WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid particle detectors

  1. Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.

    2011-07-26

    We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.

  2. Correlation of Particle Traversals with Clonogenic Survival Using Cell-Fluorescent Ion Track Hybrid Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokic, Ivana; Niklas, Martin; Zimmermann, Ferdinand; Mairani, Andrea; Seidel, Philipp; Krunic, Damir; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Greilich, Steffen; Abdollahi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Development of novel approaches linking the physical characteristics of particles with biological responses are of high relevance for the field of particle therapy. In radiobiology, the clonogenic survival of cells is considered the gold standard assay for the assessment of cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Toward further development of next generation biodosimeters in particle therapy, cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-FIT-HD) was recently engineered by our group and successfully employed to study physical particle track information in correlation with irradiation-induced DNA damage in cell nuclei. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of Cell-FIT-HD as a tool to study the effects of clinical beams on cellular clonogenic survival. Tumor cells were grown on the fluorescent nuclear track detector as cell culture, mimicking the standard procedures for clonogenic assay. Cell-FIT-HD was used to detect the spatial distribution of particle tracks within colony-initiating cells. The physical data were associated with radiation-induced foci as surrogates for DNA double-strand breaks, the hallmark of radiation-induced cell lethality. Long-term cell fate was monitored to determine the ability of cells to form colonies. We report the first successful detection of particle traversal within colony-initiating cells at subcellular resolution using Cell-FIT-HD. PMID:26697410

  3. TSV last for hybrid pixel detectors: Application to particle physics and imaging experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, D; Berthelot, A; Cuchet, R; Chantre, C; Campbell, M

    Hybrid pixel detectors are now widely used in particle physics experiments and at synchrotron light sources. They have also stimulated growing interest in other fields and, in particular, in medical imaging. Through the continuous pursuit of miniaturization in CMOS it has been possible to increase the functionality per pixel while maintaining or even shrinking pixel dimensions. The main constraint on the more extensive use of the technology in all fields is the cost of module building and the difficulty of covering large areas seamlessly [1]. On another hand, in the field of electronic component integration, a new approach has been developed in the last years, called 3D Integration. This concept, based on using the vertical axis for component integration, allows improving the global performance of complex systems. Thanks to this technology, the cost and the form factor of components could be decreased and the performance of the global system could be enhanced. In the field of radiation imaging detectors the a...

  4. Correlation of Particle Traversals with Clonogenic Survival Using Cell-Fluorescent Ion Track Hybrid Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eDokic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of novel approaches linking the physical characteristics of particles with biological responses are of high relevance for the field of particle therapy. In radiobiology, the clonogenic survival of cells is considered the gold standard assay for assessment of cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Towards further development of next generation biodosimeters in particle therapy, cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-FIT-HD was recently engineered by our group and successfully employed to study physical particle track information in correlation with irradiation- induced DNA damage in cell nuclei. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of Cell-FIT-HD as a tool to study the effects of clinical beams on cellular clonogenic survival. Tumor cells were grown on the FNTD as cell culture, mimicking the standard procedures for clonogenic assay. Cell-FIT-HD was used to detect the spatial distribution of particle tracks within colony-initiating cells. The physical data were associated to radiation induced foci as surrogates for DNA double strand breakages (DSB, the hallmark of radiation ‐induced cell lethality. Long‐term cell fate was monitored to determine the ability of cells to form colonies. We report the first successful detection of particle traversal within colony-initiating cells at subcellular resolution using Cell-FIT-HD.

  5. Gaseous Detectors: Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, H J

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous Detectors in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors 3.1.2.1 Introduction 3.1.2.2 Basic Processes 3.1.2.2.1 Gas ionization by charged particles 3.1.2.2.1.1 Primary clusters 3.1.2.2.1.2 Cluster size distribution 3.1.2.2.1.3 Total number of ion pairs 3.1.2.2.1.4 Dependence of energy deposit on particle velocity 3.1.2.2.2 Transport of...

  6. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina Gil, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼ 1 GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X0. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2 ×1014 1 MeV neq /cm2, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100 μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200 μm thick silicon sensors.

  7. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorini, M., E-mail: Massimiliano.Fiorini@cern.ch [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Aglieri Rinella, G. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Carassiti, V. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Ceccucci, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cortina Gil, E. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P. [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Martin, E. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Mazza, G. [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Morel, M.; Noy, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nuessle, G. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Perktold, L.; Petagna, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼1GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X{sub 0}. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2×10{sup 14} 1 MeV n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (<0.15%X{sub 0}) cooling system is being constructed, using a novel microchannel cooling silicon plate. Two complementary read-out architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200μm thick silicon sensors.

  8. Investigations of the response of hybrid particle detectors for the Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network (SEVAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chilingarian

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A network of particle detectors located at middle to low latitudes known as SEVAN (Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network is being created in the framework of the International Heliophysical Year (IHY-2007. It aims to improve the fundamental research of the particle acceleration in the vicinity of the Sun and space environment conditions. The new type of particle detectors will simultaneously measure the changing fluxes of most species of secondary cosmic rays, thus turning into a powerful integrated device used for exploration of solar modulation effects. Ground-based detectors measure time series of secondary particles born in cascades originating in the atmosphere by nuclear interactions of protons and nuclei accelerated in the galaxy. During violent solar explosions, sometimes additional secondary particles are added to this "background" flux. The studies of the changing time series of secondary particles shed light on the high-energy particle acceleration mechanisms. The time series of intensities of high energy particles can also provide highly cost-effective information on the key characteristics of interplanetary disturbances. The recent results of the detection of the solar extreme events (2003–2005 by the monitors of the Aragats Space-Environmental Center (ASEC illustrate the wide possibilities provided by new particle detectors measuring neutron, electron and muon fluxes with inherent correlations. We present the results of the simulation studies revealing the characteristics of the SEVAN networks' basic measuring module. We illustrate the possibilities of the hybrid particle detector to measure neutral and charged fluxes of secondary CR, to estimate the efficiency and purity of detection; corresponding median energies of the primary proton flux, the ability to distinguish between neutron and proton initiated GLEs and some other important properties of hybrid particle detectors.

  9. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  10. Silicon PIN diode hybrid arrays for charged particle detection: Building blocks for vertex detectors at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.; Gaalema, S.; Shapiro, S.L.; Dunwoodie, W.M.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.

    1989-05-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of solid state detectors have long been used in visible and infrared systems. Hybrid arrays with separately optimized detector and readout substrates have been extensively developed for infrared sensors. The characteristics and use of these infrared readout chips with silicon PIN diode arrays produced by MICRON SEMICONDUCTOR for detecting high-energy particles are reported. Some of these arrays have been produced in formats as large as 512 /times/ 512 pixels; others have been radiation hardened to total dose levels beyond 1 Mrad. Data generation rates of 380 megasamples/second have been achieved. Analog and digital signal transmission and processing techniques have also been developed to accept and reduce these high data rates. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. 3D Particle Track Reconstrution in a Single Layer Cadmium-Telluride Hybrid Active Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Filipenko, Mykhaylo; Anton, Gisela; Michel, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years the search for neutrinoless double beta decay has driven many developements in all kind of detector technology. A new branch in this field are highly-pixelated semiconductor detectors - such as the CdTe-Timepix detectors. It compromises a cadmium-telluride sensor of 14 mm x 14 mm x 1 mm size with an ASIC which has 256 x 256 pixel of 55 \\textmu m pixel pitch and can be used to obtain either spectroscopic or timing information in every pixel. In regular operation it can provide a 2D projection of particle trajectories; however, three dimensional trajectories are desirable for neutrinoless double beta decay and other applications. In this paper we present a method to obtain such trajectories. The method was developed and tested with simulations that assume some minor modifications to the Timepix ASIC. Also, we were able to test the method experimentally and in the best case achieved a position resolution of about 90 \\textmu m with electrons of 4.4 GeV.

  12. First observation of Cherenkov ring images using hybrid photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, E.; Wilkinson, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Barber, G.; Duane, A.; John, M.; Miller, D.G.; Websdale, D. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bibby, J.H.; Giles, R.; Harnew, N.; Smale, N. [University of Oxford, Department of Nuclear Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Brook, N.H.; Halley, A.W.; O`Shea, V. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); French, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gibson, V.; Wotton, S.A. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Schomaker, R. [Delft Electronic Products BV, 9300 AB Roden (Netherlands)

    1998-07-11

    A ring-imaging Cherenkov detector, equipped with hybrid photon detectors, has been operated in a charged-particle beam. Focussed ring images from various particle types were detected using silica aerogel, air and C{sub 4}F{sub 10} gas radiators. The detector, a prototype for the CERN LHC-B experiment, is described and first observations are reported. (orig.)

  13. Particle detector spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  14. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, V.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); CNR SPIN Salerno, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, n.132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Scherillo, A. [Science and Technology Facility Council, ISIS Facility Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Celentano, G. [ENEA Frascati Research Centre, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Pietropaolo, A., E-mail: antonino.pietropaolo@enea.it [ENEA Frascati Research Centre, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Mediterranean Institute of Fundamental Physics, Via Appia Nuova 31, 00040 Marino, Roma (Italy)

    2015-03-16

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, {sup 10}B + n → α + {sup 7}Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current I{sub c}, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

  15. Registration procedure for spatial correlation of physical energy deposition of particle irradiation and cellular response utilizing cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, M.; Zimmermann, F.; Schlegel, J.; Schwager, C.; Debus, J.; Jäkel, O.; Abdollahi, A.; Greilich, S.

    2016-09-01

    The hybrid technology cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) enables the investigation of radiation-related cellular events along single ion tracks on the subcellular scale in clinical ion beams. The Cell-Fit-HD comprises a fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD, the physical compartment), a device for individual particle detection and a substrate for viable cell-coating, i.e. the biological compartment. To date both compartments have been imaged sequentially in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This is yet in conflict with a functional read-out of the Cell-Fit-HD utilizing a fast live-cell imaging of the biological compartment with low phototoxicity on greater time scales. The read-out of the biological from the physical compartment was uncoupled. A read-out procedure was developed to image the cell layer by conventional widefield microscopy whereas the FNTD was imaged by CLSM. Point mapping registration of the confocal and widefield imaging data was performed. Non-fluorescent crystal defects (spinels) visible in both read-outs were used as control point pairs. The accuracy achieved was on the sub-µm scale. The read-out procedure by widefield microscopy does not impair the unique ability of spatial correlation by the Cell-Fit-HD. The uncoupling will enlarge the application potential of the hybrid technology significantly. The registration allows for an ultimate correlation of microscopic physical beam parameters and cell kinetics on greater time scales. The method reported herein will be instrumental for the introduction of a novel generation of compact detectors facilitating biodosimetric research towards high-throughput analysis.

  16. Hybrid Superconducting Neutron Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Merlo, V; Cirillo, M; Lucci, M; Ottaviani, I; Scherillo, A; Celentano, G; Pietropaolo, A

    2014-01-01

    A new neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction 10B+n $\\rightarrow$ $\\alpha$+ 7Li , with $\\alpha$ and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current Ic, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the supercond...

  17. CERN manufactured hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    These hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) produce an electric signal from a single photon. An electron is liberated from a photocathode and accelerated to a silicon pixel array allowing the location of the photon on the cathode to be recorded. The electronics and optics for these devices have been developed in close collaboration with industry. HPDs have potential for further use in astrophysics and medical imaging.

  18. Microscopic Simulation of Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, Heinrich

    Detailed computer simulations are indispensable tools for the development and optimization of modern particle detectors. The interaction of particles with the sensitive medium, giving rise to ionization or excitation of atoms, is stochastic by its nature. The transport of the resulting photons and charge carriers, which eventually generate the observed signal, is also subject to statistical fluctuations. Together with the readout electronics, these processes - which are ultimately governed by the atomic cross-sections for the respective interactions - pose a fundamental limit to the achievable detector performance. Conventional methods for calculating electron drift lines based on macroscopic transport coefficients used to provide an adequate description for traditional gas-based particle detectors such as wire chambers. However, they are not suitable for small-scale devices such as micropattern gas detectors, which have significantly gained importance in recent years. In this thesis, a novel approach, bas...

  19. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  20. Research on particle imaging detectors

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    Much instrumentation has been developed for imaging the trajectories of elementary particles produced in high energy collisions. Since 1968, gaseous detectors, beginning with multiwire chambers and drift chambers, have been used for the visualisation of particle trajectories and the imaging of X-rays, neutrons, hard gamma rays, beta rays and ultraviolet photons. This book commemorates the groundbreaking research leading to the evolution of such detectors carried out at CERN by Georges Charpak, Nobel Prizewinner for Physics in 1992. Besides collecting his key papers, the book also includes original linking commentary which sets his work in the context of other worldwide research.

  1. 2D Detectors for Particle Physics and for Imaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, H

    2005-01-01

    The demands on detectors for particle detection as well as for medical and astronomical X-ray imaging are continuously pushing the development of novel pixel detectors. The state of the art in pixel detector technology to date are hybrid pixel detectors in which sensor and read-out integrated circuits are processed on different substrates and connected via high density interconnect structures. While these detectors are technologically mastered such that large scale particle detectors can be and are being built, the demands for improved performance for the next generation particle detectors ask for the development of monolithic or semi-monolithic approaches. Given the fact that the demands for medical imaging are different in some key aspects, developments for these applications, which started as particle physics spin-off, are becomming rather independent. New approaches are leading to novel signal processing concepts and interconnect technologies to satisfy the need for very high dynamic range and large area ...

  2. Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ullaland, O

    2011-01-01

    Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors in 'Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Time of Flight Measurements 3.3.2.1 Scintillator hodoscopes 3.3.2.2 Parallel plate ToF detectors 3.3.3 Cherenkov Radiation 3.3.3.1 ...

  3. Build Your Own Particle Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mehlhase, Sascha; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To support the outreach activities of Atlas institutes and to grab people's attention in science exhibitions and during public events, we have created both a very detailed model of the experiment built entirely out of about Lego bricks as well as an outreach programme using Lego bricks to get people to think about particle detectors and involve them into a conversation about particle physics in general. A large Lego model, consisting of about 9500 pieces, has been 'exported' to more than 55 Atlas institutes and has been used in numerous exhibitions to explain the proportion and composition of the experiment to the public. As part of 'Build Your Own Particle Detector' programme (byopd.org) we conducted more than 15 events,either involving a competition to design and build the 'best' particle detector from a random pile of pieces or to take part in the construction of one of the large models, as part of a full day outreach event. Recently we've added miniature models of all four LHC experiments, that will be us...

  4. Build Your Own Particle Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mehlhase, Sascha; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To support the outreach activities of ATLAS institutes and to grasp people’s attention in science exhibitions and during public events, a very detailed model of the experiment built entirely out of LEGO bricks as well as an outreach programme using LEGO bricks to get people to think about particle detectors and involve them into a conversation about particle physics in general have been created. A large LEGO model, consisting of about 9500 pieces, has been exported to more than 55 ATLAS institutes and has been used in numerous exhibitions to explain the proportion and composition of the experiment to the public. As part of the Build Your Own Particle Detector programme (byopd.org) more than 15 events have been conducted, either involving a competition to design and build the best particle detector from a random pile of pieces or to take part in the construction of one of the large models, as part of a full day outreach event. Recently, miniature models of all four main LHC experiments, that will be used at ...

  5. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  6. Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2011-01-01

    Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons 3.1.1.1 Basic detector principles and scintillator requirements 3.1.1.1.1 Interaction of ionizing radiation with scintillator material 3.1.1.1.2 Important scint...

  7. New developments of scintillating crystal-based hybrid single photon detectors (X-HPDs) for charged particle and neutrino detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Samarai, I.; Busto, J.; Hallewell, G. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, F-13288 Marseille (France); KM3NeT Consortium (France); Combettes, B.; Dehaine, A. G. [Photonis S.A.S. Avenue Roger Roncier, F-19106 Brive la Gaillarde (France)

    2009-07-01

    Scintillating crystal-based hybrid photon detectors have been demonstrated as viable single photon detectors since 1996 in the Lake Baikal neutrino telescope. Prior to this, the Philips XP2600 was developed under the DUMAND program, while more recently, developments at CERN have demonstrated the advantages of a true concentric geometry with a scintillator at the geometric centre of a spherical photocathode, giving almost 100% electrostatic collection efficiency over 3{pi} solid angle coverage. We began the development of a new series of quasi-spherical crystal hybrid photon detectors (the Photonis XP2608 series) for use in the future KM3NeT cubic kilometer-scale deep sea neutrino telescope. The thrust of this research was to investigate the industrialization of the crystal hybrid photon detector to the point where it would represent a significant cost reduction per cubic kilometer of instrumented volume compared to conventional large photomultipliers, thereby allowing extremely large telescope target volumes. Such gains would arise through an all-glass envelope, 'internal' processing of the photocathode, and from the use of an inexpensive scintillating crystal or deposited phosphor viewed by a small photomultiplier. Details of these developments are presented. (authors)

  8. The CPLEAR particle identification detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Rozaki, E.; Sakeliou, L. (Univ. Athens (Greece)); Backenstoss, G.; Kuzminski, J.; Rickenbach, R.; Wildi, M. (Univ. Basel (Switzerland)); Carlson, P.; Francis, D.; Jansson, K.; Jon-And, K.; Kerek, A.; Szilagyi, S. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. Stockholm (Sweden)); Carvalho, J.; Cobbaert, H.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Machado, E.; Onofre, A.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Policarpo, A. (Univ. Coimbra, LIP (Portugal) Technical Univ., Delft (Netherlands)); Charalambous, S.; Chardalas, M.; Dedoussis, S.; Touramanis, C. (Univ. Thessaloniki (Greece)); Fassnacht, P.; Pelucchi, F. (CPPM, Marseille (France) CSNSM, Orsay (France) P. Scherrer Inst., Villingen (Switzerland) DPhPe, CEN-Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Fetcher, W.; Gerber, H.J. (Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik, ETH Villingen (Switzerland)); Fuglesang, C.; Kesseler, G.; Montanet, F. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Go, A.; Lawry, T.; Miller, J.; Roberts, B.L.; Varner, G.; Warner, D.; Zimmerman, D. (Univ. Boston,; CPLEAR Collaboration

    1992-01-01

    The CPLEAR experiment will measure CP violation parameters in the neutral kaon system, using a low energy antiproton beam from the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. One of its subdetectors, the Particle Identification Detector (PID), makes a fast separation of pions and kaons, which is essential for the experiment. This article describes the design of the PID and its performance during beam tests and during initial runs at LEAR. A pion rejection efficiency of 99.7% for the first level trigger (after 60 ns) is found in the relevant momentum region. (orig.).

  9. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  10. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  11. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  12. Highly efficient charged particle veto detector CUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacz, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: palacz@slcj.uw.edu.pl; Nyberg, J. [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Bednarczyk, P. [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg (France); Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Dworski, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Iwanicki, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Kapusta, M. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk (Poland); Kownacki, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Kulczycka, E. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Lagergren, K. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Moszynski, M. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk (Poland); Pienkowski, L. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Stolarz, A. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Wolski, D. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk (Poland); Zieblinski, M. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland)

    2005-09-11

    A novel, highly efficient, plastic scintillator detector has been constructed. The primary application of the detector is to act as a veto device in heavy-ion-induced fusion-evaporation reactions, in which the structure of proton-rich nuclides is investigated by {gamma}-ray spectroscopy methods. The detector rejects events in which light charged particles, like protons and {alpha} particles, are emitted in the evaporation process, facilitating selection of reaction channels associated with emission of only neutrons. The detector was used in a EUROBALL experiment, with achieved efficiencies of 80% and 63% for protons and {alpha} particles, respectively. The design of the detector, its performance and limitations are discussed.

  13. Optimization of the performance of a CsI(Tl) scintillator + Si pin photodiode detector for medium energy light charged particle hybride array

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinka, G; Gál, J; Hegyesi, G; Molnár, J; Elekes, Z; Motobayashi, T; Yanagisawa, Y; Saito, A

    2003-01-01

    NaI(TI), BGO and CsI(TI) crystals in compact arrays will be used at RIKEN RI Beam Factory in the near future to detect gamma-rays from fast moving nuclei produced in nuclear reactions with radioactive beams, and among them CsI(TI) for light charged particle identification as well. The latter system will consist of 312 Cs(TI) crystals coupled to silicon photodiodes in a hemispherical arrangement, four detectors packed together with their own preamplifiers in each of the 78 parallelepipedic thin walled aluminum containers. (R.P.)

  14. ENVISION, from particle detectors to medical imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Technologies developed for particle physics detectors are increasingly used in medical imaging tools like Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Produced by: CERN KT/Life Sciences and ENVISION Project Management: Manuela Cirilli 3D animation: Jeroen Huijben, Nymus3d

  15. The DEPFET Mini-matrix Particle Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scheirich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The DEPFET is new type of active pixel particle detector. A MOSFET is integrated in each pixel, providing the first amplification stage of the readout electronics. Excellent noise parameters are obtained with this layout. The DEPFET detector will be integrated as an inner detector in the BELLE II and ILC experiment. A flexible measuring system with a wide control cycle range and minimal noise was designed for testing small detector prototypes.Noise of 60 electrons of the equivalent input charge was achieved during the first measurements on the system.

  16. Monte Carlo Simulation for Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, Maria Grazia

    2012-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is an essential component of experimental particle physics in all the phases of its life-cycle: the investigation of the physics reach of detector concepts, the design of facilities and detectors, the development and optimization of data reconstruction software, the data analysis for the production of physics results. This note briefly outlines some research topics related to Monte Carlo simulation, that are relevant to future experimental perspectives in particle physics. The focus is on physics aspects: conceptual progress beyond current particle transport schemes, the incorporation of materials science knowledge relevant to novel detection technologies, functionality to model radiation damage, the capability for multi-scale simulation, quantitative validation and uncertainty quantification to determine the predictive power of simulation. The R&D on simulation for future detectors would profit from cooperation within various components of the particle physics community, and synerg...

  17. The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gascon, A.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weinidl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The "hybrid" detection mode combines th

  18. The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gascon, A.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weinidl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The "hybrid" detection mode combines th

  19. A Prototype RICH Detector Using Multi-Anode Photo Multiplier Tubes and Hybrid Photo-Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Bibby, J H; Brook, N H; Doucas, G; Duane, A; Easo, S; Eklund, L; French, M; Gibson, V; Gys, Thierry; Halley, A W; Harnew, N; John, M; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Simmons, B; Smale, N J; Teixeira-Dias, P; Toudup, L W; Websdale, David M; Wilkinson, G R; Wotton, S A

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a prototype Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector is studied using a charged particle beam. The detector performance, using CF4 and air as radiators, is described. Cherenkov angle precision and photoelectron yield using hybrid photo-diodes and multi-anode PMTs agree with simulations and are assessed in terms of the requirements of the LHCb experiment.

  20. Large-aperture hybrid photo-detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Y. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Studies, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5 Shimokanzo, Iwata City 438-0193, Shizuoka (Japan)], E-mail: kawaiy@post.kek.jp; Nakayama, H.; Kusaka, A.; Kakuno, H.; Abe, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tanaka, M. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Shiozawa, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida City, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kyushima, H.; Suyama, M. [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5 Shimokanzo, Iwata City 438-0193, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2007-08-21

    We have developed the first complete large-aperture (13-inch diameter) hybrid photo-detector (HPD). The withstanding voltage problem has been overcome and we were able to attain an HPD operating voltage of +20 kV. Adoption of our newly developed backside illumination avalanche diode (AD) was also critical in successfully countering the additional problem of an increase in AD leakage after the activation process. We observed single photon signal timing jitter of under 450 ps in FWHM, electron transit time of {approx}12 ns, and clear pulse height separation up to several photoelectron peaks, all greatly superior to the performance of any conventional large-aperture photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In addition, our HPD has a much simpler structure than conventional large-aperture PMTs, which simplifies mass production and lowers manufacturing cost. We believe that these attributes position our HPD as the most suitable photo-detector for the next generation mega-ton class water-Cherenkov detector, which is expected to be more than 20x larger than the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector.

  1. Hybrid Cosmic Ray Detector at Pico de Orizaba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotzomi, J.; Martinez, O.; Medina, M.; Moreno, E.; Salazar, H.; Ponce, G.; Pérez, L.; Villaseñor, L.; Khrenov, B.; Garipov, G.

    2003-07-01

    In this work we present the design features and simulation of the hybrid detector under construction at 4300 m.a.s.l. equivalent to 620 g /cm2 .The goal of this observatory is to study the mass composition of the cosmic rays in the energy range of 1015 - 1018 eV. The observation technique include particle counting and fluorescence detection in order to improve the Energy and Xmax determination. This approach allow us to contribute in the knowledge of the knee composition, corresponding to medium to heavy nuclei. Introduction One of the open problems of the high energy cosmic ray is the composition of the primary particles with energies from 1 × 1015 to 1 × 1018 . In order to contribute to solve this issue, we have design and hybrid detector to be located in the Pico de Orizaba and Sierra la Negra Volcano es. One of the advantages of the site is the altitude, 4200 m.a.s.l, which may help us to observe the extended air showers nearby their maximum development, improving the determination of the parameters of the primary particle. The optical properties of the site have been studied by several years, showing stability and darkness to declare it as a good optical astronomical site. So, we thought that the installation of an fluorescence telescope, should complement the ground array and improve the overall performance of this observatory. In the other side, the implementation of the hybrid technique, based in montecarlo simulations, may allow us to separate the light and the heavy primary components. Based in simulations, we expect good quality measurement of the number of secondary particles due to the proximity of the array to the level of maximum development of the EAS Xmax .

  2. Imaging performance of the hybrid pixel detectors XPAD3-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, F Cassol; Clemens, J C; Hemmer, C; Morel, C

    2009-03-21

    Hybrid pixel detectors, originally developed for tracking particles in high-energy physics experiments, have recently been used in material sciences and macromolecular crystallography. Their capability to count single photons and to apply a threshold on the photon energy suggests that they could be optimal digital x-ray detectors in low energy beams such as for small animal computed tomography (CT). To investigate this issue, we have studied the imaging performance of photon counting hybrid pixel detectors based on the XPAD3-S chip. Two detectors are considered, connected either to a Si or to a CdTe sensor, the latter being of interest for its higher efficiency. Both a standard 'International Electrotechnical Commission' (IEC) mammography beam and a beam used for mouse CT results published in the literature are employed. The detector stability, linearity and noise are investigated as a function of the dose for several imaging exposures ( approximately 0.1-400 microGy). The perfect linearity of both detectors is confirmed, but an increase in internal noise for counting statistics higher than approximately 5000 photons has been found, corresponding to exposures above approximately 110 microGy and approximately 50 microGy for the Si and CdTe sensors, respectively. The noise power spectrum (NPS), the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are then measured for two energy threshold configurations (5 keV and 18 keV) and three doses ( approximately 3, 30 and 300 microGy), in order to obtain a complete estimation of the detector performances. In general, the CdTe sensor shows a clear superiority with a maximal DQE(0) of approximately 1, thanks to its high efficiency ( approximately 100%). The DQE of the Si sensor is more dependent on the radiation quality, due to the energy dependence of its efficiency its maximum is approximately 0.4 with respect to the softer radiation. Finally, we compare the XPAD3-S DQE with published curves of

  3. Academic Training: Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15 April from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques C. JORAM, L. ROPELEWSKI, M. MOLL, C. D'AMBROSIO, T. GYS / CERN-PH The lecture series presents an overview of the physical principles and basic techniques of particle detection, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, chosen mainly from the field of collider experiments, demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. Main topics of the series are: interaction of particles and photons with matter; particle tracking with gaseous and solid state devices, including a discussion of radiation damage and strategies for improved radiation hardness; scintillation and photon detection; electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry; particle identification using specific energy loss dE/dx, time of flight, Cherenkov light and transition radi...

  4. Academic Training: Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15 April from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques C. JORAM, L. ROPELEWSKI, M. MOLL, C. D'AMBROSIO, T. GYS / CERN-PH The lecture series presents an overview of the physical principles and basic techniques of particle detection, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, chosen mainly from the field of collider experiments, demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. Main topics of the series are: interaction of particles and photons with matter; particle tracking with gaseous and solid state devices, including a discussion of radiation damage and strategies for improved radiation hardness; scintillation and photon detection; electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry; particle identification using specific energy loss dE/dx, time of flight, Cherenkov light and transition radi...

  5. Discovery Mondays - The detectors: tracking particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    View of a module from the LHCb vertex detector, which will be presented at the next Discovery Monday. How do you observe the invisible? In order to deepen still further our knowledge of the infinitely small, physicists accelerate beams of particles at close to the speed of light, then generate collisions between them at extraordinary energies, giving birth to showers of new particles. What are these particles? In order to find out, physicists transform themselves into detectives with the help of the detectors. Located around the collision area, these exceptional machines are made up of various layers, each of which detects and measures specific properties of the particles that travel through them. Powerful computers then reconstruct their trajectory and record their charge, mass and energy in order to build up a kind of particle ID card. At the next Discovery Monday you will be able to find out about the different methods used at CERN to detect particles. A cloud chamber will provide live images of the trac...

  6. A Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Acconcia, T V; Barile, F; Barnafoldi, G G; Bellwied, R; Bencedi, G; Bencze, G; Berenyi, D; Boldizsar, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Cindolo, F; Chinellato, D D; D'Ambrosio, S; Das, D; Das-Bose, L; Dash, A K; De Cataldo, G; De Pasquale, S; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Futo, E; Garcia, E; Hamar, G; Harton, A; Iannone, G; Jimenez, R T; Kim, D W; Kim, J S; Knospe, A; Kovacs, L; Levai, P; Nappi, E; Markert, C; Martinengo, P; Mayani, D; Molnar, L; Olah, L; Paic, G; Pastore, C; Patimo, G; Patino, M E; Peskov, V; Pinsky, L; Piuz F; Pochybova, S; Sgura, I; Sinha, T; Song, J; Takahashi, J; Timmins, A; Van Beelen, J B; Varga, D; Volpe, G; Weber, M; Xaplanteris, L; Yi, J; Yoo, I K

    2014-01-01

    The construction of a new detector is proposed to extend the capabilities of ALICE in the high transverse momentum (pT) region. This Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID) performs charged hadron identification on a track-by-track basis in the 5 GeV/c < p < 25 GeV/c momentum range and provides ALICE with new opportunities to study parton-medium interactions at LHC energies. The VHMPID covers up to 30% of the ALICE central barrel and presents sufficient acceptance for triggered- and tagged-jet studies, allowing for the first time identified charged hadron measurements in jets. This Letter of Intent summarizes the physics motivations for such a detector as well as its layout and integration into ALICE.

  7. Discovery Mondays - The detectors: tracking particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    View of a module from the LHCb vertex detector, which will be presented at the next Discovery Monday. How do you observe the invisible? In order to deepen still further our knowledge of the infinitely small, physicists accelerate beams of particles and generate collisions between them at extraordinary energies. The collisions give birth to showers of new particles. What are they? In order to find out, physicists slip into the role of detectives thanks to the detectors. At the next Discovery Monday you will find out about the different methods used at CERN to detect particles. A cloud chamber will allow you to see the tracks of cosmic particles live. You will also be given the chance to see real modules for the ATLAS and for the LHCb experiments. Strange materials will be on hand, such as crystals that are heavier than iron and yet as transparent as glass... Come to the Microcosm and become a top detective yourself! This event will take place in French. Join us at the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, M...

  8. Performance of a prototype RICH detector using hybrid photo-diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Bibby, J H; Brook, N H; Duane, A; French, M; Gibson, V; Giles, R; Halley, A W; Harnew, N; John, M; Miller, D G; O'Shea, V; Teixeira-Dias, P; Smale, N J; Websdale, David M; Wilkinson, G R; Wotton, S A

    2001-01-01

    A prototype Ring-Imaging Cherenkov detector has been operated in a charged particle test beam, Cherenkov photons are imaged onto a plane of hybrid photo-diode detectors. The geometrical arrangement of the prototype and data-taking conditions are described. An analysis of the detector performance, using silica aerogel, air and C/sub 4/F/sub 10/ gas radiators, is presented. The photon yields and observed Cherenkov angle resolutions are found to be in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulation and satisfy the requirements of the RICH 1 detector in the LHCb experiment. (14 refs).

  9. Performance of a prototype RICH detector using hybrid photo-diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Billy, J H; Brook, N H; Duane, A; French, M; Gibson, V; Giles, R; Halley, A W; Harnew, N; John, M; Miller, D G; O'Shea, V; Teixeira-Dias, P; Smale, N J; Websdale, D M; Wilkinson, G; Wotton, S A

    2001-01-01

    A prototype Ring-Imaging Cherenkov detector has been operated in a charged particle test beam. Cherenkov photons are imaged onto a plane of hybrid photo-diode detectors. The geometrical arrangement of the prototype and data-taking conditions are described. An analysis of the detector performance, using silica aerogel, air and C4F10 gas radiators, is presented. The photon yields and observed angle resolutions are found to be in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulation and satisfy the requirements of the RICH-1 detector in the LHCb experiment.

  10. The future of CO2 cooling in particle physics detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Verlaat; A.P. Colijn; H. Postema

    2011-01-01

    Evaporative CO2 cooling has attracted a lot of interest as cooling fluid for particle physics detectors. Two detectors (the AMS on the International Space Station and the LHCb at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN) have been equipped with CO2 cooling; many more particle detectors are considering it f

  11. Hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenhardt, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters use the pixel Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD) as a photo-sensitive device. Photo-electrons are produced in semi-transparent multi-alkali photo-cathode (S20) and are accelerated by a voltage of 20 kV onto a pixelated silicon anode. The anode is bump-bonded to the LHCBPIX1 pixel readout chip which amplifies and digitises the anode signals at the LHC speed of 40 MHz. Using a demagnification of five, the effective pixel size at the HPD window is 2.5 x 2.5 mm$^2$. Over the course of 18 months, 550 HPSs will undergo a quality-assurance programme to verify the specifications and to characterise the tubes. The tested parameters include the threshold and noise behaviour of the chip, the response to light emitting diode (LED) light, the demagnification of the electron optics, the leakage current and the depletion of the silicon sensor, the quality of the vacuum, the signal efficiency and the dark count rate. Results of tests of the first nine HPDs of the final design are pr...

  12. Cryogenics for Particle Accelerators and Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P; Vandoni, Giovanna; Wagner, U

    2002-01-01

    Cryogenics has become a key ancillary technology of particle accelerators and detectors, contributing to their sustained development over the last fifty years. Conversely, this development has produced new challenges and markets for cryogenics, resulting in a fruitful symbiotic relation which materialized in significant technology transfer and technical progress. This began with the use of liquid hydrogen and deuterium in the targets and bubble chambers of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. It developed more recently with increasing amounts of liquefied noble gases - mainly argon, but also krypton and even today xenon - in calorimeters. In parallel with these applications, the availability of practical type II superconductors from the early 1960s triggered the use of superconductivity in large spectrometer magnets - mostly driven by considerations of energy savings - and the corresponding development of helium cryogenics. It is however the generalized application of superconductivity in particle accelerators - RF ac...

  13. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  14. Nuclear Track Detectors. Searches for Exotic Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G

    2008-01-01

    We used Nuclear Track Detectors (NTD) CR39 and Makrofol for many purposes: i) Exposures at the SPS and at lower energy accelerator heavy ion beams for calibration purposes and for fragmentation studies. ii) Searches for GUT and Intermediate Mass Magnetic Monopoles (IMM), nuclearites, Q-balls and strangelets in the cosmic radiation. The MACRO experiment in the Gran Sasso underground lab, with ~1000 m^2 of CR39 detectors (plus scintillators and streamer tubes), established an upper limit for superheavy GUT poles at the level of 1.4x10^-16 cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1 for 4x10^-5 detectors exposed for 4.22 y, gave an upper limit for IMMs of ~1.3x10^-15 cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1. The experiments yielded interesting upper limits also on the fluxes of the other mentioned exotic particles. iii) Environmental studies, radiation monitoring, neutron dosimetry.

  15. Particle detectors in Rindler and Schwarzchild space-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, K.J. (Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics)

    1983-06-21

    It is shown that a particle detector coupled to the derivative of a scalar quantum field can be viewed as a bona fide 'particle detector'. The response of such a detector is compared with that of a linearly coupled monopole (DeWitt) detector when both are placed in each of three situations: an isotropic particle bath, in Rindler space, and in Schwarzchild space. From their responses it is shown that there is a fundamental difference in how these two detectors behave. As a result, the use of particle detectors to support the close links between quantum field theory in non-Minkowskian spaces and thermal physics is shown to be in need of deeper consideration as is the general role of particle detectors in this theory.

  16. A time of flight detector for high energy heavy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    As a commonly used method to measure the energy of a particle with known mass, the flight time of the particle travelling over a certain distance is measured. A detector based on this principle is called a time-of-flight (TOF) detector which has attracted interests constantly during the last 15 years. For high energy heavy particle energy detection, TOF detector is an appropriated choice and such a system, developed recently, is described in this paper. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Particle Identification in Cherenkov Detectors using Convolutional Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Tomalty

    2016-01-01

    Cherenkov detectors are used for charged particle identification. When a charged particle moves through a medium faster than light can propagate in that medium, Cherenkov radiation is released in the shape of a cone in the direction of movement. The interior of the Cherenkov detector is instrumented with PMTs to detect this Cherenkov light. Particles, then, can be identified by the shapes of the images on the detector walls.

  18. The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gascon, A.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Mičanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The "hybrid" detection mode combines the information from the two subsystems. We describe the determination of the hybrid exposure for events observed by the fluorescence telescopes in coincidence with at least one water-Cherenkov detector of the surface array. A detailed knowledge of the time dependence of the detection operations is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the exposure. We discuss the relevance of monitoring data collected during operations, such as the status of the fluorescence detector, background light and atmospheric conditions, that are used in both simulation and reconstruction.

  19. The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-06-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The 'hybrid' detection mode combines the information from the two subsystems. We describe the determination of the hybrid exposure for events observed by the fluorescence telescopes in coincidence with at least one water-Cherenkov detector of the surface array. A detailed knowledge of the time dependence of the detection operations is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the exposure. We discuss the relevance of monitoring data collected during operations, such as the status of the fluorescence detector, background light and atmospheric conditions, that are used in both simulation and reconstruction.

  20. GEM - A novel gaseous particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Meinschad, T

    2005-01-01

    The work carried out within the framework of this Ph.D. deals with the construction of gaseous prototype detectors using Gas Electron Multiplier electrodes for the amplification of charges released by ionizing particles. The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a thin metal-clad polymer foil, etched with a high density of narrow holes, typically 50-100mm-2. On the application of a potential difference between the conductive top and bottom sides each hole acts as independent proportional counter. This new fast device permits to reach large amplification factors at high rates with a strong photon and ion-mediated feedback suppression due to the avalanche confinement in the GEM-holes. Here, in particular studies have been performed, which should prove, that the GEM-technology is applicable for an efficient measurement of single Cherenkov photons. These UV-photons can be detected in different ways. An elegant solution to develop large area RICH-detectors is to evaporate a pad-segmented readout-cathode of a multi-wire...

  1. Hybrid Contacts for CZT Virtual Frisch-grid Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarda G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Chan, W.; Cui, Y.; Gul R.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; Yang, G.; James, R.B.

    2011-08-22

    In our previous design of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, the charge drift-lines can be terminated at the side surfaces before the carriers reach the collecting anode; this results in a loss of signal from the interacting events near the detector's edges. Here, we describe our new design for the anode contact that reduces these edge effects by focusing the electric field towards the detectors' central axes. Four detectors were fabricated with the new hybrid anode contact, and their performances were evaluated and compared to those from the previous design for our virtual Frisch-grid detectors. The results obtained for all four showed similar improvement: therefore, we illustrate them with the findings from one detector.

  2. Mapping coherence in measurement via full quantum tomography of a hybrid optical detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Puentes, Graciana; Lundeen, Jeff S; Jin, Xian-Min; Smith, Brian J; Plenio, Martin B; Walmsley, Ian A

    2012-01-01

    Quantum states and measurements exhibit wave-like --- continuous, or particle-like --- discrete, character. Hybrid discrete-continuous photonic systems are key to investigating fundamental quantum phenomena, generating superpositions of macroscopic states, and form essential resources for quantum-enhanced applications, e.g. entanglement distillation and quantum computation, as well as highly efficient optical telecommunications. Realizing the full potential of these hybrid systems requires quantum-optical measurements sensitive to complementary observables such as field quadrature amplitude and photon number. However, a thorough understanding of the practical performance of an optical detector interpolating between these two regions is absent. Here, we report the implementation of full quantum detector tomography, enabling the characterization of the simultaneous wave and photon-number sensitivities of quantum-optical detectors. This yields the largest parametrization to-date in quantum tomography experiments...

  3. Eco gases for future particle gas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kjølbro, Jógvan Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Due to global regulations of non environmental refrigerants, some of the gas mixtures used in gas detectors at CERN has to be replaced. This report is a review that summarises and predicts some properties that are important when selecting new gases to operate in the gas detectors.

  4. SU-8 as a Material for Microfabricated Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Maoddi, Pietro; Jiguet, Sebastien; Renaud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Several recent detector te chnologies developed for particle physics applications are based on microfabricated structures. Dete ctors built with this approach generally exhibit the overall best performance in te rms of spatial and time resolution. Many properties of the SU-8 photoepoxy make it suitable for the manufacturing of microstructured particle detectors. This arti cle aims to review some emerging detector technologies making use of SU-8 microstructu ring, namely micropatte rn gaseous detectors and microfluidic scintillation detectors. Th e general working principle and main process steps for the fabrication of each device are reported, with a focus on the advantages brought to the device functionality by the us e of SU-8. A novel process based on multiple bonding steps for the fabrication of thin multila yer microfluidic scin tillation detectors developed by the authors is presented. Finally, a brief overview of the applications for the discussed devices is given.

  5. GaAs Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kostamo, P; Vähänen, S; Tlustos, L; Fröjdh, C; Campbell, M; Zhilyaev, Y; Lipsanen, H

    2008-01-01

    A GaAs Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector based on high purity epitaxial GaAs material was successfully fabricated. The mesa type GaAs sensor with 256×256 pixels and total area of 1.4×1.4 cm2 was made of a 140-μm-thick epitaxial p–i–n structure utilizing reactive ion etching. A final thickness of approximately 110 μm for the all-epitaxial sensor element is achieved by back-thinning procedure. The sensor element is bump bonded to a Medipix2 read-out ASIC. The detector is capable of room temperature spectroscopic operation and it demonstrates the potential of GaAs for high resolution X-ray imaging systems operating at room temperature. This work describes the manufacturing process and electrical properties of the GaAs Medipix2 hybrid detector.

  6. The AlGaAs light emitting particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pozela, J; Silenas, A; Juciene, V; Dapkus, L; Jasutis, V; Tamulaitis, G; Zukauskas, A; Bendorius, R A

    1999-01-01

    An AlGaAs light emitting particle detector was fabricated and investigated experimentally. Light emitting semiconductor Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As layers with graded-gap energy band structure were grown, and luminescence spectra were investigated. A light emitting X-ray detector was also fabricated. (author)

  7. Major detectors in elementary-particle physics. [Portfolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidal, G.; Armstrong, B.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    With the 1983 issue of LBL-91 we introduce a supplement - a folio of descriptions of the world's major elementary particle physics detectors. Modern high energy physics usually involves the use of massive, costly, carefully engineered, large solid angle detectors. These detectors require a long lead time for construction, are often integrated with an accelerator, accumulate data over many years, and are in reality a combination of numerous subsystems. As was the case with bubble chambers, many experiments are performed with the same data, or with data taken after relatively minor changes or additions to the detector configuration. These experiments are often reported in journals whose space limitations make repeated full descriptions of the detector impossible. The detailed properties and performance of the detector are usually described in a fragmented series of papers in more specialized, technologically oriented journals. New additions are often not well documented. Several detectors often make similar measurements and physicists want to make quick comparisons of their respective capabilities. Designers of new large detectors and even of smaller experiments need to know what already exists and what performance has been achieved. To aid the physics community, the Particle Data Group has produced this brief folio of the world's major large detectors. This first edition has some notable omissions: in particular, the bubble chambers and any associated spectrometers, and the still somewhat tentative LEP, SLC, and TRISTAN detectors.

  8. Major detectors in elementary-particle physics. [Portfolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidal, G.; Armstrong, B.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    With the 1983 issue of LBL-91 we introduce a supplement - a folio of descriptions of the world's major elementary particle physics detectors. Modern high energy physics usually involves the use of massive, costly, carefully engineered, large solid angle detectors. These detectors require a long lead time for construction, are often integrated with an accelerator, accumulate data over many years, and are in reality a combination of numerous subsystems. As was the case with bubble chambers, many experiments are performed with the same data, or with data taken after relatively minor changes or additions to the detector configuration. These experiments are often reported in journals whose space limitations make repeated full descriptions of the detector impossible. The detailed properties and performance of the detector are usually described in a fragmented series of papers in more specialized, technologically oriented journals. New additions are often not well documented. Several detectors often make similar measurements and physicists want to make quick comparisons of their respective capabilities. Designers of new large detectors and even of smaller experiments need to know what already exists and what performance has been achieved. To aid the physics community, the Particle Data Group has produced this brief folio of the world's major large detectors. This first edition has some notable omissions: in particular, the bubble chambers and any associated spectrometers, and the still somewhat tentative LEP, SLC, and TRISTAN detectors.

  9. Particle-impact noise detector (PIND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, R. J.; Jackson, D. E.; Leaf, W. D.; Meza, R. G.; Rader, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    Package, in page assembly, is subjected to low-frequency vibration, and noise generated by particle impacts is picked up by transducer. Test procedure calls for three transverse shocks to be applied to page to dislodge any trapped particles.

  10. Particle Trajectory Visualization and Identification with Timepix Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, Jessica; Shaa, Ameir; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The TimePix detector is a largely passive detector deployed at point 8 on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring. It is able to detect different kinds of radiation in real time. Energy deposits in the detector is registered as signal describing the spacial trajectories of passing particles. The signal data is analysed and classified in order to understand the types of particle interactions occurring and identify anomalous occurrences. Using topological features if trajectories described by the data and one or more related features of said topology, the data was categorized using an algorithm to an efficiency of 85%.

  11. Thermalization of particle detectors: The Unruh effect and its reverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Luis J.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; de Ramón, José

    2016-11-01

    We study the anti-Unruh effect in general stationary scenarios. We find that, for accelerated trajectories, a particle detector coupled to a Kubo-Martin-Schwinger (KMS) state of a quantum field can cool down (click less often) as the KMS temperature increases. Remarkably, this is so even when the detector is switched on adiabatically for infinitely long times. We also show that the anti-Unruh effect is characteristic of accelerated detectors and cannot appear for inertially moving detectors (e.g., in a thermal bath).

  12. Review of amorphous silicon based particle detectors: the quest for single particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrsch, N.; Ballif, C.

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is attractive for radiation detectors because of its radiation resistance and processability over large areas with mature Si microfabrication techniques. While the use of a-Si:H for medical imaging has been very successful, the development of detectors for particle tracking and minimum-ionizing-particle detection has lagged, with almost no practical implementation. This paper reviews the development of various types of a-Si:H-based detectors and discusses their respective achievements and limitations. It also presents more recent developments of detectors that could potentially achieve single particle detection and be integrated in a monolithic fashion into a variety of applications.

  13. 3D track reconstruction capability of a silicon hybrid active pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pichotka, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vycpalek, Jiri; Burian, Petr; Broulim, Pavel; Jakubek, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Timepix3 detectors are the latest generation of hybrid active pixel detectors of the Medipix/Timepix family. Such detectors consist of an active sensor layer which is connected to the readout ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), segmenting the detector into a square matrix of 256 × 256 pixels (pixel pitch 55 μm). Particles interacting in the active sensor material create charge carriers, which drift towards the pixelated electrode, where they are collected. In each pixel, the time of the interaction (time resolution 1.56 ns) and the amount of created charge carriers are measured. Such a device was employed in an experiment in a 120 GeV/c pion beam. It is demonstrated, how the drift time information can be used for "4D" particle tracking, with the three spatial dimensions and the energy losses along the particle trajectory (dE/dx). Since the coordinates in the detector plane are given by the pixelation ( x, y), the x- and y-resolution is determined by the pixel pitch (55 μm). A z-resolution of 50.4 μm could be achieved (for a 500 μm thick silicon sensor at 130 V bias), whereby the drift time model independent z-resolution was found to be 28.5 μm.

  14. A prototype hybrid pixel detector ASIC for the CLIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Valerio, P; Arfaoui, S; Ballabriga, R; Benoit, M; Bonacini, S; Campbell, M; Dannheim, D; De Gaspari, M; Felici, D; Kulis, S; Llopart, X; Nascetti, A; Poikela, T; Wong, W S

    2014-01-01

    A prototype hybrid pixel detector ASIC specifically designed to the requirements of the vertex detector for CLIC is described and first electrical measurements are presented. The chip has been designed using a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology and comprises a matrix of 64x64 square pixels with 25 μm pitch. The main features include simultaneous 4-bit measure- ment of Time-over-Threshold (ToT) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) with 10 ns accuracy, on-chip data compression and power pulsing capability.

  15. First Data with the Hybrid Array of Gamma-Ray Detectors (HAGRiD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karl; Burcher, S.; Carter, A. B.; Gryzwacz, R.; Jones, K. L.; Munoz, S.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Schmitt, K.; Thornsberry, C.; Chipps, K. A.; Febbraro, M.; Pain, S. D.; Baugher, T.; Cizewski, J. A.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Toomey, B.

