluation of its potential to reduce fuel consumption and NO x emissions over several driving missions. The vehicle has been compared with two conventional parallel hybrid vehicles, equipped with a single electric machine on the front axle or on the rear axle, as well as with a conventional vehicle. All the vehicles have been equipped with compression ignition engines. The optimal layout of each vehicle was identified on the basis of the minimization of the overall powertrain costs during the whole vehicle life. These costs include the initial investment due to the production of the components as well as the operating costs related to fuel consumption and to battery depletion. Identification of the optimal powertrain control strategy, in terms of the management of the power flows of the engine and electric machines, and of gear selection, is necessary in order to be able to fully exploit the potential of the hybrid architecture. To this end, two global optimizers, one of a deterministic nature and another of a stochastic type, and two real-time optimizers have been developed, applied and compared. A new mathematical technique has been developed and applied to the vehicle simulation model in order to decrease the computational time of the optimizers. First, the vehicle model equations were written in order to allow a coarse time grid to be used, then, the control variables (i.e., power flow and gear number) were discretized, and the

  19. Evaluation of fuel cell hybrid electric light commercial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.M.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarised the results of tests both in the laboratory and in operation on the roads in London carried out to determine the performance of the Zetek Fuel Cell Vehicle operated by Westminster County Council. Details are given of the vehicle's data logging system, and measurement of its acceleration and power, driveability, vehicle range, and the energy efficiency of the fuel cell, and its environmental performance. The frequent shutdowns of the fuel cell system and the problems with the DC/DC converter are discussed.

  20. Optimal design of energy storage systems for hybrid vehicle drivetrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Hoekstra, D.; Druten, van R.M.; Steinbuch, M.

    2005-01-01

    Current hybrid powertrain simulation packages arebased on discrete (existing) system components and predefinedsystem structures. Optimization of the performance of the hybridpowertrain is then based on finding the most efficient controlstrategy of the primary and secondary power source and

  1. Cyclic Parameter Refinement of 4S-10 Hybrid Flux-Switching Motor for Lightweight Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, J. Abd; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the reduction of lighting the vehicle because the lighter the vehicle the energy consumption is comparatively low. Hence, the lightweight electric vehicle was introduced for lower carbon footprint and the sizing of the vehicle itself. One of the components to reduce the weight of the vehicle is the propulsion system which comprised of electric motor functioning as the source of torque to drive the propulsion system of the machine. This paper presents the refinement methodology for the optimized design of the 4S-10P E-Core hybrid excitation flux switching motor. The purpose of the refinement methodology is to improve the torque production of the optimized motor. The result of the successful improvement of the torque production is justifiable for a lightweight electric vehicle to drive the propulsion system.

  2. A hybrid GA-TS algorithm for open vehicle routing optimization of coal mines material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.W.; Ding, C.; Zhu, K.J. [China University of Geoscience, Wuhan (China)

    2011-08-15

    In the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP), the objective is to minimize the number of vehicles and the total distance (or time) traveled. This study primarily focuses on solving an open vehicle routing problem (OVRP) by applying a novel hybrid genetic algorithm and the Tabu search (GA-TS), which combines the GA's parallel computing and global optimization with TS's Tabu search skill and fast local search. Firstly, the proposed algorithm uses natural number coding according to the customer demands and the captivity of the vehicle for globe optimization. Secondly, individuals of population do TS local search with a certain degree of probability, namely, do the local routing optimization of all customer sites belong to one vehicle. The mechanism not only improves the ability of global optimization, but also ensures the speed of operation. The algorithm was used in Zhengzhou Coal Mine and Power Supply Co., Ltd.'s transport vehicle routing optimization.

  3. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  4. Hybrid Control of Long-Endurance Aerial Robotic Vehicles for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Jin Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective hybrid control approach for building stable wireless sensor networks between heterogeneous unmanned vehicles using long‐ endurance aerial robotic vehicles. For optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles in communication networks, a gradient climbing based self‐estimating control algorithm is utilized to locate the aerial platforms to maintain maximum communication throughputs between distributed multiple nodes. The autonomous aerial robots, which function as communication relay nodes, extract and harvest thermal energy from the atmospheric environment to improve their flight endurance within specified communication coverage areas. The rapidly‐deployable sensor networks with the high‐endurance aerial vehicles can be used for various application areas including environment monitoring, surveillance, tracking, and decision‐making support. Flight test and simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid control technique for robust communication networks.

