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Sample records for hybrid particle-finite element

  1. Possibilities of Particle Finite Element Methods in Industrial Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J.; Cante, J. C.; Weyler, R.; Hernandez, J.

    2007-04-01

    The work investigates the possibilities offered by the particle finite element method (PFEM) in the simulation of forming problems involving large deformations, multiple contacts, and new boundaries generation. The description of the most distinguishing aspects of the PFEM, and its application to simulation of representative forming processes, illustrate the proposed methodology.

  2. Seakeeping with the semi-Lagrangian particle finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadukandi, Prashanth; Servan-Camas, Borja; Becker, Pablo Agustín; Garcia-Espinosa, Julio

    2017-07-01

    The application of the semi-Lagrangian particle finite element method (SL-PFEM) for the seakeeping simulation of the wave adaptive modular vehicle under spray generating conditions is presented. The time integration of the Lagrangian advection is done using the explicit integration of the velocity and acceleration along the streamlines (X-IVAS). Despite the suitability of the SL-PFEM for the considered seakeeping application, small time steps were needed in the X-IVAS scheme to control the solution accuracy. A preliminary proposal to overcome this limitation of the X-IVAS scheme for seakeeping simulations is presented.

  3. On Using Particle Finite Element for Hydrodynamics Problems Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Davidova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to develop software for the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM and its verification on the model problem of viscous incompressible flow simulation in a square cavity. The Lagrangian description of the medium motion is used: the nodes of the finite element mesh move together with the fluid that allows to consider them as particles of the medium. Mesh cells deform when in time-stepping procedure, so it is necessary to reconstruct the mesh to provide stability of the finite element numerical procedure.Meshing algorithm allows us to obtain the mesh, which satisfies the Delaunay criteria: it is called \\the possible triangles method". This algorithm is based on the well-known Fortune method of Voronoi diagram constructing for a certain set of points in the plane. The graphical representation of the possible triangles method is shown. It is suitable to use generalization of Delaunay triangulation in order to construct meshes with polygonal cells in case of multiple nodes close to be lying on the same circle.The viscous incompressible fluid flow is described by the Navier | Stokes equations and the mass conservation equation with certain initial and boundary conditions. A fractional steps method, which allows us to avoid non-physical oscillations of the pressure, provides the timestepping procedure. Using the finite element discretization and the Bubnov | Galerkin method allows us to carry out spatial discretization.For form functions calculation of finite element mesh with polygonal cells, \

  4. A particle finite element method for machining simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Matthias; Sator, Christian; Müller, Ralf

    2014-07-01

    The particle finite element method (PFEM) appears to be a convenient technique for machining simulations, since the geometry and topology of the problem can undergo severe changes. In this work, a short outline of the PFEM-algorithm is given, which is followed by a detailed description of the involved operations. The -shape method, which is used to track the topology, is explained and tested by a simple example. Also the kinematics and a suitable finite element formulation are introduced. To validate the method simple settings without topological changes are considered and compared to the standard finite element method for large deformations. To examine the performance of the method, when dealing with separating material, a tensile loading is applied to a notched plate. This investigation includes a numerical analysis of the different meshing parameters, and the numerical convergence is studied. With regard to the cutting simulation it is found that only a sufficiently large number of particles (and thus a rather fine finite element discretisation) leads to converged results of process parameters, such as the cutting force.

  5. On the validation of the particle finite element method (PFEM) for complex engineering fluid flow problems

    OpenAIRE

    Larese De Tetto, Antonia; Rossi, Riccardo; Idelsohn Barg, Sergio Rodolfo; Oñate Ibáñez de Navarra, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    Several comparisons between experiments and computational models are presented in the following pages. The objective is to verify the ability of Particle Finite Elements Methods (PFEM) [1] [2] to reproduce hydraulic phenomena involving large deformation of the fluid domain [4]. Peer Reviewed

  6. Evaluating the performance of the particle finite element method in parallel architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Juan M.; Nigro, Norberto M.; Idelsohn, Sergio R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a high performance implementation for the particle-mesh based method called particle finite element method two (PFEM-2). It consists of a material derivative based formulation of the equations with a hybrid spatial discretization which uses an Eulerian mesh and Lagrangian particles. The main aim of PFEM-2 is to solve transport equations as fast as possible keeping some level of accuracy. The method was found to be competitive with classical Eulerian alternatives for these targets, even in their range of optimal application. To evaluate the goodness of the method with large simulations, it is imperative to use of parallel environments. Parallel strategies for Finite Element Method have been widely studied and many libraries can be used to solve Eulerian stages of PFEM-2. However, Lagrangian stages, such as streamline integration, must be developed considering the parallel strategy selected. The main drawback of PFEM-2 is the large amount of memory needed, which limits its application to large problems with only one computer. Therefore, a distributed-memory implementation is urgently needed. Unlike a shared-memory approach, using domain decomposition the memory is automatically isolated, thus avoiding race conditions; however new issues appear due to data distribution over the processes. Thus, a domain decomposition strategy for both particle and mesh is adopted, which minimizes the communication between processes. Finally, performance analysis running over multicore and multinode architectures are presented. The Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy number used influences the efficiency of the parallelization and, in some cases, a weighted partitioning can be used to improve the speed-up. However the total cputime for cases presented is lower than that obtained when using classical Eulerian strategies.

  7. Lagrangian analysis of multiscale particulate flows with the particle finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate, Eugenio; Celigueta, Miguel Angel; Latorre, Salvador; Casas, Guillermo; Rossi, Riccardo; Rojek, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    We present a Lagrangian numerical technique for the analysis of flows incorporating physical particles of different sizes. The numerical approach is based on the particle finite element method (PFEM) which blends concepts from particle-based techniques and the FEM. The basis of the Lagrangian formulation for particulate flows and the procedure for modelling the motion of small and large particles that are submerged in the fluid are described in detail. The numerical technique for analysis of this type of multiscale particulate flows using a stabilized mixed velocity-pressure formulation and the PFEM is also presented. Examples of application of the PFEM to several particulate flows problems are given.

  8. Numerical simulation of a flow-like landslide using the particle finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Krabbenhoft, Kristian; Sheng, Daichao; Li, Weichao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an actual landslide process that occurred in Southern China is simulated by a continuum approach, the particle finite element method (PFEM). The PFEM attempts to solve the boundary-value problems in the framework of solid mechanics, satisfying the governing equations including momentum conservation, displacement-strain relation, constitutive relation as well as the frictional contact between the sliding mass and the slip surface. To warrant the convergence behaviour of solutions, the problem is formulated as a mathematical programming problem, while the particle finite element procedure is employed to tackle the issues of mesh distortion and free-surface evolution. The whole procedure of the landslide, from initiation, sliding to deposition, is successfully reproduced by the continuum approach. It is shown that the density of the mass has little influence on the sliding process in the current landslide, whereas both the geometry and the roughness of the slip surface play important roles. Comparative studies are also conducted where a satisfactory agreement is obtained.

  9. Effects of Process Parameters on Copper Powder Compaction Process Using Multi-Particle Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, F.; Sofuoğlu, H.

    2018-01-01

    Powder metallurgy (PM) has been widely used in several industries; especially automotive and aerospace industries and powder metallurgy products grow up every year. The mechanical properties of the final product that is obtained by cold compaction and sintering in powder metallurgy are closely related to the final relative density of the process. The distribution of the relative density in the die is affected by parameters such as compaction velocity, friction coefficient and temperature. Moreover, most of the numerical studies utilizing finite element approaches treat the examined environment as a continuous media with uniformly homogeneous porosity whereas Multi-Particle Finite Element Method (MPFEM) treats every particles as an individual body. In MPFEM, each of the particles can be defined as an elastic- plastic deformable body, so the interactions of the particles with each other and the die wall can be investigated. In this study, each particle was modelled and analyzed as individual deformable body with 3D tetrahedral elements by using MPFEM approach. This study, therefore, was performed to investigate the effects of different temperatures and compaction velocities on stress distribution and deformations of copper powders of 200 µm-diameter in compaction process. Furthermore, 3-D MPFEM model utilized von Mises material model and constant coefficient of friction of μ=0.05. In addition to MPFEM approach, continuum modelling approach was also performed for comparison purposes.

  10. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method. Susqueda Dam case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2017-07-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  11. Modelling of tunnelling processes and rock cutting tool wear with the particle finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Josep Maria; Oñate, Eugenio; Suárez, Benjamín

    2013-09-01

    Underground construction involves all sort of challenges in analysis, design, project and execution phases. The dimension of tunnels and their structural requirements are growing, and so safety and security demands do. New engineering tools are needed to perform a safer planning and design. This work presents the advances in the particle finite element method (PFEM) for the modelling and the analysis of tunneling processes including the wear of the cutting tools. The PFEM has its foundation on the Lagrangian description of the motion of a continuum built from a set of particles with known physical properties. The method uses a remeshing process combined with the alpha-shape technique to detect the contacting surfaces and a finite element method for the mechanical computations. A contact procedure has been developed for the PFEM which is combined with a constitutive model for predicting the excavation front and the wear of cutting tools. The material parameters govern the coupling of frictional contact and wear between the interacting domains at the excavation front. The PFEM allows predicting several parameters which are relevant for estimating the performance of a tunnelling boring machine such as wear in the cutting tools, the pressure distribution on the face of the boring machine and the vibrations produced in the machinery and the adjacent soil/rock. The final aim is to help in the design of the excavating tools and in the planning of the tunnelling operations. The applications presented show that the PFEM is a promising technique for the analysis of tunnelling problems.

  12. Performance of mixed formulations for the particle finite element method in soil mechanics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Lluís; Carbonell, Josep Maria; Arroyo, Marcos; Gens, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for the numerical analysis of fluid-saturated porous media at large strains. The proposal relies, on one hand, on the particle finite element method (PFEM), known for its capability to tackle large deformations and rapid changing boundaries, and, on the other hand, on constitutive descriptions well established in current geotechnical analyses (Darcy's law; Modified Cam Clay; Houlsby hyperelasticity). An important feature of this kind of problem is that incompressibility may arise either from undrained conditions or as a consequence of material behaviour; incompressibility may lead to volumetric locking of the low-order elements that are typically used in PFEM. In this work, two different three-field mixed formulations for the coupled hydromechanical problem are presented, in which either the effective pressure or the Jacobian are considered as nodal variables, in addition to the solid skeleton displacement and water pressure. Additionally, several mixed formulations are described for the simplified single-phase problem due to its formal similitude to the poromechanical case and its relevance in geotechnics, since it may approximate the saturated soil behaviour under undrained conditions. In order to use equal-order interpolants in displacements and scalar fields, stabilization techniques are used in the mass conservation equation of the biphasic medium and in the rest of scalar equations. Finally, all mixed formulations are assessed in some benchmark problems and their performances are compared. It is found that mixed formulations that have the Jacobian as a nodal variable perform better.

  13. Possibilities of the particle finite element method for fluid-soil-structure interaction problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate, Eugenio; Celigueta, Miguel Angel; Idelsohn, Sergio R.; Salazar, Fernando; Suárez, Benjamín

    2011-09-01

    We present some developments in the particle finite element method (PFEM) for analysis of complex coupled problems in mechanics involving fluid-soil-structure interaction (FSSI). The PFEM uses an updated Lagrangian description to model the motion of nodes (particles) in both the fluid and the solid domains (the later including soil/rock and structures). A mesh connects the particles (nodes) defining the discretized domain where the governing equations for each of the constituent materials are solved as in the standard FEM. The stabilization for dealing with an incompressibility continuum is introduced via the finite calculus method. An incremental iterative scheme for the solution of the non linear transient coupled FSSI problem is described. The procedure to model frictional contact conditions and material erosion at fluid-solid and solid-solid interfaces is described. We present several examples of application of the PFEM to solve FSSI problems such as the motion of rocks by water streams, the erosion of a river bed adjacent to a bridge foundation, the stability of breakwaters and constructions sea waves and the study of landslides.

  14. An extended validation of the last generation of particle finite element method for free surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Juan M.; González, Leo M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new generation of the particle method known as Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), which combines convective particle movement and a fixed mesh resolution, is applied to free surface flows. This interesting variant, previously described in the literature as PFEM-2, is able to use larger time steps when compared to other similar numerical tools which implies shorter computational times while maintaining the accuracy of the computation. PFEM-2 has already been extended to free surface problems, being the main topic of this paper a deep validation of this methodology for a wider range of flows. To accomplish this task, different improved versions of discontinuous and continuous enriched basis functions for the pressure field have been developed to capture the free surface dynamics without artificial diffusion or undesired numerical effects when different density ratios are involved. A collection of problems has been carefully selected such that a wide variety of Froude numbers, density ratios and dominant dissipative cases are reported with the intention of presenting a general methodology, not restricted to a particular range of parameters, and capable of using large time-steps. The results of the different free-surface problems solved, which include: Rayleigh-Taylor instability, sloshing problems, viscous standing waves and the dam break problem, are compared to well validated numerical alternatives or experimental measurements obtaining accurate approximations for such complex flows.

  15. Numerical simulations of negatively buoyant jets in an immiscible fluid using the Particle Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier-Torrecilla, Monica; Geyer, Adelina; Phillips, Jeremy C.; Idelsohn, Sergio R.; Oñate, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    In this work we investigate numerically the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid using the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), a newly developed tool that combines the flexibility of particle-based methods with the accuracy of the finite element discretization. In order to test the applicability of PFEM to the study of negatively buoyant jets, we have compared the two-dimensional numerical results with experiments investigating the injection of a jet of dyed water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. In both simulations and experiments, the fountain inlet flow velocity and nozzle diameter were varied to cover a wide range of Reynolds Re and Froude numbers Fr, such that 0.1 < Fr < 30, reproducing both weak and strong fountains in a laminar regime (8 < Re < 1350). Numerical results, together with the experimental observations, allow us to describe three different fountain behaviors that have not been previously reported. Based on the Re and Fr values for the numerical and experimental simulations, we have built a regime map to define how these values may control the occurrence of each of the observed flow types. Whereas the Fr number itself provides a prediction of the maximum penetration height of the jet, its combination with the Re number provides a prediction of the flow behavior for a specific nozzle diameter and injection velocity. Conclusive remarks concerning the dynamics of negatively buoyant jets may be applied later on to several geological situations, e.g. the flow structure of a fully submerged subaqueous eruptive vent discharging magma or the replenishment of magma chambers in the Earth's crust.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Two-Fluid Mingling Using the Particle Finite Element Method with Applications to Magmatic and Volcanic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mier, M.; Costa, F.; Idelsohn, S.

    2008-12-01

    Many magmatic and volcanic processes (e.g., magma differentiation, mingling, transport in the volcanic conduit) are controlled by the physical properties and flow styles of high-temperature silicate melts. Such processes can be experimentally investigated using analog systems and scaling methods, but it is difficult to find the suitable material and it is generally not possible to quantitatively extrapolate the results to the natural system. An alternative means of studying fluid dynamics in volcanic systems is with numerical models. We have chosen the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), which is based on a Delaunay mesh that moves with the fluid velocity, the Navier-Stokes equations in Lagrangian formulation, and linear elements for velocity, pressure, and temperature. Remeshing is performed when the grid becomes too distorted [E. Oñate et al., 2004. The Particle Finite Element Method: An Overview. Int. J. Comput. Meth. 1, 267-307]. The method is ideal for tracking material interfaces between different fluids or media. Methods based on Eulerian reference frames need special techniques, such as level-set or volume-of-fluid, to capture the interface position, and these techniques add a significant numerical diffusion at the interface. We have performed a series of two-dimensional simulations of a classical problem of fluid dynamics in magmatic and volcanic systems: intrusion of a basaltic melt in a silica-rich magma reservoir. We have used realistic physical properties and equations of state for the silicate melts (e.g., temperature, viscosity, and density) and tracked the changes in the system for geologically relevant time scales (up to 100 years). The problem is modeled by the low-Mach-number equations derived from an asymptotic analysis of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations that removes shock waves from the flow but allows however large variations of density due to temperature variations. Non-constant viscosity and volume changes are taken into account

  17. A unified monolithic approach for multi-fluid flows and fluid-structure interaction using the Particle Finite Element Method with fixed mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P.; Idelsohn, S. R.; Oñate, E.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a strategy to solve multi-fluid and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems using Lagrangian particles combined with a fixed finite element (FE) mesh. Our approach is an extension of the fluid-only PFEM-2 (Idelsohn et al., Eng Comput 30(2):2-2, 2013; Idelsohn et al., J Numer Methods Fluids, 2014) which uses explicit integration over the streamlines to improve accuracy. As a result, the convective term does not appear in the set of equations solved on the fixed mesh. Enrichments in the pressure field are used to improve the description of the interface between phases.

  18. A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W. [Universitaet Augsburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.

  19. Representativeness elements of an hybrid reactor demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerdraon, D.; Billebaud, A.; Brissot, R.; David, S.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.

    2000-11-01

    This document deals with the quantification of the minimum thermal power level for a demonstrator and the definition of the physical criteria which define the representative character of a demonstrator towards a power reactor. Solutions allowing to keep an acceptable flow in an industrial core, have also been studied. The document is divided in three parts: the representativeness elements, the considered solutions and the characterization of the neutrons flows at the interfaces and the dose rates at the outer surface of the vessel. (A.L.B.)

  20. An amplitude and phase hybrid modulation Fresnel diffractive optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Cheng, Jiangao; Wang, Mengyu; Jin, Xueying; Wang, Keyi

    2018-04-01

    An Amplitude and Phase Hybrid Modulation Fresnel Diffractive Optical Element (APHMFDOE) is proposed here. We have studied the theory of APHMFDOE and simulated the focusing properties of it along the optical axis, which show that the focus can be blazed to other positions with changing the quadratic phase factor. Moreover, we design a Composite Fresnel Diffraction Optical Element (CFDOE) based on the characteristics of APHMFDOE. It greatly increases the outermost zone width without changing the F-number, which brings a lot of benefits to the design and processing of diffraction device. More importantly, the diffraction efficiency of the CFDOE is almost unchanged compared with AFZP at the same focus.

  1. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field are employed. The formulations for all cases are derived from the modified variational functionals and the fundamental solutions to a given problem. Generation of elemental stiffness equations from the modified variational principle is also described. Typical numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and performance of the HFS-FEM. Finally, a brief summary of the approach is provided and future trends in this field are identified.

  2. Hybrid finite element and Brownian dynamics method for charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Gary A., E-mail: ghuber@ucsd.edu; Miao, Yinglong [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States); Zhou, Shenggao [Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Center for Interdiscipline Research, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006 Jiangsu (China); Li, Bo [Department of Mathematics and Quantitative Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); McCammon, J. Andrew [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0636 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Diffusion is often the rate-determining step in many biological processes. Currently, the two main computational methods for studying diffusion are stochastic methods, such as Brownian dynamics, and continuum methods, such as the finite element method. A previous study introduced a new hybrid diffusion method that couples the strengths of each of these two methods, but was limited by the lack of interactions among the particles; the force on each particle had to be from an external field. This study further develops the method to allow charged particles. The method is derived for a general multidimensional system and is presented using a basic test case for a one-dimensional linear system with one charged species and a radially symmetric system with three charged species.

  3. Hybrid Discrete Element - Finite Element Simulation for Railway Bridge-Track Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, S.; Mirza, O.

    2017-10-01

    At the transition zone or sometimes called ‘bridge end’ or ‘bridge approach’, the stiffness difference between plain track and track over bridge often causes aggravated impact loading due to uneven train movement onto the area. The differential track settlement over the transition has been a classical problem in railway networks, especially for the aging rail infrastructures around the world. This problem is also additionally worsened by the fact that the construction practice over the area is difficult, resulting in a poor compaction of formation and subgrade. This paper presents an advanced hybrid simulation using coupled discrete elements and finite elements to investigate dynamic interaction at the transition zone. The goal is to evaluate the dynamic stresses and to better understand the impact dynamics redistribution at the bridge end. An existing bridge ‘Salt Pan Creek Railway Bridge’, located between Revesby and Kingsgrove, has been chosen for detailed investigation. The Salt Pan Bridge currently demonstrates crushing of the ballast causing significant deformation and damage. Thus, it’s imperative to assess the behaviours of the ballast under dynamic loads. This can be achieved by modelling the nonlinear interactions between the steel rail and sleeper, and sleeper to ballast. The continuum solid elements of track components have been modelled using finite element approach, while the granular media (i.e. ballast) have been simulated by discrete element method. The hybrid DE/FE model demonstrates that ballast experiences significant stresses at the contacts between the sleeper and concrete section. These overburden stress exists in the regions below the outer rails, identify fouling and permanent deformation of the ballast.

  4. Architectural elements of hybrid navigation systems for future space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Guilherme F.; Theil, Stephan

    2017-12-01

    The fundamental limitations of inertial navigation, currently employed by most launchers, have raised interest for GNSS-aided solutions. Combination of inertial measurements and GNSS outputs allows inertial calibration online, solving the issue of inertial drift. However, many challenges and design options unfold. In this work we analyse several architectural elements and design aspects of a hybrid GNSS/INS navigation system conceived for space transportation. The most fundamental architectural features such as coupling depth, modularity between filter and inertial propagation, and open-/closed-loop nature of the configuration, are discussed in the light of the envisaged application. Importance of the inertial propagation algorithm and sensor class in the overall system are investigated, being the handling of sensor errors and uncertainties that arise with lower grade sensory also considered. In terms of GNSS outputs we consider receiver solutions (position and velocity) and raw measurements (pseudorange, pseudorange-rate and time-difference carrier phase). Receiver clock error handling options and atmospheric error correction schemes for these measurements are analysed under flight conditions. System performance with different GNSS measurements is estimated through covariance analysis, being the differences between loose and tight coupling emphasized through partial outage simulation. Finally, we discuss options for filter algorithm robustness against non-linearities and system/measurement errors. A possible scheme for fault detection, isolation and recovery is also proposed.

  5. Hybrid energy harvesting systems, using piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornogolub, Alexandru; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Petit, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    Interest in energy harvesting applications has increased a lot during recent years. This is especially true for systems using electroactive materials like dielectric polymers or piezoelectric materials. Unfortunately, these materials despite multiple advantages, present some important drawbacks. For example, many dielectric polymers demonstrated high energy densities; they are cheap, easy to process and can be easily integrated in many different structures. But at the same time, dielectric polymer generators require an external energy supply which could greatly compromise their autonomy. Piezoelectric systems, on the other hand, are completely autonomous and can be easily miniaturized. However, most common piezoelectric materials present a high rigidity and are brittle by nature and therefore their integration could be difficult. This paper investigates the possibility of using hybrid systems combining piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers for mechanical energy harvesting applications and it is focused mainly on the problem of electrical energy transfer. Our objective is to show that such systems can be interesting and that it is possible to benefit from the advantages of both materials. For this, different configurations were considered and the problem of their optimization was addressed. The experimental work enabled us to prove the concept and identify the main practical limitations.

  6. Architectural elements of hybrid navigation systems for future space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Guilherme F.; Theil, Stephan

    2018-06-01

    The fundamental limitations of inertial navigation, currently employed by most launchers, have raised interest for GNSS-aided solutions. Combination of inertial measurements and GNSS outputs allows inertial calibration online, solving the issue of inertial drift. However, many challenges and design options unfold. In this work we analyse several architectural elements and design aspects of a hybrid GNSS/INS navigation system conceived for space transportation. The most fundamental architectural features such as coupling depth, modularity between filter and inertial propagation, and open-/closed-loop nature of the configuration, are discussed in the light of the envisaged application. Importance of the inertial propagation algorithm and sensor class in the overall system are investigated, being the handling of sensor errors and uncertainties that arise with lower grade sensory also considered. In terms of GNSS outputs we consider receiver solutions (position and velocity) and raw measurements (pseudorange, pseudorange-rate and time-difference carrier phase). Receiver clock error handling options and atmospheric error correction schemes for these measurements are analysed under flight conditions. System performance with different GNSS measurements is estimated through covariance analysis, being the differences between loose and tight coupling emphasized through partial outage simulation. Finally, we discuss options for filter algorithm robustness against non-linearities and system/measurement errors. A possible scheme for fault detection, isolation and recovery is also proposed.

  7. Extension to linear dynamics for hybrid stress finite element formulation based on additional displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumihara, K.

    Based upon legitimate variational principles, one microscopic-macroscopic finite element formulation for linear dynamics is presented by Hybrid Stress Finite Element Method. The microscopic application of Geometric Perturbation introduced by Pian and the introduction of infinitesimal limit core element (Baby Element) have been consistently combined according to the flexible and inherent interpretation of the legitimate variational principles initially originated by Pian and Tong. The conceptual development based upon Hybrid Finite Element Method is extended to linear dynamics with the introduction of physically meaningful higher modes.

  8. Numerical simulation of evolutionary erodible bedforms using the particle finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Rafael; Becker, Pablo; Ortiz, Pablo

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a numerical strategy for the simulation of flows with evolutionary erodible boundaries. The fluid equations are fully resolved in 3D, while the sediment transport is modelled using the Exner equation and solved with an explicit Lagrangian procedure based on a fixed 2D mesh. Flow and sediment are coupled in geometry by deforming the fluid mesh in the vertical direction and in velocities with the experimental sediment flux computed using the Meyer Peter Müller model. A comparison with real experiments on channels is performed, giving good agreement.

  9. A novel hybrid stress-function finite element method immune to severe mesh distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Song; Zhou Mingjue; Fu Xiangrong

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a hybrid stress-function finite element method proposed recently for developing 2D finite element models immune to element shapes. Deferent from the first version of the hybrid-stress element constructed by Pian, the stress function φ of 2D elastic or fracture problem is regarded as the functional variable of the complementary energy functional. Then, the basic analytical solutions of φ are taken as the trial functions for finite element models, and meanwhile, the corresponding unknown stress-function constants are introduced. By using the principle of minimum complementary energy, these unknown stress-function constants can be expressed in terms of the displacements along element edges. Finally, the complementary energy functional can be rewritten in terms of element nodal displacement vector, and thus, the element stiffness matrix of such hybrid-function element can be obtained. As examples, two (8- and 12-node) quadrilateral plane elements and an arbitrary polygonal crack element are constructed by employing different basic analytical solutions of different stress functions. Numerical results show that, the 8- and 12-node plane models can produce the exact solutions for pure bending and linear bending problems, respectively, even the element shape degenerates into triangle and concave quadrangle; and the crack element can also predict accurate results with very low computational cost in analysis of stress-singularity problems.

  10. Groundwater flow analysis using mixed hybrid finite element method for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Hiroomi; Shimomura, Masanori; Kawakami, Hiroto; Suzuki, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    In safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities, ground water flow analysis are used for calculating the radionuclide transport pathway and the infiltration flow rate of groundwater into the disposal facilities. For this type of calculations, the mixed hybrid finite element method has been used and discussed about the accuracy of ones in Europe. This paper puts great emphasis on the infiltration flow rate of groundwater into the disposal facilities, and describes the accuracy of results obtained from mixed hybrid finite element method by comparing of local water mass conservation and the reliability of the element breakdown numbers among the mixed hybrid finite element method, finite volume method and nondegenerated finite element method. (author)

  11. Russia and hybrid warfare: identifying critical elements in successful applications of hybrid tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Neville, Seth B.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014, hybrid war became a buzzword within political and academic circles. This thesis examines hybrid warfare applications using contemporary and historical examples. The analysis seeks to determine why a country was or was not successful in its execution of hybrid war, and it assesses the geo-political context of cost, benefit, and risk for an aggressor state contributing to its decision to eng...

  12. Topology optimization of bounded acoustic problems using the hybrid finite element-wave based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goo, Seongyeol; Wang, Semyung; Kook, Junghwan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative topology optimization method for bounded acoustic problems that uses the hybrid finite element-wave based method (FE-WBM). The conventional method for the topology optimization of bounded acoustic problems is based on the finite element method (FEM), which...

  13. Mixed and mixed-hybrid elements for the diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, F.; Fedon-Magnaud, C.

    1987-04-01

    To solve the diffusion equation, one often uses a Lagrangian finite element method. We want to introduce the mixed elements which allow a simultaneous approximation of the same order for the flux and its gradient. Though the linear systems are not positive definite, it is possible to make them so by eliminating some of the unknowns

  14. Hexahedral connection element based on hybrid-stress theory for solid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, D; Sze, K Y; Lo, S H

    2010-01-01

    For building structures, high-performance hybrid-stress hexahedral solid elements are excellent choices for modelling joints, beams/columns walls and thick slabs if the exact geometrical representation is required. While it is straight-forward to model beam-column structures of uniform member size with solid hexahedral elements, joining up beams and columns of various cross-sections at a common point proves to be a challenge for structural modelling using hexahedral elements with specified dimensions. In general, the joint has to be decomposed into 27 smaller solid elements to cater for the necessary connection requirements. This will inevitably increase the computational cost and introduce element distortions when elements of different sizes have to be used at the joint. Hexahedral connection elements with arbitrary specified connection interfaces will be an ideal setup to connect structural members of different sizes without increasing the number of elements or introducing highly distorted elements. In this paper, based on the hybrid-stress element theory, a general way to construct hexahedral connection element with various interfaces is introduced. Following this way, a 24-node connection element is presented and discussed in detail. Performance of the 24-node connection element equipped with different number of stress modes will be assessed with worked examples.

  15. Multiple orbital angular momentum generated by dielectric hybrid phase element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Hu, Dejiao; Li, Xiangping

    2017-09-01

    Vortex beam carrying multiple orbital angular momentum provides a new degree of freedom to manipulate light leading to the various exciting applications as trapping, quantum optics, information multiplexing, etc. Helical wavefront can be generated either via the geometric or the dynamic phase arising from a space-variant birefringence (q-plate) or from phase accumulation through propagation (spiral-phase-plate), respectively. Using fast direct laser writing technique we fabricate and characterize novel hybrid q-plate generating vortex beam simultaneously carrying two different high-order topological charges, which arise from the spin-orbital conversion and the azimuthal height variation of the recorded structures. We approve the versatile concept to generate multiple-OAM vortex beams combining the spin-orbital interaction and the phase accumulation in a single micro-scale device, a hybrid dielectric phase plate.

  16. Hybrid Dysgenesis in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER: Nature and Inheritance of P Element Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kidwell, Margaret G.

    1985-01-01

    The genetic determination of the control of resistance or susceptibility to germ line changes mediated by P elements was studied in two strains and in derivatives of crosses between them. One strain, characterized as true M, completely lacked P elements. The second strain, pseudo- M (M'), carried a number of P elements, but these did not have the potential to induce the gonadal sterility that is associated with P-M hybrid dysgenesis. Individuals from the true M strain were invariably unable ...

  17. Influence of 24-epibrassinolide on seedling growth and distribution of mineral elements in two maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waisi Hadi K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, influence of wide range of 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL on early growth potential of two maize hybrids (ZP 434 and ZP 704 was examined. Paper concerns germination, seedling biomass, important chlorophylls content, and redistribution of elements (heavy metals and microelements, in a seedlings of the maize hybrids, as influenced by different 24-EBL concentrations. It was found that hybrids react differently to exogenously applied hormone. The biggest differences between two examined maize hybrids considering the germination level were reached with the lowest values at 86% for ZP 704 and 72% for ZP 434, gained at the highest applied concentration of 24-EBL. Seedlings of hybrid ZP 434 reacted positively moderately in the case of shoot length and biomass under the influence of 24-EBL, but seedlings of hybrid ZP 704 had lower values of these parameters under the influence of the phytohormone. Chlorophyll a/b ratios showed that photosynthetic apparatus of seedlings of the hybrids is not active in this stage of development. It was established that 24-EBL affects seedling growth and re-allocation of naturally present mineral elements in early growth stages and that could be one of the reason for poorer growth of ZP 704 treated with various concentrations of 24-EBL, comparing to control. When applied in lower concentrations, 24-EBL is blocking toxic elements such as chromium and nickel to relocate to vital parts of plant, what was case in hybrid ZP704. In case of ZP 434, lower concentrations of 24-EBL are affecting re-allocation of Cu and Cr and these findings suggest that maize hybrid seedlings treated with lower concentrations of 24-EBL could survive and be successful in polluted areas. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR31080

  18. A Hybrid Interpolation Method for Geometric Nonlinear Spatial Beam Elements with Explicit Nodal Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqing Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on geometrically exact beam theory, a hybrid interpolation is proposed for geometric nonlinear spatial Euler-Bernoulli beam elements. First, the Hermitian interpolation of the beam centerline was used for calculating nodal curvatures for two ends. Then, internal curvatures of the beam were interpolated with a second interpolation. At this point, C1 continuity was satisfied and nodal strain measures could be consistently derived from nodal displacement and rotation parameters. The explicit expression of nodal force without integration, as a function of global parameters, was founded by using the hybrid interpolation. Furthermore, the proposed beam element can be degenerated into linear beam element under the condition of small deformation. Objectivity of strain measures and patch tests are also discussed. Finally, four numerical examples are discussed to prove the validity and effectivity of the proposed beam element.