    2016-09-01

    The structure of nuclei provides insight into astrophysical reaction rates that are difficult to measure directly. These studies are often performed with transfer reaction and beta-decay measurements. These experiments benefit from particle-gamma coincident measurements providing information beyond that of particle detection alone. The Hybrid Array of Gamma Ray Detectors (HAGRiD) of LaBr3(Ce) scintillators has been designed with this purpose in mind. The design of the array permits it to be coupled with particle detector systems, such as the Oak Ridge Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) of silicon detectors and the Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE). It is also designed to operate with the Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics (JENSA) advanced target system. HAGRiD's design avoids compromising the charged-particle angular resolution due to compact geometries often used to increase the gamma efficiency in other systems. First experimental data with HAGRiD coupled to VANDLE as well as ORRUBA and JENSA will be presented. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science Nuclear Physics and the National Science Foundation.

  16. Particle Accelerators and Detectors for medical Diagnostics and Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Braccini, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    This Habilitationsschrift (Habilitation thesis) is focused on my research activities on medical applications of particle physics and was written in 2013 to obtain the Venia Docendi (Habilitation) in experimental physics at the University of Bern. It is based on selected publications, which represented at that time my major scientific contributions as an experimental physicist to the field of particle accelerators and detectors applied to medical diagnostics and therapy. The thesis is structured in two parts. In Part I, Chapter 1 presents an introduction to accelerators and detectors applied to medicine, with particular focus on cancer hadrontherapy and on the production of radioactive isotopes. In Chapter 2, my publications on medical particle accelerators are introduced and put into their perspective. In particular, high frequency linear accelerators for hadrontherapy are discussed together with the new Bern cyclotron laboratory. Chapter 3 is dedicated to particle detectors with particular emphasis on three ...

  17. Hybrid Simulations of Particle Acceleration at Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of large hybrid (kinetic ions - fluid electrons) simulations of particle acceleration at non-relativistic collisionless shocks. Ion acceleration efficiency and magnetic field amplification are investigated in detail as a function of shock inclination and strength, and compared with predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory, for shocks with Mach number up to 100. Moreover, we discuss the relative importance of resonant and Bell's instability in the shock precursor, and show that diffusion in the self-generated turbulence can be effectively parametrized as Bohm diffusion in the amplified magnetic field.

  18. Imaging Hybrid Photon Detectors with a Reflective Photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Ferenc, D

    2000-01-01

    Modern epitaxially grown photocathodes, like GaAsP, bring a very high inherent quantum efficiency, but are rather expensive due to the complicated manufacturing and mounting process. We argue that such photocathodes could be used in reflective mode, in order to avoid the risky and expensive removal of the epitaxial growth substrate. Besides that the quantum efficiency should increase considerably. In this paper we present results of the development of large imaging Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs), particularly designed for such reflective photocathodes.

  19. Image Steganography using Hybrid Edge Detector and Ridgelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    S.UMA MAHESWARI; D. Jude Hemanth

    2015-01-01

    Steganography is the art of hiding high sensitive information in digital image, text, video, and audio. In this paper, authors have proposed a frequency domain steganography method operating in the Ridgelet transform. Authors engage the advantage of ridgelet transform, which represents the digital image with straight edges. In the embedding phase, the proposed hybrid edge detector acts as a preprocessing step to obtain the edge image from the cover image, then the edge image is partitioned in...

  20. Search for Long-lived particles with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Masahiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Several supersymmetric models predict the production of massive long-lived supersymmetric particles. Such particles, if charged, may be detected through abnormal specific energy loss or long time-of-flight to the calorimeters. The poster presents recent results from searches of long-lived supersymmetric charged particles using proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

  1. Search for stable massive SUSY particles with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Jochen Jens; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Several supersymmetric models predict the production of massive long-lived supersymmetric particles. Such particles, if charged, may be detected through abnormal specific energy loss or long time-of-flight to the calorimeters. The talk presents recent results from searches of long-lived supersymmetric charged particles using proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

  2. Pixel hybrid photon detector magnetic distortions characterization and compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Forty, Roger W; Gys, Thierry; Patel, Mitesh; Piedigrossi, Didier; Van Lysebetten, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The LHCb experiment requires positive kaon identification in the momentum range 2-100 GeV/c. This is provided by two ring imaging Cherenkov detectors. The stringent requirements on the photon detectors are fully satisfied by the novel pixel hybrid photon detector, HPD. The HPD is a vacuum tube with a quartz window, S20 photo-cathode, cross-focusing electron optics and a silicon anode encapsulated within the tube. The anode is a 32*256 pixels hybrid detector, with a silicon sensor bump-bonded onto a readout chip containing 8192 channels with analogue front-end and digital read-out circuitry. An external magnetic field influences the trajectory of the photoelectrons and could thereby degrade the inherent excellent space resolution of the HPD. The HPDs must be operational in the fringe magnetic field of the LHCb magnet. This paper reports on an extensive experimental characterization of the distortion effects. The characterization has allowed the development of parameterisations and of a compensation algorithm. ...

  3. Development of Interconnect Technologies for Particle Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Mani [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This final report covers the three years of this grant, for the funding period 9/1/2010 - 8/31/2013. The project consisted of generic detector R&D work at UC Davis, with an emphasis on developing interconnect technologies for applications in HEP. Much of the work is done at our Facility for Interconnect Technologies (FIT) at UC Davis. FIT was established using ARRA funds, with further studies supported by this grant. Besides generic R&D work at UC Davis, FIT is engaged in providing bump bonding help to several DOE supported detector R&D efforts. Some of the developmental work was also supported by funding from other sources: continuing CMS project funds and the Linear Collider R&D funds. The latter program is now terminated. The three year program saw a good deal of progress on several fronts, which are reported here.

  4. Non-Gaussianity as a Particle Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hayden; Pimentel, Guilherme L

    2016-01-01

    We study the imprints of massive particles with spin on cosmological correlators. Using the framework of the effective field theory of inflation, we classify the couplings of these particles to the Goldstone boson of broken time translations and the graviton. We show that it is possible to generate observable non-Gaussianity within the regime of validity of the effective theory, as long as the masses of the particles are close to the Hubble scale and their interactions break the approximate conformal symmetry of the inflationary background. We derive explicit shape functions for the scalar and tensor bispectra that can serve as templates for future observational searches.

  5. Non-Gaussianity as a particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hayden [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge University,Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Baumann, Daniel; Pimentel, Guilherme L. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge University,Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam,Science Park, Amsterdam, 1090 GL (Netherlands)

    2016-12-13

    We study the imprints of massive particles with spin on cosmological correlators. Using the framework of the effective field theory of inflation, we classify the couplings of these particles to the Goldstone boson of broken time translations and the graviton. We show that it is possible to generate observable non-Gaussianity within the regime of validity of the effective theory, as long as the masses of the particles are close to the Hubble scale and their interactions break the approximate conformal symmetry of the inflationary background. We derive explicit shape functions for the scalar and tensor bispectra that can serve as templates for future observational searches.

  6. Hybrid Pixel Detectors for gamma/X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Zografos, V.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are made by direct converting high-Z semi-insulating single crystalline material coupled to complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. They are attractive because direct conversion exterminates all the problems of spatial localization related to light diffusion, energy resolution, is far superior from the combination of scintillation crystals and photomultipliers and lithography can be used to pattern electrodes with very fine pitch. We are developing 2-D pixel CMOS ASICs, connect them to pixilated CdTe crystals with the flip chip and bump bonding method and characterize the hybrids. We have designed a series of circuits, whose latest member consists of a 50×25 pixel array with 400um pitch and an embedded controller. In every pixel a full spectroscopic channel with time tagging information has been implemented. The detectors are targeting Compton scatter imaging and they can be used for coded aperture imaging too. Hybridization using CMOS can overcome the limit put on pixel circuit complexity by the use of thin film transistors (TFT) in large flat panels. Hybrid active pixel sensors are used in dental imaging and other applications (e.g. industrial CT etc.). Thus X-ray imaging can benefit from the work done on dynamic range enhancement methods developed initially for visible and infrared CMOS pixel sensors. A 2-D CMOS ASIC with 100um pixel pitch to demonstrate the feasibility of such methods in the context of X-ray imaging has been designed.

  7. Optically thin hybrid cavity for terahertz photo-conductive detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. J.; Siday, T.; Glass, S.; Luk, T. S.; Reno, J. L.; Brener, I.; Mitrofanov, O.

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of photoconductive (PC) devices, including terahertz detectors, is constrained by the bulk optical constants of PC materials. Here, we show that optical absorption in a PC layer can be modified substantially within a hybrid cavity containing nanoantennas and a Distributed Bragg Reflector. We find that a hybrid cavity, consisting of a GaAs PC layer of just 50 nm, can be used to absorb >75% of incident photons by trapping the light within the cavity. We provide an intuitive model, which describes the dependence of the optimum operation wavelength on the cavity thickness. We also find that the nanoantenna size is a critical parameter, small variations of which lead to both wavelength shifting and reduced absorption in the cavity, suggesting that impedance matching is key for achieving efficient absorption in the optically thin hybrid cavities.

  8. Development of Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array for a new EAS hybrid Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jinsheng; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Ying; Zhai, Liuming; Chen, Xu; Hu, Xiaobin; Lin, Yuhui; Zhang, Xueyao; Feng, Cunfeng; Jia, Huanyu; Zhou, Xunxiu; DanZengLuoBu,; Chen, Tianlu; Li, Haijin; Liu, Maoyuan; Yuan, Aifang

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the observation of cosmic-ray chemical composition at the "knee" energy region, we have been developinga new type air-shower core detector (YAC, Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array) to be set up at Yangbajing (90.522$^\\circ$ E, 30.102$^\\circ$ N, 4300 m above sea level, atmospheric depth: 606 g/m$^2$) in Tibet, China. YAC works together with the Tibet air-shower array (Tibet-III) and an underground water cherenkov muon detector array (MD) as a hybrid experiment. Each YAC detector unit consists of lead plates of 3.5 cm thick and a scintillation counter which detects the burst size induced by high energy particles in the air-shower cores. The burst size can be measured from 1 MIP (Minimum Ionization Particle) to $10^{6}$ MIPs. The first phase of this experiment, named "YAC-I", consists of 16 YAC detectors each having the size 40 cm $\\times$ 50 cm and distributing in a grid with an effective area of 10 m$^{2}$. YAC-I is used to check hadronic interaction models. The second phase of the experiment,...

  9. Development of compact particle detectors for space based instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Lindsey; Grove, Andrew; Mohler, Jacob; Sisson, Caleb; Roth, Alex; Kryemadhi, Abaz

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are new photon-detectors which have been increasingly used in particle physics. Their small size, good single photon resolution, simple readout, and immunity to magnetic fields offers benefits compared to traditional photomultipliers. LYSO and CeBr3 crystals are relatively new scintillators with high stopping power, very good light yield and fast decay time. The response of these detectors to low energy gamma rays will be presented. NASA Pennsylvania Space Grant Consortium.

  10. Particle Identification in the NIMROD-ISiS Detector Array

    CERN Document Server

    Wuenschel, S; May, L W; Wada, R; Yennello, S J

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the influence of the neutron-to-proton (N/Z) ratio on multifragmenting nuclei has demanded an improvement in the capabilities of multi-detector arrays as well as the companion analysis methods. The particle identification method used in the NIMROD-ISiS 4 $\\pi$ array is described. Performance of the detectors and the analysis method are presented for the reaction of 86Kr+64Ni at 35MeV/u.

  11. Development of Hybrid and Monolithic Silicon Micropattern Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Beker, H; Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Lemeilleur, F; Ropotar, I

    2002-01-01

    %RD-19 \\\\ \\\\ In a collaborative effort between particle physics institutes and microelectronics industry we are undertaking the development of true 2-dimensional semiconductor particle detectors with on-chip signal processing and information extraction: the so-called micropattern detector. This detector is able to cope in a robust way with high multiplicity events at high rates, while allowing for a longer detector lifetime under irradiation and a thinner sensitive depletion region. Therefore, it will be ideally suited for the complicated events in the LHC p-p collider experiments. Following a $^{\\prime}$stepping stone$^{\\prime}$ approach several telescopes of pixel planes, totalling now 600 cm$^{2}$ with \\(>\\)~1~M elements have been used in the WA97, NA50 and NA57 lead ion experiments. This new technology has facilitated the tracking considerably (see Fig.1). Not only Si but also GaAs and possibly diamond matrices can be connected to the readout matrix. Tests with GaAs pixel detectors with the RD-19 readout ...

  12. Can a particle detector cross a Cauchy horizon?

    CERN Document Server

    Juárez-Aubry, Benito A

    2015-01-01

    Cauchy horizons are well known to exhibit instabilities in classical spacetime dynamics and singularities in quantum field theory. We analyse the response of an Unruh-DeWitt particle detector that falls towards a Cauchy horizon, in terms of the specifics of the horizon, the choice of the quantum state and the specifics of the detector's trajectory. As a prototype, we study in detail the case for the $1+1$ Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole with a scalar field in the Hartle-Hawking state. Comparisons are made with the response of a detector that falls into a Schwarzschild-like singularity.

  13. Environment recognition applied to particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Corbi Bellot, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Resumen en español Introducción Los detectores de partículas son dispositivos que registran la radiación ionizante, bien de sistemas activos (rayos X, aceleradores, etc.) o bien de isótopos radiactivos. Para poder realizar medidas de precisión con estos instrumentos, es necesario modelar geométricamente el entorno, contorno o escena bajo estudio. Estas condiciones geométricas se pueden determinar de forma más o menos precisa en algunos experimentos de física de partículas/nuclear, ...

  14. Performance comparison of scintillators for alpha particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Yuki; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Izaki, Kenji; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Toui, Kohei; Tsubota, Youichi; Higuchi, Mikio

    2014-11-01

    Scintillation detectors for alpha particles are often used in nuclear fuel facilities. Alpha particle detectors have also become important in the research field of radionuclide therapy using alpha emitters. ZnS(Ag) is the most often used scintillator for alpha particle detectors because its light output is high. However, the energy resolution of ZnS(Ag)-based scintillation detectors is poor because they are not transparent. A new ceramic sample, namely the cerium doped Gd2Si2O7 (GPS) scintillator, has been tested as alpha particle detector and its performances have been compared to that one of three different scintillating materials: ZnS(Ag), GAGG and a standard plastic scintillator. The different scintillating materials have been coupled to two different photodetectors, namely a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a Silicon Photo-multiplier (Si-PM): the performances of each detection system have been compared. Promising results as far as the energy resolution performances (10% with PMT and 14% with Si-PM) have been obtained in the case of GPS and GAGG samples. Considering the quantum efficiencies of the photodetectors under test and their relation to the emission wavelength of the different scintillators, the best results were achieved coupling the GPS with the PMT and the GAGG with the Si-PM

  15. Particle flow with the HADES detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveaux, Christina [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The high densities and pressures of the nuclear fireball created in heavy ion collisions modify the momenta of the emitted particles. Particle azimuthal anisotropies (flow) form therefore one of the most sensitive observables to the equation of state of the matter created in such collisions. We studied the flow of protons and pions in Au+Au collisions at 1.23 GeV/u beam energy based on data which was recorded with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) in 2012. First and preliminary results of the study are shown, and the option to extend the study to the flow of direct photons is discussed.

  16. Gas-silicon detector telescope for charged particle spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkanen, A.; Oinonen, M.; Aeystoe, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Eskola, K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Phys.; Jokinen, A. [PPE Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); ISOLDE Collaboration

    1997-08-11

    A gas-silicon detector telescope for charged particle spectroscopy has been constructed and tested. The lower detection limits were determined to be 155 keV for protons, 180 keV for deuterons and 350 keV for alpha particles. Typical energy resolution of the telescope measured for beta-delayed protons is 20 keV. Time resolution for the signals of the telescope was measured to be less than 10 ns. Examples of using the detector telescope in detection of beta-delayed proton activities are presented. (orig.).

  17. Microfabricated high-throughput electronic particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D. K.; Requa, M. V.; Cleland, A. N.

    2007-10-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and use of a radio frequency reflectometer integrated with a microfluidic system, applied to the very high-throughput measurement of micron-scale particles, passing in a microfluidic channel through the sensor region. The device operates as a microfabricated Coulter counter [U.S. Patent No. 2656508 (1953)], similar to a design we have described previously, but here with significantly improved electrode geometry as well as including electronic tuning of the reflectometer; the two improvements yielding an improvement by more than a factor of 10 in the signal to noise and in the diametric discrimination of single particles. We demonstrate the high-throughput discrimination of polystyrene beads with diameters in the 4-10μm range, achieving diametric resolutions comparable to the intrinsic spread of diameters in the bead distribution, at rates in excess of 15×106beads/h.

  18. Particle Accelerators and Detectors for medical Diagnostics and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Braccini, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    This Habilitationsschrift (Habilitation thesis) is focused on my research activities on medical applications of particle physics and was written in 2013 to obtain the Venia Docendi (Habilitation) in experimental physics at the University of Bern. It is based on selected publications, which represented at that time my major scientific contributions as an experimental physicist to the field of particle accelerators and detectors applied to medical diagnostics and therapy. The thesis is structur...

  19. Search for Long-lived particles with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Masahiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Several supersymmetric models predict the production of meta-stable supersymmetric particles. Such particles, if charged, may be detected through disappearing tracks. The poster presents recent results from disappearing track analysis based on an integrated luminosity of 36.1 $\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.

  20. Microwave kinetic inductance detectors for astronomy and particle detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Monfardini, Alessandro [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite J. Fourier, Grenoble (France); Roesch, Markus; Schuster, Karl [IRAM, St. Martin d' Heres (France)

    2011-07-01

    A new type of superconducting detector, the Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector, has recently drawn the attention of the low-temperature detector community. Easy fabrication, high sensitivity, low time constants and most notably the intrinsic capability to frequency multiplexing open new possibilities to applications that need very large array sizes and/or high speed read-out. We develop detector arrays for applications in the domain of astronomy, particle detection, phonon imaging and Helium-physics based on Lumped Element KIDs (LEKIDs). In a LEKID a resonant circuit composed of a discrete inductance and capacitance is coupled to a transmission line. The constant current density in the inductive part makes it a very efficient detector for em-radiation and particles. In this contribution we discuss detector principle, design and measured characteristics. Then we focus on the application for a millimeter wavelength camera, successfully tested at the IRAM 30-meter telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain in October 2010. The current instrument contains two arrays at 100 mK with more than 100 pixels on one read-out-line each for observations at 1.3 and 2 mm. The performances are the best achieved as of today for groundbased KIDs with sensitivities already comparable with existing (horns-coupled bolometers) instruments.

  1. Processing of Radiation Hard Particle Detectors on Czochralski Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Tuovinen, Esa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the radiation hardness of particle detectors. Silicon detectors are cost-effective andhave an excellent spatial resolution. Therefore, they are widely used in many high-energy physics experiments. It is knownthat oxygen improves the radiation hardness of silicon detectors. The natural way to have a high concentration of oxygen insilicon is to use magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si). MCz-Si has intrinsically a relatively uniform and high level ofoxygen (5x10^17 cm^3) compared to regular float-zone silicon (FZ-Si). Such a level is hard to attain with other methods,namely the diffusion oxygenation of float-zone silicon.In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its potential upgrade, the luminosity and the fluencies of fast hadrons can be sohigh that detectors made of standard detector-grade FZ-Si might not survive the planned operating period. MCz-Si offers animprovement to the lifetime of particle detectors through improved radiation hardness.This thesis takes a process-orie...

  2. Electron imaging with Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    McMullan, G; Chen, S; Henderson, R; Llopart, X; Summerfield, C; Tlustos, L; Faruqi, A R

    2007-01-01

    The electron imaging performance of Medipix2 is described. Medipix2 is a hybrid pixel detector composed of two layers. It has a sensor layer and a layer of readout electronics, in which each 55 μm×55 μm pixel has upper and lower energy discrimination and MHz rate counting. The sensor layer consists of a 300 μm slab of pixellated monolithic silicon and this is bonded to the readout chip. Experimental measurement of the detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0) at 120 keV shows that it can reach 85% independent of electron exposure, since the detector has zero noise, and the DQE(Nyquist) can reach 35% of that expected for a perfect detector (4/π2). Experimental measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist resolution for 120 keV electrons using a 60 keV lower energy threshold, yields a value that is 50% of that expected for a perfect detector (2/π). Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks and energy deposited in adjacent pixels have been performed and used to calculate expected v...

  3. AIDA – pushing the boundaries of European particle detector research

    CERN Multimedia

    Naomi Gilraen Wyles

    2011-01-01

    AIDA (Advanced European Infrastructures for Detectors at Accelerators), a new project co-funded by the European Union and worth a total of 26 million euros, will be officially launched at CERN next week. The kick-off meeting will take place on 16-18 February, during which Europe-wide detector physicists will come together to begin work on detector infrastructure developments for future particle physics experiments.   Coordinated by CERN, AIDA involves more than 80 institutes and laboratories from 23 countries as beneficiaries or associate partners (the full list can be found here). This four-year project will receive 8 million euros from the European Commission's FP7 Research Infrastructures programme. AIDA will develop facilities covering the four main goals identified by the European Strategy for Particle Physics. These are the LHC upgrade, Linear Colliders, Neutrino facilities and Super-B factories. These facilities will also be available for other researchers in the fields of nuclear and par...

  4. Particle identification below threshold with AMS-02 RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ziyuan; Giovacchini, Francesca; Hoffman, Julia; Haino, Sadakazu

    2016-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) was installed on the International Space Station (ISS) and it has been collecting data successfully since May 2011. The main goals of AMS-02 are the search for cosmic anti-matter, dark matter and the precise measurement of the relative abundance of elements and isotopes in galactic cosmic rays. In order to identify particle properties, AMS-02 includes several specialized sub-detectors. Among them, the AMS-02 Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH) is designed to provide a very precise measurement of the velocity and electric charge of particles. A method to reject the dominant electron background in antiproton identification using the AMS-02 RICH detector as a veto will be described. By using the collected cosmic-rays data, electron contamination can be well suppressed within 3% with $\\beta \\approx 1$, while keeping 76% efficiency for antiprotons below the threshold.

  5. Interdefect charge exchange in silicon particle detectors at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    MacEvoy, B; Hall, G; Moscatelli, F; Passeri, D; Santocchia, A

    2002-01-01

    Silicon particle detectors in the next generation of experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will be exposed to a very challenging radiation environment. The principal obstacle to long-term operation arises from changes in detector doping concentration (N/sub eff/), which lead to an increase in the bias required to deplete the detector and hence achieve efficient charge collection. We have previously presented a model of interdefect charge exchange between closely spaced centers in the dense terminal clusters formed by hadron irradiation. This manifestly non-Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism leads to a marked increase in carrier generation rate and negative space charge over the SRH prediction. There is currently much interest in the subject of cryogenic detector operation as a means of improving radiation hardness. Our motivation, however, is primarily to investigate our model further by testing its predictions over a range of temperatures. We present measurements of spectra from /sup 241/Am alpha par...

  6. Scintillation Particle Detectors Based on Plastic Optical Fibres and Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Alessandro; Renaud, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, development, and experimental validation of two types of scintillation particle detectors with high spatial resolution. The first one is based on the well established scintillating fibre technology. It will complement the ATLAS (A Toroidal Large ApparatuS) detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The second detector consists in a microfabricated device used to demonstrate the principle of operation of a novel type of scintillation detector based on microfluidics. The first part of the thesis presents the work performed on a scintillating fibre tracking system for the ATLAS experiment. It will measure the trajectory of protons elastically scattered at very small angles to determine the absolute luminosity of the CERN LHC collider at the ATLAS interaction point. The luminosity of an accelerator characterizes its performance. It is a process-independent parameter that is completely determined by the properties of the colliding beams and it relates the cross section of a ...

  7. Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Detectors for astronomy and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M.; Goupy, J.; D`Addabbo, A.; Benoit, A.; Bourrion, O.; Catalano, A.; Monfardini, A.

    2016-07-01

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) represent a novel detector technology based on superconducting resonators. Since their first demonstration in 2003, they have been rapidly developed and are today a strong candidate for present and future experiments in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has been possible thanks to the unique features of such devices: in particular, they couple a very high sensitivity to their intrinsic suitability for frequency domain multiplexed readout, making the fabrication of large arrays of ultrasensitive detectors possible. There are many fields of application that can profit of such detectors. Here, we will briefly review the principle of operation of a KID, and give two sample applications, to mm-wave astronomy and to particle physics.

  8. Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Detectors for astronomy and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, M., E-mail: martino.calvo@neel.cnrs.fr [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Goupy, J.; D' Addabbo, A.; Benoit, A. [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Bourrion, O. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Catalano, A. [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Monfardini, A. [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-11

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) represent a novel detector technology based on superconducting resonators. Since their first demonstration in 2003, they have been rapidly developed and are today a strong candidate for present and future experiments in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has been possible thanks to the unique features of such devices: in particular, they couple a very high sensitivity to their intrinsic suitability for frequency domain multiplexed readout, making the fabrication of large arrays of ultrasensitive detectors possible. There are many fields of application that can profit of such detectors. Here, we will briefly review the principle of operation of a KID, and give two sample applications, to mm-wave astronomy and to particle physics.

  9. Development of hybrid gas detectors for monitoring neutrons induced from the large intensity proton linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, G. S.; Lee, G. S.; Ahn, S. H. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-15

    Design of a hybrid gaseous detector for slow neutrons. Construction of the hybrid gaseous detector and tests with a {sup 52}Cf isotope and the MC-50 cyclotron. Designs, constructions, and tests for hybrid scintillators using various neutron sensitive materials (2{sup nd} year). Application to development of detectors for high energy physics (2{sup nd} year). Practical R and Ds for applications to medical and industrial purposes (3{sup rd} year)

  10. Pixel hybrid photon detectors for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Somerville, L

    2005-01-01

    A Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector (pixel HPD) has been developed for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. The pixel HPD is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photocathode, high-voltage cross- focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a CMOS readout chip; the readout chip is thus fully encapsulated in the device. The pixel HPD fulfils the stringent requirements for the RICH detectors of LHCb, combining single photon sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio and fast readout with an ~8cm diameter active area and an effective pixel size of 2.5mm 2.5mm at the photocathode. The performance and characteristics of two prototype pixel HPDs have been studied in laboratory measurements and in recent beam tests. The results of all measurements agree with expectations and fulfil the LHCb RICH requirements. In readiness for production of the ~500pixel HPDs for the RICH detectors, a test programme was designed and implemented to ensure component quality control at eac...

  11. Using CHIMERA detector at LNS for gamma-particle coincidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardella G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently evaluated the quality of γ-ray angular distributions that can be extracted in particle-gamma coincidence measurements using the CHIMERA detector at LNS. γ-rays have been detected using the CsI(Tl detectors of the spherical part of the CHIMERA array. Very clean γ-rays angular distributions were extracted in reactions induced by different stable beams impinging on 12C thin targets. The results evidenced an effect of projectile spin flip on the γ-rays angular distributions. γ-particle coincidence measurements were also performed in reactions induced by neutron rich exotic beams produced through in-flight fragmentation at LNS. In recent experiments also the Farcos array was used to improve energy and angular resolution measurements of the detected charged particles. Results obtained with both stable and radioactive beams are reported.

  12. Fano factor evaluation of diamond detectors for alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Shimmyo, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8628 (Japan); Sato, Yuki [Naraha Remote Technology Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naraha-machi, Futaba-gun, Fukushima, 979-0513 (Japan); Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Mokuno, Yoshiaki [Advanced Power Electronics Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka, 563-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Hideyuki [Research Institute for Electronics and Photonics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, 305-8565 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    This report is the first describing experimental evaluation of Fano factor for diamond detectors. High-quality self-standing chemical vapor deposited diamond samples were produced using lift-off method. Alpha-particle induced charge measurements were taken for three samples. A 13.1 ±0.07 eV of the average electron-hole pair creation energy and excellent energy resolution of approximately 0.3% were found for 5.486 MeV alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am radioactive source. The best Fano factor for 5.486 MeV alpha particles, calculated from experimentally obtained epsilon values and the detector intrinsic energy resolution, was 0.382 ± 0.007. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Investigation of sapphire detector designed for single particle detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacheban, Olena; Hempel, Maria [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany); Afanaciev, Konstantin [NCPHEP, Minsk (Belarus); Henschel, Hans; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Levy, Itamar [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Lohmann, Wolfgang [Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus (Germany); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Novgorodova, Olga [Technical University, Dresden (Germany); Schuwalow, Sergej [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For beam halo and beam loss monitoring systems at accelerators extremely radiation hard sensors are needed. Single crystal sapphire is a promising material. Industrially grown sapphire wafers are available in large sizes, are low in cost and can be operated at room temperature. Currently sapphire sensors are used for a beam-loss monitor at FLASH,detecting bunches of particles crossing the sensors simultaneously. Here we present a multichannel detector designed for single minimum ionising particle detection using a stack of sapphire plates. The performance of the detector was studied in a 5 GeV electron beam at DESY-II. The detector was operated together with the EUDET beam telescope, which allowed the reconstruction of the position of the hits at the detector. For each sapphire plate the charge collection efficiency was measured as a function of the bias voltage and the signal size as a function of the hit position with respect to the metal electrodes. The data confirms that mainly electrons contribute to the signal. Based on these results the next generation sapphire detector will be designed.

  14. Silicone-containing aqueous polymer dispersions with hybrid particle structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakiewicz, Janusz; Ofat, Izabela; Trzaskowska, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the synthesis, characterization and application of silicone-containing aqueous polymer dispersions (APD) with hybrid particle structure are reviewed based on available literature data. Advantages of synthesis of dispersions with hybrid particle structure over blending of individual dispersions are pointed out. Three main processes leading to silicone-containing hybrid APD are identified and described in detail: (1) emulsion polymerization of organic unsaturated monomers in aqueous dispersions of silicone polymers or copolymers, (2) emulsion copolymerization of unsaturated organic monomers with alkoxysilanes or polysiloxanes with unsaturated functionality and (3) emulsion polymerization of alkoxysilanes (in particular with unsaturated functionality) and/or cyclic siloxanes in organic polymer dispersions. The effect of various factors on the properties of such hybrid APD and films as well as on hybrid particles composition and morphology is presented. It is shown that core-shell morphology where silicones constitute either the core or the shell is predominant in hybrid particles. Main applications of silicone-containing hybrid APD and related hybrid particles are reviewed including (1) coatings which show specific surface properties such as enhanced water repellency or antisoiling or antigraffiti properties due to migration of silicone to the surface, and (2) impact modifiers for thermoplastics and thermosets. Other processes in which silicone-containing particles with hybrid structure can be obtained (miniemulsion polymerization, polymerization in non-aqueous media, hybridization of organic polymer and polysiloxane, emulsion polymerization of silicone monomers in silicone polymer dispersions and physical methods) are also discussed. Prospects for further developments in the area of silicone-containing hybrid APD and related hybrid particles are presented.

  15. Image Steganography using Hybrid Edge Detector and Ridgelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uma Maheswari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding high sensitive information in digital image, text, video, and audio. In this paper, authors have proposed a frequency domain steganography method operating in the Ridgelet transform. Authors engage the advantage of ridgelet transform, which represents the digital image with straight edges. In the embedding phase, the proposed hybrid edge detector acts as a preprocessing step to obtain the edge image from the cover image, then the edge image is partitioned into several blocks to operate with straight edges and Ridgelet transform is applied to each block. Then, the most significant gradient vectors (or significant edges are selected to embed the secret data. The proposed method has shown the advantages of imperceptibility of the stego image is increased because the secret data is hidden in the significant gradient vector. Authors employed the hybrid edge detector to obtain the edge image, which increases the embedding capacity. Experimental results demonstrates that peak signal-to-noise (PSNR ratio of stego image generated by this method versus the cover image is guaranteed to be above 49 dB. PSNR is much higher than that of all data hiding techniques reported in the literature.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 3, May 2015, pp.214-219, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.7871

  16. 3D electronics for hybrid pixel detectors – TWEPP-09

    CERN Document Server

    Godiot, S; Chantepie, B; Clémens, J C; Fei, R; Fleury, J; Fougeron, D; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Krueger, H; Mekkaoui, A; Pangaud, P; Rozanov, A; Wermes, N

    2009-01-01

    Future hybrid pixel detectors are asking for smaller pixels in order to improve spatial resolution and to deal with an increasing counting rate. Facing these requirements is foreseen to be done by microelectronics technology shrinking. However, this straightforward approach presents some disadvantages in term of performances and cost. New 3D technologies offer an alternative way with the advantage of technology mixing. For the upgrade of ATLAS pixel detector, a 3D conception of the read-out chip appeared as an interesting solution. Splitting the pixel functionalities into two separate levels will reduce pixel size and open the opportunity to take benefit of technology's mixing. Based on a previous prototype of the read-out chip FE-I4 (IBM 130nm), this paper presents the design of a hybrid pixel read-out chip using threedimensional Tezzaron-Chartered technology. In order to disentangle effects due to Chartered 130nm technology from effects involved by 3D architecture, a first translation of FEI4 prototype had ...

  17. Some recent developments in nuclear charged particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzer, H.

    1980-08-01

    The latest developments of large-area, position sensitive gas-filled ionization chambers are described. Multi-wire-proportional chambers as position-sensing and parallel-plate-avalanche counters as time-sensing detectors at low pressure (5 torr) have proven to be useful and reliable instruments in heavy ion physics. Gas (proportional) scintillation counters, used mainly for x-ray spectroscopy, have recently been applied as particle detectors. Finally, a brief description of a large plastic scintillator spectrometer, the Plastic Ball, is given and some of the first test and calibration data are shown.

  18. Test of a Diamond Detector Using Unbunched Beam Halo Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Pernegger, H; Dobos, D; Frais-Kolbl, H; Griesmayer, E

    2010-01-01

    A pCVD diamond detector has been evaluated as a beam loss monitor for future applications in the LHC accelerator. The test monitor was mounted in the SPS BA5 downstream of a LHC collimator during the LHC beam set-up. CVD diamond particle detectors are already in use in the CERN experiments ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and Alice. This is a proven technology with high radiation tolerance and very fast signal read-out. It can be used for single-particle detection, as well as for measuring particle cascades, for timing measurements on the nanosecond scale and for beam protection systems. Despite the read-out being made through 250 m of CK50 cable, the tests have shown a very good signal-to-noise ratio of 6.8, an excellent double-pulse resolution of less than 5 ns and a high dynamic range of 1:350 MIP particles. The efficiency of particle detection is practically 100% for charged particles.

  19. Thermal analysis of the ambient air around a particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gasser, D

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS particle detector will be in operation at CERN in a few years. The so-called "end cap muon chambers", which form a sub-system of this detector, need to be aligned accurately by means of light rays. Despite the significant amount of heat released in the air by the detector, the rays must not be too much distorted by temperature difference. In order to predict ambient temperature gradient, a thermal analysis is done using a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model. Because of the complexity of ATLAS geometry, relevant assumptions need to be made in order to get a suitable model for numerical analysis and which give reliable results at the same time.

  20. A Hybrid Method with Deviational Particles for Spatial Inhomogeneous Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Bokai

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in \\cite{YC15}, a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method \\cite{BLM08} to design an efficient hybrid method. Furthermore, coarse particles are employed to accelerate the simulation. A particle resampling technique on both deviational particles and coarse particles is also investigated and improved. The efficiency is significantly improved compared to a PIC-MCC method, especially near the fluid regime.

  1. Polarization of silicon detectors by minimum ionizing particles

    CERN Document Server

    Dezillie, B; Li, Z; Verbitskaya, E

    2000-01-01

    This work presents quantitative predictions of the properties of highly irradiated (e.g. by high-energy particles, up to an equivalent fluence of 1x10 sup 1 sup 4 n cm sup - sup 2) silicon detectors operating at cryogenic temperature. It is shown that the exposure to the Minimum Ionising Particle (MIP) with counting rates of about 10 sup 6 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 can influence the electric field distribution in the detector's sensitive volume. This change in the electric field distribution and its effect on the charge collection efficiency are discussed in the frame of a model based on trapping of carriers generated by MIPs. The experiment was performed at 87 K with an infrared (1030 nm) laser to simulate MIPs.

  2. A novel technique of particle identification with bolometric detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, C.; Brofferio, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Gironi, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.

    2011-06-01

    We report in this paper the proofs that the pulse shape analysis can be used in some bolometers to identify the nature of the interacting particle. Indeed, while detailed analyses of the signal time development in purely thermal detectors have not produced so far interesting results, similar analyses on bolometers built with scintillating crystals seem to show that it is possible to distinguish between an electron or γ-ray and an α particle interaction. This information can be used to eliminate background events from the recorded data in many rare process studies, especially Neutrinoless Double Beta decay search. Results of pulse shape analysis of signals from a number of bolometers with absorbers of different composition (CaMoO 4, ZnMoO 4, MgMoO 4 and ZnSe) are presented and the pulse shape discrimination capability of such detectors is discussed.

  3. Polarization of silicon detectors by minimum ionizing particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezillie, B.; Eremin, V.; Li, Z.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2000-10-01

    This work presents quantitative predictions of the properties of highly irradiated (e.g. by high-energy particles, up to an equivalent fluence of 1×10 14 n cm -2) silicon detectors operating at cryogenic temperature. It is shown that the exposure to the Minimum Ionising Particle (MIP) with counting rates of about 10 6 cm -2 s -1 can influence the electric field distribution in the detector's sensitive volume. This change in the electric field distribution and its effect on the charge collection efficiency are discussed in the frame of a model based on trapping of carriers generated by MIPs. The experiment was performed at 87 K with an infrared (1030 nm) laser to simulate MIPs.

  4. Simulation of polyvinylidene fluoride detector response to hypervelocity particle impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppe, Andrew, E-mail: poppe@lasp.colorado.ed [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Jacobsmeyer, Brian [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); James, David [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Horanyi, Mihaly [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2010-10-21

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films have been utilized as interplanetary dust detectors for many years in a variety of space environments. PVDF serves as a dust detector by producing a 'depolarization' charge upon hypervelocity impact. Previous instruments have relied on empirical calibrations to establish the relationship between the mass and velocity of the impacting dust particle and the generated charge. Here, we present a new theoretical derivation of PVDF response to non-penetrating hypervelocity particle impacts. We compare our simulation results to experimental calibration data from the Cosmic Dust Experiment on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite and the Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons mission. The simulation results agree well with the experimental data, yet suggest a modified crater diameter scaling law for non-penetrating hypervelocity impacts into PVDF.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of the Galileo energetic particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, I; Garrett, H B; McEntire, R W

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo radiation transport studies have been performed for the Galileo spacecraft energetic particle detector (EPD) in order to study its response to energetic electrons and protons. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, MCNP version 4B (for electrons) and MCNPX version 2.2.3 (for protons), were used throughout the study. The results are presented in the form of 'geometric factors' for the high-energy channels studied in this paper: B1, DC2, and DC3 for electrons and B0, DC0, and DC1 for protons. The geometric factor is the energy-dependent detector response function that relates the incident particle fluxes to instrument count rates. The trend of actual data measured by the EPD was successfully reproduced using the geometric factors obtained in this study.

  6. High collection efficiency thin film diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A. [CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B. [University College, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Diamond is a resilient material with rather extreme electronic properties. As such it is an interesting candidate for the fabrication of high performance solid state particle detectors. However, the commercially accessible form of diamond, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods, is polycrystalline in nature and often displays rather poor electrical characteristics. This paper considers ways in which this material may be used to form alpha particle detectors with useful performance levels. One approach adopted has been to reduce the impurity levels within the feed-stock gases that are used to grow the diamond films. This has enabled significant improvements to be achieved in the mean carrier drift distance within the films leading to alpha detectors with up to 40% collection efficiencies. An alternative approach explored is the use of planar device geometries whereby charge collection is limited to the top surface of the diamond which comprises higher quality material than the bulk of the film. This has lead to collection efficiencies of 70%, the highest yet reported for polycrystalline CVD diamond based detectors. Techniques for improving the characteristics of these devices further are discussed.

  7. Position-sensitive silicon strip detector characterization using particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Maenpaeae, Teppo

    2012-01-01

    Silicon strip detectors are fast, cost-effective and have an excellent spatial resolution.They are widely used in many high-energy physics experiments. Modern high energyphysics experiments impose harsh operation conditions on the detectors, e.g., of LHCexperiments. The high radiation doses cause the detectors to eventually fail as a resultof excessive radiation damage. This has led to a need to study radiation tolerance usingvarious techniques. At the same time, a need to operate sensors approaching the endtheir lifetimes has arisen.The goal of this work is to demonstrate that novel detectors can survive the environment that is foreseen for future high-energy physics experiments. To reach this goal,measurement apparatuses are built. The devices are then used to measure the propertiesof irradiated detectors. The measurement data are analyzed, and conclusions are drawn.Three measurement apparatuses built as a part of this work are described: two telescopes measuring the tracks of the beam of a particle acceler...

  8. A new detector array for charged particle spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, R L; Chappell, S P G; Clarke, N M; Freer, M; Fulton, B R; Cunningham, R A; Curtis, N; Dillon, G; Lilley, J; Jones, C D; Lee, P; Rae, W D M

    1999-01-01

    A compact and highly segmented detector array consisting of 44 gas-silicon-caesium iodide, position sensitive, particle identification detector telescopes and up to 10 position-sensitive, silicon strip detectors has been constructed for the study of light-ion-heavy-ion reactions including cluster break-up in the energy range 5-15 MeV/nucleon. The detectors are housed in a purpose built vacuum chamber. The telescopes are placed in fixed positions, covering the forward hemisphere from 3 to 30 deg. in the laboratory with the target placed at 535 mm from the front of the telescopes or 6-52 deg. with the target placed at 215 mm. The strip detectors are placed in any of 30 fixed positions in the forward hemisphere. For 85 MeV sup 1 sup 2 C ions the telescope energy resolution (gas plus silicon) is 345 keV with an angular resolution of 0.03 deg. . Using the gas-silicon section ions with Z up to 21 can be identified. For ions that pass through the silicon isotopic identification is achieved using the silicon-CsI comb...

  9. Particle detectors in curved spacetime quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgkinson, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Unruh-DeWitt particle detector models are studied in a variety of time-dependent and time-independent settings. We work within the framework of first-order perturbation theory and couple the detector to a massless scalar field. The necessity of switching on (off) the detector smoothly is emphasised throughout, and the transition rate is found by taking the sharp-switching limit of the regulator-free and finite response function. The detector is analysed on a variety of spacetimes: $d$-dimensional Minkowski, the Ba\\~nados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, the two-dimensional Minkowski half-plane, two-dimensional Minkowski with a receding mirror, and the two- and four-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes. In $d$-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, the transition rate is found to be finite up to dimension five. In dimension six, the transition rate diverges unless the detector is on a trajectory of constant proper acceleration, and the implications of this divergence to the global embedding spacetime (GEMS) met...

  10. Measurements of Si Hybrid CMOS X-Ray Detector Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, Stephen D; Burrows, David N; Cook, Robert; Bai, Yibin; Farris, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The development of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for X-Ray telescope focal planes will place them in con- tention with CCDs on future satellite missions due to their faster frame rates, flexible readout scenarios, lower power consumption, and inherent radiation hardness. CCDs have been used with great success on the current generation of X-Ray telescopes (e.g. Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and Swift). However their bucket-brigade read-out architecture, which transfers charge across the chip with discrete component readout electronics, results in clockrate limited readout speeds that cause pileup (saturation) of bright sources and an inherent susceptibility to radiation induced displacement damage that limits mission lifetime. In contrast, HCDs read pixels with low power, on-chip multiplexer electronics in a random access fashion. Faster frame rates achieved with multi-output readout design will allow the next generation's larger effective area telescopes to observe bright sources free of pileup. Radiation damaged latt...

  11. Capacitively coupled hybrid pixel assemblies for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627; Benoit, Mathieu; Dannheim, Dominik; Dette, Karola; Hynds, Daniel; Kulis, Szymon; Peric, Ivan; Petric, Marko; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva; Valerio, Pierpaolo

    2016-01-01

    The vertex detector at the proposed CLIC multi-TeV linear e+e- collider must have minimal material content and high spatial resolution, combined with accurate time-stamping to cope with the expected high rate of beam-induced backgrounds. One of the options being considered is the use of active sensors implemented in a commercial high-voltage CMOS process, capacitively coupled to hybrid pixel ASICs. A prototype of such an assembly, using two custom designed chips (CCPDv3 as active sensor glued to a CLICpix readout chip), has been characterised both in the lab and in beam tests at the CERN SPS using 120 GeV/c positively charged hadrons. Results of these characterisation studies are presented both for single and dual amplification stages in the active sensor. Pixel cross-coupling results are also presented, showing the sensitivity to placement precision and planarity of the glue layer.

  12. Optimization of detector positioning in the radioactive particle tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Olivier; Dubé, David; Chaouki, Jamal; Bertrand, François

    2014-07-01

    The radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique is a non-intrusive experimental velocimetry and tomography technique extensively applied to the study of hydrodynamics in a great variety of systems. In this technique, arrays of scintillation detector are used to track the motion of a single radioactive tracer particle emitting isotropic γ-rays. This work describes and applies an optimization strategy developed to find an optimal set of positions for the scintillation detectors used in the RPT technique. This strategy employs the overall resolution of the detectors as the objective function and a mesh adaptive direct search (MADS) algorithm to solve the optimization problem. More precisely, NOMAD, a C++ implementation of the MADS algorithm is used. First, the optimization strategy is validated using simple cases with known optimal detector configurations. Next, it is applied to a three-dimensional axisymmetric system (i.e. a vertical cylinder, which could represent a fluidized bed, bubble column, riser or else). The results obtained using the optimization strategy are in agreement with what was previously recommended by Roy et al. (2002) for a similar system. Finally, the optimization strategy is used for a system consisting of a partially filled cylindrical tumbler. The application of insights gained by the optimization strategy is shown to lead to a significant reduction in the error made when reconstructing the position of a tracer particle. The results of this work show that the optimization strategy developed is sensitive to both the type of objective function used and the experimental conditions. The limitations and drawbacks of the optimization strategy are also discussed.

  13. The High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) for the CSES satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparvoli, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    We present the advanced High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) developed to be installed on the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), launch scheduled by the end of 2016. The HEPD instrument aims at studying the temporal stability of the inner Van Allen radiation belts and at investigating precipitation of trapped particles induced by magnetospheric, ionosferic and tropospheric EM emissions, as well as by the seismo-electromagnetic and anthropogenic disturbances. In occasion of many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, several measurements, on ground and by experiments on LEO satellites revealed: electromagnetic and plasma perturbations, and anomalous increases of high-energy Van Allen charged particle flux. The precipitation of trapped electrons and protons (from a few MeV to several tens of MeV) could be induced by diffusion of particles pitch-angle possibly caused by the seismo-electromagnetic emissions generated before (a few hours) earthquakes. Due to the longitudinal drift along a same L-shell, anomalous particle bursts of precipitating particles could be detected by satellites not only on the epicentral area of the incoming earthquake, but along the drift path. Moreover, the opposite drift directions of positive and negative particles could allow reconstructing the longitude of the earthquake focal area. Although, the earthquake prediction is not within the reach of current knowledge, however the study of the precursors aims at collecting all relevant information that can infer the spatial and temporal coordinates of the seismic events from measurements. At this purposes, it is essential to detect particles in a wide range of energies (because particles of different energies are sensitive to different frequencies of seismo-electromagnetic emissions), with a good angular resolution (in order to separate fluxes of trapped and precipitating particles), and excellent ability to recognize the charge (that determines the direction of the longitudinal drift

  14. Pixel Vertex Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Pixel vertex detectors are THE instrument of choice for the tracking of charged particles close to the interaction point at the LHC. Hybrid pixel detectors, in which sensor and read-out IC are separate entities, constitute the present state of the art in detector technology. Three of the LHC detectors use vertex detectors based on this technology. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as ...

  15. Fast Frontend Electronics for high luminosity particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinali, M; Bondy, M I Ferretti; Hoek, M; Lauth, W; Rosner, C; Sfienti, C; Thiel, M

    2015-01-01

    Future experiments of nuclear and particle physics are moving towards the high luminosity regime, in order to access suppressed processes like rare B decays or exotic charmonium resonances. In this scenario, high rate capability is a key requirement for electronics instrumentation, together with excellent timing resolution for precise event reconstruction. The development of dedicated FrontEnd Electronics (FEE) for detectors has become increasingly challenging. A current trend in R&D is towards multipurpose FEE which can be easily adapted to a great variety of detectors, without impairing the required high performance. We report on high-precision timing solutions which utilise high-bandwidth preamplifiers and fast discriminators providing Time-over-Threshold information, which can be used for charge measurements or walk corrections thus improving the obtainable timing resolution. The output signal are LVDS and can be directly fed into a multi-hit TDC readout. The performance of the electronics was investi...

  16. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: emoreno.emb@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y Rio Verde, Puebla (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, F. [Hospital General del Sur Hospital de la Mujer, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  17. Characterization of GaAs:Cr-based Timepix detector using synchrotron radiation and charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyanskiy, P.; Chelkov, G.; Guskov, A.; Dedovich, D.; Kozhevnikov, D.; Kruchonak, U.; Leyva Fabelo, A.; Zhemchugov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The interest in the use of high resistivity gallium arsenide compensated by chromium (GaAs:Cr) for photon detection has been growing steadily due to its numerous advantages over silicon. At the same time, the prospects of this material as a sensor for pixel detectors in nuclear and high energy physics are much less studied. In this paper we report the results of characterization of the Timepix detectors hybridized with GaAs:Cr sensors of various thickness using synchrotron radiation and various charged particles, including alphas and heavy ions. The energy and spatial resolution have been determined. Interesting features of GaAs:Cr specific to the detector response to an extremely dense energy deposit by heavy ions have been observed for the first time. The long-term stability of the detector has been evaluated based on the measurements performed over one year. Possible limitation of GaAs:Cr as a sensor for high flux X-ray imaging is discussed.