  5. An energy management for series hybrid electric vehicle using improved dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Yang, Yaoquan; Liu, Chunyu

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing numbers of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), management for two energy sources, engine and battery, is more and more important to achieve the minimum fuel consumption. This paper introduces several working modes of series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) firstly and then describes the mathematical model of main relative components in SHEV. On the foundation of this model, dynamic programming is applied to distribute energy of engine and battery on the platform of matlab and acquires less fuel consumption compared with traditional control strategy. Besides, control rule recovering energy in brake profiles is added into dynamic programming, so shorter computing time is realized by improved dynamic programming and optimization on algorithm.

  6. A Pilot Study of Pedestrians with Visual Impairments Detecting Traffic Gaps and Surges Containing Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Hapeman, Julie; Wiener, William

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of hybrid and quiet internal combustion engine vehicles may impact the travel abilities of pedestrians who are blind. Pedestrians who rely on auditory cues for structuring their travel may face challenges in making crossing decisions in the presence of quiet vehicles. This article describes results of initial studies looking at the crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind at an uncontrolled crossing (no traffic control) and a light controlled intersection. The presence of hybrid vehicles was a factor in each situation. At the uncontrolled crossing, Toyota hybrids were most difficult to detect but crossing decisions were made more often in small gaps ended by a Honda hybrid. These effects were seen only at speed under 20 mph. At the light controlled intersection, parallel surges of traffic were most difficult to detect when made up only of a Ford Escape hybrid. Results suggest that more controlled studies of vehicle characteristics impacting crossing decisions of pedestrians who are blind are warranted. PMID:21379367

  7. The structure and control method of hybrid power source for electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Maobing; Xu, Hui; Li, Weimin; Liu, Yin; Li, Fade; Hu, Yue; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an electric vehicle powertrain configuration is presented, which the lithium-ion battery integrated with ultracapacitors is developed as the hybrid power system to improve the transient performance of an electric vehicle, and to decrease the damage to the battery pack. In the proposed system, a bidirectional direct current/direct current converter is used to couple the ultracapacitors bank to the main battery pack. The energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for hybrid power system has been proposed to promote the performance of energy flow in the electric vehicle. The experiment results in urban driving cycles show remarkable advantages of the proposed hybrid system configuration and energy management strategy. About 30% of the battery capacity energy is saved while using the hybrid power source. Besides, the voltage and current curves of battery become smoother than that with the single power. - Highlights: • A hybrid power source electric vehicle powertrain configuration is presented. • The energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed. • The experiment results show remarkable advantages of the configuration and method.

  8. GHG emissions from sugar cane ethanol, plug-in hybrids, heavy duty gasoline vehicles and hybrids, and materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided updates of new work and new pathways added to the GHGenius model. The model was developed to analyze lifecycle emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of alternative and traditional fuels, and is continually updated with new information on existing processes and new innovations. The report described the addition of a new table that showed fossil energy consumption per km driven. New information on energy requirements to remove sulphur from gasoline and diesel fuel in Canada were provided. The report also outlined a new pathway for plug-in hybrid battery-powered electric and gasoline vehicles. Vehicle weight was included as part of the user inputs for modelling gasoline powered heavy duty vehicles and gasoline hybrid heavy duty vehicles. Information on the production processes of ethanol from sugar cane were also added to the model. Amounts of energy consumed during the manufacture of materials for vehicles were also incorporated into the model. 34 refs., 39 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Hybrid electric vehicles and electrochemical storage systems — a technology push-pull couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Günter

    In the advance of fuel cell electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can contribute to reduced emissions and energy consumption of personal cars as a short term solution. Trade-offs reveal better emission control for series hybrid vehicles, while parallel hybrid vehicles with different drive trains may significantly reduce fuel consumption as well. At present, costs and marketing considerations favor parallel hybrid vehicles making use of small, high power batteries. With ultra high power density cells in development, exceeding 1 kW/kg, high power batteries can be provided by adapting a technology closely related to consumer cell production. Energy consumption and emissions may benefit from regenerative braking and smoothing of the internal combustion engine (ICE) response as well, with limited additional battery weight. High power supercapacitors may assist the achievement of this goal. Problems to be solved in practice comprise battery management to assure equilibration of individual cell state-of-charge for long battery life without maintenance, and efficient strategies for low energy consumption.