  19. Restraining approach for the spurious kinematic modes in hybrid equilibrium element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, F.

    2013-10-01

    The present paper proposes a rigorous approach for the elimination of spurious kinematic modes in hybrid equilibrium elements, for three well known mesh patches. The approach is based on the identification of the dependent equations in the set of inter-element and boundary equilibrium equations of the sides involved in the spurious kinematic mode. Then the kinematic variables related to the dependent equations are reciprocally constrained and, by application of master slave elimination method, the set of inter-element equilibrium equations is reduced to full rank. The elastic solutions produced by means of the proposed approach verify the homogeneous, the inter-element and the boundary equilibrium equations. Hybrid stress formulation is developed in a rigorous mathematical setting. The results of linear elastic analysis obtained by the proposed approach and by classical displacement based method are compared for some structural examples.

  20. Hybrid variational principles and synthesis method for finite element neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackroyd, R.T.; Nanneh, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    A family of hybrid variational principles is derived using a generalised least squares method. Neutron conservation is automatically satisfied for the hybrid principles employing two trial functions. No interfaces or reflection conditions need to be imposed on the independent even-parity trial function. For some hybrid principles a single trial function can be employed by relating one parity trial function to the other, using one of the parity transport equation in relaxed form. For other hybrid principles the trial functions can be employed sequentially. Synthesis of transport solutions, starting with the diffusion theory approximation, has been used as a way of reducing the scale of the computation that arises with established finite element methods for neutron transport. (author)

  1. A Novel Shape-Free Plane Quadratic Polygonal Hybrid Stress-Function Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Lei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel plane quadratic shape-free hybrid stress-function (HS-F polygonal element is developed by employing the principle of minimum complementary energy and the fundamental analytical solutions of the Airy stress function. Without construction of displacement interpolation function, the formulations of the new model are much simpler than those of the displacement-based polygonal elements and can be degenerated into triangular or quadrilateral elements directly. In particular, it is quite insensitive to various mesh distortions and even can keep precision when element shape is concave. Furthermore, the element does not show any spurious zero energy modes. Numerical examples show the excellent performance of the new element, denoted by HSF-AP-19β, in both displacement and stress solutions.

  2. Hybrid-finite-element analysis of some nonlinear and 3-dimensional problems of engineering fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, S. N.; Nakagaki, M.; Kathiresan, K.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, efficient numerical methods for the analysis of crack-closure effects on fatigue-crack-growth-rates, in plane stress situations, and for the solution of stress-intensity factors for arbitrary shaped surface flaws in pressure vessels, are presented. For the former problem, an elastic-plastic finite element procedure valid for the case of finite deformation gradients is developed and crack growth is simulated by the translation of near-crack-tip elements with embedded plastic singularities. For the latter problem, an embedded-elastic-singularity hybrid finite element method, which leads to a direct evaluation of K-factors, is employed.

  3. Hybrid Finite Element and Volume Integral Methods for Scattering Using Parametric Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volakis, John L.; Sertel, Kubilay; Jørgensen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    n this paper we address several topics relating to the development and implementation of volume integral and hybrid finite element methods for electromagnetic modeling. Comparisons of volume integral equation formulations with the finite element-boundary integral method are given in terms of accu...... of vanishing divergence within the element but non-zero curl. In addition, a new domain decomposition is introduced for solving array problems involving several million degrees of freedom. Three orders of magnitude CPU reduction is demonstrated for such applications....

  4. Hybrid finite elements nanocomposite characterization by stochastic microstructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva, Milton

    In this thesis the impact of entangled and non-straight fibers in the determination of the effective elastic and thermal properties of polymer nanocomposite (PNC) is addressed. Most of the models in recent studies assume nanotubes to be well dispersed straight fibers with fixed size. Nonetheless experiments reveal that nanotube formation become wavy during the manufacturing process, due to their high aspect ratio and low bending stiffness. Furthermore, experiments also show that nanotubes come in a variety of diameters and lengths. In the thesis an attempt to model the behavior of entangled fibers is made in which the distributions regarding the nanotube length and diameter are incorporated. First, an approach to generate random microstructures is developed. Then, using the finite element (FE) method with embedded fibers, the effective properties are computed for each of the random microstructures. This approach requires only a regular grid for the FE mesh, circumventing the requisite computationally costly and human labor intensive mesh refinement of ordinary FE in order to capture the local morphology of the composite material. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation approach is used to obtain statistics of the computed effective physical properties. The numerical results are found in good agreement with experimental data reported in the open literature.

  5. Hybrid finite difference/finite element immersed boundary method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Griffith, Boyce; Luo, Xiaoyu

    2017-12-01

    The immersed boundary method is an approach to fluid-structure interaction that uses a Lagrangian description of the structural deformations, stresses, and forces along with an Eulerian description of the momentum, viscosity, and incompressibility of the fluid-structure system. The original immersed boundary methods described immersed elastic structures using systems of flexible fibers, and even now, most immersed boundary methods still require Lagrangian meshes that are finer than the Eulerian grid. This work introduces a coupling scheme for the immersed boundary method to link the Lagrangian and Eulerian variables that facilitates independent spatial discretizations for the structure and background grid. This approach uses a finite element discretization of the structure while retaining a finite difference scheme for the Eulerian variables. We apply this method to benchmark problems involving elastic, rigid, and actively contracting structures, including an idealized model of the left ventricle of the heart. Our tests include cases in which, for a fixed Eulerian grid spacing, coarser Lagrangian structural meshes yield discretization errors that are as much as several orders of magnitude smaller than errors obtained using finer structural meshes. The Lagrangian-Eulerian coupling approach developed in this work enables the effective use of these coarse structural meshes with the immersed boundary method. This work also contrasts two different weak forms of the equations, one of which is demonstrated to be more effective for the coarse structural discretizations facilitated by our coupling approach. © 2017 The Authors International  Journal  for  Numerical  Methods  in  Biomedical  Engineering Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 3-dimensional earthquake response analysis of embedded reactor building using hybrid model of boundary elements and finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, K.; Motosaka, M.; Kamata, M.; Masuda, K.; Urao, K.; Mameda, T.

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the 3-dimensional earthquake response characteristics of an embedded structure with consideration for soil-structure interaction, the authors have developed an analytical method using 3-dimensional hybrid model of boundary elements (BEM) and finite elements (FEM) and have conducted a dynamic analysis of an actual nuclear reactor building. This paper describes a comparative study between two different embedment depths in soil as elastic half-space. As the results, it was found that the earthquake response intensity decreases with the increase of the embedment depth and that this method was confirmed to be effective for investigating the 3-D response characteristics of embedded structures such as deflection pattern of each floor level, floor response spectra in high frequency range. (orig.)

  7. Effects of alloying element on weld characterization of laser-arc hybrid welding of pure copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kangda; Gong, Mengcheng; Xie, Yong; Gao, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Effects of alloying elements of Si and Sn on weld characterizations of laser-arc hybrid welded pure copper (Cu) with thickness of 2 mm was studied in detail by using different wires. The weld microstructure was analyzed, and the mechanical properties (micro-hardness and tensile property), conductivity and corrosion resistance were tested. The results showed that the alloying elements benefit the growth of column grains within weld fusion zone (FZ), increase the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the FZ and weld corrosion resistance, and decrease weld conductivity. The mechanisms were discussed according to the results.

  8. Homology of polytene elements between Drosophila and Zaprionus determined by in situ hybridization in Zaprionus indianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, S R C; Rieger, T T; Santos, J F

    2007-05-09

    The drosophilid Zaprionus indianus due to its economical importance as an insect pest in Brazil deserves more investigation into its genetics. Its mitotic karyotype and a line-drawing map of its polytene chromosomes are already available. This paper presents a photomap of Z. indianus polytene chromosomes, which was used as the reference map for identification of sections marked by in situ hybridization with gene probes. Hybridization signals for Hsp70 and Hsr-omega were detected, respectively, in sections 34B and 32C of chromosome V of Z. indianus, which indicates its homology to the chromosomal arm 3R of Drosophila melanogaster and, therefore, to Muller's element E. The main signal for Hsp83 gene probe hybridization was in section 17C of Z. indianus chromosome III, suggesting its homology to arm 3L of D. melanogaster and to element D of Muller. The Ubi probe hybridized in sections 10C of chromosome II and 17A of chromosome III. Probably the 17A is the polyubiquitin locus, with homology to arm 3L of D. melanogaster and to the mullerian D element, as suggested also by Hsp83 gene location. The Br-C gene was mapped in section 1D, near the tip of the X chromosome, indicating its homology to the X chromosome of D. melanogaster and to mullerian element A. The Dpp gene probe hybridized mainly in the section 32A of chromosome V and, at lower frequencies to other sections, although no signal was observed as expected in the correspondent mullerian B element. This result led to the suggestion of a rearrangement including the Dpp locus in Z. indianus, the secondary signals possibly pointing to related genes of the TGF-beta family. In conclusion, the results indicate that chromosomes X, III, V of Z. indianus are respectively correspondents to elements A, D, and E of Muller. At least chromosome V of Z. indianus seems to share synteny with the 3R arm of D. melanogaster, as indicated by the relative positions of Hsp70 and Hsr-omega, although the Dpp gene indicates a disruption of

  9. Three-dimensional linear fracture mechanics analysis by a displacement-hybrid finite-element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atluri, S.N.; Kathiresan, K.; Kobayashi, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals with a finite-element procedures for the calculation of modes I, II and III stress intensity factors, which vary, along an arbitrarily curved three-dimensional crack front in a structural component. The finite-element model is based on a modified variational principle of potential energy with relaxed continuity requirements for displacements at the inter-element boundary. The variational principle is a three-field principle, with the arbitrary interior displacements for the element, interelement boundary displacements, and element boundary tractions as variables. The unknowns in the final algebraic system of equations, in the present displacement hybrid finite element model, are the nodal displacements and the three elastic stress intensity factors. Special elements, which contain proper square root and inverse square root crack front variations in displacements and stresses, respectively, are used in a fixed region near the crack front. Interelement displacement compatibility is satisfied by assuming an independent interelement boundary displacement field, and using a Lagrange multiplier technique to enforce such interelement compatibility. These Lagrangean multipliers, which are physically the boundary tractions, are assumed from an equilibrated stress field derived from three-dimensional Beltrami (or Maxwell-Morera) stress functions that are complete. However, considerable care should be exercised in the use of these stress functions such that the stresses produced by any of these stress function components are not linearly dependent

  10. Two Scales, Hybrid Model for Soils, Involving Artificial Neural Network and Finite Element Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasiński Marcin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid ANN-FE solution is presented as a result of two level analysis of soils: a level of a laboratory sample and a level of engineering geotechnical problem. Engineering properties of soils (sands are represented directly in the form of ANN (this is in contrast with our former paper where ANN approximated constitutive relationships. Initially the ANN is trained with Duncan formula (Duncan and Chang [2], then it is re-trained (calibrated with some available experimental data, specific for the soil considered. The obtained approximation of the constitutive parameters is used directly in finite element method at the level of a single element at the scale of the laboratory sample to check the correct representation of the laboratory test. Then, the finite element that was successfully tested at the level of laboratory sample is used at the macro level to solve engineering problems involving the soil for which it was calibrated.

  11. A finite element modeling of a multifunctional hybrid composite beam with viscoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    The multifunctional hybrid composite structure studied here consists of a ceramic outer layer capable of withstanding high temperatures, a functionally graded ceramic layer combining shape memory alloy (SMA) properties of NiTi together with Ti2AlC (called Graded Ceramic/Metal Composite, or GCMeC), and a high temperature sensor patch, followed by a polymer matrix composite laced with vascular cooling channels all held together with various epoxies. Due to the recoverable nature of SMA and adhesive properties of Ti2AlC, the damping behavior of the GCMeC is largely viscoelastic. This paper presents a finite element formulation for this multifunctional hybrid structure with embedded viscoelastic material. In order to implement the viscoelastic model into the finite element formulation, a second order three parameter Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method is used to describe the viscoelastic behavior. Considering the parameter identification, a strategy to estimate the fractional order of the time derivative and the relaxation time is outlined. The curve-fitting aspects of both GHM and ADF show good agreement with experimental data obtained from dynamic mechanics analysis. The performance of the finite element of the layered multifunctional beam is verified through experimental model analysis.

  12. Finite Element Analysis and Test Results Comparison for the Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.

  13. Numerical model for the analysis of unbounded prestressed structures using the hybrid type finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.A.; Gastal, F.P.S.L.; Filho, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Unbounded prestressed concrete has a growing importance all over the world and may be an useful technique for the structures involved in the construction of nuclear facilities. The absence of bonding means no strain compatibility so that equations developed for reinforced concrete are no longer valid. Practical estimates about the ultimate stress in the unbounded tendons may be obtained with empirical or numerical methods only. In order to contribute to the understanding on the behaviour of unbounded prestressed concrete members, a numerical model has been developed using a hybrid type finite element formulation for planar frame structures. Instead of short elements, as in the conventional finite element formulation, long elements may be used, improving computational efficiency. A further advantage is that the curvature variation within the element is obtained with higher accuracy if compared to the traditional formulation. This feature is important for unbounded tendons since its stresses depend on the whole member deformation. Second order effects in the planar frame are considered with either Updated or Partially Updated Lagrangian approaches. Instantaneous and time dependent behaviour as well as cyclic loads are considered too. Comparison with experimental results for prestressed concrete beams shows the adequacy of the proposed model. (authors)

  14. Finite element modelling of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid fiber reinforced bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smring, Santa binti; Salleh, Norhafizah; Hamid, NoorAzlina Abdul; Majid, Masni A.

    2017-11-01

    Concrete is a heterogeneous composite material made up of cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water mixed in a desired proportion to obtain the required strength. Plain concrete does not with stand tension as compared to compression. In order to compensate this drawback steel reinforcement are provided in concrete. Now a day, for improving the properties of concrete and also to take up tension combination of steel and glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars promises favourable strength, serviceability, and durability. To verify its promise and support design concrete structures with hybrid type of reinforcement, this study have investigated the load-deflection behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid GFRP and steel bars by using ATENA software. Fourteen beams, including six control beams reinforced with only steel or only GFRP bars, were analysed. The ratio and the ordinate of GFRP to steel were the main parameters investigated. The behaviour of these beams was investigated via the load-deflection characteristics, cracking behaviour and mode of failure. Hybrid GFRP-Steel reinforced concrete beam showed the improvement in both ultimate capacity and deflection concomitant to the steel reinforced concrete beam. On the other hand, finite element (FE) modelling which is ATENA were validated with previous experiment and promising the good result to be used for further analyses and development in the field of present study.

  15. Hybridization of active and passive elements for planar photonic components and interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, M.; Bidnyk, S.; Balakrishnan, A.

    2007-02-01

    The deployment of Passive Optical Networks (PON) for Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) applications currently represents the fastest growing sector of the telecommunication industry. Traditionally, FTTH transceivers have been manufactured using commodity bulk optics subcomponents, such as thin film filters (TFFs), micro-optic collimating lenses, TO-packaged lasers, and photodetectors. Assembling these subcomponents into a single housing requires active alignment and labor-intensive techniques. Today, the majority of cost reducing strategies using bulk subcomponents has been implemented making future reductions in the price of manufacturing FTTH transceivers unlikely. Future success of large scale deployments of FTTH depends on further cost reductions of transceivers. Realizing the necessity of a radically new packaging approach for assembly of photonic components and interconnects, we designed a novel way of hybridizing active and passive elements into a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) platform. In our approach, all the filtering components were monolithically integrated into the chip using advancements in planar reflective gratings. Subsequently, active components were passively hybridized with the chip using fully-automated high-capacity flip-chip bonders. In this approach, the assembly of the transceiver package required no active alignment and was readily suitable for large-scale production. This paper describes the monolithic integration of filters and hybridization of active components in both silica-on-silicon and silicon-on-insulator PLCs.

  16. SOFT POWER AND THE HYBRID WAR AS ELEMENTS OF STRATEGY OF RUSSIA IN THE GEOPOLITICAL CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nikolaevich Xaribin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the characteristics of the concepts “soft power” and “hybrid war” which are popular terms in modern political studies. The author inspected the historic features of these concepts, the evolution of the state military strategies, starting with Clausewitz’ war strategy up to the current situation, where the military and information factors are equally important. Russian confrontation in the information wars of our time and the experience of using the elements of the hybrid war strategy have been thoroughly studied. The author provides practical recommendations for the improvement of Russia’s image, as well as for strengthening its positions in the international political system. Overall, the author concludes that Russia is now losing in the information war, however, there are prerequisites to reverse this negative trend, while using the positive experience of Russia’s “soft power” and the information wars. In addition, the author suggests using the tactics of “hybrid war” for defending Russia’s interests in the future.

  17. Hybrid finite volume/ finite element method for radiative heat transfer in graded index media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Zhao, J. M.; Liu, L. H.; Wang, S. Y.

    2012-09-01

    The rays propagate along curved path determined by the Fermat principle in the graded index medium. The radiative transfer equation in graded index medium (GRTE) contains two specific redistribution terms (with partial derivatives to the angular coordinates) accounting for the effect of the curved ray path. In this paper, the hybrid finite volume with finite element method (hybrid FVM/FEM) (P.J. Coelho, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf., vol. 93, pp. 89-101, 2005) is extended to solve the radiative heat transfer in two-dimensional absorbing-emitting-scattering graded index media, in which the spatial discretization is carried out using a FVM, while the angular discretization is by a FEM. The FEM angular discretization is demonstrated to be preferable in dealing with the redistribution terms in the GRTE. Two stiff matrix assembly schemes of the angular FEM discretization, namely, the traditional assembly approach and a new spherical assembly approach (assembly on the unit sphere of the solid angular space), are discussed. The spherical assembly scheme is demonstrated to give better results than the traditional assembly approach. The predicted heat flux distributions and temperature distributions in radiative equilibrium are determined by the proposed method and compared with the results available in other references. The proposed hybrid FVM/FEM method can predict the radiative heat transfer in absorbing-emitting-scattering graded index medium with good accuracy.

  18. Hybrid finite volume/ finite element method for radiative heat transfer in graded index media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Zhao, J.M.; Liu, L.H.; Wang, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    The rays propagate along curved path determined by the Fermat principle in the graded index medium. The radiative transfer equation in graded index medium (GRTE) contains two specific redistribution terms (with partial derivatives to the angular coordinates) accounting for the effect of the curved ray path. In this paper, the hybrid finite volume with finite element method (hybrid FVM/FEM) (P.J. Coelho, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf., vol. 93, pp. 89-101, 2005) is extended to solve the radiative heat transfer in two-dimensional absorbing-emitting-scattering graded index media, in which the spatial discretization is carried out using a FVM, while the angular discretization is by a FEM. The FEM angular discretization is demonstrated to be preferable in dealing with the redistribution terms in the GRTE. Two stiff matrix assembly schemes of the angular FEM discretization, namely, the traditional assembly approach and a new spherical assembly approach (assembly on the unit sphere of the solid angular space), are discussed. The spherical assembly scheme is demonstrated to give better results than the traditional assembly approach. The predicted heat flux distributions and temperature distributions in radiative equilibrium are determined by the proposed method and compared with the results available in other references. The proposed hybrid FVM/FEM method can predict the radiative heat transfer in absorbing-emitting-scattering graded index medium with good accuracy.

  19. Implicit and explicit schemes for mass consistency preservation in hybrid particle/finite-volume algorithms for turbulent reactive flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Pavel P.; Pope, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the issue of particle mass consistency in Large Eddy Simulation/Probability Density Function (LES/PDF) methods for turbulent reactive flows. Numerical schemes for the implicit and explicit enforcement of particle mass consistency (PMC) are introduced, and their performance is examined in a representative LES/PDF application, namely the Sandia–Sydney Bluff-Body flame HM1. A new combination of interpolation schemes for velocity and scalar fields is found to better satisfy PMC than multilinear and fourth-order Lagrangian interpolation. A second-order accurate time-stepping scheme for stochastic differential equations (SDE) is found to improve PMC relative to Euler time stepping, which is the first time that a second-order scheme is found to be beneficial, when compared to a first-order scheme, in an LES/PDF application. An explicit corrective velocity scheme for PMC enforcement is introduced, and its parameters optimized to enforce a specified PMC criterion with minimal corrective velocity magnitudes

  20. Finite element modeling of reinforced concrete beams with a hybrid combination of steel and aramid reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawileh, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling of concrete beams reinforced steel and FRP bars. • Developed finite element models achieved good results. • The models are validated via comparison with experimental results. • Parametric studies are performed. - Abstract: Corrosion of steel bars has an adverse effect on the life-span of reinforced concrete (RC) members and is usually associated with crack development in RC beams. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have been recently used to reinforce concrete members in flexure due to their high tensile strength and superior corrosion resistance properties. However, FRP materials are brittle in nature, thus RC beams reinforced with such materials would exhibit a less ductile behavior when compared to similar members reinforced with conventional steel reinforcement. Recently, researchers investigated the performance of concrete beams reinforced with a hybrid combination of steel and Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (AFRP) reinforcement to maintain a reasonable level of ductility in such members. The function of the AFRP bars is to increase the load-carrying capacity, while the function of the steel bars is to ensure ductility of the flexural member upon yielding in tension. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model that predicted the load versus mid-span deflection response of tested RC beams conducted by other researchers with a hybrid combination of steel and AFRP bars. The developed FE models account for the constituent material nonlinearities and bond–slip behavior between the reinforcing bars and adjacent concrete surfaces. It was concluded that the developed models can accurately capture the behavior and predicts the load-carrying capacity of such RC members. In addition, a parametric study is conducted using the validated models to investigate the effect of AFRP bar size, FRP material type, bond–slip action, and concrete compressive strength on the performance of concrete beams when reinforced

  1. Finite element modeling for buckling analysis of hybrid piezoelectric beam under electromechanical loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb ur Rahman

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional finite element model for buckling analysis of hybrid piezoelectric beams under electromechanical load is presented in this work. The coupled zigzag theory is used for making the model. The inplane displacement is approximated as a combination of a global third order variation across the thickness with an additional layer wise linear variation. The longitudinal electric field is also taken into account. The deflection field is approximated to account for the transverse normal strain induced by electric fields. Two nodded elements with four mechanical and a variable number of electric degrees of freedom at each node are considered. To meet the convergence requirements for weak integral formulation, cubic Hermite interpolation function is used for deflection and electric potential at the sub-layers and linear interpolation function is used for axial displacement and shear rotation. The expressions for the variationally consistent stiffness matrix and load vector are derived and evaluated in closed form using exact integration. The present 1D-FE formulation of zigzag theory is validated by comparing the results with the analytical solution for simply-supported beam and 2D-FE results obtained using ABAQUS. The finite element model is free of shear locking. The critical buckling parameters are obtained for clamped-free and clamped-clamped hybrid beams. The obtained results are compared with the 2D-FE results to establish the accuracy of the zigzag theory for above boundary conditions. The effect of lamination angle on critical buckling load is also studied.

  2. Improving Hybrid III injury assessment in steering wheel rim to chest impacts using responses from finite element Hybrid III and human body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Kristian; Davidsson, Johan; Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel; Rundberget, Peter; Svensson, Mats Y; Thorn, Stefan; Törnvall, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to improve the quality of injury risk assessments in steering wheel rim to chest impacts when using the Hybrid III crash test dummy in frontal heavy goods vehicle (HGV) collision tests. Correction factors for chest injury criteria were calculated as the model chest injury parameter ratios between finite element (FE) Hybrid III, evaluated in relevant load cases, and the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS). This is proposed to be used to compensate Hybrid III measurements in crash tests where steering wheel rim to chest impacts occur. The study was conducted in an FE environment using an FE-Hybrid III model and the THUMS. Two impactor shapes were used, a circular hub and a long, thin horizontal bar. Chest impacts at velocities ranging from 3.0 to 6.0 m/s were simulated at 3 impact height levels. A ratio between FE-Hybrid III and THUMS chest injury parameters, maximum chest compression C max, and maximum viscous criterion VC max, were calculated for the different chest impact conditions to form a set of correction factors. The definition of the correction factor is based on the assumption that the response from a circular hub impact to the middle of the chest is well characterized and that injury risk measures are independent of impact height. The current limits for these chest injury criteria were used as a basis to develop correction factors that compensate for the limitations in biofidelity of the Hybrid III in steering wheel rim to chest impacts. The hub and bar impactors produced considerably higher C max and VC max responses in the THUMS compared to the FE-Hybrid III. The correction factor for the responses of the FE-Hybrid III showed that the criteria responses for the bar impactor were consistently overestimated. Ratios based on Hybrid III and THUMS responses provided correction factors for the Hybrid III responses ranging from 0.84 to 0.93. These factors can be used to estimate C max and VC max values when the Hybrid III is

  3. The effect of additional equilibrium stress functions on the three-node hybrid-mixed curved beam element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Gon; Park, Yong Kuk

    2008-01-01

    To develop an effective hybrid-mixed element, it is extremely critical as to how to assume the stress field. This research article demonstrates the effect of additional equilibrium stress functions to enhance the numerical performance of the locking-free three-node hybrid-mixed curved beam element, proposed in Saleeb and Chang's previous work. It is exceedingly complicated or even infeasible to determine the stress functions to satisfy fully both the equilibrium conditions and suppression of kinematic deformation modes in the three-node hybrid-mixed formulation. Accordingly, the additional stress functions to satisfy partially or fully equilibrium conditions are incorporated in this study. Several numerical examples for static and dynamic problems confirm that the newly proposed element with these additional stress functions is highly effective regardless of the slenderness ratio and curvature of arches in static and dynamic analyses

  4. Finite element analysis of hybrid energy harvesting of piezoelectric and electromagnetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yazid Muhammad Ammar Faris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting energy from ambient vibrations is a highly required method because of the wide range of available sources that produce vibration energy application from industrial machinery to human motion application. In this paper, the implementation of harvesting energy from two technologies to form a hybrid energy harvester system was analyzed. These two technologies involve the piezoelectric harvesting energy and the electromagnetic harvesting energy. A finite element model was developed using the Ansys software with the harmonic analysis solver to analyze and examine hybrid harvesting energy system. Both power output generated from the magnet and the piezoelectric is then combined to form one unit of energy. Further, it was found that the result shows the system generate the maximum power output of 14.85 μW from 100 Hz, 4.905 m/s2, and 0.6 cm3 for resonance frequency, acceleration, and the volume respectively from the optimal energy harvester design. Normalized Power Density (NPD result of 10.29 kgs/m3 comparable with other literature also can be used in energy harvesting system for vibration application.

  5. Hybrid finite element method for describing the electrical response of biological cells to applied fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Wenjun; Henriquez, Craig S

    2007-04-01

    A novel hybrid finite element method (FEM) for modeling the response of passive and active biological membranes to external stimuli is presented. The method is based on the differential equations that describe the conservation of electric flux and membrane currents. By introducing the electric flux through the cell membrane as an additional variable, the algorithm decouples the linear partial differential equation part from the nonlinear ordinary differential equation part that defines the membrane dynamics of interest. This conveniently results in two subproblems: a linear interface problem and a nonlinear initial value problem. The linear interface problem is solved with a hybrid FEM. The initial value problem is integrated by a standard ordinary differential equation solver such as the Euler and Runge-Kutta methods. During time integration, these two subproblems are solved alternatively. The algorithm can be used to model the interaction of stimuli with multiple cells of almost arbitrary geometries and complex ion-channel gating at the plasma membrane. Numerical experiments are presented demonstrating the uses of the method for modeling field stimulation and action potential propagation.

  6. Mechanical Performance of Natural / Natural Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composite Materials Using Finite Element Method Based Micromechanics and Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Muhammad Ziaur

    2017-01-01

    A micromechanical analysis of the representative volume element (RVE) of a unidirectional flax/jute fiber reinforced epoxy composite is performed using finite element analysis (FEA). To do so, first effective mechanical properties of flax fiber and jute fiber are evaluated numerically and then used in evaluating the effective properties of ax/jute/epoxy hybrid composite. Mechanics of Structure Genome (MSG), a new homogenization tool developed in Purdue University, is used to calculate the hom...

  7. A hybrid Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method for accurate 2D electromagnetic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.simmons@nottingham.ac.uk; Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip

    2016-11-01

    Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications. - Graphical abstract:.

  8. In situ 3D nanoprinting of free-form coupling elements for hybrid photonic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, P.-I.; Blaicher, M.; Reuter, I.; Billah, M.; Hoose, T.; Hofmann, A.; Caer, C.; Dangel, R.; Offrein, B.; Troppenz, U.; Moehrle, M.; Freude, W.; Koos, C.

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid photonic integration combines complementary advantages of different material platforms, offering superior performance and flexibility compared with monolithic approaches. This applies in particular to multi-chip concepts, where components can be individually optimized and tested. The assembly of such systems, however, requires expensive high-precision alignment and adaptation of optical mode profiles. We show that these challenges can be overcome by in situ printing of facet-attached beam-shaping elements. Our approach allows precise adaptation of vastly dissimilar mode profiles and permits alignment tolerances compatible with cost-efficient passive assembly techniques. We demonstrate a selection of beam-shaping elements at chip and fibre facets, achieving coupling efficiencies of up to 88% between edge-emitting lasers and single-mode fibres. We also realize printed free-form mirrors that simultaneously adapt beam shape and propagation direction, and we explore multi-lens systems for beam expansion. The concept paves the way to automated assembly of photonic multi-chip systems with unprecedented performance and versatility.

  9. Trace element mobility at the slab-mantle interface: constraints from "hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marocchi, M.; Tropper, P.; Mair, V.; Bargossi, G. M.; Hermann, J.

    2009-04-01

    Subduction mélanges and hybrid rocks are considered, together with mafic rocks, metasediments and serpentinite as an important volatile-bearing portion of subducting slabs (cf. Spandler et al., 2008 and references therein; Miller et al., 2009). In particular, metasomatic rocks occurring in exhumed HP mélanges have recently attracted growing interest for two main reasons: i) metasomatic rocks forming at the interface between ultramafic and crustal rocks of subducting slabs constitute new bulk compositions which can affect the redistribution of major and trace elements and modify the composition of slab fluids moving to the mantle wedge and ii) these mineral assemblages, consisting mainly of hydrous phases can potentially store and transport water at great depth in subduction zones. Ultramafic rocks belonging to the Hochwart peridotite (Ulten Zone, central-eastern Italian Alps) preserve a series of metasomatic mineral zones generated by infiltration of hydrous fluids/melts, which occurred at the gneiss-peridotite interface (Tumiati et al., 2007; Marocchi et al., 2009). The peridotite body of Mt. Hochwart represents an almost unique occurrence where subduction-related mantle metasomatism can be studied on an outcrop scale. The ultramafic body consists of metaperidotites exposed as a hectometre-size lens along a steep gully, associated to monomineralic zones that developed at the contact between the peridotite body and the garnet-bearing gneiss country rocks. The formation of the metasomatic zones composed exclusively of hydrous phases involved extensive H2O-metasomatism as already documented for the Ulten peridotites (Scambelluri et al., 2006; Marocchi et al., 2007). Whole-rock geochemistry and trace element composition of hydrous phases (phlogopite and amphibole) in different metasomatic zones indicate mobility of many elements, including elements such as Ta, which are considered to have scarce mobility in fluids. Trace element composition of accessory minerals in

  10. A hybrid finite element - statistical energy analysis approach to robust sound transmission modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Edwin; Langley, Robin S.; Dijckmans, Arne; Vermeir, Gerrit

    2014-09-01

    When considering the sound transmission through a wall in between two rooms, in an important part of the audio frequency range, the local response of the rooms is highly sensitive to uncertainty in spatial variations in geometry, material properties and boundary conditions, which have a wave scattering effect, while the local response of the wall is rather insensitive to such uncertainty. For this mid-frequency range, a computationally efficient modeling strategy is adopted that accounts for this uncertainty. The partitioning wall is modeled deterministically, e.g. with finite elements. The rooms are modeled in a very efficient, nonparametric stochastic way, as in statistical energy analysis. All components are coupled by means of a rigorous power balance. This hybrid strategy is extended so that the mean and variance of the sound transmission loss can be computed as well as the transition frequency that loosely marks the boundary between low- and high-frequency behavior of a vibro-acoustic component. The method is first validated in a simulation study, and then applied for predicting the airborne sound insulation of a series of partition walls of increasing complexity: a thin plastic plate, a wall consisting of gypsum blocks, a thicker masonry wall and a double glazing. It is found that the uncertainty caused by random scattering is important except at very high frequencies, where the modal overlap of the rooms is very high. The results are compared with laboratory measurements, and both are found to agree within the prediction uncertainty in the considered frequency range.