  18. The HEPD particle detector and the EFD electric field detector for the CSES satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, L.; Ambroglini, F.; Ambrosi, G.; Ammendola, R.; Assante, D.; Badoni, D.; Belyaev, V. A.; Burger, W. J.; Cafagna, A.; Cipollone, P.; Consolini, G.; Conti, L.; Contin, A.; Angelis, E. De; Donato, C. De; Franceschi, G. De; Santis, A. De; Santis, C. De; Diego, P.; Durante, M.; Fornaro, C.; Guandalini, C.; Laurenti, G.; Laurenza, M.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lolli, M.; Manea, C.; Marcelli, L.; Marcucci, F.; Masciantonio, G.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Palmonari, F.; Panico, B.; Patrizii, L.; Picozza, P.; Pozzato, M.; Rashevskaya, I.; Ricci, M.; Rovituso, M.; Scotti, V.; Sotgiu, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spataro, B.; Spogli, L.; Tommasino, F.; Ubertini, P.; Vannaroni, G.; Xuhui, S.; Zoffoli, S.

    2017-08-01

    The CSES satellite, developed by Chinese (CNSA) and Italian (ASI) space Agencies, will investigate iono-magnetospheric disturbances (induced by seismicity and electromagnetic emissions of tropospheric and anthropogenic origin); will monitor the temporal stability of the inner Van Allen radiation belts and will study the solar-terrestrial coupling by measuring fluxes of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. In particular the mission aims at confirming the existences (claimed from several analyses) of a temporal correlations between the occurrence of earthquakes and the observation in space of electromagnetic disturbances, plasma fluctiations and anomalous fluxes of high-energy particles precipitating from the inner Van Allen belt. CSES will be launched in the summer of 2017 with a multi-instruments payload able to measure: e.m. fields, charged particles, plasma, TEC, etc. The Italian LIMADOU collaboration will provide the High-Energy Particle Detector (HEPD), designed for detecting electrons (3-200 MeV) and proton (30-300 MeV)), and participates to develop the Electric Field Detector (EFD) conceived for measuring electric field from ∼DC up to 5 MHz.

  19. Final Search for Lightly Ionizing Particles with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkauoi, J; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Esposito, L; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kumar, A; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Mengucci, A; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2004-01-01

    We present the final results of a search for lightly ionizing particles using the entire cosmic ray data set the MACRO detector collected during its 1995-2000 run. Like the original search performed with the data of 1995-96, this search was sensitive to fractionally charged particles with an electric charge q as low as e/5 and with velocities between approximately 0.25c and c. The efficiency of this search was approx 70% for q = e/5 and increased rapidly to 100% for higher charges. No candidate events were observed. This corresponds to a 90% C. L. upper limit on their isotropic flux of 6.1x10^-16 cm^-2 sec^-1 sr^-1 which represents the most stringent experimental limit ever obtained.

  20. Development of a 13-in. Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) for a next generation water Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakkan@hep.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kusaka, A. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kakuno, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Abe, T. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Iwasaki, M. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiozawa, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida city, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Tanaka, M. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kyushima, H. [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5 Simokanzo, Iwata City 438-0193, Shizuoka (Japan); Suyama, M. [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5 Simokanzo, Iwata City 438-0193, Shizuoka (Japan); Kawai, Y. [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5 Simokanzo, Iwata City 438-0193, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a 13-in. Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) for photosensors in next generation water Cherenkov type detectors. We study the performance of the HAPD and the results show good time resolution better than {sigma}=1ns, good sensitivity for single photon detection, wide dynamic range, and good uniformity on the photocathode. The HAPD is also expected to be less expensive than large PMTs because of its simpler structure without dynodes.

  1. Retina neural circuitry seen with particle detector technology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Using particle physics techniques, high energy physics researchers have recently provided new insight into neural circuits inside the retina. After uncovering a new type of retinal cell and mapping how the retina deals with colours, the team from Santa Cruz (US), Krakow and Glasgow is now turning its attention to more complex issues such as how the retina gets wired up and how the brain deals with the signals it receives from the retina. All this using technology derived from high-density, multistrip silicon detectors…   Seen from the point of view of a particle physicist, eyes are image detectors that can gather many different types of data: light and dark, different colours, motion, etc. In particular, the retina, a thin tissue that lines the back of the eye, is a biological pixel detector that detects light and converts it to electrical signals that travel through the optic nerve to the brain. Neurobiologists know that many different cell types are involved in these processes, but they...

  2. New scintillating media based on liquid crystals for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Barnik, M I; Vasilchenko, V G; Golovkin, S V; Medvedkov, A M; Soloviev, A S

    2000-01-01

    The study results of optical, photoluminiscent and scintillation properties of a liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl are presented. The scintillation light output of this liquid crystal is about 35% of crystal anthracene, its main decay time constants are 4 and 14 ns, and the maximum of light emission spectrum is about 400 nm. The light output of a dissolution of green emitting light scintillation dopant R6 in the liquid crystal is about 120% of crystal anthracene. The light output of the frozen dissolution measured at -112 deg. C is about 2.5 times higher as observed at +20 deg. C. In the uniaxially oriented liquid crystal, the predominant intensity direction of emitted light is pointed perpendicular to the liquid crystal director and an appreciable part of the emitted light is elliptically polarized. The possibility to use scintillation properties of liquid crystals is considered both for the improvement of existing particle detector characteristics and for the creation of new gated particle detectors.

  3. Visualisation of Radioactivity in Real-Time on a Tablet Measured by a Hybrid Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749233; Bantel, Michael; Grünhaupt, Ulrich

    This work explores a method to visualise and interact with radioactivity over time and space by means of augmented reality on a screen. A prototype, iPadPix, was built to demonstrate use as an intuitive new tool for educative and training purposes. Measured by a hybrid pixel detector, Timepix, traces of radioactive decays are displayed in real- time on a mobile device. Its detection principle and properties are detailed as well as the calibration of the sensor. An embedded board is used to process and forward the sensor data to a tablet over a wireless network connection. Software was developed to processes and overlay signatures of ionising radiation and particles on a live camera feed. It is described here and published as open source.

  4. Evaporative CO2 heat transfer measurements for cooling systems of particle physics detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colijn, A.P.; Verlaat, B.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in particle physics detectors is to transport the heat developed in their electronics to the outside world. Particle detectors require a minimum of material in order not to disturb accurate measurements of particle trajectories. CO2 has superior behavior in small diameter - low mat

  5. The "Puck" energetic charged particle detector: Design, heritage, and advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G.; Cohen, I.; Westlake, J. H.; Andrews, G. B.; Brandt, P.; Gold, R. E.; Gkioulidou, M. A.; Hacala, R.; Haggerty, D.; Hill, M. E.; Ho, G. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Kollmann, P.; Mauk, B. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Mitchell, D. G.; Nelson, K. S.; Paranicas, C.; Paschalidis, N.; Schlemm, C. E.

    2016-08-01

    Energetic charged particle detectors characterize a portion of the plasma distribution function that plays critical roles in some physical processes, from carrying the currents in planetary ring currents to weathering the surfaces of planetary objects. For several low-resource missions in the past, the need was recognized for a low-resource but highly capable, mass-species-discriminating energetic particle sensor that could also obtain angular distributions without motors or mechanical articulation. This need led to the development of a compact Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), known as the "Puck" EPD (short for hockey puck), that is capable of determining the flux, angular distribution, and composition of incident ions between an energy range of ~10 keV to several MeV. This sensor makes simultaneous angular measurements of electron fluxes from the tens of keV to about 1 MeV. The same measurements can be extended down to approximately 1 keV/nucleon, with some composition ambiguity. These sensors have a proven flight heritage record that includes missions such as MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and New Horizons, with multiple sensors on each of Juno, Van Allen Probes, and Magnetospheric Multiscale. In this review paper we discuss the Puck EPD design, its heritage, unexpected results from these past missions and future advancements. We also discuss high-voltage anomalies that are thought to be associated with the use of curved foils, which is a new foil manufacturing processes utilized on recent Puck EPD designs. Finally, we discuss the important role Puck EPDs can potentially play in upcoming missions.

  6. Properties of hybrid resin composite systems containing prepolymerized filler particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackham, Jason T; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Lien, Wen

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the properties of newer hybrid resin composites with prepolymerized-filler particles to traditional hybrids and a microfill composite. The following properties were examined per composite: diametral tensile strength, flexural strength/modulus, Knoop microhardness and polymerization shrinkage. Physical properties were determined for each Jason T Blackham, DMD, USAF, General Dentistry, Tyndall composite group (n = 8), showing significant differences between groups per property (p hybrid composites (Z250, Esthet-X) had higher strength, composites containing pre-polymerized fillers (Gradia Direct Posterior, Premise) performed more moderately and the microfill composite (Durafill VS) had lower strength. Premise and Durafill VS had the lowest polymerization shrinkage.

  7. LHCb: Quantum Efficiency of Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH

    CERN Multimedia

    Lambert, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    The production of 550 hybrid photon detectors to be used within the LHCb RICH detectors has recently finished. Photonis-DEP have succeeded in consistently improving the tube quantum efficiency, by a relative 27,% with respect to preseries and prototype tubes, when integrated over the energy spectrum.

  8. Pixel-level Analog-To-Digital Converters for Hybrid Pixel Detectors with energy sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Segundo Bello, David; Nauta, Bram; Visschers, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Single-photon counting hybrid pixel detectors have shown to be a valid alternative to other types of X-ray imaging devices due to their high sensitivity, low noise, linear behavior and wide dynamic range. One important advantage of these devices is the fact that detector and readout electronics are

  9. Design of analog-to-digital converters for energy sensitive hybrid pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Segundo Bello, David; Nauta, Bram; Visschers, Jan

    2001-01-01

    An important feature of hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors is the fact that detector and readout electronics are manufactured separately, allowing the use of industrial state-of-the-art CMOS processes to manufacture the readout electronics. As the feature size of these processes decreases, faster

  10. Design of pixel-level ADCs for energy-sensitive hybrid pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Segundo Bello, David; Nauta, Bram; Visschers, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Single-photon counting hybrid pixel detectors have shown to be a valid alternative to other types of X-ray imaging devices due to their high sensitivity, low noise, linear behavior and wide dynamic range. One important advantage of these devices is the fact that detector and readout electronics are

  11. Particle Production Measurements using the MIPP Detector at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Sonam

    2013-01-01

    The Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment is a fixed target hadron production experiment at Fermilab. It measures particle production in interactions of 120 GeV/c primary protons from the Main Injector and secondary beams of $\\pi^{\\pm}, \\rm{K}^{\\pm}$, p and $\\bar{\\rm{p}}$ from 5 to 90 GeV/c on nuclear targets which include H, Be, C, Bi and U, and a dedicated run with the NuMI target. MIPP is a high acceptance spectrometer which provides excellent charged particle identification using Time Projection Chamber (TPC), Time of Flight (ToF), multicell Cherenkov (CKOV), Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors, and Calorimeter for neutrons. We present inelastic cross section measurements for 58 and 85 GeV/c p-H interactions, and 58 and 120 GeV/c p-C interactions. A new method is described to account for the low multiplicity inefficiencies in the interaction trigger using KNO scaling. Inelastic cross sections as a function of multiplicity are also presented. The MIPP data are compared with the Monte Carl...

  12. Vectorising the detector geometry to optimize particle transport

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, John; Carminati, Federico; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Among the components contributing to particle transport, geometry navigation is an important consumer of CPU cycles. The tasks performed to get answers to "basic" queries such as locating a point within a geometry hierarchy or computing accurately the distance to the next boundary can become very computing intensive for complex detector setups. So far, the existing geometry algorithms employ mainly scalar optimisation strategies (voxelization, caching) to reduce their CPU consumption. In this paper, we would like to take a different approach and investigate how geometry navigation can benefit from the vector instruction set extensions that are one of the primary source of performance enhancements on current and future hardware. While on paper, this form of microparallelism promises increasing performance opportunities, applying this technology to the highly hierarchical and multiply branched geometry code is a difficult challenge. We refer to the current work done to vectorise an important part of the critica...

  13. Portable cosmic particle detectors for subsurface density mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, László; Gábor Barnaföldi, Gergely; Hamar, Gergö; Surányi, Gergely; Varga, Dezsö

    2016-04-01

    Muography deduces the density length in the interior of the investigated geological object, such as a mountain or volcano by the measurement of the cosmic muon absorption along different paths through the object. If path lengths (average densities) are measured, the average density (path length) can be deduced along the muon paths. A portable, low power consumption cosmic particle tracking detector based on Close Cathode multi-wire proportional chambers [1,2] has been developed for muography based on our earlier developments and experiences at the Wigner RCP of the HAS in Budapest [3,4,5]. The newly developed tracking system consists of six layers with the sensitive area of 0.25 m2 [6]. The spatial resolution of 2 mm provides an angular resolution of 15 mrad. This instrument has been optimized for underground and outdoor measurements: it has a Raspberry pi controlled data acquisition system which includes a custom designed board with a coincidence unit and allows high level remote control, data management and analysis. The individual trigger signals, number of missed triggers, analogue signals from chambers and the temperature are recorded. The duration of data readout (dead time) is 100 microsec. The DAQ software runs on the Raspberry Pi. For standard operation, a graphical user interface has been developed, running on any remote computer with Internet connection (both of wired and wireless) to the Raspberry Pi. A temperature-controlled high-voltage power supply provides a stable and reasonable (> 95 %) tracking performance for the measurements. With total power consumption of 5W, a portable tracking detector can operate for 5 days with a standard 50 Ah battery and with gas (non flammable Ar-CO2 mixture) consumption of 0.5 liter per hour, a 10 l bottle at pressure of 150 bar is enough for four month. The portability (total weight of less than 30 kg) allowed that our tracking detectors have been applied in underground caverns for subsurface density mapping. The

  14. A Search for Long-Lived, Charged, Supersymmetric Particles using Ionization with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00379148

    Several extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of charged, very massive, and long-lived particles. Because of their high masses these particles would propagate non-relativistically through the ATLAS pixel detector and would therefore be identifiable through a measurement of large specific energy loss. Measuring heavy, long-lived particles through their track parameters in the pixel detector allows sensitivity to particles with lifetimes in the nanosecond range and above. This dissertation presents an inner detector driven method for identifying such particles in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV with the 2015 LHC dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.5 pb−1.

  15. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Bettarini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento e INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: giovanni.verzellesi@unimore.i [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  16. Injection quality measurements with diamond based particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Oliver; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    During the re-commissioning phase of the LHC after the long shutdown 1 very high beam losses were observed at the TDI during beam injection. The losses reached up to 90% of the dump threshold. To decrease the through beam losses induced stress on the accelerator components these loss levels need to be reduced. Measurements with diamond based particle detectors (dBLMs), which have nano-second time resolution, revealed that the majority of these losses come from recaptured SPS beam surrounding the nominal bunch train. In this MD the injection loss patterns and loss intensities were investigated in greater detail. Performed calibration shots on the TDI (internal beam absorber for injection) gave a conversion factor from impacting particles intensities to signal in the dBLMs (0.1Vs/109 protons). Using the SPS tune kicker for cleaning the recaptured beam in the SPS and changing the LHC injection kicker settings resulted in a reduction of the injection losses. For 144 bunch injections the loss levels were decreased...

  17. Pressure calculation in hybrid particle-field simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Giuseppe; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro

    2010-12-07

    In the framework of a recently developed scheme for a hybrid particle-field simulation techniques where self-consistent field (SCF) theory and particle models (molecular dynamics) are combined [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 214106 (2009)], we developed a general formulation for the calculation of instantaneous pressure and stress tensor. The expressions have been derived from statistical mechanical definition of the pressure starting from the expression for the free energy functional in the SCF theory. An implementation of the derived formulation suitable for hybrid particle-field molecular dynamics-self-consistent field simulations is described. A series of test simulations on model systems are reported comparing the calculated pressure with those obtained from standard molecular dynamics simulations based on pair potentials.

  18. Systematic study of pre-irradiation effects in high efficiency CVD diamond nuclear particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Marinelli, M; Milani, E; Paoletti, A; Pillon, M; Tucciarone, A; Verona-Rinati, G

    2002-01-01

    Many outstanding properties of diamond can, in principle, lead to the development of radiation detectors with interesting capabilities. In particular, diamond-based nuclear particle detectors are good candidates to replace silicon-based detectors in several fields, e.g. in high-flux applications such as next generation particle-accelerator experiments or beam monitoring. However, the high concentration of defects (grain boundaries, impurities) in synthetic diamond films can strongly limit the detector's performance. A significant increase in the efficiency of CVD diamond detectors is achieved by means of pre-irradiation (pumping) with beta particles. We report here on a systematic study of the effects of pumping in high-quality microwave CVD diamond films. The efficiency (eta) and charge collection distance (CCD) of nuclear particle detectors based on these films depend on the methane content in the growth gas mixture and on the film thickness. Both efficiency and CCD behave in a markedly different way in the...

  19. Photon detectors for the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS)

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    See Annual Report 1979 p.77, Fig. 9. The EHS was located in beam H2 (Jura side of Hall EHN1). The two EHS gamma detectors, the intermediate (IGD) and the downstream or forward gamma detector (FGD), consist of lead glass arrays.

  20. Exotic Hybrid Meson Spectroscopy with the GlueX detector at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, David W. [JLAB

    2014-03-01

    The GlueX experiment is scheduled to begin taking data in 2015. The goal is to discover evidence for the existence of exotic hybrid mesons and to map out their spectrum in the light quark sector. Recent theoretical developments using Lattice QCD predict exotic hybrid states in a mass range accessible using the newly upgraded 12GeV electron accelerator at Jefferson Lab. Hybrid mesons, and in particular exotic hybrid mesons, provide the ideal laboratory for testing QCD in the confinement regime since these mesons explicitly manifest the gluonic degrees of freedom. The experiment will use 9 GeV linearly polarized photons produced via coherent bremsstrahlung to produce the exotic hybrids. The decay products will be detected in the solenoid-based GlueX detector currently under construction at Jefferson Lab. The status of the GlueX experiment including detector parameters will be presented along with theoretical motivation for the experiment.

  1. Energetic particle radiations measured by particle detector on board CBERS-1 satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO YongQiang; XIAO Zuo; ZOU Hong; ZHANG DongHe

    2007-01-01

    Using the data measured by energetic particle detector on board CBERS-01 and -02 for the past five years, statistics was made to show the general features of MeV electrons and protons along a solar synchronous orbit at an altitude of 780 km. This height is in the bottom region of the Earth's radiation belts. Detectors are inside the satellite cabinet and such continuous monitoring of particle radiation environment inside a satellite has seldom conducted so far. After a proper and careful treatment, it is indicated that the data inside satellite are well correlated with the radiation environment outside. Besides the agreement of the general distribution characteristics of energetic electrons and protons with similar observations from other satellites, attention is particularly paid to the disturbed conditions. Variations of particle fluxes are closely related with solar proton events, in general, electron fluxes of outer belt are well correlated with Dst index after three days' delay while the electron injection occurred almost at the same day during great magnetic storms. It is confirmed that both energetic electrons and protons appear in the Polar Cap region only after the solar proton events.

  2. Pixel Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    Pixel detectors for precise particle tracking in high energy physics have been developed to a level of maturity during the past decade. Three of the LHC detectors will use vertex detectors close to the interaction point based on the hybrid pixel technology which can be considered the state of the art in this field of instrumentation. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as the very harsh...

  3. Hybrid spherical particle field measurement based on interference technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinlu; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Ye; Jia, Dagong; Liu, Tiegen

    2017-03-01

    Interferometric particle imaging is widely used in particle size measurement. Conventional algorithms, which focus on single size particle fields, have difficulties in extracting each interference fringe in a hybrid spherical particle field due to the noise. To solve this problem, an iterative mean filter (IMF) algorithm is proposed. Instead of the specific mean filter template coefficient, the noise is reduced by iterating the calculation results under different template coefficients. The average value of the calculation results excluding the gross error is output as the final result. The effect of different template coefficients are simulated, furthermore, the value range of template coefficients has been analyzed. The interferogram of the hybrid spherical particle field from 21.3 µm to 57.9 µm is processed by the conventional algorithms with specific template coefficients of 2, 8, 12 and the IMF algorithm. The corresponding measurement errors are 17.22%, 10.69%, 9.04% and 5.11%. The experimental results show that the IMF algorithm would reduce measurement error, and could be potentially applied in particle field measurement.

  4. The TDCpix readout ASIC: A 75ps resolution timing front-end for the NA62 Gigatracker hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Bonacini, S; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Morel, M; Noy, M; Perktold, L; Poltorak, K

    2013-01-01

    The TDCpix is a novel pixel readout ASIC for the NA62 Gigatracker detector. NA62 is a new experiment being installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Its Gigatracker detector shall provide on-beam tracking and time stamping of individual particles with a time resolution of 150 ps rms. It will consist of three tracking stations, each with one hybrid pixel sensor. The peak fl ow of particles crossing the detector modules reaches 1.27 MHz/mm 2 for a total rate of about 0.75 GHz. Ten TDCpix chips will be bump-bonded to every silicon pixel sensor. Each chip shall perform time stamping of 100 M particle hits per second with a detection ef fi ciency above 99% and a timing accuracy better than 200 ps rms for an overall three-station-setup time resolution of better than 150 ps. The TDCpix chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology. It will feature 45 40 square pixels of 300 300 μ m 2 and a complex End of Column peripheral region including an array of TDCs based on DLLs, four high speed serializers, a low...

  5. Development of a Focusing DIRC Detector for Particle Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Alan J. [University of Cincinnati

    2014-03-16

    We have constructed a prototype Direct Ring Imaging ` Cerenkov (DIRC) detector in our optics lab to study its performance for identifying pions and kaons. This type of detector will be used for the Belle II experiment now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. To test our prototype, we have constructed a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) that is able to trigger on and reconstruct cosmic ray tracks. We require that the tracks traverse the DIRC detector and study the resulting detector response.

  6. Discrimination of charged particles in a neutral beam line by using a solid scintillation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Kwan; Ko, Jewou; Liu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    In the past several decades, many studies have been conducted to search for non-baryonic dark matter, such as weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs). In the search for WIMPs, charged particles incident on the detector are background particles because WIMPs are neutral. Charged particles originate from various sources, such as cosmic rays and laboratory materials surrounding the main detector. Therefore, a veto that discriminates charged particles can improve the particle-detection efficiency of the entire experiment for detecting WIMPs. Here, we investigate in the thickness range of 1 mm to 5 mm, the optimal thickness of a polystyrene scintillator as a chargedparticle veto detector. We found that 3-mm-thick polystyrene provides the best performance to veto charged particles and the charged-particle background in the search for the WIMP signal. Furthermore, we fabricated 3-mm-thick and 5-mm-thick polystyrene charged particle veto detectors that will be used in an underground laboratory in the search for WIMP dark matter. After exposing those detectors are the actual beam line, we compared the rate of charged particles measured using those detectors and the rate simulated through a Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. Hybridization of detector array and integrated circuit for readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    1992-04-01

    A process is explained for fabricating a detector array in a layer of semiconductor material on one substrate and an integrated readout circuit in a layer of semiconductor material on a separate substrate in order to select semiconductor material for optimum performance of each structure, such as GaAs for the detector array and Si for the integrated readout circuit. The detector array layer is lifted off its substrate, laminated on the metallized surface on the integrated surface, etched with reticulating channels to the surface of the integrated circuit, and provided with interconnections between the detector array pixels and the integrated readout circuit through the channels. The adhesive material for the lamination is selected to be chemically stable to provide electrical and thermal insulation and to provide stress release between the two structures fabricated in semiconductor materials that may have different coefficients of thermal expansion.

  8. First results from the Lund NMP particle detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, P. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Kristiansson, P. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: Per.Kristiansson@nuclear.lu.se; Arteaga-Marrero, N.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Nilsson, E.J.C.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J.; Wegden, M. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    The design and first results from a Double Sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSSD) recently installed at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe facility (NMP) are presented. The detector has 64 sector strips and 32 ring strips, which in combination give more than 2000 detector cells, each with characteristics comparable with a standard surface barrier detector (SBD). The detector has been tested both with radioactive sources and with different ion beams and energies. The most striking features are the high rate virtually pile-up free operation and also the possibility of detailed measurement of angular distributions.

  9. Alpha particle response study of polycrstalline diamond radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit; Topkar, Anita [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Chemical vapor deposition has opened the possibility to grow high purity synthetic diamond at relatively low cost. This has opened up uses of diamond based detectors for wide range of applications. These detectors are most suitable for harsh environments where standard semiconductor detectors cannot work. In this paper, we present the fabrication details and performance study of polycrystalline diamond based radiation detector. Effect of different operating parameters such as bias voltage and shaping time for charge collection on the performance of detector has been studied.

  10. Calibration of the Solar Orbiter Energetic Particle Detector Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Panitzsch, L.; Boettcher, S.; Mason, G. M.; Kohler, J.; Ho, G. C.; Boden, S.; Grunau, J.; Steinhagen, J.; Terasa, C.; Yu, J.; Prieto, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Blanco, J.

    2013-12-01

    We present the current status and plans for the calibration of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite on ESA's Solar Orbiter mission. Solar Orbiter is scheduled to launch in January 2017, instrument delivery in January 2015. EPD consists of four sensors: the SupraThermal Electron and Proton (STEP) sensor covers electrons (protons) from 2 (3) keV up to 100 keV, the Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) from 20 to 300 (7000) keV, the Suprathermal Ion Spectrograph (SIS) determines the ionic composition from ~0.05 to ~10 MeV/nuc (species dependent), and the High Energy Telescope (HET) measures electrons and protons (ions) from 0.3 to 30 and 10 to >100 MeV/nuc (20 - 200 MeV/nuc species dependent). EPT, HET, and SIS have two approximately opposite-facing fields of view, EPT, and HET share a common electronics box, two EPT/HET sensors allow the determination of second-order anisotropies (a total of 4 FoVs). Apart from the use of radioactive sources, STEP will be calibrated at the Kiel calibration facilities, EPT both at Kiel (electrons and low-energy protons) as well as at PTB in Braunschweig. SIS will undergo calibration at the LBL 88' cyclotron, HET at HIMAC in Chiba, Japan. Tests of the electron/protons discrimination of EPT show the expected behavior, HET prototypes have already been calibrated and the results will be shown.

  11. HYBRID AND CHARACTERISTIC OF POLYANILINE- BARIUM TITANATE NANOCOMPOSITE PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Polyaniline-barium titanate (PAn-BaTiO3) ultrafine composite particles were prepared by the oxidative polymerization of aniline with H2O2 while barium titanate nanoparticles were synthesized with a sol-gel method. The infrared spectrogram shows that the polymerization of PAn in the hybrid process of PAn-BaTiO3 is similar with the polymeric process of pure aniline, and there is interaction of PAn and BaTiO3 in the PAn-BaTiO3. SEM and TEM results show that the average diameter of the composite particles is 1.50 μm and the diameters of BaTiO3 nanoparticles are 5-15 nm in the composite particle. The electrical conductivity of the ultrafine composite particles is transformable from 100 to 10-11S/cm by equilibrium doping or dedoping method using various concentration of HCl or NaOH solutions.

  12. Preliminary test of an imaging probe for nuclear medicine using hybrid pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Ennio; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Russo, P

    2002-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of an intraoperative imaging probe for lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m tracer, for sentinel node radioguided surgery, using the Medipix series of hybrid detectors coupled to a collimator. These detectors are pixelated semiconductor detectors bump-bonded to the Medipix1 photon counting read-out chip (64x64 pixel, 170 mu m pitch) or to the Medipix2 chip (256x256 pixel, 55 mu m pitch), developed by the European Medipix collaboration. The pixel detector we plan to use in the final version of the probe is a semi-insulating GaAs detector or a 1-2 mm thick CdZnTe detector. For the preliminary tests presented here, we used 300-mu m thick silicon detectors, hybridized via bump-bonding to the Medipix1 chip. We used a tungsten parallel-hole collimator (7 mm thick, matrix array of 64x64 100 mu m circular holes with 170 mu m pitch), and a 22, 60 and 122 keV point-like (1 mm diameter) radioactive sources, placed at various distances from the detector. These tests were conducted in order ...

  13. Development of hybrid photon detectors with integrated silicon pixel readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Formenti, F; Gys, Thierry; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based $9 on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a fast, binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The $9 performance of a half-scale prototype is presented, together with the developments and tests of a full-scale tube with large active area. Specific requirements for pixel front-end and readout electronics in LHCb are outlined, and $9 recent results obtained from pixel chips applicable to hybrid photon detector design are summarized.

  14. A particle-based hybrid code for planet formation

    CERN Document Server

    Morishima, Ryuji

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new particle-based hybrid code for planetary accretion. The code uses an $N$-body routine for interactions with planetary embryos while it can handle a large number of planetesimals using a super-particle approximation, in which a large number of small planetesimals are represented by a small number of tracers. Tracer-tracer interactions are handled by a statistical routine which uses the phase-averaged stirring and collision rates. We compare hybrid simulations with analytic predictions and pure $N$-body simulations for various problems in detail and find good agreements for all cases. The computational load on the portion of the statistical routine is comparable to or less than that for the $N$-body routine. The present code includes an option of hit-and-run bouncing but not fragmentation, which remains for future work.

  15. A New Class of Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Qing Guo; Yong-Jin Zhao; Hui Xiong; Xiao Li

    2007-01-01

    A new class of hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is developed for solving the premature convergence caused by some particles in standard PSO fall into stagnation. In this algorithm, the linearly decreasing inertia weight technique (LDIW) and the mutative scale chaos optimization algorithm (MSCOA) are combined with standard PSO, which are used to balance the global and local exploration abilities and enhance the local searching abilities, respectively. In order to evaluate the performance of the new method, three benchmark functions are used. The simulation results confirm the proposed algorithm can greatly enhance the searching ability and effectively improve the premature convergence.

  16. An ultra-thin Schottky diode as a transmission particle detector for biological microbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harken, Andrew; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Attinger, Daniel; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated ultrathin metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes for use as transmission particle detectors in the biological microbeam at Columbia University’s Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). The RARAF microbeam can deliver a precise dose of ionizing radiation in cell nuclei with sub-micron precision. To ensure an accurate delivery of charged particles, the facility currently uses a commercial charged-particle detector placed after the sample. We present here a transmission detector that will be placed between the particle accelerator and the biological specimen, allowing the irradiation of samples that would otherwise block radiation from reaching a detector behind the sample. Four detectors were fabricated with co-planar gold and aluminum electrodes thermally evaporated onto etched n-type crystalline silicon substrates, with device thicknesses ranging from 8.5 μm – 13.5 μm. We show coincident detections and pulse-height distributions of charged particles in both the transmission detector and the commercial detector above it. Detections are demonstrated at a range of operating conditions, including incoming particle type, count rate, and beam location on the detectors. The 13.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 2.7 MeV protons (H+), and the 8.5 μm detector is shown to work best to detect 5.4 MeV alpha particles (4He++). The development of a transmission detector enables a range of new experiments to take place at RARAF on radiation-stopping samples such as thick tissues, targets that need immersion microscopy, and integrated microfluidic devices for handling larger quantities of cells and small organisms. PMID:24058378

  17. Polarized polymer films as electronic pulse detectors of cosmic dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of dust particle detector has been developed which consists of a polarized film of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) having conducting electrons on its surface and operating with no bias voltage. Here, the response characteristics of PVDF detectors with areas in the range 4-150 sq cm and thickness in the range 2-28 microns to iron particles accelerated to velocities in the range 1-12 km/s are reported. The discussion also covers the mechanism of detection, fast pulse response, noise characteristics, and the dependence of the detector signal amplitude on particle mass and velocity. The detectors exhibit long-term stability and can be operated for extended periods of time over the temperature range -50 to +50 C; their response to dust particle impacts is unaffected by high background fluxes of charged particles.

  18. Solution processable organic/inorganic hybrid ultraviolet photovoltaic detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photodetector is a kind of important optoelectronic device which can be widely used in scientific and engineering fields including astronomical research, environmental monitoring, forest-fire prevention, medical analysis, and missile approach warning etc. The development of UV detector is hindered by the acquirement of stable p-type materials, which makes it difficult to realize large array, low-power consumption UV focal plane array (FPA detector. Here, we provide a novel structure (Al/Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfuorenyl-2,7-diyl(PFO/ZnO/ITO to demonstrate the UV photovoltaic (PV response. A rather smooth surface (RMS roughness: 0.28 nm may be reached by solution process, which sheds light on the development of large-array, light-weight and low-cost UV FPA detectors.

  19. Detector apparatus having a hybrid pixel-waveform readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Jian

    2014-10-21

    A gamma ray detector apparatus comprises a solid state detector that includes a plurality of anode pixels and at least one cathode. The solid state detector is configured for receiving gamma rays during an interaction and inducing a signal in an anode pixel and in a cathode. An anode pixel readout circuit is coupled to the plurality of anode pixels and is configured to read out and process the induced signal in the anode pixel and provide triggering and addressing information. A waveform sampling circuit is coupled to the at least one cathode and configured to read out and process the induced signal in the cathode and determine energy of the interaction, timing of the interaction, and depth of interaction.

  20. Recent advances with a hybrid micro-pattern gas detector operated in low pressure H2 and He, for AT-TPC applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, Marco; Bazin, Daniel; Beceiro-Novo, Saul; Yurkon, John; Tanani, Rim Soussi; Wolff, Michael; Stolz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In view of a possible application as a charge-particle track readout for an Active-Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC), the operational properties and performances of a hybrid Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) were investigated in pure low-pressure Hydrogen (H2) and Helium (He). The detector consists of a MICROMesh GAseous Structure (MICROMEGAS) coupled to a single- or multi-cascade THick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) as a pre-amplification stage. This study reports of the effective gain dependence of the hybrid-MPGD at relevant pressure (in the range of 200-760 torr) for different detector arrangements. The results of this work are relevant in the field of avalanche mechanism in low-pressure, low-mass noble gases, in particularly for applications of MPGD end-cap readout for active-target Time Projection Chambers (TPC) in the field of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics.

  1. Registration of alpha particles in Makrofol-E nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammah, Y.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom (Egypt); Abdalla, Ayman M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box. 11001, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Najran University (Saudi Arabia); Ashraf, O., E-mail: osama.ashraf@edu.asu.edu.eg [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11575 (Egypt); Ashry, A.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11575 (Egypt)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Makrofol-E detectors have been irradiated with alpha particles and fission fragments. • Fast detection of alpha particles in Makrofol-E detectors. • Bulk etching rate was calculated from fission track diameters. - Abstract: Fast detection of alpha particles in the range from 1 to 5 MeV in Makrofol-E polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (PCTDs) using a new chemical etchant was investigated. {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-thin open sources were used for irradiating Makrofol-E detectors with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal pressure and temperature (NPT). A chain of experimental work has been carried out using new etchants to register alpha particle in short time in Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors. The etching efficiency were exhibited a clear dependence on the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The optimized chemical condition obtained at this stage of development for 200 μm Makrofol-E detectors are (8 ml of 10 N NaOH + 2 ml CH{sub 3}OH) etching solutions at 60 °C for 3 h. In this study; it is possible to observe energy detection windows for Makrofol-E detectors according to applied etching duration. Makrofol-E introduced the characteristic Bragg peak, which indicates the advantages of this detector as alpha spectrometer. Consequently, the suggested new etchant can be developed for heavy ions detection and monitoring radon levels and its daughters.

  2. Prototype of a Hybrid Cosmic Ray Detector at the Pico de Orizaba: First Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, E.; Salazar, H.; Martinez, O.; Moreno, E.; Pedraza, I.; Cotzomi, J.; Perez, E.; Villaseñor, L.; Khrenov, B.; Garipov, G.

    2003-07-01

    In this work we present a progress report of the project of a high energy cosmic ray observatory located at Pico de Orizaba mountain. One of the goals of this facility will be to contribute to the understanding of the origin of the cosmic rays at energies around the feature known as the knee. To achieve this goal we plan to use a hybrid detector composed of a surface detector array and a fluorescence telescope. The design and expected performance of the fluorescent detector is presented.

  3. R and D status of a large-aperture hybrid avalanche photo-detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Toshinori, E-mail: toshi@hep.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.j [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aihara, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Masako; Fujimori, Hiroki; Kasimura, Keizo; Mineo, Sogo; Uchida, Tomohisa [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tanaka, Manobu [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kawai, Yoshihiko; Kyushima, Hiroyuki; Suyama, Motohiro [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5 Shimokanzo, Iwata City, Shizuoka 438-0193 (Japan); Shiozawa, Masato [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research ICRR, University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida City, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on the R and D status of a large-aperture Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD). We have developed a 13-inch aperture HAPD and its readout system. The HAPD is a photo-detector expected to replace the photomultiplier tube (PMT) in next-generation imaging water Cherenkov detectors such as Hyper Kamiokande. We will present the recent progress made in readout system development. The readout system involves a fast sampling device. The sampling depth (number of cells) has been extended to 256 from 64 in order to measure longer waveform length. The variation in AC gain is now fixed and the input analog bandwidth improved.

  4. GOTPM: A Parallel Hybrid Particle-Mesh Treecode

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinski, J; Park, C; Humble, R J; Dubinski, John; Kim, Juhan; Park, Changbom; Humble, Robin

    2004-01-01

    We describe a parallel, cosmological N-body code based on a hybrid scheme using the particle-mesh (PM) and Barnes-Hut (BH) oct-tree algorithm. We call the algorithm GOTPM for Grid-of-Oct-Trees-Particle-Mesh. The code is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library and is optimized to run on Beowulf clusters as well as symmetric multi-processors. The gravitational potential is determined on a mesh using a standard PM method with particle forces determined through interpolation. The softened PM force is corrected for short range interactions using a grid of localized BH trees throughout the entire simulation volume in a completely analogous way to P$^3$M methods. This method makes no assumptions about the local density for short range force corrections and so is consistent with the results of the P$^3$M method in the limit that the treecode opening angle parameter, $\\theta \\to 0$. (abridged)

  5. Monolithic ionizing particle detector based on active matrix of functionally integrated structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murashev, V.N. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation); Legotin, S.A., E-mail: serlego@mail.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation); Karmanov, D.E. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (MSU SINP) (Russian Federation); Baryshnikov, F.M.; Didenko, S.I. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A new type of monolithic silicon position detector is presented. • An operating principle, design and technology of the detector are described. • Calculated estimations of the detecting efficiency are carried out. • Experimental results of alpha-particle and electron detection are shown. -- Abstract: An operating principle, design and technology of a new type of the monolithic silicon position detector (MSPD) for registration of ionizing particles and photons are described. The detector represents a specialized monolithic silicon VLSI that contains a two-dimensional detecting matrix of active functionally integrated bipolar structures and peripheral electronic circuitry for signal amplification and processing. This paper presents experimental results of α-particles and electrons detection with position accuracy and operation speed better than 12.5 μm and 1 ns, respectively. The given estimations show the capabilities of this detector and its advantages in comparison with analogs.

  6. BJT detector with FPGA-based read-out for alpha particle monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyzhnevyi, V; Dalla Betta, G-F [Universita di Trento, via Sommarive, 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Rovati, L [Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Amendola 2, Pad. Morselli, 42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: tyzhnevyi@disi.unitn.it [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, via Sommarive, 18, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    In this work we introduce a new prototype of readout electronics (ALPHADET), which was designed for an {alpha}-particle detection system based on a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) detector. The system uses an FPGA, which provides many advantages at the stage of prototyping and testing the detector. The main design and electrical features of the board are discussed in this paper, along with selected results from the characterization of ALPHADET coupled to BJT detectors.

  7. Developement of Hybrid Photo-detectors for the Hyper-Kamiokande Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Seiko [Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-city, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Shoei; Kametani, Isao; Shiozawa, Masato; Suzuki, Yoichiro; Sekiya, Hiroyuki; Nakahata, Masayuki; Hayato, Yoshinari; Haga, Yuto; Miura, Makoto [ICRR, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-sity, Chiba (Japan); Ichikawa, Atsuko; Ikeda, Motoyasu; Nakaya, Tsuyoshi; Minamino, Akihiro; Tateishi, Keiji [Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-city, Kyoto (Japan); Aihara, Hiroaki; Suda, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Masashi [University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan); Omura, Takayuki [Hamamatsu K.K., Sunayama-cho, 325-6, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu-city, Shizuoka (Japan); and others

    2014-08-15

    We are developing a hybrid photo detector (HPD) for the Hyper-Kamiokande Project. Eight-inch HPDs were prepared to evaluate their performance. Based on the results from these measurements, HPDs achieve a better performance such as single photon separation than conventional PMTs. A verification study lasting a few years in a water tank is planned in 2013 to check their feasibility.

  8. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  9. Giant particle detector magnet goes underground at CERN's Large Hadron Collider accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists of the US CMS collaboration joined colleagues around the world in announcing that the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid particle detector has begun the momentous journey into its experimental cavern 100 meters underground." (1 page)

  10. 175th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Radiation and Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bottigli, U; Oliva, P

    2010-01-01

    High energy physics (HEP) has a crucial role in the context of fundamental physics. HEP experiments make use of a massive array of sophisticated detectors to analyze the particles produced in high-energy scattering events. This book contains the papers from the workshop 'Radiation and Particle Detectors', organized by the International School of Physics, and held in Varenna in July 2009. Its subject is the use of detectors for research in fundamental physics, astro-particle physics and applied physics. Subjects covered include the measurement of: the position and length of ionization trails, time of flight velocity, radius of curvature after bending the paths of charged particles with magnetic fields, coherent transition radiation, synchrotron radiation, electro-magnetic showers produced by calorimetric methods and nuclear cascades produced by hadrons in massive steel detectors using calorimetry. Detecting muons and the detection of Cherenkov radiation are also covered, as is the detection of neutrinos by ste...

  11. A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche fission detector for use in particle induced fission coincidence measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plicht, J. van der

    1980-01-01

    A parallel plate avalanche detector developed for the detection of fission fragments in particle induced fission reactions is described. The active area is 6 × 10 cm2; it is position sensitive in one dimension with a resolution of 2.5 mm. The detector can withstand a count rate of 25000 fission

  12. 2D dose distribution images of a hybrid low field MRI-γ detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, A.; Agulles-Pedrós, L.

    2016-07-01

    The proposed hybrid system is a combination of a low field MRI and dosimetric gel as a γ detector. The readout system is based on the polymerization process induced by the gel radiation. A gel dose map is obtained which represents the functional part of hybrid image alongside with the anatomical MRI one. Both images should be taken while the patient with a radiopharmaceutical is located inside the MRI system with a gel detector matrix. A relevant aspect of this proposal is that the dosimetric gel has never been used to acquire medical images. The results presented show the interaction of the 99mTc source with the dosimetric gel simulated in Geant4. The purpose was to obtain the planar γ 2D-image. The different source configurations are studied to explore the ability of the gel as radiation detector through the following parameters; resolution, shape definition and radio-pharmaceutical concentration.

  13. Study of statistical properties of hybrid statistic in coherent multi-detector CBC Search

    CERN Document Server

    Haris, K

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we revisit the problem of coherent multi-detector search of gravitational wave from compact binary coalescence with Neutron stars and Black Holes using advanced interferometers like LIGO-Virgo. Based on the loss of optimal multi-detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we construct a hybrid statistic as a best of maximum-likelihood-ratio(MLR) statistic tuned for face-on and face-off binaries. The statistical properties of the hybrid statistic is studied. The performance of this hybrid statistic is compared with that of the coherent MLR statistic for generic inclination angles. Owing to the single synthetic data stream, the hybrid statistic gives low false alarms compared to the multi-detector MLR statistic and small fractional loss in the optimum SNR for a large range of binary inclinations. We have demonstrated that for a LIGO-Virgo network and binary inclination, \\epsilon 110 deg., the hybrid statistic captures more than 98% of network optimum matched filter SNR with low false alarm rate. The...

  14. CHANTI: a Fast and Efficient Charged Particle Veto Detector for the NA62 Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00293636; Capussela, T.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Mirra, M.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Roscilli, L.; Vanzanella, A.; Corradi, G.; Tagnani, D.; Paglia, U.

    2016-03-29

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ~2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles.

  15. A parametrisation of the energy loss distributions of charged particles and its applications for silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sikler, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The energy loss distribution of charged particles in silicon is approximated by a simple analytical parametrization. Its use is demonstrated through several examples. With the help of energy deposits in sensing elements of the detector, the position of track segments and the corresponding deposited energy are estimated with improved accuracy and less bias. The parametrization is successfully used to estimate the energy loss rate of charged particles, and it is applied to detector gain calibration tasks.

  16. The TDCpix readout ASIC: A 75 ps resolution timing front-end for the NA62 Gigatracker hybrid pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluge, A., E-mail: alexander.kluge@cern.ch; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonacini, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Poltorak, K.

    2013-12-21

    The TDCpix is a novel pixel readout ASIC for the NA62 Gigatracker detector. NA62 is a new experiment being installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Its Gigatracker detector shall provide on-beam tracking and time stamping of individual particles with a time resolution of 150 ps rms. It will consist of three tracking stations, each with one hybrid pixel sensor. The peak flow of particles crossing the detector modules reaches 1.27 MHz/mm{sup 2} for a total rate of about 0.75 GHz. Ten TDCpix chips will be bump-bonded to every silicon pixel sensor. Each chip shall perform time stamping of 100 M particle hits per second with a detection efficiency above 99% and a timing accuracy better than 200 ps rms for an overall three-station-setup time resolution of better than 150 ps. The TDCpix chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology. It will feature 45×40 square pixels of 300×300μm{sup 2} and a complex End of Column peripheral region including an array of TDCs based on DLLs, four high speed serializers, a low-jitter PLL, readout and control circuits. This contribution will describe the complete design of the final TDCpix ASIC. It will discuss design choices, the challenges faced and some of the lessons learned. Furthermore, experimental results from the testing of circuit prototypes will be presented. These demonstrate the achievement of key performance figures such as a time resolution of the processing chain of 75 ps rms with a laser sent to the center of the pixel and the capability of time stamping charged particles with an overall resolution below 200 ps rms. -- Highlights: • Feasibility demonstration of a silicon pixel detector with sub-ns time tagging capability. • Demonstrator detector assembly with a time resolution of 75 ps RMS with laser charge injection; 170 ps RMS with particle beam. • Design of trigger-less TDCpix ASIC with 1800 pixels, 720 TDC channels and 4 3.2 Gbit/s serializers.

  17. Characterization of hybrid self-powered neutron detector under neutron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamichi, M; Yamamura, C; Nakazawa, M; Kawamura, H

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the irradiation behaviour of a blanket mock-up on in-pile functional test, it is necessary to measure the neutron flux change in the in-pile mock-up by a neutron detector, such as the self-powered neutron detector (SPND). With its small-sized emitter, which has high sensitivity and fast response time, SPND is an indispensable tool in order to measure the local neutron flux change. In the case of an in-pile functional test, it is necessary that response time is less than 1s and ratio of SPND output current is more than 0.3 of output current of SPND with Rh emitter. Therefore, a hybrid SPND with high sensitivity and fast response time was developed. This hybrid SPND used a hybrid emitter, i.e. Co cladded Pt-13%Rh.

  18. Comparison of CCD, CMOS and Hybrid Pixel x-ray detectors: detection principle and data quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allé, P.; Wenger, E.; Dahaoui, S.; Schaniel, D.; Lecomte, C.

    2016-06-01

    We compare, from a crystallographic point of view, the data quality obtained using laboratory x-ray diffractometers equipped with a Molybdenum micro-source using different detector types: CCD, CMOS and XPAD hybrid pixel. First we give an overview of the working principle of these different detector types with a focus on their principal differences and their impact on the data quality. Then, using the example of an organic crystal, a comparison between the detector systems concerning the raw data statistics, the refinement agreement factors, the deformation electron density maps, and the residual density after multipolar refinement is presented. It is found that the data quality obtained with the XPAD detector is the best, even though the detection efficiency at the Mo energy (17.5 keV) is only 37% due to the Si-sensor layer thickness of 300 μm. Finally, we discuss the latest x-ray detector developments with an emphasis on the sensor material, where replacing Si by another material such as GaAs would yield detection efficiencies close to 100%, up to energies of 40 keV for hybrid pixel detectors.

  19. Thermal cycling reliability of indirect hybrid HgCdTe infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; He, Kai; Wang, Jian-xin; Zhang, Qin-yao

    2013-09-01

    Thermal cycling reliability is one of the most important issues whether the HgCdTe infrared focal plane array detectors can be applied to both military and civil fields. In this paper, a 3D finite element model for indirect hybrid HgCdTe infrared detectors is established. The thermal stress distribution and thermally induced warpage of the detector assembly as a function of the distance between the detector chip and Si-ROIC, the thickness and the materials properties of electrical lead board in cryogenic temperature are analyzed. The results show that all these parameters have influences on the thermal stress distribution and warpage of the detector assembly, especially the coefficient of thermal expansion(CTE) of electrical lead board. The thermal stress and warpage in the assembly can be avoided or minimized by choosing the appropriate electrical lead board. Additionally, the warpage of some indirect hybrid detectors assembly samples is measured in experiment. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation results, which verifies that the results are calculated by finite element method are reasonable.

  20. PU dons part of international team making particle detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Five faculty members from the Department of Physics, Panjab University, are part of an international collaboration with CERN, European Organisation for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland. The team has contributed in building CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector at CERN.