  10. Cooperative Control of Regenerative Braking and Antilock Braking for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Guodong; Jin, XianJian

    2013-01-01

    A new cooperative braking control strategy (CBCS) is proposed for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with both a regenerative braking system and an antilock braking system (ABS) to achieve improved braking performance and energy regeneration. The braking system of the vehicle is based on a new method of HEV braking torque distribution that makes the antilock braking system work together with the regenerative braking system harmoniously. In the cooperative braking control strategy, a sli...

  11. Particle number emissions of gasoline hybrid electric vehicles; Partikelanzahl-Emission bei Hybridfahrzeugen mit Ottomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Scott [Horiba Instruments Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are commonly reputed to be environmentally friendly. Different studies show that this assumption raises some questions in terms of particle number emissions. Against the background that upcoming emission standards will not only limit particle matter emissions but also particle number emissions for gasoline engines, the exhaust behaviour of downsized gasoline engines used in HEV should be investigated more extensively. A Horiba study compares the particle number emissions of a gasoline vehicle to those of a gasoline powered HEV. (orig.)

  12. Environmental Benefits of Using Wind Generation to Power Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hajian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As alternatives to conventional vehicles, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs running off electricity stored in batteries could decrease oil consumption and reduce carbon emissions. By using electricity derived from clean energy sources, even greater environmental benefits are obtainable. This study examines the potential benefits arising from the widespread adoption of PHEVs in light of Alberta’s growing interest in wind power. It also investigates PHEVs’ capacity to mitigate natural fluctuations in wind power generation.

  13. Energy Management Strategy for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Hu; Weimin Li; Kun Xu; Taimoor Zahid; Feiyan Qin; Chenming Li

    2018-01-01

    An energy management strategy (EMS) is important for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) since it plays a decisive role on the performance of the vehicle. However, the variation of future driving conditions deeply influences the effectiveness of the EMS. Most existing EMS methods simply follow predefined rules that are not adaptive to different driving conditions online. Therefore, it is useful that the EMS can learn from the environment or driving cycle. In this paper, a deep reinforcement learn...

  14. Eco-efficiency optimization of Hybrid Electric Vehicle based on response surface method and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Nzisabira, Jonathan; Louvigny, Yannick; Duysinx, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The electric vehicles (EV) and sometimes the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies are environmentally very efficient but can not succeed on the market because of a smaller ability to satisfy customer’s requirements. Comparison of clean technologies in automotive and transportation systems has been measured using different analysis tools such as LCA (life cycle analysis). However, these instruments never account for the user’s satisfaction which partly explains the market acceptance prob...

  15. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Cheng; Le Sun; Giuseppe Buja; Lihua Song

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs). Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator perm...

  16. Vehicle surge detection and pathway discrimination by pedestrians who are blind: Effect of adding an alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Pliskow, Jay; Myers, Kyle

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the effect of adding an artificially generated alert sound to a quiet vehicle on its detectability and localizability with 15 visually impaired adults. When starting from a stationary position, the hybrid electric vehicle with an alert sound was significantly more quickly and reliably detected than either the identical vehicle without such added sound or the comparable internal combustion engine vehicle. However, no significant difference was found between the vehicles in respect to how accurately the participants could discriminate the path of a given vehicle (straight vs. right turn). These results suggest that adding an artificial sound to a hybrid electric vehicle may help reduce delay in street crossing initiation by a blind pedestrian, but the benefit of such alert sound may not be obvious in determining whether the vehicle in his near parallel lane proceeds straight through the intersection or turns right in front of him.

  17. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lindbergh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

  18. 75 FR 49945 - In the Matter of Certain Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Toyota hybrid vehicles of claims of U.S. Patent No. 5,343,970. On July 19, 2010, Paice and Toyota moved... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [ Inv. No. 337-TA-688] In the Matter of Certain Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination...

  19. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on smart grids; Management der Trendwatching Group. Einfluss von Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles auf intelligente Verteilnetze (Smart Grids) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbaty, R. [ENCO Energie Consulting AG, Bubendorf (Switzerland); Strub, P. [Pierre Strub, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the influence of plug-in hybrid vehicles on intelligent electricity distribution grids. The work of a trend-watching group which examined the regulatory services at the interface between such 'smart' grids and electrically powered vehicles is reported on. The trend-watching group includes research institutes, energy suppliers, NGOs, the automobile industry and technology companies. Vehicle-to-grid concepts and innovative developments in the Swiss market are commented on and the group's own activities (research, business models, technological development and politics) are discussed. The group will accompany relevant research programs and the implementation of measures as well as accompanying feasibility evaluations concerning current market developments. The Swiss federal strategy is to be discussed and international co-operation (with the IEA) is to be further strengthened.