  11. A hybrid feature selection and health indicator construction scheme for delay-time-based degradation modelling of rolling element bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Deng, Congying; Zhang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Rolling element bearings are mechanical components used frequently in most rotating machinery and they are also vulnerable links representing the main source of failures in such systems. Thus, health condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings have long been studied to improve operational reliability and maintenance efficiency of rotatory machines. Over the past decade, prognosis that enables forewarning of failure and estimation of residual life attracted increasing attention. To accurately and efficiently predict failure of the rolling element bearing, the degradation requires to be well represented and modelled. For this purpose, degradation of the rolling element bearing is analysed with the delay-time-based model in this paper. Also, a hybrid feature selection and health indicator construction scheme is proposed for extraction of the bearing health relevant information from condition monitoring sensor data. Effectiveness of the presented approach is validated through case studies on rolling element bearing run-to-failure experiments.

  12. Time-domain finite-difference/finite-element hybrid simulations of radio frequency coils in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shumin; Duyn, Jeff H

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid method that combines the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the finite-element time-domain (FETD) method is presented for simulating radio-frequency (RF) coils in magnetic resonance imaging. This method applies a high-fidelity FETD method to RF coils, while the human body is modeled with a low-cost FDTD method. Since the FDTD and the FETD methods are applied simultaneously, the dynamic interaction between RF coils and the human body is fully accounted for. In order to simplify the treatment of the highly irregular FDTD/FETD interface, composite elements are proposed. Two examples are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the hybrid method in high-field receive-and-transmit coil design. This approach is also applicable to general bio-electromagnetic simulations

  13. Parametric optimization and design validation based on finite element analysis of hybrid socket adapter for transfemoral prosthetic knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neelesh

    2014-10-01

    Finite element analysis has been universally employed for the stress and strain analysis in lower extremity prosthetics. The socket adapter was the principal subject of interest due to its importance in deciding the knee motion range. This article focused on the static and dynamic stress analysis of the designed hybrid adapter developed by the authors. A standard mechanical design validation approach using von Mises was followed. Four materials were considered for the analysis, namely, carbon fiber, oil-filled nylon, Al-6061, and mild steel. The paper analyses the static and dynamic stress on designed hybrid adapter which incorporates features of conventional male and female socket adapters. The finite element analysis was carried out for possible different angles of knee flexion simulating static and dynamic gait situation. Research was carried out on available design of socket adapter. Mechanical design of hybrid adapter was conceptualized and a CAD model was generated using Inventor modelling software. Static and dynamic stress analysis was carried out on different materials for optimization. The finite element analysis was carried out on the software Autodesk Inventor Professional Ver. 2011. The peak value of von Mises stress occurred in the neck region of the adapter and in the lower face region at rod eye-adapter junction in static and dynamic analyses, respectively. Oil-filled nylon was found to be the best material among the four with respect to strength, weight, and cost. Research investigations on newer materials for development of improved prosthesis will immensely benefit the amputees. The study analyze the static and dynamic stress on the knee joint adapter to provide better material used for hybrid design of adapter. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  14. Finite element modelling to assess the effect of surface mounted piezoelectric patch size on vibration response of a hybrid beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N.; Alam, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    Vibration response analysis of a hybrid beam with surface mounted patch piezoelectric layer is presented in this work. A one dimensional finite element (1D-FE) model based on efficient layerwise (zigzag) theory is used for the analysis. The beam element has eight mechanical and a variable number of electrical degrees of freedom. The beams are also modelled in 2D-FE (ABAQUS) using a plane stress piezoelectric quadrilateral element for piezo layers and a plane stress quadrilateral element for the elastic layers of hybrid beams. Results are presented to assess the effect of size of piezoelectric patch layer on the free and forced vibration responses of thin and moderately thick beams under clamped-free and clamped-clamped configurations. The beams are subjected to unit step loading and harmonic loading to obtain the forced vibration responses. The vibration control using in phase actuation potential on piezoelectric patches is also studied. The 1D-FE results are compared with the 2D-FE results.

  15. A New Triangular Hybrid Displacement Function Element for Static and Free Vibration Analyses of Mindlin-Reissner Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bin Huang

    Full Text Available Abstract A new 3-node triangular hybrid displacement function Mindlin-Reissner plate element is developed. Firstly, the modified variational functional of complementary energy for Mindlin-Reissner plate, which is eventually expressed by a so-called displacement function F, is proposed. Secondly, the locking-free formulae of Timoshenko’s beam theory are chosen as the deflection, rotation, and shear strain along each element boundary. Thirdly, seven fundamental analytical solutions of the displacement function F are selected as the trial functions for the assumed resultant fields, so that the assumed resultant fields satisfy all governing equations in advance. Finally, the element stiffness matrix of the new element, denoted by HDF-P3-7β, is derived from the modified principle of complementary energy. Together with the diagonal inertia matrix of the 3-node triangular isoparametric element, the proposed element is also successfully generalized to the free vibration problems. Numerical results show that the proposed element exhibits overall remarkable performance in all benchmark problems, especially in the free vibration analyses.

  16. Finite element analysis when orthogonal cutting of hybrid composite CFRP/Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jinyang; Mansori, Mohamed El

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid composite, especially CFRP/Ti stack, is usually considered as an innovative structural configuration for manufacturing the key load-bearing components in modern aerospace industry. This paper originally proposed an FE model to simulate the total chip formation process dominated the hybrid cutting operation. The hybrid composite model was established based on three physical constituents, i.e., Ti constituent, interface and CFRP constituent. Different constitutive models and damage criteria were introduced to replicate the interrelated cutting behaviour of the stack material. The CFRP/Ti interface was modelled as a third phase through the concept of cohesive zone (CZ). Particular attention was made on the comparative studies of the influence of different cutting-sequence strategies on the machining responses induced in hybrid stack cutting. The numerical results emphasized the pivotal role of cutting-sequence strategy on the various machining induced responses including cutting-force generation, machined surface quality and induced interface damage. (paper)

  17. Solution of finite element problems using hybrid parallelization with MPI and OpenMP Solution of finite element problems using hybrid parallelization with MPI and OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Vargas-Félix

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Finite Element Method (FEM is used to solve problems like solid deformation and heat diffusion in domains with complex geometries. This kind of geometries requires discretization with millions of elements; this is equivalent to solve systems of equations with sparse matrices and tens or hundreds of millions of variables. The aim is to use computer clusters to solve these systems. The solution method used is Schur substructuration. Using it is possible to divide a large system of equations into many small ones to solve them more efficiently. This method allows parallelization. MPI (Message Passing Interface is used to distribute the systems of equations to solve each one in a computer of a cluster. Each system of equations is solved using a solver implemented to use OpenMP as a local parallelization method.The Finite Element Method (FEM is used to solve problems like solid deformation and heat diffusion in domains with complex geometries. This kind of geometries requires discretization with millions of elements; this is equivalent to solve systems of equations with sparse matrices and tens or hundreds of millions of variables. The aim is to use computer clusters to solve these systems. The solution method used is Schur substructuration. Using it is possible to divide a large system of equations into many small ones to solve them more efficiently. This method allows parallelization. MPI (Message Passing Interface is used to distribute the systems of equations to solve each one in a computer of a cluster. Each system of equations is solved using a solver implemented to use OpenMP as a local parallelization method.

  18. Transposable Element Misregulation Is Linked to the Divergence between Parental piRNA Pathways in Drosophila Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Modolo, Laurent; Lopez-Maestre, Hélène; Mugat, Bruno; Pessia, Eugénie; Chambeyron, Séverine; Vieira, Cristina; Garcia Guerreiro, Maria Pilar

    2017-06-01

    Interspecific hybridization is a genomic stress condition that leads to the activation of transposable elements (TEs) in both animals and plants. In hybrids between Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, mobilization of at least 28 TEs has been described. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this TE release remain poorly understood. To give insight on the causes of this TE activation, we performed a TE transcriptomic analysis in ovaries (notorious for playing a major role in TE silencing) of parental species and their F1 and backcrossed (BC) hybrids. We find that 15.2% and 10.6% of the expressed TEs are deregulated in F1 and BC1 ovaries, respectively, with a bias toward overexpression in both cases. Although differences between parental piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA) populations explain only partially these results, we demonstrate that piRNA pathway proteins have divergent sequences and are differentially expressed between parental species. Thus, a functional divergence of the piRNA pathway between parental species, together with some differences between their piRNA pools, might be at the origin of hybrid instabilities and ultimately cause TE misregulation in ovaries. These analyses were complemented with the study of F1 testes, where TEs tend to be less expressed than in D. buzzatii. This can be explained by an increase in piRNA production, which probably acts as a defence mechanism against TE instability in the male germline. Hence, we describe a differential impact of interspecific hybridization in testes and ovaries, which reveals that TE expression and regulation are sex-biased. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Evaluation of Eleven Macro and Micro Elements Present in Various Hybrids of Millet (Pennisetum glaucum, or P. Americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Qadir Shar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize and Millet Research Institute (MMRI situated in Yousuf wala, District Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan was selected to grow nine different hybrids/cultivars of millet for study to comprehend the variable concentration of macro, micro and trace and toxic elements in their grains. Wet digestion method was used for the preparation of samples and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer for analysis of eleven major and minor elements. High values of macro-elements i.e. sodium and potassium was found in ICMP-451 and magnesium in ICMP-53506. The high value of essential micro-elements i.e.zinc (50mg/kg, manganese (8mg/kg, and copper (8mg/kg was calculated in ICMP-53506, Bullo-94-1, and ICMP-83720 respectively. In case of trace and toxic micro-elements, high concentration of nickel, cobalt, chromium and cadmium was found in O.B.V, Bullo-7704, ICMP-83401, and ICMP-83720 in the edible part of millet plants (grains cultivars respectively.

  20. Evaluation of eleven macro and micro elements present in various hybrids of millet (pennisetum glucum, or P. americanum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.Q.; Shar, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Maize and Millet Research Institute (MMRI) situated in Yousuf wala, District Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan was selected to grow nine different hybrids/cultivars of millet for study to comprehend the variable concentration of macro, micro and trace and toxic elements in their grains. Wet digestion method was used for the preparation of samples and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer for analysis of eleven major and minor elements. High values of macro-elements i.e. sodium and potassium was found in ICMP-45 I and magnesium in ICMP-53506. The high value of essential micro-elements i.e. zinc (50 mg/kg), manganese (8 mg/kg), and copper (8mg/kg) was calculated in ICMP-53506, Bullo-94-1, and ICMP-83120 respectively. In case of trace and toxic micro-elements, high concentration of nickel, cobalt, chromium and cadmium was found in O.B.V, Bullo-1104, ICMP-83401, and ICMP-83120 in the edible part of millet plants (grains) cultivars respectively. (author)

  1. A Hybrid Lumped Parameters/Finite Element/Boundary Element Model to Predict the Vibroacoustic Characteristics of an Axial Piston Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaogan Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Low noise axial piston pumps become the rapid increasing demand in modern hydraulic fluid power systems. This paper proposes a systematic approach to simulate the vibroacoustic characteristics of an axial piston pump using a hybrid lumped parameters/finite element/boundary element (LP/FE/BE model, and large amount of experimental work was performed to validate the model. The LP model was developed to calculate the excitation forces and was validated by a comparison of outlet flow ripples. The FE model was developed to calculate the vibration of the pump, in which the modeling of main friction pairs using different spring elements was presented in detail, and the FE model was validated using experimental modal analysis and measured vibrations. The BE model was used to calculate the noise emitted from the pump, and a measurement of sound pressure level at representative field points in a hemianechoic chamber was conducted to validate the BE model. Comparisons between the simulated and measured results show that the developed LP/FE/BE model is effective in capturing the vibroacoustic characteristics of the pump. The presented approach can be extended to other types of fluid power components and contributes to the development of quieter fluid power systems.

  2. Elements de conception d'un systeme geothermique hybride par optimisation financiere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henault, Benjamin

    The choice of design parameters for a hybrid geothermal system is usually based on current practices or questionable assumptions. In fact, the main purpose of a hybrid geothermal system is to maximize the energy savings associated with heating and cooling requirements while minimizing the costs of operation and installation. This thesis presents a strategy to maximize the net present value of a hybrid geothermal system. This objective is expressed by a series of equations that lead to a global objective function. Iteratively, the algorithm converges to an optimal solution by using an optimization method: the conjugate gradient combined with a combinatorial method. The objective function presented in this paper makes use of a simulation algorithm for predicting the fluid temperature of a hybrid geothermal system on an hourly basis. Thus, the optimization method selects six variables iteratively, continuous and integer type, affecting project costs and energy savings. These variables are the limit temperature at the entry of the heat pump (geothermal side), the number of heat pumps, the number of geothermal wells and the distance in X and Y between the geothermal wells. Generally, these variables have a direct impact on the cost of the installation, on the entering water temperature at the heat pumps, the cost of equipment, the thermal interference between boreholes, the total capacity of geothermal system, on system performance, etc. On the other hand, the arrangement of geothermal wells is variable and is often irregular depending on the number of selected boreholes by the algorithm. Removal or addition of one or more borehole is guided by a predefined order dicted by the designer. This feature of irregular arrangement represents an innovation in the field and is necessary for the operation of this algorithm. Indeed, this ensures continuity between the number of boreholes allowing the use of the conjugate gradient method. The proposed method provides as outputs the

  3. Standardization of Schwarz-Christoffel transformation for engineering design of semiconductor and hybrid integrated-circuit elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, A. A.

    1985-04-01

    A semiconductor or hybrid structure into a calculable two-dimensional region mapped by the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation and a universal algorithm can be constructed on the basis of Maxwell's electro-magnetic-thermal similarity principle for engineering design of integrated-circuit elements. The design procedure involves conformal mapping of the original region into a polygon and then the latter into a rectangle with uniform field distribution, where conductances and capacitances are calculated, using tabulated standard mapping functions. Subsequent synthesis of a device requires inverse conformal mapping. Devices adaptable as integrated-circuit elements are high-resistance film resistors with periodic serration, distributed-resistance film attenuators with high transformation ratio, coplanar microstrip lines, bipolar transistors, directional couplers with distributed coupling to microstrip lines for microwave bulk devices, and quasirregular smooth matching transitions from asymmetric to coplanar microstrip lines.

  4. Hybrid determination of mixed-mode stress intensity factors on discontinuous finite-width plate by finite element and photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Tae Hyun; Chen, Lei; Hong, Dong Pyo

    2011-01-01

    For isotropic material structure, the stress in the vicinity of crack tip is generally much higher than the stress far away from it. This phenomenon usually leads to stress concentration and fracture of structure. Previous researches and studies show that the stress intensity factor is one of most important parameter for crack growth and propagation. This paper provides a convenient numerical method, which is called hybrid photoelasticity method, to accurately determine the stress field distribution in the vicinity of crack tip and mixed-mode stress intensity factors. The model was simulated by finite element method and isochromatic data along straight lines far away from the crack tip were calculated. By using the isochromatic data obtained from finite element method and a conformal mapping procedure, stress components and photoelastic fringes in the hybrid region were calculated. To easily compare calculated photoelastic fringes with experiment results, the fringe patterns were reconstructed, doubled and sharpened. Good agreement shows that the method presented in this paper is reliable and convenient. This method can then directly be applied to obtain mixed mode stress intensity factors from the experimentally measured isochromatic data along the straight lines

  5. Thermoelectrics as elements of hybrid-electric vehicle thermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headings, Leon; Washington, Gregory; Jaworski, Christopher M.

    2008-03-01

    Despite vast technological improvements, the traditional internal combustion powered vehicle still achieves only 25- 30% efficiency, with the remainder lost primarily as heat. While the load leveling offered by hybrid-electric vehicle technology helps to improve this overall efficiency, part of the efficiency gains are achieved by making new systems such as regenerative braking viable. In a similar fashion, thermoelectric (TE) energy recovery has long been considered for traditional vehicles with mixed results, but little has been done to consider thermoelectrics in the framework of the unique energy systems of hybrid vehicles. Systems that may not have been viable or even possible with traditional vehicles may offer improvements to system efficiency as well as emissions, vehicle durability, passenger comfort, and cost. This research describes a simulation developed for evaluating and optimizing thermoelectric energy recovery systems and results for four different system configurations. Two novel system configurations are presented which offer the potential for additional benefits such as emissions reduction that will soon be quantified. In addition, a test setup is presented which was constructed for the testing and validation of various thermoelectric recovery systems. Actual test performance was near the expected theoretical performance and supported the conclusions reached from the computer simulations.

  6. Electrochemical sensor for catechol and dopamine based on a catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer-conducting polymer hybrid recognition element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Dhana; Bossi, Alessandra; Whitcombe, Michael J; Chianella, Iva; Fowler, Steven A; Subrahmanyam, Sreenath; Piletska, Elena V; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-05-01

    One of the difficulties with using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and other electrically insulating materials as the recognition element in electrochemical sensors is the lack of a direct path for the conduction of electrons from the active sites to the electrode. We have sought to address this problem through the preparation and characterization of novel hybrid materials combining a catalytic MIP, capable of oxidizing the template, catechol, with an electrically conducting polymer. In this way a network of "molecular wires" assists in the conduction of electrons from the active sites within the MIP to the electrode surface. This was made possible by the design of a new monomer that combines orthogonal polymerizable functionality; comprising an aniline group and a methacrylamide. Conducting films were prepared on the surface of electrodes (Au on glass) by electropolymerization of the aniline moiety. A layer of MIP was photochemically grafted over the polyaniline, via N,N'-diethyldithiocarbamic acid benzyl ester (iniferter) activation of the methacrylamide groups. Detection of catechol by the hybrid-MIP sensor was found to be specific, and catechol oxidation was detected by cyclic voltammetry at the optimized operating conditions: potential range -0.6 V to +0.8 V (vs Ag/AgCl), scan rate 50 mV/s, PBS pH 7.4. The calibration curve for catechol was found to be linear to 144 microM, with a limit of detection of 228 nM. Catechol and dopamine were detected by the sensor, whereas analogues and potentially interfering compounds, including phenol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, serotonin, and ascorbic acid, had minimal effect (< or = 3%) on the detection of either analyte. Non-imprinted hybrid electrodes and bare gold electrodes failed to give any response to catechol at concentrations below 0.5 mM. Finally, the catalytic properties of the sensor were characterized by chronoamperometry and were found to be consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

  7. Mixed hybrid finite elements and streamline computation for the potential flow problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasschieter, E.F.; Huijben, A.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    An important class of problems in mathematical physics involves equations of the form -¿ · (A¿¿) = f. In a variety of problems it is desirable to obtain an accurate approximation of the flow quantity u = -A¿¿. Such an accurate approximation can be determined by the mixed finite element method. In

  8. A Hybrid Finite Element-Fourier Spectral Method for Vibration Analysis of Structures with Elastic Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-You Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid method, which simultaneously possesses the efficiency of Fourier spectral method (FSM and the applicability of the finite element method (FEM, is presented for the vibration analysis of structures with elastic boundary conditions. The FSM, as one type of analytical approaches with excellent convergence and accuracy, is mainly limited to problems with relatively regular geometry. The purpose of the current study is to extend the FSM to problems with irregular geometry via the FEM and attempt to take full advantage of the FSM and the conventional FEM for structural vibration problems. The computational domain of general shape is divided into several subdomains firstly, some of which are represented by the FSM while the rest by the FEM. Then, fictitious springs are introduced for connecting these subdomains. Sufficient details are given to describe the development of such a hybrid method. Numerical examples of a one-dimensional Euler-Bernoulli beam and a two-dimensional rectangular plate show that the present method has good accuracy and efficiency. Further, one irregular-shaped plate which consists of one rectangular plate and one semi-circular plate also demonstrates the capability of the present method applied to irregular structures.

  9. Finite element time domain modeling of controlled-Source electromagnetic data with a hybrid boundary condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Hu, Xiangyun; Xiong, Bin

    2017-01-01

    method which is unconditionally stable. We solve the diffusion equation for the electric field with a total field formulation. The finite element system of equation is solved using the direct method. The solutions of electric field, at different time, can be obtained using the effective time stepping...... method with trivial computation cost once the matrix is factorized. We try to keep the same time step size for a fixed number of steps using an adaptive time step doubling (ATSD) method. The finite element modeling domain is also truncated using a semi-adaptive method. We proposed a new boundary...... condition based on approximating the total field on the modeling boundary using the primary field corresponding to a layered background model. We validate our algorithm using several synthetic model studies....

  10. Hybrid of Natural Element Method (NEM with Genetic Algorithm (GA to find critical slip surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shahrokhabadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in geotechnical engineering is the slope stability analysis for determination of the factor of safety and the probable slip surface. Finite Element Method (FEM is well suited for numerical study of advanced geotechnical problems. However, mesh requirements of FEM creates some difficulties for solution processing in certain problems. Recently, motivated by these limitations, several new Meshfree methods such as Natural Element Method (NEM have been used to analyze engineering problems. This paper presents advantages of using NEM in 2D slope stability analysis and Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization to determine the probable slip surface and the related factor of safety. The stress field is produced under plane strain condition using natural element formulation to simulate material behavior analysis utilized in conjunction with a conventional limit equilibrium method. In order to justify the preciseness and convergence of the proposed method, two kinds of examples, homogenous and non-homogenous, are conducted and results are compared with FEM and conventional limit equilibrium methods. The results show the robustness of the NEM in slope stability analysis.

  11. Reduced Fracture Finite Element Model Analysis of an Efficient Two-Scale Hybrid Embedded Fracture Model

    KAUST Repository

    Amir, Sahar Z.

    2017-06-09

    A Hybrid Embedded Fracture (HEF) model was developed to reduce various computational costs while maintaining physical accuracy (Amir and Sun, 2016). HEF splits the computations into fine scale and coarse scale. Fine scale solves analytically for the matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter. Coarse scale solves for the properties of the entire system. In literature, fractures were assumed to be either vertical or horizontal for simplification (Warren and Root, 1963). Matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter was given few equations built on that assumption (Kazemi, 1968; Lemonnier and Bourbiaux, 2010). However, such simplified cases do not apply directly for actual random fracture shapes, directions, orientations …etc. This paper shows that the HEF fine scale analytic solution (Amir and Sun, 2016) generates the flux exchange parameter found in literature for vertical and horizontal fracture cases. For other fracture cases, the flux exchange parameter changes according to the angle, slop, direction, … etc. This conclusion rises from the analysis of both: the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and the HEF schemes. The behavior of both schemes is analyzed with exactly similar fracture conditions and the results are shown and discussed. Then, a generalization is illustrated for any slightly compressible single-phase fluid within fractured porous media and its results are discussed.

  12. Mixed-hybrid finite element method for the transport equation and diffusion approximation of transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartier, J.

    2006-04-01

    This thesis focuses on mathematical analysis, numerical resolution and modelling of the transport equations. First of all, we deal with numerical approximation of the solution of the transport equations by using a mixed-hybrid scheme. We derive and study a mixed formulation of the transport equation, then we analyse the related variational problem and present the discretization and the main properties of the scheme. We particularly pay attention to the behavior of the scheme and we show its efficiency in the diffusion limit (when the mean free path is small in comparison with the characteristic length of the physical domain). We present academical benchmarks in order to compare our scheme with other methods in many physical configurations and validate our method on analytical test cases. Unstructured and very distorted meshes are used to validate our scheme. The second part of this thesis deals with two transport problems. The first one is devoted to the study of diffusion due to boundary conditions in a transport problem between two plane plates. The second one consists in modelling and simulating radiative transfer phenomenon in case of the industrial context of inertial confinement fusion. (author)

  13. Reduced Fracture Finite Element Model Analysis of an Efficient Two-Scale Hybrid Embedded Fracture Model

    KAUST Repository

    Amir, Sahar Z.; Chen, Huangxin; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    A Hybrid Embedded Fracture (HEF) model was developed to reduce various computational costs while maintaining physical accuracy (Amir and Sun, 2016). HEF splits the computations into fine scale and coarse scale. Fine scale solves analytically for the matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter. Coarse scale solves for the properties of the entire system. In literature, fractures were assumed to be either vertical or horizontal for simplification (Warren and Root, 1963). Matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter was given few equations built on that assumption (Kazemi, 1968; Lemonnier and Bourbiaux, 2010). However, such simplified cases do not apply directly for actual random fracture shapes, directions, orientations …etc. This paper shows that the HEF fine scale analytic solution (Amir and Sun, 2016) generates the flux exchange parameter found in literature for vertical and horizontal fracture cases. For other fracture cases, the flux exchange parameter changes according to the angle, slop, direction, … etc. This conclusion rises from the analysis of both: the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and the HEF schemes. The behavior of both schemes is analyzed with exactly similar fracture conditions and the results are shown and discussed. Then, a generalization is illustrated for any slightly compressible single-phase fluid within fractured porous media and its results are discussed.

  14. Simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in anisotropic poroelastic bone plate using hybrid spectral/finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Naili, Salah

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the modeling of guided waves propagation in in vivo cortical long bone, which is known to be anisotropic medium with functionally graded porosity. The bone is modeled as an anisotropic poroelastic material by using Biot's theory formulated in high frequency domain. A hybrid spectral/finite element formulation has been developed to find the time-domain solution of ultrasonic waves propagating in a poroelastic plate immersed in two fluid halfspaces. The numerical technique is based on a combined Laplace-Fourier transform, which allows to obtain a reduced dimension problem in the frequency-wavenumber domain. In the spectral domain, as radiation conditions representing infinite fluid halfspaces may be exactly introduced, only the heterogeneous solid layer needs to be analyzed by using finite element method. Several numerical tests are presented showing very good performance of the proposed procedure. A preliminary study on the first arrived signal velocities computed by using equivalent elastic and poroelastic models will be presented. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Analyses of large quasistatic deformations of inelastic bodies by a new hybrid-stress finite element algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K. W.; Atluri, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    A new hybrid-stress finite element algorithm, suitable for analyses of large, quasistatic, inelastic deformations, is presented. The algorithm is base upon a generalization of de Veubeke's complementary energy principle. The principal variables in the formulation are the nominal stress rate and spin, and thg resulting finite element equations are discrete versions of the equations of compatibility and angular momentum balance. The algorithm produces true rates, time derivatives, as opposed to 'increments'. There results a complete separation of the boundary value problem (for stress rate and velocity) and the initial value problem (for total stress and deformation); hence, their numerical treatments are essentially independent. After a fairly comprehensive discussion of the numerical treatment of the boundary value problem, we launch into a detailed examination of the numerical treatment of the initial value problem, covering the topics of efficiency, stability and objectivity. The paper is closed with a set of examples, finite homogeneous deformation problems, which serve to bring out important aspects of the algorithm.

  16. Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Manufacturing Combining Artificial Intelligence and Finite Element Method

    CERN Document Server

    Quiza, Ramón; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and the finite element method (FEM) are both powerful computing tools, which are extensively used for modeling and optimizing manufacturing processes. The combination of these tools has resulted in a new flexible and robust approach as several recent studies have shown. This book aims to review the work already done in this field as well as to expose the new possibilities and foreseen trends. The book is expected to be useful for postgraduate students and researchers, working in the area of modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  17. Research on Stabilization Properties of Inductive-Capacitive Transducers Based on Hybrid Electromagnetic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesev, S. G.; Khazieva, R. T.; Kirllov, R. V.; Konev, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Some electrical consumers (the charge system of storage capacitor, powerful pulse generators, electrothermal systems, gas-discharge lamps, electric ovens, plasma torches) require constant power consumption, while their resistance changes in the limited range. Current stabilization systems (CSS) with inductive-capacitive transducers (ICT) provide constant power, when the load resistance changes over a wide range and increaseы the efficiency of high-power loads’ power supplies. ICT elements are selected according to the maximum load, which leads to exceeding a predetermined value of capacity. The paper suggests carrying load power by the ICT based on multifunction integrated electromagnetic components (MIEC) to reduce the predetermined capacity of ICT elements and CSS weights and dimensions. The authors developed and patented ICT based on MIEC that reduces the CSS weights and dimensions by reducing components number with the possibility of device’s electric energy transformation and resonance frequency changing. An ICT mathematical model was produced. The model determines the width of the load stabilization range. Electromagnetic processes study model was built with the MIEC integral parameters (full inductance of the electrical lead, total capacity, current of electrical lead). It shows independence of the load current from the load resistance for different ways of MIEC connection.

  18. Hybrid finite element/waveguide mode analysis of passive RF devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Daniel T.

    1993-07-01

    A numerical solution for time-harmonic electromagnetic fields in two-port passive radio frequency (RF) devices has been developed, implemented in a computer code, and validated. Vector finite elements are used to represent the fields in the device interior, and field continuity across waveguide apertures is enforced by matching the interior solution to a sum of waveguide modes. Consequently, the mesh may end at the aperture instead of extending into the waveguide. The report discusses the variational formulation and its reduction to a linear system using Galerkin's method. It describes the computer code, including its interface to commercial CAD software used for geometry generation. It presents validation results for waveguide discontinuities, coaxial transitions, and microstrip circuits. They demonstrate that the method is an effective and versatile tool for predicting the performance of passive RF devices.

  19. High cycle fatigue behavior of the IN718/M247 hybrid element fabricated by friction welding at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Hung Tra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid element has been fabricated by friction welding, joining two superalloys Inconel 718 and Mar-M247. The high cycle fatigue behavior of this welded element was investigated at 500 °C and 700 °C. The fabrication could obtain excellent fatigue strength in which the fracture is located in the base metal Mar-M247 side and takes place outside the welded zone. The behavior of the joint under loadings is discussed through a simulation by the numerical finite element method.

  20. How Do Rare Earth Elements (Lanthanoids Affect Root Development and Protocorm-Like Body Formation in Hybrid CYMBIDIUM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies in the plant tissue culture literature have examined the impact of lanthanoids, or rare earth elements, on in vitro plant organogenesis. In this study, using a model plant, hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’, the impact of six lanthanoids (lanthanum (III nitrate hexahydrate (La(NO33 · 6H2O, cerium (III nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO33 · 6H2O, neodymium (III nitrate hexahydrate (Nd(NO33 · 6H2O, praseodymium (III nitrate hexahydrate (Pr(NO33 · 6H2O, samarium (III nitrate hexahydrate (Sm(NO33 · 6H2O, gadolinium (III nitrate hexahydrate (Gd(NO33 · 6H2O on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB formation on Teixeira Cymbidium (TC medium was examined. 0 (control, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg·dm-3 of each lanthanoid was tested. All lanthanoids could produce more neo-PLBs and neo-PLB fresh weight than TC medium lacking plant growth regulators (PGRs, suggesting some PGR-like ability of lanthanoids, although PLB-related traits (percentage of half-PLBs forming neo-PLBs; number of neo-PLBs formed per half-PLB; fresh weight of half-PLB + neo-PLBs was always significantly lower than TC medium containing PGRs. Except for Gd, all other lanthanoids had no negative impact on the number of new leaves from neo-PLB-derived shoots, but all lanthanoids showed a significantly lower plant height, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight and, in most cases, SPAD (chlorophyll content value. In addition, using the same concentration of the six lanthanoids, the ability to fortify root formation of neo-PLB-derived plantlets was also assessed. Except for Sm, all other lanthanoids significantly increased the number of roots, root fresh and dry weight.

  1. A boundary integral method for numerical computation of radar cross section of 3D targets using hybrid BEM/FEM with edge elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodig, H.

    2017-11-01

    This contribution presents the boundary integral formulation for numerical computation of time-harmonic radar cross section for 3D targets. Method relies on hybrid edge element BEM/FEM to compute near field edge element coefficients that are associated with near electric and magnetic fields at the boundary of the computational domain. Special boundary integral formulation is presented that computes radar cross section directly from these edge element coefficients. Consequently, there is no need for near-to-far field transformation (NTFFT) which is common step in RCS computations. By the end of the paper it is demonstrated that the formulation yields accurate results for canonical models such as spheres, cubes, cones and pyramids. Method has demonstrated accuracy even in the case of dielectrically coated PEC sphere at interior resonance frequency which is common problem for computational electromagnetic codes.

  2. Development of realtime monitoring technology for laser photoreaction product - Development of glow discharge-mass spectrometry (GD-MS) hybrid techniques for trace analysis of refractory elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Chun [Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea); Kim, Ha Suck [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Hyo Jin [Dongduk Women' s University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research is focusing on development of hybrid techniques of glow discharge-mass spectrometry for the trace analysis of refractory elements. At first, we developed a glow discharge(GD) ionization cell and its characteristics was investigated. The new GD cell was designed based on direct current hollow cathode glow discharge and it is used for quadrupole mass analyzer and time-of-flight mass analyzer. Currently, GD-quadrupole mass spectrometry is working for the analysis of refractory elements. The experimental results show relatively good for trace analysis. In addition, ion mobile spectrometry using plasma and liquid discharge technique were investigated for the analysis of refractory elements and both techniques need more investigation to deduce the their usefulness. 30 refs., 67 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  3. Effectiveness-implementation hybrid designs: combining elements of clinical effectiveness and implementation research to enhance public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Geoffrey M; Bauer, Mark; Mittman, Brian; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Stetler, Cheryl

    2012-03-01

    This study proposes methods for blending design components of clinical effectiveness and implementation research. Such blending can provide benefits over pursuing these lines of research independently; for example, more rapid translational gains, more effective implementation strategies, and more useful information for decision makers. This study proposes a "hybrid effectiveness-implementation" typology, describes a rationale for their use, outlines the design decisions that must be faced, and provides several real-world examples. An effectiveness-implementation hybrid design is one that takes a dual focus a priori in assessing clinical effectiveness and implementation. We propose 3 hybrid types: (1) testing effects of a clinical intervention on relevant outcomes while observing and gathering information on implementation; (2) dual testing of clinical and implementation interventions/strategies; and (3) testing of an implementation strategy while observing and gathering information on the clinical intervention's impact on relevant outcomes. The hybrid typology proposed herein must be considered a construct still in evolution. Although traditional clinical effectiveness and implementation trials are likely to remain the most common approach to moving a clinical intervention through from efficacy research to public health impact, judicious use of the proposed hybrid designs could speed the translation of research findings into routine practice.