  1. Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkes, Alexandra

    2011-10-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) addresses some of today's most fundamental questions of particle physics, like the existence of the Higgs boson and supersymmetry. Two large general-purpose experiments (ATLAS, CMS) are installed to detect the products of high energy protonproton and nucleon-nucleon collisions. Silicon detectors are largely employed in the innermost region, the tracking area of the experiments. The proven technology and large scale availability make them the favorite choice. Within the framework of the LHC upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC, the luminosity will be increased to L=10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. In particular the pixel sensors in the innermost layers of the silicon trackers will be exposed to an extremely intense radiation field of mainly hadronic particles with fluences of up to {phi}{sub eq}=10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. The radiation induced bulk damage in silicon sensors will lead to a severe degradation of the performance during their operational time. This work focusses on the improvement of the radiation tolerance of silicon materials (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski, epitaxial silicon) based on the evaluation of radiation induced defects in the silicon lattice using the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and the Thermally Stimulated Current methods. It reveals the outstanding role of extended defects (clusters) on the degradation of sensor properties after hadron irradiation in contrast to previous works that treated effects as caused by point defects. It has been found that two cluster related defects are responsible for the main generation of leakage current, the E5 defects with a level in the band gap at E{sub C}-0.460 eV and E205a at E{sub C}-0.395 eV where E{sub C} is the energy of the edge of the conduction band. The E5 defect can be assigned to the tri-vacancy (V{sub 3}) defect. Furthermore, isochronal annealing experiments have shown that the V{sub 3} defect

  2. Hybrid particle swarm optimization for solving resource-constrained FMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyun Wang; Liping Liu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,an approach for resource-constrained flexible manufacturing system(FMS)scheduling was proposed,which is based on the particle swarm optimization(PSO)algorithm and simulated annealing(SA)algorithm.First,the formulation for resource-con-strained FMS scheduling problem was introduced and cost function for this problem was obtained.Then.a hybrid algorithm of PSO and SA was employed to obtain optimal solution.The simulated results show that the approach can dislodge a state from a local min-imum and guide it to the global minimum.

  3. A Comparative Study of Several Hybrid Particle Swarm Algorithms for Function Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Zhong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the researchers have made a lot of hybrid particle swarm algorithm in order to solve the shortcomings that the Particle Swarm Algorithms is easy to converge to local extremum, these algorithms declare that there has been better than the standard particle swarm. This study selects three kinds of representative hybrid particle swarm optimizations (differential evolution particle swarm optimization, GA particle swarm optimization, quantum particle swarm optimization and the standard particle swarm optimization to test with three objective functions. We compare evolutionary algorithm performance by a fixed number of iterations of the convergence speed and accuracy and the number of iterations under the fixed convergence precision; analyzing these types of hybrid particle swarm optimization results and practical performance. Test results show hybrid particle algorithm performance has improved significantly.

  4. A Comparative Study of Several Hybrid Particle Swarm Algorithms for Function Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the researchers have made a lot of hybrid particle swarm algorithm in order to solve the shortcomings that the Particle Swarm Algorithms is easy to converge to local extremum, these algorithms declare that there has been better than the standard particle swarm. This study selects three kinds of representative hybrid particle swarm optimizations (differential evolution particle swarm optimization, GA particle swarm optimization, quantum particle swarm optimization and the standard particle swarm optimization to test with three objective functions. We compare evolutionary algorithm performance by a fixed number of iterations of the convergence speed and accuracy and the number of iterations under the fixed convergence precision, analyzing these types of hybrid particle swarm optimization results and practical performance. Test results show hybrid particle algorithm performance has improved significantly.

  5. Performance study of new pixel hybrid photon detector prototypes for the LHCb RICH counters

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, M; Allebone, L; Campbell, M; Gys, Thierry; Newby, C; Pickford, A; Piedigrossi, D; Wyllie, K

    2004-01-01

    A pixel Hybrid Photon Detector was developed according to the specific requirements of the LHCb ring imaging Cerenkov counters. This detector comprises a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary readout chip to achieve a 25 ns fast readout and a high signal-to-noise ratio. The detector performance was characterized by varying the pixel threshold, the tube high voltage, the silicon bias voltage and by the determination of the photoelectron detection efficiency. Furthermore accelerated aging and high pixel occupancy tests were performed to verify the long term stability. The results were obtained using Cerenkov light and a fast pulsed light emitting diode. All measurements results are within the expectations and fulfill the design goals. (8 refs).

  6. The pixel hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb-RICH project

    CERN Document Server

    Gys, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout to be used in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The paper starts with the general specification of the baseline option. Followed by a summary of the main results achieved so far during the R&D phase. It concludes with a description of the remaining work towards the final photon detector. (17 refs).

  7. Thin film cadmium telluride charged particle sensors for large area neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J. W.; Smith, L.; Calkins, J.; Mejia, I.; Cantley, K. D.; Chapman, R. A.; Quevedo-Lopez, M.; Gnade, B., E-mail: gnade@utdallas.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Kunnen, G. R.; Allee, D. R. [Flexible Display Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona 85284 (United States); Sastré-Hernández, J.; Contreras-Puente, G. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City 07738 (Mexico); Mendoza-Pérez, R. [Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, Mexico City 09790 (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Thin film semiconductor neutron detectors are an attractive candidate to replace {sup 3}He neutron detectors, due to the possibility of low cost manufacturing and the potential for large areas. Polycrystalline CdTe is found to be an excellent material for thin film charged particle detectors—an integral component of a thin film neutron detector. The devices presented here are characterized in terms of their response to alpha and gamma radiation. Individual alpha particles are detected with an intrinsic efficiency of >80%, while the devices are largely insensitive to gamma rays, which is desirable so that the detector does not give false positive counts from gamma rays. The capacitance-voltage behavior of the devices is studied and correlated to the response due to alpha radiation. When coupled with a boron-based neutron converting material, the CdTe detectors are capable of detecting thermal neutrons.

  8. GaN as a radiation hard particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J.; Bates, R.; Cunningham, W.; Blue, A.; Melone, J.; McEwan, F.; Vaitkus, J.; Gaubas, E.; O'Shea, V.

    2007-06-01

    Semiconductor tracking detectors at experiments such as ATLAS and LHCb at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be subjected to intense levels of radiation. The proposed machine upgrade, the Super-LHC (SLHC), to 10 times the initial luminosity of the LHC will require detectors that are ultra-radiation hard. Much of the current research into finding a detector that will meet the requirements of the SLHC has focused on using silicon substrates with enhanced levels of oxygen, for example Czochralski silicon and diffusion oxygenated float zone silicon, and into novel detector structures such as 3D devices. Another avenue currently being investigated is the use of wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN). Both SiC and GaN should be intrinsically more radiation hard than silicon. Pad and guard ring structures were fabricated on three epitaxial GaN wafers. The epitaxial GaN thickness was either 2.5 or 12 μm and the fabricated detectors were irradiated to various fluences with 24 GeV/c protons and 1 MeV neutrons. Detectors were characterised pre- and post-irradiation by performing current-voltage ( I- V) and charge collection efficiency (CCE) measurements. Devices fabricated on 12 μm epitaxial GaN irradiated to fluences of 1016 protons cm-2 and 1016 neutrons cm-2 show maximum CCE values of 26% and 20%, respectively, compared to a maximum CCE of 53% of the unirradiated device.

  9. Spectroscopic performance studies of 4H-SiC detectors for fusion alpha-particle diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, P. Vigneshwara; Akhtar, Jamil; Rao, C. V. S.; Vala, Sudhirsinh; Abhangi, Mitul; Murty, N. V. L. Narasimha

    2017-10-01

    The spectroscopic performances of Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) and bulk detectors fabricated on n-type epitaxial 4H-SiC and high-purity semi-insulating (HPSI) 4H-SiC substrates are studied using 241Am alpha-particles. The spectral responses of the SBD detectors reveal a good energy resolution of 55 keV FWHM (∼1%) at -60 V, and ∼90% charge collection efficiency (CCE) at -100 V. The collected signal charge is stable with time in the SBD detectors; hence polarization effects are not noticed, indicating the good crystalline quality of the epitaxial 4H-SiC for detector applications. On the contrary, a poor energy resolution of 675 keV FWHM (12.3%) at -400 V and a maximum CCE of 28% at -500 V are obtained for the bulk detectors. Moreover, the CCE is found to decrease with time after the application of bias voltage implying the polarization phenomenon. Accordingly, the steady-state CCE of the bulk detectors at -500V is decreased to 13% from its initial value. The inferior spectral response of the bulk detectors is possibly due to the charge trapping and polarization effects. Furthermore, the neutron irradiation effects on the α-particle spectral response of the detectors are examined up to a fluence of 1011 n/cm2. To study the reliability of the SBD detectors at higher irradiation levels, the 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation induced changes in the electrical characteristics of the SBD are investigated up to a fluence of 2 × 1015n/cm2 by device simulations and the probable degradation in the detector response is analyzed. Finally, the possibility of employing 4H-SiC detectors for the fusion alpha-particle diagnostics is discussed.

  10. A VLSI System-on-Chip for Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078019

    In this thesis I present a System-on-Chip (SoC) I designed to oer a self- contained, compact data acquisition platform for micromegas detector mon- itoring. I carried on my work within the RD-51 collab oration of CERN. With a companion ADC, my architecture is capable to acquire the signal from a detector electro de, pro cess the data and p erform monitoring tests. The SoC is built around on a custom 8-bit micropro cessor with internal mem- ory resources and emb eds the p eripherals to b e interf...

  11. X-ray Imaging Using a Hybrid Photon Counting GaAs Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, C; Göppert, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Ludwig, J; Meddeler, G; Mikulec, B; Pernigotti, E; Rogalla, M; Runge, K; Smith, K M; Snoeys, W; Söldner-Rembold, S; Watt, J

    1999-01-01

    The performance of hybrid GaAs pixel detectors as X-ray imaging sensors were investigated at room temperature. These hybrids consist of 300 mu-m thick GaAs pixel detectors, flip-chip bonded to a CMOS Single Photon Counting Chip (PCC). This chip consists of a matrix of 64 x 64 identical square pixels (170 mu-m x 170 mu-m) and covers a total area of 1.2 cm**2. The electronics in each cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator with a 3-bit threshold adjust and a 15-bit counter. The detector is realized by an array of Schottky diodes processed on semi-insulating LEC-GaAs bulk material. An IV-charcteristic and a detector bias voltage scan showed that the detector can be operated with voltages around 200 V. Images of various objects were taken by using a standard X-ray tube for dental diagnostics. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also determined. The applications of these imaging systems range from medical applications like digital mammography or dental X-ray diagnostics to non destructive material testing (...

  12. Measurement of the Proton-Air Cross Section with Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and Surface Array in Hybrid Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R U; Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Chae, M J; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, W R; Fujii, T; Fukushima, M; Goto, T; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Honda1, K; Ikeda, D; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ito, H; Ivanov, D; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kawata, K; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, J H; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan1, J; Lim, S I; Lundquist, J P; Machida, K; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Mukai, K; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki1, S; Nakamura, T; Nonaka, T; Nozato, A; Ogio, S; Ogura, J; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Okuda, T; Ono, M; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T A; Suzawa, T; Takamura, M; Takeda, M; Takeishi, R; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Urban, F; Vasiloff, G; Wong, T; Yamane, R; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yashiro, K; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z

    2015-01-01

    In this work we are reporting on the measurement of the proton-air inelastic cross section $\\sigma^{\\rm inel}_{\\rm p-air}$ using the Telescope Array (TA) detector. Based on the measurement of the $\\sigma^{\\rm inel}_{\\rm p-air}$ the proton-proton cross section $\\sigma_{\\rm p-p}$ value is also determined at $\\sqrt{s} = 95$ TeV. Detecting cosmic ray events at ultra high energies with Telescope Array enables us to study this fundamental parameter that we are otherwise unable to access with particle accelerators. The data used in this report is collected over five years using hybrid events observed by the Middle Drum fluorescence detector together with the surface array detector. The value of the $\\sigma^{\\rm inel}_{\\rm p-air}$ is found to be equal to $ 567.0 \\pm 70.5 [{\\rm Stat.}] ^{+25}_{-29} [{\\rm Sys.}]$ mb. The total proton-proton cross section is subsequently inferred from Glauber Formalism and Block, Halzen and Stanev QCD inspired fit and is found to be equal to $170_{-44}^{+48} [{\\rm Stat.}] \\pm _{-19}^{+1...

  13. Qualification of a new supplier for silicon particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragicevic, M., E-mail: marko.dragicevic@cern.ch [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Frühwirth, E. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Gamerith, S.; Hacker, J.; Kröner, F.; Kucher, E.; Moser, J.; Neidhart, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Schulze, H.-J. [Infineon Technologies AG, Munich (Germany); Schustereder, W. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Treberspurg, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wübben, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria)

    2013-12-21

    Most modern particle physics experiments use silicon based sensors for their tracking systems. These sensors are able to detect particles generated in high energy collisions with high spatial resolution and therefore allow the precise reconstruction of particle tracks. So far only a few vendors are capable of producing silicon strip sensors with the quality needed in particle physics experiments. Together with the European semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences developed planar silicon strip sensors in p-on-n technology. This paper presents the development, production and results from the electrical characterisation of the first sensors produced by Infineon.

  14. Performance Studies of Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2004-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  15. Performance studies of pixel hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2006-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  16. A transition radiation detector for RHIC featuring accurate tracking and dE/dx particle identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, E.; Lissauer, D.; McCorkle, S.; Polychronakos, V.; Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chi, C.Y.; Nagamiya, S.; Sippach, W.; Toy, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.F.; Wiggins, C.; Willis, W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cherniatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering, (Russian Federation); Bennett, M.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Pope, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    We describe the results of a test ran involving a Transition Radiation Detector that can both distinguish electrons from pions which momenta greater titan 0.7 GeV/c and simultaneously track particles passing through the detector. The particle identification is accomplished through a combination of the detection of Transition Radiation from the electron and the differences in electron and pion energy loss (dE/dx) in the detector. The dE/dx particle separation is most, efficient below 2 GeV/c while particle ID utilizing Transition Radiation effective above 1.5 GeV/c. Combined, the electron-pion separation is-better than 5 {times} 10{sup 2}. The single-wire, track-position resolution for the TRD is {approximately}230 {mu}m.

  17. Study on the performance of electromagnetic particle detectors of LHAASO-KM2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongquan; Hou, Chao; Cao, Zhen; Chang, Jingfan; Feng, Cunfeng; Hanapia, Erlan; Gong, Guanghua; Liu, Jia; Lv, Hongkui; Sheng, Xiangdong; Zhang, Shaoru; Zhu, Chengguang

    2017-02-01

    The electromagnetic particle detectors (EDs) for one square kilometer detector array (KM2A) of large high altitude air shower observation (LHAASO) are designed to measure the densities and arrival times of secondary particles in extensive air showers (EASs). ED is a type of plastic scintillator detector with an active area of 1 m2. This study investigates the design and performance of prototype ED. Approximately 20 photoelectrons are collected by the 1st dynode of a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The prototype ED exhibited good detection efficiency and time resolution. The detection for the wide dynamic particle density varying from 1 to 10 000 particles/m2 is realized with the design of the PMT divider for the readout of both the anode and 6th dynode.

  18. An alpha particle detector for a portable neutron generator for the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausladen, P. A.; Neal, J. S.; Mihalczo, J. T.

    2005-12-01

    A recoil alpha particle detector has been developed for use in a portable neutron generator. The associated particle sealed tube neutron generator (APSTNG) will be used as an interrogation source for the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS). With the coincident emission of 14.1 MeV neutrons and 3.5 MeV alpha particles produced by the D-T reaction, alpha detection determines the time and direction of the neutrons of interest for subsequent use as an active nuclear materials interrogation source. The alpha particle detector uses a ZnO(Ga) scintillator coating applied to a fiber optic face plate. Gallium-doped zinc oxide is a fast (inorganic scintillator with a high melting point (1975 °C). One detector has been installed in an APSTNG and is currently being tested. Initial results include a measured efficiency for 3.5 MeV alphas of 90%.

  19. Limitations of the pulse-shape technique for particle discrimination in planar Si detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pausch, G.; Seidel, W. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik; Moszynski, M.; Wolski, D. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland). Dept. of Nuclear Electronics; Bohne, W. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Festkoerperphysik; Cederkaell, J.; Klamra, W. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Grawe, H.; Schubart, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Lampert, M.O.; Rohr, P. [Eurisys Mesures, 67 - Tanneries (France)

    1996-11-01

    Limitations of the pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) technique - a promising method to identify the charged particles stopped in planar Si-detectors - have been investigated. The particle resolution turned out to be basically determined by resistivity fluctuations in the bulk silicon which cause the charge-collection time to depend on the point of impact. Detector maps showing these fluctuations have been measured and are discussed. Furthermore we present a simple method to test the performance of detectors with respect to PSD. Another limitation of the PSD technique is the finite energy threshold for particle identification. This threshold is caused by an unexpected decrease of the total charge-collection time for ions with a short range, in spite of the fact that the particle tracks are located in a region of very low electric field. (orig.)

  20. A transition radiation detector which features accurate tracking and dE/dx particle identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, E.; Lissauer, D.; McCorkle, S.; Polychronakos, V.; Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chi, C.Y.; Nagamiya, S.; Sippach, W.; Toy, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.F.; Wiggins, C.; Willis, W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cherniatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B. [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Engineering, Moscow (Russia Federation); Bennett, M.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Pope, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    We describe the results of a test run involving a Transition Radiation Detector that can both distinguish electrons from pions with momenta greater than 0.7 GeV/c and simultaneously track particles passing through the detector. The particle identification is accomplished through a combination of the detection of Transition Radiation from the electron and the differences in electron and pion energy loss (dE/dx) in the detector. The dE/dx particle separation is most efficient below 2 GeV/c while particle ID utilizing Transition Radiation is effective above 1.5 GeV/c. Combined, the electron-pion separation is better than 5 {times} l0{sup 2}. The single-wire, track-position resolution for the TRD is {approximately}230{mu}m.

  1. A transition radiation detector which features accurate tracking and dE/dx particle identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, E.; Lissauer, D.; McCorkle, S.; Polychronakos, V.; Takai, H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Chi, C.Y.; Nagamiya, S.; Sippach, W.; Toy, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.F.; Wiggins, C.; Willis, W. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Cherniatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B. (Moscow Inst. of Physics and Engineering (Russian Federation)); Bennett, M.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Pope, K. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The authors describe the results of a test run involving a Transition Radiation Detector that can both distinguish electrons from pions with momenta greater than 0.7 GeV/c and simultaneously track particles passing through the detector. The particle identification is accomplished through a combination of the detection of Transition Radiation from the electron and the differences in electron and pion energy loss (dE/dx) in the detector. The dE/dx particle separation is most efficient below 2 GeV/c while particle ID utilizing Transition Radiation is effective above 1.5 GeV/c. Combined, the electron-pion separation is better than 5 x 10[sup 2]. The single-wire, track-position resolution for the TRD is [approximately] [mu]m.

  2. Technology of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Panas, Andrzej; Bar, Jan; Budzyński, Tadeusz; Grabiec, Piotr; Kozłowski, Roman; Sarnecki, Jerzy; Słysz, Wojciech; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecki, Maciej; Zaborowski, Michał

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses the technology of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE). The developed technology enables the fabrication of both planar and epiplanar p+-ν-n+ detector structures with an active area of up to 50 cm2. The starting material for epiplanar structures are silicon wafers with a high-resistivity n-type epitaxial layer ( ν layer - ρ < 3 kΩcm) deposited on a highly doped n+-type substrate (ρ< 0,02Ωcm) developed and fabricated at the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology. Active layer thickness of the epiplanar detectors (νlayer) may range from 10 μm to 150 μm. Imported silicon with min. 5 kΩcm resistivity is used to fabricate planar detectors. Active layer thickness of the planar detectors (ν) layer) may range from 200 μm to 1 mm. This technology enables the fabrication of both discrete and multi-junction detectors (monolithic detector arrays), such as single-sided strip detectors (epiplanar and planar) and double-sided strip detectors (planar). Examples of process diagrams for fabrication of the epiplanar and planar detectors are presented in the paper, and selected technological processes are discussed.

  3. Lepton Isolation Using Particle Flow Objects for the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moortgat, Seth

    2014-01-01

    This note presents a novel method for isolation using particle flow objects. The study is focused on muon isolation, but it is expected that these techniques would also be applicable for electrons and photons. It will be shown to be robust against pile-up, which is one of the challenges at the LHC. High efficiency in identifying truly isolated particles needs to be balanced by good fake rejection such that non-isolated particles do not pass the isolation criteria. Particle flow isolation shows improvements over previously used track and calorimeter based isolation, preserving a higher fake rejection for a similar isolation efficiency. For an efficiency of 90$\\%$, particle flow isolation achieves a fake rejection of 63$\\%$ whereas the standard isolation techniques reach only 40$\\%$.

  4. Development of Charged.Particle Detector and Its Application in Shenzhou-5 Manned Spacecraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TanJilian; LuZiwei; ZhangJinxia; LiCunfan; WangZhusheng; BaoZhiqing; WangShijin; ZhuGuangwu; LiangJinbao; GaoPing

    2003-01-01

    The measuring and monitoring of the radiation environment of earth's space have very important significance for developing space science and application techniques. The measurement of space charged particle radiation includes mainly two aspects: (1) measurement of energy spectra and flux of protons and electrons; (2) identification of particle species lighter than Fe and measurement of energy spectra. Charged particle spectroscope consisting of semiconductor detectors was usually used for the measurements mentioned above.

  5. Search for long-lived massive particles with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Numerous new physics models predict the existence of massive long-lived particles. Such particles may be produced at the LHC singly or in pairs, and can be detected through abnormal specific energy loss, long time-of-flight, late calorimetric energy deposits, disappearing tracks or displaced vertices. The seminar presents the experimental challenges and recent results from searches for long-lived particles with the ATLAS detector.

  6. Asymmetric backscattering from the hybrid magneto-electric meta particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Vitali; Filonov, Dmitry; Shalin, Alexander S.; Steinberg, Ben Z.; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    The optical theorem relates the total scattering cross-section of a given structure with its forward scattering, but does not impose any restrictions on other directions. Strong backward-forward asymmetry in scattering could be achieved by exploring retarded coupling between particles, exhibiting both electric and magnetic resonances. Here, a hybrid magneto-electric particle (HMEP), consisting of a split ring resonator acting as a magnetic dipole and a wire antenna acting as an electric dipole, is shown to possess asymmetric scattering properties. When illuminated from opposite directions with the same polarization of the electric field, the structure has exactly the same forward scattering, whereas the backward scattering is drastically different. The scattering cross section is shown to be as low as zero at a narrow frequency range when illuminated from one side, while being maximal at the same frequency range when illuminated from the other side. Theoretical predictions of the phenomena are supported with both numerical and experimental conformations, obtained at the GHz frequency range, and all are in a good agreement with each other. HMEP meta-particles could be used as building blocks for various metamaterials assembling solar cells, invisibility cloaks, holographic masks, etc.

  7. The next generation of photo-detector for particle astrophysics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R. G.; Byrum, K. L.; Sanchez, M.; Vaniachine, A. V.; Siegmund, O.; Otte, N.A.; Ramberg, E.; Hall, J.; Buckley, J.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of California at Berkeley; FNAL; Washington Univ.

    2009-06-02

    We advocate support of research aimed at developing alternatives to the photomultiplier tube for photon detection in large astroparticle experiments such as gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy, and direct dark matter detectors. Specifically, we discuss the development of large area photocathode microchannel plate photomultipliers and silicon photomultipliers. Both technologies have the potential to exhibit improved photon detection efficiency compared to existing glass vacuum photomultiplier tubes.

  8. The Next Generation of Photo-Detectors for Particle Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Robert G.; Byrum, Karen L.; Sanchez, Mayly; Vaniachine, Alexandre V.; Siegmund, Oswald; Otte, Nepomuk A.; Ramberg, Erik; Hall, Jeter; Buckley, James

    2009-04-01

    We advocate support of research aimed at developing alternatives to the photomultiplier tube for photon detection in large astroparticle experiments such as gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy, and direct dark matter detectors. Specifically, we discuss the development of large area photocathode microchannel plate photomultipliers and silicon photomultipliers. Both technologies have the potential to exhibit improved photon detection efficiency compared to existing glass vacuum photomultiplier tubes.

  9. One dimensional spatial resolution optimization on a hybrid low field MRI-gamma detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulles-Pedrós, L.; Abril, A.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid systems like Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) and MRI/gamma camera, offer advantages combining the resolution and contrast capability of MRI with the better contrast and functional information of nuclear medicine techniques. However, the radiation detectors are expensive and need an electronic set-up, which can interfere with the MRI acquisition process or viceversa. In order to improve these drawbacks, in this work it is presented the design of a low field NMR system made up of permanent magnets compatible with a gamma radiation detector based on gel dosimetry. The design is performed using the software FEMM for estimation of the magnetic field, and GEANT4 for the physical process involved in radiation detection and effect of magnetic field. The homogeneity in magnetic field is achieved with an array of NbFeB magnets in a linear configuration with a separation between the magnets, minimizing the effect of Compton back scattering compared with a no-spacing linear configuration. The final magnetic field in the homogeneous zone is ca. 100 mT. In this hybrid proposal, although the gel detector do not have spatial resolution per se, it is possible to obtain a dose profile (1D image) as a function of the position by using a collimator array. As a result, the gamma detector system described allows a complete integrated radiation detector within the low field NMR (lfNMR) system. Finally we present the better configuration for the hybrid system considering the collimator parameters such as height, thickness and distance.

  10. One dimensional spatial resolution optimization on a hybrid low field MRI-gamma detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agulles-Pedrós, L., E-mail: lagullesp@unal.edu.co; Abril, A., E-mail: ajabrilf@unal.edu.co [Medical Physics Group, Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    Hybrid systems like Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) and MRI/gamma camera, offer advantages combining the resolution and contrast capability of MRI with the better contrast and functional information of nuclear medicine techniques. However, the radiation detectors are expensive and need an electronic set-up, which can interfere with the MRI acquisition process or viceversa. In order to improve these drawbacks, in this work it is presented the design of a low field NMR system made up of permanent magnets compatible with a gamma radiation detector based on gel dosimetry. The design is performed using the software FEMM for estimation of the magnetic field, and GEANT4 for the physical process involved in radiation detection and effect of magnetic field. The homogeneity in magnetic field is achieved with an array of NbFeB magnets in a linear configuration with a separation between the magnets, minimizing the effect of Compton back scattering compared with a no-spacing linear configuration. The final magnetic field in the homogeneous zone is ca. 100 mT. In this hybrid proposal, although the gel detector do not have spatial resolution per se, it is possible to obtain a dose profile (1D image) as a function of the position by using a collimator array. As a result, the gamma detector system described allows a complete integrated radiation detector within the low field NMR (lfNMR) system. Finally we present the better configuration for the hybrid system considering the collimator parameters such as height, thickness and distance.

  11. Design and expected performance of a novel hybrid detector for very-high-energy gamma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Assis, P; Blanco, A; Conceição, R; Piazzoli, B D'Ettore; De Angelis, A; Doro, M; Fonte, P; Lopes, L; Matthiae, G; Pimenta, M; Shellard, R; Tomé, B

    2016-01-01

    Current detectors for Very-High-Energy $\\gamma$-ray astrophysics are either pointing instruments with a small field of view (Cherenkov telescopes), or large field-of-view instruments with relatively large energy thresholds (extensive air shower detectors). In this article we propose a new hybrid extensive air shower detector sensitive in an energy region starting from about 100 GeV, allowing to detect with a $5\\sigma$ significance a source as faint as 10% of the Crab Nebula in one year, and able to survey half of the sky. The instrument can detect a source with the luminosity of 25 Crab at $3\\sigma$ in 1 minute, making it a very powerful tool to trigger observations of variable sources and to detect transients coupled to gravitational waves and gamma-ray bursts.

  12. ASICs in nanometer and 3D technologies for readout of hybrid pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Piotr; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Szczygiel, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors working in a single photon counting mode are very attractive solutions for material science and medical X-ray imaging applications. Readout electronics of these detectors has to match the geometry of pixel detectors with an area of readout channel of 100 μm × 100 μm (or even less) and very small power consumption (a few tens of μW). New solutions of readout ASICs are going into directions of better spatial resolutions, higher data throughput and more advanced functionality. We report on the design and measurement results of two pixel prototype ASICs in nanometer technology and 3D technology which offer fast signal processing, low noise performance and advanced functionality per single readout pixel cell.

  13. Simulation of the detective quantum efficiency for a hybrid pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risco Norrlid, L. del [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 535, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: lilian@tsl.uu.se; Edling, Fredrik [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 535, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Fransson, K. [The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 533, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Brenner, R. [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 535, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Bingefors, N. [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 535, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Gustafsson, L. [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 535, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, C. [Scanditronix Wellhoefer AB, Stalgatan 14, 754 50 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-05-11

    A simulation tool has been developed for the analysis of the performance of an X-ray imaging hybrid pixel detector. The photon transport and charge collection were simulated with the aid of the Monte Carlo based code GEANT and the readout signal processing was simulated in a program written in the LabView programming environment. Results of the spatial frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency are presented and the influence of charge sharing, the threshold settings, level of exposure, the noise sources on the detector performance are studied. The detector was found to operate quantum limited down to an exposure of 0.08 {mu}Gy, below which it is limited by the readout noise. The threshold setting has a strong influence on both the efficiency and the spatial resolution due to charge sharing, and a compromise between the two is necessary. The optimized threshold value corresponds to half of the mean energy of the input spectrum.

  14. A semiclassical hybrid approach to many particle quantum dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Frank

    2006-07-01

    We analytically derive a correlated approach for a mixed semiclassical many particle dynamics, treating a fraction of the degrees of freedom by the multitrajectory semiclassical initial value method of Herman and Kluk [Chem. Phys. 91, 27 (1984)] while approximately treating the dynamics of the remaining degrees of freedom with fixed initial phase space variables, analogously to the thawed Gaussian wave packet dynamics of Heller [J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1544 (1975)]. A first application of this hybrid approach to the well studied Secrest-Johnson [J. Chem. Phys. 45, 4556 (1966)] model of atom-diatomic collisions is promising. Results close to the quantum ones for correlation functions as well as scattering probabilities could be gained with considerably reduced numerical effort as compared to the full semiclassical Herman-Kluk approach. Furthermore, the harmonic nature of the different degrees of freedom can be determined a posteriori by comparing results with and without the additional approximation.

  15. The role of space charge in GaAs-based particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mares, J J; Hubik, P; Pospísil, S

    1999-01-01

    The direct measurement of the captured charge using the Faraday cup method together with the analysis of current-voltage curves was used for the experimental proof of the existence of the space charge in biased GaAs detector structures. The role of this space charge was discussed using the generalized Ramo-Gunn's theorem which enabled the explanation of the data observed and, moreover, provides a useful criterion for the optimization of GaAs-based particle detectors. (author)

  16. Searches for long-lived, Exotic particles with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, CP; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Three recent searches for massive, exotic, long-lived particles are presented for 2011 LHC data using the ATLAS detector. No new physics has been found but limits have been set, and tools for future searches have been developed. Improvements are under way using timing, ionization, and displac ed vertices in several ATLAS sub-detectors for searches with full 2011 data and 2012 data.

  17. An Interdigitated Pixel PIN Detector for Energetic Particle Spectroscopy in Space

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    We describe a new two-dimensional position-sensitive detector, now under development, for use in space-borne energetic particle spectrometers. The novel feature of this device is the use of interdigitated pixels to provide both dimensions of position information from a single side of the detector, while a measurement of the energy deposition is derived from the opposite side. An advantage of this approach is that significant reductions in the complexity, power, and weight of th...

  18. Design of the TORCH detector: A Cherenkov based Time-of-Flight system for particle identification

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078663; Rademacker, Jonas

    The LHCb detector at the LHC collider has been very successfully operated over the past years, providing new and profound insights into the Standard Model, in particular through study of $b$-hadrons to achieve a better understanding of CP violation. One of the key components of LHCb is its particle identification system, comprised of two RICH detectors, which allow for high precision separation of particle species over a large momentum range. In order to retain and improve the performance of the particle identification system in light of the LHCb upgrade, the TORCH detector has been proposed to supplement the RICH system at low momentum (2-10 GeV/c). The TORCH detector provides (charged) particle identification through precision timing of particles passing through it. Assuming a known momentum from the tracking, it is possible to derive the species of a particle from the time of flight from its primary vertex. This measurement is achieved by timing and combining photons generated in a solid radiator. The geom...

  19. The charged-particle multiplicity inside jets at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The number of charged particles inside jets is a widely used discriminant for identifying the quark or gluon nature of the initiating parton and is sensitive to both the perturbative and non-perturbative components of fragmentation. This paper presents a measurement of the average number of charged particles with pT>500 MeV inside high-momentum jets in dijet events using 20.3 1/fb of data recorded with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at s = sqrt(8) TeV collisions at the LHC. The jets considered have transverse momenta from 50 GeV up to and beyond 1.5 TeV. The reconstructed charged-particle track multiplicity distribution is unfolded to remove distortions from detector effects and the resulting charged-particle multiplicity is compared to several models. Furthermore, quark and gluon jet fractions are used to extract the average charged-particle multiplicity for quark and gluon jets separately.

  20. MCNPX Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport in SiC semiconductor detectors of fast neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlačková, K.; Zat'ko, B.; Šagátová, A.; Pavlovič, M.; Nečas, V.; Stacho, M.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate particle transport properties of a fast neutron detector based on silicon carbide. MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) code was used in our study because it allows seamless particle transport, thus not only interacting neutrons can be inspected but also secondary particles can be banked for subsequent transport. Modelling of the fast-neutron response of a SiC detector was carried out for fast neutrons produced by 239Pu-Be source with the mean energy of about 4.3 MeV. Using the MCNPX code, the following quantities have been calculated: secondary particle flux densities, reaction rates of elastic/inelastic scattering and other nuclear reactions, distribution of residual ions, deposited energy and energy distribution of pulses. The values of reaction rates calculated for different types of reactions and resulting energy deposition values showed that the incident neutrons transfer part of the carried energy predominantly via elastic scattering on silicon and carbon atoms. Other fast-neutron induced reactions include inelastic scattering and nuclear reactions followed by production of α-particles and protons. Silicon and carbon recoil atoms, α-particles and protons are charged particles which contribute to the detector response. It was demonstrated that although the bare SiC material can register fast neutrons directly, its detection efficiency can be enlarged if it is covered by an appropriate conversion layer. Comparison of the simulation results with experimental data was successfully accomplished.

  1. The Observation of Up-going Charged Particles Produced by High Energy Muons in Underground Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study of the production of up-going charged particles in inelastic interactions of down-going underground muons is reported, using data obtained from the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. In a sample of 12.2 10^6 single muons, corresponding to a detector livetime of 1.55 y, 243 events are observed having an up-going particle associated with a down-going muon. These events are analysed to determine the range and emission angle distributions of the up-going particle, corrected for detection and reconstruction efficiency. Measurements of the muon neutrino flux by underground detectors are often based on the observation of through-going and stopping muons produced in $\

  2. Results on light dark matter particles with a low-threshold CRESST-II detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angloher, G.; Iachellini, N.F.; Hauff, D.; Kiefer, M.; Petricca, F.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.; Strauss, R.; Tanzke, A.; Wuestrich, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bento, A. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Gorla, P.; Pagliarone, C.; Schaeffner, K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Defay, X.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Muenster, A.; Potzel, W.; Schoenert, S.; Trinh Thi, H.H.; Ulrich, A.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zoeller, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Erb, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Walther-Meissner-Institut fuer Tieftemperaturforschung, Garching (Germany); Guetlein, A.; Kluck, H.; Schieck, J.; Tuerkoglu, C. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien (Austria); Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Wien (Austria); Jochum, J.; Loebell, J.; Strandhagen, C.; Uffinger, M.; Usherov, I. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Kraus, H. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Reindl, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The CRESST-II experiment uses cryogenic detectors to search for nuclear recoil events induced by the elastic scattering of dark matter particles in CaWO{sub 4} crystals. Given the low energy threshold of our detectors in combination with light target nuclei, low mass dark matter particles can be probed with high sensitivity. In this letter we present the results from data of a single detector module corresponding to 52 kg live days. A blind analysis is carried out. With an energy threshold for nuclear recoils of 307 eV we substantially enhance the sensitivity for light dark matter. Thereby, we extend the reach of direct dark matter experiments to the sub- GeV/c{sup 2} region and demonstrate that the energy threshold is the key parameter in the search for low mass dark matter particles. (orig.)

  3. Results on light dark matter particles with a low-threshold CRESST-II detector

    CERN Document Server

    Angloher, G; Bucci, C; Canonica, L; Defay, X; Erb, A; Feilitzsch, F v; Iachellini, N Ferreiro; Gorla, P; Gütlein, A; Hauff, D; Jochum, J; Kiefer, M; Kluck, H; Kraus, H; Lanfranchi, J C; Loebell, J; Münster, A; Pagliarone, C; Petricca, F; Potzel, W; Pröbst, F; Reindl, F; Schäffner, K; Schieck, J; Schönert, S; Seidel, W; Stodolsky, L; Strandhagen, C; Strauss, R; Tanzke, A; Thi, H H Trinh; Türkoğlu, C; Uffinger, M; Ulrich, A; Usherov, I; Wawoczny, S; Willers, M; Wüstrich, M; Zöller, A

    2015-01-01

    The CRESST-II experiment uses cryogenic detectors to search for nuclear recoil events induced by the elastic scattering of dark matter particles in CaWO$_4$ crystals. Given the low energy threshold of our detectors in combination with light target nuclei, low mass dark matter particles can be probed with high sensitivity. In this letter we present the results from data of a single detector module corresponding to 52 kg live days. A blind analysis is carried out. With an energy threshold for nuclear recoils of 307 eV we substantially enhance the sensitivity for light dark matter. Thereby, we extend the reach of direct dark matter experiments to the sub-region and demonstrate that the energy threshold is the key parameter in the search for low mass dark matter particles.

  4. Detector and Electronic Developments for Low Energy Multi Particle Break-up Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengblad, Olof

    2007-11-01

    The study of excited states of unbound light nuclei includes the simultaneous detection of several charge particles emitted with very low energy. This puts several constrains on the detection system to be used. For the detectors, high segmentation is needed to be able to detect several coincident particles without an exponential drop in efficiency. The high segmentation of the detectors leads to experiments with an increased amount of electronic channels. For very dedicated experiment integrated electronic chips can be prepared, but in many cases where the detector set-up are frequently being changed, one still have to rely on more traditional analogue electronic circuits. News in the field of charge particle detection will be discussed.

  5. Registration of alpha particles in Makrofol-E nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Abdalla, Ayman M.; Ashraf, O.; Ashry, A. H.

    2016-06-01

    Fast detection of alpha particles in the range from 1 to 5 MeV in Makrofol-E polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (PCTDs) using a new chemical etchant was investigated. 252Cf and 241Am-thin open sources were used for irradiating Makrofol-E detectors with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal pressure and temperature (NPT). A chain of experimental work has been carried out using new etchants to register alpha particle in short time in Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors. The etching efficiency were exhibited a clear dependence on the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The optimized chemical condition obtained at this stage of development for 200 μm Makrofol-E detectors are (8 ml of 10 N NaOH + 2 ml CH3OH) etching solutions at 60 °C for 3 h. In this study; it is possible to observe energy detection windows for Makrofol-E detectors according to applied etching duration. Makrofol-E introduced the characteristic Bragg peak, which indicates the advantages of this detector as alpha spectrometer. Consequently, the suggested new etchant can be developed for heavy ions detection and monitoring radon levels and its daughters.

  6. AstroBox2 – Detector for low-energy β-delayed particle detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, A., E-mail: ajsaasta@comp.tamu.edu [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Pollacco, E. [IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Roeder, B.T.; Spiridon, A.; Daq, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Trache, L.; Pascovici, G. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); De Oliveira, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Rodrigues, M.R.D. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tribble, R.E. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Efficient suppression of β-background is essential for studies of low-energy β-delayed charged particle decays of astrophysical interest. A promising method for such studies has been a micro pattern gas amplifier detector where the sample is implanted into the gas volume and the decays that follow are observed with high gain and signal to noise ratio. An upgraded version of the original AstroBox detector has been built and commissioned at Texas A&M University. Here a description of the new AstroBox2 detector is given, selected results from the commissioning tests are presented, and future perspectives discussed.

  7. MUDAL: a 4 pi multi-detector array in Lanzhou for charged particle detection at HIRFL

    CERN Document Server

    Li Song Lin; Jin Ge; Xu Hu Shan; Yin Xu; Wang Xiao Qiu; Li Zu Yu; Lu Jun

    2002-01-01

    A 4 pi multidetector array of measuring charged particle is described. It consists of 276 detector units, each unit composed of fast and slow plastic scintillator phoswiches, fast plastic scintillator and CsI(Tl) phoswiches and silicon detector telescopes. It covers geometrically 86% of the 4 pi solid angle and has very low detection thresholds. The detectors, operated under vacuum, is axially symmetric. sup 1 sup , sup 2 sup , sup 3 H, sup 3 sup , sup 4 He and the elements from Li to Ar can be identified and their energies measured over a large dynamic range

  8. Potential of Thin Films for use in Charged Particle Tracking Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, J; Murphy, J; Quevedo, M; Smith, L; Alvarado, J; Gnade, B; Takai, H

    2014-01-01

    Thin Film technology has widespread applications in everyday electronics, notably Liquid Crystal Display screens, solar cells, and organic light emitting diodes. We explore the potential of this technology as charged particle radiation tracking detectors for use in High Energy Physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider or the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Through modern fabrication techniques, a host of semiconductor materials are available to construct thin, flexible detectors with integrated electronics with pixel sizes on the order of a few microns. We review the material properties of promising candidates, discuss the potential benefits and challenges associated with this technology, and review previously demonstrated applicability as a neutron detector.

  9. Particle Identification with the Cherenkov imaging technique using MPGD based Photon Detectors for Physics at COMPASS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070220; Martin, Anna

    A novel technology for the detection of single photons has been developed and implemented in 2016 in the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS. Some basic knowledge in the field of particle identification and RICH counters, Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) in general and their development for photon detection applications are provided. The characteristics of the COMPASS setup are summarized and the COMPAS RICH-1 detector is described and shown to provide hadron identification in the momentum range between 3 and 55 GeV/c. The THGEM technology is discussed illustrating their characterization as gas multipliers and as reflective photocathodes: large gains and efficient photodetection collections are achieved when using optimized parameters and conditions (hole diameter = THGEM thickness = 0.4 mm; hole pitch = 0.8 mm and no rim; CH4-rich gas mixtures and electric field values > 1 kV/cm at the CsI surface). The intense R\\&D program leading to the choice of a hybrid...

  10. Start Detector for Time-of-Flight Spectrometers of Heavy Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, A A; Kamanin, D V; Kondratiev, B A; Penionzhkevich, Yu E

    2004-01-01

    Design description of a low gas pressure avalanche counter which is used as a start detector in time-of-flight spectrometers of heavy charged particles is presented. The detector has three-electrode construction with two wire anodes and a metallized cathode between the anodes. Pentane at a pressure of about 4 torr is used as a working gas. The results of the investigations obtained with the help of the sources of $\\alpha$-particles and spontaneous fission fragments of $^{252}{\\rm Cf}$ source are also presented.

  11. Measurements of charged-particle distributions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cairo, Valentina Maria Martina

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive charged-particle measurements probe the low-energy region of the non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The ATLAS collaboration has recently measured the charged-particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at centre-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements at 8 TeV cover a wide spectrum using charged-particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged-particle multiplicities, some of which are studied for the first time by ATLAS. The measurements at 13 TeV also present detailed studies with a minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV. The measurements are compared with predictions of various tuned Monte Carlo generators and are found to provide strong constraints on these. None of the Monte Carlo generators with their respective tunes are able to reproduce all the features of the data.

  12. A particle detector for use in ventilation engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R P

    1973-09-01

    An electronic particle counting device is described, based on a constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer probe. The device has found application in tracing the motions of droplets and measuring their concentration within ventilated areas when subjected to different types of ventilation. In this way the effectiveness of various systems may be determined.

  13. Towards hybrid pixel detectors for energy-dispersive or soft X-ray photon science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann-Smith, J H; Bergamaschi, A; Brückner, M; Cartier, S; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Huthwelker, T; Maliakal, D; Mayilyan, D; Medjoubi, K; Mezza, D; Mozzanica, A; Ramilli, M; Ruder, Ch; Schädler, L; Schmitt, B; Shi, X; Tinti, G

    2016-03-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications at free-electron lasers and synchrotron light sources. The JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype presented here is specifically geared towards low-noise performance and hence soft X-ray detection. The design, geometry and readout architecture of JUNGFRAU 0.4 correspond to those of other JUNGFRAU pixel detectors, which are charge-integrating detectors with 75 µm × 75 µm pixels. Main characteristics of JUNGFRAU 0.4 are its fixed gain and r.m.s. noise of as low as 27 e(-) electronic noise charge (X-ray irradiation from an X-ray tube and a synchrotron light source are successfully demonstrated with an r.m.s. energy resolution of 20% (no mask) and 14% (with the mask) at 1.2 keV and of 5% at 13.3 keV. The performance evaluation of the JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype suggests that this detection system could be the starting point for a future detector development effort for either applications in the soft X-ray energy regime or for an energy-dispersive detection system.

  14. Real-time control of the beam attenuation with XPAD hybrid pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawiec, A.; Garreau, Y.; Bisou, J.; Hustache, S.; Kanoute, B.; Picca, F.; Renaud, G.; Coati, A.

    2016-12-01

    In order to fully benefit from a beam produced by modern synchrotron light sources, characterised by a wide and continuous energy spectrum, high brightness and a very high intensity, advancement in detector technology has been made over the last decades. However, one of the main limitations of the state-of-the-art counting hybrid pixel detectors is the maximum count-rate that is very often few orders of magnitudes lower than of the incident, reflected or diffracted beam flux. Therefore, direct beam attenuation is mandatory in order to perform the measurements according to the detector's characteristics. In this work we present a major upgrade of a fast attenuation system developed at Synchrotron SOLEIL, which allows for a dynamical change of the beam attenuation as a function of the photon flux received by XPAD S140 photon counting detector. The system performs a cyclic real-time estimation of the flux received by every pixel during acquisition of an image and searches for clusters of at least two pixels that exceed user defined levels of counts/s. The beam attenuation is immediately and automatically changed in order to guarantee that the detector will always operate in its linear range even during a long continuous scan, by acting on the direct attenuators.

  15. Hybrid Extensive Air Shower Detector Array at the University of Puebla to Study Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, O.; Pérez, E.; Salazar, H.; Villaseñor, L.

    We describe the design of an extensive air shower detector array built in the Campus of the University of Puebla (located at 19°N, 90°W, 800 gcm -2) to measure the energy and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1015 eV. The array consists of 18 liquid scintillator detectors (12 in the first stage) and 6 water Cherenkov detectors (one of 10 m 2 cross section and five smaller ones of 1.86 m 2 cross section), distributed in a square grid with a detector spacing of 20 m over an area of 4000 m 2. In this paper we discuss the calibration and stability of the array, and discuss the capability of hybrid arrays, such as this one consisting of water Cherenkov and liquid scintillator detectors, to allow a separation of the electromagnetic and muon components of extensive air showers. This separation plays an important role in the determination of the mass and identity of the primary cosmic ray. This facility is also used to train students interested in the field of cosmic rays.

  16. Performance of Hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors as Direct Detectors for Sub-millimeter Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, R M J; Endo, A; Ferrari, L; Yates, S J C; Baryshev, A M; Klapwijk, T M

    2014-01-01

    In the next decades millimeter and sub-mm astronomy requires large format imaging arrays and broad-band spectrometers to complement the high spatial and spectral resolution of the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array. The desired sensors for these instruments should have a background limited sensitivity and a high optical efficiency and enable arrays thousands of pixels in size. Hybrid microwave kinetic inductance detectors consisting of NbTiN and Al have shown to satisfy these requirements. We present the second generation hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs, which are photon noise limited in both phase and amplitude readout for loading levels $P_{850GHz} \\geq 10$ fW. Thanks to the increased responsivity, the photon noise level achieved in phase allows us to simultaneously read out approximately 8000 pixels using state-of-the-art electronics. In addition, the choice of superconducting materials and the use of a Si lens in combination with a planar antenna gives these resonators the flexibility to operate within t...

  17. Diamond particle detectors systems in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Kock Kiam

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using diamond detect or s has matured from devices based on a rather large pads to highly granular pixelated device s . The ATLAS experiment has recently installed a diamond pixel detector, the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), to measure the luminosity in the upgraded LHC with higher instantaneous luminosity. Polycrystalline diamonds were used to fabricate the diamond pixel modules. The design , production, and test beam result s are described. CMS also has a similar plan to construct a diamond based luminosity monitor, the Pixel Luminos ity Telescope s (PLT) . In a pilot run using single crystal diamond, the pulse height was found to depend on the luminosity . Consequently the collaboration decided to use silicon instead due to time constrain ts .

  18. High precision and stable structures for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Da Mota Silva, S; Hauviller, Claude

    1999-01-01

    The central detectors used in High Energy Physics Experiments require the use of light and stable structures capable of supporting delicate and precise radiation detection elements. These structures need to be highly stable under environmental conditions where external vibrations, high radiation levels, temperature and humidity gradients should be taken into account. Their main design drivers are high dimension and dynamic stability, high stiffness to mass ratio and large radiation length. For most applications, these constraints lead us to choose Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics ( CFRP) as structural element. The construction of light and stable structures with CFRP for these applications can be achieved by careful design engineering and further confirmation at the prototyping phase. However, the experimental environment can influence their characteristics and behavior. In this case, theuse of adaptive structures could become a solution for this problem. We are studying structures in CFRP with bonded piezoel...