  20. Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprubasi, Kerem

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV

  1. PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER FTP AND US06 CYCLES AT HIGH, AMBIENT, AND LOW TEMPERATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, M.R.; Markel, T.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is to displace consumption of gasoline by using electricity from the vehicle’s large battery pack to power the vehicle as much as possible with minimal engine operation. This paper assesses the PHEV emissions and operation. Currently, testing of vehicle emissions is done using the federal standard FTP4 cycle on a dynamometer at ambient (75°F) temperatures. Research was also completed using the US06 cycle. Furthermore, research was completed at high (95°F) and low (20°F) temperatures. Initial dynamometer testing was performed on a stock Toyota Prius under the standard FTP4 cycle, and the more demanding US06 cycle. Each cycle was run at 95°F, 75°F, and 20°F. The testing was repeated with the same Prius retrofi tted with an EnergyCS Plug-in Hybrid Electric system. The results of the testing confi rm that the stock Prius meets Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements under current testing procedures, while the PHEV Prius under current testing procedures were greater than Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements, but still met Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements. Research points to the catalyst temperature being a critical factor in meeting emission requirements. Initial engine emissions pass through with minimal conversion until the catalyst is heated to typical operating temperatures of 300–400°C. PHEVs also have trouble maintaining the minimum catalyst temperature throughout the entire test because the engine is turned off when the battery can support the load. It has been observed in both HEVs and PHEVs that the catalyst is intermittently unable to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, which causes further emission releases. Research needs to be done to combat the initial emission spikes caused by a cold catalyst. Research also needs to be done to improve the reduction of nitrogen oxides by the catalyst system.

  2. Energy-efficient microcontrollers for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowitz, Rainer; Gryska, Holger; Thanner, Manfred; Steinert, Frank [Freescale Halbleiter GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Electric vehicles with their limited supply of energy are accelerating the trend towards more energy-efficient electronics that has started with the discussion on reducing the production of greenhouse gas of vehicles. While electricifaction of functions in a car is a technique that will help reduce overall energy consumption, microcontrollers are playing an important role in energetically optimizing the resulting electronics. In this presentation we give an overview of operating strategies for embedded automotive systems that lead to a set of power modes for the microcontrollers. Examples will be shown how Freescale's microcontrollers are designet to optimize energy consumption in each of these modes. We will also outline what needs to be done in the overall vehicle communication network design and in software to effectively use these new features of microcontrollers. The major elements that would benefit from standardization (e.g. in Autosar) will be indicated. (orig.)

  3. Performance of electric and hybrid vehicles at the 1995 American Tour de Sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Buitrago, C.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption and performance data were collected on more than 40 electric and hybrid vehicles during the 1995 American Tour de Sol. At this competition, one electric vehicle drove 229 miles on one charge using nickel metalhydride batteries. The results obtained from the data show that electric vehicle efficiencies reached 9.07 mi./kWh or 70 equivalent mpg of gasoline when compared to the total energy cycle efficiency of electricity and gasoline. A gasoline-fueled 1995 Geo Metro that drove the same route attained 36.4 mpg.

  4. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  5. General concept of a gas engine for a hybrid vehicle, operating on methanol dissociation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Aleinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Schindler, Y.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a general concept of a hybrid propulsion system, based on an SI internal combustion engine fueled by methanol dissociation products (MDP). The proposed hybrid propulsion scheme is a series hybrid, which allows the engine to be operated in an on-off mode at constant optimal regime. The engine is fed by gaseous products of methanol dissociation (mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) emerging from an on-board catalytic reformer. The general scheme and base operation features of the propulsion system are described. The benefits that may be achieved by combining the well-known idea of on-board methanol dissociation with the hybrid vehicle concept are discussed. The proposed scheme is compared with those of systems operating on gasoline, liquid methanol, hydrogen and also with the multi-regime (not hybrid) engine fed by MDP

  6. Teen Drivers' Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Haynie, Denise L; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers' fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle.