  4. Sixty-five radiation hybrids for the short arm of human chromosome 6: their value as a mapping panel and as a source for rapid isolation of new probes using repeat element-mediated PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghbi, H.Y.; McCall, A.E.; LeBorgne-Demarquoy, F.

    1991-01-01

    We have used an irradiation and fusion procedure to generate somatic cell hybrids that retain fragments of the short arm of human chromosome 6 (6p). To identify hybrids retaining human material, we performed repeat element-mediated PCR on crude lysates of cells from individual clones. Sixty-five hybrids were shown to contain human material and fifty of those contained one or more 6p-specific probes. Detailed characterization of these hybrids identified a subset that divides 6p into ten mapping intervals. Using repeat element-mediated PCR, we were able to isolate and map 61 new DNA fragments from specific regions of 6p. Fifteen of these fragments were used to screen for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and nine identified RFLPs with one or more enzymes. The radiation hybrids described in this study provide a valuable resource for high-resolution mapping of 6p and for the rapid isolation of region-specific markers

  5. Hybrid finite difference/finite element solution method development for non-linear superconducting magnet and electrical circuit breakdown transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, H.G.; Jones, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of non-linear superconducting magnet and electrical protection circuit system transients is formulated. To enable studying the effects of coil normalization transients, coil distortion (due to imbalanced magnetic forces), internal coil arcs and shorts, and other normal and off-normal circuit element responses, the following capabilities are included: temporal, voltage and current-dependent voltage sources, current sources, resistors, capacitors and inductors. The concept of self-mutual inductance, and the form of the associated inductance matrix, is discussed for internally shorted coils. This is a Kirchhoff's voltage loop law and Kirchhoff's current node law formulation. The non-linear integrodifferential equation set is solved via a unique hybrid finite difference/integral finite element technique. (author)

  6. Time-independent hybrid enrichment for finite element solution of transient conduction–radiation in diffusive grey media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, M. Shadi, E-mail: m.s.mohamed@durham.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Laghrouche, Omar [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    We investigate the effectiveness of the partition-of-unity finite element method for transient conduction–radiation problems in diffusive grey media. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary diffusion approximation to the radiation in grey media. The coupled equations are integrated in time using a semi-implicit method in the finite element framework. We show that for the considered problems, a combination of hyperbolic and exponential enrichment functions based on an approximation of the boundary layer leads to improved accuracy compared to the conventional finite element method. It is illustrated that this approach can be more efficient than using h adaptivity to increase the accuracy of the finite element method near the boundary walls. The performance of the proposed partition-of-unity method is analyzed on several test examples for transient conduction–radiation problems in two space dimensions.

  7. Hybrid Direct and Iterative Solver with Library of Multi-criteria Optimal Orderings for h Adaptive Finite Element Method Computations

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2016-06-02

    In this paper we present a multi-criteria optimization of element partition trees and resulting orderings for multi-frontal solver algorithms executed for two dimensional h adaptive finite element method. In particular, the problem of optimal ordering of elimination of rows in the sparse matrices resulting from adaptive finite element method computations is reduced to the problem of finding of optimal element partition trees. Given a two dimensional h refined mesh, we find all optimal element partition trees by using the dynamic programming approach. An element partition tree defines a prescribed order of elimination of degrees of freedom over the mesh. We utilize three different metrics to estimate the quality of the element partition tree. As the first criterion we consider the number of floating point operations(FLOPs) performed by the multi-frontal solver. As the second criterion we consider the number of memory transfers (MEMOPS) performed by the multi-frontal solver algorithm. As the third criterion we consider memory usage (NONZEROS) of the multi-frontal direct solver. We show the optimization results for FLOPs vs MEMOPS as well as for the execution time estimated as FLOPs+100MEMOPS vs NONZEROS. We obtain Pareto fronts with multiple optimal trees, for each mesh, and for each refinement level. We generate a library of optimal elimination trees for small grids with local singularities. We also propose an algorithm that for a given large mesh with identified local sub-grids, each one with local singularity. We compute Schur complements over the sub-grids using the optimal trees from the library, and we submit the sequence of Schur complements into the iterative solver ILUPCG.

  8. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel, E-mail: dr@tum.de [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-10-27

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  9. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  10. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  11. A hybrid finite element analysis and evolutionary computation method for the design of lightweight lattice components with optimized strut diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonitis, Konstantinos; Chantzis, Dimitrios; Kappatos, Vasileios

    2017-01-01

    approaches or with the use of topology optimization methodologies. An optimization approach utilizing multipurpose optimization algorithms has not been proposed yet. This paper presents a novel user-friendly method for the design optimization of lattice components towards weight minimization, which combines...... finite element analysis and evolutionary computation. The proposed method utilizes the cell homogenization technique in order to reduce the computational cost of the finite element analysis and a genetic algorithm in order to search for the most lightweight lattice configuration. A bracket consisting...

  12. Human exposure assessment in the near field of GSM base-station antennas using a hybrid finite element/method of moments technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Frans J C; Davidson, David B; Jakobus, Ulrich; Stuchly, Maria A

    2003-02-01

    A hybrid finite-element method (FEM)/method of moments (MoM) technique is employed for specific absorption rate (SAR) calculations in a human phantom in the near field of a typical group special mobile (GSM) base-station antenna. The MoM is used to model the metallic surfaces and wires of the base-station antenna, and the FEM is used to model the heterogeneous human phantom. The advantages of each of these frequency domain techniques are, thus, exploited, leading to a highly efficient and robust numerical method for addressing this type of bioelectromagnetic problem. The basic mathematical formulation of the hybrid technique is presented. This is followed by a discussion of important implementation details-in particular, the linear algebra routines for sparse, complex FEM matrices combined with dense MoM matrices. The implementation is validated by comparing results to MoM (surface equivalence principle implementation) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions of human exposure problems. A comparison of the computational efficiency of the different techniques is presented. The FEM/MoM implementation is then used for whole-body and critical-organ SAR calculations in a phantom at different positions in the near field of a base-station antenna. This problem cannot, in general, be solved using the MoM or FDTD due to computational limitations. This paper shows that the specific hybrid FEM/MoM implementation is an efficient numerical tool for accurate assessment of human exposure in the near field of base-station antennas.

  13. Utilization of a hybrid finite-element based registration method to quantify heterogeneous tumor response for adaptive treatment for lung cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hoda; Zhang, Hong; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Lu, Wei; Ajlouni, Munther I.; Jin, Jian-Yue; (Spring Kong, Feng-Ming; Chetty, Indrin J.; Zhong, Hualiang

    2018-03-01

    Tumor response to radiation treatment (RT) can be evaluated from changes in metabolic activity between two positron emission tomography (PET) images. Activity changes at individual voxels in pre-treatment PET images (PET1), however, cannot be derived until their associated PET-CT (CT1) images are appropriately registered to during-treatment PET-CT (CT2) images. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using deformable image registration (DIR) techniques to quantify radiation-induced metabolic changes on PET images. Five patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with adaptive radiotherapy were considered. PET-CTs were acquired two weeks before RT and 18 fractions after the start of RT. DIR was performed from CT1 to CT2 using B-Spline and diffeomorphic Demons algorithms. The resultant displacements in the tumor region were then corrected using a hybrid finite element method (FEM). Bitmap masks generated from gross tumor volumes (GTVs) in PET1 were deformed using the four different displacement vector fields (DVFs). The conservation of total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in GTVs was used as a criterion to evaluate the quality of these registrations. The deformed masks were united to form a large mask which was then partitioned into multiple layers from center to border. The averages of SUV changes over all the layers were 1.0  ±  1.3, 1.0  ±  1.2, 0.8  ±  1.3, 1.1  ±  1.5 for the B-Spline, B-Spline  +  FEM, Demons and Demons  +  FEM algorithms, respectively. TLG changes before and after mapping using B-Spline, Demons, hybrid-B-Spline, and hybrid-Demons registrations were 20.2%, 28.3%, 8.7%, and 2.2% on average, respectively. Compared to image intensity-based DIR algorithms, the hybrid FEM modeling technique is better in preserving TLG and could be useful for evaluation of tumor response for patients with regressing tumors.

  14. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrying set of all hybrid hierarchical structures are element-heterogeneous whilst the structure- carrying set of all ... grams of hierarchical hybrid article structures, the nodes for those text segments that establish the hybrid status of .... der; d ∈ ArtA ⊣ G|WAr (= Artikelangabe, anhand derer das Genus (= G) und zugleich die ...

  15. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silicon based complexing materials: extraction of transuranic elements from high level liquid waste; Synthese et caracterisation de gels hybrides de silice a proprietes complexantes: applications a l'extraction des transuraniens des effluents aqueux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocar, O

    1999-07-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic silica compounds with extractive properties have been developed under an enhanced decontamination program for radioactive aqueous nitric acid waste in nuclear facilities. The materials were obtained by the sol-gel process through hydrolysis and poly-condensation of complexing organo-tri-alkoxy-silanes with the corresponding tetra-alkoxy-silane. Hybrid silica compounds were initially synthesized and characterized from mono- and bis-silyl precursors with malonamide or ethylenediamine patterns. Solids with different specific areas and pore diameters were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, its functionality and its concentration in the tetra-alkoxy-silane. These compounds were then considered and assessed for use in plutonium and americium extraction. Excellent results-partitioning coefficients and capacities have been obtained with malonamide hybrid silica. The comparison with silica compounds impregnated or grafted with the same type of organic group is significant in this respect. Much of the improved performance obtained with hybrid silica may be attributed to the large quantity of complexing groups that can be incorporated in these materials. The effect of the solid texture on the extraction performance was also studied. Although the capacity increased with the specific area, little effect was observed on the distribution coefficients -notably for americium- indicating that the most favorable complexation sites are found on the outer surface. Macroporous malonamide hybrid silica compounds were synthesized to study the effects of the pore diameter, but the results have been inconclusive to date because of the unexpected molecular composition of the materials. (author)

  17. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  18. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  19. Co-transcriptional formation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex and potential function as constitutional cis element for transcription control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ke-wei; Xiao, Shan; Liu, Jia-quan; Zhang, Jia-yu; Hao, Yu-hua; Tan, Zheng

    2013-05-01

    G-quadruplex formation in genomic DNA is considered to regulate transcription. Previous investigations almost exclusively focused on intramolecular G-quadruplexes formed by DNA carrying four or more G-tracts, and structure formation has rarely been studied in physiologically relevant processes. Here, we report an almost entirely neglected, but actually much more prevalent form of G-quadruplexes, DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplexes (HQ) that forms in transcription. HQ formation requires as few as two G-tracts instead of four on a non-template DNA strand. Potential HQ sequences (PHQS) are present in >97% of human genes, with an average of 73 PHQSs per gene. HQ modulates transcription under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Transcriptomal analysis of human tissues implies that maximal gene expression may be limited by the number of PHQS in genes. These features suggest that HQs may play fundamental roles in transcription regulation and other transcription-mediated processes.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF HYDROELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF A PONTOON-TYPE VLFS DURING UNSTEADY EXTERNAL LOADS IN WAVE CONDITION USING A HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT-BOUNDARY ELEMENT (FE-ME METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydroelastic behaviour of a pontoon-type VLFS subjected to unsteady external loads in wave condition is investigated in the context of the time-domain modal expansion theory, in which the boundary element method (BEM based on time domain Kelvin sources is used for hydrodynamic forces and the finite element method (FEM is adopted for solving the deflections of the VLFS. In this analysis, the interpolation-tabulation scheme is applied to assess rapidly and accurately the free-surface Green function in finite water depth, and the boundary integral equation of a quarter VLFS model is further established taking advantage of symmetry of flow field and structure. The VLFS is modelled as an equivalent solid plate based on the Mindlin plate theory. The coupled plate-water model is performed to determine the wave-induced responses and transient behaviour under external loads such as a huge mass impact onto the structure and moving loads of an airplane, respectively. These results are verified with existing numerical results and experimental test. Then, the developed numerical tools are used in the study of the combined action taking into account of the mass drop/airplane landing as well as forward or reverse incident wave action. The deflections of the runway, the time history of vertical positions and the trajectory of the airplane are also presented through a systematic time-domain simulation, which illustrates the usefulness of the presently developed numerical solutions.

  1. Characterization of rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on a hybrid chip for elemental analysis of microsamples by portable optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Dulai, Gurjit; Li, Lu; Karanassios, Vassili

    2015-04-01

    A rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting Ar-H2 microplasma was interfaced to a portable fiber-optic spectrometer. The microplasma-spectrometer combination was used to document the spectral lines emitted when μL of dilute solutions of single element standards of Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr were first dried and then vaporized into the microplasma. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for microsample introduction. Identification of the prominent spectral lines for these elements is reported. It was found that the most prominent spectral line for Ba, Ca and Sr was different than that emitted from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, prominent spectral lines with low excitation energy were dominating, thus resulting in spectra simpler than those emitted from an ICP. Detection limits were between 45 and 180 pg (expressed in absolute amounts). When expressed in relative concentration units, they ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (obtained using 3 μL diluted standards). Calibration curves were linear (on the average) for 1.5 orders-of-magnitude. Average precision was 15%. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Ca and Mg in (medicinal) thermal spring water.

  2. Characterization of rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on a hybrid chip for elemental analysis of microsamples by portable optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weagant, Scott; Dulai, Gurjit; Li, Lu; Karanassios, Vassili, E-mail: vkaranassios@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-04-01

    A rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting Ar-H{sub 2} microplasma was interfaced to a portable fiber-optic spectrometer. The microplasma-spectrometer combination was used to document the spectral lines emitted when μL of dilute solutions of single element standards of Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr were first dried and then vaporized into the microplasma. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for microsample introduction. Identification of the prominent spectral lines for these elements is reported. It was found that the most prominent spectral line for Ba, Ca and Sr was different than that emitted from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, prominent spectral lines with low excitation energy were dominating, thus resulting in spectra simpler than those emitted from an ICP. Detection limits were between 45 and 180 pg (expressed in absolute amounts). When expressed in relative concentration units, they ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (obtained using 3 μL diluted standards). Calibration curves were linear (on the average) for 1.5 orders-of-magnitude. Average precision was 15%. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Ca and Mg in (medicinal) thermal spring water. - Highlights: • Microplasma emission spectra for Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr are reported. • Absolute amount detection limits ranged between 45 pg and 180 pg. • Relative unit detection limits ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (using 3 μL). • The effect of vaporization temperature on analyte signals is reported. • Ca and Mg concentrations in (medicinal) thermal spring water were determined.

  3. Characterization of rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on a hybrid chip for elemental analysis of microsamples by portable optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weagant, Scott; Dulai, Gurjit; Li, Lu; Karanassios, Vassili

    2015-01-01

    A rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting Ar-H 2 microplasma was interfaced to a portable fiber-optic spectrometer. The microplasma-spectrometer combination was used to document the spectral lines emitted when μL of dilute solutions of single element standards of Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr were first dried and then vaporized into the microplasma. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for microsample introduction. Identification of the prominent spectral lines for these elements is reported. It was found that the most prominent spectral line for Ba, Ca and Sr was different than that emitted from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, prominent spectral lines with low excitation energy were dominating, thus resulting in spectra simpler than those emitted from an ICP. Detection limits were between 45 and 180 pg (expressed in absolute amounts). When expressed in relative concentration units, they ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (obtained using 3 μL diluted standards). Calibration curves were linear (on the average) for 1.5 orders-of-magnitude. Average precision was 15%. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Ca and Mg in (medicinal) thermal spring water. - Highlights: • Microplasma emission spectra for Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr are reported. • Absolute amount detection limits ranged between 45 pg and 180 pg. • Relative unit detection limits ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (using 3 μL). • The effect of vaporization temperature on analyte signals is reported. • Ca and Mg concentrations in (medicinal) thermal spring water were determined

  4. Genome analysis of a clinical isolate of Shewanella sp. uncovered an active hybrid integrative and conjugative element carrying an integron platform inserted in a novel genomic locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeciano Di Noto, Gisela; Jara, Eugenio; Iriarte, Andrés; Centrón, Daniela; Quiroga, Cecilia

    2016-08-01

    Shewanella spp. are currently considered to be emerging pathogens that can code for a blaOXA carbapenemase in their chromosome. Complete genome analysis of the clinical isolate Shewanella sp. Sh95 revealed that this strain is a novel species, which shares a lineage with marine isolates. Characterization of its resistome showed that it codes for genes drfA15, qacH and blaOXA-48. We propose that Shewanella sp. Sh95 acts as reservoir of blaOXA-48. Moreover, analysis of mobilome showed that it contains a novel integrative and conjugative element (ICE), named ICESh95. Comparative analysis between the close relatives ICESpuPO1 from Shewanella sp. W3-18-1 and ICE SXTMO10 from Vibrio cholerae showed that ICESh95 encompassed two new regions, a type III restriction modification system and a multidrug resistance integron. The integron platform contained a novel arrangement formed by gene cassettes drfA15 and qacH, and a class C-attC group II intron. Furthermore, insertion of ICESh95 occurred at a unique target site, which correlated with the presence of a different xis/int module. Mobility of ICESh95 was assessed and demonstrated its ability to self-transfer with high efficiency to different species of bacteria. Our results show that ICESh95 is a self-transmissible, mobile element, which can contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance; this is clearly a threat when natural bacteria from water ecosystems, such as Shewanella, act as vectors in its propagation.

  5. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  6. Battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on hybrid, postage stamp-sized plastic-quartz chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Chen, Vivian; Karanassios, Vassili

    2011-11-01

    A battery-operated, atmospheric pressure, self-igniting, planar geometry Ar-H(2) microplasma for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive microplasma device (MPD) fabricated for this work was a hybrid plastic-quartz structure that was formed on chips with an area (roughly) equal to that of a small-sized postage stamp (MPD footprint, 12.5-mm width by 38-mm length). Plastic substrates were chosen due to their low cost, for rapid prototyping purposes, and for a speedy microplasma device evaluation. To enhance portability, the microplasma was operated from an 18-V rechargeable battery. To facilitate portability even further, it was demonstrated that the battery can be recharged by a portable solar panel. The battery-supplied dc voltage was converted to a high-voltage ac. The ~750-μm (diameter) and 12-mm (long) Ar-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying the high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Spectral interference from the electrode materials or from the plastic substrate was not observed. Operating conditions were found to be key to igniting and sustaining a microplasma that was simply "warm" to the touch (thus alleviating the need for cooling or other thermal management) and that had a stable background emission. A small-sized (900 μL internal volume) electrothermal vaporization system (40-W max power) was used for microsample introduction. Microplasma background emission in the spectral region between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable fiber-optic spectrometer is reported and the effect of the operating conditions is described. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. The majority of spectral lines observed for the elements tested were from neutral atoms. The relative lack of emission from ion lines simplified the spectra, thus facilitating the use of a portable spectrometer. Despite the relative spectral

  7. A set of pathological tests to validate new finite elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The finite element method entails several approximations. Hence it ... researchers have designed several pathological tests to validate any new finite element. The .... Three dimensional thick shell elements using a hybrid/mixed formu- lation.

  8. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  9. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  10. Mixed-hybrid finite element method for the transport equation and diffusion approximation of transport problems; Resolution de l'equation du transport par une methode d'elements finis mixtes-hybrides et approximation par la diffusion de problemes de transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartier, J

    2006-04-15

    This thesis focuses on mathematical analysis, numerical resolution and modelling of the transport equations. First of all, we deal with numerical approximation of the solution of the transport equations by using a mixed-hybrid scheme. We derive and study a mixed formulation of the transport equation, then we analyse the related variational problem and present the discretization and the main properties of the scheme. We particularly pay attention to the behavior of the scheme and we show its efficiency in the diffusion limit (when the mean free path is small in comparison with the characteristic length of the physical domain). We present academical benchmarks in order to compare our scheme with other methods in many physical configurations and validate our method on analytical test cases. Unstructured and very distorted meshes are used to validate our scheme. The second part of this thesis deals with two transport problems. The first one is devoted to the study of diffusion due to boundary conditions in a transport problem between two plane plates. The second one consists in modelling and simulating radiative transfer phenomenon in case of the industrial context of inertial confinement fusion. (author)

  11. Mixed-hybrid finite element method for the transport equation and diffusion approximation of transport problems; Resolution de l'equation du transport par une methode d'elements finis mixtes-hybrides et approximation par la diffusion de problemes de transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartier, J

    2006-04-15

    This thesis focuses on mathematical analysis, numerical resolution and modelling of the transport equations. First of all, we deal with numerical approximation of the solution of the transport equations by using a mixed-hybrid scheme. We derive and study a mixed formulation of the transport equation, then we analyse the related variational problem and present the discretization and the main properties of the scheme. We particularly pay attention to the behavior of the scheme and we show its efficiency in the diffusion limit (when the mean free path is small in comparison with the characteristic length of the physical domain). We present academical benchmarks in order to compare our scheme with other methods in many physical configurations and validate our method on analytical test cases. Unstructured and very distorted meshes are used to validate our scheme. The second part of this thesis deals with two transport problems. The first one is devoted to the study of diffusion due to boundary conditions in a transport problem between two plane plates. The second one consists in modelling and simulating radiative transfer phenomenon in case of the industrial context of inertial confinement fusion. (author)

  12. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  13. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  14. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  15. Diffractive optical elements for space communication terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Hans-Peter; Ehbets, Peter; Teijido, Juan M.; Weible, Kenneth J.; Heimbeck, Hans-Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The potential of diffractive optical elements for advanced laser communication terminals has been investigated. Applications include beam shaping of high- power laser diode arrays, optical filter elements for position detection and hybrid (refractive/diffractive) elements. In addition, we present a design example of a miniaturized terminal including diffractive optics.

  16. Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprengel, D.; Haelbig, H.

    1980-01-03

    The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic. A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements. Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen.

  17. Optimal Design for Hybrid Ratio of Carbon/Basalt Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Resin Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Hong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The optimum hybrid ratio range of carbon/basalt hybrid fiber reinforced resin composites was studied. Hybrid fiber composites with nine different hybrid ratios were prepared before tensile test.According to the structural features of plain weave, the unit cell's performance parameters were calculated. Finite element model was established by using SHELL181 in ANSYS. The simulated values of the sample stiffness in the model were approximately similar to the experimental ones. The stress nephogram shows that there is a critical hybrid ratio which divides the failure mechanism of HFRP into single failure state and multiple failure state. The tensile modulus, strength and limit tensile strain of HFRP with 45% resin are simulated by finite element method. The result shows that the tensile modulus of HFRP with 60% hybrid ratio increases by 93.4% compared with basalt fiber composites (BFRP, and the limit tensile strain increases by 11.3% compared with carbon fiber composites(CFRP.

  18. Hybrid Laminates for Application in North Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, V. V.; Oreshko, E. I.; Erasov, V. S.; Serebrennikova, N. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A hybrid aluminum-lithium alloy/SIAL laminate as a possible material for application in structures operated in North conditions is considered. The finite-element method is used for a buckling stability analysis of hybrid panels, bars, and plates. A technique allowing one to compare the buckling stability of multilayered hybrid plates is offered. Compression tests were run on a hybrid laminate wing panel as a prototype of the top panel of TU-204SM airplane made from a high-strength B95T2 aluminum alloy. It turned out that the lighter composite panel had a higher load-carrying capacity than the aluminum one. Results of investigation into the properties the hybrid aluminum-lithium alloy/SIAL laminate and an analysis of scientific-technical data on this subject showed that this composite material could be used in the elements of airframes, including those operated in north conditions.

  19. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  20. Case for the fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The use of nuclear fusion to produce fuel for nuclear fission power stations is discussed in the context of a crucial need for future energy options. The fusion hybrid is first considered as an element in the future of nuclear fission power to provide long term assurance of adequate fuel supplies for both breeder and convertor reactors. Generic differences in neutronic characteristics lead to a fuel production potential of fusion-fission hybrid systems which is significantly greater than that obtainable with fission systems alone. Furthermore, cost benefit studies show a variety of scenarios in which the hybrid offers sufficient potential to justify development costs ranging in the tens of billions of dollars. The hybrid is then considered as an element in the ultimate development of fusion electric power. The hybrid offers a near term application of fusion where experience with the requisite technologies can be derived as a vital step in mapping a credible route to eventual commercial feasibility of pure fusion systems. Finally, the criteria for assessment of future energy options are discussed with prime emphasis on the need for rational comparision of alternatives

  1. Evolution and molecular control of hybrid incompatibility in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Postzygotic reproductive isolation (RI plays an important role in speciation. According to the stage at which it functions and the symptoms it displays, postzygotic RI can be called hybrid inviability, hybrid weakness or necrosis, hybrid sterility, or hybrid breakdown. In this review, we summarized new findings about hybrid incompatibilities in plants, most of which are from studies on Arabidopsis and rice. Recent progress suggests that hybrid incompatibility is a by-product of co-evolution either with parasitic selfish elements in the genome or with invasive microbes in the natural environment. We discuss the environmental influences on the expression of hybrid incompatibility and the possible effects of environment-dependent hybrid incompatibility on sympatric speciation. We also discuss the role of domestication on the evolution of hybrid incompatibilities.

  2. Rapid prototyping of solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, sugar-cube size microplasma on hybrid, 3D chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Karanassios, V.

    2012-06-01

    A solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting microplasma the size of a sugar-cube developed on a hybrid, 3d-chip is described. Rapid prototyping of the 3d-chip; some fundamental aspects and a brief characterization of its background spectral emission using a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer are discussed.

  3. Hybrid platform. Economical hybrid drive for commercial vehicles; Hybrid Plattform. Wirtschaftlicher Hybridantrieb fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, S.; Lamke, M.; Mohr, M.; Sedlacek, M.; Speck, F.D. [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Up to now, hybrid systems have been adapted to their specific requirements in the various applications for trucks, buses as well as mobile and building machines. From a technical point of view, this does indeed result in optimized hybrid drives for each single vehicle application, but due to small volumes, such single developments are critical from a business point of view. ZF Friedrichshafen AG is providing a solution to the technical and economical requirements of the cost-sensitive CV segment in the form of a modular CV parallel hybrid platform composed of a hybrid module system, an inverter, a battery system, and a hybrid software integrated into the overall vehicle. Thanks to the intelligent combination of assemblies and the use of as many identical parts as possible, platforms are realized which cover power ranges between 60 and 120 kW, voltage ranges between 350 and 650 V, and battery capacities between 2 and 4 kWh. The dimensions of the platform elements are such that integration into the diverse commercial vehicle applications is made easy. The hybrid software required for the vehicle-specific functions is also configurable for the mentioned CV applications. (orig.)

  4. The Tower: Modelling, Analysis and Construction of Bending Active Tensile Membrane Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden Deleuran, Anders; Schmeck, Michel; Charles Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The project is the result of an interdisciplinary research collaboration between CITA, KET and Fibrenamics exploring the design of integrated hybrid structures employing bending active elements and tensile membranes with bespoke material properties and detailing. Hybrid structures are defined her...

  5. On the isolation of elemental carbon (EC) for micro-molar 14C accelerator mass spectrometry: development of a hybrid reference material for 14C-EC accuracy assurance, and a critical evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK) EC isolation procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, L. A.; Kessler, J. D.

    2005-10-01

    The primary objective of the research reported here has been the development of a hybrid reference material (RM) to serve as a test of accuracy for elemental carbon (EC) isotopic (14C) speciation measurements. Such measurements are vital for the quantitative apportionment of fossil and biomass sources of "soot" (EC), the tracer of fire that has profound effects on health, atmospheric visibility, and climate. Previous studies of 14C-EC measurement quality, carried out with NIST SRM 1649a (Urban Dust), showed a range of results, but since the "truth" was not known for this natural matrix RM, one had to rely on isotopic-chemical consistency evidence (14C in PAH, EC) of measurement validity (Currie et al., 2002). Components of the new Hybrid RM (DiesApple), however, have known 14C and EC composition, and they are nearly orthogonal (isotopically and chemically). NIST SRM 2975 (Forklift Diesel Soot) has little or no 14C, and its major compositional component is EC; SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) has the 14C content of biomass-C, and it has little or no EC. Thus, the Hybrid RM can serve as an absolute isotopic test for the absence of EC-mimicking pyrolysis-C (char) from SRM 1515 in the EC isolate of the Hybrid RM, as well as a test for conservation of its dominant soot fraction throughout the isolation procedure. The secondary objective was to employ the Hybrid RM for the comparative evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK) and thermal optical transmission (TOT) methods for the isolation of EC for micro-molar carbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). As part of this process, the relatively new TOK method was subjected to a critical evaluation and significant development. Key findings of our study are: (1) both methods exhibited biomass-C "leakage"; for TOT, the EC fraction isolated for AMS contained about 8% of the original biomass-C; for TOK, the refractory carbon (RC) isolated contained about 3% of the original biomass-C.; (2) the initial isothermal oxidation stage of

  6. On the isolation of elemental carbon (EC for micro-molar 14C accelerator mass spectrometry: development of a hybrid reference material for 14C-EC accuracy assurance, and a critical evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK EC isolation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Currie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the research reported here has been the development of a hybrid reference material (RM to serve as a test of accuracy for elemental carbon (EC isotopic (14C speciation measurements. Such measurements are vital for the quantitative apportionment of fossil and biomass sources of 'soot' (EC, the tracer of fire that has profound effects on health, atmospheric visibility, and climate. Previous studies of 14C-EC measurement quality, carried out with NIST SRM 1649a (Urban Dust, showed a range of results, but since the 'truth' was not known for this natural matrix RM, one had to rely on isotopic-chemical consistency evidence (14C in PAH, EC of measurement validity (Currie et al., 2002. Components of the new Hybrid RM (DiesApple, however, have known 14C and EC composition, and they are nearly orthogonal (isotopically and chemically. NIST SRM 2975 (Forklift Diesel Soot has little or no 14C, and its major compositional component is EC; SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves has the 14C content of biomass-C, and it has little or no EC. Thus, the Hybrid RM can serve as an absolute isotopic test for the absence of EC-mimicking pyrolysis-C (char from SRM 1515 in the EC isolate of the Hybrid RM, as well as a test for conservation of its dominant soot fraction throughout the isolation procedure. The secondary objective was to employ the Hybrid RM for the comparative evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK and thermal optical transmission (TOT methods for the isolation of EC for micro-molar carbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. As part of this process, the relatively new TOK method was subjected to a critical evaluation and significant development. Key findings of our study are: (1 both methods exhibited biomass-C 'leakage'; for TOT, the EC fraction isolated for AMS contained about 8% of the original biomass-C; for TOK, the refractory carbon (RC isolated contained about 3% of the original biomass-C.; (2 the initial isothermal oxidation stage

  7. Transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C. K.; Jadhav, A. V.; Reghuraman, K.; Mathew, K. A.; Nair, P. S.; Ramaniah, M. V.

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies of the transplutonium elements including recovery and purification of americium, preparation of /sup 238/Pu, extraction studies using diethylhexyl phosphate. (DHM)

  8. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  9. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  10. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  11. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  12. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  13. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  14. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2016-06-16

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  15. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  16. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  17. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  18. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  19. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  20. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  1. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  2. Visions of the Future: Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investing continually in improving civil aviation. Hybridization of aircraft propulsion is one aspect of a technology suite which will transform future aircraft. In this context, hybrid propulsion is considered a combination of traditional gas turbine propulsion and electric drive enabled propulsion. This technology suite includes elements of propulsion and airframe integration, parallel hybrid shaft power, turbo-electric generation, electric drive systems, component development, materials development and system integration at multiple levels.

  3. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  4. A New Codebook Design for Hybrid Beamforming Systems using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... wireless personal area networks (WPANs) operating at the ... antenna element, is not practical in terms of the cost and power consumption [4]. To overcome ... hybrid beamformers for data transmission were designed under.

  5. Innovation in a Hybrid System: The Example of Nepal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lukas Heckendorn Urscheler

    hybrid) jurisdictions in the broad sense (ie as combining elements of different legal ... However, as the codification is not based on civil law principles or structures ...... Twining W Globalisation and Legal Theory (Cambridge University Press.

  6. Copper inorganic-organic hybrid coordination compound as a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fascinating supramolecular architecture. Electrochemical ... hybrid materials attract great attention in the fields of crystal ... erful potential applications in various areas, such as nonlinear ... Transition metal elements of ruthenium, iron, plat- inum ...