  19. Operation management of daily economic dispatch using novel hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm with hybrid mutation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Song; Ji, Zhicheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm based on hybrid mutation strategy (HGSAPSO-M) to optimize economic dispatch (ED) including distributed generations (DGs) considering market-based energy pricing. A daily ED model was formulated and a hybrid mutation strategy was adopted in HGSAPSO-M. The hybrid mutation strategy includes two mutation operators, chaotic mutation, Gaussian mutation. The proposed algorithm was tested on IEEE-33 bus and results show that the approach is effective for this problem.

  20. A Novel Hybrid Statistical Particle Swarm Optimization for Multimodal Functions and Frequency Control of Hybrid Wind-Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Harish Kumar; Jain, Cheshta

    2016-09-01

    In this article, a hybrid algorithm of particle swarm optimization (PSO) with statistical parameter (HSPSO) is proposed. Basic PSO for shifted multimodal problems have low searching precision due to falling into a number of local minima. The proposed approach uses statistical characteristics to update the velocity of the particle to avoid local minima and help particles to search global optimum with improved convergence. The performance of the newly developed algorithm is verified using various standard multimodal, multivariable, shifted hybrid composition benchmark problems. Further, the comparative analysis of HSPSO with variants of PSO is tested to control frequency of hybrid renewable energy system which comprises solar system, wind system, diesel generator, aqua electrolyzer and ultra capacitor. A significant improvement in convergence characteristic of HSPSO algorithm over other variants of PSO is observed in solving benchmark optimization and renewable hybrid system problems.

  1. Particle identification by silicon detectors; Identificacao de particulas por detetores de silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Denison de Souza

    1997-07-01

    A method is developed for the evaluation of the energy loss, dE/dx, of a charged particle traversing a silicon strip detector. The method is applied to the DELPHI microvertex detector leading to diagrams of dE/dx versus momentum for different particles. The specific case of pions and protons is treated and the most probable value of dE/dx and the width of the dE/dx distribution for those particles in the momentum range of 0.2 GeV/c to 1.5 GeV/c, are obtained. The resolution found is 13.4 % for particles with momentum higher than 2 GeV/c and the separation power is 2.9 for 1.0 GeV/c pions and protons. (author)

  2. Search for electroweak production of supersymmetric particles at LHC Run 2 with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Carra, Sonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for electroweak production of supersymmetric particles decaying to final states with two or three leptons and missing transverse momentum is presented. The analysis is based on 36.1 fb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV proton-proton collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No significant deviations from the Standard Model expectation are observed and stringent exclusion limits at 95% confidence level are placed on the masses of the supersymmetric particles considered.

  3. Search for long-lived neutral particles decaying into lepton-jets with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389950; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Several models of elementary particle physics beyond the Standard Model predict the existence of neutral particles that can be long lived and decay in collimated jets of light leptons and hadrons (lepton-jets). The present contribution refers to the search for lepton-jets in proton-proton collision data sample recorded at the ATLAS detector. The selected events are compared with the Standard Model expectations and with various BSM predictions.

  4. The large-area hybrid-optics CLAS12 RICH detector: Tests of innovative components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contalbrigo, M., E-mail: contalbrigo@fe.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Baltzell, N. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Benmokhtar, F. [Christopher Newport University, VA (United States); Duquesne University, PA (United States); Barion, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Cisbani, E. [INFN Sezione di Roma – Gruppo Collega to Sanità (Italy); Italian National Institute of Health (Italy); El Alaoui, A. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Hafidi, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Hoek, M. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); J. Gutenberg Universität, Mainz (Germany); Kubarovsky, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, VA (United States); Lagamba, L. [INFN Sezione di Bari, University of Bari (Italy); Lucherini, V. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Malaguti, R. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Mirazita, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Montgomery, R. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Movsisyan, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Musico, P. [INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Orecchini, D.; Orlandi, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Pappalardo, L.L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Pereira, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadronization and hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and densely packed and highly segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). The preliminary results of individual detector component tests and of the prototype performance at test-beams are reported here. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid-optics configuration was proven to work with a large RICH prototype. • Innovative RICH components were studied both in laboratory tests and test-beams. • Aerogel of large Rayleigh scattering length at n=1.05 was characterized. • Novel vs commercially available multi-anode photomultipliers were compared. • The response of SiPM matrices to Cherenkov light was tested at various temperatures.

  5. Suitability of post-Newtonian/numerical-relativity hybrid waveforms for gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Ilana; Nissanke, Samaya; Pfeiffer, Harald P, E-mail: macdonald@astro.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2011-07-07

    This paper presents a study of the sufficient accuracy of post-Newtonian and numerical relativity waveforms for the most demanding usage case: parameter estimation of strong sources in advanced gravitational wave detectors. For black hole binaries, these detectors require accurate waveform models which can be constructed by fusing an analytical post-Newtonian inspiral waveform with a numerical relativity merger-ringdown waveform. We perform a comprehensive analysis of errors that enter such 'hybrid waveforms'. We find that the post-Newtonian waveform must be aligned with the numerical relativity waveform to exquisite accuracy, about 1/100 of a gravitational wave cycle. Phase errors in the inspiral phase of the numerical relativity simulation must be controlled to {approx}< 0.1 rad. (These numbers apply to moderately optimistic estimates about the number of GW sources; exceptionally strong signals require even smaller errors.) The dominant source of error arises from the inaccuracy of the investigated post-Newtonian Taylor approximants. Using our error criterion, even at 3.5th post-Newtonian order, hybridization has to be performed significantly before the start of the longest currently available numerical waveforms which cover 30 gravitational wave cycles. The current investigation is limited to the equal-mass, zero-spin case and does not take into account calibration errors of the gravitational wave detectors.

  6. Investigation of a hybrid structure gaseous detector for ion backflow suppression suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, YuLian; Hu, BiTao

    2016-01-01

    A new concept for ion backflow suppression in future time projection chamber with Micropattern Gas Detectors readout is presented. It is a hybrid structure cascaded Gas Electron Multiplier with Micromegas with the goal to reduce ion backflow from the amplification region towards the drift volume. Gas Electron Multiplier also acting as a preamplifer and shares gas gain with Micromegas. In this way a lower voltage difference has to be applied to the Micromegas and risk of sparking is reduced. Feasibility tests for the hybrid detector is performed using an $^{55}$Fe X-ray source to evaluate the energy resolution, its gain properties and the ion backflow. %The properties of this novel structure in terms of gain and ion backflow are investigated. The energy resolution is better than 27$\\%$ FWHM for 5.9 keV X-rays. It is demonstrated that at a gain up to 6000, a backflow ratio less than 0.3$\\%$ is reachable in the hybrid readout structure.

  7. Improving Photoelectron Counting and Particle Identification in Scintillation Detectors with Bayesian Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Akashi-Ronquest, M; Batygov, M; Beltran, B; Bodmer, M; Boulay, M G; Broerman, B; Buck, B; Butcher, A; Cai, B; Caldwell, T; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cleveland, B; Coakley, K; Dering, K; Duncan, F A; Formaggio, J A; Gagnon, R; Gastler, D; Giuliani, F; Gold, M; Golovko, V V; Gorel, P; Graham, K; Grace, E; Guerrero, N; Guiseppe, V; Hallin, A L; Harvey, P; Hearns, C; Henning, R; Hime, A; Hofgartner, J; Jaditz, S; Jillings, C J; Kachulis, C; Kearns, E; Kelsey, J; Klein, J R; Kuzniak, M; LaTorre, A; Lawson, I; Li, O; Lidgard, J J; Liimatainen, P; Linden, S; McFarlane, K; McKinsey, D N; MacMullin, S; Mastbaum, A; Mathew, R; McDonald, A B; Mei, D -M; Monroe, J; Muir, A; Nantais, C; Nicolics, K; Nikkel, J A; Noble, T; O'Dwyer, E; Olsen, K; Gann, G D Orebi; Ouellet, C; Palladino, K; Pasuthip, P; Perumpilly, G; Pollmann, T; Rau, P; Retiere, F; Rielage, K; Schnee, R; Seibert, S; Skensved, P; Sonley, T; Vazquez-Jauregui, E; Veloce, L; Walding, J; Wang, B; Wang, J; Ward, M; Zhang, C

    2014-01-01

    Many current and future dark matter and neutrino detectors are designed to measure scintillation light with a large array of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The energy resolution and particle identification capabilities of these detectors depend in part on the ability to accurately identify individual photoelectrons in PMT waveforms despite large variability in pulse amplitudes and pulse pileup. We describe a Bayesian technique that can identify the times of individual photoelectrons in a sampled PMT waveform without deconvolution, even when pileup is present. To demonstrate the technique, we apply it to the general problem of particle identification in single-phase liquid argon dark matter detectors. Using the output of the Bayesian photoelectron counting algorithm described in this paper, we construct several test statistics for rejection of backgrounds for dark matter searches in argon. Compared to simpler methods based on either observed charge or peak finding, the photoelectron counting technique improves ...

  8. Single-sheet identification method of heavy charged particles using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M F Zaki; A Abdel-Naby; A Ahmed Morsy

    2007-08-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigations of the penetration of charged particles in matter played a very important role in the development of modern physics. Solid state nuclear track detectors have become one of the most important tools for many branches of science and technology. An attempt has been made to examine the suitability of the single-sheet particle identification technique in CR-39 and CN-85 polycarbonate by plotting track cone length vs. residual range for different heavy ions in these detectors. So, the maximum etchable ranges of heavy ions such as 93Nb, 86Kr and 4He in CR-39 and 4He and 132Xe in CN-85 polycarbonate have been determined. The ranges of these ions in these detectors have also been computed theoretically using the Henke–Benton program. A reasonably good agreement has been observed between the experimentally and theoretically computed values.

  9. Causality issues of particle detector models in QFT and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Martinez, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the constraints that causality imposes on some of the particle detector models employed in quantum field theory in general, and in particular on those used in quantum optics (or superconducting circuits) to model atoms interacting with light. Namely, we show that disallowing faster-than-light communication can impose severe constraints on the applicability of particle detector models in three different common scenarios: 1) when the detectors are spatially smeared, 2) when a UV cutoff is introduced in the theory and 3) under one of the most typical approximations made in quantum optics: the rotating-wave approximation. We identify in which scenarios the models' causal behaviour can be cured and in which it cannot.

  10. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the GLUEX Particle Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaganis, Stamatios

    This thesis focuses on the GLUEX Barrel Calorimeter (BCAL), a key subsystem of the GLUE experiment, which is currently under construction. GLUE will shed light on an as yet unexplored area of the interaction between the fundamental constituents of matter, that of confinement. To achieve its goals, GLUE requires a hermetic detector with good acceptance and good energy and position resolution. To that end, a lot of effort has been spent on R&D in order to optimize the performance of the BCAL. Specifically, the effect of the thickness of the lead sheets, used to build the BCAL, on the performance of the BCAL was simulated using Monte Carlo techniques. Using the GEANT simulation package, three different geometry configurations were simulated and the shape of the longitudinal shower profile, energy resolution and the fractional energy deposition and energy leakage were extracted and the results comprise the first half of this thesis. The second half of the thesis consists of an analysis of data collected in 2006 from a beam test performed at Jefferson Lab on a BCAL prototype module. The analysis was done in order to extract the energy resolution for several different angles of incidence, including the 90° which was used as reference.

  11. Particle detectors made of high-resistivity Czochralski silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Härkönen, J; Ivanov, A; Li, Z; Luukka, Panja; Pirojenko, A; Riihimaki, I; Tuominen, E; Tuovinen, E; Verbitskaya, E; Virtanen, A

    2005-01-01

    We have processed pin-diodes and strip detectors on n- and p-type high-resistivity silicon wafers grown by magnetic Czochralski method. The Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) wafers manufactured by Okmetic Oyj have nominal resistivity of 900 Omega cm and 1.9 kOmega cm for n- and p-type, respectively. The oxygen concentration in these substrates is slightly less than typically in wafers used for integrated circuit fabrication. This is optimal for semiconductor fabrication as well as for radiation hardness. The radiation hardness of devices has been investigated with several irradiation campaigns including low- and high-energy protons, neutrons, gamma-rays, lithium ions and electrons. Cz-Si was found to be more radiation hard than standard Float Zone silicon (Fz-Si) or oxygenated Fz-Si. When irradiated with protons, the full depletion voltage in Cz-Si has not exceeded its initial value of 300 V even after the fluence of 5 multiplied by 10**1**4 cm**-**2 1-MeV eq. n cm **-**2 that equals more than 30 years operation of...

  12. MD#1182: Calibration of diamond particle detectors in IP6

    CERN Document Server

    Valette, Matthieu; Lindstrom, Bjorn Hans Filip; Wiesner, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In case of an asynchronous beam dump with a fully filled LHC machine it is expected that all standard ionisation chamber Beam Loss Monitors (IC BLM) around the LHC dumping region in IP6 will be saturated. Diamond Beam Loss Monitors (dBLM) were therefore installed next to the movable dump protection absorber (TCDQ) downstream of the extraction kickers. These detectors allow resolving losses at a nanosecond timescale and with an dynamic range of several orders of magnitude; thus, allowing to know the number of nominal bunches impacting the TCDQ. After a first series of calibrations using asynchronous beam dump tests, an experiment was conducted during MD#1182 to demonstrate the possibility of resolving a nominal bunch hitting the TCDQ. The impact parameter of the bunches on the TCDQ was first scanned using probe bunches with lower intensity then tests were done with nominal bunches (1.1e11 p/bunch) at injection energy. High energy calibration of the losses was also attempted unsuccessfully. Due to different beh...

  13. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulos, S; Campbell, M; Snoeys, W; Heijne, Erik H M; Pernigotti, E; Raine, C; Smith, K; Watt, J; O'Shea, V; Ludwig, J; Schwarz, C

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the OMEGA 3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  14. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolopoulos, S.; Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Snoeys, W.; Heijne, E.; Pernigotti, E.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. E-mail: k.smith@physics.gla.ac.uk; Watt, J.; O' Shea, V.; Ludwig, J.; Schwarz, C

    1999-09-11

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the {omega}3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  15. Search for long-lived charged massive particles with the D0 detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abazov, V.M.; et al., [Unknown; Anastasoaie, M.; Ancu, L.S.; de Jong, S.J.; Filthaut, F.; Galea, C.F.; Hegeman, J.G.; Houben, P.; Meijer, M.M.; Naumann, N.A.; Svoisky, P.; van den Berg, P.J.; van Leeuwen, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    We search for long-lived charged massive particles using 1.1 fb(-1) of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp Collider. Time-of-flight information is used to search for pair produced long-lived tau sleptons, gauginolike charginos, and Higgsino-like charginos. We find no eviden

  16. Azimuthal angular correlations of D mesons and charged particles with the ALICE detector at the LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjelogrlic, S.

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents the results of the analysis of azimuthal angular correlations of D mesons and charged particles with the ALICE detector, in pp and p-Pb collisions at center-of mass energies of 7 and 5.02 TeV respectively. The measurements have been performed differentially as function of the tra

  17. Properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements for particle detectors in high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, L; Piccolo, D; Saviano, G; Colafranceschi, S; Kjølbro, J; Sharma, A; Yang, D; Chen, G; Ban, Y; Li, Q

    2015-01-01

    Modern gas detectors for detection of particles require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This review studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas candidate replacements.

  18. 3-D imaging of particle tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wertheim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that 3 to 5% of total lung cancer deaths in the UK may be associated with elevated radon concentration. Radon gas levels can be assessed using CR-39 plastic detectors which are often assessed by 2-D image analysis of surface images. 3-D analysis has the potential to provide information relating to the angle at which alpha particles impinge on the detector. In this study we used a "LEXT" OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan to image tracks on five CR-39 detectors. We were able to identify several patterns of single and coalescing tracks from 3-D visualisation. Thus this method may provide a means of detailed 3-D analysis of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors.

  19. 3-D imaging of particle tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, D.; Gillmore, G.; Brown, L.; Petford, N.

    2010-05-01

    It has been suggested that 3 to 5% of total lung cancer deaths in the UK may be associated with elevated radon concentration. Radon gas levels can be assessed using CR-39 plastic detectors which are often assessed by 2-D image analysis of surface images. 3-D analysis has the potential to provide information relating to the angle at which alpha particles impinge on the detector. In this study we used a "LEXT" OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) to image tracks on five CR-39 detectors. We were able to identify several patterns of single and coalescing tracks from 3-D visualisation. Thus this method may provide a means of detailed 3-D analysis of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors.

  20. Radiation Hard Silicon Particle Detectors for Phase-II LHC Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblakowska-Mucha, A.

    2017-02-01

    The major LHC upgrade is planned after ten years of accelerator operation. It is foreseen to significantly increase the luminosity of the current machine up to 1035 cm‑2s‑1 and operate as the upcoming High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) . The major detectors upgrade, called the Phase-II Upgrade, is also planned, a main reason being the aging processes caused by severe particle radiation. Within the RD50 Collaboration, a large Research and Development program has been underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance for HL-LHC trackers. In this summary, several results obtained during the testing of the devices after irradiation to HL-LHC levels are presented. Among the studied structures, one can find advanced sensors types like 3D silicon detectors, High-Voltage CMOS technologies, or sensors with intrinsic gain (LGAD). Based on these results, the RD50 Collaboration gives recommendation for the silicon detectors to be used in the detector upgrade.

  1. Defect-induced performance degradation of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, N.; Johnson, B. C.; Hoshino, N.; Ito, M.; Tsuchida, H.; Kojima, K.; Ohshima, T.

    2013-04-01

    The formation and evolution of defects in 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode high-energy particle detectors have been investigated and correlated with the detectors' properties. Low temperature annealing at 300 °C is found to significantly recover the charge collection efficiency as degraded by 1 MeV electron irradiation. At higher temperatures, an anneal-induced degradation in the detector's performance is observed. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements are used to ascertain the effect of defects on the detector performance. The latter reveals that the DLTS defect levels, EH1 and EH3, are related to the initial recovery of the charge collection efficiency.

  2. Development of the MICROMEGAS Detector for Measuring the Energy Spectrum of Alpha Particles by using a 241-Am Source

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Do Yoon; Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Andriamonje, Samuel; Kadi, Yacine; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We have developed MICROMEGAS (MICRO MEsh GASeous) detectors for detecting {\\alpha} particles emitted from an 241-Am standard source. The voltage applied to the ionization region of the detector is optimized for stable operation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The energy of {\\alpha} particles from the 241-Am source can be varied by changing the flight path of the {\\alpha} particle from the 241 Am source. The channel numbers of the experimentally-measured pulse peak positions for different energies of the {\\alpha} particles are associated with the energies deposited by the alpha particles in the ionization region of the detector as calculated by using GEANT4 simulations; thus, the energy calibration of the MICROMEGAS detector for {\\alpha} particles is done. For the energy calibration, the thickness of the ionization region is adjusted so that {\\alpha} particles may completely stop in the ionization region and their kinetic energies are fully deposited in the region. The efficiency of our MICROMEGA...

  3. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura

    2013-10-15

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  4. Performance estimation of InSb compound semiconductor detectors as a function of active area using alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuki, E-mail: y.sato@riken.jp [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Morita, Yasunari [NOK Corporation, 4-3-1 Tsujido-Shinmachi, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 251-0042 (Japan); Kanno, Ikuo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan)

    2014-02-11

    We have fabricated radiation detectors using p-type indium antimonide crystals grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). The current–voltage curves, energy spectra of alpha particles, and energy resolutions obtained using two different InSb detectors were compared. The alpha-particle energy resolutions were 1.8% at 24 and 42 K, using the LPE–InSb detector with wafer size of 1.0×1.5 mm{sup 2}.

  5. An X-ray scanner prototype based on a novel hybrid gaseous detector

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobaeus, C; Lund-Jensen, B; Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of a new type of hybrid X-ray detector. It contains a thin wall (few μm) edge- illuminated lead glass capillary plate (acting as a converter of X-rays photons to primary electrons) combined with a microgap parallel-plate avalanche chamber operating in various gas mixtures at 1 atm. The operation of these converters was studied in a wide range of X-ray energies (from 6 to 60 keV) at incident angles varying from 0° to 90°. The detection efficiency, depending on the geometry, photon's energy, incident angle and the mode of operation, was between a few and 40%. The position resolution achieved was 50 μm in digital form and was practically independent of the photon's energy or gas mixture. The developed detector may open new possibilities for medical imaging, for example in mammography, portal imaging, radiography (including security devices), crystallography and many other applications.

  6. Detection of secondary electrons with pixelated hybrid semiconductor detectors; Sekundaerelektronennachweis mit pixelierten hybriden Halbleiterdetektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, Ulrike Sonja

    2011-09-14

    Within the scope of this thesis, secondary electrons were detected with a pixelated semiconductor detector named Timepix. The Timepix detector consists of electronics and a sensor made from a semiconductor material. The connection of sensor and electronics is done for each pixel individually using bump bonds. Electrons with energies above 3 keV can be detected with the sensor. One electron produces a certain amount of electron-hole pairs according to its energy. The charge then drifts along an electric field to the pixel electronics, where it induces an electric signal. Even without a sensor it is possible to detect an electric signal from approximately 1000 electrons directly in the pixel electronics. Two different detector systems to detect secondary electrons using the Timepix detector were investigated during this thesis. First of all, a hybrid photon detector (HPD) was used to detect single photoelectrons. The HPD consists of a vacuum vessel with an entrance window and a cesium iodine photocathode at the inner surface of the window. Photoelectrons are released from the photocathode by incident light and are accelerated in an electric field towards the Timepix detector, where the point of interaction and the arrival time of the electron is determined. With a proximity focusing setup, a time resolution of 12 ns (with an acceleration voltage of 20 kV between photocathode and Timepix detector) was obtained. The HPD examined in this thesis showed a strong dependence of the dark rate form the acceleration voltage and the pressure in the vacuum vessel. At a pressure of few 10{sup -5} mbar and an acceleration voltage of 20 kV, the dark rate was about 800 Hz per mm{sup 2} area of the read out photocathode. One possibility to reduce the dark rate is to identify ion feedback events. With a slightly modified setup it was possible to reduce the dark rate to 0.5 Hz/mm{sup 2}. To achieve this, a new photocathode was mounted in a shorter distance to the detector. The

  7. Low momentum particle detector for the NA61 experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Márton, Krisztina, E-mail: marton.krisztina@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, MTA Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Kiss, Gábor, E-mail: kiss.gabor@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, MTA Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Eötvös University, Budapest (Hungary); László, András, E-mail: Andras.Laszlo@cern.ch [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, MTA Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Varga, Dezső, E-mail: Dezso.Varga@cern.ch [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, MTA Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-11-01

    The NA61 Experiment at CERN SPS is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer, aimed to studying hadron–hadron, hadron–nucleus, and nucleus–nucleus interactions in a fixed target environment. The present paper discusses the construction and performance of the Low Momentum Particle Detector (LMPD), a small time projection chamber unit which has been added to the NA61 setup in 2012. The LMPD considerably extends the detector acceptance towards the backward region, surrounding the target in hadron–nucleus interactions. The LMPD features simultaneous range and ionization measurements, which allows for particle identification and momentum measurement in the 0.1–0.25 GeV/c momentum range for protons. The possibility of Z=1 particle identification in this range is directly demonstrated.

  8. Development of Wireless Techniques in Data and Power Transmission - Application for Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, R; Dehos, C; De Lurgio, P; Djurcic, Z; Drake, G; Gimenez, J L Gonzalez; Gustafsson, L; Kim, D W; Locci, E; Roehrich, D; Schoening, A; Siligaris, A; Soltveit, H K; Ullaland, K; Vincent, P; Wiednert, D; Yang, S

    2015-01-01

    Wireless techniques have developed extremely fast over the last decade and using them for data and power transmission in particle physics detectors is not science- fiction any more. During the last years several research groups have independently thought of making it a reality. Wireless techniques became a mature field for research and new developments might have impact on future particle physics experiments. The Instrumentation Frontier was set up as a part of the SnowMass 2013 Community Summer Study [1] to examine the instrumentation R&D for the particle physics research over the coming decades: {\\guillemotleft} To succeed we need to make technical and scientific innovation a priority in the field {\\guillemotright}. Wireless data transmission was identified as one of the innovations that could revolutionize the transmission of data out of the detector. Power delivery was another challenge mentioned in the same report. We propose a collaboration to identify the specific needs of different projects that m...

  9. Chronopixels: particle detector R&D for the ATLAS phase 2 upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christian; Baker, Keith; Barker, Thomas; Baltay, Charles; Sinev, Nikolai; Brau, Jim; Strom, David; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The pixel detector comprises the innermost part of the ATLAS detector. Its proximity to the interaction point together with its micrometer resolution allow for impact parameter determination and vertex fitting. This proximity however exposes it also to the highest radiation fluences and particle densities. The latter poses a challenge in inferring particle tracks from hit pixels, while the former leads to progressive radiation damage of the pixel detector itself. These problems will worsen after the LHC's third long shutdown in 2025 when it will operate in high luminosity mode at about five times the current instantaneous luminosity. These conditions will require the pixel detector to be replaced by one staffed with pixel modules capable of enduring the harsher radiation environment, and with finer granularity to cope with the increased pileup. Several efforts in the community are on their way to produce such a pixel module. We are presenting here the current status of our R&D on such a pixel module: The Chronopixel for ATLAS phase 2, a fully monolithic active pixel sensor in CMOS technology. Sensing and readout electronics are included in each pixel here. As such it does not require expensive and labor intensive bump-bonding to a separate readout chip, reducing cost and material in the pixel detector. We gratefully acknowledge support by the Department of Energy, Office of High Energy Physics.

  10. Performance improvement of ZnO/P3HT hybrid UV photo-detector by interfacial Au nanolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgaiyan, Anubha; Dixit, Tejendra; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a hybrid ultraviolet (UV) photo detector comprising of hydrothermally grown highly oriented Zinc Oxide nanorod arrays (ZnO NRAs) and Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) as an active layer was fabricated and characterized. These hybrid photo detectors demonstrated a high rectification ratio (∼117) and responsivity of 10.7 A/W at -2 V under incident light of wavelength 325 nm. Further to investigate the effect of surface plasmon property of metal nanoparticles on the performance of hybrid UV photo detectors, ZnO NRAs were capped with dc sputtered gold (Au) metal nanolayer (∼5 nm) at the ZnO-P3HT interface, prior to coating P3HT layer on top of it. It was found out that upon Au coating the absorption of the ZnO was enhanced partly in the ultraviolet and visible region. In consequence the rectification ratio and responsivity of the hybrid photo detector was enhanced drastically from 117 to 1167 and 10.7 to 17.7 A/W respectively. Interestingly the reduction in dark current was observed on Au coating and it was revealed that Au nanoparticles play a key role in enhancing the performance of the hybrid photo detectors.

  11. Composite charged particle detectors with logarithmic energy response for large dynamic range energy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.M.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.A.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S.; Wilhelmy, J.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Sangster, T.C.; Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.; Lanier, R.G.; Massoletti, D.J.; Namboodiri, M.N. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Chan, Y.D.; Harmon, A.; Pouliot, J.; Stokstad, R.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Dacal, A. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Fisica); Fraenkel, Z.; Mamane, G. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)); Webb, M.L. (Dynamics Technology, Inc., Torrance, CA (USA))

    1989-09-15

    We have developed an array of detectors to identify charged particles produced in heavy ion reactions. The array, which consists of eight individual detector modules and a forward hodoscope, subtends a solid angle of 0.58{pi} and covers 62% of the reaction plane in laboratory coordinates. Each of the eight identical modules has an active area which extends 13{sup 0} above and below the array plane with additional limited coverage between 13{sup 0} and 26{sup 0}. Each module measures the position, energy and velocity of charged particles over a dynamic range which extends from minium ionizing protons with energies up to 200 MeV to highly ionizing fission fragments with Coulomb-like energies. Position and time-of-flight are measured with low pressure multiwire proprotional counters (MWPC). Total energies for heavier ions are obtained from large ion chambers. Energy and position measurements for more energetic lighter ions which pass through the ion chambers are made with segmented phoswich arrays. The forward angle hodoscope is a 34-element array of phoswich detectors mounted symmetrically around the beam axis. These detectors are sensitive to beam velocity particles (E/A > 10-40 MeV/A) and capable of elemental resolution from protons to Z = 23. (orig.).

  12. Laser and alpha particle characterization of floating-base BJT detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyzhnevyi, V., E-mail: tyzhnevyi@disi.unitn.i [Universita di Trento and INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Universita di Trento and INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G. [Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    In this work, we investigate the detection properties of existing prototypes of BJT detectors operated with floating base. We report about results of two functional tests. The charge-collection properties of BJT detectors were evaluated by means of a pulsed laser setup. The response to {alpha}-particles emitted from radioactive {sup 241}Am source are also presented. Experimental results show that current gains of about 450 with response times in the order of 50 {mu}s are preserved even in this non-standard operation mode, in spite of a non-optimized structure.

  13. Behaviour of scintillometers with charge particles; Respuesta de detectores de centelleo a particulas cargadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigon, M. A.; Montes, J.; Granados, C. E.; Gutierrez, R.

    1959-07-01

    The behaviour of a scintillation plastic and an anthracene crystal for protons and deuterons with energies within 0,2 and 1,7 MeV. has been studied. The beam of monoenergetic particles falls directly on the detector in study in optic contact with a photomultiplicator. The impulse get in an amplifier which sends then to a scale a sting as a monitor and to an analyzer of 100 canals. The spectrum for each energy of incidental beam is obtained taking the maximum of the spectrum as the most probable value of amplitude of the detector reply, and this is represented apposite to the energy. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Behaviour of scintillometers with charge particles; Respuesta de detectores de centelleo a particulas cargadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigon, M. A.; Montes, J.; Granados, C. E.; Gutierrez, R.

    1959-07-01

    The behaviour of a scintillation plastic and an anthracene crystal for protons and deuterons with energies within 0,2 and 1,7 MeV. has been studied. The beam of monoenergetic particles falls directly on the detector in study in optic contact with a photomultiplicator. The impulse get in an amplifier which sends then to a scale a sting as a monitor and to an analyzer of 100 canals. The spectrum for each energy of incidental beam is obtained taking the maximum of the spectrum as the most probable value of amplitude of the detector reply, and this is represented apposite to the energy. (Author) 6 refs.

  15. Status and progress of the novel photon detectors based on THGEM and hybrid MPGD architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Büchele, M. [Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Chiosso, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciliberti, P. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Denisov, O. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Duic, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Finger, M.; Finger, M. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Fischer, H. [Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Giorgi, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Gobbo, B.; Gregori, M. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Herrmann, F.; Königsmann, K. [Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Levorato, S., E-mail: stefano.levorato@ts.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    We are developing large size THick GEM (THGEM)-based detectors of single photons, mainly meant for Cherenkov imaging applications. The R and D programme includes the complete characterisation of the THGEM electron multipliers, the study of the aspects related to the detection of single photons and the engineering towards large size detector prototypes. Our most recent achievements include dedicated studies concerning the ion backflow to the photocathode; relevant progress in the engineering aspects, in particularly related to the production of large-size THGEMs, where the strict correlation between the local gain-value and the local thickness-value has been demonstrated and a 300×300 mm{sup 2} active area detector has been successfully operated at the CERN PS T10 test beam; the introduction of a new hybrid detector architecture, offering promising performance, which is formed by a THGEM layer which acts both as photocathode and pre-amplification device, followed by a MICROMEGAS (MM) multiplication stage. We report about the general status of the R and D programme and, in detail, about the recent progress. - Highlights: • The paper presents a study of micropattern gas electron multipliers based on THGEMs. • The paper focuses on the use of THGEMs as photon detector for RICH application: single photon detection. • The paper addresses the R and D activity and the results obtained both in laboratory activities and test beams. • The paper describes the technological challenges to instrument large surfaces, presenting possible solutions to the critical issues faced during the R and D activity.

  16. Polystyrene-Core-Silica-Shell Hybrid Particles Containing Gold and Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jia; Vana, Philipp

    2016-02-18

    Polystyrene-core-silica-shell hybrid particles were synthesized by combining the self-assembly of nanoparticles and the polymer with a silica coating strategy. The core-shell hybrid particles are composed of gold-nanoparticle-decorated polystyrene (PS-AuNP) colloids as the core and silica particles as the shell. PS-AuNP colloids were generated by the self-assembly of the PS-grafted AuNPs. The silica coating improved the thermal stability and dispersibility of the AuNPs. By removing the "free" PS of the core, hollow particles with a hydrophobic cage having a AuNP corona and an inert silica shell were obtained. Also, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were encapsulated in the core, which resulted in magnetic core-shell hybrid particles by the same strategy. These particles have potential applications in biomolecular separation and high-temperature catalysis and as nanoreactors.

  17. Searches for long-lived particles in Hidden Valley Scenarios with the Atlas detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mastroberardino, Anna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Searches for long-lived neutral particles decaying into hadronic jets have been performed with the ATLAS detector. The search strategy depends on the lifetime and mass of such particles, and experimental techniques to reconstruct decay vertices in various ATLAS detector components have been developed. This talk summarizes ATLAS searches for long-lived particles and their connection to hidden sectors with LHC Run 1 data. First LHC Run-2 results will be included if available.

  18. Re-evaluation of Galileo Energetic Particle Detector data - a correction model and comparison to semiconductor detector dead-layer sensitivity losses using SRIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Payne, Zoe Hannah

    2016-10-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector launched in 1989 on the Galileo satellite took data on the Jovian Particle environment for 8 years before its demise. Over the course of the mission the detectors in the Composition Measurement System (CMS) have visibly decayed with higher mass particles, specifically oxygen and sulphur, reading far lower energies at later epochs. By considering the non-steady accumulation of damage in the detector, as well as the operation of the priority channel data recording system in place on the EPD, an evolving correction can be made. The recalibration significance can be validated using a model of dead layer build-up in semiconductor detectors, based on SRIM results. The final aim is to assign an estimation dead-layer depth during the mission data recordings.

  19. CsI-Silicon Particle detector for Heavy ions Orbiting in Storage rings (CsISiPHOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, M. A.; Dillmann, I.; Bosch, F.; Faestermann, T.; Gao, B.; Gernhäuser, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Litvinov, S. A.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Maier, L.; Nolden, F.; Popp, U.; Sanjari, M. S.; Spillmann, U.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Weick, H.

    2016-11-01

    A heavy-ion detector was developed for decay studies in the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. This detector serves as a prototype for the in-pocket particle detectors for future experiments with the Collector Ring (CR) at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). The detector includes a stack of six silicon pad sensors, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD), and a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector. It was used successfully in a recent experiment for the detection of the β+-decay of highly charged 142Pm60+ ions. Based on the ΔE / E technique for particle identification and an energy resolution of 0.9% for ΔE and 0.5% for E (Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM)), the detector is well-suited to distinguish neighbouring isobars in the region of interest.

  20. Impact of particles on the Planck HFI detectors: Ground-based measurements and physical interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Catalano, A; Atik, Y; Benoit, A; Bréele, E; Bock, J J; Camus, P; Chabot, M; Charra, M; Crill, B P; Coron, N; Coulais, A; Désert, F -X; Fauvet, L; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Guillaudin, O; Holmes, W; Jones, W C; Lamarre, J -M; Macías-Pérez, J; Martinez, M; Miniussi, A; Monfardini, A; Pajot, F; Patanchon, G; Pelissier, A; Piat, M; Puget, J -L; Renault, C; Rosset, C; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Spencer, L D; Sudiwala, R

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) surveyed the sky continuously from August 2009 to January 2012. Its noise and sensitivity performance were excellent, but the rate of cosmic ray impacts on the HFI detectors was unexpectedly high. Furthermore, collisions of cosmic rays with the focal plane produced transient signals in the data (glitches) with a wide range of characteristics. A study of cosmic ray impacts on the HFI detector modules has been undertaken to categorize and characterize the glitches, to correct the HFI time-ordered data, and understand the residual effects on Planck maps and data products. This paper presents an evaluation of the physical origins of glitches observed by the HFI detectors. In order to better understand the glitches observed by HFI in flight, several ground-based experiments were conducted with flight-spare HFI bolometer modules. The experiments were conducted between 2010 and 2013 with HFI test bolometers in different configurations using varying particles and impact ener...

  1. Investigation of charge multiplication in single crystalline CVD diamond particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muškinja, M.; Cindro, V.; Gorišek, A.; Kagan, H.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Phan, S.; Smith, D. S.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2017-01-01

    A special metallization pattern was created on a single crystalline diamond detector aimed at creating high enough electric field for impact ionization in the detector material. Electric field line focusing through electrode design and very high bias voltages were used to obtain high electric fields. Previous measurements and theoretical calculations indicated that drifting charge multiplication by impact ionization could take place. A large increase of induced charge was observed for the smallest dot electrode which points to charge multiplication while for the large dot and pad detector structure no such effect was observed. The evolution of induced currents was also monitored with the transient current technique. Induced current pulses with duration of order 1 μs were measured. The multiplication gain was found to depend on the particle rate.

  2. The Speedster-EXD- A New Event-Driven Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Christopher V.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Prieskorn, Zachary R.; Burrows, David N.

    2016-01-01

    The Speedster-EXD is a new 64×64 pixel, 40-μm pixel pitch, 100-μm depletion depth hybrid CMOS x-ray detector with the capability of reading out only those pixels containing event charge, thus enabling fast effective frame rates. A global charge threshold can be specified, and pixels containing charge above this threshold are flagged and read out. The Speedster detector has also been designed with other advanced in-pixel features to improve performance, including a low-noise, high-gain capacitive transimpedance amplifier that eliminates interpixel capacitance crosstalk (IPC), and in-pixel correlated double sampling subtraction to reduce reset noise. We measure the best energy resolution on the Speedster-EXD detector to be 206 eV (3.5%) at 5.89 keV and 172 eV (10.0%) at 1.49 keV. The average IPC to the four adjacent pixels is measured to be 0.25%±0.2% (i.e., consistent with zero). The pixel-to-pixel gain variation is measured to be 0.80%±0.03%, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to better characterize the contributions to the energy resolution.

  3. The Speedster-EXD- A New Event-Driven Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Christopher V; Prieskorn, Zachary R; Burrows, David N

    2016-01-01

    The Speedster-EXD is a new 64x64 pixel, 40 $\\mu$m pixel pitch, 100 $\\mu$m depletion depth hybrid CMOS X-ray detector (HCD) with the capability of reading out only those pixels containing event charge, thus enabling fast effective frame rates. A global charge threshold can be specified, and pixels containing charge above this threshold are flagged and read out. The Speedster detector has also been designed with other advanced in-pixel features to improve performance, including a low-noise, high-gain CTIA amplifier that eliminates interpixel capacitance crosstalk (IPC), and in-pixel Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) subtraction to reduce reset noise. We measure the best energy resolution on the Speedster-EXD detector to be 206 eV (3.5 %) at 5.89 keV and 172 eV (10.0 %) at 1.49 keV. The average IPC to the four adjacent pixels is measured to be 0.25 $\\pm$ 0.2 % (i.e. consistent with zero). The pixel-to-pixel gain variation is measured to be 0.80 $\\pm$ 0.03 %, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to better chara...

  4. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with 80% active area for the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Barber, G J; Bibby, J H; Campbell, M; Duane, A; Gys, Thierry; Montenegro, J; Piedigrossi, D; Schomaker, R; Snoeys, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated Si pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based on an electrostatically focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of ~5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The performance of full-scale prototypes equipped with 61-pixel anodes and external analogue readout is presented. The average signal-to-noise ratio is ~11 with a peaking time of 1.2 mu s. The tube active-to-total surface ratio is 81.7%, which meets the LHCb requirements. The spatial precision is measured to be better than 90 mu m. A cluster of three such tubes has been installed in the LHCb RICH 1 prototype where Cherenkov gas rings have been successfully detected. Progress towards the encapsulation of new pixel electronics into a tube is also reported. In pa...

  5. Recent Results with a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector for a novel parallax-free PET Scanner for Brain Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, Christian; Mathot, Serge; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, Peter; Ciocia, F; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Vilardi, I; Argentieri, A; Corsi, F; Dragone, A; Pasqua, D

    2007-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and test results of a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics. Both the photodetector and its VLSI readout electronics are custom designed and have been tailored to the requirements of a recently proposed novel geometrical concept of a Positron Emission Tomograph. Emphasis is laid on the PET specific features of the device. The detector has been fabricated in the photocathode facility at CERN.

  6. Recent results with a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector for a novel, parallax-free PET Scanner for Brain Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braem, A. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Chesi, E. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Joram, C. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Mathot, S. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Seguinot, J. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Weilhammer, P. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Peter.Weilhammer@cern.ch; Ciocia, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); De Leo, R. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Nappi, E. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Vilardi, I. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Argentieri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and Politechnic of Bari, Bari (Italy); Corsi, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and Politechnic of Bari, Bari (Italy); Dragone, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and Politechnic of Bari, Bari (Italy); Pasqua, D. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and Politechnic of Bari, Bari (Italy)

    2007-02-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and test results of a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics. Both the photodetector and its VLSI readout electronics are custom designed and have been tailored to the requirements of a recently proposed novel geometrical concept of a Positron Emission Tomograph. Emphasis is laid on the PET specific features of the device. The detector has been fabricated in the photocathode facility at CERN.

  7. A segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics for a PET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Chesi, Enrico Guido; Joram, C; Mathot, S; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, P; Ciocia, F; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Vilardi, I; Argentieri, A; Corsi, F; Dragone, A; Pasqua, D

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and test results of a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics. Both the photodetector and its VLSI readout electronics are custom designed and have been tailored to the requirements of a recently proposed novel geometrical concept of a Positron Emission Tomograph. Emphasis is put on the PET specific features of the device. The detector has been fabricated in the photocathode facility at CERN.

  8. Particle acceleration in tangential discontinuities by lower hybrid waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Spicer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the role that the lower-hybrid wave turbulence plays in providing the necessary resistivity at collisionless reconnection sights. The mechanism for generating the waves is considered to be the lower-hybrid drift instability. We find that the level of the wave amplitude is sufficient enough to heat and accelerate both electrons and ions.

  9. Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)

  10. Review of input stages used in front end electronics for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplon, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present noise analysis of the input stages most commonly used in front end electronics for particle detectors. Analysis shows the calculation of the input referenced noise related to the active devices. It identifies the type, parallel or series, of the equivalent noise sources related to the input transistors, which is the important input for the further choice of the signal processing method. Moreover we calculate the input impedance of amplifiers employed in applications where the particle detector is connected to readout electronics by means of transmission line. We present schematics, small signal models,a complete set of equations, and results of the major steps of calculations for all discussed circuits.

  11. Investigation of Chemical-Vapour-Deposition Diamond Alpha-Particle Detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Bei-Bei; WANG Lin-Jun; ZHANG Ming-Long; XIA Yi-Ben

    2004-01-01

    Diamond films with [100] texture were prepared by a hot-filament chemical vapour deposition technique to fabricate particle detectors. The response of detectors to 5.5 MeV 241 Am particles is studied. The photocurrent increases linearly and then levels off with voltage, and 7hA is obtained at bias voltage of 100 V. The timedependent photocurrent initially increases rapidly and then tends to reach saturation. Furthermore, a little increase of the dark-current after irradiation can be accounted for by the release of the charges captured by the trapping centres at low energy levels during irradiation. An obvious peak of the pulse height distribution can be observed, associated with the energy of 5.5 MeV.

  12. Measuring lifetimes of long-lived charged massive particles stopped in LHC detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Shoji; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Shirai, Satoshi

    2009-10-02

    Long-lived charged massive particles (CHAMPs) appear in various particle physics models beyond the standard model. In this Letter, we discuss the prospects for studying the stopping and decaying events of such long-lived CHAMPs at the LHC detectors, and show that the lifetime measurement (and the study of decay products) is possible with the LHC detectors for a wide range of the lifetime O(0.1)-O(10(10)) sec, by using periods of no pp collision. Even a short lifetime of order 1 sec can be measured by (i) identifying the stopping event with the on-line event filter, (ii) immediately making a beam-dump signal which stops the pp collision of the LHC, and at the same time (iii) changing the trigger menu to optimize it for the detection of a CHAMP decay in the calorimeter. Other possibilities are also discussed.

  13. Low Momentum Particle Detector for the NA61 Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Márton, Krisztina; László, András; Varga, Dezsö

    2014-01-01

    The NA61 Experiment at CERN SPS is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer, aimed at studying of hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus interactions in a fixed target environment. The present paper discusses the construction and performance of the Low Momentum Particle Detector (LMPD), a small time projection chamber unit which has been added to the original NA61 setup. The LMPD considerably extends the detector acceptance towards the backward region, surrounding the target in hadron-nucleus interactions. The LMPD features simultaneous range and ionization measurements, which allows for particle identification and momentum measurement in the 0.1 - 0.25 GeV/c momentum range for protons. The possibility of proton identification in this range is directly demonstrated.

  14. An Efficient, Movable Single-Particle Detector for Use in Cryogenic Ultra-High Vacuum Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Spruck, Kaija; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; von Hahn, Robert; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude

    2014-01-01

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut f\\"ur Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to $\\sim$ 10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible, high-temperature bakeable and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK's Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR). We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  15. Printing out Particle Detectors with 3D-Printers, a Potentially Transformational Advance for HEP Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Hohlmann, M

    2013-01-01

    This white paper suggests posing a "grand challenge" to the HEP instrumentation community, i.e. the aggressive development of additive manufacturing, also known as 3D-printing, for the production of particle detectors in collaboration with industry. This notion is an outcome of discussions within the instrumentation frontier group during the 2013 APS-DPF Snowmass summer study conducted by the U.S. HEP community. Improvements of current industrial 3D-printing capabilities by one to two orders of magnitude in terms of printing resolution, speed, and object size together with developing the ability to print composite materials could enable the production of any desired 3D detector structure directly from a digital model. Current industrial 3D-printing capabilities are briefly reviewed and contrasted with capabilities desired for printing detectors for particle physics, with micro-pattern gaseous detectors used as a first example. A significant impact on industrial technology could be expected if HEP were to part...

  16. Particle identification with the iTOP detector at Belle-II

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The Belle-II experiment and superKEKB accelerator will form a next generation B-factory at KEK, capable of running at an instantaneous luminosity 40 times higher than the Belle detector and KEKB. This will allow for the elucidation of many facets of the Standard Model by performing precision measurements of its parameters, and provide sensitivity to many rare decays that are currently inaccessible. This will require major upgrades to both the accelerator and detector subsystems. The imaging Time-of-propagation (iTOP) detector will be a new subdetector of Belle-II that will perform an integral role in Particle identification (PID). It will comprise 16 modules between the tracking detectors and calorimeter; each module consisting of a quartz radiator, approximately 2.5m in length, instrumented with an array of 32 micro-channel plate photodetectors (MCP-PMTs). The passage of charged particles through the quartz will produce a cone of Cherenkov photons that will propagate along the length of the quartz, and be de...

  17. Calibration of the Sweeper Chamber Charged-Particle Detectors for the LISA Commissioning Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, J.; Grovom, A.; Rogers, W.; MoNA Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The new LISA (Large-area multi-Institutional Scintillator Array) neutron detector array, designed to be used in conjunction with MoNA (Modular Neutron Array) was recently commissioned at the NSCL in an experiment designed to investigate excited states of neutron-rich Oxygen isotopes near the neutron drip-line. Charged fragments resulting from the neutron decays were swept out of the beam direction by the Sweeper Magnet after which they passed through a series of charged-particle detectors for fragment trajectory and energy determination. In order to achieve isotope separation and identification at the focal plane, which is then used to reconstruct the invariant mass of the unbound states, precise determinations of the fragment and neutron energies and trajectories are required. To correct for time-drifts in the charge-particle detectors that develop over the entire length of the experiment, Root C++ macros were developed to analyze and precisely correct for these detector drifts to within few tenths of a nanosecond. Root macros were also developed to position calibrate the ion chamber and CRDC's. Results for the LISA commissioning run will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-1101745.

  18. Fast triggering of high-rate charged particles with a triple-GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M; Bonivento, W; Cardini, A; De Simone, P; Murtas, F; Pinci, D; Poli-Lener, M; Raspino, D

    2004-01-01

    A 3 year long R&D activity on triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors is reported. This activity was made in the framework of the LHCb experiment in order to find the technology to instrument the central region of the first muon station (M1R1) where a high particle rate is expected. Detector geometry, gas mixture and electric field configuration have been optimized in order to achieve the performance required by the experiment. The use of a very fast, CF//4 based, gas mixture provides a time resolution of about 4.5 ns (r.m.s.) with a single chamber with gain less than 10**4. In addition, an optimized gain sharing between the three GEMs allows to keep the discharge probability per incident hadron below $10^{-12}$. The average number of firing pads per crossing particle have been found to be lower than 1.2. In a global aging test two detectors were exposed to a dose rate of 16 Gy/h. Each detector integrated about 2 C/cm**2 equivalent to more than 10 years of operation at LHCb. Good aging properties w...

  19. New light weakly-coupled particle searches in a neutrino detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzikoutelis, A. [Tennessee U.; Kotelnikov, S. [Lebedev Inst.; Bambah, B. A. [Hyderabad U.; Kasetti, S. P. [Hyderabad U.

    2014-03-11

    Neutrino detectors at the accelerator machines of the Intensity Frontier in particle physics are becoming commonplace. As their capabilities are being understood, they seem to have the potential for studies beyond the neutrino oscillations measurements. Besides these primary neutrino physics goals, a number of exotic searches can be done with such detectors in general, and the NOvA detectors that we present here, as a particular example. Specifically, we focus on simulating signatures in NOvA experiment's Near-Detector (300 ton, 900 m from the NuMI target of Fermilab) that correspond to beam-generated new physics states from hidden sectors, dark sectors, axion-like particles, heavy or sterile neutrinos, and heavy photons. As there are no physics generators that can inherently include such states, along with the mainstream production branches, we present here the initial stages of an effort to incorporate these signatures manually in the overall simulation framework of the NOvA experiment. For this, we discuss examples and examine the potential and challenges for detecting such signatures.

  20. The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) for Solar Orbiter - Sensor Status and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Mason, G. M.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Prieto, M.; Böttcher, S. I.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Panitzsch, L.; Sanchez, S.; Ho, G. C.; Kohler, J.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Blanco, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Solar Orbiter will solve the puzzle how the Sun creates and controls the heliosphere, the giant plasma bubble which forms as a result of the interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium. Energetic particles are part of this puzzle and help understand the various driving forces and energy release processes in the solar corona. The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) will determine how the Sun energizes particles to very high energies and sometimes fills the heliosphere with particle radiation. It consists of a suite of sensors which will measure protons (electrons) from 3 (2) keV up to 100 (20) MeV and ions from few tens of keV/nuc to 200 MeV/nuc. We will discuss the scientific aims of EPD as well as the current status and calibration of the EPD sensor (STEP, EPT, SIS, HET).

  1. Search for photons with energies above 1018 eV using the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Barreira Luz, R. J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorosti, Q.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; LaHurd, D.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, A. L.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perlín, M.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rogozin, D.; Roncoroni, M. J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehl, P.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento, C. A.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Strafella, F.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Vergara Quispe, I. D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wirtz, M.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Yang, L.; Yelos, D.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zong, Z.

    2017-04-01

    A search for ultra-high energy photons with energies above 1 EeV is performed using nine years of data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory in hybrid operation mode. An unprecedented separation power between photon and hadron primaries is achieved by combining measurements of the longitudinal air-shower development with the particle content at ground measured by the fluorescence and surface detectors, respectively. Only three photon candidates at energies 1-2 EeV are found, which is compatible with the expected hadron-induced background. Upper limits on the integral flux of ultra-high energy photons of 0.027, 0.009, 0.008, 0.008 and 0.007 km-2 sr-1 yr-1 are derived at 95% C.L. for energy thresholds of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 EeV. These limits bound the fractions of photons in the all-particle integral flux below 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.33%, 0.85% and 2.7%. For the first time the photon fraction at EeV energies is constrained at the sub-percent level. The improved limits are below the flux of diffuse photons predicted by some astrophysical scenarios for cosmogenic photon production. The new results rule-out the early top-down models - in which ultra-high energy cosmic rays are produced by, e.g., the decay of super-massive particles - and challenge the most recent super-heavy dark matter models.

  2. Triggers for displaced decays of long-lived neutral particles in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Curtis; Black, James

    2013-01-01

    A set of three dedicated triggers designed to detect long-lived neutral particles decaying throughout the ATLAS detector to a pair of hadronic jets is described. The efficiencies of the triggers for selecting displaced decays as a function of the decay position are presented for simulated events. The effect of pile-up interactions on the trigger efficiencies and the dependence of the trigger rate on instantaneous luminosity during the 2012 data-taking period at the LHC are discussed.

  3. Charged particle production in p+Pb collisions measured by the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, Evgeny; ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Per-event charged particle spectra and nuclear modification factors are measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in p+Pb interactions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV. Results are presented as a function of transverse momentum, rapidity, and in different intervals of collision centrality, which is characterised in p+Pb collisions by the total transverse energy measured over the pseudorapidity interval ‑3.2 definition based on different rapidity intervals.

  4. dE/dx measurement in the ATLAS Pixel Detector and its use for particle identification

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector provides a measurement of the charge deposited by each track crossing it. This note presents a study of how this information can be used to identify low beta particles. This study uses hits recorded in the 7 TeV proton-proton collisions during the 2010 run period and the corresponding Monte Carlo simulation. The track reconstruction has been done in the standard ATLAS software environment.

  5. Cosmo-Particle Searches for Supersymmetry at the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Toback, D

    2009-01-01

    Some theories of particle physics are so compelling that it is worth doing a comprehensive and systematic set of experimental searches to see if they are realized in nature. Supersymmetry is one such theory. This review focuses on the motivation for a broad set of cosmology-inspired search strategies at the Tevatron and on their implementation and results at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) with the first few fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity of data.

  6. Search for Massive Long-lived Highly Ionizing Particles with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocci, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    A search is made for massive long-lived highly ionising particles with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, using 3.1 pb-1 of pp collision data taken at sqrt(s)=7 TeV. The signature of energy loss in the ATLAS inner detector and electromagnetic calorimeter is used. No such particles are found and limits on the production cross section for electric charges 6e <= |q| <= 17e and masses 200 GeV <= m <= 1000 GeV are set in the range 1-12 pb for different hypotheses on the production mechanism.

  7. Alpha particles energy estimation from track diameter development in a CR-39 detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azooz, Aassim A; Al-Jubbori, Mushtaq A

    2016-09-01

    The slight nonlinearity in temporal development of tracks diameter in CR-39 nuclear track detectors is examined with the aim of attempting to find if such nonlinearity can be directly related to the charged particle energy. Narrowly spaced etching time-diameter experimental data for alpha particles at five energy values and for one additional energy value etched at five different temperatures are obtained. Initial results show good indication that measuring such time-diameter relationship can form a useful energy estimation tool. Good consistency with other independent published results is obtained.

  8. Conceptual design of a hybrid neutron-gamma detector for study of β-delayed neutrons at the RIB facility of RIKEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tain, J. L.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Calviño, F.; Cortés, G.; Phong, V. H.; Riego, A.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Brewer, N.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Davinson, T.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Griffin, C. J.; Grzywacz, R.; Harkness-Brennan, L. J.; Kiss, G. G.; Kogimtzis, M.; Labiche, M.; Lazarus, I. H.; Lorusso, G.; Matsui, K.; Miernik, K.; Montes, F.; Morales, A. I.; Nishimura, S.; Page, R. D.; Podolyák, Z. S.; Pucknell, V. F. E.; Rasco, B. C.; Regan, P.; Rubio, B.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Saito, Y.; Sakurai, H.; Simpson, J.; Sokol, E.; Surman, R.; Svirkhin, A.; Thomas, S. L.; Tolosa, A.; Woods, P.

    2017-04-01

    The conceptual design of the BRIKEN neutron detector at the radioactive ion beam factory (RIBF) of the RIKEN Nishina Center is reported. The BRIKEN setup is a complex system aimed at detecting heavy-ion implants, β particles, γ rays and β-delayed neutrons. The whole setup includes the Advanced Implantation Detection Array (AIDA), two HPGe Clover detectors and up to 166 3He-filled counters embedded in a high-density polyethylene moderator. The design is quite complex due to the large number and different types of 3He-tubes involved and the additional constraints introduced by the ancillary detectors for charged particles and γ rays. This article reports on a novel methodology developed for the conceptual design and optimisation of the 3He-counter array, aiming for the best possible performance in terms of neutron detection. The algorithm is based on a geometric representation of two selected detector parameters of merit, namely, the average neutron detection efficiency and the efficiency flatness as a function of a reduced number of geometric variables. The response of the neutron detector is obtained from a systematic Monte Carlo simulation implemented in GEANT4. The robustness of the algorithm allowed us to design a versatile detection system, which operated in hybrid mode includes the full neutron counter and two clover detectors for high-precision gamma spectroscopy. In addition, the system can be reconfigured into a compact mode by removing the clover detectors and re-arranging the 3He tubes in order to maximize the neutron detection performance. Both operation modes shows a rather flat and high average efficiency. In summary, we have designed a system which shows an average efficiency for hybrid mode (3He tubes + clovers) of 68.6% and 64% for neutron energies up to 1 and 5 MeV, respectively. For compact mode (only 3He tubes), the average efficiency is 75.7% and 71% for neutron energies up to 1 and 5 MeV, respectively. The performance of the BRIKEN

  9. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Moshe [LNS at Avery Point, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT 06340-6097, USA and Wright Lab, Dept. of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8124 and the Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) of the Technical Design Report (TDR) (United States)

    2015-02-24

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the {sup 12}C(α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  10. Application of the S3M and Mcnpx Codes in Particle Detector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovič, Márius; Sedlačková, Katarína; Šagátová, Andrea; Strašík, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Semiconductor detectors can be used to detect neutrons if they are covered by a conversion layer. Some neutrons transfer their kinetic energy to hydrogen via elastic nuclear scattering in the conversion layer, and protons are produced as recoils. These protons enter the sensitive volume of the detector and are detected. In the process of detector development, Monte Carlo computer codes are necessary to simulate the detection process. This paper presents the main features of the S3M code (SRIM Supporting Software Modules) and shows its application potential. Examples are given for the neutron detectors with a conversion layer and for CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond detectors for beam-condition monitors at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). Special attention is paid to the S3M statistical modules that can be of interest also for other application areas like beam transport, accelerators, ion therapy, etc. The results are generated by MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) simulations used to optimize the thickness of the HDPE (high density polyethylene) conversion layer.

  11. A Light Universal Detector for the Study of Correlations between Photons and Charged Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The WA93 experiment combines two essential means of quark matter diagnosis: \\item a)~~~~the measurement of photon production rates relative to charged particles or $ \\pi ^0 ^{a}pos $s \\item b)~~~~the measurement of transverse momenta of charged and neutral particles and their correlations. \\end{enumerate} \\\\ \\\\ The experimental setup consists of highly segmented lead glass arrays (3780~modules) at a distance of 9~m from the target covering the range 2~$<$~y~$<$~3. The detector allows to reconstruct the transverse momentum of $ \\pi ^0 ^{a}pos $s and $ \\eta ^{a}pos $s. A preshower detector which can be operated in a hadron-blind mode complements the photon measurement in the range 3~$<$~y~$<$~5.5. The detector yields the number of photons and,~-~to a limited extend~-, information on the total electromagnetic transverse energy. Charged particle tracking is achieved by a set of newly developed multistep avalanche chambers read out by CCD cameras downstream of the GOLIATH vertex magnet. Bose-Einstein c...

  12. Detection of low-energy antinuclei in space using an active-target particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Thomas; Greenwald, Daniel; Konorov, Igor; Paul, Stephan [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Losekamm, Martin [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institute of Astronautics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Measuring antimatter in space excellently probes various astrophysical processes. The abundances and energy spectra of antiparticles reveal a lot about the creation and propagation of cosmic-ray particles in the universe. Abnormalities in their spectra can reveal exotic sources or inaccuracies in our understanding of the involved processes. The measurement of antiprotons and the search for antideuterons and antihelium are optimal at low kinetic energies since background from high-energy cosmic-ray collisions is low. For this reason, we are developing an active-target particle detector capable of detecting ions and anti-ions in the energy range of 30-100 MeV per nucleon. The detector consists of 900 scintillating fibers coupled to silicon photomultipliers and is designed to operate on nanosatellites. The primary application of the detector will be the Antiproton Flux in Space (AFIS) mission, whose goal is the measurement of geomagnetically trapped antiprotons inside Earth's inner radiation belt. In this talk, we explain our particle identification technique and present results from first in-beam measurements with a prototype.

  13. Characterizations of Polystyrene-Based Hybrid Particles Containing Hydrophobic Mg(OH2 Powder and Composites Fabricated by Employing Resultant Hybrid Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Kimura

    2007-01-01

    unchanged, even when the ST-1 powder content increased from 10 to 50 phr. Furthermore, a composite fabricated by employing the hybrid particles achieved homogenous distribution of ST-1 powder and showed a higher oxygen index than that of a composite fabricated by directly mixing of PS pellets and ST-1 powder.

  14. The Search for Highly Ionizing Particles in e$^{+}$e$^{-}$ Collisions at LEP using (MODAL) (MOnopole Detector At Lep)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The experiment is designed to search for highly ionizing particles such as the monopole and the dyon. On the assumption that monopole-antimonopole pairs are produced via a virtual photon intermediate state, and have a mass in the range 0-100~GeV, a direct search for Dirac monopoles using e$^+$e$^-$ annihilation carries a distinct cross-sectional advantage over a search using hadron colliders.\\\\ \\\\ The MODAL detector is formed from Lexan/CR-39 dielectric track detector modules arranged in a polyhedral configuration outside of the vacuum pipe and around the intersection region, as shown on the opposite page. Etchable track detectors are more sensitive to particles at normal incidence, the shape of the detector was chosen with this fact in mind to allow for maximum acceptance of monopoles which leave the beam pipe. These dielectric track detectors will enable us to detect particles with magnetic charge: 20e$<$g$ _{d}

  15. Mechanical and tribological studies on nano particles reinforced hybrid aluminum based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muley Aniruddha V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid metal matrix composites are new class of materials due to their better mechanical properties which can be achieved through proper selection and combination of materials. The work reported in this paper is based on fabrication of hybrid composites by using nano particles as reinforcements. The hybrid composites were fabricated by reinforcing them with nano sized SiC and Al2O3 particles in order to study mechanical and tribological properties of these enhanced materials. A stir casting method was used to obtain hybrid composites. LM 6 aluminum alloy was used as a matrix material. The results shown increase in hardness as well as in ultimate tensile strength of the composites with small wt.% of nano-sized hybrid reinforcements. The composites produced also exhibit better tribological properties.

  16. Controlled isotropic or anisotropic nanoscale growth of coordination polymers: formation of hybrid coordination polymer particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Cho, Yea Jin; Cho, Won; Oh, Moonhyun

    2013-01-22

    The ability to fabricate multicompositional hybrid materials in a precise and controlled manner is one of the primary goals of modern materials science research. In addition, an understanding of the phenomena associated with the systematic growth of one material on another can facilitate the evolution of multifunctional hybrid materials. Here, we demonstrate precise manipulation of the isotropic and/or anisotropic nanoscale growth of various coordination polymers (CPs) to obtain heterocompositional hybrid coordination polymer particles. Chemical composition analyses conducted at every growth step reveal the formation of accurately assembled hybrid nanoscale CPs, and microscopy images are used to examine the morphology of the particles and visualize the hybrid structures. The dissimilar growth behavior, that is, growth in an isotropic or anisotropic fashion, is found to be dependent on the size of the metal ions involved within the CPs.

  17. Equivalence of Optical and Electrical Noise Equivalent Power of Hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, R M J; de Visser, P J; Klapwijk, T M; Baselmans, J J A

    2014-01-01

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical NEP from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  18. 3D imaging of particle tracks in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, D.; Gillmore, G.; Brown, L.; Petford, N.

    2009-04-01

    Inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) and associated ionizing decay products is known to cause lung cancer in human. In the U.K., it has been suggested that 3 to 5 % of total lung cancer deaths can be linked to elevated radon concentrations in the home and/or workplace. Radon monitoring in buildings is therefore routinely undertaken in areas of known risk. Indeed, some organisations such as the Radon Council in the UK and the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA, advocate a ‘to test is best' policy. Radon gas occurs naturally, emanating from the decay of 238U in rock and soils. Its concentration can be measured using CR?39 plastic detectors which conventionally are assessed by 2D image analysis of the surface; however there can be some variation in outcomes / readings even in closely spaced detectors. A number of radon measurement methods are currently in use (for examples, activated carbon and electrets) but the most widely used are CR?39 solid state nuclear track?etch detectors (SSNTDs). In this technique, heavily ionizing alpha particles leave tracks in the form of radiation damage (via interaction between alpha particles and the atoms making up the CR?39 polymer). 3D imaging of the tracks has the potential to provide information relating to angle and energy of alpha particles but this could be time consuming. Here we describe a new method for rapid high resolution 3D imaging of SSNTDs. A ‘LEXT' OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope was used in confocal mode to successfully obtain 3D image data on four CR?39 plastic detectors. 3D visualisation and image analysis enabled characterisation of track features. This method may provide a means of rapid and detailed 3D analysis of SSNTDs. Keywords: Radon; SSNTDs; confocal laser scanning microscope; 3D imaging; LEXT

  19. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, $Q$, greater than that of the electron, $e$. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0~fb$^{-1}$ and 18.8~fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7~$TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=8~$TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of-flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to $1e \\leq |Q| \\leq 8e$. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724~GeV are excluded for $|Q|=1e$, $2e$, $3e$, $4e$, $5e$, $6e$, $7e$, and $8e$, respectivel...

  20. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2013-10-30

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, Q, greater than that of the electron, e. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0 fb-1 and 18.8 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 8 TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of- flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to 1e ≤ |Q| ≤ 8e. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724 GeV are excluded for |Q| = 1e, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, 6e, 7e, and 8e, respectively.

  1. Photoluminescence detection of alpha particle using DAM-ADC nuclear detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, Ayman M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box: 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Harraz, Farid A., E-mail: fharraz68@yahoo.com [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box: 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology Division, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box: 87 Helwan, Cairo 11421 (Egypt); Ali, Atif M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Al-Sayari, S.A. [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box: 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); College of Science and Arts-Sharoura, Najran University (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hajry, A. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box: 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-11

    The photoluminescence (PL) and UV–vis spectral analysis of DAM-ADC (diallyl maleate: DAM, polyallyl diglycol carbonate: ADC) nuclear detector are demonstrated for the first time. The DAM-ADC surfaces were exposed to thin {sup 241}Am disk source that emits alpha particles with activity 333 kBq. It is found that the track density of the irradiated samples remarkably influences the PL characteristics of the DAM-ADC detector. The spectral peak heights and the integrated intensities under the peaks exhibit linear correlations with correlation coefficient R{sup 2}=0.9636 and 0.9806, respectively for different alpha particle fluences ranging from 8.16–40.82×10{sup 7} particles/cm{sup 2}. Additionally, a correlation coefficient R{sup 2}=0.9734 was achieved for the UV–vis spectral analysis. The linear fitting functions, along with the corresponding fitting parameters were evaluated in each case. Both the PL and the UV–vis data of the irradiated DAM-ADC samples showed considerable spectral differences, and hence they would be used to offer sensitive approaches for alpha particle detection.

  2. Photoluminescence detection of alpha particle using DAM-ADC nuclear detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ayman M.; Harraz, Farid A.; Ali, Atif M.; Al-Sayari, S. A.; Al-Hajry, A.

    2016-09-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) and UV-vis spectral analysis of DAM-ADC (diallyl maleate: DAM, polyallyl diglycol carbonate: ADC) nuclear detector are demonstrated for the first time. The DAM-ADC surfaces were exposed to thin 241Am disk source that emits alpha particles with activity 333 kBq. It is found that the track density of the irradiated samples remarkably influences the PL characteristics of the DAM-ADC detector. The spectral peak heights and the integrated intensities under the peaks exhibit linear correlations with correlation coefficient R2=0.9636 and 0.9806, respectively for different alpha particle fluences ranging from 8.16-40.82×107 particles/cm2. Additionally, a correlation coefficient R2=0.9734 was achieved for the UV-vis spectral analysis. The linear fitting functions, along with the corresponding fitting parameters were evaluated in each case. Both the PL and the UV-vis data of the irradiated DAM-ADC samples showed considerable spectral differences, and hence they would be used to offer sensitive approaches for alpha particle detection.

  3. Particle identification with the AMS-02 RICH detector: search for dark matter with antideuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Arruda, Luísa; Pereira, Rui

    2007-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), whose final version AMS-02 is to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) for at least 3 years, is a detector designed to measure charged cosmic ray spectra with energies up to the TeV region and with high energy photon detection capability up to a few hundred GeV, using state-of-the art particle identification techniques. It is equipped with several subsystems, one of which is a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector equipped with a dual radiator (aerogel+NaF), a lateral conical mirror and a detection plane made of 680 photomultipliers and light guides, enabling precise measurements of particle electric charge and velocity (Delta beta / beta ~ 10^-3 and 10^-4 for Z=1 and Z=10-20, respectively) at kinetic energies of a few GeV/nucleon. Combining velocity measurements with data on particle rigidity from the AMS-02 Tracker (Delta R / R ~ 2% for R=1-10 GV) it is possible to obtain a reliable measurement for particle mass. One of the main topi...

  4. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-04-17

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN{sub ch}/d{eta}) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of {radical}(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of {radical}(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  5. Bearing fault detection based on hybrid ensemble detector and empirical mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulas, George; Loutas, Theodore; Stylios, Chrysostomos D.; Kostopoulos, Vassilis

    2013-12-01

    Aiming at more efficient fault diagnosis, this research work presents an integrated anomaly detection approach for seeded bearing faults. Vibration signals from normal bearings and bearings with three different fault locations, as well as different fault sizes and loading conditions are examined. The Empirical Mode Decomposition and the Hilbert Huang transform are employed for the extraction of a compact feature set. Then, a hybrid ensemble detector is trained using data coming only from the normal bearings and it is successfully applied for the detection of any deviation from the normal condition. The results prove the potential use of the proposed scheme as a first stage of an alarm signalling system for the detection of bearing faults irrespective of their loading condition.

  6. Modeling and analysis of hybrid pixel detector deficiencies for scientific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Hoff, James R.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-01

    Semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors often consist of a pixellated sensor layer bump bonded to a matching pixelated readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The sensor can range from high resistivity Si to III-V materials, whereas a Si CMOS process is typically used to manufacture the ROIC. Independent, device physics and electronic design automation (EDA) tools are used to determine sensor characteristics and verify functional performance of ROICs respectively with significantly different solvers. Some physics solvers provide the capability of transferring data to the EDA tool. However, single pixel transient simulations are either not feasible due to convergence difficulties or are prohibitively long. A simplified sensor model, which includes a current pulse in parallel with detector equivalent capacitor, is often used; even then, spice type top-level (entire array) simulations range from days to weeks. In order to analyze detector deficiencies for a particular scientific application, accurately defined transient behavioral models of all the functional blocks are required. Furthermore, various simulations, such as transient, noise, Monte Carlo, inter-pixel effects, etc. of the entire array need to be performed within a reasonable time frame without trading off accuracy. The sensor and the analog front-end can be modeling using a real number modeling language, as complex mathematical functions or detailed data can be saved to text files, for further top-level digital simulations. Parasitically aware digital timing is extracted in a standard delay format (sdf) from the pixel digital back-end layout as well as the periphery of the ROIC. For any given input, detector level worst-case and best-case simulations are performed using a Verilog simulation environment to determine the output. Each top-level transient simulation takes no more than 10-15 minutes. The impact of changing key parameters such as sensor Poissonian shot noise, analog front-end bandwidth, jitter due to

  7. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Pixel Detector Deficiencies for Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah [Northwestern U. (main); Deptuch, Grzegorz W. [Fermilab; Hoff, James R. [Fermilab; Mohseni, Hooman [Northwestern U. (main)

    2015-08-28

    Semiconductor hybrid pixel detectors often consist of a pixellated sensor layer bump bonded to a matching pixelated readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The sensor can range from high resistivity Si to III-V materials, whereas a Si CMOS process is typically used to manufacture the ROIC. Independent, device physics and electronic design automation (EDA) tools are used to determine sensor characteristics and verify functional performance of ROICs respectively with significantly different solvers. Some physics solvers provide the capability of transferring data to the EDA tool. However, single pixel transient simulations are either not feasible due to convergence difficulties or are prohibitively long. A simplified sensor model, which includes a current pulse in parallel with detector equivalent capacitor, is often used; even then, spice type top-level (entire array) simulations range from days to weeks. In order to analyze detector deficiencies for a particular scientific application, accurately defined transient behavioral models of all the functional blocks are required. Furthermore, various simulations, such as transient, noise, Monte Carlo, inter-pixel effects, etc. of the entire array need to be performed within a reasonable time frame without trading off accuracy. The sensor and the analog front-end can be modeling using a real number modeling language, as complex mathematical functions or detailed data can be saved to text files, for further top-level digital simulations. Parasitically aware digital timing is extracted in a standard delay format (sdf) from the pixel digital back-end layout as well as the periphery of the ROIC. For any given input, detector level worst-case and best-case simulations are performed using a Verilog simulation environment to determine the output. Each top-level transient simulation takes no more than 10-15 minutes. The impact of changing key parameters such as sensor Poissonian shot noise, analog front-end bandwidth, jitter due to

  8. The equivalence principle and QFT: Can a particle detector tell if we live inside a hollow shell?

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Keith K; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We show that a particle detector can distinguish the interior of a hollow shell from flat space for switching times much shorter than the light-crossing time of the shell, even though the local metrics are indistinguishable. This shows that a particle detector can read out information about the non-local structure of spacetime even when switched on for scales much shorter than the characteristic scale of the non-locality.

  9. Particle-flow reconstruction and global event description with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Krammer, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Shopova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elgammal, Sherif; Mohamed, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio

    2017-01-01

    The CMS apparatus was identified, a few years before the start of the LHC operation at CERN, to feature properties well suited to particle-flow (PF) reconstruction: a highly-segmented tracker, a fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter, a hermetic hadron calorimeter, a strong magnetic field, and an excellent muon spectrometer. A fully-fledged PF reconstruction algorithm tuned to the CMS detector was therefore developed and has been consistently used in physics analyses for the first time at a hadron collider. For each collision, the comprehensive list of final-state particles identified and reconstructed by the algorithm provides a global event description that leads to unprecedented CMS performance for jet and hadronic $\\tau$ decay reconstruction, missing transverse momentum determination, and electron and muon identification. This approach also allows particles from pileup interactions to be identified and enables efficient pileup mitigation methods. The data collected by CMS at a centre-of-mass energy of 8...

  10. Characterization of Si Hybrid CMOS Detectors for use in the Soft X-ray Band

    CERN Document Server

    Prieskorn, Zachary; Bongiorno, Stephen D; Falcone, Abraham D; Burrows, David N

    2013-01-01

    We report on the characterization of four Teledyne Imaging Systems HAWAII Hybrid Si CMOS detectors designed for X-ray detection. Three H1RG detectors were studied along with a specially configured H2RG. Read noise measurements were performed, with the lowest result being 7.1 e- RMS. Interpixel capacitive crosstalk (IPC) was measured for the three H1RGs and for the H2RG. The H1RGs had IPC upper limits of 4.0 - 5.5 % (up & down pixels) and 8.7 - 9.7 % (left & right pixels), indicating a clear asymmetry. Energy resolution is reported for two X-ray lines, 1.5 & 5.9 keV, at multiple temperatures between 150 - 210 K. The best resolution measured at 5.9 keV was 250 eV (4.2 %) at 150 K, with IPC contributing significantly to this measured energy distribution. The H2RG, with a unique configuration designed to decrease the capacitive coupling between ROIC pixels, had an IPC of 1.8 +/- 1.0 % indicating a dramatic improvement in IPC with no measurable asymmetry. We also measured dark current as a function of ...

  11. Micro-fabricated Silicon Devices for Advanced Thermal Management and Integration of Particle Tracking Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, Giulia; Gambaro, Carla

    Since their first studies targeting the cooling of high-power computing chips, micro-channel devices are proven to provide a very efficient cooling system. In the last years micro-channel cooling has been successfully applied to the cooling of particle detectors at CERN. Thanks to their high thermal efficiency, they can guarantee a good heat sink for the cooling of silicon trackers, fundamental for the reduction of the radiation damage caused by the beam interactions. The radiation damage on the silicon detector is increasing with temperature and furthermore the detectors are producing heat that should be dissipated in the supporting structure. Micro-channels guarantee a distributed and uniform thermal exchange, thanks to the high flexibility of the micro-fabrication process that allows a large variety of channel designs. The thin nature of the micro-channels etched inside silicon wafers, is fulfilling the physics requirement of minimization of the material crossed by the particle beam. Furthermore micro-chan...

  12. A constrained particle dynamics for continuum-particle hybrid method in micro-and nano-fluidics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Cui; GuoWei He; Dewei Qi

    2006-01-01

    A hybrid method of continuum and particle dynamics is developed for micro- and nano-fluidics,where fluids are described by a molecular dynamics (MD) in one domain and by the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations in another domain.In order to ensure the continuity of momentum flux,the continuum and molecular dynamics in the overlap domain are coupled through a constrained particle dynamics.The constrained particle dynamics is constructed with a virtual damping force and a virtual added mass force.The sudden-start Couette flows with either non-Slip or slip boundary condition are used to test the hybrid method.It is shown that the results obtained are quantitatively in agreement with the analytical solutions under the non-slip boundary conditions and the full MD simulations under the slip boundary conditions.

  13. Hybrid charge division multiplexing method for silicon photomultiplier based PET detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haewook; Ko, Guen Bae; Lee, Jae Sung

    2017-06-01

    Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is widely utilized in various positron emission tomography (PET) detectors and systems. However, the individual recording of SiPM output signals is still challenging owing to the high granularity of the SiPM; thus, charge division multiplexing is commonly used in PET detectors. Resistive charge division method is well established for reducing the number of output channels in conventional multi-channel photosensors, but it degrades the timing performance of SiPM-based PET detectors by yielding a large resistor-capacitor (RC) constant. Capacitive charge division method, on the other hand, yields a small RC constant and provides a faster timing response than the resistive method, but it suffers from an output signal undershoot. Therefore, in this study, we propose a hybrid charge division method which can be implemented by cascading the parallel combination of a resistor and a capacitor throughout the multiplexing network. In order to compare the performance of the proposed method with the conventional methods, a 16-channel Hamamatsu SiPM (S11064-050P) was coupled with a 4  ×  4 LGSO crystal block (3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3) and a 9  ×  9 LYSO crystal block (1.2  ×  1.2  ×  10 mm3). In addition, we tested a time-over-threshold (TOT) readout using the digitized position signals to further demonstrate the feasibility of the time-based readout of multiplexed signals based on the proposed method. The results indicated that the proposed method exhibited good energy and timing performance, thus inheriting only the advantages of conventional resistive and capacitive methods. Moreover, the proposed method showed excellent pulse shape uniformity that does not depend on the position of the interacted crystal. Accordingly, we can conclude that the hybrid charge division method is useful for effectively reducing the number of output channels of the SiPM array.

  14. Computational analysis of electrical conduction in hybrid nanomaterials with embedded non-penetrating conductive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jizhe; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a comprehensive multi-resolution two-dimensional (2D) resistor network model is proposed to analyze the electrical conductivity of hybrid nanomaterials made of insulating matrix with conductive particles such as CNT reinforced nanocomposites and thick film resistors. Unlike existing approaches, our model takes into account the impenetrability of the particles and their random placement within the matrix. Moreover, our model presents a detailed description of intra-particle conductivity via finite element analysis, which to the authors’ best knowledge has not been addressed before. The inter-particle conductivity is assumed to be primarily due to electron tunneling. The model is then used to predict the electrical conductivity of electrospun carbon nanofibers as a function of microstructural parameters such as turbostratic domain alignment and aspect ratio. To simulate the microstructure of single CNF, randomly positioned nucleation sites were seeded and grown as turbostratic particles with anisotropic growth rates. Particle growth was in steps and growth of each particle in each direction was stopped upon contact with other particles. The study points to the significant contribution of both intra-particle and inter-particle conductivity to the overall conductivity of hybrid composites. Influence of particle alignment and anisotropic growth rate ratio on electrical conductivity is also discussed. The results show that partial alignment in contrast to complete alignment can result in maximum electrical conductivity of whole CNF. High degrees of alignment can adversely affect conductivity by lowering the probability of the formation of a conductive path. The results demonstrate approaches to enhance electrical conductivity of hybrid materials through controlling their microstructure which is applicable not only to carbon nanofibers, but also many other types of hybrid composites such as thick film resistors.

  15. Study of a sealed high gas pressure THGEM detector and response of Alpha particle spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu-Ning; Liu, Hong-Bang; Xie, Yi-Gang; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Chen, Shi; Huang, Wen-Qian; Hong, Dao-Jin; Zheng, Yang-Heng

    2016-01-01

    A sealed high gas pressure detector working in pure argon is assembled. It consists of a 5 cm $\\times$ 5 cm PCB THGEM (THick Gaseous Electron Multipliers). The detector structure and experimental setup are described. The performances under high pressure of 2 atm mainly consist in selecting optimal voltages for ionization region and induction region. The dependence of the shape of Alpha particle spectra measured with relative gas gain on gas pressure (1.3 $\\sim$ 2.0 atm) has been studied. The 8 groups of relative gas gain versus working voltage of THGEM expressed by weighting filed $E/P$ are normalized, being consistent with theory. The results show that the air tightness of the chamber is good measured by a sensitive barometer and checked with gas gain. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation on energy deposition without gas gain involved.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF WIRELESS TECHNIQUES IN DATA AND POWER TRANSMISSION APPLICATION FOR PARTICLE-PHYSICS DETECTORS

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, R; Dehos, C; De Lurgio, P; Djurcic, Z; Drake, G; Gonzales Gimenez, JL; Gustafsson, L; Kim, DW; Locci, E; Pfeiffer, U; Röhrich, D; Rydberg, D; Schöning, A; Siligaris, A; Soltveit, HK; Ullaland, K; Vincent, P; Vasquez, PR; Wiedner, D; Yang, S

    2017-01-01

    In the WADAPT project described in this Letter of Intent, we propose to develop wireless techniques for data and power transmission in particle-physics detectors. Wireless techniques have developed extremely fast over the last decade and are now mature for being considered as a promising alternative to cables and optical links that would revolutionize the detector design. The WADAPT consortium has been formed to identify the specific needs of different projects that might benefit from wireless techniques with the objective of providing a common platform for research and development in order to optimize effectiveness and cost. The proposed R&D will aim at designing and testing wireless demonstrators for large instrumentation systems.

  17. Design and characterization of an SRAM-based neutron detector for particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ytre-Hauge, Kristian S., E-mail: kristian.ytre-hauge@uib.no [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Velure, Arild; Larsen, Eivind F. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Stokkevåg, Camilla H. [Department of Medical Physics and Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen (Norway); Röhrich, Dieter [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Brekke, Njål; Odland, Odd Harald [Department of Medical Physics and Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen (Norway)

    2015-12-21

    A neutron detector based on registration of radiation effects in Static Random Access Memories (SRAMs) has been developed at the University of Bergen for applications in particle therapy. Nine different SRAMs were tested and a 16 Mibit SRAM from Cypress was chosen for the final detector. The SRAMs were irradiated in beam lines at PTB Braunschweig, the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory, The Svedberg Laboratory, The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE, Kjeller) and the CERN-EU high-energy reference field. The results from the measurements demonstrate the feasibility of using the selected SRAMs for neutron detection. The results indicate low or no sensitivity to thermal neutrons while the cross section for fast neutrons increases with neutron energy before reaching a more stable level at energies of several tenths of MeV.

  18. Search for Supersymmetric Particles with the OPAL Detector at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Kanaya, N

    A search of Supersymmetric particles was performed using the data collected in 1999 and 2000 by the Opal detector at the LEP2 e+e- collider. The center-of-mass energies ranged from 192 GeV to 209 GeV, and the data analyzed correspond to an integrated luminosity of 432 pb-1. Supersymmetric models permit a large number of different experimental final states which should all be investigated. The search presented here is sensitive to final states with photons plus additional detector activity with missing energy. these topologies are characteristic of events expected in Gauge-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (GMSB) models. No significant evidence for their existence is observed. Finally, using various search results at centre-of-mass energy of 189 GeV, constraints on the parameters have been given within the framework of the minimal GMSB model.

  19. GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

  20. Lepton identification at particle flow oriented detector for the future e+e- Higgs factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Ruan, Manqi; Boudry, Vincent; Videau, Henri

    2017-09-01

    The lepton identification is essential for the physics programs at high-energy frontier, especially for the precise measurement of the Higgs boson. For this purpose, a toolkit for multivariate data analysis (TMVA) based lepton identification (LICH) has been developed for detectors using high granularity calorimeters. Using the conceptual detector geometry for the Circular Electron-Positron Collider (CEPC) and single charged particle samples with energy larger than 2 GeV, LICH identifies electrons/muons with efficiencies higher than 99.5% and controls the mis-identification rate of hadron to muons/electrons to better than 1/0.5%. Reducing the calorimeter granularity by 1-2 orders of magnitude, the lepton identification performance is stable for particles with E > 2 GeV. Applied to fully simulated eeH/μ μ H events, the lepton identification performance is consistent with the single particle case: the efficiency of identifying all the high energy leptons in an event, is 95.5-98.5%.

  1. Preliminary study for the detection of neutrons in heavy-ion collisions with charged particle detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auditore L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS the CHIMERA 4π multidetector has been designed and setup to detect charged particles emitted in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. Properties and performances of CHIMERA have been widely demonstrated by published results obtained in the performed experiments. Moreover, in recent years, a new charged particle detector (ChPD for correlation studies (FARCOS has been designed, and recently a first prototype has been coupled to CHIMERA, in order to test performances in view of correlation measurements in coincidence with 4π detectors. Simultaneous neutrons and charged particles detection in heavy ion collisions represents an important experimental progress for future experiments to be performed with both stable and exotic nuclei. In order to investigate about this possibility, simple Monte Carlo simulations have been performed. Preliminary simulations have been carried out by means of MCNPX transport code to evaluate the perturbation effects, including cross-talk and time response, induced in CHIMERA and/or FARCOS Si-CsI(Tl telescopes on (typical 20MeV neutron signals coming froma typical reaction in heavy ion collisions at the Fermi energy. Moreover, first data analysis results of the INKIISSY experiment indicates sizable probability to detect neutrons by properly shadowing CHIMERA Si-CsI(Tl telescopes. Analysis is still in progress.

  2. The fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacher, A.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. J. M.; Barenthien, N.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bollmann, E.; Bolz, H.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Bracci, F.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Camin, D.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Castro, J.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordero, A.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J. W.; Cuautle, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daudo, F.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fonte, R.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Gibbs, K.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Goncalves do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grassi, V.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Grygar, J.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guardone, N.; Guerard, C.; Guarino, F.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hofman, G.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hucker, H.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kern, H.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kopmann, A.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Marchetto, F.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martineau, O.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mucchi, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nerling, F.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nicotra, D.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Osswald, B.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Raia, G.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Roberts, M. D.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schleif, G.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Sequieros, G.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smiatkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Trapani, P.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Tusi, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vitali, G.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wild, N.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Woerner, G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It combines a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level together with a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The fluorescence detector

  3. The fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahams, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacher, A.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. J. M.; Barenthien, N.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bollmann, E.; Bolz, H.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Bracci, F.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Camin, D.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Castro, J.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordero, A.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J. W.; Cuautle, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daudo, F.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fonte, R.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Gibbs, K.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Goncalves do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grassi, V.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Grygar, J.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guardone, N.; Guerard, C.; Guarino, F.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hofman, G.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hucker, H.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kern, H.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kopmann, A.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Marchetto, F.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martineau, O.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mucchi, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nerling, F.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nicotra, D.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Osswald, B.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Raia, G.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Roberts, M. D.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schleif, G.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Sequieros, G.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smiatkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Trapani, P.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Tusi, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vitali, G.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wild, N.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Woerner, G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It combines a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level together with a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The fluorescence detector

  4. X-ray Hybrid CMOS Detectors : Recent progress in development and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Burrows, David N.

    2017-08-01

    PennState high energy astronomy laboratory has been working on the development and characterization of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for last few years in collaboration with Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS). HCDs are preferred over X-ray CCDs due to their higher and flexible read out rate, radiation hardness and low power which make them more suitable for next generation large area X-ray telescopic missions. An H2RG detector with 36 micron pixel pitch and 18 micron ROIC, has been selected for a sounding rocket flight in 2018. The H2RG detector provides ~2.5 % energy resolution at 5.9 keV and ~7 e- read noise when coupled to a cryo-SIDECAR. We could also detect a clear Oxygen line (~0.5 keV) from the detector implying a lower energy threshold of ~0.3 keV. Further improvement in the energy resolution and read noise is currently under progress. We have been working on the characterization of small pixel HCDs (12.5 micron pixel; smallest pixel HCDs developed so far) which is important for the development of next generation high resolution X-ray spectroscopic instrument based on HCDs. Event recognition in HCDs is another exciting prospect which have been successfully shown to work with a 64 X 64 pixel prototype SPEEDSTAR-EXD which use comparators at each pixel to read out only those pixels having detectable signal, thereby providing an order of magnitude improvement in the read out rate. Currently, we are working on the development of a large area SPEEDSTAR-EXD array for the development of a full fledged instrument. HCDs due to their fast read out, can also be explored as a large FOV instrument to study GRB afterglows and variability and spectroscopic study of other astrophysical transients. In this context, we are characterizing a Lobster-HCD system at multiple energies and multiple off-axis angles for future rocket or CubeSate experiments. In this presentation, I will briefly present these new developments and experiments with HCDs and the analysis techniques.

  5. A support note for the use of pixel hybrid photon detectors in the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Gys, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    This document is a proposal for the use of a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The document starts with the general specification of the baseline option, followed by a summary of the main results achieved so far during the R&D phase. A future R&D programme and its related time table is also presented. The document concludes with the description of a photon detector production scheme and time schedule.

  6. Investigation on a Single-stage Coaxial Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Small Particle Detectors at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Essler, J; Koettig, T; Wu, J H

    2009-01-01

    A single-stage coaxial pulse tube cryocooler has been developed for cooling small particle tracking detectors needed for future luminosity upgrades of the LHC. It is designed for remote operation in high radiation areas of the tunnel with restricted space. It features novel phase-adjusting mechanisms integrated into the warm flange. This flange is cooled with ambient air to reach a simple and compact design. The dimensions of the cold-finger are 24 mm diameter and 170 mm length. The measured no-load temperature is 52 K and the pulse tube cryocooler provides a cooling capacity of 5 W at 80 K.

  7. Charged particle production in p+Pb collisions measured by the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Shulga, Evgeny; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Per-event charged particle spectra and nuclear modification factors are measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in p+Pb interactions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV. Results are presented as a function of transverse momentum and in different intervals of collision centrality, which is characterised in p+Pb collisions by the total transverse energy measured over the pseudorapidity interval 3.2 < |η| < 4.9 in the direction of the lead beam. Three different calculations of the number of nucleons participating in p+Pb collisions have been performed, assuming the Glauber model and its Glauber-Gribov Colour Fluctuation extensions.

  8. Particle identification using dE/dx in the Mark II detector at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyarski, A.; Coupal, D.P.; Feldman, G.J.; Hanson, G.; Nash, J.; O' Shaughnessy, K.F.; Rankin, P.; Van Kooten, R.

    1989-04-01

    The central drift chamber in the Mark II detector at the SLAC Linear Collider has been instrumented with 100-MHz Flash-ADCs. Pulse digitization provides particle identification through the measurement of average ionization loss in the chamber. We present the results of a study of system performance and outline the systematic corrections that optimize resolution. The data used are from a short test run at PEP with one-third of the FADCs installed and an extensive cosmic ray sample with the fully instrumented chamber. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Testing a Prototype for a New Cosmic Ray Particle Detector at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, R.; Rimsa, E.; Tharp, T.; Andeen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Cosmic ray research has grown rapidly in the past century, often using vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) to analyze the light produced by high-energy particles passing through scintillating material. Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are now being recognized as a more efficient alternative to PMTs. Different types of photon events have been characterized using a SensL brand SiPM in combination with a QuarkNet Data Acquisition board. The goal of this study is to test the viability of the SiPM for a new generation surface detector at the South Pole.

  10. Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    International Electric Propulsion Conference and 6th Nano-satellite Symposium Hyogo-Kobe, Japan July 410, 2015 Robert Martin∗ ERC Incorporated, Huntsville...Algorithms, . 8Koo, J. and Martin, R., Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall -eect thruster simulation, 34th Int. Electric Propul- sion Conf...Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall -effect Thruster

  11. Ultrasensitive Cracking-Assisted Strain Sensors Based on Silver Nanowires/Graphene Hybrid Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Wei, Yong; Wei, Siman; Lin, Yong; Liu, Lan

    2016-09-28

    Strain sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity under microstrain have numerous potential applications in heartbeat monitoring, pulsebeat detection, sound signal acquisition, and recognition. In this work, a two-part strain sensor (i.e., polyurethane part and brittle conductive hybrid particles layer on top) based on silver nanowires/graphene hybrid particles is developed via a simple coprecipitation, reduction, vacuum filtration, and casting process. Because of the nonuniform interface, weak interfacial bonding, and the hybrid particles' point-to-point conductive networks, the crack and overlap morphologies are successfully formed on the strain sensor after a prestretching; the crack-based stain sensor exhibits gauge factors as high as 20 (Δε sensor. Combined with its good response to bending, high strain resolution, and high working stability, the developed strain sensor is promising in the applications of electronic skins, motion sensors, and health monitoring sensors.

  12. Quantum efficiency of colloidal suspensions containing quantum dot/silica hybrid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyungjoon; Yoon, Cheolsang; Lee, Sooho; Lee, Doh C.; Shin, Kyusoon; Lee, Kangtaek

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the fluorescence properties of colloidal suspensions conntaining quantum dot (QD)/silica hybrid particles. First, we synthesized QD/silica hybrid particles with silica-QD-silica (SQS) core-shell-shell geometry, and monitored the quantum efficiencies of their suspensions at various particle concentrations. We found that the quantum efficiency (QE) of SQS particles in deionized (DI) water was much lower than that of the QDs even at low particle concentration, mainly due to the light scattering of emitted photons at the silica/water interface, followed by reabsorption by QDs. As the concentration of SQS particles was increased, both light scattering and reabsorption by QDs became more important, which further reduced the QE. Refractive index-matched solvent, however, reduced light scattering, yielding greater QE than DI water. Next, we induced aggregation of SQS particles, and found that QE increased as particles aggregated in DI water because of reduced light scattering and reabsorption, whereas it remained almost constant in the refractive index-matched solvent. Finally, we studied aggregation of highly concentrated silica particle suspensions containing a low concentration of SQS particles, and found that QE increased with aggregation because light scattering and reabsorption were reduced.

  13. Particle identification method in the CsI(Tl) scintillator used for the CHIMERA 4{pi} detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderighi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Basssini, R.; Berceanu, I.; Blicharska, J.; Boiano, C.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Bruno, M.; Cali, C.; Cardella, G. E-mail: cardella@ct.infn.it; Cavallaro, Sl.; D' Agostino, M.; D' Andrea, M.; Dayras, R.; De Filippo, E.; Fichera, F.; Geraci, E.; Giustolisi, F.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guardone, N.; Guazzoni, P.; Guinet, D.; Iacono-Manno, C.M.; Kowalski, S.; La Guidara, E.; Lanchais, A.L.; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzano, G.; Le Neindre, N.; Li, S.; Maiolino, C.; Majka, Z.; Manfredi, G.; Nicotra, D.; Paduszynski, T.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Petrovici, C.M.; Piasecki, E.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Pop, A.; Porto, F.; Rivet, M.F.; Rosato, E.; Sacca, G.; Sechi, G.; Simion, V.; Sperduto, M.L.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Urso, S.; Vannini, G.; Vigilante, M.; Wilczynski, J.; Wu, H.; Xiao, Z.; Zetta, L.; Zipper, W

    2002-08-21

    The charged particle identification obtained by the analysis of signals coming from the CsI(Tl) detectors of the CHIMERA 4{pi} heavy-ion detector is presented. A simple double-gate integration method, with the use of the cyclotron radiofrequency as reference time, results in low thresholds for isotopic particle identification. The dependence of the identification quality on the gate generation timing is discussed. Isotopic identification of light ions up to Beryllium is clearly seen. For the first time also the identification of Z=5 particles is observed. The identification of neutrons interacting with CsI(Tl) by (n,{alpha}) and (n,{gamma}) reactions is also discussed.

  14. Particle identification method in the CsI(Tl) scintillator used for the CHIMERA 4 pi detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alderighi, M; Basssini, R; Berceanu, I; Blicharska, J; Boiano, C; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Bruno, M; Cali, C; Cardella, G; Cavallaro, S; D'Agostino, M; D'andrea, M; Dayras, R; De Filippo, E; Fichera, F; Geraci, E; Giustolisi, F; Grzeszczuk, A; Guardone, N; Guazzoni, P; Guinet, D; Iacono-Manno, M; Kowalski, S; La Guidara, E; Lanchais, A L; Lanzalone, G; Lanzanò, G; Le Neindre, N; Li, S; Maiolino, C; Majka, Z; Manfredi, G; Nicotra, D; Paduszynski, T; Pagano, A; Papa, M; Petrovici, C M; Piasecki, E; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Pop, A; Porto, F; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Sacca, G; Sechi, G; Simion, V; Sperduto, M L; Steckmeyer, J C; Trifiró, A; Trimarchi, M; Urso, S; Vannini, G; Vigilante, M; Wilczynski, J; Wu, H; Xiao, Z; Zetta, L; Zipper, W

    2002-01-01

    The charged particle identification obtained by the analysis of signals coming from the CsI(Tl) detectors of the CHIMERA 4 pi heavy-ion detector is presented. A simple double-gate integration method, with the use of the cyclotron radiofrequency as reference time, results in low thresholds for isotopic particle identification. The dependence of the identification quality on the gate generation timing is discussed. Isotopic identification of light ions up to Beryllium is clearly seen. For the first time also the identification of Z=5 particles is observed. The identification of neutrons interacting with CsI(Tl) by (n,alpha) and (n,gamma) reactions is also discussed.