  7. Benchmarking of OEM Hybrid Electric Vehicles at NREL: Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. J.; Rajagopalan, A.

    2001-10-26

    A milestone report that describes the NREL's progress and activities related to the DOE FY2001 Annual Operating Plan milestone entitled ''Benchmark 2 new production or pre-production hybrids with ADVISOR.''

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  9. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O.; Hockgeiger, E. [BMW Group, Powertrain Development, Energy Storage, Hufelandstrasse 4, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 C and at 3 C battery temperature. (author)

  10. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  11. Genetic algorithm with small population size for search feasible control parameters for parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Huei Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The control strategy is a major unit in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. In order to provide suitable control parameters for reducing fuel consumptions and engine emissions while maintaining vehicle performance requirements, the genetic algorithm (GA with small population size is applied to search for feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs. The electric assist control strategy (EACS is used as the fundamental control strategy of parallel HEVs. The dynamic performance requirements stipulated in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV is considered to maintain the vehicle performance. The known ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is used to simulate a specific parallel HEV with urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS. Five population sets with size 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 are used in the GA. The experimental results show that the GA with population size of 25 is the best for selecting feasible control parameters in parallel HEVs.

  12. Propulsion system research and development for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    An approach to propulsion subsystem technology is presented. Various tests of component reliability are described to aid in the production of better quality vehicles. component characterization work is described to provide engineering data to manufacturers on component performance and on important component propulsion system interactions.

  13. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Schlienger, Peter; Weilenmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO 2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO 2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO 2 emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO 2 emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO 2 emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO 2 emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO 2 emissions should, therefore, be adapted.

  14. The Swedish electric and hybrid vehicle R, D and D program. Seminar no. 2, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This publication presents a selection of the ongoing and finalised projects in form of abstracts, within the KFB RDD-program Electric- and Hybride Vehicles. These projects were presented at the second project manager seminar 14-15 June 1999. The first project manager seminar was held 20-21 October 1998

  15. Consumer adoption and grid impact models for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This proposed study focuses on assessing the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in Wisconsin and its economic : impacts on the States energy market and the electric grid. PHEVs are expected to provide a range of about 40 miles per ...

  16. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 3. Sections 5 through 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  17. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 1. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  18. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...

  19. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  20. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...

  1. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  2. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 2. Sections 1 through 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  3. A control-oriented cycle-life model for hybrid electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suri, Girish; Onori, Simona

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a semi-empirical Lithium-iron phosphate-graphite battery aging model is identified over data mimicking actual cycling conditions that a hybrid electric vehicle battery encounters under real driving scenarios. The aging model is then used to construct the severity factor map, used to characterize relative aging of the battery under different operating conditions. This is used as a battery degradation criterion within a multi-objective optimization problem where battery aging minimization is to be achieved along with fuel consumption minimization. The method proposed is general and can be applied to other battery chemistry as well as different vehicular applications. Finally, simulations conducted using a hybrid electric vehicle simulator show how the two modeling tools developed in this paper, i.e., the severity factor map and the aging model, can be effectively used in a multi-objective optimization problem to predict and control battery degradation. - Highlights: • Battery aging model for hybrid electric vehicles using real driving conditions data. • Development of a modeling tool to assess battery degradation for real time optimization. • "3"1P NMR analysis of an enzyme-treated extract showed expected hydrolysis of P forms. • Development of an energy management strategy to minimize battery degradation. • Simulation results from hybrid electric vehicle simulator.

  4. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 4. Sections 10, 11, and Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  5. Lyapunov based control of hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a Lyapunov based control principle in a hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle. The storage system consists on fuel cell (FC) as a main power source and a supercapacitor (SC) as an auxiliary power source. The power stage of energy conversion consists on a boost...

  6. Integrated energy and advanced thermal management system for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) featuring a fuel source engine and an energy storage source battery play an important role in improving fuel efficiency compared with its conventional counterparts. In view of the drawbacks of the existing research neglecting the thermal aspects when it comes to

  7. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicles simulation programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted for the Department of Energy by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume 1 of this report summarizes and discusses the results contained in Volume 2.