  7. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  8. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  9. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  10. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  11. Transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The review is covered in sections, entitled: predicted nuclear properties - including closed shells, decay characteristics; predicted chemical properties - including electronic structure and calculated properties, X-radiation, extrapolated chemical properties, separation chemistry; methods of synthesis; the natural occurrence of superheavy elements. (U.K.)

  12. Expanded Mixed Multiscale Finite Element Methods and Their Applications for Flows in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, L.; Copeland, D.; Moulton, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a family of expanded mixed multiscale finite element methods (MsFEMs) and their hybridizations for second-order elliptic equations. This formulation expands the standard mixed multiscale finite element formulation in the sense that four

  13. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David E [El Cerrito, CA; Pollard, Martin J [El Cerrito, CA; Elkin, Christopher J [San Ramon, CA

    2009-02-03

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetic or magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are further improvements to aspects of the hybrid magnetic structure, including additional elements and for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use in biotechnology and high throughput processes.

  14. New elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flerov, G.

    1976-01-01

    The history is briefly described of the investigation of superheavy elements at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. The significance of the investigation is assessed from the point of view of the nuclear structure study and major problems encountered in experimental efforts are indicated. Current experimental methods aiming at the discovery or the production of superheavy nuclei with Z approximately 114 are listed. (I.W.)

  15. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein Beitrag zur Theorie der Wörterbuchform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    hierarchical structures are element-heterogeneous whilst the structurecarrying set of all hierarchical pure structures are element-homogeneous. In the structural diagrams of hierarchical hybrid article structures, the nodes for those text segments that establish the hybrid status of the structures are connected with the nodes for the text constituents either by means of arrows for the text-architectonic upward/downward relations, so that the structural graphs are architectonically enriched, or by means of specially marked edges that connect the nodes for the non-functional text segments and those for the internally-expanded functional item additions with the nodes for the text constituents. To each type of hierarchical pure article structure belong various types of hybrid article structures. The same applies to hierarchical pure item structures. Only a selection from the typology of hybrid article and item structures are discussed as well as a small selection of hybrid textual units that display determining features of two text segment classes (cf. the keywords.

    Keywords: ELEMENT-HETEROGENEOUS STRUCTURE-CARRYING SET, FUNCTIONAL ITEM ADDITION, FUNCTIONAL-POSITIONAL SEGMENTATION, HIERARCHICAL ARCHITECTONICALLY ENRICHED ARTICLE MICROSTRUCTURE, HIERARCHICAL HYBRID ARTICLE MICROSTRUCTURE, HIERARCHICAL HYBRID DEEP DOUBLE GLOSS-CONDITIONED ITEM STRUCTURE, HIERARCHICAL HYBRID EXHAUSTIVE ITEMS STRUCTURE, HIERARCHICAL HYBRID GLOSS-CONDITIONED ITEM STRUCTURE, HIERARCHICAL HYBRID ITEMS CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE WITH GLOSS-CONDITIONED PARTIAL STRUCTURE, HIERARCHICAL HYBRID ITEMS STRUCTURE, HIERARCHICAL HYBRID MINIMISED GLOSSCONDITIONED ITEM STRUCTURE, HIERARCHICAL HYBRID SHALLOW DOUBLE GLOSSCONDITIONED ITEM STRUCTURE, HIERARCHICAL HYBRIDARTICLE CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE, HIERARCHICAL HYBRIDTEXT CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE, HIERARCHICAL PURE TEXT CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE, HYBRID CROSS-REFERENCE MARKER, ITEM RELATION, NON-FUNCTIONAL-POSITIONAL SEGMENTATION, ORDERING RELATION, SEGMENTATIVE ISOLATION

  16. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  17. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  18. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  19. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  20. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  1. Superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    1999-01-01

    The outstanding aim of experimental investigations of heavy nuclei is the exploration of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). On the basis of the nuclear shell model, the next double magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is predicted at proton numbers between Z=114 and 126 and at neutron number N=184. All experimental efforts aiming at identifying SHEs (Z>=114) were negative so far. A highly sensitive search experiment was performed in November-December 1995 at SHIP. The isotope sup 2 sup 9 sup 0 116 produced by 'radiative capture' was searched for in the course of a 33 days irradiation of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target with sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles, however, only cross-section limits were measured. Positive results were obtained in experiments searching for elements from 110 to 112 using cold fusion and the 1n evaporation channel. The produced isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of alpha-alpha correlations. Not fission, but alpha emission is the dominant decay mode. The measurement ...

  2. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  3. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  5. A hybrid finite-element and cellular-automaton framework for modeling 3D microstructure of Ti–6Al–4V alloy during solid–solid phase transformation in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Jiao, Yang

    2018-06-01

    Additive manufacturing such as selective laser sintering and electron beam melting has become a popular technique which enables one to build near-net-shape product from packed powders. The performance and properties of the manufactured product strongly depends on its material microstructure, which is in turn determined by the processing conditions including beam power density, spot size, scanning speed and path etc. In this paper, we develop a computational framework that integrates the finite element method (FEM) and cellular automaton (CA) simulation to model the 3D microstructure of additively manufactured Ti–6Al–4V alloy, focusing on the β → α + β transition pathway in a consolidated alloy region as the power source moves away from this region. Specifically, the transient temperature field resulted from a scanning laser/electron beam following a zig-zag path is first obtained by solving nonlinear heat transfer equations using the FEM. Next, a CA model for the β → α + β phase transformation in the consolidated alloy is developed which explicitly takes into account the temperature dependent heterogeneous nucleation and anisotropic growth of α grains from the parent β phase field. We verify our model by reproducing the overall transition kinetics predicted by the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov theory under a typical processing condition and by quantitatively comparing our simulation results with available experimental data. The utility of the model is further demonstrated by generating large-field realistic 3D alloy microstructures for subsequent structure-sensitive micro-mechanical analysis. In addition, we employ our model to generate a wide spectrum of alloy microstructures corresponding to different processing conditions for establishing quantitative process-structure relations for the system.

  6. Method for the elucidation of the elemental composition of low molecular mass chemicals using exact masses of product ions and neutral losses: application to environmental chemicals measured by liquid chromatography with hybrid quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Ishii, Tetsuko; Yasuhara, Akio; Sakai, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    A method for elucidating the elemental compositions of low molecular weight chemicals, based primarily on mass measurements made using liquid chromatography (LC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOFMS), was developed and tested for 113 chemicals of environmental interest with molecular masses up to approximately 400 Da. As the algorithm incorporating the method is not affected by differences in the instrument used, or by the ionization method and other ionization conditions, the method is useful not only for LC/TOFMS, but also for all kinds of mass spectra measured with higher accuracy and precision (uncertainties of a few mDa) employing all ionization methods and on-line separation techniques. The method involves calculating candidate compositions for intact ionized molecules (ionized forms of the sample molecule that have lost or gained no more than a proton, i.e., [M+H](+) or [M-H](-)) as well as for fragment ions and corresponding neutral losses, and eliminating those atomic compositions for the molecules that are inconsistent with the corresponding candidate compositions of fragment ions and neutral losses. Candidate compositions were calculated for the measured masses of the intact ionized molecules and of the fragment ions and corresponding neutral losses, using mass uncertainties of 2 and 5 mDa, respectively. Compositions proposed for the ionized molecule that did not correspond to the sum of the compositions of a candidate fragment ion and its corresponding neutral loss were discarded. One, 2-5, 6-10, 11-20, and >20 candidate compositions were found for 65%, 39%, 1%, 1%, and 0%, respectively, for the 124 ionized molecules formed from the 113 chemicals tested (both positive and negative ions were obtained from 11 of the chemicals). However, no candidate composition was found for 2% of the test cases (i.e., 3 chemicals), for each of which the measured mass of one of the product ions was in

  7. Blanket of a hybrid thermonuclear reactor with liquid- metal cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, I.K.; Fedorovich, E.P.; Paramonov, P.M.; Zhokhov, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Blanket design of a hybrid thermopuclear reactor with a liquid metal coolant is described. To decrease MHD-resistance for uranium zone fuel elements a cylindrical shape is suggested and movement of liquid-metal coolant in fuel element packets is presumed to be in perpendicular to the magnetic field and fuel element axes direction. The first wall is cooled by water, blanket-by lithium-lead alloy

  8. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  9. Regulatory Hybridization in the Transnational Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul Fritz; Jurcys, Paulius; Yrakami, Ren

    Hybridization has become a defining feature of regulatory frameworks. The combined forces of globalization and privatization together with increased reliance on self-regulation have resulted in the emergence of a multitude of regulatory arrangements which combine elements from several legal orders....... This book offers a conceptual framework as well as numerous empirical explorations capable of increasing our understanding of regulatory hybridization. A number of central dichotomies are deconstructed: national vs. transnational law; international vs. transnational law; convergence vs. divergence; … read...... moresoft law vs. hard law; territorial vs. non-territorial, ‘top-down’ vs. ‘bottom-up’ globalization and national vs. global just as the implications of regulatory hybridization for the question of choice of court and conflict of laws are analyzed....

  10. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use

  11. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  12. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  15. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  16. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  17. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  19. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  20. A Theoretical Analysis of Why Hybrid Ensembles Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wei Hsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the group decision making process, ensembles or combinations of classifiers have been found favorable in a wide variety of application domains. Some researchers propose to use the mixture of two different types of classification algorithms to create a hybrid ensemble. Why does such an ensemble work? The question remains. Following the concept of diversity, which is one of the fundamental elements of the success of ensembles, we conduct a theoretical analysis of why hybrid ensembles work, connecting using different algorithms to accuracy gain. We also conduct experiments on classification performance of hybrid ensembles of classifiers created by decision tree and naïve Bayes classification algorithms, each of which is a top data mining algorithm and often used to create non-hybrid ensembles. Therefore, through this paper, we provide a complement to the theoretical foundation of creating and using hybrid ensembles.

  1. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near......-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements....

  2. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  3. Mirror hybrid reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid reactor studies are reviewed. The optimization of the point design and work on a reference design are described. The status of the nuclear analysis of fast spectrum blankets, systems studies for fissile fuel producing hybrid reactor, and the mechanical design of the machine are reviewed

  4. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  5. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  6. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  7. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  8. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  9. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  10. Hybrid Photonic Integration on a Polymer Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To fulfill the functionality demands from the fast developing optical networks, a hybrid integration approach allows for combining the advantages of various material platforms. We have established a polymer-based hybrid integration platform (polyboard, which provides flexible optical input/ouptut interfaces (I/Os that allow robust coupling of indium phosphide (InP-based active components, passive insertion of thin-film-based optical elements, and on-chip attachment of optical fibers. This work reviews the recent progress of our polyboard platform. On the fundamental level, multi-core waveguides and polymer/silicon nitride heterogeneous waveguides have been fabricated, broadening device design possibilities and enabling 3D photonic integration. Furthermore, 40-channel optical line terminals and compact, bi-directional optical network units have been developed as highly functional, low-cost devices for the wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network. On a larger scale, thermo-optic elements, thin-film elements and an InP gain chip have been integrated on the polyboard to realize a colorless, dual-polarization optical 90° hybrid as the frontend of a coherent receiver. For high-end applications, a wavelength tunable 100Gbaud transmitter module has been demonstrated, manifesting the joint contribution from the polyboard technology, high speed polymer electro-optic modulator, InP driver electronics and ceramic electronic interconnects.

  11. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  12. Hybrid functional pseudopotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.

  13. Molas Baju Wara: Hybridity in Manggarai Rap Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ans. Prawati Yuliantari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rap music which has been popular since 2007 in Manggarai region, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, gave rise to rap hybrid phenomenon. The mixture between American rap music formats and local elements of Manggarai attracted the attention of young people in the region. One of the local songs that feature hybridity in rap Manggarai is "Molas Baju Wara" created by Lipooz, one of the pioneers of rap in Ruteng, the capital city of Manggarai district. To discuss this phenomenon, the concept of hybridity in cultural territory proposed by James Lull is adopted. This concept is used particularly to analyze the forms of hybridity reflected in " Molas Baju Wara" and the ways they are used in showing the social and cultural conditions of Manggarai. "Molas Baju Wara" was selected as the object of study because the song is clearly showing the characteristics of hybridity in music. The study shows that hybridity could be perceived in Manggarai rap music specifically in the use of local musical instruments like drums, cajon, and tambourine as a substitute for percussive sounds of drums, boombox, or turn-table which are commonly used by rap musicians in their home country, the U.S.A. In addition, there are elements of local sound such as the sound of rain that represents Ruteng as the rain city. Hybridity characteristics can also be found in the use of Manggarai vernacular in the whole lyrics as well as the narration of local themes and certain sites that represent Ruteng.

  14. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  15. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  16. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-31

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  17. Effect of nanomodified polyester resin on hybrid sandwich laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbusagar, NRR.; Giridharan, P.K.; Palanikumar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of nanomodified polyester resin on hybrid sandwich laminates is evaluated. • The hybrid sandwich laminates are fabricated with varying wt% of nanoclay. • Flexural, impact and moisture absorbtion properties are evaluated for hybrid composites. • Scanning electron microscopy is utilized to analyze the dispersion of clay and fractured surfaces of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Effect of nanoclay modified polyester resin on flexural, impact, hardness and water absorption properties of untreated woven jute and glass fabric hybrid sandwich laminates have been investigated experimentally. The hybrid sandwich laminates are prepared by hand lay-up manufacturing technique (HL) for investigation. All hybrid sandwich laminates are fabricated with a total of 10 layers, by varying the extreme layers and wt% of nanoclay in polyester resin so as to obtain four different combinations of hybrid sandwich laminates. For comparison of the composite with hybrid composite, jute fiber reinforced composite laminate also fabricated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results obtained from samples with nanoclay indicated that intergallery spacing of the layered clay increases with matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a morphological picture of the cross-sections and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) allowed investigating the elemental composition of matrix in composites. The testing results indicated that the flexural properties are greatly increased at 4% of nanoclay loading while impact, hardness and water absorption properties are increased at 6% of nanoclay loading. A plausible explanation for high increase of properties has also been discussed

  18. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  19. Towers of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  20. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  1. Formula hybrid SAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    User-friendly tools are needed for undergraduates to learn about component sizing, powertrain integration, and control : strategies for student competitions involving hybrid vehicles. A TK Solver tool was developed at the University of Idaho for : th...

  2. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  3. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  4. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-01-01

    for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations

  5. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  6. Application of Hybrid IC's to the Automotive Electronics Market in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Eckart von Roda

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years hybrids have been increasingly used in automotive electronics in Europe. With examples from the BOSCH and BLAUPUNKT production range their application in regulators, breakerless ignition modules, electronically-controlled fuel injection systems and car radios is illustrated. The elements and techniques used to assemble the hybrids, and the advantages which can be gained are discussed.

  7. Safety analysis on tokamak helium cooling slab fuel fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Renjie; Jian Hongbing

    1992-01-01

    The thermal analyses for steady state, depressurization and total loss of flow in the tokamak helium cooling slab fuel element fusion-fission hybrid reactor are presented. The design parameters, computed results of HYBRID program and safety evaluation for conception design are given. After all, it gives some recommendations for developing the design

  8. Causal-Comparative Study Analyzing Student Success in Hybrid Anatomy and Physiology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacqueline Anita

    2013-01-01

    In the biological sciences, higher student success levels are achieved in traditionally formatted, face-to-face coursework than in hybrid courses. The methodologies used to combine hybrid and in-person elements to the course need to be applied to the biological sciences to emulate the success seen in the traditional courses since the number of…

  9. Study on hybrid heat source overlap welding of magnesium alloy AZ31B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G.L.; Zhou, G.; Yuan, S.Q.

    2009-01-01

    The magnesium alloy AZ31B was overlap welded by hybrid welding (laser-tungsten inert gas arc). According to the hybrid welding interaction principle, a new heat source model, hybrid welding heat source model, was developed with finite element analysis. At the same time, using a high-temperature metallographical microscope, the macro-appearance and microstructure characteristics of the joint after hybrid overlap welding were studied. The results indicate that the hybrid welding was superior to the single tungsten inert gas welding or laser welding on the aspects of improving the utilized efficiency of the arc and enhancing the absorptivity of materials to laser energy. Due to the energy characteristics of hybrid overlap welding the macro-appearance of the joint was cup-shaped, the top weld showed the hybrid welding microstructure, while, the lower weld showed the typical laser welding microstructure

  10. Study on hybrid heat source overlap welding of magnesium alloy AZ31B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, G.L. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Tangshan College, Tangshan 063000 (China)], E-mail: guoliliang@sohu.com; Zhou, G. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yuan, S.Q. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Tangshan College, Tangshan 063000 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The magnesium alloy AZ31B was overlap welded by hybrid welding (laser-tungsten inert gas arc). According to the hybrid welding interaction principle, a new heat source model, hybrid welding heat source model, was developed with finite element analysis. At the same time, using a high-temperature metallographical microscope, the macro-appearance and microstructure characteristics of the joint after hybrid overlap welding were studied. The results indicate that the hybrid welding was superior to the single tungsten inert gas welding or laser welding on the aspects of improving the utilized efficiency of the arc and enhancing the absorptivity of materials to laser energy. Due to the energy characteristics of hybrid overlap welding the macro-appearance of the joint was cup-shaped, the top weld showed the hybrid welding microstructure, while, the lower weld showed the typical laser welding microstructure.

  11. A Hybrid DGTD-MNA Scheme for Analyzing Complex Electromagnetic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng; Jiang, Li-Jun; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    lumped circuit elements, the standard Newton-Raphson method is applied at every time step. Additionally, a local time-stepping scheme is developed to improve the efficiency of the hybrid solver. Numerical examples consisting of EM systems loaded

  12. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  13. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  14. Expanding probe repertoire and improving reproducibility in human genomic hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Stephanie N.; Shirley, Ben C.; Knoll, Joan H. M.; Rogan, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic DNA hybridization relies on probes composed of single copy (sc) genomic sequences. Sc sequences in probe design ensure high specificity and avoid cross-hybridization to other regions of the genome, which could lead to ambiguous results that are difficult to interpret. We examine how the distribution and composition of repetitive sequences in the genome affects sc probe performance. A divide and conquer algorithm was implemented to design sc probes. With this approach, sc probes can include divergent repetitive elements, which hybridize to unique genomic targets under higher stringency experimental conditions. Genome-wide custom probe sets were created for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray genomic hybridization. The scFISH probes were developed for detection of copy number changes within small tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes. The microarrays demonstrated increased reproducibility by eliminating cross-hybridization to repetitive sequences adjacent to probe targets. The genome-wide microarrays exhibited lower median coefficients of variation (17.8%) for two HapMap family trios. The coefficients of variations of commercial probes within 300 nt of a repetitive element were 48.3% higher than the nearest custom probe. Furthermore, the custom microarray called a chromosome 15q11.2q13 deletion more consistently. This method for sc probe design increases probe coverage for FISH and lowers variability in genomic microarrays. PMID:23376933

  15. Wheat hybridization and polyploidization results in deregulation of small RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenan-Eichler, Michal; Leshkowitz, Dena; Tal, Lior; Noor, Elad; Melamed-Bessudo, Cathy; Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A

    2011-06-01

    Speciation via interspecific or intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization triggers genomic responses involving genetic and epigenetic alterations. Such modifications may be induced by small RNAs, which affect key cellular processes, including gene expression, chromatin structure, cytosine methylation and transposable element (TE) activity. To date, the role of small RNAs in the context of wide hybridization and polyploidization has received little attention. In this work, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs of parental, intergeneric hybrid, and allopolyploid plants that mimic the genomic changes occurring during bread wheat speciation. We found that the percentage of small RNAs corresponding to miRNAs increased with ploidy level, while the percentage of siRNAs corresponding to TEs decreased. The abundance of most miRNA species was similar to midparent values in the hybrid, with some deviations, as seen in overrepresentation of miR168, in the allopolyploid. In contrast, the number of siRNAs corresponding to TEs strongly decreased upon allopolyploidization, but not upon hybridization. The reduction in corresponding siRNAs, together with decreased CpG methylation, as shown here for the Veju element, represent hallmarks of TE activation. TE-siRNA downregulation in the allopolyploid may contribute to genome destabilization at the initial stages of speciation. This phenomenon is reminiscent of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila.

  16. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  17. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  18. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the range of characteristics attainable from hybrid reactor blankets; blanket design considerations; hybrid reactor designs; alternative fuel hybrid reactors; multi-purpose hybrid reactors; and hybrid reactors and the energy economy. Hybrid reactors are driven by a fusion neutron source and include fertile and/or fissile material. The fusion component provides a copious source of fusion neutrons which interact with a subcritical fission component located adjacent to the plasma or pellet chamber. Fissile fuel and/or energy are the main products of hybrid reactors. Topics include high F/M blankets, the fissile (and tritium) breeding ratio, effects of composition on blanket properties, geometrical considerations, power density and first wall loading, variations of blanket properties with irradiation, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design considerations, safety considerations, tokamak hybrid reactors, tandem-mirror hybrid reactors, inertial confinement hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources, fissile-fuel and energy production ability, simultaneous production of combustible and fissile fuels, fusion reactors for waste transmutation and fissile breeding, nuclear pumped laser hybrid reactors, Hybrid Fuel Factories (HFFs), and scenarios for hybrid contribution. The appendix offers hybrid reactor fundamentals. Numerous references are provided

  19. Hybrid integrated sensor for position measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.; Schott, H.; Just, H.-J.

    1986-01-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of an integrated two-dimensional position sensitive photodetector are presented. The optoelectronic device used as sensitive element in the circuit is a full area position sensitive photodiode (PPD) with high linearity over the full sensitive area. The PPD is integrated with the analog electronics in a hybrid circuit using thick film technology. The analog electronics includes the signal amplification and the signal conditioning to form the output signals proportional to the light beam center position at the sensor surface and an output signal proportional to the light beam intensity. Using hybrid integration a new position sensitive transducer is developed giving output signals, transmiting in large distances without problems and driving directly actuators in any control system

  20. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  1. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system

  2. Hybrid Optimization for Wind Turbine Thick Airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    One important element in aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture and reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of thick airfoils for wind turbines by using numerical optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in which genetic and gradient based algorithms are combined together to improve the accuracy and the reliability of the design. Firstly, the requirements and the constraints for this class of airfoils are described; then, the hybrid approach is presented. The final part of this work is dedicated to illustrate a numerical example regarding the design of a new thick airfoil. The results are discussed and compared to existing airfoils.

  3. DIAGNOSTICS CONCEPTION OF ELECTRICAL DRIVE OF A HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Borodenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual approach to creat the diagnostic system of the power elements of the electric drive of the hybrid vehicle has been considered. Approbation of the imitation model of electric drive with brushless DC electric motor as a diagnostic object has been carried out.

  4. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  5. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Social media has created new ways of communicating and has brought about a new distinctive ethos. New literacies are not simply about new technology but also about this new ethos. Many museums are embracing this ethos by what is often called participatory practices. From a sociocultural perspective...... this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both...

  6. Chemistry of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook presents an account of the chemistry of the elements for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. It covers not only the 'inorganic' chemistry of the elements, but also analytical, theoretical, industrial, organometallic;, bio-inorganic and other areas of chemistry which apply. The following elements of special nuclear interest are included: Rb, Cs, Fr, Sr, Ba, Ra, Po, At, Rn, Sc, Y, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, Tc, Ru, the Lanthanide Elements, the Actinide Elements. (U.K.)

  7. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  8. Hybrid strategies in nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Hector M; Mullen, Thomas J; Zhang Pengpeng; Dewey, Daniel C; Claridge, Shelley A; Weiss, Paul S [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: psw@cnsi.ucla.edu

    2010-03-15

    Hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies combine the registration and addressability of conventional lithographic techniques with the chemical and physical functionality enabled by intermolecular, electrostatic and/or biological interactions. This review aims to highlight and to provide a comprehensive description of recent developments in hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies that enhance existing lithographic techniques or can be used to fabricate functional chemical patterns that interact with their environment. These functional structures create new capabilities, such as the fabrication of physicochemical surfaces that can recognize and capture analytes from complex liquid or gaseous mixtures. The nanolithographic techniques we describe can be classified into three general areas: traditional lithography, soft lithography and scanning-probe lithography. The strengths and limitations of each hybrid patterning technique will be discussed, along with the current and potential applications of the resulting patterned, functional surfaces.

  9. Polemological Paradigm of Hybrid War Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Dodonov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the methodological problems and manipulative mechanisms of hybrid warfare. Owing to the polemological (from πολέμιος — war and λόγος — study approach the authors managed to systematize and summarize the theories of war and peace, clarify contemporary western concepts of warfare, outline the specifi cs of the Russian view on the hybrid war concept, assess the signifi cance of information and manipulation technologies for hybrid wars, analyze a number of geopolitical and socio-cultural dimensions of modern hybrid wars. The polemology is a branch of science, which studies the nature of armed confl icts and wars, their role in time and space, cycles, intensity, scope, scale, and causative relations and their classifi cation. Polemology deals with the wars and armed confl icts of the past, present and future. Novel hybrid wars take a respective place among them. They involve using all available warfare, regular and irregular, cyber and those allowing for the use of weapons of mass destruction, and also information, psychological and propaganda war using the latest information and media technologies. According to the classical approach, the state is the only subject of military actions, but today its role has changed dramatically under the infl uence of other political and economic supranational and trans-border factors. For the purpose of studying wars and armed confl icts from the polemological perspective it means the need to focus on social changes in all the areas of human life, on considering various elements of the political, economic or even technological context, which infl uence the war as a social phenomenon.

  10. The tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.; Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    At a time when the potential benefits of various energy options are being seriously evaluated in many countries through-out the world, it is both timely and important to evaluate the practical application of fusion reactors for their economical production of nuclear fissile fuels from fertile fuels. The fusion hybrid reactor represents a concept that could assure the availability of adequate fuel supplies for a proven nuclear technology and have the potential of being an electrical energy source as opposed to an energy consumer as are the present fuel enrichment processes. Westinghouse Fusion Power Systems Department, under Contract No. EG-77-C-02-4544 with the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, has developed a preliminary conceptual design for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) Plants. To the depth this study has been performed, no insurmountable technical problems have been identified. The study has provided a basis for reasonable cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources. A nearer-term concept is also defined using a beam driven fusion driver in lieu of the longer term ignited operating mode. (orig.)

  11. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  12. Doubts about hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The natural draught wet cooling tower with a height of 160 m is considerably taller than the 80 m high hybrid cooling tower, but the latter has a considerably larger diameter. Spray losses for both types are about 4.5 kg/sec for a thermal output of 2500 MW. Apart from the pump load, the natural cooling tower requires no power. Apart from higher pump loads, the hybrid cooling tower requires power for the fans. The energy demand for this purpose is 1.5 to 3% of the nett powerstation output. For the Isar 2 nuclear powerstation this would mean a reduction in puput of about 35 MW. (orig.) [de

  13. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  14. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  15. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  16. Security in hybrid cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the area of hybrid cloud computing, specifically with its security. The major aim of the thesis is to analyze and compare the chosen hybrid cloud providers. For the minor aim this thesis compares the security challenges of hybrid cloud as opponent to other deployment models. In order to accomplish said aims, this thesis defines the terms cloud computing and hybrid cloud computing in its theoretical part. Furthermore the security challenges for cloud computing a...

  17. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  18. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een

  19. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  20. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  1. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  2. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  3. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  4. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  5. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-01-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates

  6. Hybrid quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehrawat, Arun; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Zemann, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model, part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, the controlled-z gates, and multiqubit rotations around the z axis. Every single-qubit and the controlled-z gate are realized by a respective unitary evolution, and every multiqubit rotation is executed by a single measurement on a required star graph state. The classical information processing in our model requires only an information flow vector and propagation matrices. We provide the implementation of multicontrol gates in the hybrid model. They are very useful for implementing Grover's search algorithm, which is studied as an illustrative example.

  7. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer's prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The hybrid

  8. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  9. Visitors' motives for attending a hybrid event: A case study of agricultural fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivkov Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of a complex events such as hybrid ones, relies on understanding a modern market trends. The purpose of this study is to determine visitors' motives for attending a hybrid event, to identify clusters based on those motives, and to help organizers and exhibitors to meet visitors' expectations. Therefore, authors performed ANOVA analysis, factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The findings clearly indicate elements of trade fairs and consumer exhibitions integrated in hybrid event and therefore, some of the main motives for visiting those two types of events are also present among hybrid event visitors. However, hybrid event tends to be more than just place for business meetings. It is also a venue for education and leisure time activities. Moreover, event organizers and exhibitors need to pay more attention on their strategic approach to managing their event activities. The paper suggests that hybrid event organizers should focus on establishing dialogue with both exhibitors and visitors.

  10. THEORIZING HYBRIDITY: INSTITUTIONAL LOGICS, COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS, AND ACTOR IDENTITIES: THE CASE OF NONPROFITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKELCHER, CHRIS; SMITH, STEVEN RATHGEB

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity – segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences. PMID:26640298

  11. THEORIZING HYBRIDITY: INSTITUTIONAL LOGICS, COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS, AND ACTOR IDENTITIES: THE CASE OF NONPROFITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelcher, Chris; Smith, Steven Rathgeb

    2015-06-01

    We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity - segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences.

  12. Hybrid-augmented intelligence:collaboration and cognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-ning ZHENG; Zi-yi LIU; Peng-ju REN; Yong-qiang MA; Shi-tao CHEN; Si-yu YU; Jian-ru XUE

    2017-01-01

    The long-term goal of artificial intelligence (AI) is to make machines learn and think like human beings. Due to the high levels of uncertainty and vulnerability in human life and the open-ended nature of problems that humans are facing, no matter how intelligent machines are, they are unable to completely replace humans. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce human cognitive capabilities or human-like cognitive models into AI systems to develop a new form of AI, that is, hybrid-augmented intelligence. This form of AI or machine intelligence is a feasible and important developing model. Hybrid-augmented intelligence can be divided into two basic models:one is human-in-the-loop augmented intelligence with human-computer collaboration, and the other is cognitive computing based augmented intelligence, in which a cognitive model is embedded in the machine learning system. This survey describes a basic framework for human-computer collaborative hybrid-augmented intelligence, and the basic elements of hybrid-augmented intelligence based on cognitive computing. These elements include intuitive reasoning, causal models, evolution of memory and knowledge, especially the role and basic principles of intuitive reasoning for complex problem solving, and the cognitive learning framework for visual scene understanding based on memory and reasoning. Several typical applications of hybrid-augmented intelligence in related fields are given.

  13. Data Element Registry Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  14. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  15. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  16. A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gutierrez, D.; Souto-Iglesias, A.; Zohdi, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme, with an explicit weakly compressible formulation for both the Voronoi and SPH sub-domains, has been developed. The SPH discretization is substituted by Voronoi elements close to solid boundaries, where SPH consistency and boundary conditions implementation become problematic. A buffer zone to couple the dynamics of both sub-domains is used. This zone is formed by a set of particles where fields are interpolated taking into account SPH particles and Voronoi elements. A particle may move in or out of the buffer zone depending on its proximity to a solid boundary. The accuracy of the coupled scheme is discussed by means of a set of well-known verification benchmarks.

  17. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  18. Mirror hybrid reactor optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A system model of the mirror hybrid reactor has been developed. The major components of the model include (1) the reactor description, (2) a capital cost analysis, (3) various fuel management schemes, and (4) an economic analysis that includes the hybrid plus its associated fission burner reactors. The results presented describe the optimization of the mirror hybrid reactor, the objective being to minimize the cost of electricity from the hybrid fission-burner reactor complex. We have examined hybrid reactors with two types of blankets, one containing natural uranium, the other thorium. The major difference between the two optimized reactors is that the uranium hybrid is a significant net electrical power producer, whereas the thorium hybrid just about breaks even on electrical power. Our projected costs for fissile fuel production are approximately 50 $/g for 239 Pu and approximately 125 $/g for 233 U

  19. Static stiffness modeling of a novel hybrid redundant robot machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Wu Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling method to study the stiffness of a hybrid serial-parallel robot IWR (Intersector Welding Robot) for the assembly of ITER vacuum vessel. The stiffness matrix of the basic element in the robot is evaluated using matrix structural analysis (MSA); the stiffness of the parallel mechanism is investigated by taking account of the deformations of both hydraulic limbs and joints; the stiffness of the whole integrated robot is evaluated by employing the virtual joint method and the principle of virtual work. The obtained stiffness model of the hybrid robot is analytical and the deformation results of the robot workspace under certain external load are presented.

  20. Serious Games: improving the Learning Effect with Hybrid Games

    OpenAIRE

    Barhaug, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Previous work at NTNU has sparked an interest in hybrid board games. These kinds of games combine elements in digital and board games together. This has resulted in a platform called AnyBoard, which is a platform that makes it easier for developers to create and develop hybrid board games. The platform was created at NTNU and has been worked on by students and employees at the IDI institute. This thesis aims to investigate this platform, and look at the potential it has to influence learn...

  1. A 3D Hybrid Integration Methodology for Terabit Transceivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yunfeng; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    integration are described. An equivalent circuit model of the via-throughs connecting the RF circuitry to the modulator is proposed and its lumped element parameters are extracted. Wire bonding transitions between the driving and RF circuitry were designed and simulated. An optimized 3D interposer design......This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) hybrid integration methodology for terabit transceivers. The simulation methodology for multi-conductor structures are explained. The effect of ground vias on the RF circuitry and the preferred interposer substrate material for large bandwidth 3D hybrid...

  2. Hybrid molecule/superconductor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDevitt, J.T.; Haupt, S.G.; Riley, D.R.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, J.P., Jones, C.

    1993-01-01

    The fabrication of electronic devices from molecular materials has attracted much attention recently. Schottky diodes, molecular transistors, metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes, MIS field effect transistors and light emitting diodes have all been prepared utilizing such substances. The active elements in these devices have been constructed by depositing the molecular phase onto the surface of a metal, semiconductor or insulating substrate. With the recent discovery of high temperature superconductivity, new opportunities now exist for the study of molecule/superconductor interactions as well as for the construction of novel hybrid molecule/superconductor devices. In this paper, methods for preparing the initial two composite molecule/semiconductor devices will be reported. Consequently, light sensors based on dye-coated superconductor junctions as well as molecular switches fashioned from conductive polymer coated superconductor junctions as well as molecular switches fashioned from conductive polymer coated superconductor microbridges will be discussed. Moreover, molecule/superconductor energy and electron transfer phenomena will be illustrated also for the first time

  3. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  4. Generalized finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachspress, E.

    2009-01-01

    Triangles and rectangles are the ubiquitous elements in finite element studies. Only these elements admit polynomial basis functions. Rational functions provide a basis for elements having any number of straight and curved sides. Numerical complexities initially associated with rational bases precluded extensive use. Recent analysis has reduced these difficulties and programs have been written to illustrate effectiveness. Although incorporation in major finite element software requires considerable effort, there are advantages in some applications which warrant implementation. An outline of the basic theory and of recent innovations is presented here. (authors)

  5. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  6. Elements beyond uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.; Loveland, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book is the 12th volume in a series on transuranium elements. Varied techniques for production of these elements, the methods used in the identification, and the exquisitely refined microchemical techniques required to deal wth samples sometimes involving only a few atoms are described in detail. The chapter on synthesis of the new elements is liberally laced with reminiscences of the proud progenitors as well as the criteria for the discovery of a new chemical element. The authors lament that the superheavy elements (elements in the region of atomic number 114) still elude detection even though their creation should be possible, and some, at least, should survive long enough to be detected. One chapter in the book is devoted to practical applictions of uranium, and the transuranic elements

  7. Mountain bicycle frame testing as an example of practical implementation of hybrid simulation using RTFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Waldemar; Kuś, Wacław

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a practical implementation of hybrid simulation using Real Time Finite Element Method (RTFEM). Hybrid simulation is a technique for investigating dynamic material and structural properties of mechanical systems by performing numerical analysis and experiment at the same time. It applies to mechanical systems with elements too difficult or impossible to model numerically. These elements are tested experimentally, while the rest of the system is simulated numerically. Data between the experiment and numerical simulation are exchanged in real time. Authors use Finite Element Method to perform the numerical simulation. The following paper presents the general algorithm for hybrid simulation using RTFEM and possible improvements of the algorithm for computation time reduction developed by the authors. The paper focuses on practical implementation of presented methods, which involves testing of a mountain bicycle frame, where the shock absorber is tested experimentally while the rest of the frame is simulated numerically.

  8. Hybrid chip-on-board LED module with patterned encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Wouter Anthon; Helbing, Rene; Huang, Guan

    2018-02-27

    Different wavelength conversion materials, or different concentrations of a wavelength conversion material are used to encapsulate the light emitting elements of different colors of a hybrid light emitting module. In an embodiment of this invention, second light emitting elements (170) of a particular color are encapsulated with a transparent second encapsulant (120;420;520), while first light emitting elements (160) of a different color are encapsulated with a wavelength conversion first encapsulant (110;410;510). In another embodiment of this invention, a particular second set of second and third light emitting elements (170,580) of different colors is encapsulated with a different encapsulant than another first set of first light emitting elements (160).

  9. Sneutrino Hybrid Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We review the scenario of sneutrino hybrid inflation, where one of the singlet sneutrinos, the superpartners of the right-handed neutrinos, plays the role of the inflaton. In a minimal model of sneutrino hybrid inflation, the spectral index is given by ns ≅ 1 + 2γ. With γ = 0.025 ± 0.01 constrained by WMAP, a running spectral index vertical bar dns/dlnk vertical bar << vertical barγvertical bar and a tensor-to-scalar ratio r << γ2 are predicted. Small neutrino masses arise from the seesaw mechanism, with heavy masses for the singlet (s)neutrinos generated by the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field after inflation. The baryon asymmetry of the universe can be explained by non-thermal leptogenesis via sneutrino inflaton decay, with low reheat temperature TRH ≅ 106 GeV

  10. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness parameter ρ ... obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t ... in the universal composability (UC) framework (based on a network of secure channels, a broadcast channel, and a common reference string). It achieves the bound on the trade-off between robustness and privacy shown by Ishai et al. [CRYPTO'06] and Katz [STOC'07], the bound on fairness shown by Cleve [STOC'86...

  11. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  12. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  13. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-09-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is presented. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  14. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-01-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is given. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  15. Retrofits Convert Gas Vehicles into Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Successful space missions can rarely be attributed to a single thing. Rather, they are the result of a system of systems: integrated elements functioning effectively in their individual roles and together with related components, then those systems interacting with and supporting other systems to form a collaborative whole - from the spacecraft itself to the engineering and research teams that design and build it. An example is found in spacecraft power systems. Unlike a gas-powered car or a battery-powered laptop, most spacecraft are powered by multiple energy sources - such as photovoltaic panels, fuel cells, and batteries - working in tandem to ensure the spacecraft functions throughout the course of a mission. As with any system, the appropriate combination of elements and the method of their management are key to high performance and efficiency. One initiative at Glenn Research Center, the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) program, focused on joining new and mature technologies for optimal power systems applications in space and on Earth, with the goal not only to develop ultra-efficient space power systems, but to advance HPM to address global energy issues. The HPM program emerged from Glenn s long history of electric vehicle research dating back to the 1970s, including the NASA Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB) project in the 1990s, which was the largest vehicle to use supercapacitor energy storage.

  16. Hybrid Reality Lab Capabilities - Video 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco J.; Noyes, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    objects that have the same shape, size, location to their physical object counterpart in virtual reality environment can be a game changer when it comes to training, planning, engineering analysis, science, entertainment, etc. Our Project is developing such capabilities for various types of environments. The video outlined with this abstract is a representation of an ISS Hybrid Reality experience. In the video you can see various Hybrid Reality elements that provide immersion beyond just standard Virtual Reality or Augmented Reality.

  17. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  18. Mirror hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission hybrid is a combination of the fusion and fission processes, having features which are complementary. Fission energy is running out of readily available fuel, and fusion has extra neutrons which can be used to breed that fission fuel. Fusion would have to take on an extra burden of radioactivity, but this early application would give fusion, which does not work well enough now to make power, practical experience which may accelerate development of pure fusion

  19. The challenge of hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Caccia, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    Hybridization of pixel detector systems has to satisfy tight requirements: high yield, long term reliability, mechanical stability, thermal compliance and robustness have to go together with low passive mass added to the system, radiation hardness, flexibility in the technology end eventually low cost. The current technologies for the interconnection of the front-end chips and the sensor are reviewed and compared, together with the solutions for the interface to the far-end electronics.

  20. Franchising As Hybrid Organization: Russian Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyuzel F. Yusupova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia has favorable conditions for development of hybrid cooperation (franchising on the different markets. On the one hand, as well as for the majority of countries with transition economies many Russian markets has been undersaturated. On the other hand, as for the developed countries, Russia has highly skilled human resources and the developed structure of consumption. In these conditions a model of coordination of the relations of franchising has been more and more popular. The benefit of this form can be explained from the side of institutional approach. The matter is that in real practice to determine the borders of firm is not simple. Key decisions of firm sometimes can be performed not in one center that can complicate distribution of control and responsibility and the determination of its borders. On the other hand, the determination of key decisions in the market, distribution of its assets and responsibility within one firm can strongly increase agency expenses. Therefore the hybrid form of coordination of the relations (to which the franchising belongs can lower these expenses, but in case of strict accomplishment of terms of the contract. The hybrid forms of coordination includes the combination of characteristics of the market and hierarchy. Transactions are controlled via the price mechanism for coordination. For control and management of united actions, the maintenance of a certain symmetry in relations are necessary the hierarchical elements. The different conditions of franchise are the reasons of risks for both parties. And for decrease in risk of opportunism the special tools are developed for disciplining of the franchisee. The described examples of the Russian franchises through comparison of contract terms showed how hybrid agreements solve the cooperation problems connected with specificity of resources, transactional expenses and the competition.

  1. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  2. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Limitless Analytic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, O. D. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present equations for new limitless analytic line elements. These elements possess a virtually unlimited number of degrees of freedom. We apply these new limitless analytic elements to head-specified boundaries and to problems with inhomogeneities in hydraulic conductivity. Applications of these new analytic elements to practical problems involving head-specified boundaries require the solution of a very large number of equations. To make the new elements useful in practice, an efficient iterative scheme is required. We present an improved version of the scheme presented by Bandilla et al. (2007), based on the application of Cauchy integrals. The limitless analytic elements are useful when modeling strings of elements, rivers for example, where local conditions are difficult to model, e.g., when a well is close to a river. The solution of such problems is facilitated by increasing the order of the elements to obtain a good solution. This makes it unnecessary to resort to dividing the element in question into many smaller elements to obtain a satisfactory solution.

  4. Fine mapping of dominant X-linked incompatibility alleles in Drosophila hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Daniel R; Gavin-Smyth, Jackie

    2014-04-01

    Sex chromosomes have a large effect on reproductive isolation and play an important role in hybrid inviability. In Drosophila hybrids, X-linked genes have pronounced deleterious effects on fitness in male hybrids, which have only one X chromosome. Several studies have succeeded at locating and identifying recessive X-linked alleles involved in hybrid inviability. Nonetheless, the density of dominant X-linked alleles involved in interspecific hybrid viability remains largely unknown. In this report, we study the effects of a panel of small fragments of the D. melanogaster X-chromosome carried on the D. melanogaster Y-chromosome in three kinds of hybrid males: D. melanogaster/D. santomea, D. melanogaster/D. simulans and D. melanogaster/D. mauritiana. D. santomea and D. melanogaster diverged over 10 million years ago, while D. simulans (and D. mauritiana) diverged from D. melanogaster over 3 million years ago. We find that the X-chromosome from D. melanogaster carries dominant alleles that are lethal in mel/san, mel/sim, and mel/mau hybrids, and more of these alleles are revealed in the most divergent cross. We then compare these effects on hybrid viability with two D. melanogaster intraspecific crosses. Unlike the interspecific crosses, we found no X-linked alleles that cause lethality in intraspecific crosses. Our results reveal the existence of dominant alleles on the X-chromosome of D. melanogaster which cause lethality in three different interspecific hybrids. These alleles only cause inviability in hybrid males, yet have little effect in hybrid females. This suggests that X-linked elements that cause hybrid inviability in males might not do so in hybrid females due to differing sex chromosome interactions.

  5. Simulation of Stress Concentration Problems in Laminated Plates by Quasi-Trefftz Finite Element Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Luiz de Silva Bussamra

    Full Text Available Abstract Hybrid quasi-Trefftz finite elements have been applied with success to the analysis of laminated plates. Two independent fields are approximated by linearly independent, hierarchical polynomials: the stress basis in the domain, adapted from Papkovitch-Neuber solution of Navier equations, and the displacement basis, defined on element surface. The stress field that satisfies the Trefftz constraint a priori for isotropic material is adapted for orthotropic materials, which leads to the term "quasi". In this work, the hexahedral hybrid quasi-Trefftz stress element is applied to the modeling of nonsymmetric laminates and laminated composite plates with geometric discontinuities. The hierarchical p-refinement is exploited.

  6. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  7. The synthetic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  8. The synthetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered

  9. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  10. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14 C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  11. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  12. Numerical analysis of stiffener for hybrid drive unite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubovičová Lenka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The matter of this article is a stress-strain analysis of hybrid drive prototype unit connected directly to convention Concrete Transit Mixer Gearbox. The unite was developed with intention to do field test on existing convection machines with possibility to use existing interfaces. The hybrid drive unit consists from electric and hydrostatic motor connected through addition mechanical transmission gearbox. The question is if today standard interface is good enough or need additional support a “stiffener”. Two engineering design were analysed. The first one includes using the stiffener to fixate the construction of hybrid drive unite connected to the planetary gear. The second one is without the stiffener. For strain-stress analysis, a finite element software ANSYS Workbench was used.

  13. Analogs for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental approach is being used to estimate the long-term environmental and biogeochemical behaviors of selected transuranic elements. The objective of this research is to estimate the effect that long-term (hundreds of years) environmental weathering has on the behavior of the transuranic elements americium and curium. This is achieved by investigating the actual behavior of naturally occurring rare earth elements, especially neodymium, that serve as transuranic analogs. Determination of the analog element behavior provides data that can be used to estimate the ultimate availability to man of transuranic materials released into the environment

  14. Chemistry of superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry of superheavy elements - or transactinides from their position in the Periodic Table - is summarized. After giving an overview over historical developments, nuclear aspects about synthesis of neutron-rich isotopes of these elements, produced in hot-fusion reactions, and their nuclear decay properties are briefly mentioned. Specific requirements to cope with the one-atom-at-a-time situation in automated chemical separations and recent developments in aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry are presented. Exciting, current developments, first applications, and future prospects of chemical separations behind physical recoil separators ('pre-separator') are discussed in detail. The status of our current knowledge about the chemistry of rutherfordium (Rf, element 104), dubnium (Db, element 105), seaborgium (Sg, element 106), bohrium (Bh, element 107), hassium (Hs, element 108), copernicium (Cn, element 112), and element 114 is discussed from an experimental point of view. Recent results are emphasized and compared with empirical extrapolations and with fully-relativistic theoretical calculations, especially also under the aspect of the architecture of the Periodic Table. (orig.)

  15. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  16. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th......-style intensional models; we build, as simply as we can, hybrid logicover Henkin’s logic...

  17. Process development and tooling design for intrinsic hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, M.; Müller, R.; Drossel, W. G.; Landgrebe, D.

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid parts, which combine the advantages of different material classes, are moving into the focus of lightweight applications. This development is amplified by their high potential for usage in the field of crash relevant structures. By the current state of the art, hybrid parts are mainly made in separate, subsequent forming and joining processes. By using the concept of an intrinsic hybrid, the shaping of the part and the joining of the different materials are performed in a single process step for shortening the overall processing time and thereby the manufacturing costs. The investigated hybrid part is made from continuous fibre reinforced plastic (FRP), in which a metallic reinforcement structure is integrated. The connection between these layered components is realized by a combination of adhesive bonding and a geometrical form fit. The form fit elements are intrinsically generated during the forming process. This contribution regards the development of the forming process and the design of the forming tool for the single step production of a hybrid part. To this end a forming tool, which combines the thermo-forming and the metal forming process, is developed. The main challenge by designing the tool is the temperature management of the tool elements for the variothermal forming process. The process parameters are determined in basic tests and finite element (FE) simulation studies. On the basis of these investigations a control concept for the steering of the motion axes and the tool temperature is developed. Forming tests are carried out with the developed tool and the manufactured parts are analysed by computer assisted tomography (CT) scans.

  18. Glueballs, hybrids, multiquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klempt, Eberhard [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaet, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: klempt@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Zaitsev, Alexander [Institute for High-Energy Physics, Moscow Region, RU-142284 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2007-12-15

    Glueballs, hybrids and multiquark states are predicted as bound states in models guided by quantum chromo dynamics (QCD), by QCD sum rules or QCD on a lattice. Estimates for the (scalar) glueball ground state are in the mass range from 1000 to 1800 MeV, followed by a tensor and a pseudoscalar glueball at higher mass. Experiments have reported evidence for an abundance of meson resonances with 0{sup -+},0{sup ++} and 2{sup ++} quantum numbers. In particular, the sector of scalar mesons is full of surprises starting from the elusive {sigma} and {kappa} mesons. The a{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(980), discussed extensively in the literature, are reviewed with emphasis on their Janus-like appearance as KK-bar molecules, tetraquark states or qq-bar mesons. Most exciting is the possibility that the three mesons f{sub 0}(1370), f{sub 0}(1500), and f{sub 0}(1710) might reflect the appearance of a scalar glueball in the world of quarkonia. However, the existence of f{sub 0}(1370) is not beyond doubt and there is evidence that both f{sub 0}(1500) and f{sub 0}(1710) are flavour octet states, possibly in a tetraquark composition. We suggest a scheme in which the scalar glueball is dissolved into the wide background into which all scalar flavour-singlet mesons collapse. There is an abundance of meson resonances with the quantum numbers of the {eta}. Three states are reported below 1.5GeV/c{sup 2} whereas quark models expect only one, perhaps two. One of these states, {iota}(1440), was the prime glueball candidate for a long time. We show that {iota}(1440) is the first radial excitation of the {eta} meson. Hybrids may have exotic quantum numbers which are not accessible by qq-bar mesons. There are several claims for J{sup PC}=1{sup -+} exotics, some of them with properties as predicted from the flux tube model interpreting the quark-antiquark binding by a gluon string. The evidence for these states depends partly on the assumption that meson-meson interactions are dominated by s

  19. Exploring the tensile strain energy absorption of hybrid modified epoxies containing soft particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadyan, M.; Bagheri, R.; Kouchakzadeh, M.A.; Hosseini Kordkheili, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two epoxy systems have been modified by combination of fine and coarse modifiers. → While both hybrid systems reveal synergistic K IC , no synergism is observed in tensile test. → It is found that coarse particles induce stress concentration in hybrid samples. → Stress concentration leads to fracture of samples at lower energy absorption levels. -- Abstract: In this paper, tensile strain energy absorption of two different hybrid modified epoxies has been systematically investigated. In one system, epoxy has been modified by amine-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (ATBN) and hollow glass spheres as fine and coarse modifiers, respectively. The other hybrid epoxy has been modified by the combination of ATBN and recycled Tire particles. The results of fracture toughness measurement of blends revealed synergistic toughening for both hybrid systems in some formulations. However, no evidence of synergism is observed in tensile test of hybrid samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission optical microscope (TOM) and finite element (FEM) simulation were utilized to study deformation mechanisms of hybrid systems in tensile test. It is found that coarse particles induce stress concentration in hybrid samples. This produces non-uniform strain localized regions which lead to fracture of hybrid samples at lower tensile loading and energy absorption levels.

  20. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  1. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  2. Hybrid Maritime Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Murphy, Martin; Hoffman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Russia’s use of hybrid warfare techniques has raised concerns about the security of the Baltic States. Gary Schaub, Jr, Martin Murphy and Frank G Hoffman recommend a series of measures to augment NATO’s Readiness Action Plan in the Baltic region, including increasing the breadth and depth of naval...... exercises, and improving maritime domain awareness through cooperative programmes. They also suggest unilateral and cooperative measures to develop a sound strategic communications strategy to counter Moscow’s information operations, reduce dependence on Russian energy supplies and build the resilience...

  3. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  4. Hybrid Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter can be produced in the early universe via the freeze-in or freeze-out mechanisms. Both scenarios were investigated in references, but the production of dark matters via the combination of these two mechanisms are not addressed. In this paper we propose a hybrid dark matter model where dark matters have two components with one component produced thermally and the other one produced non-thermally. We present for the first time the analytical calculation for the relic abundance of th...

  5. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  6. Seagrass leaf element content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.A.; Smulders, Fee O.H.; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A.; Govers, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the role of seagrass leaf elements and in particular micronutrients and their ranges is limited. We present a global database, consisting of 1126 unique leaf values for ten elements, obtained from literature and unpublished data, spanning 25 different seagrass species from 28 countries.

  7. Berkeley new element program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiorso, A.

    1975-09-01

    The work done with element 106 is reviewed, and a new experiment which bears on the properties of the isotope of mass 260 with atomic number 104 is discussed. It is noted that in the case of element 106 a link is demonstrated to the granddaughter as well as the daughter

  8. Elemental Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  9. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogard, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in power producing nuclear reactors, comprising a plurality of axially aligned ceramic cylindrical fuel bodies of the sintered type, and a cladding tube of metal or metal alloys, wherein said cladding tube on its cylindrical inner surface is provided with a plurality of slightly protruding spacing elements distributed over said inner surface

  10. Proceedings of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium

  11. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  12. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  13. Hybrid modelling of soil-structure interaction for embedded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Penzien, J.

    1981-01-01

    The basic methods currently being used for the analysis of soil-structure interaction fail to properly model three-dimensional embedded structures with flexible foundations. A hybrid model for the analysis of soil-structure interaction is developed in this investigation which takes advantage of the desirable features of both the finite element and substructure methods and which minimizes their undesirable features. The hybrid model is obtained by partitioning the total soil-structure system into a nearfield and a far-field with a smooth hemispherical interface. The near-field consists of the structure and a finite region of soil immediately surrounding its base. The entire near-field may be modelled in three-dimensional form using the finite element method; thus, taking advantage of its ability to model irregular geometries, and the non-linear soil behavior in the immediate vicinity of the structure. (orig./WL)

  14. Hybrid Optimization in the Design of Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sassone, Mario

    2012-01-01

    that explore the global domain of solutions as genetic algorithms (GAs). The benchmark tests show that when the control on the topology is required the best result is obtained by a hybrid approach that combines the global search of the GA with the local search of a GB algorithm. The optimization method......The paper presents a method to generate the geometry of reciprocal structures by means of a hybrid optimization procedure. The geometry of reciprocal structures where elements are sitting on the top or in the bottom of each other is extremely difficult to predict because of the non....... In this paper it is shown that the geometrically compatible position of the elements could be determined by local search algorithm gradient-based (GB). However the control on which bar sit on the top or in the bottom at each connection can be regarded as a topological problem and require the use of algorithms...

  15. Receding horizon control of hybrid linear delayed systems: Application to sewer networks

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph-Duran, Bernat; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cembrano, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    A control-oriented hybrid linear model for water transport in sewer networks is proposed as a suitable framework for the computation of real-time controllers for the minimization of flooding in presence of heavy-rain events. The model is based on individual network elements (sewers, gates, weirs and tanks) and does not rely on topological simplifications, thus providing a better description of the hydrological and hydraulic phenomena than in similar works. Using a generic form of a hybrid lin...

  16. Factors influencing the control strategy of hybrid drive of urban public transport buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barta, Dalibor; Mruzek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of each drives is dependent on many factors. Hybrid drives and specially the drives of urban public transport may be affected by other factors given by transport infrastructure or operational conditions. These factors condition the suitable configuration of the individual elements of hybrid drive and the establishment of good control strategy of such drive. The study of influencing factors of the control strategy is the aim of this paper. (full text)

  17. Genetic variability of concentration of microelements in wild sunflower species and hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate genetic specificity of sunflower nutrition with microelements. Therefore, concentrations of essential (Zn, B, Mn, Cu, Fe and Ni and non-essential (Cr, Al, Cd, As, Pb and Ba micronutrients were analyzed. Five sunflower hybrids the most grown in Serbia and different populations of wild sunflower species originating from North America: Helianthus neglectus Heiser (3, Helianthus agrophyllus T&G (3, Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. (2, Helianthus annuus L. (4 were included in the experiment. Populations of wild sunflower species and hybrids differed significantly with respect to the concentration of analyzed elements. Manganese concentration was significantly higher in hybrids than in wild species. In all genotypes Fe, B and Mn had the highest concentration. Coefficient of variation of microelement concentration depended on genotype and particular element. In wild populations, for essential microelements, it was between 3.7 and 59.5, whereas in hybrids it varied from 10.0 to 48.8. Coefficient of variation of concentration of non-essential microelements in wild populations varied from 7.7 to 73.8, and in hybrids from 15.1 to 48.8. Average coefficient of variation in both wild species and hybrids was the lowest for Mn and Pb. It was the highest for Cr, Ni, and Zn in hybrids and for Cd, Ni, and Cr in wild species. The results suggest that genetic specificity with respect to uptake of microelements in wild species and hybrids is highly expressed. Broad genetic variability of concentrations of microelements in wild species and hybrids indicate that their reactions to deficiency and/or excess of those elements probably are not the same either. This finding may be used in breeding process aimed specifically at improvement of tolerance and capacity to accumulate microelements in sunflower. Phytoremediation technology designed to reduce the amount of microelements in the soil could thus be advanced by utilization of such

  18. A new adaptive hybrid electromagnetic damper: modelling, optimization, and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, Ehsan; Ribeiro, Roberto; Behrad Khamesee, Mir; Khajepour, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a new electromagnetic hybrid damper which provides regenerative adaptive damping force for various applications. Recently, the introduction of electromagnetic technologies to the damping systems has provided researchers with new opportunities for the realization of adaptive semi-active damping systems with the added benefit of energy recovery. In this research, a hybrid electromagnetic damper is proposed. The hybrid damper is configured to operate with viscous and electromagnetic subsystems. The viscous medium provides a bias and fail-safe damping force while the electromagnetic component adds adaptability and the capacity for regeneration to the hybrid design. The electromagnetic component is modeled and analyzed using analytical (lumped equivalent magnetic circuit) and electromagnetic finite element method (FEM) (COMSOL ® software package) approaches. By implementing both modeling approaches, an optimization for the geometric aspects of the electromagnetic subsystem is obtained. Based on the proposed electromagnetic hybrid damping concept and the preliminary optimization solution, a prototype is designed and fabricated. A good agreement is observed between the experimental and FEM results for the magnetic field distribution and electromagnetic damping forces. These results validate the accuracy of the modeling approach and the preliminary optimization solution. An analytical model is also presented for viscous damping force, and is compared with experimental results The results show that the damper is able to produce damping coefficients of 1300 and 0–238 N s m −1 through the viscous and electromagnetic components, respectively. (paper)

  19. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  20. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding in field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Abhishek; Jha, Uday C; Adhimoolam, Premkumar; Bisht, Deepak; Singh, Narendra P

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of CMS/Rf system enabled by modern omics tools and technologies considerably improves our ability to harness hybrid technology for enhancing the productivity of field crops. Harnessing hybrid vigor or heterosis is a promising approach to tackle the current challenge of sustaining enhanced yield gains of field crops. In the context, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) owing to its heritable nature to manifest non-functional male gametophyte remains a cost-effective system to promote efficient hybrid seed production. The phenomenon of CMS stems from a complex interplay between maternally-inherited (mitochondrion) and bi-parental (nucleus) genomic elements. In recent years, attempts aimed to comprehend the sterility-inducing factors (orfs) and corresponding fertility determinants (Rf) in plants have greatly increased our access to candidate genomic segments and the cloned genes. To this end, novel insights obtained by applying state-of-the-art omics platforms have substantially enriched our understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear communication. Concomitantly, molecular tools including DNA markers have been implicated in crop hybrid breeding in order to greatly expedite the progress. Here, we review the status of diverse sterility-inducing cytoplasms and associated Rf factors reported across different field crops along with exploring opportunities for integrating modern omics tools with CMS-based hybrid breeding.

  1. Selfish evolution of cytonuclear hybrid incompatibility in Mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrea L; Finseth, Findley R; Barr, Camille M; Fishman, Lila

    2016-09-14

    Intraspecific coevolution between selfish elements and suppressors may promote interspecific hybrid incompatibility, but evidence of this process is rare. Here, we use genomic data to test alternative models for the evolution of cytonuclear hybrid male sterility in Mimulus In hybrids between Iron Mountain (IM) Mimulus guttatus × Mimulus nasutus, two tightly linked M. guttatus alleles (Rf1/Rf2) each restore male fertility by suppressing a local mitochondrial male-sterility gene (IM-CMS). Unlike neutral models for the evolution of hybrid incompatibility loci, selfish evolution predicts that the Rf alleles experienced strong selection in the presence of IM-CMS. Using whole-genome sequences, we compared patterns of population-genetic variation in Rf at IM to a neighbouring population that lacks IM-CMS. Consistent with local selection in the presence of IM-CMS, the Rf region shows elevated FST, high local linkage disequilibrium and a distinct haplotype structure at IM, but not at Cone Peak (CP), suggesting a recent sweep in the presence of IM-CMS. In both populations, Rf2 exhibited lower polymorphism than other regions, but the low-diversity outliers were different between CP and IM. Our results confirm theoretical predictions of ubiquitous cytonuclear conflict in plants and provide a population-genetic mechanism for the evolution of a common form of hybrid incompatibility. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Nonlinear hybridization of the fundamental eigenmodes of microscopic ferromagnetic ellipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V E; Buchmeier, M; Rott, K; Krzysteczko, P; Münchenberger, J; Reiss, G; Demokritov, S O

    2010-05-28

    We have studied experimentally with high spatial resolution the nonlinear eigenmodes of microscopic Permalloy elliptical elements. We show that the nonlinearity affects the frequencies of the edge and the center modes in an essentially different way. This leads to repulsion of corresponding resonances and to nonlinear mode hybridization resulting in qualitative modifications of the spatial characteristics of the modes. We find that the nonlinear counterparts of the edge and the center modes simultaneously exhibit features specific for both their linear analogues.

  3. Nonlinear Hybridization of the Fundamental Eigenmodes of Microscopic Ferromagnetic Ellipses

    OpenAIRE

    Demidov, V. E.; Buchmeier, M.; Rott, Karsten; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Münchenberger, Jana; Reiss, Günter; Demokritov, S. O.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied experimentally with high spatial resolution the nonlinear eigenmodes of microscopic Permalloy elliptical elements. We show that the nonlinearity affects the frequencies of the edge and the center modes in an essentially different way. This leads to repulsion of corresponding resonances and to nonlinear mode hybridization resulting in qualitative modifications of the spatial characteristics of the modes. We find that the nonlinear counterparts of the edge and the center modes s...

  4. Architecture for Collaborative Learning Activities in Hybrid Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, María Blanca; Maroto, David; García Rueda, José Jesús; Leony, Derick; Delgado Kloos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    3D virtual worlds are recognized as collaborative learning environments. However, the underlying technology is not sufficiently mature and the virtual worlds look cartoonish, unlinked to reality. Thus, it is important to enrich them with elements from the real world to enhance student engagement in learning activities. Our approach is to build learning environments where participants can either be in the real world or in its mirror world while sharing the same hybrid space in a collaborative ...

  5. Trust and Contracting in Agri-Food Hybrid Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Martino, Gaetano

    2007-01-01

    The paper aims at examining the hypothesis that the influence of trust on contract can be thought of as a dynamic factor of organizational choices in supply chains. The relationship between contract and trust is delineated on the basis of institutional environment, contractual incompleteness, safeguards and restrictive provisions. The interaction between individual and system elements in the formation of trust and its influence in hybrid contracting is considered. According to a New Instituti...

  6. Operations Optimization of Hybrid Energy Systems under Variable Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid energy systems (HES) have been proposed to be an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. This paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization to maximize its economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  7. Nonminimally coupled hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Seoktae; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the hybrid inflation model where the inflaton field is nonminimally coupled to gravity. In the Jordan frame, the potential contains φ 4 term as well as terms in the original hybrid inflation model. In our model, inflation can be classified into the type (I) and the type (II). In the type (I), inflation is terminated by the tachyonic instability of the waterfall field, while in the type (II) by the violation of slow-roll conditions. In our model, the reheating takes place only at the true minimum and even in the case (II) finally the tachyonic instability occurs after the termination of inflation. For a negative nonminimal coupling, inflation takes place in the vacuum-dominated region, in the large field region, or near the local minimum/maximum. Inflation in the vacuum-dominated region becomes either the type (I) or (II), resulting in a blue or red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, respectively. Inflation around the local maximum can be either the type (I) or the type (II), which results in the red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, while around the local minimum it must be the type (I), which results in the blue spectrum. In the large field region, to terminate inflation, potential in the Einstein frame must be positively tilted, always resulting in the red spectrum. We then numerically solve the equations of motion to investigate the whole dynamics of inflaton and confirm that the spectrum of curvature perturbations changes from red to blue ones as scales become smaller.

  8. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  9. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  10. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  11. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  12. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  13. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  14. Conceptual innovations in hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A number of innovations in the conception of fusion-fission hybrid reactors, including the blanket, the fusion driver, the coupling of the fusion and the fission components as well as the application of hybrid reactors are described, and their feasibility assessed

  15. On the development of an intrinsic hybrid composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kießling, R; Ihlemann, J; Riemer, M; Drossel, W-G; Scharf, I; Lampke, T; Sharafiev, S; Pouya, M; Wagner, M F-X

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid parts, which combine low weight with high strength, are moving into the focus of the automotive industry, due to their high potential for usage in the field of crash-relevant structures. In this contribution, the development of an intrinsic hybrid composite is presented, with a focus on the manufacturing process, complex simulations of the material behaviour and material testing. The hybrid composite is made up of a continuous fibre- reinforced plastic (FRP), in which a metallic insert is integrated. The mechanical behaviour of the individual components is characterised. For material modelling, an approach is pointed out that enables modelling at large strains by directly connected rheological elements. The connection between the FRP and the metallic insert is realised by a combination of form fit and adhesive bonds. On the one hand, adhesive bonds are generated within a sol gel process. On the other hand, local form elements of the metallic insert are pressed into the FRP. We show how these form elements are generated during the macroscopic forming process. In addition, the applied sol gel process is explained. Finally, we consider design concepts for a specimen type for high strain testing of the resulting interfaces. (paper)

  16. Driving and damping mechanisms in hybrid pressure-gravity modes pulsators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupret, M A [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, CNRS UMR 8109, 5 place J. Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Miglio, A; Montalban, J; Noels, A [Institut d' Astrophysique et Geophysique, Universite de Liege (Belgium); Grigahcene, A [CRAAG - Algiers Observatory BP 63 Bouzareah 16340, Algiers (Algeria)], E-mail: MA.dupret@obspm.fr

    2008-10-15

    We study the energetic aspects of hybrid pressure-gravity modes pulsations. The case of hybrid {beta} Cephei-SPB pulsators is considered with special attention. In addition to the already known sensitivity of the driving mechanism to the heavy elements mixture (mainly the iron abundance), we show that the characteristics of the propagation and evanescent regions play also a major role, determining the extension of the stable gap in the frequency domain between the unstable low order pressure and high order gravity modes. Finally, we consider the case of hybrid {delta} Sct-{gamma} Dor pulsators.

  17. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  18. Laser driven fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    The role of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) as a fissile fuel and/or power producer is discussed. As long range options to supply the world energy needs, hybrid-fueled thermal-burner reactors are compared to liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). A discussion of different fuel cycles (thorium, depleted uranium, and spent fuel) is presented in order to compare the energy multiplication, the production of fissile fuel, the laser efficiency and pellet gain requirements of the hybrid reactor. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has collaborated with Bechtel Corporation and with Westinghouse in two engineering design studies of laser fusion driven hybrid power plants. The hybrid designs which have resulted from these two studies are briefly described and analyzed by considering operational parameters, such as energy multiplication, power density, burn-up and plutonium production as a function time

  19. Parallel Solver for H(div) Problems Using Hybridization and AMG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chak S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, a scalable parallel solver is proposed for H(div) problems discretized by arbitrary order finite elements on general unstructured meshes. The solver is based on hybridization and algebraic multigrid (AMG). Unlike some previously studied H(div) solvers, the hybridization solver does not require discrete curl and gradient operators as additional input from the user. Instead, only some element information is needed in the construction of the solver. The hybridization results in a H1-equivalent symmetric positive definite system, which is then rescaled and solved by AMG solvers designed for H1 problems. Weak and strong scaling of the method are examined through several numerical tests. Our numerical results show that the proposed solver provides a promising alternative to ADS, a state-of-the-art solver [12], for H(div) problems. In fact, it outperforms ADS for higher order elements.

  20. Discovery of element 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  1. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Levin, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of particles in a hollow gas permeable container having a multiplicity of openings of size smallr than the size of the particles. The container is preferably held in the spring in the plenum of the fuel element. (E.C.B.)

  2. Elemental diffusion in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, Georges; Montmerle, Thierry

    1977-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the origin of the elements in the universe. The scheme of nucleosynthesis is kept to explain the stellar generation of helium, carbon, etc... from the initial hydrogen; but a nonlinear theory is then elaborated to account for the anomalous abundances which were observed. The chemical elements would diffuse throughout the outer layers of a star under the action of the opposite forces of gravitation and radiation. This theory, with completing the nucleosynthesis, would contribute to give a consistent scheme of the elemental origin and abundances [fr

  3. Platinum-group elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Loferski, Patricia J.; Parks, Heather L.; Schulte, Ruth F.; Seal, Robert R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The platinum-group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium—are metals that have similar physical and chemical properties and tend to occur together in nature. PGEs are indispensable to many industrial applications but are mined in only a few places. The availability and accessibility of PGEs could be disrupted by economic, environmental, political, and social events. The United States net import reliance as a percentage of apparent consumption is about 90 percent.PGEs have many industrial applications. They are used in catalytic converters to reduce carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrous oxide emissions in automobile exhaust. The chemical industry requires platinum or platinum-rhodium alloys to manufacture nitric oxide, which is the raw material used to manufacture explosives, fertilizers, and nitric acid. In the petrochemical industry, platinum-supported catalysts are needed to refine crude oil and to produce aromatic compounds and high-octane gasoline. Alloys of PGEs are exceptionally hard and durable, making them the best known coating for industrial crucibles used in the manufacture of chemicals and synthetic materials. PGEs are used by the glass manufacturing industry in the production of fiberglass and flat-panel and liquid crystal displays. In the electronics industry, PGEs are used in computer hard disks, hybridized integrated circuits, and multilayer ceramic capacitors.Aside from their industrial applications, PGEs are used in such other fields as health, consumer goods, and finance. Platinum, for example, is used in medical implants, such as pacemakers, and PGEs are used in cancer-fighting drugs. Platinum alloys are an ideal choice for jewelry because of their white color, strength, and resistance to tarnish. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium in the form of coins and bars are also used as investment commodities, and various financial instruments based on the value of these PGEs are traded on major exchanges

  4. Bridge element deterioration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development of bridge element deterioration rates using the NYSDOT : bridge inspection database using Markov chains and Weibull-based approaches. It is observed : that Weibull-based approach is more reliable for developing b...

  5. 2. Transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of sample collection, sample storage, sample procedures and radioanalytical procedures for transuranic elements in marine environment are reviewed and recommended. Alpha spectrometry and scintillation techniques are used for measurement of isotopic content. Separation processes for samples are described

  6. Heavy element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Heavy element research activities in metallurgy and ceramics during 1976 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are reviewed. Topics include: microstructure, properties and alloy design; ceramic alloy program; high resolution and high voltage electron microscopy; and powder metallurgy

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    An array of rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurised water reactor is claimed. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  8. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel elements for a pressurised water reactor comprise arrays of rods of zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  9. Transposable elements in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kathleen H

    2017-07-01

    Transposable elements give rise to interspersed repeats, sequences that comprise most of our genomes. These mobile DNAs have been historically underappreciated - both because they have been presumed to be unimportant, and because their high copy number and variability pose unique technical challenges. Neither impediment now seems steadfast. Interest in the human mobilome has never been greater, and methods enabling its study are maturing at a fast pace. This Review describes the activity of transposable elements in human cancers, particularly long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1). LINE-1 sequences are self-propagating, protein-coding retrotransposons, and their activity results in somatically acquired insertions in cancer genomes. Altered expression of transposable elements and animation of genomic LINE-1 sequences appear to be hallmarks of cancer, and can be responsible for driving mutations in tumorigenesis.

  10. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...

  11. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  12. Fuel element store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1987-01-01

    The spherical fuel elements are stored dry in cans. The cans themselves are stacked in parallel storage shafts, which are combined into a rectangular storage space. The storage space is made earthquake-proof by surrounding it with concrete. It consists of a ceiling assembled from several steel parts, which is connected to the floor by support elements. A cooling air ventilation station supplies the individual storage shaft and therefore the cans with cooling air via incoming and outgoing pipes. (DG) [de

  13. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  14. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  15. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  16. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.T.; Thompson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of protecting the cladding of a nuclear fuel element from internal attack and a nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor are disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an additive of a barium-containing material and the barium-containing material collects reactive gases through chemical reaction or adsorption at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to fuel element plenum temperatures. The additive is located in the plenum of the fuel element and preferably in the form of particles in a hollow container having a multiplicity of gas permeable openings in one portion of the container with the openings being of a size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles. The additive is comprised of elemental barium or a barium alloy containing one or more metals in addition to barium such as aluminum, zirconium, nickel, titanium and combinations thereof. 6 claims, 3 drawing figures

  17. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  18. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V=Δ"4(1+acos (ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ϵ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  19. Hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Ricardo C.; O'Neil, Walter K.; Preston, David M.

    2005-09-20

    A hybrid powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover having a rotational output, a second prime mover having a rotational output, and a transmission having a main shaft supporting at least two main shaft gears thereon. The transmission includes a first independent countershaft drivingly connected to the first prime mover and including at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. A second independent countershaft is drivingly connected to the second prime mover and includes at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. The ratio gears on the first and second countershafts cooperate with the main shaft gears to provide at least one gear ratio between the first and second countershafts and the main shaft. A shift control mechanism selectively engages and disengages the first and second countershafts for rotation with the main shaft.

  20. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  1. Hyper- and hybrid nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanna; Gessner, Manuel; Li, Weidong; Smerzi, Augusto

    2018-02-01

    The controlled generation and identification of quantum correlations, usually encoded in either qubits or continuous degrees of freedom, builds the foundation of quantum information science. Recently, more sophisticated approaches, involving a combination of two distinct degrees of freedom, have been proposed to improve on the traditional strategies. Hyperentanglement describes simultaneous entanglement in more than one distinct degree of freedom, whereas hybrid entanglement refers to entanglement shared between a discrete and a continuous degree of freedom. In this work we propose a scheme that allows us to combine the two approaches, and to extend them to the strongest form of quantum correlations. Specifically, we show how two identical, initially separated particles can be manipulated to produce Bell nonlocality among their spins, among their momenta, as well as across their spins and momenta. We discuss possible experimental realizations with atomic and photonic systems.

  2. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  3. Hybrid Magnetic Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kevin; Crawford, Christopher; Mullins, Andrew; Porter, Greg; Blanton, Hunter; Johnstone, Connor; Kistler, Ben; Olivera, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    The search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron requires the ambient magnetic field to be on the pT scale which is accomplished with large magnetic shielding rooms. These rooms are fitted with large mu-metal sheets to allow for passive cancellation of background magnetic fields. Active shielding technology cannot uniformly cancel background magnetic fields. These issues can be remedied by combining the methods into a hybrid system. The design used is composed of panels that have an active layer of cancellation between two sheets of mu-metal. The panels form a cube and draw in magnetic fields perpendicular to the surface which can then be reduced using active shielding. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Contract DE-SC0008107.

  4. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    “hubris” that is so much taken for granted in contemporary science and engineering discourses and practices with a sense of cooperation and social responsibility. The book portrays the history of science and technology as an underlying tension between hubris – literally the ambition to “play god...... an alternative approach, devoting special attention to the role played by social and cultural movements in the making of science and technology. They show how social and cultural movements, from the Renaissance of the late 15th century to the environmental and global justice movements of our time, have provided......” on the part of many a scientist and engineer and neglect the consequences - and a hybrid imagination, connecting scientific “facts” and technological “artifacts” with cultural understanding. The book concludes with chapters on the recent transformations in the modes of scientific and technological production...

  5. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  6. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  8. Hybrid principle with applications to synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanneh, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of hybrid principles is presented together with the transformation rule for converting odd-parity approximations into even-parity approximations. This rule leads to a method which provides rigorous upper and lower bounds for the disadvantage factor for a reactor lattice cell. With these bounds very precise benchmarks have been constructed for representative lattices. It is found that a combination of even and odd-parity solutions for the neutron flux is much more efficient than solutions based on either the even-parity or odd-parity. This is the basis of one synthesis scheme. In another synthesis method, a hybrid principle with trial functions for both the even- and odd- parity angular flux is used in conjunction with a classical principle with an odd-parity trial function. The synthesis process is efficient because the largest set of equations to be solved, i.e. the frame work, involves as few as one unknown per node of the finite element mesh. The effectiveness of the synthesis method is demonstrated for a thick shield problem. (author)

  9. A Third Generation Lower Hybrid Coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabei, S.; Hosea, J.; Kung, C.; Loesser, D.; Rushinski, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Parker, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are preparing an experiment of current profile control using lower-hybrid waves in order to produce and sustain advanced tokamak regimes in steady-state conditions in Alcator C-Mod. Unlike JET's, ToreSupra's and JT60's couplers, the C-Mod lower-hybrid coupler does not employ the now conventional multijunction design, but will have similar characteristics, compactness, and internal power division while retaining full control of the antenna element phasing. This is achieved by using 3 dB vertical power splitters and a stack of laminated plates with the waveguides milled in them. Construction is simplified and allows easy control and maintenance of all parts. Many precautions are taken to avoid arcing. Special care is also taken to avoid the recycling of reflected power which could affect the coupling and the launched n(subscript ||) spectrum. The results from C-Mod should allow further simplification in the designs of the coupler planned for KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) and ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

  10. A novel CMOS SRAM feedback element for SEU environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verghese, S.; Wortman, J.J.; Kerns, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    A hardened CMOS SRAM has been proposed which utilizes a leaky polysilicon Schottky diode placed in the feedback path to attain the SEU immunity of resistor-coupled SRAMs while improving the access speed of the cell. Novel polysilicon hybrid Schottky-resistor structures which emulate the leaky diodes have been designed and fabricated. The elements' design criteria and methods of fulfilling them are presented along with a practical implementation scheme for CMOS SRAM cells

  11. Research on the innovative hybrid impact hydroforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lihui; Wang, Shaohua; Yang, Chunlei

    2013-12-01

    The innovative hybrid impact hydro-forming (IHF) technology is a kind of high strain rate forming technique which can be used for forming complex parts with small features, such as convex tables, bars etc. The present work investigates IHF using a numerical /experimental approach. In this paper, the theory of IHF is presented and finite element simulation was carried out by using MSC. The pressure distribution changes in the depth direction, but not in the width direction. However, the pressure is uniform everywhere in traditional hydro-forming. Using this shock wave loading conditions, forming experiments were carried out. Punching occurred as a result of combined tensile and shear stress effects. Furthermore, results show that using IHF technology, the design constraint to make precise die may be considerably reduced. The need to accurately control punch-die clearance may also be eliminated. Therefore, the research is very useful for forming complicated products.

  12. Rapid male-specific regulatory divergence and down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila species hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ferguson

    Full Text Available In most crosses between closely related species of Drosophila, the male hybrids are sterile and show postmeiotic abnormalities. A series of gene expression studies using genomic approaches have found significant down regulation of postmeiotic spermatogenesis genes in sterile male hybrids. These results have led some to suggest a direct relationship between down regulation in gene expression and hybrid sterility. An alternative explanation to a cause-and-effect relationship between misregulation of gene expression and male sterility is rapid divergence of male sex regulatory elements leading to incompatible interactions in an interspecies hybrid genome. To test the effect of regulatory divergence in spermatogenesis gene expression, we isolated 35 fertile D. simulans strains with D. mauritiana introgressions in either the X, second or third chromosome. We analyzed gene expression in these fertile hybrid strains for a subset of spermatogenesis genes previously reported as significantly under expressed in sterile hybrids relative to D. simulans. We found that fertile autosomal introgressions can cause levels of gene down regulation similar to that of sterile hybrids. We also found that X chromosome heterospecific introgressions cause significantly less gene down regulation than autosomal introgressions. Our results provide evidence that rapid male sex gene regulatory divergence can explain misexpression of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids.

  13. A genetic basis for the inviability of hybrids between sibling species of Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, P.; Roote, J.; Ashburner, M.

    1990-01-01

    An X-ray induced mutation of Drosophila melanogaster whose only known effect is the rescue of otherwise lethal interspecific hybrids has been characterized. This mutation, Hmr, maps to 1-31.84 (9D1-9E4). Hmr may be the consequence of a P element insertion. It rescues hybrid males from the cross of D. melanogaster females to males of its three sibling species, D. simulans, D. mauritiana and D. sechellia. This rescue is recessive, since hybrid males that carry both Hmr and a duplication expected to be Hmr + are not rescued. Hmr also rescues the otherwise inviable female hybrids from the cross of compound-X D. melanogaster females to males of its sibling species. This rescue is also recessive, since a compound-X heterozygous for Hmr does not rescue. Another mutation, discovered on the In(1)AB chromosome of D. melanogaster, is also found to rescue normally inviable species hybrids: unlike Hmr, however, In(1)AB rescues hybrid females from the cross of In(1)AB/Y males to sibling females, as well as hybrid males from the cross of In(1)AB females to sibling males. These data are interpreted on the basis of a model for the genetic basis of hybrid inviability of complementary genes

  14. Hybrid computing - Generalities and bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, Daniele

    1970-01-01

    This note presents the content of a research thesis. It describes the evolution of hybrid computing systems, discusses the benefits and shortcomings of analogue or hybrid systems, discusses the building up of an hybrid system (requires properties), comments different possible uses, addresses the issues of language and programming, discusses analysis methods and scopes of application. An appendix proposes a bibliography on these issues and notably the different scopes of application (simulation, fluid dynamics, biology, chemistry, electronics, energy, errors, space, programming languages, hardware, mechanics, and optimisation of equations or processes, physics) [fr

  15. Research of a hybrid undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Youwu; Wu Bing; Liu Bo

    1995-12-01

    A 1.5 m tapered hybrid undulator has been designed and built for mid-infrared free electron laser experiments at CIAE. The undulator utilizes the REC-steel hybrid configuration. The magnetic gap and magnetic field taper can be continuously adjusted. The rms error of the peak field is less than 0.53%. The electron trajectory deviation is around 0.03 mm. The design of undulator, sorting of magnets in hybrid undulator using simulated annealing technique, the motion of electron beam in the ideal and measured magnetic field, magnetic field measurement technique and magnetic field adjustment are described. (6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab)

  16. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...... and growth of pollen tubes, as well as lower frequencies of pollen tubes were observed in specific cross-combinations. Post-fertilization barriers related to endosperm development and hybrid incompatibility were also observed in Kalanchoë and Hibiscus genus, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative...

  17. Triplex in-situ hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, Jacques R.; Johnson, Marion D.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

  18. Evolution of hybrid defect networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2009-01-01

    We apply a recently developed analytic model for the evolution of monopole networks to the case of monopoles attached to one string, usually known as hybrid networks. We discuss scaling solutions for both local and global hybrid networks, and also find an interesting application for the case of vortons. Our quantitative results agree with previous estimates in indicating that the hybrid networks will usually annihilate soon after the string-forming phase transition. However, we also show that in some specific circumstances these networks can survive considerably more than a Hubble time.

  19. Program Hybrid/GDH. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.; Bisplinghoff, J.

    1975-10-01

    This code is the most recent in a series of codes for doing a-priori pre-equilibrium decay calculations. It has been written to permit the user to exercise many options at time of execution. It will, for example, permit calculation with either Hybrid model or the geometry dependent Hybrid model (GDH). Intranuclear transition rates can be calculated using either a nucleon-nucleon scattering approach (improved over earlier results) or based on the imaginary optical potential. Transition rates based on exciton lifetimes can be selected (as suggested in the Hybrid model formulation) or an average lifetime for each n-exciton configuration may be selected

  20. Compositional Modelling of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we present a modelling framework for compositional modelling of stochastic hybrid systems. Hybrid systems consist of a combination of continuous and discrete dynamics. The state space of a hybrid system is hybrid in the sense that it consists of a continuous component and a discrete

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A wide variety of hybrid electric vehicle models is currently available. Although HEVs are often -go traffic), further improving fuel economy. Mild hybrid systems cannot power the vehicle using Hybrid Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric

  2. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations How Hybrid Electric Vehicles Work Hybrid electric vehicles combine a primary power source, an energy storage system, and an is used to propel the vehicle during normal drive cycles. The batteries supply additional power for

  3. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications The following technical papers, conference papers, and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hybrid electric fleet vehicle Class 8 Hybrid Electric Delivery Trucks. Mike Lammert. (2011) FedEx Delivery Trucks In-Use and Vehicle

  4. Hybridization and management of oak populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver Gailing

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization can result in the transfer of adaptations among species and may contribute to speciation processes. On the other hand, hybridization can also result in a loss of species diversity due to asymmetric gene flow between species (genetic swamping) and in low hybrid fitness. An understanding of the outcomes of interspecific hybridization is crucial for the...

  5. Magnetic instability with increasing hybridization in cerium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kioussis, N.; Cooper, B.R.; Wills, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A synthesis of a phenomenological theory of orbitally driven magnetic ordering of moderately delocalized light rare-earth systems and ab initio electronic structure calculations has been applied to investigate the change in magnetic behavior on going from CeSb to CeTe, both of which have rocksalt structure with a small decrease in lattice parameter. The hybridization-potential matrix elements and the band energies entering the Anderson-lattice Hamiltonian are obtained from linear-muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) electronic-structure calculations with the Ce 4f states treated as core states. The position of the Ce 4f energy level relative to the Fermi energy and the intra-atomic Coulomb energy U are obtained by use of a sequence of three total-energy supercell calculations with one out of four Ce sites constrained to f n occupation with n=0,1,2, successively. The calculations elucidate the origins, in the electronic structure, of the variation of the f-state resonance width and hybridization potential on going from CeSb to CeTe, and the resultant sensitivity of the hybridization dressing of the crystal-field splitting and the hybridization-induced exchange interactions to chemical environment. The effect of opening up successive angular momentum scattering channels of the ab initio calculated two-ion exchange-interaction matrix on the nature of the magnetic ordering is examined. The calculated magnitude and range dependence of the two-ion exchange interactions changes sharply from CeSb to CeTe, yielding a change in magnetic behavior in qualitative agreement with experiment. The nonlinear hybridization effects on the hybridization dressing of the crystal-field splitting have been examined

  6. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.

    2016-08-01

    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  7. HYBRIDIZATION AND CHAMELEONIC JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Schryver Kurtz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda a crescente hibridização entre o Jornalismo e demais formatos midiáticos como resultado natural de um processo que já está na própria raiz da comunicação enquanto atividade histórica. A lógica interna e as potencialidades estéticas e discursivas do fenômeno são analisadas a partir das convergências entre jornalismo e cinema. Para tanto, utiliza o falso documentário Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido por natureza, postulado como um microcosmo rico em pistas e sugestões para refletir sobre a fusão entre conteúdos informativos e não informativos.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hibridização; Jornalismo; Cinema; Zelig.       ABSTRACT The text discusses the growing hybridization between journalism and other media formats as a natural result of a process that is already in the very root of communication while historical activity. The internal logic and the aesthetic and discursive potential of the phenomenon are analyzed through the convergences between journalism and cinema. Therefore, uses the mockumentary Zelig (1983, filmic text of Woody Allen, hybrid by nature, postulated as a microcosm rich in clues and suggestions to reflect about the merger between informative and uninformative content.      KEYWORDS: Hybridization; Journalism; Cinema; Zelig.     RESUMEN El texto aborda la creciente hibridación entre el periodismo y otros formatos de medios como um resultado natural de un proceso que ya está en la raíz misma de la comunicación mientras actividad histórica. Se analizan la lógica interna y el potencial estético y discursivo del fenómeno a través de las convergencias entre el periodismo y el cine. Para ello, utiliza el falso documental Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido en su naturaleza, postulado como un microcosmos rico en pistas y sugerencias para reflexionar sobre la fusión entre contenidos informativos y no informativos.      PALABRAS CLAVE: Hibridaci

  8. Fuel element transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benna, P.; Neuenfeldt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The reprocessing system includes a large number of waterfilled ponds next to each other for the intermediate storage of fuel elements from LWR's. The fuel element transport device is allocated to a middle pond. The individual ponds are separated from each other by walls, and are only accessible from the middle pond via narrow passages. The transport device includes a telescopic running rail for a trolley with a grab device for the fuel element. The running rail is supported in turn by a second trolley, which can be moved by wheels on rails. Part of the drive of the first trolley is arranged on the second one. Using this transport device, adjacent ponds can be served through the passage openings. (DG) [de

  9. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Kawada, Toshiyuki; Matsuzaki, Masayoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a fuel element for reducing the mechanical interactions between a fuel-cladding tube and the fuel element and for alleviating the limits of the operating conditions of a reactor. Constitution: A fuel element having mainly uranium dioxide consists of a cylindrical outer pellet and cylindrical inner pellet inserted into the outer pellet. The outer pellet contains two or more additives selected from aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, sodium oxide, phosphorus oxide, calcium oxide and iron oxide, and the inner pellet contains nuclear fuel substance solely or one additive selected from calcium oxide, silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide and iron oxide. The outer pellet of the fuel thus constituted is reduced in mechanical strength and also in the mechanical interactions with the cladding tube, and the plastic fluidity of the entire pellet is prevented by the inner pellet increased in the mechanical strength. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Creativity Management Key Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are constantly looking towards innovation. In order to reach it they must foment creativity. This paper analyzes a series of elements considered in the organizational creativity management and proposes a model with the indispensable factors that organizations should consider to reach it. These elements are: culture and organizational environment, strategy, structure, communication, relation with customers, human resources (recruiting, training, job design, compensation, promotion, and performance evaluation, long term orientation and the organizational life cycle. Having the analysis of those elements as a basis, the indispensable pillars on management creativity are identified. The proposed model is based on 5 pillars: the alignment between strategic, culture and organizational structure, called by the authors 'Holy Trinity'; intern publicity; customer’s voice; recognition and a look towards future. Finally, the case of an innovative Peruvian enterprise is presented from the model’s perspective and the study conclusions.

  11. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  12. Optical Properties of Hybrid Nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    owner

    K. George Thomas. Photosciences & Photonics Group. National Institute for Interdisciplinary. Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR,. Trivandrum- 695 019, INDIA. (kgt@vsnl.com). Optical Properties of Hybrid. Nanomaterials ...

  13. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  14. MTU hybrid powerpack for railcars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Ingo; Schmalzing, Claus-Oliver [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH (Germany); Werner, Claus [DB RegioNetz Verkehrs GmbH (Germany); Bold, Uwe [DB Systemtechnik Engineering Kassel (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Up to 25 percent lower fuel consumption and emission-free train movements in station areas are possible with the MTU hybrid drive system. First field tests on tracks of the Deutsche Bahn started in autumn 2011. (orig.)

  15. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  16. Epigenomics: dissecting hybridization and polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Scott A

    2017-06-19

    Epigenetic profiling in diploid, allopolyploid, and domesticated cotton shows that despite most DNA methylation being conserved and stably inherited, alterations likely due to hybridization and domestication affect gene expression.

  17. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  18. Optimizing hybrid spreading in metapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Miller, Joel C; Cox, Ingemar J; Chain, Benjamin M

    2015-04-29

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by local spreading, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and global spreading, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. We show the existence of critically hybrid epidemics where neither spreading mechanism alone can cause a noticeable spread but a combination of the two spreading mechanisms would produce an enormous outbreak. Our results provide new strategies for maximising beneficial epidemics and estimating the worst outcome of damaging hybrid epidemics.

  19. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-01-01

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during

  20. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  1. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  2. Hybrid Materials for Molecular Sieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Klein, Lisa; Aparicio, Mario; Jitianu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid microporous organosilica membranes for molecular separations made by acid-catalyzed solgel synthesis from bridged silsesquioxane precursors have demonstrated good performance in terms of flux and selectivity and remarkable hydrothermal stability in various pervaporation and gas separation

  3. Elements of social security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...... (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts....

  4. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  5. Bibliography on transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A selective bibliography of prominent publications on transuranium elements is compiled. Heading papers, symposia proceedings and the textbooks are included in the bibliography. The bibliography is arranged under the headings: (1)Books, Symposia Proceedings, Reviews etc., (2)Discovery, (3)Weighable Isolation, (4)Metal Preparation, (5)Nuclear Properties, (6)Plutonium as Reactor Fuel, (7)Fuel Reprocessing, (8)Solid State Chemistry, Thermochemistry and Spectroscopy, (9)Radiation Safety, (10)Applications, and (11)Some Typical Indian Papers. Total number of references cited are 298. The bibliography, though selective, will serve as a starting point for comprehensive literature search on transuranium elements. (author)

  6. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  7. Hybrid quantum-classical master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    We discuss hybrid master equations of composite systems, which are hybrids of classical and quantum subsystems. A fairly general form of hybrid master equations is suggested. Its consistency is derived from the consistency of Lindblad quantum master equations. We emphasize that quantum measurement is a natural example of exact hybrid systems. We derive a heuristic hybrid master equation of time-continuous position measurement (monitoring). (paper)

  8. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  9. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    OpenAIRE

    Renuganth Varatharajoo; Ramly Ajir; Tamizi Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS) consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl...

  10. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Miller, J. C.; Cox, I. J.; Chain, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by local spreading, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and global spreading, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemic...

  11. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Miller, Joel C.; Cox, Ingemar J.; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by local spreading, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and global spreading, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemic...

  12. High-Strength Hybrid Textile Composites with Carbon, Kevlar, and E-Glass Fibers for Impact-Resistant Structures. A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, P.; Dixit, A.; Mali, H. S.

    2017-11-01

    The paper reviews the characterization of high-performance hybrid textile composites and their hybridization effects of composite's behavior. Considered are research works based on the finite-element modeling, simulation, and experimental characterization of various mechanical properties of such composites.

  13. Genomic Diversity of Burkholderia pseudomallei Clinical Isolates: Subtractive Hybridization Reveals a Burkholderia mallei-Specific Propage in B. pseudomallei 1026b

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeShazer, David

    2004-01-01

    .... pseudomallei, 1026b and K96243. Numerous mobile genetic elements, including a temperate bacteriophage designated phi1026b, were identified among the 1026b-specific suppression subtractive hybridization products...

  14. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  15. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  16. Protaper--hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Stephane; Lumley, Philip; Tomson, Phillip; Pertot, Wilhelm-Joseph; Machtou, Pierre

    2008-03-01

    Crown down preparation is the most known and described technique since the introduction of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments in endodontics. This technique gives good results but has limitations, such as not addressing the initial anatomy of oval or dumb-bell shaped canals. The specific design of the Protaper instruments allows use of them with a different technique and, specifically, with a brushing motion in the body of the canal. The recent introduction of hand Protaper files has expanded the range of application of this system, especially in curved canals. The 'hybrid technique', using rotary and hand files, and the advantages of the combination of both instruments, are clearly described in this article. Used with this technique, the Protaper is a very safe system to use, and more controllable, for both inexperienced and experienced practitioners alike, than other systems. To understand the precautions needed with rotary files, and how to use them to preserve the anatomy of the canal and get a tapered shaping, even in severely curved canals.

  17. Comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G

    2005-01-01

    Altering DNA copy number is one of the many ways that gene expression and function may be modified. Some variations are found among normal individuals ( 14, 35, 103 ), others occur in the course of normal processes in some species ( 33 ), and still others participate in causing various disease states. For example, many defects in human development are due to gains and losses of chromosomes and chromosomal segments that occur prior to or shortly after fertilization, whereas DNA dosage alterations that occur in somatic cells are frequent contributors to cancer. Detecting these aberrations, and interpreting them within the context of broader knowledge, facilitates identification of critical genes and pathways involved in biological processes and diseases, and provides clinically relevant information. Over the past several years array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has demonstrated its value for analyzing DNA copy number variations. In this review we discuss the state of the art of array CGH and its applications in medical genetics and cancer, emphasizing general concepts rather than specific results.

  18. Superconducting and hybrid systems for magnetic field shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzelino, L; Gerbaldo, R; Ghigo, G; Laviano, F; Truccato, M; Agostino, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate and compare the shielding properties of superconducting and hybrid superconducting/ferromagnetic systems, consisting of cylindrical cups with an aspect ratio of height/radius close to unity. First, we reproduced, by finite-element calculations, the induction magnetic field values measured along the symmetry axis in a superconducting (MgB 2 ) and in a hybrid configuration (MgB 2 /Fe) as a function of the applied magnetic field and of the position. The calculations are carried out using the vector potential formalism, taking into account simultaneously the non-linear properties of both the superconducting and the ferromagnetic material. On the basis of the good agreement between the experimental and the computed data we apply the same model to study the influence of the geometric parameters of the ferromagnetic cup as well as of the thickness of the lateral gap between the two cups on the shielding properties of the superconducting cup. The results show that in the considered non-ideal geometry, where the edge effect in the flux penetration cannot be disregarded, the superconducting shield is always the most efficient solution at low magnetic fields. However, a partial recovery of the shielding capability of the hybrid configuration occurs if a mismatch in the open edges of the two cups is considered. In contrast, at high magnetic fields the hybrid configurations are always the most effective. In particular, the highest shielding factor was found for solutions with the ferromagnetic cup protruding over the superconducting one. (paper)

  19. Modelling and analysis of real-time and hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero, A

    1994-09-29

    This work deals with the modelling and analysis of real-time and hybrid systems. We first present the timed-graphs as model for the real-time systems and we recall the basic notions of the analysis of real-time systems. We describe the temporal properties on the timed-graphs using TCTL formulas. We consider two methods for property verification: in one hand we study the symbolic model-checking (based on backward analysis) and in the other hand we propose a verification method derived of the construction of the simulation graph (based on forward analysis). Both methods have been implemented within the KRONOS verification tool. Their application for the automatic verification on several real-time systems confirms the practical interest of our approach. In a second part we study the hybrid systems, systems combining discrete components with continuous ones. As in the general case the analysis of this king of systems is not decidable, we identify two sub-classes of hybrid systems and we give a construction based method for the generation of a timed-graph from an element into the sub-classes. We prove that in one case the timed-graph obtained is bi-similar with the considered system and that there exists a simulation in the other case. These relationships allow the application of the described technics on the hybrid systems into the defined sub-classes. (authors). 60 refs., 43 figs., 8 tabs., 2 annexes.

  20. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable...

  1. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  2. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  3. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the

  4. Movies and Literary Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rodney D.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends using movie clips to stimulate students' interest in reading a novel as well as to teach elements of fiction such as plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. Describes each clip and provides study questions. Includes a listing of movies made from books. (NH)

  5. Elements of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...

  6. Inside finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiser, Martin

    2016-01-01

    All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms. Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.

  7. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  8. Elements of relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawden, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    The book on elements of relativity theory is intended for final year school students or as an early university course in mathematical physics. Special principle of relativity, lorentz transformation, velocity transformations, relativistic mechanics, and general theory of relativity, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips

  10. Joint quantum state tomography of an entangled qubit–resonator hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LinPeng, X Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, K; Li, C Y; Zhong, Y P; Wang, Z L; Wang, H; Xie, Q W

    2013-01-01

    The integration of superconducting qubits and resonators in one circuit offers a promising solution for quantum information processing (QIP), which also realizes the on-chip analogue of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), known as circuit QED. In most prototype circuit designs, qubits are active processing elements and resonators are peripherals. As resonators typically have better coherence performance and more accessible energy levels, it is proposed that the entangled qubit–resonator hybrid can be used as a processing element. To achieve such a goal, an accurate measurement of the hybrid is first necessary. Here we demonstrate a joint quantum state tomography (QST) technique to fully characterize an entangled qubit–resonator hybrid. We benchmarked our QST technique by generating and accurately characterizing multiple states, e.g. |gN〉 + |e(N − 1)〉 where (|g〉 and |e〉) are the ground and excited states of the qubit and (|0〉,…,|N〉) are Fock states of the resonator. We further provided a numerical method to improve the QST efficiency and measured the decoherence dynamics of the bipartite hybrid, witnessing dissipation coming from both the qubit and the N-photon Fock state. As such, the joint QST presents an important step toward actively using the qubit–resonator element for QIP in hybrid quantum devices and for studying circuit QED. (paper)

  11. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xiaobing [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  12. Static and Dynamic Behavior of High Modulus Hybrid Boron/Glass/Aluminum Fiber Metal Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Po-Ching

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation presents the investigation of a newly developed hybrid fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which contains commingled boron fibers, glass fibers, and 2024-T3 aluminum sheets. Two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs are developed. The first, type I hybrid FMLs, contained a layer of boron fiber prepreg in between two layers of S2-glass fiber prepreg, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The second, type II hybrid FMLs, contained three layer of commingled hybrid boron/glass fiber prepreg layers, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics including blunt notch strength, bearing strength and fatigue behavior of these two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were investigated. Compared to traditional S2-glass fiber reinforced aluminum laminates (GLARE), the newly developed hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates possess high modulus, high yielding stress, and good blunt notch properties. From the bearing test result, the hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates showed outstanding bearing strength. The high fiber volume fraction of boron fibers in type II laminates lead to a higher bearing strength compared to both type I laminates and traditional GLARE. Both types of hybrid FMLs have improved fatigue crack initiation lives and excellent fatigue crack propagation resistance compared to traditional GLARE. The incorporation of the boron fibers improved the Young's modulus of the composite layer in FMLs, which in turn, improved the fatigue crack initiation life and crack propagation rates of the aluminum sheets. Moreover, a finite element model was established to predict and verify the properties of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs. The simulated results showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  14. Thermal safety analysis for pebble bed blanket fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Renjie

    1998-01-01

    Pebble bed blanket hybrid reactor may have more advantages than slab element blanket hybrid reactor in nuclear fuel production and nuclear safety. The thermo-hydraulic calculations of the blanket in the Tokamak helium cooling pebble bed blanket fusion-fission hybrid reactor developed in China are carried out using the Code THERMIX and auxiliary code. In the calculations different fuel pebble material and steady state, depressurization and total loss of flow accident conditions are included. The results demonstrate that the conceptual design of the Tokamak helium cooling pebble bed blanket fusion-fission hybrid reactor with dump tank is feasible and safe enough only if the suitable fuel pebble material is selected and the suitable control system and protection system are established. Some recommendations for due conceptual design are also presented

  15. Tailoring nonlinearity and dispersion of photonic crystal fibers using hybrid cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao-lun, Liu; Lan-tian, Hou; Wei, Wang

    2009-01-01

    We present a hybrid cladding photonic crystal fiber for shaping high nonlinear and flattened dispersion in a wide range of wavelengths. The new structure adopts hybrid cladding with different pitches, air-holes diameters and air-holes arrayed fashions. The full-vector finite element method with perfectly matched layer is used to investigate the characteristics of the hybrid cladding photonic crystal fiber such as nonlinearity and dispersion properties. The influence of the cladding structure parameters on the nonlinear coefficient and geometric dispersion is analyzed. High nonlinear coefficient and the dispersion properties of fibers are tailored by adjusting the cladding structure parameters. A novel hybrid cladding photonic crystal fiber with high nonlinear coefficient and dispersion flattened which is suited for super continuum generation is designed. (author)

  16. Optimization of ultrasonic array inspections using an efficient hybrid model and real crack shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felice, Maria V., E-mail: maria.felice@bristol.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol, U.K. and NDE Laboratory, Rolls-Royce plc., Bristol (United Kingdom); Velichko, Alexander, E-mail: p.wilcox@bristol.ac.uk; Wilcox, Paul D., E-mail: p.wilcox@bristol.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Barden, Tim; Dunhill, Tony [NDE Laboratory, Rolls-Royce plc., Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-31

    Models which simulate the interaction of ultrasound with cracks can be used to optimize ultrasonic array inspections, but this approach can be time-consuming. To overcome this issue an efficient hybrid model is implemented which includes a finite element method that requires only a single layer of elements around the crack shape. Scattering Matrices are used to capture the scattering behavior of the individual cracks and a discussion on the angular degrees of freedom of elastodynamic scatterers is included. Real crack shapes are obtained from X-ray Computed Tomography images of cracked parts and these shapes are inputted into the hybrid model. The effect of using real crack shapes instead of straight notch shapes is demonstrated. An array optimization methodology which incorporates the hybrid model, an approximate single-scattering relative noise model and the real crack shapes is then described.

  17. Hybrid plasmonic waveguide in a metal V-groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-xian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and investigate a type of hybrid plasmonic waveguide in a metal V-groove. A high-permittivity nanowire was placed in the metal channel covered with a dielectric film of lower permittivity. Deeper sub-wavelength confinement and much longer propagation distance were achieved in comparison with conventional channel plasmonic waveguides. The overall performance was improved as compared with the conventional hybrid plasmonic structure based on a flat metal surface. Finite element analysis showed that both the mode propagation and field profile can be adjusted by changing the nanowire radius and film thickness. Some benefits, such as a reduced scattering loss caused by the surface roughness, are also expected owing to the unique mode profile. The proposed approach has potential for application in high-level photonic integration.

  18. Ultrashort hybrid metal-insulator plasmonic directional coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noghani, Mahmoud Talafi; Samiei, Mohammad Hashem Vadjed

    2013-11-01

    An ultrashort plasmonic directional coupler based on the hybrid metal-insulator slab waveguide is proposed and analyzed at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. It is first analyzed using the supermode theory based on mode analysis via the transfer matrix method in the interaction region. Then the 2D model of the coupler, including transition arms, is analyzed using a commercial finite-element method simulator. The hybrid slab waveguide is composed of a metallic layer of silver and two dielectric layers of silica (SiO2) and silicon (Si). The coupler is optimized to have a minimum coupling length and to transfer maximum power considering the layer thicknesses as optimization variables. The resulting coupling length in the submicrometer region along with a noticeable power transfer efficiency are advantages of the proposed coupler compared to previously reported plasmonic couplers.

  19. Bonding techniques for hybrid active pixel sensors (HAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigas, M. [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: Marc.Bigas@cnm.es; Cabruja, E. [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: Enric.Cabruja@cnm.es; Lozano, M. [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-01

    A hybrid active pixel sensor (HAPS) consists of an array of sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. The most used way to connect these two different devices is bump bonding. This interconnection technique is very suitable for these systems because it allows a very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. However, there are other interconnection techniques available such as direct bonding. This paper, as a continuation of a review [M. Lozano, E. Cabruja, A. Collado, J. Santander, M. Ullan, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 473 (1-2) (2001) 95-101] published in 2001, presents an update of the different advanced bonding techniques available for manufacturing a hybrid active pixel detector.

  20. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  1. Hybrid SN Laplace Transform Method For Slab Lattice Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segatto, Cynthia F.; Vilhena, Marco T.; Zani, Jose H.; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2008-01-01

    In typical lattice cells where a highly absorbing, small fuel element is embedded in the moderator, a large weakly absorbing medium, high-order transport methods become unnecessary. In this paper we describe a hybrid discrete ordinates (S N ) method for slab lattice calculations. This hybrid S N method combines the convenience of a low-order S N method in the moderator with a high-order S N method in the fuel. We use special fuel-moderator interface conditions based on an approximate angular flux interpolation analytical method and the Laplace transform (LTS N ) numerical method to calculate the neutron flux distribution and the thermal disadvantage factor. We present numerical results for a range of typical model problems. (authors)

  2. Giant magnetic modulation of a planar, hybrid metamolecule resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Simon A; Stenning, Gavin B G; Bowden, Graham J; De Groot, Peter A J; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2014-01-01

    Coupling magnetic elements to metamaterial structures creates hybrid metamolecules with new opportunities. Here we report on the magnetic control of a metamolecule resonance, by utilizing the interaction between a single split ring resonator (SRR) and a magnetic thin film of permalloy. To suppress eddy current shielding, the permalloy films are patterned into arrays of 30–500 μm diameter discs. Strong hybridized resonances were observed at the anticrossing between the split ring resonance and the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of the permalloy. In particular, it is possible to achieve 40 dB modulation of the electric (symmetric) mode of the SRR on sweeping the applied magnetic field through the SRR/FMR anticrossing. The results open the way to the design of planar metamaterials, with potential applications in nonlinear metamaterials, tunable metamaterials and spintronics. (papers)

  3. Nonimaging optics maximizing exergy for hybrid solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Jiang, Lun; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Ferry, Jonathan; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Alexandr; Kirk, Alexander; Elarde, Victor; Osowski, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-Merced), Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and MicroLink Devices Inc. (MicroLink) are developing a hybrid solar system using a nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that maximizes the exergy by delivering direct electricity and on-demand heat. The hybrid solar system technology uses secondary optics in a solar receiver to achieve high efficiency at high temperature, collects heat in particles and uses reflective liftoff cooled double junction (2J) InGaP/GaAs solar cells with backside infrared (IR) reflectors on the secondary optical element to raise exergy efficiency. The nonimaging optics provides additional concentration towards the high temperature thermal stream and enables it to operate efficiently at 650 °C while the solar cell is maintained at 40 °C to operate as efficiently as possible.

  4. A Laplace transform method for energy multigroup hybrid discrete ordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segatto, C.F.; Vilhena, M.T.; Barros, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    In typical lattice cells where a highly absorbing, small fuel element is embedded in the moderator, a large weakly absorbing medium, high-order transport methods become unnecessary. In this work we describe a hybrid discrete ordinates (S N) method for energy multigroup slab lattice calculations. This hybrid S N method combines the convenience of a low-order S N method in the moderator with a high-order S N method in the fuel. The idea is based on the fact that in weakly absorbing media whose physical size is several neutron mean free paths in extent, even the S 2 method (P 1 approximation), leads to an accurate result. We use special fuel-moderator interface conditions and the Laplace transform (LTS N ) analytical numerical method to calculate the two-energy group neutron flux distributions and the thermal disadvantage factor. We present numerical results for a range of typical model problems.

  5. Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spind......SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes...... on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade....

  6. Nuclear fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, J S; Coffing, L F

    1979-04-05

    The fuel element with circular cross-section for BWR and PWR consists of a core surrounded by a compound jacket container where there is a gap between the core and jacket during operation in the reactor. The core consists of U, Pu, Th compounds and mixtures of these. The compound jacket consists of zircaloy 2 or 4. In order to for example prevent the corrosion of the compound jacket, its inner surface has a metal barrier with smaller neutron absorbers than the jacket material in the form of a zirconium sponge. The zirconium of this metal barrier has impurities of various elements in the order of magnitude of 1000 to 5000 ppm. The oxygen content is in the range of 200 to 1200 ppm and the thickness of the metal barrier is 1-30% of the thickness of the jacket.

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eye, R.W.M.; Shennan, J.V.; Ford, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel element with particles from ceramic fissionable material (e.g. uranium carbide), each one being coated with pyrolitically deposited carbon and all of them being connected at their points of contact by means of an individual crossbar. The crossbar consists of silicon carbide produced by reaction of silicon metal powder with the carbon under the influence of heat. Previously the silicon metal powder together with the particles was kneaded in a solvent and a binder (e.g. epoxy resin in methyl ethyl ketone plus setting agent) to from a pulp. The reaction temperature lies at 1750 0 C. The reaction itself may take place in a nitrogen atmosphere. There will be produced a fuel element with a high overall thermal conductivity. (DG) [de

  8. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding, and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  9. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Rowland, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting, fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  10. Elements of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Meystre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...

  11. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  12. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Satoshi; Yoneya, Katsutoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable load-depending operation as well as moderation for the restriction of operation conditions in the present nuclear reactors, by specifying the essential ingredients and the total weight of the additives to UO 2 fuel substances. Constitution: Two or more additives selected from Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O, CaO, MgO, SiO 2 , Na 2 O and P 2 O 5 are added by the total weight of 2 - 5% to fuel substances consisting of UO 2 or a mixture of UO 2 and PuO 2 . When the mixture is sintered, the strength of the fuel elements is decreased and the fuel-cladding interactions due to the difference in the heat expansion coefficients between the ceramic fuel elements and the metal claddings are decreased to a substantially harmless degree. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Keiichi

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the tensile stresses resulted in a fuel can as well as prevent decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes by decreasing the inner pressure within the nuclear fuel element. Constitution: A fuel can is filled with hollow fuel pellets, inserted with a spring for retaining the hollow fuel pellets with an appropriate force and, thereafter, closely sealed at the both ends with end plugs. A cylindrical body is disposed into the bore holes of the hollow fuel pellets. Since initial sealing gases and/or gaseous nuclear fission products can thus be excluded from the bore holes where the temperature is at the highest level, the inner pressure of the nuclear fuel element can be reduced to decrease the tensile strength resulted to the fuel can. Furthermore, decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes can be prevented. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. Hybrid nanomaterial and its applications: IR sensing and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan

    sensitivity and detection limit were due to the temperature difference between the two junctions formed by the nanohybrid thin film and copper-wire electrodes under asymmetric IR illumination, and the difference between the effective Seebeck coefficient of the nanohybrid thin film and that of the Cu wires. The IR sensor embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers was also fabricated and tested to demonstrate its potential application as a flexible IR sensor. In another application, energy harvesting, a new type of thermoelectric microgenerator enabled with the SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles hybrid nanomaterial, was fabricated. This type of microgenerator did not require any cooling or heat sink element to maintain the temperature difference or gradient in the device. Instead, the integrated nanomaterials in the device enhanced the local temperature and thus produced and maintained an intrinsic temperature difference or gradient across the microgenerator, thereby converting light and heat directly into electricity. In order to enhance the maximum output voltage, the incoming light had to be focused on the thin film region. A tunable lens was fabricated to collect and focus the ambient light on the thin film to enhance the output voltage of the microgenerators. The tunable lens was fabricated with a flexible polymer, PDMS. Therefore, the focal length of the tunable lens can be adjusted by pumping oil into the lens chamber to deform a PDMS membrane, resulting in the changed focus of the lens. In order to enhance the output power, two different arrays of thermoelectric generators in series and in parallel were fabricated. A hybrid nanomaterial thin film was also used to enhance the temperature gradient of the thermoelectric generators. For the devices in series, the generated voltage of all thermoelectric generators was combined together to enhance the output voltage. With the device in parallel, it can be used to combine all of the current of thermoelectric generators together to

  15. A new hybrid thermal comfort guideline for the Netherlands : Background and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerstra, A.C.; Van Hoof, J.; Van Weele, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, the first adaptive thermal comfort guideline was introduced in the Netherlands. Recently, a new, upgraded version of this ISSO 74 (ATG) guideline has been developed. The new requirements are hybrid in nature as the 2014 version of the guideline combines elements of traditional non-adaptive

  16. Surface plasmons excited by the photoluminescence of organic nanofibers in hybrid plasmonic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobolewska, Elzbieta; Leißner, Till; Jozefowski, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    of the fibers. The experimental findings are complemented via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling. The presented results lead to a better understanding and control of hybrid-mode systems, which are crucial elements in future low-loss energy transfer devices. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo...

  17. Morpho-Productive and Chemical Composition of Local and Foreign Sweet Corn Hybrids Grown in the Conditions of Transylvania Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana PĂCURAR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn (Zea mays L. belongs to the Gramineae family, var. rugosa (Bonof convar. Saccharate (Sturt. and can be distinguished from normal corn by presence of one or more mutant genes that affect carbohydrate metabolism in endosperm. Purpose of this research is to compare behavior of sweet corn hybrids created at SCDA Turda, but also foreign hybrids, in terms of quality elements and chemical composition, in conditions of Transylvania plateau, in two localities: Turda and Viişoara. As biological material following domestic sweet corn hybrids were chosen: ‘Prima’, ‘Estival’, ‘Deliciul verii’, ‘Dulcin’, ‘Delicios’, ‘Estival M’ and foreign hybrid ‘Jubilee’. These hybrids were also analyzed in terms of chemical composition. Weight of ‘Estival’ hybrid has the best behavior in both localities; as regards to cobs length, ‘Delicios’ hybrid has registered increases very significant positive, differences between plant height in the two localities confirm significant influence of environment on formation of this important typical qualitative characteristics, highest performances in terms of β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin content, are recorded by ‘Jubilee’ in both localities, ‘Deliciul Verii’ hybrid records significant value for lutein content, also recording an important addition of carbohydrates in Turda, ‘Prima’ and ‘Estival’ hybrids recorded highest values of sucrose in both localities.

  18. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, K.F.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described having a cluster of nuclear fuel pins supported in parallel, spaced apart relationship by transverse cellular braces within coaxial, inner and outer sleeves, the inner sleeve being in at least two separate axial lengths, each of the transverse braces having a peripheral portion which is clamped peripherally between the ends of the axial lengths of the inner sleeve. (author)

  19. Sensor for ionizable elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkey, E.; Reed, W.A. III; Hickam, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Sensor to detect thermally ionizable elements or molucules in air, water vapour or oxygen or to be used as alkali leak detector in vacuum systems, e.g. in the pipe system of a liquid-metal cooled FBR. The sensor consists of an filament made of thorium-containing iridium as cathode with a temperature upto 1000 0 C and an anode sheet of molybdenum, nickel or stainless steal. (ORU) [de

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  1. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  2. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  3. Vented nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, M.; Hirose, Y.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a vented nuclear fuel element having a plenum for accumulation of fission product gases and plug means for delaying the release of the fission product gases from the plenum, the plug means comprising a first porous body wettable with a liquid metal and a second porous body non-wettable with the liquid metal, the first porous body being impregnated with the liquid metal and in contact with the liquid metal

  4. Mechanical and thermal design of hybrid blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design considerations are discussed. This paper is intended as a companion to that of J. D. Lee of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the nuclear aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design. The major design characteristics of hybrid reactor blankets are discussed with emphasis on the areas of difference between hybrid reactors and standard fusion or fission reactors. Specific examples are used to illustrate the design tradeoffs and choices that must be made in hybrid reactor design. These examples are drawn from the work on the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

  5. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  6. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  7. Elements of quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Elements of Quantum Information introduces the reader to the fascinating field of quantum information processing, which lives on the interface between computer science, physics, mathematics, and engineering. This interdisciplinary branch of science thrives on the use of quantum mechanics as a resource for high potential modern applications. With its wide coverage of experiments, applications, and specialized topics - all written by renowned experts - Elements of Quantum Information provides and indispensable, up-to-date account of the state of the art of this rapidly advancing field and takes the reader straight up to the frontiers of current research. The articles have first appeared as a special issue of the journal 'Fortschritte der Physik / Progress of Physics'. Since then, they have been carefully updated. The book will be an inspiring source of information and insight for anyone researching and specializing in experiments and theory of quantum information. Topics addressed in Elements of Quantum Information include - Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics - Segmented Paul Traps - Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microtraps, Optical Lattices, and on Atom Chips - Rydberg Gases - Factorization of Numbers with Physical Systems - Entanglement of Continuous Variables - NMR and Solid State Quantum Computation - Quantum Algorithms and Quantum Machines - Complexity Theory - Quantum Crytography. (orig.)

  8. Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.R. Ghoreishy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work is devoted to the footprint analysis of a steel-belted radial tyre (185/65R14 under vertical static load using finite element method. Two models have been developed in which in the first model the tread patterns were replaced by simple ribs while the second model was consisted of details of the tread blocks. Linear elastic and hyper elastic (Arruda-Boyce material models were selected to describe the mechanical behavior of the reinforcing and rubbery parts, respectively. The above two finite element models of the tyre were analyzed under inflation pressure and vertical static loads. The second model (with detailed tread patterns was analyzed with and without friction effect between tread and contact surfaces. In every stage of the analysis, the results were compared with the experimental data to confirm the accuracy and applicability of the model. Results showed that neglecting the tread pattern design not only reduces the computational cost and effort but also the differences between computed deformations do not show significant changes. However, more complicated variables such as shape and area of the footprint zone and contact pressure are affected considerably by the finite element model selected for the tread blocks. In addition, inclusion of friction even in static state changes these variables significantly.

  9. Study of Superheavy Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell-closure beyond 208 Pb is at a proton number Z = 114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N = 172 or 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods are described, which allowed for the identification of elements produced on a cross-section level of about 1 pb. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is alpha emission, not fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical investigations. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques, as for instance the precise mass measurement of the produced nuclei using ion traps. At increased sensitivity, the detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will start, after first steps on the island were made in recent years. (Author)

  10. Probabilistic finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belytschko, Ted; Wing, Kam Liu

    1987-01-01

    In the Probabilistic Finite Element Method (PFEM), finite element methods have been efficiently combined with second-order perturbation techniques to provide an effective method for informing the designer of the range of response which is likely in a given problem. The designer must provide as input the statistical character of the input variables, such as yield strength, load magnitude, and Young's modulus, by specifying their mean values and their variances. The output then consists of the mean response and the variance in the response. Thus the designer is given a much broader picture of the predicted performance than with simply a single response curve. These methods are applicable to a wide class of problems, provided that the scale of randomness is not too large and the probabilistic density functions possess decaying tails. By incorporating the computational techniques we have developed in the past 3 years for efficiency, the probabilistic finite element methods are capable of handling large systems with many sources of uncertainties. Sample results for an elastic-plastic ten-bar structure and an elastic-plastic plane continuum with a circular hole subject to cyclic loadings with the yield stress on the random field are given.

  11. Small-Signal Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid Distributed Generation Systems in Presence of Ultracapacitor and Tie-Line Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Prakash K.; Mohanty, Soumya R.; Kishor, Nand

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents small-signal analysis of isolated as well as interconnected autonomous hybrid distributed generation system for sudden variation in load demand, wind speed and solar radiation. The hybrid systems comprise of different renewable energy resources such as wind, photovoltaic (PV) fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage devices such as flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). Further ultracapacitors (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and interconnection of hybrid systems through tie-line is incorporated into the system for improved performance. A comparative assessment of deviation of frequency profile for different hybrid systems in the presence of different storage system combinations is carried out graphically as well as in terms of the performance index (PI), ie integral square error (ISE). Both qualitative and quantitative analysis reflects the improvements of the deviation in frequency profiles in the presence of the ultracapacitors (UC) as compared to other energy storage elements.

  12. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi

    2011-01-01

    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements. (topical review)

  13. A weak Galerkin least-squares finite element method for div-curl systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jichun; Ye, Xiu; Zhang, Shangyou

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a weak Galerkin least-squares method for solving div-curl problem. This finite element method leads to a symmetric positive definite system and has the flexibility to work with general meshes such as hybrid mesh, polytopal mesh and mesh with hanging nodes. Error estimates of the finite element solution are derived. The numerical examples demonstrate the robustness and flexibility of the proposed method.

  14. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in the 1930's, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs

  15. Parallel adaptation of general three-dimensional hybrid meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavouklis, Christos; Kallinderis, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    A new parallel dynamic mesh adaptation and load balancing algorithm for general hybrid grids has been developed. The meshes considered in this work are composed of four kinds of elements; tetrahedra, prisms, hexahedra and pyramids, which poses a challenge to parallel mesh adaptation. Additional complexity imposed by the presence of multiple types of elements affects especially data migration, updates of local data structures and interpartition data structures. Efficient partition of hybrid meshes has been accomplished by transforming them to suitable graphs and using serial graph partitioning algorithms. Communication among processors is based on the faces of the interpartition boundary and the termination detection algorithm of Dijkstra is employed to ensure proper flagging of edges for refinement. An inexpensive dynamic load balancing strategy is introduced to redistribute work load among processors after adaptation. In particular, only the initial coarse mesh, with proper weighting, is balanced which yields savings in computation time and relatively simple implementation of mesh quality preservation rules, while facilitating coarsening of refined elements. Special algorithms are employed for (i) data migration and dynamic updates of the local data structures, (ii) determination of the resulting interpartition boundary and (iii) identification of the communication pattern of processors. Several representative applications are included to evaluate the method.

  16. Hybrid system by Mercedes-Benz for the M-class; Hybridsystem fuer die M-Klasse von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Michael; Ruhl, Thomas [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany). M-Klasse Hybrid; Armstrong, Neil; Nietfeld, Franz [Daimler AG, Troy, MI (United States); Schenk, Juergen [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany). Elektrofahrzeuge; Lueckert, Peter [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Ottomotoren; Goedecke, Tobias [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Transmission Development AHS

    2009-09-15

    The ML 450 Hybrid is the first Mercedes-Benz full hybrid vehicle, promising significant fuel consumption and emission reductions while retaining superb driving characteristics. The main feature of the 'AHS-C two-mode hybrid system', used here for the first time, is its great efficiency both in inner city 'stop and go- traffic and on fast long-distance journeys at increasing engine loads and higher speed ranges. The ML 450 Hybrid is, therefore, a central element of the Mercedes-Benz strategy for achieving sustainable mobility. (orig.)

  17. Energy balance of the optimised CVT-hybrid-driveline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Bernd-Robert; Pflaum, Hermann; Lechner, Claus [Forschungsstelle fuer Zahnraeder und Getriebebau, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Funded by the DFG (German Research Foundation) and some industry partners like GM Powertrain Europe, ZF, EPCOS the Optimised CVT-Hybrid was developed at Technische Universitaet Muenchen in close collaboration with the industry and is currently under scientific investigation. Designed as a parallel hybrid vehicle the Optimised CVT-Hybrid combines a series-production diesel engine with a small electric motor. The core element of the driveline is a two range continuously variable transmission (i{radical}i-transmission), which is based on a chain variator. By a special shifting process without interruption of traction force the ratio range of the chain variator is used twice; thereby a wide transmission-ratio spread is achieved by low complexity. Thus the transmission provides a large pull-away ratio for the small electric motor and a fuel-efficient overdrive ratio for the ic-engine. Instead of heavy and space-consuming accumulators a small efficient package of double layer capacitors (UltraCaps) is used for electric energy and power storage. The driveline management is done by an optimised vehicle controller. Within the scope of the research project two prototype drivelines were manufactured. One driveline is integrated into an Opel Vectra Caravan and is available for investigations at the roller dynamometer and in the actual road traffic. The second hybrid driveline is assembled at the powertrain test rig of the FZG for detailed analysis of system behaviour and fuel consumption. Based on measurements of standardised driving cycles system behaviour, fuel consumption and a detailed energy balance of the Optimised CVT-Hybrid are presented. In comparison to the series-production vehicle the fuel savings are shown. (orig.)

  18. Drosophila interspecific hybrids phenocopy piRNA-pathway mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Kelleher

    Full Text Available The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA pathway defends the germline of animals from the deleterious activity of selfish transposable elements (TEs through small-RNA mediated silencing. Adaptation to novel invasive TEs is proposed to occur by incorporating their sequences into the piRNA pool that females produce and deposit into their eggs, which then propagates immunity against specific TEs to future generations. In support of this model, the F1 offspring of crosses between strains of the same Drosophila species sometimes suffer from germline derepression of paternally inherited TE families, caused by a failure of the maternal strain to produce the piRNAs necessary for their regulation. However, many protein components of the Drosophila piRNA pathway exhibit signatures of positive selection, suggesting that they also contribute to the evolution of host genome defense. Here we investigate piRNA pathway function and TE regulation in the F1 hybrids of interspecific crosses between D. melanogaster and D. simulans and compare them with intraspecific control crosses of D. melanogaster. We confirm previous reports showing that intraspecific crosses are characterized by derepression of paternally inherited TE families that are rare or absent from the maternal genome and piRNA pool, consistent with the role of maternally deposited piRNAs in shaping TE silencing. In contrast to the intraspecific cross, we discover that interspecific hybrids are characterized by widespread derepression of both maternally and paternally inherited TE families. Furthermore, the pattern of derepression of TE families in interspecific hybrids cannot be attributed to their paucity or absence from the piRNA pool of the maternal species. Rather, we demonstrate that interspecific hybrids closely resemble piRNA effector-protein mutants in both TE misregulation and aberrant piRNA production. We suggest that TE derepression in interspecific hybrids largely reflects adaptive divergence of pi

  19. Design Optimization of Hybrid FRP/RC Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetrou, Vasileios S.; Tamijani, Ali Y.; Brown, Jeff; Kim, Daewon

    2018-04-01

    The hybrid bridge consists of a Reinforced Concrete (RC) slab supported by U-shaped Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) girders. Previous studies on similar hybrid bridges constructed in the United States and Europe seem to substantiate these hybrid designs for lightweight, high strength, and durable highway bridge construction. In the current study, computational and optimization analyses were carried out to investigate six composite material systems consisting of E-glass and carbon fibers. Optimization constraints are determined by stress, deflection and manufacturing requirements. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and optimization software were utilized, and a framework was developed to run the complete analyses in an automated fashion. Prior to that, FEA validation of previous studies on similar U-shaped FRP girders that were constructed in Poland and Texas is presented. A finer optimization analysis is performed for the case of the Texas hybrid bridge. The optimization outcome of the hybrid FRP/RC bridge shows the appropriate composite material selection and cross-section geometry that satisfies all the applicable Limit States (LS) and, at the same time, results in the lightest design. Critical limit states show that shear stress criteria determine the optimum design for bridge spans less than 15.24 m and deflection criteria controls for longer spans. Increased side wall thickness can reduce maximum observed shear stresses, but leads to a high weight penalty. A taller cross-section and a thicker girder base can efficiently lower the observed deflections and normal stresses. Finally, substantial weight savings can be achieved by the optimization framework if base and side-wall thickness are treated as independent variables.

  20. Hybrid Hydrogen and Mechanical Distributed Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ubertini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective energy storage technologies represent one of the key elements to solving the growing challenges of electrical energy supply of the 21st century. Several energy storage systems are available, from ones that are technologically mature to others still at a research stage. Each technology has its inherent limitations that make its use economically or practically feasible only for specific applications. The present paper aims at integrating hydrogen generation into compressed air energy storage systems to avoid natural gas combustion or thermal energy storage. A proper design of such a hybrid storage system could provide high roundtrip efficiencies together with enhanced flexibility thanks to the possibility of providing additional energy outputs (heat, cooling, and hydrogen as a fuel, in a distributed energy storage framework. Such a system could be directly connected to the power grid at the distribution level to reduce power and energy intermittence problems related to renewable energy generation. Similarly, it could be located close to the user (e.g., office buildings, commercial centers, industrial plants, hospitals, etc.. Finally, it could be integrated in decentralized energy generation systems to reduce the peak electricity demand charges and energy costs, to increase power generation efficiency, to enhance the security of electrical energy supply, and to facilitate the market penetration of small renewable energy systems. Different configurations have been investigated (simple hybrid storage system, regenerate system, multistage system demonstrating the compressed air and hydrogen storage systems effectiveness in improving energy source flexibility and efficiency, and possibly in reducing the costs of energy supply. Round-trip efficiency up to 65% can be easily reached. The analysis is conducted through a mixed theoretical-numerical approach, which allows the definition of the most relevant physical parameters affecting the system