  15. Test beam analysis of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Dannheim, Dominik; Firu, Elena; Kulis, Szymon; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for the vertex detector at the proposed Compact Linear Collider imply a very small material budget: less than 0.2% of a radiation length per detection layer including services and mechanical supports. We present here a study using Timepix readout ASICs hybridised to pixel sensors of 50 − 500 μm thickness, including assemblies with 100 μm thick sensors bonded to thinned 100μm thick ASICs. Sensors from three producers (Advacam, Micron Semiconductor Ltd, Canberra) with different edge termination technologies (active edge, slim edge) were bonded to Timepix ASICs. These devices were characterised with the EUDET telescope at the DESY II test beam using 5.6 GeV electrons. Their performance for the detection and tracking of minimum ionising particles was evaluated in terms of charge sharing, detection efficiency, single-point resolution and energy deposition.

  16. Evaluation of a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector array with a synchrotron X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchut, C.; Visschers, J. L.; Fornaini, A.; Graafsma, H.; Maiorino, M.; Mettivier, G.; Calvet, D.

    2002-05-01

    A photon-counting hybrid pixel detector (Medipix-1) has been characterized using a synchrotron X-ray source. The detector consists of a readout ASIC with 64×64 independent photon-counting cells of 170×170 μm 2 pitch, bump-bonded to a 300 μm thick silicon sensor, read out by a PCIbus-based electronics, and a graphical user interface (GUI) software. The intensity and the energy tunability of the X-ray source allow characterization of the detector in the time, space, and energy domains. The system can be read out on external trigger at a frame rate of 100 Hz with 3 ms exposure time per frame. The detector response is tested up to more than 7×10 5 detected events/pixel/s. The point-spread response shows beam reveals no loss in sensitivity between adjacent pixels as could result from charge sharing in the silicon sensor. Photons down to 6 keV can be detected after equalization of the thresholds of individual pixels. The obtained results demonstrate the advantages of photon-counting hybrid pixel detectors and particularly of the Medipix-1 chip for a wide range of X-ray imaging applications, including those using synchrotron X-ray beams.

  17. Mechanism of Methylene Blue adsorption on hybrid laponite-multi-walled carbon nanotube particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilo, Maryna; Lebovka, Nikolai; Barany, Sandor

    2016-04-01

    The kinetics of adsorption and parameters of equilibrium adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) on hybrid laponite-multi-walled carbon nanotube (NT) particles in aqueous suspensions were determined. The laponite platelets were used in order to facilitate disaggregation of NTs in aqueous suspensions and enhance the adsorption capacity of hybrid particles for MB. Experiments were performed at room temperature (298 K), and the laponite/NT ratio (Xl) was varied in the range of 0-0.5. For elucidation of the mechanism of MB adsorption on hybrid particles, the electrical conductivity of the system as well as the electrokinetic potential of laponite-NT hybrid particles were measured. Three different stages in the kinetics of adsorption of MB on the surface of NTs or hybrid laponite-NT particles were discovered to be a fast initial stage I (adsorption time t=0-10 min), a slower intermediate stage II (up to t=120 min) and a long-lasting final stage III (up to t=24hr). The presence of these stages was explained accounting for different types of interactions between MB and adsorbent particles, as well as for the changes in the structure of aggregates of NT particles and the long-range processes of restructuring of laponite platelets on the surface of NTs. The analysis of experimental data on specific surface area versus the value of Xl evidenced in favor of the model with linear contacts between rigid laponite platelets and NTs. It was also concluded that electrostatic interactions control the first stage of adsorption at low MB concentrations.

  18. The ATLAS Pixel detector and its use in a Search for Metastable Heavy Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudiello, Andrea

    The discovery of the Higgs boson, the missing piece in the Standard Model puzzle, at the electroweak scale in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, closed an important season of particle physics and a search lasted 50 years. Even though the discovery of the Higgs boson is a great achievement, the Standard Model is incomplete, since it does not include the gravitational field and can not explain some experimental measurements such as the dark matter observed in galaxy studies and the matter and anti-matter asymmetry observed in the universe. The experiments at LHC have the exciting goal to give answers to the SM open questions and make available the hint or the evidence that may allow to proceed beyond it. An introduction on the Standard Model and the LHC is provided in Chapter 1 where the ATLAS detector is also described. ATLAS is the largest of the detectors placed along the LHC ring and is able to detect products from pp and heavy ion collisions. The detector has a cylindrical geometry around the interac...

  19. The MONDO project: A secondary neutron tracker detector for particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, S. M.; Battistoni, G.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Spiriti, E.; Marafini, M.

    2017-02-01

    During Particle Therapy treatments the patient irradiation produces, among different types of secondary radiation, an abundant flux of neutrons that can release a significant dose far away from the tumour region. A precise measurement of their flux, energy and angle distributions is eagerly needed in order to improve the Treatment Planning Systems software and to properly take into account the risk of late complications in the whole body. The technical challenges posed by a neutron detector aiming for high detection efficiency and good backtracking precision will be addressed within the MONDO project, whose main goal is to develop a tracking detector targeting fast and ultra-fast secondary neutrons. The neutron tracking principle is based on the reconstruction of two consequent elastic scattering interactions of a neutron with a target material. Reconstructing the recoiling protons it is hence possible to measure the energy and incoming direction of the neutron. Plastic scintillators will be used as scattering and detection media: the tracker is being developed as a matrix of squared scintillating fibres of 250 μm side. The light produced and collected in fibres will be amplified using a triple GEM-based image intensifier and acquired using CMOS Single Photon Avalanche Diode arrays. Using therapeutic beams, the principal detector goal will be the measurement of the neutron production yields, as a function of production angle and energy.

  20. Prototype of readout electronics for the LHAASO KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Chang, Jing-Fan; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The KM2A (one kilometer square extensive air shower array) is the largest detector array in the LHAASO (Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory) project. The KM2A consists of 5242 EDs (Electromagnetic particle Detectors) and 1221 MDs (Muon Detectors). The EDs are distributed and exposed in the wild. Two channels, anode and dynode, are employed for the PMT (photomultiplier tube) signal readout. The readout electronics designed in this paper aims at accurate charge and arrival time measurement of the PMT signals, which cover a large amplitude range from 20 P.E. (photoelectrons) to 2 × 105 P.E. By using a “trigger-less” architecture, we digitize signals close to the PMTs. All digitized data is transmitted to DAQ (Data Acquisition) via a simplified White Rabbit protocol. Compared with traditional high energy experiments, high precision of time measurement over such a large area and suppression of temperature effects in the wild become the key techniques. Experiments show that the design has fulfilled the requirements in this project. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375210) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of IHEP, Beijing

  1. Large-scale nanocomposites simulations using hybrid particle/SCFT simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, Scott

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary results from 2D simulations of block copolymer nanocomposites (Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol 96, 250601 (2006) have been performed using a hybrid self-consistent field theory (SCFT) algorithm. While these simulation results showed that the presence of nanoparticles could induce changes in block copolymer morphologies, quantitative agreement with experiments for the particle densities at this transition are not yet possible. A feature missing in the 2D hybrid simulations is the packing behavior of real, three-dimensional spherical particles embedded in lamellar layers or hexagonally packed cylinders formed by linear diblock chains. In order to carry out these hybrid particle/SCFT 3D simulations a new object-oriented SCFT framework has been developed. The object-oriented design enables the hybrid/SCFT simulations to be performed in a framework that is both numerically efficient and sufficiently flexible to incorporate new SCFT models easily, In particular, this new framework will be used to investigate the distribution of particle positions in diblock lamellar layers as function of nanoparticle density to study the interplay of patterning due to diblock domain structure and the chain depletion interaction between spherical particles.

  2. Uniform sampling analysis of a hybrid phase-locked loop with a sample-and-hold phase detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barab, S.; Mcbride, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    Phase-locked-loop (PLL) bit synchronizers often employ integrate-and-dump type phase detectors that provide phase error information only at discrete points in time. Usually these phase detectors are followed by sample-and-hold circuits to produce a stairstep error voltage as the input to a standard analog circuit loop filter. When the loop is configured in this manner, it is referred to as a hybrid PLL. Sampled-data analysis methods (Z transforms) are used to determine the stability and transient response of this loop.

  3. A single particle detector for electron-ion collision experiments in the Cryogenic Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija; Mueller, Alfred; Schippers, Stefan [Institut fuer Atom- und Molekuelphysik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Krantz, Claude; Becker, Arno; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Novotny, Oldrich [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, New York (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The study of ion chemistry in the interstellar medium requires, among others, knowledge about cross sections for the recombination of atomic and molecular ions with low temperature (∝10 K) electrons. Especially the database on singly charged atomic ions relevant to the chemistry of molecular clouds is incomplete in this respect. The electrostatic Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR), currently being commissioned at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, will allow experiments with atomic, molecular and cluster ions at beam energies up to 300 keV per unit charge in a cryogenic extremely high vacuum (XHV) environment. Collisions of stored atomic ions with electrons provided by an electron cooler will lead to reaction products with charge states that differ from those of the parent particles. The detection of these products will be carried out behind a bending deflector of the storage ring by a high-efficiency movable single-particle detector, based on a secondary electron converter backed by heatable microchannel plates. The designs of the mechanical actuator and the detector are compatible with the cryogenic operating conditions at 10 K and a bakeout temperature of up to 530 K.

  4. Radiation damage to neutron and proton irradiated GaAs particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, M; Evans, N; Joost, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Geppert, R; Göppert, R; Irsigler, R; Ludwig, J; Runge, K; Schmid, T; Eich, Th.; Schmid, Th.

    1997-01-01

    The radiation damage in 200 um thick Schottky diodes made on semi-insulating (SI) undoped GaAs Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) bulk material with resistivities between 0.4 and 8.9*10E7 Ohm*cm were studied using alpha-spectroscopy, signal response to minimum ionising particles (MIP), I-V and CV-measurements. The results have been analysed to investigate the influence of the substrate resistivity on the detector performance after neutron and proton irradiation. The leakage current density, signal response to alpha-particles and MIPs show a strong dependence on the resistivity before and after irradiation. An observed decrease of the electron mean free drift length before and after irradiation with increasing substrate resistivity can be explained by a model involving the different ionisation ratios of defects, which are introduced by the irradiation. Comparison of the radiation damage due to neutrons and protons gives a hardness factor of 7+-0.9 for 24 GeV/c protons. The best detectors show a response to ...

  5. Search for bosonic superweakly interacting massive dark matter particles with the XMASS-I detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Hieda, K; Hiraide, K; Hirano, S; Kishimoto, Y; Ichimura, K; Kobayashi, K; Moriyama, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakahata, M; Ogawa, H; Oka, N; Sekiya, H; Shinozaki, A; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takachio, O; Umemoto, D; Yamashita, M; Yang, B S; Tasaka, S; Liu, J; Martens, K; Hosokawa, K; Miuchi, K; Murata, A; Onishi, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, J S; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Masuda, K; Takiya, H; Uchida, H; Kim, N Y; Kim, Y D; Kusaba, F; Nishijima, K; Fujii, K; Murayama, I; Nakamura, S

    2014-09-19

    Bosonic superweakly interacting massive particles (super-WIMPs) are a candidate for warm dark matter. With the absorption of such a boson by a xenon atom, these dark matter candidates would deposit an energy equivalent to their rest mass in the detector. This is the first direct detection experiment exploring the vector super-WIMPs in the mass range between 40 and 120 keV. With the use of 165.9 day of data, no significant excess above background was observed in the fiducial mass of 41 kg. The present limit for the vector super-WIMPs excludes the possibility that such particles constitute all of dark matter. The absence of a signal also provides the most stringent direct constraint on the coupling constant of pseudoscalar super-WIMPs to electrons. The unprecedented sensitivity was achieved exploiting the low background at a level 10(-4)  kg-1 keVee-1 day-1 in the detector.

  6. Charged-particle multiplicities in pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Silva, J.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H.S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A.E.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bobrovnikov, V.B.; Bocci, A.; Bock, R.; Boddy, C.R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C.N.; Booth, P.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozhko, N.I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Brambilla, E.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Bright-Thomas, P.G.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N.J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R.M.; Buckley, A.G.; Buda, S.I.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E.J.; Bulekov, O.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented from proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events were collected using a single-arm minimum-bias trigger. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the relationship between the mean transverse momentum and charged-particle multiplicity are measured. Measurements in different regions of phase-space are shown, providing diffraction-reduced measurements as well as more inclusive ones. The observed distributions are corrected to well-defined phase-space regions, using model-independent corrections. The results are compared to each other and to various Monte Carlo models, including a new AMBT1 PYTHIA 6 tune. In all the kinematic regions considered, the particle multiplicities are higher than predicted by the Monte Carlo models. The central charged-particle multiplicity per event and unit of pseudorapidity, for tracks with pT >100 MeV, is...

  7. Charged-particle multiplicities in pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

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Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Ely, Robert; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falou, Alain; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fasching, Damon; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Ivan; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferguson, Douglas; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer , Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flammer, Joachim; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Föhlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gieraltowski, Gerry; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gildemeister, Otto; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Borge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gollub, Nils Peter; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gong, Chenwei; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Gorski, Boguslaw Tomasz; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanère, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Gruwe, Magali; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Christian Johan; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hart, John; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heldmann, Michael; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henss, Tobias; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homer, Jim; Homma, Yasuhiro; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hott, Thomas; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova , Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jez, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joo, Kwang; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Kazi, Sandor Istvan; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kilvington, Graham; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; König, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasel, Olaf; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lapin, Vladimir; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov , Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Wing; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Leahu, Marius; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lehto, Mark; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken , James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Jiansen; Lu, Liang; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maassen, Michael; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macek, Bostjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Magrath, Caroline; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandic, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March , Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchesotti, Marco; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mass, Martin; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McMahon, Tania; McMahon, Tom; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Merkl, Doris; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W. Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikulec, Bettina; Mikuz, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitra, Ankush; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohn, Bjarte; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Moneta, Lorenzo; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muijs, Sandra; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nasteva, Irina; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya , Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozicka, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Odino, Gian Andrea; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Ordonez, Gustavo; Oreglia, Mark; Orellana, Frederik; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Øye, Ola; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Paoloni, Alessandro; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Su-Jung; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor , Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Peric, Ivan; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rajek, Silke; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rensch, Bertram; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rottländer, Iris; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savva , Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R.~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmidt, Michael; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schreiner, Alexander; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Christian; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Siva; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Gary; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Tennenbaum-Katan, Yaniv-David; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Tevlin, Christopher; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Treis, Johannes; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Typaldos, Dimitrios; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Ventura , Silvia; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Viret, Sébastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale , Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vovenko, Anatoly; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C.; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets , Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite , Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zdrazil, Marian; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zema, Pasquale Federico; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Anton; Zenin, Oleg; Zenis, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zilka, Branislav; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zivkovic, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented from proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events were collected using a single-arm minimum-bias trigger. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the relationship between the mean transverse momentum and charged-particle multiplicity are measured. Measurements in different regions of phase-space are shown, providing diffraction-reduced measurements as well as more inclusive ones. The observed distributions are corrected to well-defined phase-space regions, using model-independent corrections. The results are compared to each other and to various Monte Carlo models, including a new AMBT1 PYTHIA 6 tune. In all the kinematic regions considered, the particle multiplicities are higher than predicted by the Monte Carlo models. The central charged-particle multiplicity per event and unit of pseudorapidity, for tracks with pT >100 MeV, is...

  8. Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles Using the D0 Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yunhe [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    2009-05-01

    A search for charged massive stable particles has been performed with the D0 detector using 1.1 fb-1 of data. The speed of the particle has been calculated based on the time-of-flight and position information in the muon system. The present research is limited to direct pair-production of the charged massive long-lived particles. We do not consider CMSPs that result from the cascade decays of heavier particles. In this analysis, the exact values of the model parameters of the entire supersymmetric particle mass spectrum, relevant for cascade decays, are not important. We found no evidence of the signal. 95% CL cross-section upper limits have been set on the pair-productions of the stable scaler tau lepton, the gaugino-like charginos, and the higgsino-like charginos. The upper cross section limits vary from 0.31 pb to 0.04 pb, for stau masses in the range between 60 GeV and 300 GeV. We use the nominal value of the theoretical cross section to set limits on the mass of the pair produced charginos. We exclude the pair-produced stable gaugino-like charginos with mass below 206 GeV, and higgsino-like charginos below 171 GeV, respectively. Although the present sensitivity is insufficient to test the model of the pair produced stable staus, we do set cross section limits which can be applied to the pair production of any charged massive stable particle candidates with similar kinematics. These are the most restrictive limits to the present on the cross sections for CMSPs and the first published from the Tevatron Collider Run II. The manuscript has been published by Physical Review Letters in April 2009 and is available at arXiv as.

  9. An Unscented Kalman-Particle Hybrid Filter for Space Object Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihan A. V, Dilshad; Chakravorty, Suman

    2017-04-01

    Optimal and consistent estimation of the state of space objects is pivotal to surveillance and tracking applications. However, probabilistic estimation of space objects is made difficult by the non-Gaussianity and nonlinearity associated with orbital mechanics. In this paper, we present an unscented Kalman-particle hybrid filtering framework for recursive Bayesian estimation of space objects. The hybrid filtering scheme is designed to provide accurate and consistent estimates when measurements are sparse without incurring a large computational cost. It employs an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) for estimation when measurements are available. When the target is outside the field of view (FOV) of the sensor, it updates the state probability density function (PDF) via a sequential Monte Carlo method. The hybrid filter addresses the problem of particle depletion through a suitably designed filter transition scheme. To assess the performance of the hybrid filtering approach, we consider two test cases of space objects that are assumed to undergo full three dimensional orbital motion under the effects of J 2 and atmospheric drag perturbations. It is demonstrated that the hybrid filters can furnish fast, accurate and consistent estimates outperforming standard UKF and particle filter (PF) implementations.

  10. Hybridizing Particle Swarm Optimization and Differential Evolution for the Mobile Robot Global Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biwei Tang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global path planning is a challenging issue in the filed of mobile robotics due to its complexity and the nature of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard. Particle swarm optimization (PSO has gained increasing popularity in global path planning due to its simplicity and high convergence speed. However, since the basic PSO has difficulties balancing exploration and exploitation, and suffers from stagnation, its efficiency in solving global path planning may be restricted. Aiming at overcoming these drawbacks and solving the global path planning problem efficiently, this paper proposes a hybrid PSO algorithm that hybridizes PSO and differential evolution (DE algorithms. To dynamically adjust the exploration and exploitation abilities of the hybrid PSO, a novel PSO, the nonlinear time-varying PSO (NTVPSO, is proposed for updating the velocities and positions of particles in the hybrid PSO. In an attempt to avoid stagnation, a modified DE, the ranking-based self adaptive DE (RBSADE, is developed to evolve the personal best experience of particles in the hybrid PSO. The proposed algorithm is compared with four state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is highly competitive in terms of path optimality and can be considered as a vital alternative for solving global path planning.

  11. Performance of Hybrid Photon Detectors and Studies of Two-Body Hadronic B Decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, L; Parkes, C

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the CERN LHC accelerator will begin physics data taking in late 2009. LHCb aims to discover New Physics processes via precision measurements using heavy flavoured hadrons, such as $B$ and $D$ hadrons. This thesis describes studies relevant to measurements of $B$ decays to hadronic final states at LHCb. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters of LHCb are crucial to the performance of such measurements. They use arrays of Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) as their photodetection system. Detailed results are presented from the characterisation programme of the entire sample of 557 HPDs that were produced. Their overall performance is found to be outstanding, with only 2.2\\% of HPDs judged to be unusable for the RICHes. The LHCb requirements and the contractual specifications are met and often exceeded in key areas. The measurement of the single photoelectron detection efficiency, $\\eta$, of the HPD anode is described in detail. The efficiency was measured as $\\eta=(87.9\\pm 1.4)\\%$. This va...

  12. The speedster-EXD - A new event-triggered hybrid CMOS x-ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Christopher V; Prieskorn, Zachary R; Burrows, David N

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary characterization of the Speedster-EXD, a new event driven hybrid CMOS detector (HCD) developed in collaboration with Penn State University and Teledyne Imaging Systems. HCDs have advantages over CCDs including lower susceptibility to radiation damage, lower power consumption, and faster read-out time to avoid pile-up. They are deeply depleted and able to detect x-rays down to approximately 0.1 keV. The Speedster-EXD has additional in-pixel features compared to previously published HCDs including: (1) an in-pixel comparator that enables read out of only the pixels with signal from an x-ray event, (2) four different gain modes to optimize either full well capacity or energy resolution, (3) in-pixel CDS subtraction to reduce read noise, and (4) a low-noise, high-gain CTIA amplifier to eliminate interpixel capacitance crosstalk. When using the comparator feature, the user can set a comparator threshold and only pixels above the threshold will be read out. This feature can be run in two mode...

  13. Studies of a hybrid avalanche photo-detector in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantelj, L.; Adachi, I.; Hataya, K.; Iori, S.; Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kataura, R.; Kawai, H.; Kindo, H.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Mrvar, M.; Nath, K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Stanovnik, A.; Seljak, A.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Tahirovič, E.; Yusa, Y.

    2017-02-01

    For the Belle II spectrometer a proximity focusing RICH counter with an aerogel radiator (ARICH) will be employed as a PID system in the forward endcap region of the spectrometer. The main challenge was the development of a reliable multichannel sensor for single photons that operates in the high magnetic field of the spectrometer (1.5 T) and withstands the radiation levels expected at the experiment. A 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) was developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. and the mass production of ∼480 HAPDs was completed recently. While our first tests of HAPD performance in the magnetic field (before mass production) showed no issues, we lately observed a presence of very large signal pulses (∼5000× single photon signal), generated internally within about 20% of HAPDs, while operating in the magnetic field. The rate of these pulses varies from sample to sample. These pulses impact the HAPD performance in two ways: they introduce periods of dead time and, in some cases, damage to the front-end electronics was observed. Here we present conditions under which such large pulses are generated, their properties and impact on HAPD performance, and discuss possible mechanism of their origin.

  14. Hybrid particle swarm optimization for multiobjective resource allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Yang; Li Xiaoxing; Gu Chunqin

    2008-01-01

    Resource allocation (RA) is the problem of allocating resources among various artifacts or business units to meet one or more expected goals,such as maximizing the profits,minimizing the costs,or achieving the best qualities.A complex multiobjective RA is addressed,and a multiobjective mathematical model is used to find solutions efficiently.Then,an improved particle swarm algorithm (mO_PSO) is proposed combined with a new particle diversity controller policies and dissipation operation.Meanwhile,a modified Pareto methods used in PSO to deal with multiobjectives optimization is presented.The effectiveness of the provided algorithm is validated by its application to some illustrative example dealing with multiobjective RA problems and with the comparative experiment with other algorithm.

  15. Design and properties of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecki, Maciej; Bar, Jan; Budzyński, Tadeusz; CieŻ, Michal; Grabiec, Piotr; Kozłowski, Roman; Kulawik, Jan; Panas, Andrzej; Sarnecki, Jerzy; Słysz, Wojciech; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecka, Iwona; Wielunski, Marek; Witek, Krzysztof; Yakushev, Alexander; Zaborowski, Michał

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses the design of charged-particle detectors commissioned and developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE) in collaboration with foreign partners, used in international research on transactinide elements and to build personal radiation protection devices in Germany. Properties of these detectors and the results obtained using the devices are also presented. The design of the following epiplanar detector structures is discussed: ♢ 64-element chromatographic arrays for the COMPACT (Cryo On-line Multidetector for Physics And Chemistry of Transactinides) detection system used at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt (GSI) for research on Hassium, Copernicium and Flerovium, as well as elements 119 and 120, ♢ 2-element flow detectors for the COLD (Cryo On-Line Detector) system used for research on Copernicium and Flerovium at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, ♢ detectors for a radon exposimeter and sensors for a neutron dosimeter developed at the Institut für Strahlenschutz, Helmholtz Zentrum München. The design of planar detectors - single-sided and double-sided strip detectors for the Focal Plane Detector Box used at GSI for research on Flerovium and elements 119 and 120 is also discussed.

  16. Preparation and characterization of uniformly sized sub-micrometer spherical silica/organic polymer hybrid particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, X.-S.; Li, R.K.Y.; Shek, C.-H. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tak Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2003-09-01

    Hybrid particles with a core-shell structure, consisting of a silica core and a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) shell were fabricated via a two-step sol-gel process. The PVA molecular chains are probably physically adsorbed onto the surface of silica cores by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Silica-graphene oxide hybrid composite particles and their electroresponsive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen Ling; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2012-05-01

    Silica-graphene oxide (Si-GO) hybrid composite particles were prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of hydrophilic GO obtained from a modified Hummers method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images provided visible evidence of the silica nanoparticles grafted on the surface of GO, resulting in Si-GO hybrid composite particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated the coexistence of silica and GO in the composite particles. The Si-GO hybrid composite particles showed better thermal stability than that of GO according to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrorheological (ER) characteristics of the Si-GO hybrid composite based ER fluid were examined further by optical microscopy and a rotational rheometer in controlled shear rate mode under various electric field strengths. Shear stress curves were fitted using both conventional Bingham model and a constitutive Cho-Choi-Jhon model. The polarizability and relaxation time of the ER fluid from dielectric spectra measured using an LCR meter showed a good correlation with its ER characteristics.

  18. Studying the Mechanism of Hybrid Nanoparticle Photoresists: Effect of Particle Size on Photopatterning

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li

    2015-07-28

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Hf-based hybrid photoresist materials with three different organic ligands were prepared by a sol-gel-based method, and their patterning mechanism was investigated in detail. All hybrid nanoparticle resists are patternable using UV exposure. Their particle sizes show a dramatic increase from the initial 3-4 nm to submicron size after exposure, with no apparent inorganic content or thermal property change detected. XPS results showed that the mass percentage of the carboxylic group in the structure of nanoparticles decreased with increasing exposure duration. The particle coarsening sensitivities of those hybrid nanoparticles are consistent with their EUV performance. The current work provides an understanding for the development mechanism and future guidance for the design and processing of high performance resist materials for large-scale microelectronics device fabrication.

  19. Strength Pareto particle swarm optimization and hybrid EA-PSO for multi-objective optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhossini, Ahmed; Areibi, Shawki; Dony, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique that can handle multi-objective optimization problems. It is based on the strength Pareto approach originally used in evolutionary algorithms (EA). The proposed modified particle swarm algorithm is used to build three hybrid EA-PSO algorithms to solve different multi-objective optimization problems. This algorithm and its hybrid forms are tested using seven benchmarks from the literature and the results are compared to the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2) and a competitive multi-objective PSO using several metrics. The proposed algorithm shows a slower convergence, compared to the other algorithms, but requires less CPU time. Combining PSO and evolutionary algorithms leads to superior hybrid algorithms that outperform SPEA2, the competitive multi-objective PSO (MO-PSO), and the proposed strength Pareto PSO based on different metrics.

  20. Study on the performance of the Particle Identification Detectors at LHCb after the LHC First Long Shutdown (LS1)

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    During the First Long Shutdown (LS1), the LHCb experiment has introduced major modification in the data-processing procedure and modified part of the detector to deal with the increased energy and the increased heavy-hadron production cross-section. In this contribution we review the performance of the particle identification detectors at LHCb, Rich, Calorimeters, and Muon system, after the LS1

  1. GIF++: A new CERN Irradiation Facility to test large-area particle detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC program

    CERN Document Server

    Guida, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade is setting a new challenge for particle detector technologies. The increase in luminosity will produce a higher particle background with respect to present conditions. To study performance and stability of detectors at LHC and future HL-LHC upgrades, a new dedicated facility has been built at CERN: the new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). The GIF++ is a unique place where high energy charged particle beams (mainly muons) are combined with gammas from a 14 TBq 137Cesium source which simulates the background radiation expected at the LHC experiments. Several centralized services and infrastructures are made available to the LHC detector community to facilitate the different R&D; programs.

  2. Dendrimer-like hybrid particles with tunable hierarchical pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Li, Xiaoyu; Huang, Hongwei; He, Junhui; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-03-01

    Dendrimer-like silica particles with a center-radial dendritic framework and a synergistic hierarchical porosity have attracted much attention due to their unique open three-dimensional superstructures with high accessibility to the internal surface areas; however, the delicate regulation of the hierarchical porosity has been difficult to achieve up to now. Herein, a series of dendrimer-like amino-functionalized silica particles with tunable hierarchical pores (HPSNs-NH2) were successfully fabricated by carefully regulating and optimizing the various experimental parameters in the ethyl ether emulsion systems via a one-pot sol-gel reaction. Interestingly, the simple adjustment of the stirring rate or reaction temperature was found to be an easy and effective route to achieve the controllable regulation towards center-radial large pore sizes from ca. 37-267 (148 +/- 45) nm to ca. 8-119 (36 +/- 21) nm for HPSNs-NH2 with particle sizes of 300-700 nm and from ca. 9-157 (52 +/- 28) nm to ca. 8-105 (30 +/- 16) nm for HPSNs-NH2 with particle sizes of 100-320 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful regulation towards center-radial large pore sizes in such large ranges. The formation of HPSNs-NH2 may be attributed to the complex cross-coupling of two processes: the dynamic diffusion of ethyl ether molecules and the self-assembly of partially hydrolyzed TEOS species and CTAB molecules at the dynamic ethyl ether-water interface of uniform small quasi-emulsion droplets. Thus, these results regarding the elaborate regulation of center-radial large pores and particle sizes not only help us better understand the complicated self-assembly at the dynamic oil-water interface, but also provide a unique and ideal platform as carriers or supports for adsorption, separation, catalysis, biomedicine, and sensor.Dendrimer-like silica particles with a center-radial dendritic framework and a synergistic hierarchical porosity have attracted much attention due to their

  3. Incidence of rough and irregular atmospheric ice particles from Small Ice Detector 3 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Kaye, P. H.; Hirst, E.; Greenaway, R. S.; Cotton, R. J.; Hesse, E.; Collier, C. T.

    2014-02-01

    The knowledge of properties of ice crystals such as size, shape, concavity and roughness is critical in the context of radiative properties of ice and mixed-phase clouds. Limitations of current cloud probes to measure these properties can be circumvented by acquiring two-dimensional light-scattering patterns instead of particle images. Such patterns were obtained in situ for the first time using the Small Ice Detector 3 (SID-3) probe during several flights in a variety of mid-latitude mixed-phase and cirrus clouds. The patterns are analysed using several measures of pattern texture, selected to reveal the magnitude of particle roughness or complexity. The retrieved roughness is compared to values obtained from a range of well-characterized test particles in the laboratory. It is found that typical in situ roughness corresponds to that found in the rougher subset of the test particles, and sometimes even extends beyond the most extreme values found in the laboratory. In this study we do not differentiate between small-scale, fine surface roughness and large-scale crystal complexity. Instead, we argue that both can have similar manifestations in terms of light-scattering properties and also similar causes. Overall, the in situ data are consistent, with ice particles with highly irregular or rough surfaces being dominant. Similar magnitudes of roughness were found in growth and sublimation zones of cirrus. The roughness was found to be negatively correlated with the halo ratio, but not with other thermodynamic or microphysical properties found in situ. Slightly higher roughness was observed in cirrus forming in clean oceanic air masses than in a continental, polluted one. Overall, the roughness and complexity are expected to lead to increased shortwave cloud reflectivity, in comparison with cirrus composed of more regular, smooth ice crystal shapes. These findings put into question suggestions that climate could be modified through aerosol seeding to reduce cirrus

  4. Spatially-resolved photocapacitance measurements to study defects in a-Si:H based p-i-n particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteleiro, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Schwarz, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: rschwarz@fisica.ist.utl.pt; Mardolcar, U. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Macarico, A.; Martins, J.; Vieira, M. [Departamento de Electronica e Informatica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Wuensch, F.; Kunst, M. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Solare Energetik, Berlin (Germany); Morgado, E. [Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Stallinga, P.; Gomes, H.L. [Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidade do Algarve, Faro (Portugal)

    2008-06-02

    Thick large-area particle or X-ray detectors suffer degradation during operation due to creation of defects that act as deep traps. Measuring the photocurrent under homogeneously absorbed weak light can monitor variation in detector performance. We describe how photocapacitance can be used as an alternative method to measure the creation of defects and their energy level after intense irradiation with protons or He ions at 1.5 MeV and after exposure to intense laser pulses. The possibility to detect small areas of high defect density in a large-area detector structure is discussed.

  5. Hybrid composites of monodisperse pi-conjugated rodlike organic compounds and semiconductor quantum particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hensel, V.; Godt, A.; Popovitz-Biro, R.

    2002-01-01

    Composite materials of quantum particles (Q-particles) arranged in layers within crystalline powders of pi-conjugated, rodlike dicarboxylic acids are reported. The synthesis of the composites, either as three-dimensional crystals or as thin films at the air-water interface, comprises a two...... analysis of the solids and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis of the films on water. 2) Topotactic solid/gas reaction of these salts with H2S to convert the metal ions into Q-particles of CdS or PbS embedded in the organic matrix that consists of the acids 6(H) and 8(H). These hybrid materials...

  6. Hybrid particle swarm cooperative optimization algorithm and its application to MBC in alumina production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengli Song; Li Kong; Yong Gan; Rijian Su

    2008-01-01

    An effective hybrid particle swarm cooperative optimization (HPSCO) algorithm combining simulated annealing method and simplex method is proposed. The main idea is to divide particle swarm into several sub-groups and achieve optimization through cooperativeness of different sub-groups among the groups. The proposed algorithm is tested by benchmark functions and applied to material balance computation (MBC) in alumina production. Results show that HPSCO, with both a better stability and a steady convergence, has faster convergence speed and higher global convergence ability than the single method and the improved particle swarm optimization method. Most importantly, results demonstrate that HPSCO is more feasible and efficient than other algorithms in MBC.

  7. Statistical learning makes the hybridization of particle swarm and differential evolution more efficient-A novel hybrid optimizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; XIN Bin; PENG ZhiHong; PAN Feng

    2009-01-01

    This brief paper reports a hybrid algorithm we developed recently to solve the global optimization problems of multimodal functions, by combining the advantages of two powerful population-based metaheuristics-differential evolution (DE) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In the hybrid denoted by DEPSO, each individual in one generation chooses its evolution method, DE or PSO, in a statistical learning way. The choice depends on the relative success ratio of the two methods in a previous learning period. The proposed DEPSO is compared with its PSO and DE parents, two advanced DE variants one of which is suggested by the originators of DE, two advanced PSO variants one of which is acknowledged as a recent standard by PSO community, and also a previous DEPSO. Benchmark tests demonstrate that the DEPSO is more competent for the global optimization of multimodal functions due to its high optimization quality.

  8. Particle-flow reconstruction and global event description with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-06-15

    The CMS apparatus was identified, a few years before the start of the LHC operation at CERN, to feature properties well suited to particle-flow (PF) reconstruction: a highly-segmented tracker, a fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter, a hermetic hadron calorimeter, a strong magnetic field, and an excellent muon spectrometer. A fully-fledged PF reconstruction algorithm tuned to the CMS detector was therefore developed and has been consistently used in physics analyses for the first time at a hadron collider. For each collision, the comprehensive list of final-state particles identified and reconstructed by the algorithm provides a global event description that leads to unprecedented CMS performance for jet and hadronic tau decay reconstruction, missing transverse momentum determination, and electron and muon identification. This approach also allows particles from pileup interactions to be identified and enables efficient pileup mitigation methods. The data collected by CMS at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV show excellent agreement with the simulation and confirm the superior PF performance at least up to an average of 20 pileup interactions.

  9. A Study of Particle Production in Proton Induced Collisions Using the MIPP Detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, Sonam [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India)

    2015-01-01

    The Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment is a fixed target hadron production experiment at Fermilab. MIPP is a high acceptance spectrometer which provides excellent charged particle identification using Time Projection Chamber (TPC), Time of Flight (ToF), multicell Cherenkov (Ckov), ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors, and Calorimeter for neutrons. The MIPP experiment is designed to measure particle production in interactions of 120 GeV/c primary protons from the Main Injector and secondary beams of $\\pi^{\\pm}, \\rm{K}^{\\pm}$, p and $\\bar{\\rm{p}}$ from 5 to 90 GeV/c on nuclear targets which include H, Be, C, Bi and U, and a dedicated run with the NuMI target. The goal of the experiment is to measure hadron production cross sections or yields using these beams and targets. These hadronic interaction data can have a direct impact on the detailed understanding of the neutrino fluxes of several accelerator-based neutrino experiments like MINOS, MINER$\

  10. Measurements of event shapes and particle production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078815; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of event shapes, particle production and their correlations with the ATLAS detector The evolution of the event shape variables, such as the transverse thrust, thrust minor and transverse sphericity have been studied for minimum bias events as a function of momentum scale. In addition the high-energy pp collisions at the LHC provide unique opportunity to study particle flow and event shapes of the hadronic final state particles. The measurements of production properties of mesons and baryons at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV using pp collision data collected with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC are presented and compared to predictions. The measurement of the differential production cross section of the $\\phi$(1020)-meson as a function of the transverse momentum and rapidity is presented. In addition the measurement of transverse polarization of $\\Lambda$ and${\\bar \\Lambda}$ hyperons produced in minimum bias events is presented. The polarization is measured in bins of the transverse momentum and Feynman-x varia...

  11. Towards a high performance geometry library for particle-detector simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolakis, J.; Bandieramonte, M.; Bitzes, G.; Brun, R.; Canal, P.; Carminati, F.; Cosmo, G.; De Fine Licht, J. C.; Duhem, L.; Elvira, V. D.; Gheata, A.; Jun, S. Y.; Lima, G.; Nikitina, T.; Novak, M.; Sehgal, R.; Shadura, O.; Wenzel, S.

    2015-05-01

    Thread-parallelisation and single-instruction multiple data (SIMD) ”vectorisation” of software components in HEP computing has become a necessity to fully benefit from current and future computing hardware. In this context, the Geant-Vector/GPU simulation project aims to re-engineer current software for the simulation of the passage of particles through detectors in order to increase the overall event throughput. As one of the core modules in this area, the geometry library plays a central role and vectorising its algorithms will be one of the cornerstones towards achieving good CPU performance. Here, we report on the progress made in vectorising the shape primitives, as well as in applying new C++ template based optimisations of existing code available in the Geant4, ROOT or USolids geometry libraries. We will focus on a presentation of our software development approach that aims to provide optimised code for all use cases of the library (e.g., single particle and many-particle APIs) and to support different architectures (CPU and GPU) while keeping the code base small, manageable and maintainable. We report on a generic and templated C++ geometry library as a continuation of the AIDA USolids project. The experience gained with these developments will be beneficial to other parts of the simulation software, such as for the optimisation of the physics library, and possibly to other parts of the experiment software stack, such as reconstruction and analysis.

  12. Success and failure of dead-time models as applied to hybrid pixel detectors in high-flux applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobott, B. A., E-mail: sbryn@physics.unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Broennimann, Ch. [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Schmitt, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Trueb, P.; Schneebeli, M. [DECTRIS Ltd, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Lee, V.; Peake, D. J.; Elbracht-Leong, S.; Schubert, A. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kirby, N.; Boland, M. J. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton (Australia); Chantler, C. T.; Barnea, Z.; Rassool, R. P. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2013-03-01

    Detector response functionals are found to have useful but also limited application to synchrotron studies where bunched fills are becoming common. By matching the detector response function to the source temporal structure, substantial improvements in efficiency, count rate and linearity are possible. The performance of a single-photon-counting hybrid pixel detector has been investigated at the Australian Synchrotron. Results are compared with the body of accepted analytical models previously validated with other detectors. Detector functionals are valuable for empirical calibration. It is shown that the matching of the detector dead-time with the temporal synchrotron source structure leads to substantial improvements in count rate and linearity of response. Standard implementations are linear up to ∼0.36 MHz pixel{sup −1}; the optimized linearity in this configuration has an extended range up to ∼0.71 MHz pixel{sup −1}; these are further correctable with a transfer function to ∼1.77 MHz pixel{sup −1}. This new approach has wide application both in high-accuracy fundamental experiments and in standard crystallographic X-ray fluorescence and other X-ray measurements. The explicit use of data variance (rather than N{sup 1/2} noise) and direct measures of goodness-of-fit (χ{sub r}{sup 2}) are introduced, raising issues not encountered in previous literature for any detector, and suggesting that these inadequacies of models may apply to most detector types. Specifically, parametrization of models with non-physical values can lead to remarkable agreement for a range of count-rate, pulse-frequency and temporal structure. However, especially when the dead-time is near resonant with the temporal structure, limitations of these classical models become apparent. Further, a lack of agreement at extreme count rates was evident.

  13. Hybrid molecular-continuum simulations using smoothed dissipative particle dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsev, Nikolai D; Leal, L Gary; Shell, M Scott

    2015-01-28

    We present a new multiscale simulation methodology for coupling a region with atomistic detail simulated via molecular dynamics (MD) to a numerical solution of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations obtained from smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD). In this approach, chemical potential gradients emerge due to differences in resolution within the total system and are reduced by introducing a pairwise thermodynamic force inside the buffer region between the two domains where particles change from MD to SDPD types. When combined with a multi-resolution SDPD approach, such as the one proposed by Kulkarni et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 234105 (2013)], this method makes it possible to systematically couple atomistic models to arbitrarily coarse continuum domains modeled as SDPD fluids with varying resolution. We test this technique by showing that it correctly reproduces thermodynamic properties across the entire simulation domain for a simple Lennard-Jones fluid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this approach is also suitable for non-equilibrium problems by applying it to simulations of the start up of shear flow. The robustness of the method is illustrated with two different flow scenarios in which shear forces act in directions parallel and perpendicular to the interface separating the continuum and atomistic domains. In both cases, we obtain the correct transient velocity profile. We also perform a triple-scale shear flow simulation where we include two SDPD regions with different resolutions in addition to a MD domain, illustrating the feasibility of a three-scale coupling.

  14. Hybrid molecular-continuum simulations using smoothed dissipative particle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petsev, Nikolai D.; Leal, L. Gary; Shell, M. Scott [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5080 (United States)

    2015-01-28

    We present a new multiscale simulation methodology for coupling a region with atomistic detail simulated via molecular dynamics (MD) to a numerical solution of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations obtained from smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD). In this approach, chemical potential gradients emerge due to differences in resolution within the total system and are reduced by introducing a pairwise thermodynamic force inside the buffer region between the two domains where particles change from MD to SDPD types. When combined with a multi-resolution SDPD approach, such as the one proposed by Kulkarni et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 234105 (2013)], this method makes it possible to systematically couple atomistic models to arbitrarily coarse continuum domains modeled as SDPD fluids with varying resolution. We test this technique by showing that it correctly reproduces thermodynamic properties across the entire simulation domain for a simple Lennard-Jones fluid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this approach is also suitable for non-equilibrium problems by applying it to simulations of the start up of shear flow. The robustness of the method is illustrated with two different flow scenarios in which shear forces act in directions parallel and perpendicular to the interface separating the continuum and atomistic domains. In both cases, we obtain the correct transient velocity profile. We also perform a triple-scale shear flow simulation where we include two SDPD regions with different resolutions in addition to a MD domain, illustrating the feasibility of a three-scale coupling.

  15. Equivalence of optical and electrical noise equivalent power of hybrid NbTiN-Al microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, R. M. J., E-mail: r.m.j.janssen@tudelft.nl [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Endo, A. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Department of Microelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science (EEMCS), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Visser, P. J. de [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Klapwijk, T. M. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Baselmans, J. J. A. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-11-10

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature, and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail, the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  16. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.; Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm×20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96×192 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 μW/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 μV/e- and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e- rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  17. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, P., E-mail: piotr.maj@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y. [X-ray Analysis Division, Rigaku Corporation, Matsubara, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8666 (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm Multiplication-Sign 20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96 Multiplication-Sign 192 pixels with 100 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 {mu}W/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 {mu}V/e{sup -} and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e{sup -} rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  18. Scalability, scintillation readout and charge drift in a kilogram scale solid xenon particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, J; Jaskierny, W F; Markley, D; Pahlka, R B; Balakishiyeva, D; Saab, T; Filipenko, M

    2014-01-01

    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employ a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat combined with a xenon purification and chiller system to measure the scintillation light output and electron drift speed from both the solid and liquid phases of xenon. Scintillation light output from sealed radioactive sources is measured by a set of high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tubes suitable for cryogenic applications. We observed a reduced amount of photons in solid phase compared to that in liquid phase. We used a conventional time projection chamber system to measure the electron drift time in a kilogram of solid xenon and observed faster electron drift speed in the solid phase xenon compared to that in the liquid phase.

  19. A 12-bit multichannel ADC for pixel detectors in particle physics and nuclear imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors in nuclear and particle physics experiments and also in nuclear imaging,starve for highly integrated application specified integrated circuit(ASIC),whereas in China the study of ASIC still stays far away from practical application.The lack of ASIC strictly limits the research and development of domestic high energy physics field.A 12-bit multichannel ADC designed for high density readout is introduced as a major candidate for solution.A precise model is discussed and the simulation fully agrees with the model,which indicates a key principle of design.Design is performed according to the given rule,and novel layout techniques are carried out.Measurement results in all aspects are also obtained,showing an excellent real performance,which satisfies the practical requirement.

  20. Spin-off from particle detectors in the field of medicine and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2007-01-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen in 1895 physicists have played a major role in the development of medical imaging instrumentation. More recently, the technological developments in several areas of applied physics, the new generation of particle physics detectors and the development of an information-based society all combine to enhance the performance of presently available imaging devices. This paper describes the critical parameters of modern medical imaging in the context of the spectacular development of in-vivo molecular imaging, which will soon allow to bridge post-genomics research activities with new diagnostics and therapeutic strategies for major diseases. In particular, the molecular profiling of tumors and gene expression open the way to tailored therapies and therapeutic monitoring of major diseases like cancer, degenerative and genetic disorders. Moreover, the repeatability of non-invasive approaches allows an evaluation of drug targeting and pharmacokinetics studies on small animals, ...

  1. Development of a 2D silicon strip detector system for mammographic imaging using particle physics technology

    CERN Document Server

    Royle, G J; Speller, R D; Hall, G; Iles, G; Raymond, M; Corrin, E; Stelt, P F; Manthos, N; Triantis, F A

    2002-01-01

    2D silicon strip sensors using particle physics readout technology have been evaluated as mammographic detectors. Two different versions of the APV series of front-end electronics were used that provided different noise levels. The sensors were evaluated using a typical mammography X-ray spectrum. The spatial resolution was evaluated using line pair test patterns and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using the Edge Response Function. Low contrast performance was measured using the TOR(MAX) test object. Limiting spatial resolution of 52 mu m was obtained and an MTF value of 0.1 at 16 lp/mm. The low contrast performance was estimated from 250, 500 mu m and 6 mm diameter objects and was found to be 11.5%, 7% and better than 3.8%, respectively.

  2. Scalability, Scintillation Readout and Charge Drift in a Kilogram Scale Solid Xenon Particle Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. [Fermilab; Cease, H. [Fermilab; Jaskierny, W. F. [Fermilab; Markley, D. [Fermilab; Pahlka, R. B. [Fermilab; Balakishiyeva, D. [Florida U.; Saab, T. [Florida U.; Filipenko, M. [Erlangen - Nuremberg U., ECAP

    2014-10-23

    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employ a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat combined with a xenon purification and chiller system to measure the scintillation light output and electron drift speed from both the solid and liquid phases of xenon. Scintillation light output from sealed radioactive sources is measured by a set of high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tubes suitable for cryogenic applications. We observed a reduced amount of photons in solid phase compared to that in liquid phase. We used a conventional time projection chamber system to measure the electron drift time in a kilogram of solid xenon and observed faster electron drift speed in the solid phase xenon compared to that in the liquid phase.

  3. Search for long-lived charged massive particles with the D0 detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Devaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-04-24

    We search for long-lived charged massive particles using 1.1 fb;{-1} of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp[over ] Collider. Time-of-flight information is used to search for pair produced long-lived tau sleptons, gauginolike charginos, and Higgsino-like charginos. We find no evidence of a signal and set 95% C.L. cross section upper limits for staus, which vary from 0.31 to 0.04 pb for stau masses between 60 and 300 GeV. We also set lower mass limits of 206 GeV (171 GeV) for pair produced charged gauginos (Higgsinos).

  4. Novel fabrication techniques for low-mass composite structures in silicon particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Neal; Silber, Joseph; Anderssen, Eric; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gilchriese, Murdock; Johnson, Thomas; Cepeda, Mario

    2013-12-01

    The structural design of silicon-based particle detectors is governed by competing demands of reducing mass while maximizing stability and accuracy. These demands can only be met by fiber reinforced composite laminates (CFRP). As detecting sensors and electronics become lower mass, the motivation to reduce structure as a proportion of overall mass pushes modern detector structures to the lower limits of composite ply thickness, while demanding maximum stiffness. However, classical approaches to composite laminate design require symmetric laminates and flat structures, in order to minimize warping during fabrication. This constraint of symmetry in laminate design, and a “flat plate” approach to fabrication, results in more massive structures. This study presents an approach to fabricating stable and accurate, geometrically complex composite structures by bonding warped, asymmetric, but ultra-thin component laminates together in an accurate tool, achieving final overall precision normally associated with planar structures. This technique has been used to fabricate a prototype “I-beam” that supports two layers of detecting elements, while being up to 20 times stiffer and up to 30% lower mass than comparable, independent planar structures (typically known as “staves”).

  5. Dead layer on silicon p–i–n diode charged-particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, B.L., E-mail: wallbl@uw.edu [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Amsbaugh, J.F. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T. [Institute for Data Processing and Electronics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bichsel, H.C.; Bodine, L.I.; Boyd, N.M.; Burritt, T.H. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chaoui, Z. [Laboratory of Optoelectronics and Devices, Faculty of Science, University of Setif (Algeria); Corona, T.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Doe, P.J.; Enomoto, S. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Harms, F. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Harper, G.C. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Howe, M.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Martin, E.L.; Parno, D.S.; Peterson, D.A. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Petzold, L. [Institute for Data Processing and Electronics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Renschler, P. [Institute for Experimental Nuclear Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); and others

    2014-04-21

    Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p–i–n diode used in the KATRIN neutrino-mass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the “dead” layer evidently escapes by diffusion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  6. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, B L; Beglarian, A; Bergmann, T; Bichsel, H C; Bodine, L I; Boyd, N M; Burritt, T H; Chaoui, Z; Corona, T J; Doeg, P J; Enomoto, S; Harms, F; Harper, G C; Howe, M A; Martin, E L; Parno, D S; Peterson, D A; Petzold, L; Renschler, P; Robertson, R G H; Schwarz, J; Steidl, M; Van Wechel, T D; VanDevender, B A; Wüstling, S; Wierman, K J; Wilkerson, J F

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon \\textit{p-i-n} diode used in the KATRIN neutrino-mass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by diffusion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer fr...

  7. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, Tom H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, Peter J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, Gregory; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, David; Petzold, Linda; Renschler, R.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wustling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-21

    Abstract Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrinomass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by discussion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  8. MICE: the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment. Step I: First Measurement of Emittance with Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bravar, U; Karadzhov, Y; Kolev, D; Russinov, I; Tsenov, R; Wang, L; Xu, F Y; Zheng, S X; Bertoni, R; Bonesini, M; Mazza, R; Palladino, V; Cecchet, G; de Bari, A; Capponi, M; Iaciofano, A; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tortora, L; Ishimoto, S; Suzuki, S; Yoshimura, K; Mori, Y; Kuno, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sato, A; Yano, T; Yoshida, M; Filthaut, F; Vretenar, M; Ramberger, S; Blondel, A; Cadoux, F; Masciocchi, F; Graulich, J S; Verguilov, V; Wisting, H; Petitjean, C; Seviour, R; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Littlefield, M; Nebrensky, J J; Forrest, D; Soler, F J P; Walaron, K; Cooke, P; Gamet, R; Alecou, A; Apollonio, M; Barber, G; Dobbs, A; Dornan, P; Fish, A; Hare, R; Jamdagni, A; Kasey, V; Khaleeq, M; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Sakamoto, H; Sashalmi, T; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Lau, W; Rayner, M; Tunnell, C D; Witte, H; Yang, S; Alexander, J; Charnley, G; Griffiths, S; Martlew, B; Moss, A; Mullacrane, I; Oats, A; York, S; Apsimon, R; Alexander, R J; Barclay, P; Baynham, D E; Bradshaw, T W; Courthold, M; Hayler, R Edgecock T; Hills, M; Jones, T; McNubbin, N; Murray, W J; Nelson, C; Nicholls, A; Norton, P R; Prior, C; Rochford, J H; Rogers, C; Spensley, W; Tilley, K; Booth, C N; Hodgson, P; Nicholson, R; Overton, E; Robinson, M; Smith, P; Adey, D; Back, J; Boyd, S; Harrison, P; Norem, J; Bross, A D; Geer, S; Moretti, A; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Qian, Z; Raja, R; Stefanski, R; Cummings, M A C; Roberts, T J; DeMello, A; Green, M A; Li, D; Sessler, A M; Virostek, S; Zisman, M S; Freemire, B; Hanlet, P; Huang, D; Kafka, G; Kaplan, D M; Snopok, P; Torun, Y; Onel, Y; Cline, D; Lee, K; Fukui, Y; Yang, X; Rimmer, R A; Cremaldi, L M; Hart, T L; Summers, D J; Coney, L; Fletcher, R; Hanson, G G; Heidt, C; Gallardo, J; Kahn, S; Kirk, H; Palmer, R B; C11-08-09

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a strategic R&D project intended to demonstrate the only practical solution to providing high brilliance beams necessary for a neutrino factory or muon collider. MICE is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the United Kingdom. It comprises a dedicated beamline to generate a range of input muon emittances and momenta, with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to ensure a pure muon beam. The emittance of the incoming beam will be measured in the upstream magnetic spectrometer with a scintillating fiber tracker. A cooling cell will then follow, alternating energy loss in Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) absorbers to RF cavity acceleration. A second spectrometer, identical to the first, and a second muon identification system will measure the outgoing emittance. In the 2010 run at RAL the muon beamline and most detectors were fully commissioned and a first measurement of the emittance of the muon beam with particle physics (time-of-flight) de...

  9. Calibration of Charged-Particle Detectors for the LISA Commissioning Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, S.; Taylor, N.; Barker, A.; Rogers, W. F.

    2012-10-01

    The Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and the Large area multi-Institutional Scintillator Array (LISA), housed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University, were constructed by students at primarily undergraduate institutions. Each array consists of 144 2-m long scintillator detectors with PMTs attached to each end and are used for the detection of neutrons resulting from the breakup of exotic neutron-unbound nuclear states. The commissioning run for LISA was conducted during summer 2011 (in conjunction with MoNA and the Sweeper Magnet) to investigate unbound excited states of the neutron-rich nucleus 24O that breakup via sequential 2-neutron decay. In order to do this the energies and trajectories of both the charged fragments and neutrons need to be determined precisely, which require careful energy, position, and time calibration of the Sweeper Chamber charged particle detectors. Then careful separation of the individual Oxygen isotopes is necessary so that gates can be produced to be used in the calculation of individual decay energies. Results to be presented.

  10. 空间辐射探测器滤波电路的设计%Design of Filter Circuit in High Voltage Unit of Particle Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施伟红; 于向前; 陈鸿飞; 邹鸿; 邹积清; 刘建文; 崔战国; 邵思霈

    2012-01-01

    To meet high stability, low ripple requirements of High Voltage Unit in Particle radiation detectors, to design a hybrid LC and RC filter circuit to reduce power supply ripple. Through the theoretical analysis, Pspice simulation and test,the results are verified. According to this design,a High Voltage Unit was made in a high -energy particle detector on a Satelite, output voltage ripple coefficient is small, met the design purposes. Test proved that this circuit design, simple, efficient, can provide a reference for this kind of circuit design.%为满足粒子辐射探测器高压电源高稳定、低纹波的要求,设计一种LC和RC混合滤波电路来降低电源纹波,并进行理论分析、PSpice仿真和试验对结果进行验证.按照这种设计实现的某型号卫星高能粒子探测器的高压电源,输出电压稳定、纹波系数小,达到设计目的.试验证明这种电路设计简单、高效,可为相关电路设计提供参考.

  11. Examining of abrasion resistance of hybrid composites reinforced with SiC and Cgr particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Łągiewka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The presented work discusses the influence of the type and volume percentage of particulate reinforcement consisting of mixed silicon carbide and graphite on the abrasion wear of hybrid composites with AlMg10 matrix. Also the macro photos of frictional surfaces have been shown and the results of hardness measurements have been presented. The performed examinations have allowed for stating that the mixture of SiC and Cgr particles changes in favour the tribological properties of the matrix alloy. It has been also proved that introducing hard reinforcing particles along with soft lubricating ones allows for achieving the material exhibiting high abrasion resistance, and moreover, the graphite particles protect the abraded surface from the destructive action of silicon carbide particles. Also hardness measurements have been performed and the resulting conclusion is that the composite hardness increases with an increase in volume fraction of the reinforcing particles.

  12. Synthesis and properties of hybrid hydroxyapatite-ferrite (Fe3O4) particles for hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, M. V.; Kamzin, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    Hybrid ceramics consisting of hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and ferrite Fe3O4 were synthesized using a two-stage procedure. The first stage included the synthesis of Fe3O4 ferrite particles by co-precipitation and the synthesis of hydroxyapatite. In the second stage, the magnetic hybrid hydroxyapatite-ferrite bioceramics were synthesized by a thorough mixing of the obtained powders of carbonated hydroxyapatite and Fe3O4 ferrite taken in a certain proportion, pressing into tablets, and annealing in a carbon dioxide atmosphere for 30 min at a temperature of 1200°C. The properties of the components and hybrid particles were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The saturation magnetization of the hybrid ceramic composite containing 20 wt % Fe3O4 was found to be 12 emu/g. The hybrid hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2)-ferrite Fe3O4 ceramics, which are promising for the use in magnetotransport and hyperthermia treatment, were synthesized and investigated for the first time.

  13. Using field theory to construct hybrid particle-continuum simulation schemes with adaptive resolution for soft matter systems

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shuanhu; Behringer, Hans; Schmid, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    We develop a multiscale hybrid scheme for simulations of soft condensed matter systems, which allows one to treat the system at the particle level in selected regions of space, and at the continuum level elsewhere. It is derived systematically from an underlying particle-based model by field theoretic methods. Particles in different representation regions can switch representations on the fly, controlled by a spatially varying tuning function. As a test case, the hybrid scheme is applied to s...

  14. A hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of X-ray photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dufan; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Sen

    2016-09-01

    In photon counting computed tomography (CT), it is vital to know the energy response functions of the detector for noise estimation and system optimization. Empirical methods lack flexibility and Monte Carlo simulations require too much knowledge of the detector. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of photon counting detectors in X-ray medical applications. GEANT4 was used to model the energy deposition of X-rays in the detector. Then numerical models were used to describe the process of charge sharing, anti-charge sharing and spectral broadening, which were too complicated to be included in the Monte Carlo model. Several free parameters were introduced in the numerical models, and they could be calibrated from experimental measurements such as X-ray fluorescence from metal elements. The method was used to model the energy response function of an XCounter Flite X1 photon counting detector. The parameters of the model were calibrated with fluorescence measurements. The model was further tested against measured spectrums of a VJ X-ray source to validate its feasibility and accuracy.

  15. A hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of X-ray photon counting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dufan; Xu, Xiaofei [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Li, E-mail: zli@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Sen [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-09-11

    In photon counting computed tomography (CT), it is vital to know the energy response functions of the detector for noise estimation and system optimization. Empirical methods lack flexibility and Monte Carlo simulations require too much knowledge of the detector. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid Monte Carlo model for the energy response functions of photon counting detectors in X-ray medical applications. GEANT4 was used to model the energy deposition of X-rays in the detector. Then numerical models were used to describe the process of charge sharing, anti-charge sharing and spectral broadening, which were too complicated to be included in the Monte Carlo model. Several free parameters were introduced in the numerical models, and they could be calibrated from experimental measurements such as X-ray fluorescence from metal elements. The method was used to model the energy response function of an XCounter Flite X1 photon counting detector. The parameters of the model were calibrated with fluorescence measurements. The model was further tested against measured spectrums of a VJ X-ray source to validate its feasibility and accuracy.

  16. Evaluation of a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector array with a synchrotron X-ray source

    CERN Document Server

    Ponchut, C; Fornaini, A; Graafsma, H; Maiorino, M; Mettivier, G; Calvet, D

    2002-01-01

    A photon-counting hybrid pixel detector (Medipix-1) has been characterized using a synchrotron X-ray source. The detector consists of a readout ASIC with 64x64 independent photon-counting cells of 170x170 mu m sup 2 pitch, bump-bonded to a 300 mu m thick silicon sensor, read out by a PCIbus-based electronics, and a graphical user interface (GUI) software. The intensity and the energy tunability of the X-ray source allow characterization of the detector in the time, space, and energy domains. The system can be read out on external trigger at a frame rate of 100 Hz with 3 ms exposure time per frame. The detector response is tested up to more than 7x10 sup 5 detected events/pixel/s. The point-spread response shows <2% crosstalk between neighboring pixels. Fine scanning of the detector surface with a 10 mu m beam reveals no loss in sensitivity between adjacent pixels as could result from charge sharing in the silicon sensor. Photons down to 6 keV can be detected after equalization of the thresholds of individu...

  17. Shimming with permanent magnets for the x-ray detector in a hybrid x-ray/ MR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhifei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Williams, Scott T; Pelc, Norbert J

    2008-09-01

    In this x-ray/MR hybrid system an x-ray flat panel detector is placed under the patient cradle, close to the MR volume of interest (VOI), where the magnetic field strength is approximately 0.5 T. Immersed in this strong field, several electronic components inside the detector become magnetized and create an additional magnetic field that is superimposed on the original field of the MR scanner. Even after linear shimming, the field homogeneity of the MR scanner remains disrupted by the detector. The authors characterize the field due to the detector with the field of two magnetic dipoles and further show that two sets of permanent magnets (NdFeB) can withstand the main magnetic field and compensate for the nonlinear components of the additional field. The ideal number of magnets and their locations are calculated based on a field map measured with the detector in place. Experimental results demonstrate great promise for this technique, which may be useful in many settings where devices with magnetic components need to be placed inside or close to an MR scanner.

  18. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Gys, Thierry; Mikulec, B; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Schomaker, R; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface...

  19. Hybrid pixel-waveform CdTe/CZT detector for use in an ultrahigh resolution MRI compatible SPECT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Liang, E-mail: cai7@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 216 Talbot Laboratory, 104 S Wrig, Urbana, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Meng, Ling-Jian [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 216 Talbot Laboratory, 104 S Wrig, Urbana, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2013-02-21

    In this paper, we will present a new small pixel CdTe/CZT detector for sub-500 μm resolution SPECT imaging application inside MR scanner based on a recently developed hybrid pixel-waveform (HPWF) readout circuitry. The HPWF readout system consists of a 2-D multi-pixel circuitry attached to the anode pixels to provide the X–Y positions of interactions, and a high-speed digitizer to read out the pulse-waveform induced on the cathode. The digitized cathode waveform could provide energy deposition information, precise timing and depth-of-interaction information for gamma ray interactions. Several attractive features with this HPWF detector system will be discussed in this paper. To demonstrate the performance, we constructed several prototype HPWF detectors with pixelated CZT and CdTe detectors of 2–5 mm thicknesses, connected to a prototype readout system consisting of energy-resolved photon-counting ASIC for readout anode pixels and an Agilent high-speed digitizer for digitizing the cathode signals. The performances of these detectors based on HPWF are discussed in this paper.

  20. Hybrid pixel-waveform CdTe/CZT detector for use in an ultrahigh resolution MRI compatible SPECT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liang; Meng, Ling-Jian

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we will present a new small pixel CdTe/CZT detector for sub-500 μm resolution SPECT imaging application inside MR scanner based on a recently developed hybrid pixel-waveform (HPWF) readout circuitry. The HPWF readout system consists of a 2-D multi-pixel circuitry attached to the anode pixels to provide the X-Y positions of interactions, and a high-speed digitizer to read out the pulse-waveform induced on the cathode. The digitized cathode waveform could provide energy deposition information, precise timing and depth-of-interaction information for gamma ray interactions. Several attractive features with this HPWF detector system will be discussed in this paper. To demonstrate the performance, we constructed several prototype HPWF detectors with pixelated CZT and CdTe detectors of 2-5 mm thicknesses, connected to a prototype readout system consisting of energy-resolved photon-counting ASIC for readout anode pixels and an Agilent high-speed digitizer for digitizing the cathode signals. The performances of these detectors based on HPWF are discussed in this paper.

  1. Flip chip assembly of thinned chips for hybrid pixel detector applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, T; Woehrmann, M; Rothermund, M; Huegging, F; Ehrmann, O; Oppermann, H; Lang, K.D

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady trend to ultra-thin microelectronic devices. Especially for future particle detector systems a reduced readout chip thickness is required to limit the loss of tracking precision due to scattering. The reduction of silicon thickness is performed at wafer level in a two-step thinning process. To minimize the risk of wafer breakage the thinned wafer needs to be handled by a carrier during the whole process chain of wafer bumping. Another key process is the flip chip assembly of thinned readout chips onto thin sensor tiles. Besides the prevention of silicon breakage the minimization of chip warpage is one additional task for a high yield and reliable flip chip process. A new technology using glass carrier wafer will be described in detail. The main advantage of this technology is the combination of a carrier support during wafer processing and the chip support during flip chip assembly. For that a glass wafer is glue-bonded onto the backside of the thinned readout chip wafer. After the bump depo...

  2. Hybrid discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm for capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) is an NP-hard problem. For large-scale problems, it is quite difficult to achieve an optimal solution with traditional optimization methods due to the high computational complexity. A new hybrid approximation algorithm is developed in this work to solve the problem. In the hybrid algorithm, discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) combines global search and local search to search for the optimal results and simulated annealing (SA) uses certain probability to avoid being trapped in a local optimum. The computational study showed that the proposed algorithm is a feasible and effective approach for capacitated vehicle routing problem, especially for large scale problems.

  3. Brightness through Local Constraint-LNA-Enhanced FIT Hybridization Probes for In Vivo Ribonucleotide Particle Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hövelmann, Felix; Gaspar, Imre; Loibl, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Imaging the dynamics of RNA in living cells is usually performed by means of transgenic approaches that require modification of RNA targets and cells. Fluorogenic hybridization probes would also allow the analysis of wild-type organisms. We developed nuclease-resistant DNA forced intercalation (FIT......) probes that combine the high enhancement of fluorescence upon hybridization with the high brightness required to allow tracking of individual ribonucleotide particles (RNPs). In our design, a single thiazole orange (TO) intercalator dye is linked as a nucleobase surrogate and an adjacent locked nucleic...

  4. Characterization of a high-resolution hybrid DOI detector for a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinez, Felipe; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Yang, Yongfeng; Farrell, Richard; Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to design and test a new high-resolution hybrid depth of interaction (DOI) detector for a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner. Two detectors have been designed and built. The completed detectors are based on a 14 × 14 array of 1.5 × 1.5 × 20 mm3 unpolished lutetium orthosilicate scintillation crystals, with each element coated in a 50 μm layer of reflective material. The detector is read out from both ends using a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) and a large active area (20 × 20 mm2) avalanche photodiode (APD) to enable acquisition of DOI information. Nuclear instrumentation modules were used to characterize the detectors’ performances in terms of timing, intrinsic spatial resolution (ISR) and energy resolution, as well as DOI resolution with a dual-ended readout configuration. Measurements with the APD were performed at a temperature of 10 °C. All crystals were identified at all depths, even though the signal amplitude from the PSPMT decreases with depth away from it. We measured a timing resolution of 2.4 ns, and an average energy resolution of 19%. The mean ISR was measured to be 1.2 mm for crystals in the central row of the array for detectors in the face-to-face position. Two off-center positions were measured corresponding to 26° and 51° oblique photon incidence, and the mean ISR at these positions was 1.5 and 1.7 mm, respectively. The average DOI resolution across all crystals and depths was measured to be 2.9 mm (including the beam width of 0.6 mm). This detector design shows good promise as a high-resolution detector for a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner.

  5. (Bio)hybrid materials based on optically active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzig, Manuela; Härtling, Thomas; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    In this contribution we provide an overview of current investigations on optically active particles (nanodiamonds, upconversion phospors) for biohybrid and sensing applications. Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds gain attention in various application elds such as microelectronics, optical monitoring, medicine, and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity and extreme hardness, the carbon surface and its various functional groups enable diverse chemical and biological surface functionalization. At Fraunhofer IKTS-MD we develop a customization of material surfaces via integration of chemically modi ed nanodiamonds at variable surfaces, e.g bone implants and pipelines. For the rst purpose, nanodiamonds are covalently modi ed at their surface with amino or phosphate functionalities that are known to increase adhesion to bone or titanium alloys. The second type of surface is approached via mechanical implementation into coatings. Besides nanodiamonds, we also investigate the properties of upconversion phosphors. In our contribution we show how upconversion phosphors are used to verify sterilization processes via a change of optical properties due to sterilizing electron beam exposure.

  6. Development of a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector for Belle II ring-imaging Cherenkov counter with an aerogel radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, S., E-mail: shohei.nishida@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Adachi, I. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Hamada, N. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Hara, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Iijima, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Kawai, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Korpar, S.; Krizan, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogawa, S. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Pestotnik, R.; Ŝantelj, L.; Seljak, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sumiyoshi, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Tabata, M. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Tahirovic, E. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Yoshida, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Yusa, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    The Belle II detector, a follow up of the very successful Belle experiment, is under construction at the SuperKEKB electron–positron collider at KEK in Japan. For the PID system in the forward region of the spectrometer, a proximity-focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov counter with an aerogel radiator is being developed. For the position sensitive photon sensor, a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector has been developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. In this report, we describe the specification of the Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector and the status of the mass production.

  7. Particle identification with the ALICE Time-Of-Flight detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alici, A., E-mail: alici@bo.infn.it [Centro Fermi - Centro Studi e Ricerche e Museo Storico della Fisica “Enrico Fermi”, Rome (Italy); Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    High performance Particle Identification system (PID) is a distinguishing characteristic of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) detector. The TOF exploits the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) technology, capable of an intrinsic time resolution at the level of few tens of ps with an overall efficiency close to 100% and a large operation plateau. The full system is made of 1593 MRPC chambers with a total area of 141 m{sup 2}, covering the pseudorapidity interval [−0.9,+0.9] and the full azimuthal angle. The ALICE TOF system has shown very stable operation during the first 3 years of collisions at the LHC. In this paper a summary of the system performance as well as main results with data from collisions will be reported. - Highlights: • We report the performance of large area, small granularity ALICE TOF system based on MRPC technology. • Description and performance of PID analysis with the TOF are reported. • A non-exhaustive list of physics analyses, where the TOF PID is used, is given.

  8. Grating-based interferometry and hybrid photon counting detectors: Towards a new era in X-ray medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gkoumas, Spyridon, E-mail: spyridon.gkoumas@psi.ch [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Wang, Zhentian; Abis, Matteo; Arboleda, Carolina [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering,University and ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland); Tudosie, George; Donath, Tilman; Brönnimann, Christian; Schulze-Briese, Clemens [Dectris Ltd., Neuenhoferstrasse 107, Baden 5400 (Switzerland); Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering,University and ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-11

    Progress in X-ray medical imaging and advances in detector developments have always been closely related. Similarly, a strong connection exists between innovations in synchrotron imaging and their implementation on table-top X-ray tube setups. The transfer of phase-based imaging to X-ray tubes can provide table-top setups with improved contrast between areas of low attenuation differences, by exploiting the unit decrement of the real part of the refractive index. Medical imaging is a potential application for such a system. Originally developed for synchrotron experiments, the novel generation of hybrid photon counting detectors is becoming increasingly popular due to their unique characteristics, such as small pixel size, negligible dark noise, fast counting and adjustable energy thresholds. Furthermore, novel room temperature semiconductor materials such as Cd(Zn)Te can provide higher quantum efficiency. In the first part of this article we review phase-contrast techniques and recent research towards medical applications. In the second part we present results and evaluate the potential of combining a table-top Talbot grating interferometry system with latest generation hybrid photon counting detectors.

  9. A germanium hybrid pixel detector with 55μm pixel size and 65,000 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennicard, D.; Struth, B.; Hirsemann, H.; Sarajlic, M.; Smoljanin, S.; Zuvic, M.; Lampert, M. O.; Fritzsch, T.; Rothermund, M.; Graafsma, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors provide high performance through a combination of direct detection, a relatively small pixel size, fast readout and sophisticated signal processing circuitry in each pixel. For X-ray detection above 20 keV, high-Z sensor layers rather than silicon are needed to achieve high quantum efficiency, but many high-Z materials such as GaAs and CdTe often suffer from poor material properties or nonuniformities. Germanium is available in large wafers of extremely high quality, making it an appealing option for high-performance hybrid pixel X-ray detectors, but suitable technologies for finely pixelating and bump-bonding germanium have not previously been available. A finely-pixelated germanium photodiode sensor with a 256 by 256 array of 55μm pixels has been produced. The sensor has an n-on-p structure, with 700μm thickness. Using a low-temperature indium bump process, this sensor has been bonded to the Medipix3RX photoncounting readout chip. Tests with the LAMBDA readout system have shown that the detector works successfully, with a high bond yield and higher image uniformity than comparable high-Z systems. During cooling, the system is functional around -80°C (with warmer temperatures resulting in excessive leakage current), with -100°C sufficient for good performance.

  10. The electronics hybrid of the ATLAS-SCT endcap detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterer, C

    2004-01-01

    An electronics hybrid has been developed for the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker endcaps. The high-density interconnect board carries 12 readout ASICs, as well as ASICs for the optical data transmission. Special requirements are that this hybrid has to be double sided, radiation hard, and low mass. A six-layer flexible circuit in copper-polyimide technology has been chosen for this purpose. It is folded around a highly heat conducting carbon-carbon composite substrate to form the rigid double-sided hybrid. Adequate thermal, mechanical, and electrical performance of the hybrid has been demonstrated. The production of the hybrids started in May 2003. (12 refs).

  11. Analysis and Quantification of Coupling Mechanisms of External Signal Perturbations on Silicon Detectors for Particle Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.; Iglesias, M.; Echeverria, I.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon detectors have been used in astrophysics satellites and particle detectors for high energy physics (HEP) experiments. For HEP applications, EMC studies have been conducted in silicon detectors to characterize the impact of external noise on the system. They have shown that problems associated with the new generation of silicon detectors are related with interferences generated by the power supplies and auxiliary equipment connected to the device. Characterization of these interferences along with the coupling and their propagation into the susceptible front-end circuits is required for a successful integration of these systems. This paper presents the analysis of the sensitivity curves and coupling mechanisms between the noise and the front-end electronics that have been observed during the characterization of two silicon detector prototypes: the CMS-Silicon tracker detector (CMS-ST) and Silicon Vertex Detector (Belle II-SVD). As a result of these studies, it is possible to identify critical elements in prototypes to take corrective actions in the design and improve the front-end electronics performance.

  12. Gallium Arsenide detectors for X-ray and electron (beta particle) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioliou, G.; Barnett, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Results characterizing GaAs p+-i-n+ mesa photodiodes with a 10 μm i layer for their spectral response under illumination of X-rays and beta particles are presented. A total of 22 devices, having diameters of 200 μm and 400 μm, were electrically characterized at room temperature. All devices showed comparable characteristics with a measured leakage current ranging from 4 nA/cm2 to 67 nA/cm2 at an internal electric field of 50 kV/cm. Their unintentionally doped i layers were found to be almost fully depleted at 0 V due to their low doping density. 55Fe X-ray spectra were obtained using one 200 μm diameter device and one 400 μm diameter device. The best energy resolution (FWHM at 5.9 keV) achieved was 625 eV using the 200 μm and 740 eV using the 400 μm diameter device, respectively. Noise analysis showed that the limiting factor for the energy resolution of the system was the dielectric noise; if this noise was eliminated by better design of the front end of the readout electronics, the achievable resolution would be 250 eV. 63Ni beta particle spectra obtained using the 200 μm diameter device showed the potential utility of these detectors for electron and beta particle detection. The development of semiconductor electron spectrometers is important particularly for space plasma physics; such devices may find use in future space missions to study the plasma environment of Jupiter and Europa and the predicted electron impact excitation of water vapor plumes from Europa hypothesized as a result of recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV observations.

  13. Analysis of test-beam data with hybrid pixel detector prototypes for the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) vertex detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pequegnot, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is currently the most powerful accelerator in the world. This proton-proton collider is now stoppped to increase significantly its luminosity and energy, which would provide a larger discovery potential in 2014 and beyond. A high-energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider, such as CLIC, is an option to complement and to extend the LHC physics programme. Indeed, a lepton collider gives access to additional physics processes, beyond those observable at the LHC, and therefore provides new discovery potential. It can also provide complementary and/or more precise information about new physics uncovered at the LHC. Many essential features of a detector are required to deliver the full physics potential of this CLIC machine. In this present report, I present my work on the vertex detector R\\&D for this future linear collider, which aims at developping highly granular and ultra-thin position sensitive detection devices with very low power consumption and fast time-stamping capability. We tested here thin silicon pixel...

  14. Optimal Control for a Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-yun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal control using particle swarm optimization (PSO is put forward in a parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator (PHHE. A power-train mathematical model of PHHE is illustrated along with the analysis of components’ parameters. Then, the optimal control problem is addressed, and PSO algorithm is introduced to deal with this nonlinear optimal problem which contains lots of inequality/equality constraints. Then, the comparisons between the optimal control and rule-based one are made, and the results show that hybrids with the optimal control would increase fuel economy. Although PSO algorithm is off-line optimization, still it would bring performance benchmark for PHHE and also help have a deep insight into hybrid excavators.

  15. Particle production and chemical freezeout from the hybrid UrQMD approach at NICA energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Shalaby, Asmaa G; Hanafy, Mahmoud; Sorin, Alexander; Rogachevsky, Oleg; Scheinast, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The energy dependence of various particle ratios is calculated within the Ultra-Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics approach and compared with the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model and measurements from various experiments, including RHIC-BES, SPS and AGS. It is found that the UrQMD particle ratios agree well with the experimental results at the RHIC-BES energies. Thus, we have utilized UrQMD in simulating particle ratios at other beam energies down to 3 GeV, which will be accessed at NICA and FAIR future facilities. We observe that the particle ratios for crossover and first-order phase transition, implemented in the hybrid UrQMD v3.4, are nearly indistinguishable, especially at low energies (at large baryon chemical potentials or high density).

  16. Particle production and chemical freezeout from the hybrid UrQMD approach at NICA energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasser Tawfik, Abdel [Modern University for Technology and Information (MTI), Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), Cairo (Egypt); World Laboratory for Cosmology and Particle Physics (WLCAPP), Cairo (Egypt); Abou-Salem, Loutfy I. [Benha University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Benha (Egypt); Shalaby, Asmaa G.; Hanafy, Mahmoud [World Laboratory for Cosmology and Particle Physics (WLCAPP), Cairo (Egypt); Benha University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Benha (Egypt); Sorin, Alexander [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); Dubna International University, Dubna (Russian Federation); Rogachevsky, Oleg; Scheinast, Werner [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The energy dependence of various particle ratios is calculated within the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics approach and compared with the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model and measurements from various experiments, including RHIC-BES, SPS and AGS. It is found that the UrQMD particle ratios agree well with the experimental results at the RHIC-BES energies. Thus, we have utilized UrQMD in simulating particle ratios at other beam energies down to 3GeV, which will be accessed at NICA and FAIR future facilities. We observe that the particle ratios for crossover and first-order phase transition, implemented in the hybrid UrQMD v3.4, are nearly indistinguishable, especially at low energies (at large baryon chemical potentials or high density). (orig.)

  17. Solid Particle Erosion response of fiber and particulate filled polymer based hybrid composites: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid particle erosion behaviour of fiber and particulate filled polymer composites has been reviewed. An overview of the problem of solid particle erosion was given with respect to the processes and modes during erosion with focus on polymer matrix composites. The new aspects in the experimental studies of erosion of fiber and particulate filled polymer composites were emphasized in this paper. Various predictions and models proposed to describe the erosion rate were listed and their suitability was mentioned. Implementation of design of experiments and statistical techniques in analyzing the erosion behaviour of composites was discussed. Recent findings on erosion response of multi-component hybrid composites were also presented. Recommendations were given on how to solve some open questions related to the structureerosion resistance relationships for polymers and polymer based hybrid composites.

  18. Detection of oligonucleotide hybridization on a single microparticle by time-resolved fluorometry: hybridization assays on polymer particles obtained by direct solid phase assembly of the oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, H; Heinonen, P; Iitiä, A; Lönnberg, H

    1997-01-01

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotides were assembled by conventional phosphoramidite chemistry on uniformly sized (50 microns) porous glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate (SINTEF) and compact polystyrene (Dynosphere) particles, the aminoalkyl side chains of which were further derivatized with DMTrO-acetyl groups. The linker was completely resistant toward ammonolytic deprotection of the base moieties. The quality of oligonucleotides was assessed by repeating the synthesis on the same particles derivatized with a cleavable ester linker. The ability of the oligonucleotide-coated particles to bind complementary sequences via hybridization was examined by following the attachment of oligonucleotides bearing a photoluminescent europium(III) chelate to the particles. The fluorescence emission was measured directly on a single particle. The effects of the following factors on the kinetics and efficiency of hybridization were studied: number of particles in a given volume of the assay solution, loading of oligonucleotide on the particle, concentration of the target oligonucleotide in solution, length of the hybridizing sequence, presence of noncomplementary sequences, and ionic strength. The fluorescence signal measured on a single particle after hybridization was observed to be proportional to the concentration of the target oligonucleotide in solution over a concentration range of 5 orders of magnitude.

  19. Hybrid three-dimensional variation and particle filtering for nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leng Hong-Ze; Song Jun-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of estimating the states of nonlinear dynamic systems with sparse observations.We present a hybrid three-dimensional variation (3DVar) and particle piltering (PF) method,which combines the advantages of 3DVar and particle-based filters.By minimizing the cost function,this approach will produce a better proposal distribution of the state.Afterwards the stochastic resampling step in standard PF can be avoided through a deterministic scheme.The simulation results show that the performance of the new method is superior to the traditional ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF) and the standard PF,especially in highly nonlinear systems.

  20. Hybrid Adsorptive and Oxidative Removal of Natural Organic Matter Using Iron Oxide-Coated Pumice Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnaz Sule Kaplan Bekaroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to combine adsorptive and catalytic properties of iron oxide surfaces in a hybrid process using hydrogen peroxide and iron oxide-coated pumice particles to remove natural organic matter (NOM in water. Experiments were conducted in batch, completely mixed reactors using various original and coated pumice particles. The results showed that both adsorption and catalytic oxidation mechanisms played role in the removal of NOM. The hybrid process was found to be effective in removing NOM from water having a wide range of specific UV absorbance values. Iron oxide surfaces preferentially adsorbed UV280-absorbing NOM fractions. Furthermore, the strong oxidants produced from reactions among iron oxide surfaces and hydrogen peroxide also preferentially oxidized UV280-absorbing NOM fractions. Preloading of iron oxide surfaces with NOM slightly reduced the further NOM removal performance of the hybrid process. Overall, the results suggested that the tested hybrid process may be effective for removal of NOM and control disinfection by-product formation.

  1. A New Hybrid Algorithm for Bankruptcy Prediction Using Switching Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bankruptcy prediction has been extensively investigated by data mining techniques since it is a critical issue in the accounting and finance field. In this paper, a new hybrid algorithm combining switching particle swarm optimization (SPSO) and support vector machine (SVM) is proposed to solve the bankruptcy prediction problem. In particular, a recently developed SPSO algorithm is exploited to search the optimal parameter values of radial basis function (RBF) kernel of the SVM. The new algori...

  2. Hybrid Optimization Algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization and Cuckoo Search for Preventive Maintenance Period Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwen Guo; Zhenzhong Sun; Hong Tang; Xuejun Jia; Song Wang; Xiaohui Yan; Guoliang Ye; Guohong Wu

    2016-01-01

    All equipment must be maintained during its lifetime to ensure normal operation. Maintenance is one of the critical roles in the success of manufacturing enterprises. This paper proposed a preventive maintenance period optimization model (PMPOM) to find an optimal preventive maintenance period. By making use of the advantages of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and cuckoo search (CS) algorithm, a hybrid optimization algorithm of PSO and CS is proposed to solve the PMPOM problem. The test fun...

  3. Success and failure of dead-time models as applied to hybrid pixel detectors in high-flux applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobott, B A; Broennimann, Ch; Schmitt, B; Trueb, P; Schneebeli, M; Lee, V; Peake, D J; Elbracht-Leong, S; Schubert, A; Kirby, N; Boland, M J; Chantler, C T; Barnea, Z; Rassool, R P

    2013-03-01

    The performance of a single-photon-counting hybrid pixel detector has been investigated at the Australian Synchrotron. Results are compared with the body of accepted analytical models previously validated with other detectors. Detector functionals are valuable for empirical calibration. It is shown that the matching of the detector dead-time with the temporal synchrotron source structure leads to substantial improvements in count rate and linearity of response. Standard implementations are linear up to ∼0.36 MHz pixel(-1); the optimized linearity in this configuration has an extended range up to ∼0.71 MHz pixel(-1); these are further correctable with a transfer function to ∼1.77 MHz pixel(-1). This new approach has wide application both in high-accuracy fundamental experiments and in standard crystallographic X-ray fluorescence and other X-ray measurements. The explicit use of data variance (rather than N(1/2) noise) and direct measures of goodness-of-fit (χ(r)(2)) are introduced, raising issues not encountered in previous literature for any detector, and suggesting that these inadequacies of models may apply to most detector types. Specifically, parametrization of models with non-physical values can lead to remarkable agreement for a range of count-rate, pulse-frequency and temporal structure. However, especially when the dead-time is near resonant with the temporal structure, limitations of these classical models become apparent. Further, a lack of agreement at extreme count rates was evident.

  4. Calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer and Fujifilm imaging plate detectors for protons, deuterons, and alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, C. G.; Canfield, M. J.; Graeper, G. B.; Lombardo, A. T.; Stillman, C. R.; Padalino, S. J. [Physics Department, SUNY Geneseo, Geneseo, New York 14454 (United States); Fiksel, G.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J. A. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    A Thomson parabola ion spectrometer has been designed for use at the Multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at University of Rochester. This device uses parallel electric and magnetic fields to deflect particles of a given mass-to-charge ratio onto parabolic curves on the detector plane. Once calibrated, the position of the ions on the detector plane can be used to determine the particle energy. The position dispersion of both the electric and magnetic fields of the Thomson parabola was measured using monoenergetic proton and alpha particle beams from the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The sensitivity of Fujifilm BAS-TR imaging plates, used as a detector in the Thomson parabola, was also measured as a function of the incident particle energy over the range from 0.6 MeV to 3.4 MeV for protons and deuterons and from 0.9 MeV to 5.4 MeV for alpha particles. The device was used to measure the energy spectrum of laser-produced protons at MTW.

  5. Calibration of a Thomson parabola ion spectrometer and Fujifilm imaging plate detectors for protons, deuterons, and alpha particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, C G; Fiksel, G; Stoeckl, C; Sinenian, N; Canfield, M J; Graeper, G B; Lombardo, A T; Stillman, C R; Padalino, S J; Mileham, C; Sangster, T C; Frenje, J A

    2011-07-01

    A Thomson parabola ion spectrometer has been designed for use at the Multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. This device uses parallel electric and magnetic fields to deflect particles of a given mass-to-charge ratio onto parabolic curves on the detector plane. Once calibrated, the position of the ions on the detector plane can be used to determine the particle energy. The position dispersion of both the electric and magnetic fields of the Thomson parabola was measured using monoenergetic proton and alpha particle beams from the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. The sensitivity of Fujifilm BAS-TR imaging plates, used as a detector in the Thomson parabola, was also measured as a function of the incident particle energy over the range from 0.6 MeV to 3.4 MeV for protons and deuterons and from 0.9 MeV to 5.4 MeV for alpha particles. The device was used to measure the energy spectrum of laser-produced protons at MTW.

  6. hybridMANTIS: a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo method for modeling indirect x-ray detectors with columnar scintillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo

    2012-04-21

    The computational modeling of medical imaging systems often requires obtaining a large number of simulated images with low statistical uncertainty which translates into prohibitive computing times. We describe a novel hybrid approach for Monte Carlo simulations that maximizes utilization of CPUs and GPUs in modern workstations. We apply the method to the modeling of indirect x-ray detectors using a new and improved version of the code MANTIS, an open source software tool used for the Monte Carlo simulations of indirect x-ray imagers. We first describe a GPU implementation of the physics and geometry models in fastDETECT2 (the optical transport model) and a serial CPU version of the same code. We discuss its new features like on-the-fly column geometry and columnar crosstalk in relation to the MANTIS code, and point out areas where our model provides more flexibility for the modeling of realistic columnar structures in large area detectors. Second, we modify PENELOPE (the open source software package that handles the x-ray and electron transport in MANTIS) to allow direct output of location and energy deposited during x-ray and electron interactions occurring within the scintillator. This information is then handled by optical transport routines in fastDETECT2. A load balancer dynamically allocates optical transport showers to the GPU and CPU computing cores. Our hybridMANTIS approach achieves a significant speed-up factor of 627 when compared to MANTIS and of 35 when compared to the same code running only in a CPU instead of a GPU. Using hybridMANTIS, we successfully hide hours of optical transport time by running it in parallel with the x-ray and electron transport, thus shifting the computational bottleneck from optical tox-ray transport. The new code requires much less memory than MANTIS and, asa result, allows us to efficiently simulate large area detectors.

  7. A Hybrid Chaos-Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Hu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art heuristic algorithms to solve the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW usually present slow speeds during the early iterations and easily fall into local optimal solutions. Focusing on solving the above problems, this paper analyzes the particle encoding and decoding strategy of the particle swarm optimization algorithm, the construction of the vehicle route and the judgment of the local optimal solution. Based on these, a hybrid chaos-particle swarm optimization algorithm (HPSO is proposed to solve VRPTW. The chaos algorithm is employed to re-initialize the particle swarm. An efficient insertion heuristic algorithm is also proposed to build the valid vehicle route in the particle decoding process. A particle swarm premature convergence judgment mechanism is formulated and combined with the chaos algorithm and Gaussian mutation into HPSO when the particle swarm falls into the local convergence. Extensive experiments are carried out to test the parameter settings in the insertion heuristic algorithm and to evaluate that they are corresponding to the data’s real-distribution in the concrete problem. It is also revealed that the HPSO achieves a better performance than the other state-of-the-art algorithms on solving VRPTW.

  8. Performance of a large size triple GEM detector at high particle rate for the CBM Experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Rama Prasad; Kumar, Ajit; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Das, Supriya; Raha, Sibaji; Samanta, Subhasis; Saini, Jogender

    2017-02-01

    In CBM Experiment at FAIR, dimuons will be detected by a Muon Chamber (MUCH) consisting of segmented absorbers of varying widths and tracking chambers sandwiched between the absorber-pairs. In this fixed target heavy-ion collision experiment, operating at highest interaction rate of 10 MHz for Au+Au collision, the inner region of the 1st detector will face a particle rate of 1 MHz/cm2. To operate at such a high particle density, GEM technology based detectors have been selected for the first two stations of MUCH. We have reported earlier the performance of several small-size GEM detector prototypes built at VECC for use in MUCH. In this work, we report on a large GEM prototype tested with proton beam of momentum 2.36 GeV/c at COSY-Jülich Germany. The detector was read out using nXYTER operated in self-triggering mode. An efficiency higher than 96% at ΔVGEM = 375.2 V was achieved. The variation of efficiency with the rate of incoming protons has been found to vary within 2% when tested up to a maximum rate of 2.8 MHz/cm2. The gain was found to be stable at high particle rate with a maximum variation of ∼9%.

  9. Development of a Low-cost, FPGA-based, Delay Line Particle Detector for Satellite and Sounding Rocket Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M.; Kujawski, J. T.; Adrian, M. L.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    Electrons are, by definition, a fundamental, chemical and electromagnetic constituent of any plasma. This is especially true within the partially ionized plasmas of Earth's ionosphere where electrons are a critical component of a vast array of plasma processes. Siena College is working on a novel method of processing information from electron spectrometer anodes using delay line techniques and inexpensive COTS electronics to track the movement of high-energy particles. Electron spectrometers use a variety of techniques to determine where an amplified electron cloud falls onto a collecting surface. One traditional method divides the collecting surface into sectors and uses a single detector for each sector. However, as the angular and spatial resolution increases, so does the number of detectors, increasing power consumption, cost, size, and weight of the system. An alternative approach is to connect each sector with a delay line built within the PCB material which is shielded from cross talk by a flooded ground plane. Only one pair of detectors (e.g., one at each end of the chain) are needed with the delay line technique which is different from traditional delay line detectors which use either Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) or very fast clocks. In this paper, we report on the implementation and testing of a delay line detector using a low-cost Xilinx FPGA and a thirty-two sector delay system. This Delay Line Detector has potential satellite and rocket flight applications due to its low cost, small size and power efficiency

  10. Preparation and characterization of inorganic-organic trilayer core-shell polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ruiqin; Qiu, Teng; Han, Feng; He, Lifan; Li, Xiaoyu

    2012-07-01

    The inorganic-organic trilayer core-shell polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles have been successfully prepared via seeded emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) gradually, using functional polymethacryloxypropylsilsesquioxane (PSQ) latex particles with reactive methacryloxypropyl groups synthesized by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of (3-methacryloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane in the presence of mixed emulsifiers as seeds. The FTIR spectra show that acrylate monomers and D4 are effectively involved in the emulsion copolymerization and formed the polydimethylsiloxane-containing hybrid latex particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) confirm that the resultant hybrid latex particles have evident trilayer core-shell structure and a narrow size distribution. XPS analysis also indicates that polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles have been successfully prepared and PDMS is rich in the surface of the hybrid latex film. Additionally, compared with the hybrid latex film without PDMS, the hybrid latex film containing PDMS shows higher hydrophobicity (water contact angle) and lower water absorption.

  11. Preparation and characterization of inorganic-organic trilayer core-shell polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Ruiqin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composite, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Qiu Teng, E-mail: qiuteng@mail.buct.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composite, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Han Feng; He Lifan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composite, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li Xiaoyu, E-mail: lixy@mail.buct.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composite, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The inorganic-organic trilayer core-shell polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles have been successfully prepared via seeded emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D{sub 4}) gradually, using functional polymethacryloxypropylsilsesquioxane (PSQ) latex particles with reactive methacryloxypropyl groups synthesized by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of (3-methacryloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane in the presence of mixed emulsifiers as seeds. The FTIR spectra show that acrylate monomers and D{sub 4} are effectively involved in the emulsion copolymerization and formed the polydimethylsiloxane-containing hybrid latex particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) confirm that the resultant hybrid latex particles have evident trilayer core-shell structure and a narrow size distribution. XPS analysis also indicates that polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles have been successfully prepared and PDMS is rich in the surface of the hybrid latex film. Additionally, compared with the hybrid latex film without PDMS, the hybrid latex film containing PDMS shows higher hydrophobicity (water contact angle) and lower water absorption.

  12. Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipes for the Cooling of Small Particle Detectors at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, H; Silva, P; Wu, J; Koettig, T

    2010-01-01

    The loop heat pipe (LHP) is among the most effective heat transfer elements. Its principle is based on a continuous evaporation/condensation process and its passive nature does not require any mechanical devices such as pumps to circulate the cooling agent. Instead a porous wick structure in the evaporator provides the capillary pumping forces to drive the fluid [1]. Cryogenic LHP are investigated as potential candidates for the cooling of future small-scale particle detectors and upgrades of existing ones. A large spectrum of cryogenic temperatures can be covered by choosing appropriate working fluids. For high luminosity upgrades of existing experiments installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) (TOTEM) and planned ones (FP420) [2-3] being in the design phase, radiation-hard solutions are studied with noble gases as working fluids to limit the radiolysis effect on molecules detrimental to the functioning of the LHP. The installation compactness requirement of experiments such as the CAST frame-store CCD d...

  13. A novel straightness measurement system applied to the position monitoring of large Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Goudard, R; Ribeiro, R; Klumb, F

    1999-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, CMS, is one of the two general purpose experiments foreseen to operate at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The experiment aims to study very high energy collisions of proton beams. Investigation of the most fundamental properties of matter, in particular the study of the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking and the origin of mass, is the experiment scope. The central Tracking System, a six meter long cylinder with 2.4 m diameter, will play a major role in all physics searches of the CMS experiment. Its performance depends upon the intrinsic detector performance, on the stability of the supporting structure and on the overall survey, alignment and position monitoring system. The proposed position monitoring system is based on a novel lens-less laser straightness measurement method able to detect deviations from a nominal position of all structural elements of the Central Tracking system. It is based on the recipr...

  14. Detectors for selective registration of charged particles and gamma-quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhikov, V; Katrunov, K

    2002-01-01

    A new design is proposed and described of a combined detector (CD) for simultaneous detection of charged particles and gamma-quanta. The CD comprises a single crystalline plate of ZnSe(Te) placed onto the output window of a scintillating transparent light transducer made of CsI(Ti) and Al sub 2 O sub 3 (Ti) in the shape of truncated pyramid. The CsI(Ti) light transducer is used to create an additional channel for detection of gamma-radiation,as well as for protecting the photodiode from the penetrating radiation.It is shown that introduction of such light transducer does not worsen the energy characteristics of ZnSe(Te). Separate detection of alpha- and gamma-radiation has been achieved under simultaneous excitation by sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu (ZnSe(Te), R sub a =6%) and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am (CsI(Tl), R subgamma = 20 %). The use of selective optical filters allows separation of the peaks of total absorption (p.t.a.) in the case of their superposition.

  15. Extension of photomultiplier tube dynamic range for the LHAASO-KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Hongkui, E-mail: lvhk@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sheng, Xiangdong; He, Huihai; Liu, Jia [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Zhongquan [Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hou, Chao; Zhao, Jing [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-05-01

    In the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), the 1 km{sup 2} array (KM2A) requires linear measurement of optical intensity with a wide dynamic range. Over 5000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are employed in this experiment and developed as “two outputs” device (anode and dynode) to meet the relevant requirements. In this study, the linearity of the anode and the eighth dynode (DY8), which is limited by space charge effects and mainly related to the relative dynode voltage ratios of the PMT divider, is examined. A voltage divider for the Hamamatsu R11102 PMT is designed and a dramatically enhanced linearity is demonstrated. Test results show that this design can cover a wide dynamic range from 20 to 2×10{sup 5} photoelectrons and achieve a peak anode current of 380 mA at a PMT gain of 10{sup 5}, which satisfies the requirements of KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors. The circuit design has been successfully simulated using the simulation software Multisim. The details of PMT performance tests and simulations are described.