  8. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  9. Effect of gear shift and engine start losses on control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, energetic loss models in the events of shifting gear and starting engine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle equipped with an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) will be introduced. The optimal control algorithm for the start-stop, power split and gear shift problem based on Dynamic

  10. Optimal energy management for a mechanical-hybrid vehicle with cold start conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Klemm, W.P.A.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an optimal Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for a hybrid vehicle that starts with a cold powertrain. The cold start negatively affects the combustion and transmission efficiency of the powertrain, caused by the higher frictional losses due to increased hydrodynamic

  11. Review of Optimization Strategies for System-Level Design in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Hofman, T.; Murgovski, N.; Etman, L.F.P.; Steinbuch, M.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal design of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) can be formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem that spreads over multiple levels (technology, topology, size, and control). In the last decade, studies have shown that by integrating these optimization levels, fuel benefits are

  12. Review of optimization strategies for system-level design in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Hofman, T.; Murgovski, N.; Etman, P.; Steinbuch, M.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal design of a hybrid electric vehicle can be formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem that spreads over multiple levels (technology, topology, size and control). In the last decade, studies have shown that, by integrating these optimization levels fuel benefits are obtained,

  13. Hybrid path planning for non-holonomic autonomous vehicles: An experimental evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposto, F.; Goos, J.; Teerhuis, A.; Alirezaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    Path planning of an autonomous vehicle as a non-holonomic system is an essential part for many automated driving applications. Parking a car into a parking lot and maneuvering it through a narrow corridor would be a common driving scenarios in an urban environment. In this study a hybrid approach

  14. Field weakening performance of flux-switching machines for hybrid/electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Y.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flux-switching machines (FSMs) are a viable candidate for electric propulsion of hybrid/electric vehicles. This paper investigates the field weakening performance of FSMs. The investigation starts with general torque and voltage expressions, which reveal the relationships between certain parameters

  15. Series hybrid vehicle system analysis using an in-wheel motor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Kazmin, Evgeny; Gysen, B.L.J.; Lomonova, E.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles, which employ a technology combining gasoline and electric motors, are a hot item these days for transporters looking for ways to cut their fuel bills. To date, commercial systems implement diesel assisted electrical drives. As such the electrical motor is placed in a series or

  16. Integrated powertrain control for hybrid electric vehicles with electric variable transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Foster, D.L.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The electric variable transmission (EVT) offers a powersplit for hybrid electric vehicles by integrating two motor/ generator sets into one electric machine. This double rotor concept implements a continuously variable transmission between the engine and the driveline, including the possibility for

  17. Impact of driving cycle and climate on electrical consumption and range of a fully electric passenger vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, N; Belzile, M [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Christenson, M; Edgar, J [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Transport Canada's ecotechnology for vehicles (eTV) program is a $15 million program, operated over 4 years (2007-2011) that strives to encourage the introduction of advanced clean vehicle technologies in Canada. The objectives of eTV's are to reduce barriers to the introduction of clean technologies into light-duty vehicles sold in Canada. The presentation discussed the mandate of the emissions research and measurement section of Environment Canada. The dynamometer test facility, a state-of-the-art emissions testing laboratory capable of conducting comprehensive emissions measurements from a variety of sources was also discussed. Several electric mobility projects were presented. The testing rationale and testing outline were explained. It was concluded that the repeatability of cold tests appeared to be similar to the repeatability of ambient tests. tabs., figs.

  18. Impact of driving cycle and climate on electrical consumption and range of a fully electric passenger vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, N.; Belzile, M. [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Christenson, M.; Edgar, J. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Transport Canada's ecotechnology for vehicles (eTV) program is a $15 million program, operated over 4 years (2007-2011) that strives to encourage the introduction of advanced clean vehicle technologies in Canada. The objectives of eTV's are to reduce barriers to the introduction of clean technologies into light-duty vehicles sold in Canada. The presentation discussed the mandate of the emissions research and measurement section of Environment Canada. The dynamometer test facility, a state-of-the-art emissions testing laboratory capable of conducting comprehensive emissions measurements from a variety of sources was also discussed. Several electric mobility projects were presented. The testing rationale and testing outline were explained. It was concluded that the repeatability of cold tests appeared to be similar to the repeatability of ambient tests. tabs., figs.

  19. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribioli, L., E-mail: laura.tribioli@unicusano.it; Cozzolino, R. [Dept. of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Niccolo’ Cusano (Italy); Barbieri, M. [Engineering Dept., University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale-Isola C4, 80143 Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared.

  20. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribioli, L.; Cozzolino, R.; Barbieri, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared